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Sample records for electrochromic windows controlledfor

  1. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlledfor Daylight and Visual Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-09-23

    A 20-month field study was conducted to measure the energy performance of south-facing large-area tungsten-oxide absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows with a broad switching range in a private office setting. The EC windows were controlled by a variety of means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare. For some cases, a Venetian blind was coupled with the EC window to block direct sun. Some tests also involved dividing the EC window wall into zones where the upper EC zone was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was controlled to prevent glare yet permit view. If visual comfort requirements are addressed by EC control and Venetian blinds, a 2-zone EC window configuration provided average daily lighting energy savings of 10 {+-} 15% compared to the reference case with fully lowered Venetian blinds. Cooling load reductions were 0 {+-} 3%. If the reference case assumes no daylighting controls, lighting energy savings would be 44 {+-} 11%. Peak demand reductions due to window cooling load, given a critical demand-response mode, were 19-26% maximum on clear sunny days. Peak demand reductions in lighting energy use were 0% or 72-100% compared to a reference case with and without daylighting controls, respectively. Lighting energy use was found to be very sensitive to how glare and sun is controlled. Additional research should be conducted to fine-tune EC control for visual comfort based on solar conditions so as to increase lighting energy savings.

  2. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  3. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  4. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  5. Integrated smart electrochromic windows for energy saving and storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong; Jin, Xiujuan; Chen, Gui; Xu, Jing; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-01-18

    A self-powered electrochromic smart window with tunable transmittance driven by dye-sensitized solar cells has been designed, which also acts as a photocharged electrochromic supercapacitor with high areal capacitance and reversible color changes.

  6. A redox-flow electrochromic window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, James R; Lim, Wei Yang; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Wang, Qing

    2015-02-04

    A low-cost electrochromic (EC) window based on a redox-flow system that does not require expensive transparent conductive oxide (TCO) substrates is introduced and demonstrated for the first time. An aqueous I3–/I– redox electrolyte is used in place of a TCO to oxidize/reduce a molecular layer of an EC triphenylamine derivative that is anchored to a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold on the inner faces of a double-paned window. The redox electrolyte is electrochemically oxidized/reduced in an external two-compartment cell and circulated through the window cavity using an inexpensive peristaltic pump, resulting in coloration or decoloration of the window due to reaction of the redox solution with the triphenylamine derivative. The absorption characteristics, coloration/decoloration times, and cycling stability of the prototype EC window are evaluated, and prospects for further development are discussed.

  7. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  8. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-05-01

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT

  9. A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Clear, Robert D.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph H.; Fernandes, Luis L.; Ward, GregJ.; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Yazdanian, Mehry

    2006-05-01

    Switchable variable-tint electrochromic (EC) windows preserve view out while modulating transmitted light, glare, and solar heat gains. Consumers will require objective information on the risks and benefits of this emerging technology as it enters the market in 2006. This guide provides such information and data derived from a wide variety of simulations, laboratory tests, and a 2.5-year field test of prototype large-area EC windows evaluated under outdoor sun and sky conditions. This design guide is provided to architects, engineers, building owners, and others interested in electrochromic windows. The design guide provides basic information about what is an electrochromic window, what it looks like, how fast does it switch, and what current product offerings are. The guide also provides information on performance benefits if more mature product offerings were available.

  10. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David K.; Crandall, Richard S.; Deb, Satyendra K.; Stone, Jack L.

    1995-01-01

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired.

  11. Electrochromic Windows: Process and Fabrication Improvements for Lower Total Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2007-03-31

    The overall goal with respect to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to achieve significant national energy savings through maximized penetration of EC windows into existing markets so that the largest cumulative energy reduction can be realized. The speed with which EC windows can be introduced and replace current IGU's (and current glazings) is clearly a strong function of cost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate possible improvements to the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazing products to facilitate both process and fabrication improvements resulting in lower overall costs. The project was split into four major areas dealing with improvements to the electrochromic layer, the capping layer, defect elimination and general product improvements. Significant advancements have been made in each of the four areas. These can be summarized as follows: (1) Plasma assisted deposition for the electrochromic layer was pursued, and several improvements made to the technology for producing a plasma beam were made. Functional EC devices were produced using the new technology, but there are still questions to be answered regarding the intrinsic properties of the electrochromic films produced by this method. (2) The capping layer work was successfully implemented into the existing SageGlass{reg_sign} product, thereby providing a higher level of transparency and somewhat lower reflectivity than the 'standard' product. (3) Defect elimination is an ongoing effort, but this project spurred some major defect reduction programs, which led to significant improvements in yield, with all the implicit benefits afforded. In particular, major advances were made in the development of a new bus bar application process aimed at reducing the numbers of 'shorts' developed in the finished product, as well as making dramatic improvements in the methods used for tempering the glass, which had previously been seen to produce a defect which appeared as a

  12. Photovoltaic Powering And Control System For Electrochromic Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stephen C.; Michalski, Lech A.; Volltrauer, Hermann N.; Van Dine, John E.

    2000-04-25

    A sealed insulated glass unit is provided with an electrochromic device for modulating light passing through the unit. The electrochromic device is controlled from outside the unit by a remote control electrically unconnected to the device. Circuitry within the unit may be magnetically controlled from outside. The electrochromic device is powered by a photovoltaic cells. The photovoltaic cells may be positioned so that at least a part of the light incident on the cell passes through the electrochromic device, providing a form of feedback control. A variable resistance placed in parallel with the electrochromic element is used to control the response of the electrochromic element to changes in output of the photovoltaic cell.

  13. Methodology for measuring current distribution effects in electrochromic smart windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engfeldt, Johnny Degerman; Georen, Peter; Lagergren, Carina; Lindbergh, Göran

    2011-10-10

    Electrochromic (EC) devices for use as smart windows have a large energy-saving potential when used in the construction and transport industries. When upscaling EC devices to window size, a well-known challenge is to design the EC device with a rapid and uniform switching between colored (charged) and bleached (discharged) states. A well-defined current distribution model, validated with experimental data, is a suitable tool for optimizing the electrical system design for rapid and uniform switching. This paper introduces a methodology, based on camera vision, for experimentally validating EC current distribution models. The key is the methodology's capability to both measure and simulate current distribution effects as transmittance distribution. This paper also includes simple models for coloring (charging) and bleaching (discharging), taking into account secondary current distribution with charge transfer resistance and ohmic effects. Some window-size model predictions are included to show the potential for using a validated EC current distribution model as a design tool. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  14. BIPV-Powered Smart Windows Utilizing Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chia Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO3/Ta2O5/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V. The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750–1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan.

  15. BIPV-powered smart windows utilizing photovoltaic and electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Chen, Yu-Chia

    2012-01-01

    A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC) stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/Ta(2)O(5)/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V). The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750-1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan.

  16. Electrochromic Asymmetric Supercapacitor Windows Enable Direct Determination of Energy Status by the Naked Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying; Chai, Zhisheng; Liang, Zhimin; Sun, Peng; Xie, Weiguang; Zhao, Chuanxi; Mai, Wenjie

    2017-10-04

    Because of the popularity of smart electronics, multifunctional energy storage devices, especially electrochromic supercapacitors (SCs), have attracted tremendous research interest. Herein, a solid-state electrochromic asymmetric SC (ASC) window is designed and fabricated by introducing WO3 and polyaniline as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively. The two complementary materials contribute to the outstanding electrochemical and electrochromic performances of the fabricated device. With an operating voltage window of 1.4 V and an areal capacitance of 28.3 mF cm-2, the electrochromic devices show a high energy density of 7.7 × 10-3 mW h cm-2. Meanwhile, they exhibit an obvious and reversible color transition between light green (uncharged state) and dark blue (charged state), with an optical transmittance change between 55 and 12% at a wavelength of 633 nm. Hence, the energy storage level of the ASC is directly related to its color and can be determined by the naked eye, which means it can be incorporated with other energy cells to visual display their energy status. Particularly, a self-powered and color-indicated system is achieved by combining the smart windows with commercial solar cell panels. We believe that the novel electrochromic ASC windows will have great potential application for both smart electronics and smart buildings.

  17. Development of High Rate Coating Technology for Low Cost Electrochromic Dynamic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, B.; Joshi, Ajey

    2013-03-31

    Objectives of the Project: The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of depositing critical electrochromic layers at high rate using new novel vacuum coating sources, to develop a full electrochromic process flow by combining conventional processes with new deposition sources, to characterize, test, evaluate, and optimize the resulting coatings and devices, and, to demonstrate an electrochromic device using the new process flow and sources. As addendum objectives, this project was to develop and demonstrate direct patterning methods with novel integration schemes. The long term objective, beyond this program, is to integrate these innovations to enable production of low-cost, high-performance electrochromic windows produced on highly reliable and high yielding manufacturing equipment and systems.

  18. Nanostructured electrochromic smart windows: traditional materials and NIR-selective plasmonic nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan L; Llordés, Anna; Lounis, Sebastien D; Milliron, Delia J

    2014-09-21

    Electrochromic devices, which dynamically change colour under applied potential, are widely studied for use in energy-efficient smart windows. To improve the viability of smart windows, many researchers are utilizing nanomaterials, which can provide electrochromic devices with improved colouration efficiencies, faster switching times, longer cycle lives, and potentially reduced costs. In an effort to demonstrate a new type of electrochromic device that goes beyond the capabilities of commonly used electrochromic materials, researchers have turned to plasmonic transparent conductive oxide (TCO) nanocrystals. Electrochemical injection of electrons into plasmonic TCO nanocrystal films induces a shift in the plasmon frequency and gives rise to the new functionality of selective optical modulation in the near-infrared region of the solar spectrum. These nanocrystals can be used as building blocks to enable creation of advanced electrochromic devices containing mesoporous electrodes or nanocrystal-in-glass composites. Such devices have been important in advancing the field towards achieving the ideal smart window with independent control over visible and NIR transmittance.

  19. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  20. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-04-30

    Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

  1. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  2. Large-scale fabrication of pseudocapacitive glass windows that combine electrochromism and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Chai, Zhisheng; Huang, Langhuan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Song, Jinhui; Mai, Wenjie

    2014-10-27

    Multifunctional glass windows that combine energy storage and electrochromism have been obtained by facile thermal evaporation and electrodeposition methods. For example, WO3 films that had been deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass exhibited a high specific capacitance of 639.8 F g(-1). Their color changed from transparent to deep blue with an abrupt decrease in optical transmittance from 91.3% to 15.1% at a wavelength of 633 nm when a voltage of -0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied, demonstrating its excellent energy-storage and electrochromism properties. As a second example, a polyaniline-based pseudocapacitive glass was also developed, and its color can change from green to blue. A large-scale pseudocapacitive WO3-based glass window (15×15 cm(2)) was fabricated as a prototype. Such smart pseudocapacitive glass windows show great potential in functioning as electrochromic windows and concurrently powering electronic devices, such as mobile phones or laptops. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Nanostructured mesoporous tungsten oxide films with fast kinetics for electrochromic smart windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, M; Srivastava, A K; Sood, K N; Agnihotry, S A

    2006-05-28

    A potential driven self-assembly of sodium dodecyl sulfate/tungsten oxide aggregates at the electrolyte-electrode interface followed by template extraction and annealing yielded mesoporous thin films of electrochromic tungsten oxide (WO(3)). Electron microscopy images revealed that the films are characterized by a hitherto unreported hybrid structure comprising nanoparticles and nanorods with a tetragonal crystalline phase of WO(3) with the measured lattice parameters: a = 0.53 nm and c = 0.37 nm. In addition to pentagonal voids characteristic of the tetragonal WO(3) phase at the lattice scale, open channels and pores of 5-10 nm in diameter lie between the nanoparticles, which cumulatively promote rapid charge transport through the film. This resulted in colouration efficiency (η(max)∼90 cm(2) C(-1) at λ = 900 nm) and switching kinetics (colouration time =  3 s and bleaching time =  2 s for a 50% change in transmittance) higher and faster than previously reported values for mesoporous WO(3) films. Repetitive cycling between the clear and blue states has no deleterious effect on the electrochromic performance of the film, which is suggestive of its potential as a cathode in practical electrochromic windows.

  4. Electrochromic Window Demonstration at the Donna Land Port of Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Luis L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thanachareonkit, Anothai [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) Public Buildings Service (PBS) has jurisdiction, custody or control over 105 land ports of entry throughout the United States, 35 of which are located along the southern border. At these facilities, one of the critical functions of windows is to provide border control personnel with direct visual contact with the surrounding environment. This also can be done through surveillance cameras, but the high value that U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CPB) officers place on direct visual contact can be encapsulated in the following statement by a senior officer regarding this project: “nothing replaces line of sight.” In sunny conditions, however, outdoor visibility can be severely compromised by glare, especially when the orb of the sun is in the field of view. This often leads to the deployment of operable shading devices, such as Venetian blinds. While these devices address the glare, they obstruct the view of the surroundings, negating the visual security benefits of the windows.

  5. A wide-gap a-SiC:H PV-powered electrochromic window coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, W.; Lee, S.H.; Xu, Y.; Benson, D.K.; Deb, S.K.; Branz, H.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The authors report on the first monolithic, amorphous-silicon-based, photovoltaic-powered electrochromic window coating. The coating employs a wide bandgap a-Si{sub 1{minus}x}C{sub x}:H n-i-p photovoltaic (PV) cell as a semitransparent power supply, and a Li{sub y}WO{sub 3}/LiAlF{sub 4}/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrochromic (EC) device as an optical-transmittance modulator. The EC device is deposited directly on top of a PV cell that coats a glass substrate. The a-Si{sub 1{minus}x}C{sub x}:H PV cell has a Tauc gap of 2.2 eV and a transmittance of 60--80% over a large portion of the visible light spectrum. The authors reduced the thickness of the device to about 600 {angstrom} while maintaining a 1-sun open-circuit voltage of 0.9 V and short-circuit current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. The prototype 16 cm{sup 2} PV/EC device modulates the transmittance by more than 60% over a large portion of the visible spectrum. The coloring and bleaching times of the EC device are approximately 1 minute under normal operating conditions ({+-} 1 volt). A brief description of photoelectrochromic windows study is also given.

  6. Mixed Nanostructured Ti-W Oxides Films for Efficient Electrochromic Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Nang Dinh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to enhance the electrochromic (EC efficiency and electrochemical stability of electrochromic devices (ECD, mixed nanostructured TiO2/WO3 films were prepared by an electrochemical deposition method with the purpose of adding WO3 nanoparticles to porous nanocrystalline doctor-blade TiO2 (nc-TiO2 films. The results of the characterization of electrochromic properties in 1 M LiClO4 + propylene carbonate (LiClO4 + PC of both the nc-TiO2/F-doped tin oxide (FTO and WO3/TiO2/FTO configurations showed the reversible coloration and bleaching of the ECDs. The response time of the ECD coloration of WO3/TiO2/FTO was found to be as small as 2 sec, and its coloration efficiency (CE as high as 35.7 cm2 × C−1. By inserting WO3 nanoparticles into the porous TiO2 structures, WO3/TiO2 heterojunctions were formed in the films, consequently enabling both the CE and electrochemical stability of the working electrodes to be considerably enhanced. Since a large-area WO3/TiO2 can be prepared by the doctor-blade technique followed by the electrochemical deposition process, mixed nanostructured Ti-W oxides electrodes constitute a good candidate for smart window applications, taking advantage of the excellent coloration and stability properties as well as the simple and economical fabrication process involved.

  7. The effect of precursor aging on optical and electrochromic properties of WO3 thin films for making smart windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abareshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a suitable method for increasing effective surface area of electrodeposited WO3 thin films. This is done because effective surface area improves optical and electrochromic properties in smart windows. Therefore, we investigated precursor aging atperoxytungstate precursor (0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Experiments showed by increasing aging time of the precursor solution, larger aggregates were formed. Their morphology, optical and cyclic voltammogram characterization showed that increasing aging time improves optical and electrochromic properties of WO3 thin films in 1M LiClO4-PC electrolyte. The WO3 films with aging time of 72 h exhibited a noticeable EC performance with variation of transmittance up to 72% at 633nm. The result indicated that using two electrochromic materials with complementary properties could improve the function of the device

  8. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-08-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  9. Motion-driven electrochromic reactions for self-powered smart window system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Min-Hsin; Lin, Long; Yang, Po-Kang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-05-26

    The self-powered system is a promising concept for wireless networks due to its independent and sustainable operations without an external power source. To realize this idea, the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) was recently invented, which can effectively convert ambient mechanical energy into electricity to power up portable electronics. In this work, a self-powered smart window system was realized through integrating an electrochromic device (ECD) with a transparent TENG driven by blowing wind and raindrops. Driven by the sustainable output of the TENG, the optical properties, especially the transmittance of the ECD, display reversible variations due to electrochemical redox reactions. The maximum transmittance change at 695 nm can be reached up to 32.4%, which is comparable to that operated by a conventional electrochemical potentiostat (32.6%). This research is a substantial advancement toward the practical application of nanogenerators and self-powered systems.

  10. A Pilot Demonstration of Electrochromic and Thermochromic Windows in the Denver Federal Center, Building 41, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, Luis L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goudey, Chad Howdy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jonsson, Carl Jacob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Curcija, D. Charlie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pang, Xiufeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DiBartolomeo, Dennis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoffmann, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Chromogenic glazing materials are emerging technologies that tint reversibly from a clear to dark tinted state either passively in response to environmental conditions or actively in response to a command from a switch or building automation system. Switchable coatings on glass manage solar radiation and visible light while enabling unobstructed views to the outdoors. Building energy simulations estimate that actively controlled, near-term chromogenic glazings can reduce perimeter zone heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) and lighting energy use by 10-20% and reduce peak electricity demand by 20-30%, achieving energy use levels that are lower than an opaque, insulated wall. This project demonstrates the use of two types of chromogenic windows: thermochromic and electrochromic windows. By 2013, these windows will begin production in the U.S. by multiple vendors at high-volume manufacturing plants, enabling lower cost and larger area window products to be specified. Both technologies are in the late R&D stage of development, where cost reductions and performance improvements are underway. Electrochromic windows have been installed in numerous buildings over the past four years, but monitored energy-efficiency performance has been independently evaluated in very limited applications. Thermochromic windows have been installed in one other building with an independent evaluation, but results have not yet been made public.

  11. Toward Plastic Smart Windows: Optimization of Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes for the Synthesis of Electrochromic Devices on Polycarbonate Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, Marco; Bianco, Stefano; Castellino, Micaela; Garino, Nadia; Virga, Alessandro; Pirri, Candido F; Mandracci, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Plastic smart windows are becoming one of the key elements in view of the fabrication of inexpensive, lightweight electrochromic (EC) devices to be integrated in the new generation of high-energy-efficiency buildings and automotive applications. However, fabricating electrochromic devices on polymer substrates requires a reduction of process temperature, so in this work we focus on the development of a completely room-temperature deposition process aimed at the preparation of ITO-coated polycarbonate (PC) structures acting as transparent and conductive plastic supports. Without providing any substrate heating or surface activation pretreatments of the polymer, different deposition conditions are used for growing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films by the radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique. According to the characterization results, the set of optimal deposition parameters is selected to deposit ITO electrodes having high optical transmittance in the visible range (∼90%) together with low sheet resistance (∼8 ohm/sq). The as-prepared ITO/PC structures are then successfully tested as conductive supports for the fabrication of plastic smart windows. To this purpose, tungsten trioxide thin films are deposited by the reactive sputtering technique on the ITO/PC structures, and the resulting single electrode EC devices are characterized by chronoamperometric experiments and cyclic voltammetry. The fast switching response between colored and bleached states, together with the stability and reversibility of their electrochromic behavior after several cycling tests, are considered to be representative of the high quality of the EC film but especially of the ITO electrode. Indeed, even if no adhesion promoters, additional surface activation pretreatments, or substrate heating were used to promote the mechanical adhesion among the electrode and the PC surface, the observed EC response confirmed that the developed materials can be successfully employed for the

  12. Optical characterization and electrochemical behavior of electrochromic windows using magnetron sputter deposition Tungsten Oxide and (1-x) WO 3xTiO II thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuying; Liu, Zuli; Yao, Kailun; Song, Yusu

    2006-02-01

    Since Deb's experiment in 1973 on the electrochromic effect, transmissive electrochromic devices (ECDs) exhibit outstanding potential as energy efficient window controls which allow dynamic control of the solar energy transmission [1]. These devices with non-volatile memory, once in the coloured state, remain in the same state even after removal of the field. The optical and electrochemical properties of electrochromic windows using magnetron sputter deposition tungsten oxide thin films and titanium oxide doped tungsten oxide thin films are investigated. From the UV region of the transmittance spectra, the band gap energy from the fundamental absorption edge can be determined. And the impedance of these thin films in 1 mol LiClO 4 propylene carbonate electrolyte (LIPC) are measured and analysed. Equivalent circuit of thin film impedances, and correlative resistances and constant phase angle element are gained. SEM and XRD of the tungsten oxide thin films and (1-x) WO 3xTiO II thin films are studied. These performance characteristics make tungsten oxide thin films and titanium oxide doped tungsten oxide thin films materials suitable for electrochromic windows applications.

  13. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States); Hollingsworth, Russell [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  14. Pairing of near-ultraviolet solar cells with electrochromic windows for smart management of the solar spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Nicholas C.; Sezen-Edmonds, Melda; Gao, Jia; Lin, Xin; Liu, Amy; Yao, Nan; Kahn, Antoine; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Current smart window technologies offer dynamic control of the optical transmission of the visible and near-infrared portions of the solar spectrum to reduce lighting, heating and cooling needs in buildings and to improve occupant comfort. Solar cells harvesting near-ultraviolet photons could satisfy the unmet need of powering such smart windows over the same spatial footprint without competing for visible or infrared photons, and without the same aesthetic and design constraints. Here, we report organic single-junction solar cells that selectively harvest near-ultraviolet photons, produce open-circuit voltages eclipsing 1.6 V and exhibit scalability in power generation, with active layers (10 cm2) substantially larger than those typical of demonstration organic solar cells (0.04-0.2 cm2). Integration of these solar cells with a low-cost, polymer-based electrochromic window enables intelligent management of the solar spectrum, with near-ultraviolet photons powering the regulation of visible and near-infrared photons for natural lighting and heating purposes.

  15. Transparent Wood Smart Windows: Polymer Electrochromic Devices Based on Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(Styrene Sulfonate) Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Augustus W; Li, Yuanyuan; De Keersmaecker, Michel; Shen, D Eric; Österholm, Anna M; Berglund, Lars; Reynolds, John R

    2018-02-01

    Transparent wood composites, with their high strength and toughness, thermal insulation, and excellent transmissivity, offer a route to replace glass for diffusely transmitting windows. Here, conjugated-polymer-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) that switch on-demand are demonstrated using transparent wood coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as a transparent conducting electrode. These ECDs exhibit a vibrant magenta-to-clear color change that results from a remarkably colorless bleached state. Furthermore, they require low energy and power inputs of 3 mWh m-2 at 2 W m-2 to switch due to a high coloration efficiency (590 cm2  C-1 ) and low driving voltage (0.8 V). Each device component is processed with high-throughput methods, which highlights the opportunity to apply this approach to fabricate mechanically robust, energy-efficient smart windows on a large scale. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Roll-to-Roll Production of Transparent Silver-Nanofiber-Network Electrodes for Flexible Electrochromic Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Bai, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haiyang; Wang, Haolun; Song, Jianan; Huang, Kai; Wang, Chang; Wang, Ning; Li, Bo; Lei, Ming; Wu, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Electrochromic smart windows (ECSWs) are considered as the most promising alternative to traditional dimming devices. However, the electrode technology in ECSWs remains stagnant, wherein inflexible indium tin oxide and fluorine-doped tin oxide are the main materials being used. Although various complicated production methods, such as high-temperature calcination and sputtering, have been reported, the mass production of flexible and transparent electrodes remains challenging. Here, a nonheated roll-to-roll process is developed for the continuous production of flexible, extralarge, and transparent silver nanofiber (AgNF) network electrodes. The optical and mechanical properties, as well as the electrical conductivity of these products (i.e., 12 Ω sq-1 at 95% transmittance) are comparable with those AgNF networks produced via high-temperature sintering. Moreover, the as-prepared AgNF network is successfully assembled into an A4-sized ECSW with short switching time, good coloration efficiency, and flexibility. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The effect of glass coating emittance and frame rebate on heat transfer through vacuum and electrochromic vacuum glazed windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Eames, Philip C. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB, N. Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-16

    The thermal performance of an electrochromic vacuum glazing and a vacuum glazing with a range of low-emittance coatings and frame rebate depths were simulated for insolations between 0 and 1000Wm{sup -2} using a three-dimensional finite volume model. The vacuum glazing simulated comprised two 0.4mx0.4m glass panes separated by a 0.12mm wide evacuated space supported by a 0.32mm diameter pillar array spaced at 25mm. The two glass sheets were sealed contiguously by a 6mm wide metal edge seal and had either one or two low-emittance coatings. For the electrochromic vacuum glazing, a third glass pane on which an electrochromic layer was deposited was assumed to be sealed to an evacuated glass unit, to enable control of visible light transmittance and solar gain and thus improve occupant thermal comfort. It is shown that for both vacuum glazing and electrochromic vacuum glazings, when the coating emittance value is very low (close to 0.02), the use of two low-emittance coatings only gives limited improvement in glazing performance. The use of a single currently expensive low-emittance coating in both systems provided acceptable performance. Deeper frame rebate depths gave significant improvements in thermal performance for both glazing systems. (author)

  18. Red to blue high electrochromic contrast and rapid switching poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole)-Au/Ag nanocomposite devices for smart windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, Aneeta; Deepa, Melepurath; Joshi, Amish G; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2011-04-18

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) (PEDOP)-Ag and PEDOP-Au nanocomposite films have been synthesized for the first time by electropolymerization of the conducting-polymer precursor in a waterproof ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, followed by Ag/Au nanoparticle incorporation. That the Ag/Au nanoparticles are not adventitious entities in the film is confirmed by a) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which provides evidence of Ag/Au-PEDOP interactions through chemical shifts of the Ag/Au core levels and new signals due to Ag-N(H) and Au-N(H) components, and b) electron microscopy, which reveals Au nanoparticles with a face-centered-cubic crystalline structure associated with the amorphous polymer. Spectroelectrochemistry of electrochromic devices based on PEDOP-Au show a large coloring efficiency (η(max) =270 cm(2) C(-1), λ=458 nm) in the visible region, for an orange/red to blue reversible transition, followed by a second, remarkably high η(max) of 490 cm(2) C(-1) (λ=1000 nm) in the near-infrared region as compared to the much lower values achieved for the neat PEDOP analogue. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies reveal that the metal nanoparticles lower charge-transfer resistance and facilitate ion intercalation-deintercalation, which manifests in enhanced performance characteristics. In addition, significantly faster color-bleach kinetics (five times of that of neat PEDOP!) and a larger electrochemical ion insertion capacity unambiguously demonstrate the potential such conducting-polymer nanocomposites have for smart window applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Recent Process and Application of Electrochromism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Youxiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the research and development of electrochromism, its commercial applications have been realized in the areas of building windows, car rear-view mirrors and aircraft windows. In this paper, constructions, material category, working principles and characteristic requirements of electrochromic device were to described in details. Preparing methods of electrochromic films and technologies requirements for practicality were listed. The status of electrochromic technologies on commercialization and latest research were also summarized and analyzed. Electrochromism has great commercial potential and important social value for green and energy saving, which is the milestone in its developing process. At present, the trend of electrochromic technology is focused on seeking the technical route and process of saving time and cost, exploiting its application areas by combining other technologies and developing practical products. Wet chemical methods with industrial prospect have advantages of lowering cost and increasing efficiency, and can be a research hotspot for popularizing electrochromic technology. Moreover, the development and preparation of electrolyte layer will be the core technology in the future.

  20. Sol-gel deposited electrochromic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, N.; Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    Electrochromic devices have increasing application in display devices, switchable mirrors and smart windows. A variety of vacuum deposition technologies have been used to make electrochromic devices. The sol- gel process offers an alternative approach to the synthesis of optical quality and low cost electrochromic device layers. This study summarizes the developments in sol-gel deposited electrochromic films. The sol-gel process involves the formation of oxide networks upon hydrolysis-condensation of alkoxide precursors. In this study we cover the sol-gel deposited oxides of WO[sub 3], V[sub 2]O[sub 5], TiO[sub 2], Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5], and NiO[sub x].

  1. RBS analysis of electrochromic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.C.; Bell, J.M. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1993-12-31

    Tungsten oxide thin films produced by dip-coating from tungsten alkoxide solutions are of interest for their application in large area switchable windows. The application consists of a layer of electrochromic tungsten oxide (W0{sub 3}) on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass in contact with a complementary structure. Electrochromic devices are switchable between states of high and low transparency by the application of a small voltage. The mechanism relies on the dual injection of ions and electrons into the W0{sub 3} layer from adjacent layers in the device. Electrochromic tungsten oxide can be deposited using standard techniques (eg. sputtering and evaporation) but also using sol-gel deposition. Sol-gel processing has an advantage over conventional preparation techniques because of the simplicity of the equipment. The scaling up to large area coatings is also feasible. RBS and forward recoil has been used to obtain profiles for individual elements in the structure of electrochromic films. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Nanomaterials for benign indoor environments: Electrochromics for 'smart windows', sensors for air quality, and photo-catalysts for air cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granqvist, C.G. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The AAngstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Azens, A. [ChromoGenics Sweden AB, Maerstagatan 4, SE-75323 Uppsala (Sweden); Heszler, P. [Research Group of Laser Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, P.O. Box 406, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Kish, L.B. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, TX 77843-3128 (United States); OEsterlund, L. [Department of Environment and Protection, FOI NBC Defence, SE-90182 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    Nanomaterials can be used in a number of technologies in order to accomplish benign indoor environments. This paper takes a unified view on this problem from a solar-energy-based perspective and specifically considers electrochromics for achieving good day-lighting jointly with energy efficiency, sensors aimed at air quality assessment, and photocatalysis for air cleaning. Recent results, mainly from the authors' laboratories, are reported for all of these areas. (author)

  3. Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  4. Quantitative self-powered electrochromic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitero, Miguel Aller; Guimerà, Anton; Kitsara, Maria; Villa, Rosa; Rubio, Camille; Lakard, Boris; Doche, Marie-Laure; Hihn, Jean-Yves; Javier Del Campo, F

    2017-03-01

    Self-powered sensors are analytical devices able to generate their own energy, either from the sample itself or from their surroundings. The conventional approaches rely heavily on silicon-based electronics, which results in increased complexity and cost, and prevents the broader use of these smart systems. Here we show that electrochromic materials can overcome the existing limitations by simplifying device construction and avoiding the need for silicon-based electronics entirely. Electrochromic displays can be built into compact self-powered electrochemical sensors that give quantitative information readable by the naked eye, simply controlling the current path inside them through a combination of specially arranged materials. The concept is validated by a glucose biosensor coupled horizontally to a Prussian blue display designed as a distance-meter proportional to (glucose) concentration. This approach represents a breakthrough for self-powered sensors, and extends the application of electrochromic materials beyond smart windows and displays, into sensing and quantification.

  5. High-contrast and fast electrochromic switching enabled by plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talin, Albert; Xu, Ting; Walter, Erich; Agrawal, Amit; Bohn, Christopher; Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Zhu, Wenqi; Lezec, Henri

    With vibrant colors and simple, room-temperature processing methods, electrochromic polymers have long attracted attention as active materials for flexible, low-power consuming devices such as smart windows and displays. However, despite their many advantages, slow switching speed and complexity of combining several separate polymers to achieve full-color gamut has limited electrochromic materials to niche applications. Here we exploit the enhanced light-matter interaction associated with the deep-subwavelength mode confinement of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in metallic nanoslit arrays coated with ultra-thin electrochromic polymers to build a novel configuration for achieving high-contrast and fast electrochromic switching. The switchable configuration retains the short temporal charge-diffusion characteristics of thin electrochromic films while maintaining the high optical-contrast associated with thicker electrochromic coatings. We further demonstrate that by controlling the pitch of the nanoslit arrays, it is possible to achieve a full-color response with high-contrast and fast switching-speeds while relying on just one electrochromic polymer.

  6. Hybrid materials and polymer electrolytes for electrochromic device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Ding, Guoqiang; Ma, Jan; Lee, Pooi See; Lu, Xuehong

    2012-08-08

    Electrochromic (EC) materials and polymer electrolytes are the most imperative and active components in an electrochromic device (ECD). EC materials are able to reversibly change their light absorption properties in a certain wavelength range via redox reactions stimulated by low direct current (dc) potentials of the order of a fraction of volts to a few volts. The redox switching may result in a change in color of the EC materials owing to the generation of new or changes in absorption band in visible region, infrared or even microwave region. In ECDs the electrochromic layers need to be incorporated with supportive components such as electrical contacts and ion conducting electrolytes. The electrolytes play an indispensable role as the prime ionic conduction medium between the electrodes of the EC materials. The expected applications of the electrochromism in numerous fields such as reflective-type display and smart windows/mirrors make these materials of prime importance. In this article we have reviewed several examples from our research work as well as from other researchers' work, describing the recent advancements on the materials that exhibit visible electrochromism and polymer electrolytes for electrochromic devices. The first part of the review is centered on nanostructured inorganic and conjugated polymer-based organic-inorganic hybrid EC materials. The emphasis has been to correlate the structures, morphologies and interfacial interactions of the EC materials to their electronic and ionic properties that influence the EC properties with unique advantages. The second part illustrates the perspectives of polymer electrolytes in electrochromic applications with emphasis on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) based polymer electrolytes. The requirements and approaches to optimize the formulation of electrolytes for feasible electrochromic devices have been delineated. Copyright © 2012 WILEY

  7. Fast Switching ITO Free Electrochromic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Hösel, Markus; Kim, Inyoung

    2014-01-01

    Indium-doped tin oxide free electrochromic devices are prepared by coating electrochromic polymers onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates encompassing two different silver grids as electrodes. One design comprises a fl exoprinted highly conductive silver grid electrode, yielding electrochromic...

  8. Preparation, characterization and properties of sputtered electrochromic and thermochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sella, C.; Nemraoui, O. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 92 - Meudon-Bellevue (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides; Maaza, M. [Physics Department, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Lafait, J. [Laboratoire d`Optique des Solides, Universite de Paris VI-Jussieu, Paris (France); Renard, N. [Dassault Aviation, St Cloud (France); Sampeur, [ICMC Company, Le Mee sur Seine (France)

    1998-01-01

    The interest in electrochromic materials has increased in the last few years because of their applications in a wide variety of optical modulation devices including smart windows for solar control in the architectural and automotive sectors and flat panel displays. Thermochromic coatings which reduce the transmission of solar energy as the temperature rises can prevent overheating and find application in the thermal control of buildings, satellites and spatial equipements. This article reports on the optical and structural properties of RF sputtered thin films of WO{sub 3} and VO{sub 2} for electrochromic and thermochromic devices. (orig.) 4 refs.

  9. Electrochromic Devices Based on Porous Tungsten Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Djaoued

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the synthesis of transition metal oxides in the form of porous thin films have opened up opportunities in the construction of electrochromic devices with enhanced properties. In this paper, synthesis, characterization and electrochromic applications of porous WO3 thin films with different nanocrystalline phases, such as hexagonal, monoclinic, and orthorhombic, are presented. Asymmetric electrochromic devices have been constructed based on these porous WO3 thin films. XRD measurements of the intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ into/from the WO3 layer of the device as a function of applied coloration/bleaching voltages show systematic changes in the lattice parameters associated with structural phase transitions in LixWO3. Micro-Raman studies show systematic crystalline phase changes in the spectra of WO3 layers during Li+ ion intercalation and deintercalation, which agree with the XRD data. These devices exhibit interesting optical modulation (up to ~70% due to intercalation/deintercalation of Li ions into/from the WO3 layer of the devices as a function of applied coloration/bleaching voltages. The obtained optical modulation of the electrochromic devices indicates that, they are suitable for applications in electrochromic smart windows.

  10. The optical and electrochemical properties of electrochromic films: WO3+xV2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuying; Liu, Hui; Liu, Ye; Yang, Shaohong; Liu, Yan; Wang, Chong

    2010-05-01

    Since Deb's experiment in 1973 on the electrochromic effect, transmissive electrochromic films exhibit outstanding potential as energy efficient window controls which allow dynamic control of the solar energy transmission. These films with non-volatile memory, once in the coloured state, remain in the same state even after removal of the field. The optical and electrochemical properties of electrochromic films using magnetron sputter deposition tungsten oxide thin films and vanadium oxide doped tungsten-vanadium oxide thin films on ITO coated glass were investigated. From the UV region of the transmittance spectra, the optical band gap energy from the fundamental absorption edge can be determined. And the Cyclic voltammograms of these thin films in 1 mol LiClO4 propylene carbonate electrolyte (LIPC) were measured and analysed. The anode electrochromic V2O5 doped cathode electrochromic WO3 could make films colour changing while the transmittance of films keeped invariance. These performance characteristics make tungstenvanadium oxide colour changeably thin films are suitable for electrochromic windows applications.

  11. Tailoring The Conducting Polymers PPY And PANI With Ionic Liquid BMIMBr For Enhanced Electrochromic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkat Ul-ain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of energy is the biggest need of the hour for developing countries. Smart windows with electrochromic characteristics can be one of the solutions for power shortfall. In this study ionic liquid BMIMBr is successfully synthesized by the reflux method. Ionogels comprising of ionic liquid and polymers Polyaniline and Polypyrrol were electrochemically deposited by galvanostatic methods. These films are structurally characterized by XRD and SEM. Concentration of monomer and ionic liquid was changed in order to study the effect on electrochemical and electrochromic properties. The electrochromic character was analyzed by optical studies and colour change was evident at different potentials. To further investigate the electron transport properties electrical conductivity studies were carried out. In a nutshell different parameters are studied with respect to concentration and temperature so that best material could be obtained showing high optical contrast and stability. Taking these studies in account an effective electrochromic device can be fabricated.

  12. Nanocrystal-polymer nanocomposite electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Runnerstrom, Evan; Helms, Brett; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2015-12-08

    Described is an electrochromic nanocomposite film comprising a solid matrix of an oxide based material, the solid matrix comprising a plurality of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures dispersed in the solid matrix and a lithium salt dispersed in the solid matrix. Also described is a near infrared nanostructured electrochromic device having a functional layer comprising the electrochromic nanocomposite film.

  13. Electrochromic devices and related products and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Timothy; McFadden, Judith; Tenent, Robert

    2018-01-30

    An electrochromic device may be switchable between a transparent state and at least one reflective state. A lithium-containing reflective feature may form when the electrochromic device is switched from the transparent state to the reflective state. Various products and methods may involve the electrochromic device.

  14. Photoresponsive Smart Coloration Electrochromic Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Tae Gwang; Kim, Donghyuk; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Minkyu; Hyun, Seungmin; Han, Seung Min

    2017-08-01

    Electrochromic devices have been widely adopted in energy saving applications by taking advantage of the electrode coloration, but it is critical to develop a new electrochromic device that can undergo smart coloration and can have a wide spectrum in transmittance in response to input light intensity while also functioning as a rechargeable energy storage system. In this study, a photoresponsive electrochromic supercapacitor based on cellulose-nanofiber/Ag-nanowire/reduced-graphene-oxide/WO3 -composite electrode that is capable of undergoing "smart" reversible coloration while simultaneously functioning as a reliable energy-storage device is developed. The fabricated device exhibits a high coloration efficiency of 64.8 cm2 C-1 and electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 406.0 F g-1 , energy/power densities of 40.6-47.8 Wh kg-1 and 6.8-16.9 kW kg-1 . The electrochromic supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycle reliability, where 75.0% and 94.1% of its coloration efficiency and electrochemical performance is retained, respectively, beyond 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. Cyclic fatigue tests show that the developed device is mechanically durable and suitable for wearable electronics applications. The smart electrochromic supercapacitor system is then integrated with a solar sensor to enable photoresponsive coloration where the transmittance changes in response to varying light intensity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Evaluation of SAGE Electrochromic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-15-579

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenent, Robert C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-06

    NREL will conduct durability testing of Sage Electrochromics dynamic windows products using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard methods and drive parameters as defined by Sage. Window units will be tested and standard analysis performed. Data will be summarized and reported back to Sage at the end of the testing period.

  16. Emissivity modulating electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Sheets, Judd

    2009-05-01

    The IR-ECDTM (Infra-Red ElectroChromic Device) variable emitance device (VED) is an all-solid-state monolithic vacuum deposited thin film system with a unique metamaterial IR transparent-electrode system which functions as an electrically controlled dimmable mirror in the IR region. The maximum reflectance corresponding to the bleached condition of the system is around 90% (low-e condition, e=0.1). The minimum reflectance reaches nearly zero in the colored condition of the system (high emittance, e=1). The average emissivity modulation of the IRECDTM is 0.7 in the 8-12 micron region, and at 9.7 micron (room temperature) it reaches a value of 0.9. Half and full emissivity modulations occur within 2 and10 minutes respectively. Because of its light weight (5g/m2), low voltage requirement (+/- 1 Volts), extremely good emissivity control properties (from 0 to 0.9 at 300K) and highly repeatable deposition process, the IR-ECDTM technology is very attractive for satellite thermal control applications. The IR-ECDTM has been under evaluation in a real space environment since March 8, 2007. This paper presents recent achievements of the IR-ECDTM including space test results.

  17. Spray deposited CeO2–TiO2 counter electrode for electrochromic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 2. Spray deposited ... Yxy and *** coordinates signify CeO2–TiO2 films and it also exhibits the application as counter electrode in electrochromic smart windows in which they are able to retain their transparency under charge insertion/extraction.

  18. Highly Efficient, Near-Infrared and Visible Light Modulated Electrochromic Devices Based on Polyoxometalates and W18O49 Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hongxi; Guo, Chongshen; Zhang, Shouhao; Bi, Lihua; Li, Tianchan; Sun, Tiedong; Liu, Shaoqin

    2018-01-23

    Over the past years the performance of electrochromic smart windows with the promising potential for significant energy savings has been progressively improved; however, the electrochromic windows have not yet to come into use at scale mainly because the electrochromic materials suffer from some significant drawbacks such as low coloration efficiency, slow switching time, bad durability and poor functionality. Herein, we fabricate the optically modulated electrochromic smart devices through sequential deposition of the crown-type polyoxometalates, K28Li5H7P8W48O184·92H2O (P8W48), and W18O49 nanowires. Unlike most reported electrochromic smart devices, the resulting P8W48 and W18O49 nanocomposites allow active and selective manipulation of the transmittance of near-infrared (750-1360 nm) and visible light (400-750 nm) by varying the applied potential. Furthermore, thanks to the stable nature of both P8W48 and W18O49 and precise structural control over the nanocomposites, the prepared electrochromic smart devices exhibit high efficiency, quick response and excellent stability.

  19. Electrochromic fiber-shaped supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Lin, Huijuan; Deng, Jue; Zhang, Ye; Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Zhitao; Guan, Guozhen; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-12-23

    An electrochromic fiber-shaped super-capacitor is developed by winding aligned carbon nanotube/polyaniline composite sheets on an elastic fiber. The fiber-shaped supercapacitors demonstrate rapid and reversible chromatic transitions under different working states, which can be directly observed by the naked eye. They are also stretchable and flexible, and are woven into textiles to display designed signals in addition to storing energy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Electrochromic device using mercaptans and organothiolate compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Carl M.; Ma, Yan-ping; Doeff, Marca M.; Visco, Steven

    1995-01-01

    An electrochromic cell is disclosed which comprises an electrochromic layer and a composite ion counter electrode for transporting ions. The counter electrode further comprises a polymer electrolyte material and an organosulfur material in which, in its discharged state, the organosulfur material is further comprised of a mercaptan or an organothiolate. In one preferred embodiment, both the electrochromic electrode and the counter electrode are transparent either to visible light or to the entire electromagnetic spectrum in both charged and discharged states. An electrochromic device is disclosed which comprises one or more electrochromic electrodes encased in glass or plastic plates on the inner surface of each of which is formed a transparent electrically conductive film. Electrical contacts, which are in electrical contact with the conductive films, facilitate external electrical connection.

  1. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  2. Multicoloured electrochromic thin films of NiO/PANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonavane, A C; Patil, P S [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416 004 (India); Inamdar, A I [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Deshmukh, H P, E-mail: patilps_2000@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Y. M. College, Bharati Vidyapeeth, Erandwane, Pune (India)

    2010-08-11

    NiO/polyaniline (PANI) thin films have been prepared by a two-step process. NiO thin films were electrodeposited from an aqueous solution of NiCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O at pH 7.5 on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates and a layer of PANI was formed on NiO thin films by chemical bath deposition. The films were characterized for their structural, optical, morphological and electrochromic properties. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of NiO and PANI, in which NiO is of cubic structure. Scanning electron micrographs represent porous granular NiO, which get uniformly carpeted with PANI, leading to a matty morphology of NiO/PANI samples. The electrochromic performance of NiO/PANI films has been studied using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry over the -1.2 to +2.2 V (versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE)) potential window in 1M LiClO{sub 4} + propylene carbonate. The NiO/PANI films exhibit electrochromism with colour that changes from pale yellow (leucoemeraldine base at -0.7 V versus SCE) to dark green (emeraldine salt at 0.4 V versus SCE) to purple (pernigraniline at 0.8 V versus SCE) in the reduced states and dark blue (nigraniline at 0.5 V versus SCE) to dark green (emeraldine salt at 0.1 V versus SCE) to light green (photoemeraldine at -0.3 V versus SCE) in its oxidized states. These colours, though akin to pure PANI, have higher contrast, high speed of operation and high stability, owing to the properties of NiO. The colouration efficiency of the NiO/PANI film was estimated to be 85 cm{sup 2} C{sup -1}.

  3. Linear topology in amorphous metal oxide electrochromic networks obtained via low-temperature solution processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llordés, Anna; Wang, Yang; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro; Xiao, Penghao; Lee, Tom; Poulain, Agnieszka; Zandi, Omid; Saez Cabezas, Camila A.; Henkelman, Graeme; Milliron, Delia J.

    2016-12-01

    Amorphous transition metal oxides are recognized as leading candidates for electrochromic window coatings that can dynamically modulate solar irradiation and improve building energy efficiency. However, their thin films are normally prepared by energy-intensive sputtering techniques or high-temperature solution methods, which increase manufacturing cost and complexity. Here, we report on a room-temperature solution process to fabricate electrochromic films of niobium oxide glass (NbOx) and `nanocrystal-in-glass’ composites (that is, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanocrystals embedded in NbOx glass) via acid-catalysed condensation of polyniobate clusters. A combination of X-ray scattering and spectroscopic characterization with complementary simulations reveals that this strategy leads to a unique one-dimensional chain-like NbOx structure, which significantly enhances the electrochromic performance, compared to a typical three-dimensional NbOx network obtained from conventional high-temperature thermal processing. In addition, we show how self-assembled ITO-in-NbOx composite films can be successfully integrated into high-performance flexible electrochromic devices.

  4. Thermal performance of an electrochromic vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Eames, Philip C. [University of Ulster, Jordanstown, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment

    2006-12-15

    Using a three-dimensional finite volume model, the thermal performance of an electrochromic vacuum glazing was simulated for insolation intensities between 0 and 1200Wm{sup -2}. The electrochromic evacuated glazing simulated consisted of three glass panes 0.5m by 0.5m with a 0.12mm wide evacuated space between two 4mm thick panes supported by 0.32mm diameter pillars spaced on a 25mm square grid contiguously sealed by a 6mm wide metal edge seal. The third glass pane on which the electrochromic layer was deposited was assumed to be sealed to the evacuated glass unit. The simulations indicate that when facing the indoor environment, the temperature of the glass pane with the electrochromic layer can reach 129.5{sup o}C for an incident insolation of 600Wm{sup -2}. At such temperatures unacceptable occupant comfort would ensue and the durability of the electrochromic glazing would be compromised. The glass pane with the electrochromic layer must therefore face the outdoor environment. (author)

  5. Thermal performance of an electrochromic vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Yueping [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: y.fang@ulster.ac.uk; Eames, Philip C. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    Using a three-dimensional finite volume model, the thermal performance of an electrochromic vacuum glazing was simulated for insolation intensities between 0 and 1200 W m{sup -2}. The electrochromic evacuated glazing simulated consisted of three glass panes 0.5 m by 0.5 m with a 0.12 mm wide evacuated space between two 4 mm thick panes supported by 0.32 mm diameter pillars spaced on a 25 mm square grid contiguously sealed by a 6 mm wide metal edge seal. The third glass pane on which the electrochromic layer was deposited was assumed to be sealed to the evacuated glass unit. The simulations indicate that when facing the indoor environment, the temperature of the glass pane with the electrochromic layer can reach 129.5 deg. C for an incident insolation of 600 W m{sup -2}. At such temperatures unacceptable occupant comfort would ensue and the durability of the electrochromic glazing would be compromised. The glass pane with the electrochromic layer must therefore face the outdoor environment.

  6. Large-Scale Multifunctional Electrochromic-Energy Storage Device Based on Tungsten Trioxide Monohydrate Nanosheets and Prussian White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhijie; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Yongbo; He, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong

    2017-09-06

    A high-performance electrochromic-energy storage device (EESD) is developed, which successfully realizes the multifunctional combination of electrochromism and energy storage by constructing tungsten trioxide monohydrate (WO3·H2O) nanosheets and Prussian white (PW) film as asymmetric electrodes. The EESD presents excellent electrochromic properties of broad optical modulation (61.7%), ultrafast response speed (1.84/1.95 s), and great coloration efficiency (139.4 cm(2) C(-1)). In particular, remarkable cyclic stability (sustaining 82.5% of its initial optical modulation after 2500 cycles as an electrochromic device, almost fully maintaining its capacitance after 1000 cycles as an energy storage device) is achieved. The EESD is also able to visually detect the energy storage level via reversible and fast color changes. Moreover, the EESD can be combined with commercial solar cells to constitute an intelligent operating system in the architectures, which would realize the adjustment of indoor sunlight and the improvement of physical comfort totally by the rational utilization of solar energy without additional electricity. Besides, a scaled-up EESD (10 × 11 cm(2)) is further fabricated as a prototype. Such promising EESD shows huge potential in practically serving as electrochromic smart windows and energy storage devices.

  7. Direct Photopatterning of Electrochromic Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Dyer, Aubrey L.; Shen, D. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) polymers are synthesized using an oxidative polymerization route that results in methacrylate substituted poly(ProDOTs) having a Mn of 10–20 kDa wherein the methacrylate functionality constitutes from 6 to 60% of the total monomer units. Solutions of these polymers...... show excellent film forming abilities, with thin films prepared using both spray‐casting and spin‐coating. These polymers are demonstrated to crosslink upon UV irradiation at 350 nm, in the presence of an appropriate photoinitiator, to render the films insoluble to common organic solvents....... Electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical, and colorimetric analyses of the crosslinked polymer films are performed to establish that they retain the same electrochromic qualities as the parent polymers with no detriment to the observed properties. To demonstrate applicability for multi‐film processing...

  8. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-31

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional

  9. An Inexpensive Device for Studying Electrochromism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Puente-Caballero, Rodrigo; Torres-Perez, Jonatan; Bustos, Daniel; Carmona-Orbezo, Aranzazu; Sevilla, Fortunato B., III

    2012-01-01

    A novel procedure for the preparation of electrochromic WO[subscript 3] films from readily available materials is presented. It is based on the electrochemical preparation of potassium tungstate from tungsten filaments of incandescent light bulbs in a potassium hydroxide solution. Tungstic acid is then produced by proton exchange using a…

  10. Synergistic tungsten oxide/organic framework hybrid nanofibers for electrochromic device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Nohut Maslakci, Neslihan; Kuralay, Filiz; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2017-08-01

    We report the first successful applications of tungsten oxide/conducting polymer hybrid nanofiber assemblies in electrochromic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/tungsten oxide (PEDOT/WO3) and polypyrrole/tungsten oxide (PPy/WO3) composites were prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of monomers in different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF4), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMIMTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMPTFSI). Electrospinning process was used to form hybrid nanofibers from chemically synthesized nanostructures. The electrospun hybrid samples were compared from both morphological and electrochemical perspectives. Importantly, deposition of nanofibers from chemically synthesized hybrids can be achieved homogenously, on nanoscale dimensions. The morphologies of these assemblies were evaluated by SEM, whereas their electroactivity was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Electrochromic devices made from hybrid nanofiber electrodes exhibited highest chromatic contrast of 37.66% for PEDOT/WO3/BMIMPF6, 40.42% for PPy/WO3/BMIMBF4 and show a strong electrochromic color change from transparent to light brown. Furthermore, the nanofiber devices exhibit outstanding stability when color switching proceeds, which may ensure a versatile platform for color displays, rear-view mirrors and smart windows.

  11. High-performance complementary electrochromic device based on WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT and prussian blue electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yanfang; Li, Haizeng; Li, Kerui; Wang, Jinmin; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Chen, Pei

    2017-11-01

    The device assembly plays an important role in affecting the electrochromic (EC) performance of an electrochromic device (ECD). Here, WO3·0.33H2O films are fabricated by a hydrothermal method and then PEDOT:PSS are spin-coated on the surface of WO3·0.33H2O films. Finally, the WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT films are assembled with electrodeposited prussian blue (PB) to fabricate the WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT-PB complementary electrochromic devices (ECDs). Compared with pure WO3·0.33H2O and WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT single-active-layer structure ECDs, the complementary ECD exhibits higher optical modulation, higher coloration efficiency and faster response time, which would provide a promising platform for energy-saving smart (ESS) window.

  12. Photochemical stability of electrochromic polymers and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    , AM 1.5G) under ambient conditions the majority of the polymers degraded within 4-5 hours. Three polymers showed increased stability with degradation rates from 0.44 to 1.58% per hour measured as loss of absorption. Application of oxygen and UV barrier foils was found to drastically slow......The stability of fully printed flexible organic electrochromics based on 11 different conjugated polymers is explored from the fundamental chemical degradation level to the operational device level. The photochemical stability of the electrochromic polymers (ECPs) is studied enabling an analysis...... of the influence that the chemical constitution of the conjugated polymer backbone has on the photochemical stability. Based on changes in the UV-visible absorption and IR spectra, the polymers were categorized into two distinct groups, each with a separate degradation mechanism. During irradiation (1000 W m -2...

  13. Study on Electrochromic Effect of Polyaniline Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienda Handojo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The light transmission factor of an electrochromic film changes reversibly with the application of an electrical voltage. Thereby the transparent film becomes reversibly opaque so that it may be used to control light transmission. In this paper the results of a study on polyaniline film as an electrochromic active material is reported. Polyaniline looks yellow transparent in the reduced state and turns to green-blue at its oxidized state. The electrochromic device considered in this paper was fabricated in planar configuration of ITO glass - polyaniline film - electrolyte - ITO glass which involved 1.0M H2SO4 solution. The measurement of the current density yields voltamograms for several values of the rate of voltage change, while the optical  characteristics were measured with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. To inspect the light control properties, the intensity of solar radiation propagating through the device was derived. It is found that in its reduced state, the device transmits 70% of the incoming radiation, while in the oxidized state only 11% of the radiation is left. The result of recycling test indicated that film is stable over 5,000 cycles.

  14. Effect of electrolytes on electrochromic properties and morphology of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    organic molecules, conductive polymers have attracted significant interest in the field of electrochromism. Electrochromism is defined as a reversible and visible ..... and synthesis of organic dyes and pigments (Baraking Essex,. UK: Elsevier Applied Science Publishing) p. 193. Ram M K, Maccioni E and Nicolini C 1997 Thin ...

  15. Electrochromic device based on electrospun WO{sub 3} nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Maslakci, Neslihan Nohut; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Oksuz, Aysegul Uygun, E-mail: ayseguluygun@sdu.edu.tr

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • WO{sub 3} electrochromic nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning technique. • WO{sub 3} nanofibers switched reversibly from transparent to blue color. • Electrochromic device was assembled using ionic liquid based gel electrolyte. • Significant optical modulation and excellent cycling stability were achieved for ECD. - Abstract: The tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) nanofibers were grown directly onto an ITO-coated glass via an electrospinning method for electrochromic applications. The electrochromic properties of WO{sub 3} nanofibers were investigated in the presence of different electrolytes including a series of ionic liquids and classic LiClO{sub 4}-PC system. A significant optical modulation of 20.82% at 760 nm, reversible coloration with efficiency of 64.58 cm{sup 2}/C and excellent cycling stability were achieved for the nanofiber electrochromic device (ECD) with ionic liquid based gel electrolyte.

  16. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  17. A transparent electrochromic metal-insulator switching device with three-terminal transistor geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Onozato, Takaki; Hirono, Misako; Mizuno, Taku; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-05-13

    Proton and hydroxyl ion play an essential role for tuning functionality of oxides because their electronic state can be controlled by modifying oxygen off-stoichiometry and/or protonation. Tungsten trioxide (WO3), a well-known electrochromic (EC) material for smart window, is a wide bandgap insulator, whereas it becomes a metallic conductor HxWO3 by protonation. Although one can utilize electrochromism together with metal-insulator (MI) switching for one device, such EC-MI switching cannot be utilized in current EC devices because of their two-terminal structure with parallel-plate configuration. Here we demonstrate a transparent EC-MI switchable device with three-terminal TFT-type structure using amorphous (a-) WO3 channel layer, which was fabricated on glass substrate at room temperature. We used water-infiltrated nano-porous glass, CAN (calcium aluminate with nano-pores), as a liquid-leakage-free solid gate insulator. At virgin state, the device was fully transparent in the visible-light region. For positive gate voltage, the active channel became dark blue, and electrical resistivity of the a-WO3 layer drastically decreased with protonation. For negative gate voltage, deprotonation occurred and the active channel returned to transparent insulator. Good cycleability of the present transparent EC-MI switching device would have potential for the development of advanced smart windows.

  18. Variable optical attenuator made by using new electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaz, Ricardo; Barrios, David; Sanchez-Pena, Jose M.; Vazquez, Carmen; Pozo-Gonzalo, Cristina; Mecerreyes, David; Pomposo, Jose

    2005-07-01

    Electrochromic (EC) materials are used mainly for domotic applications, such as transparency controlled windows or rear-view mirrors in cars. The device construction is a sandwich of electrochemical compounds, which change their optical properties when applying voltage. Although the changes that are used in the applications take place in the visible, there are also changes in the near infrared region. In the last years, some works have proposed their use in fiber optic applications, mainly as optical modulators or VOAs (Variable Optical Attenuator). EC devices have usually slow responses (several seconds) and low transmittance range, specially the organic ones. The slow response is the major drawback for their use as modulators. But in NIR transmittance ranges, there are promising results in materials like ruthenium or PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)). In this work, we will study the possible use in VOAs of new EC devices developed with the minimum number of layers, by their response in telecommunications wavelengths. These devices are manufactured in such a way that the integration in fiber optic devices is an easy task. The minimum number of layers and the easy construction are improvements over the existing possibilities. PEDOT is the EC material on these devices, and different manufacturing ways are compared in order to detect the best possible candidate to use.

  19. Large Area Co-Assembly of Nanowires for Flexible Transparent Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Long; Lu, Yi-Ruo; Li, Hui-Hui; Liu, Jian-Wei; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2017-07-26

    Electrochromic devices with controllable color switching, low cost, and energy-saving advantages have been widely used as smart windows, rear-view car mirrors, displays, and so on. However, the devices are seriously limited for flexible electronics as they are traditionally fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates which will lose their conductivity after bending cycles (the resistance significantly changed from 200 Ω to 6.56 MΩ when the bending radius was 1.2 cm). Herein, we report a new route for large area coassembly of nanowires (NWs), resulting in the formation of multilayer ordered nanowire (NW) networks with tunable conductivity (7-40 Ω/sq) and transmittance (58-86% at 550 nm) for fabrication of flexible transparent electrochromic devices, showing good stability of electrochromic switching behaviors. The electrochromic performance of the devices can be tuned and is strongly dependent on the structures of the Ag and W18O49 NW assemblies. Unlike the ITO-based electronics, the electrochromic films can be bent to a radius of 1.2 cm for more than 1000 bending cycles without obvious failure of both conductivity (ΔR/R ≈ 8.3%) and electrochromic performance (90% retention), indicating the excellent mechanical flexibility. The present method for large area coassembly of NWs can be extended to fabricate various NW-based flexible devices in the future.

  20. Application of Nanostructures in Electrochromic Materials and Devices: Recent Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Min Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent progress in application of nanostructures in electrochromic materials and devices is reviewed. ZnO nanowire array modified by viologen and WO3, crystalline WO3 nanoparticles and nanorods, mesoporous WO3 and TiO2, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene nanotubes, Prussian blue nanoinks and nanostructures in switchable mirrors are reviewed. The electrochromic properties were significantly enhanced by applying nanostructures, resulting in faster switching responses, higher stability and higher optical contrast. A perspective on the development trends in electrochromic materials and devices is also proposed.

  1. Recovery Act: Electrochromic Glazing Technology: Improved Performance, Lower Price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdis, Mark; Sbar, Neil

    2012-06-30

    The growing dependency of the US on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future and one element of a secure energy future is conservation. It is estimated that the buildings sector represents 40% of the US's total energy consumption. And buildings produce as much as one third of the greenhouse gas emissions primarily through fossil fuel usage during their operational phase. A significant fraction of this energy usage is simply due to inefficient window technology. Electrochromic (EC) windows allow electronic control of their optical properties so that the transparency to light can be adjusted from clear to dark. This ability to control the amount of solar energy allowed into the building can be advantageously used to minimize lighting, heating and air conditioning costs. Currently, the penetration of EC windows into the marketplace is extremely small, and consequently there is a huge opportunity for energy savings if this market can be expanded. In order to increase the potential energy savings it is necessary to increase the quantity of EC windows in operation. Additionally, any incremental improvement in the energy performance of each window will add to the potential energy savings. The overall goals of this project were therefore to improve the energy performance and lower the cost of dynamic (EC) smart windows for residential and commercial building applications. This project is obviously of benefit to the public by addressing two major areas: lowering the cost and improving the energy performance of EC glazings. The high level goals for these activities were: (i) to improve the range between the clear and the tinted state, (ii) reduce the price of EC windows by utilizing lower cost materials, (iii) lowering the U-Value1 SAGE Electrochromics Inc. is the only company in the US which has a track record of producing EC windows, and presently has a small operational

  2. Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  3. Computationally Designed Oligomers for High Contrast Black Electrochromic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0097 Computationally Designed Oligomers for High Contrast Black Electrochromic Polymers Aimee Tomlinson University Of North...Black Electrochromic FA9550-15-1-0181 Polymers 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6.AUTHO~ 5d. PROJECT NUMBER AimeeL. T . Se. TASK...neraly black neutral state. Additionally, upon oxidation these polymers would have litte to no tailing form the near IR thereby guaranteeing nearly a I

  4. A Modular Framework for 3 Way Electrochromic Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    2017 US Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-WMM-G Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21005-5066 primary author’s email: We...ARL-TR-8141• SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory AModular Framework for 3-Way Electrochromic Switches by Jennifer M Elward and B Christopher...SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory AModular Framework for 3-Way Electrochromic Switches by Jennifer M Elward GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA B

  5. Fast Switching Electrochromic Devices Containing Optimized BEMA/PEGMA Gel Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Garino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized thermoset gel polymer electrolyte based on Bisphenol A ethoxylate dimethacrylate and Poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (BEMA/PEGMA was prepared by facile photo-induced free radical polymerisation technique and tested for the first time in electrochromic devices (ECD combining WO3 sputtered on ITO as cathodes and V2O5 electrodeposited on ITO as anodes. The behaviour of the prepared ECD was investigated electrochemically and electro-optically. The ECD transmission spectrum was monitored in the visible and near-infrared region by varying applied potential. A switching time of ca. 2 s for Li+ insertion (coloring and of ca. 1 s for Li+ de-insertion (bleaching were found. UV-VIS spectroelectrochemical measurements evidenced a considerable contrast between bleached and colored state along with a good stability over repeated cycles. The reported electrochromic devices showed a considerable enhancement of switching time with respect to the previously reported polymeric ECD indicating that they are good candidates for the implementation of intelligent windows and smart displays.

  6. Direct Growth of Crystalline Tungsten Oxide Nanorod Arrays by a Hydrothermal Process and Their Electrochromic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Hao; Hon, Min Hsiung; Leu, Ing-Chi

    2017-04-01

    Transparent crystalline tungsten oxide nanorod arrays for use as an electrochromic layer have been directly prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass via a facile tungsten film-assisted hydrothermal process using aqueous tungsten hexachloride solution. X-ray diffraction analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the phase and morphology of the grown nanostructures. Arrays of tungsten oxide nanorods with diameter of ˜22 nm and length of ˜240 nm were obtained at 200°C after 8 h of hydrothermal reaction. We propose a growth mechanism for the deposition of the monoclinic tungsten oxide phase in the hydrothermal environment. The tungsten film was first oxidized to tungsten oxide to provide seed sites for crystal growth and address the poor connection between the growing tungsten oxide and substrate. Aligned tungsten oxide nanorod arrays can be grown by a W thin film-assisted heterogeneous nucleation process with NaCl as a structure-directing agent. The fabricated electrochromic device demonstrated optical modulation (coloration/bleaching) at 632.8 nm of ˜41.2% after applying a low voltage of 0.1 V for 10 s, indicating the potential of such nanorod array films for use in energy-saving smart windows.

  7. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and why...

  8. Electrochromic mirror using viologen-anchored nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Na [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong M.; Ah, Chil Seong; Song, Juhee; Ryu, Hojun; Kim, Yong Hae [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Youb, E-mail: youby@etri.re.kr [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three types of ECM device were fabricated using viologen-anchored ECDs. • The devices were investigated according to their optical structures. • The anti-reflection material affects the reflectance and the coloration efficiency. • The device design of ECMs is a crucial factor for clear reflected images. - Abstract: Electrochromic mirrors (ECMs) that are used in automobile mirrors need to have high reflectance, a high contrast ratio, and a clear image. In particular, it is critical that distortions of clear images are minimized for safety. Therefore, an ECM is fabricated using viologen-anchored nanoparticles and a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) layer with an anti-reflection function. The ECM has approximately 30.42% in the reflectance dynamic range and 125 cm{sup 2}/C high coloration efficiency.

  9. Assessment of Energy Impact of Window Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Yazdanian, Mehry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2009-10-01

    Windows play a significant role in commercial buildings targeting the goal of net zero energy. This report summarizes research methodology and findings in evaluating the energy impact of windows technologies for commercial buildings. The large office prototypical building, chosen from the DOE commercial building benchmarks, was used as the baseline model which met the prescriptive requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The building simulations were performed with EnergyPlus and TMY3 weather data for five typical US climates to calculate the energy savings potentials of six windows technologies when compared with the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 baseline windows. The six windows cover existing, new, and emerging technologies, including ASHRAE 189.1 baseline windows, triple pane low-e windows, clear and tinted double pane highly insulating low-e windows, electrochromic (EC) windows, and highly insulating EC windows representing the hypothetically feasible optimum windows. The existing stocks based on average commercial windows sales are included in the analysis for benchmarking purposes.

  10. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  11. Aluminum doped nickel oxide thin film with improved electrochromic performance from layered double hydroxides precursor in situ pyrolytic route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jingjing; Lai, Lincong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Hailong; Qin, Yumei; Gao, Yuanchunxue; Luo, Lei; Lu, Jun, E-mail: lujun@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    Electrochromic materials with unique performance arouse great interest on account of potential application values in smart window, low-power display, automobile anti-glare rearview mirror, and e-papers. In this paper, high-performing Al-doped NiO porous electrochromic film grown on ITO substrate has been prepared via a layered double hydroxides(LDHs) precursor in situ pyrolytic route. The Al{sup 3+} ions distributed homogenously within the NiO matrix can significantly influence the crystallinity of Ni-Al LDH and NiO:Al{sup 3+} films. The electrochromic performance of the films were evaluated by means of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry(CA) measurements. In addition, the ratio of Ni{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 2+} also varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range (58.4%), fast switching speed (bleaching/coloration times are 1.8/4.2 s, respectively) and excellent durability (30% decrease after 2000 cycles). The improved performance was owed to the synergy of large NiO film specific surface area and porous morphology, as well as Al doping stifled the formation of Ni{sup 3+} making bleached state more pure. This LDHs precursor pyrolytic method is simple, low-cost and environmental benign and is feasible for the preparation of NiO:Al and other Al-doped oxide thin film. - Graphical abstract: The ratio of Ni{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 2+} varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range, fast switching speed and excellent durability. Display Omitted.

  12. CAVE WINDOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  13. A new hybrid electrochromic material: vanadium oxide/ eriochrome black T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, L. F. R.; de Oliveira, R. S.; Ponzio, E. A.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we describe the synthesis of a new hybrid material, which is consists of the eriochrome black T (sodium 1-[(1-hydroxynaphthcalen-2-yl-hydrazinylidene]-6-nitro-2- naphthol-4-sulfonate) and vanadium pentoxide xerogel using a melting sonoquenching technique. This hybrid material was apply in electrochromic electrodes. The hybrid material was characterized by X-ray difraction, FT-IR, AFM and spectroelectrochemically. The hybrid presented good reversibility and cyclability during 50 cycles studied, electrochromic efficiencies were about 50 cm2 C-1 (375 nm and 400 nm) and the ΔOD at 375 nm and 400 nm were 0.236 and 0.159 respectively wavelenghts. The response times were 0.7 to 3.3 s for 375 nm and 0.7 to 2.0 s for 400 nm. The hybrid is a potential material to be used in electrochromic applications.

  14. Carbazole based electrochromic polymers with benzoazole units: Effect of heteroatom variation on electrochromic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Doyranli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of carbazole-based polymers were synthesized via Suzuki polymerization between N-(2-ethylhexylcarbazole-3,6-bis(ethyleneboronate (Cbz and dibromobenzazole unit. Three different polymers, PCBN, PCBS and PCBSe were obtained from 4,7-dibromo-2-hexyl-2H-benzotriazole (BN, 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole- (BS and 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole (BSe, respectively. It is observed that, the variation of heteroatoms (N,S and Se on the benzazole unit have most important effect on electro-optic properties of the PCBX polymers. Neutral state color of the polymer films and their electrochromic performances are also influenced. Among the synthesized polymers, the PCBS bearing 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole as acceptor units has a broad absorption and 50% of ΔT in the near-IR regime at the oxidized state. This property of PCBS is a great advantage for near-IR electrochromic applications.

  15. Aluminum ion electrolyte for enhanced electrochromism of polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Peijian; Ye, Meidan; Guo, Wenxi; Liu, Xiangyang

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes influence the electrochemical behaviors of active materials in the electrochromism. In our work, it is demonstrated that the trivalent ion, aluminum ion (Al3+), can be used as an efficient insertion ion of polyaniline (PANI) electrodeposited on the FTO-coated glass, which brings the desired large optical contrast (ΔT), long-term cyclic (coloration/bleaching) stability and high coloration efficiency compared with that based on the H+ electrolyte. Differing from the usual degradation by repeated doping/dedoping, the Al3+ insertion may introduce strong electrostatic forces, which on some degree stabilize the polymer chain structure and consequently yield enhanced electrochromic performances.

  16. Electrochromic device containing metal oxide nanoparticles and ultraviolet blocking material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Guillermo; Koo, Bonil; Gregoratto, Ivano; Basu, Sourav; Rosen, Evelyn; Holt, Jason; Thomsen, Scott

    2017-10-17

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant. The electrochromic device also includes nanoparticles containing one or more transparent conducting oxide (TCO), a solid state electrolyte, a counter electrode, and at least one protective layer to prevent degradation of the one or more nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) and visible radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  17. Electrochromic blueshift in polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, R A; Sharma, S C

    2004-10-01

    Electrochromic blueshift in the absorption band of polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells is reported as a function of applied electric field. The changes in the peak absorption wavelength, absorption broadening, and their possible relationships with the nonlinear optical properties of polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells are discussed.

  18. Organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Shanxin, E-mail: xiongsx@xust.edu.cn; Yin, Siyuan; Wang, Yuyun; Kong, Zhenzhen; Lan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • We review the effects of interfacial interactions in electrochromic nanocomposites. • Interfacial interactions are useful for film fabrication and property-enhancement. • The strong interaction can enhance the electron conduction and structural strength. • The weak interactions exist widely between organic and inorganic phases. • Multiple weak interactions can provide various performance-adjusting approaches. - Abstract: Electrochromic properties of organic or inorganic materials can be improved through preparing organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites. In electrochromic nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions between the organic and inorganic phases play three important roles in preparation and application of the nanocomposites. Firstly, the interfacial interactions result in stable molecular structures. Secondly, they also improve the electron conduction and ion transport process in the nanocomposites. Thirdly, they enhance the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the nanocomposites. In this paper, we review the common interfacial interactions including covalent bond, coordination bond, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction between the organic and inorganic phases in the electrochromic nanocomposites. The preparation method, the relationship between the structure and properties, and the mechanism of modulation of electrochromic effect in the nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions are surveyed. The strong interfacial interaction, e.g., covalent bond, is helpful for obtaining electrochromic nanocomposites with high electron conduction and high structural strength. However it is very complicated to construct covalent bond between the organic and inorganic phases. Another strong interfacial interaction, the coordination bond is mainly confined to preparation of electrochromic complex of metal ion and pyridine derivative. While, the weak interfacial interactions, e

  19. Variable Emissivity Electrochromics using Ionic Electrolytes and Low Solar Absorptance Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work further developed a highly promising variable emissivity technology for spacecraft thermal control, based on unique conducting polymer (CP) electrochromics...

  20. A Paper-Based Electrochromic Array for Visualized Electrochemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengling Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a battery-powered, paper-based electrochromic array for visualized electrochemical sensing. The paper-based sensing system consists of six parallel electrochemical cells, which are powered by an aluminum-air battery. Each single electrochemical cell uses a Prussian Blue spot electrodeposited on an indium-doped tin oxide thin film as the electrochromic indicator. Each electrochemical cell is preloaded with increasing amounts of analyte. The sample activates the battery for the sensing. Both the preloaded analyte and the analyte in the sample initiate the color change of Prussian Blue to Prussian White. With a reaction time of 60 s, the number of electrochemical cells with complete color changes is correlated to the concentration of analyte in the sample. As a proof-of-concept analyte, lactic acid was detected semi-quantitatively using the naked eye.

  1. Polyorganodisulfide electrodes for solid-state batteries and electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, S.J. (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Liu Meilin (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Doeff, M.M. (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Ma Yanping (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Lampert, C. (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Jonghe, L.C. de (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The use of polyorganodisulfides in a variety of solid-state batteries and electrochromic devices is discussed. Cycling data is presented for solid-state batteries using sodium and sodium-lead alloy negative electrodes with polyethylene oxide electrolyte and polydimercaptothiadiazole positive electrodes. Rate capabilities are comparable to that for analogous lithium batteries, but cells show continual deterioration with extended cycling. The use of polyorganodisulfide electrodes as optically passive counter electrodes for electrochromic devices is also described. Solid-state devices consisting of molybdenum doped WO[sub 3], amorphous polyethylene oxide electrolyte (aPEO), and a polyorganodisulfide counter electrode colored rapidly from a pale yellow to a deep blue-green, upon application of 1.2 V dc. The photopic transmittance changed from 61 to 9%, and the solar transmittance from 45 to 5% during the coloration process. (orig.)

  2. Electrochromic study on amorphous tungsten oxide films by sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuan, E-mail: cli10@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, J.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan, Taipei 24301, Taiwan (China); Hung, Ming-Tsung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Huang, B.Q. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-31

    Tungsten oxide films under different oxygen flow rates are deposited by DC sputtering. The voltage change at target and analyses for the deposited films by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible-near infrared spectroscopy consistently indicate that low oxygen flow rate (5 sccm) only creates metal-rich tungsten oxide films, while higher oxygen flow rate (10–20 sccm) assures the deposition of amorphous WO{sub 3} films. To explore the electrochromic function of deposited WO{sub 3} films, we use electrochemical tests to perform the insertion of lithium ions and electrons into films. The WO{sub 3} films switch between color and bleach states effectively by both potentiostat and cyclic voltammetry. Quantitative evaluation on electrochemical tests indicates that WO{sub 3} film with composition close to its stoichiometry is an optimal choice for electrochromic function. - Highlights: • Amorphous WO{sub 3} films are deposited by DC sputtering under different O{sub 2} flow rates. • Higher oxygen flow rate (> 10 sccm) assures the deposition of amorphous WO{sub 3} films. • Both potentiostat and cyclic voltammetry make WO{sub 3} films switch its color. • An optimal electrochromic WO{sub 3} is to make films close to its stoichiometry.

  3. Highly transparent electrochromic plastic device that changes to purple and to blue by increasing the potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo-Gonzalo, Cristina; Salsamendi, Maitane; Vinuales, Ana; Pomposo, Jose A.; Grande, Hans-Juergen [CIDETEC - Centre for Electrochemical Technologies, Paseo Miramon, 196, E-20009 Donostia, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    We report the assembly and characterization of a highly transparent electrochromic device showing dual-coloration (purple and blue color change) using an innovative electrochromic formulation recently patented. This electrochromic formulation is composed of the three electroactive materials needed in a traditional electrochromic device (electrolyte, electrochromic and ion storage material) embedded in a polymeric matrix to reduce the chance of device malfunction by leaking and evaporation of the solvent. Two materials based on viologen, which show different electrochromic behaviors at 1.5 and 2.5 V, have been incorporated into the electrochromic formulation. Therefore, the electrochromic device was transparent in the bleach state but depending on the potential applied the final coloration was pink at 1.5 V and blue at 2.5 V. The maximum transparency of the device was 80% in the bleach state, 25.21% at 1.5 V when showing purple coloration and 3% at 2.5 V when showing blue coloration. The device presented a coloration efficiency (CE) of 136.6 cm{sup 2}/C and a coloring time of 6.5 s to achieve 90% of the maximum change in absorbance. The device exhibited a memory effect of 8 min estimated as the time needed to obtain the initial transparency. (author)

  4. Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium and a metal dopant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillaspie, Dane T.; Weir, Douglas Glenn John

    2017-05-16

    An electrochromic device comprising a counter electrode layer comprised of lithium metal oxide which provides a high transmission in the fully intercalated state and which is capable of long-term stability, is disclosed. Methods of making an electrochromic device comprising such a counter electrode are also disclosed.

  5. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  6. TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

    2013-11-01

    Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows.

  7. Tuneable dielectric and optical characteristics of tailor-made inorganic electro-chromic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulja, S; Kopf, R; Nolan, K; Lundy, R; Tate, A; Hu, T C; Norooziarab, M; Cahill, R; Templ, W

    2017-10-18

    Electro-chromic materials (EC) are a new class of electronically reconfigurable thin films that have the ability to reversibly change optical properties by electric charge insertion/extraction. Since their discovery by Deb, they have been employed in applications related to display technology, such as smart windows and mirrors and active optical filters. In this sense, a variety of studies related to the tuneable optical characteristics of EC materials have recently been reported, however, their microwave tuneable dielectric characteristics have been left somewhat unexplored. In 2016 Bulja showed that dc bias voltage induced modulation of the optical characteristics of an inorganic Conductor/WO3/LiNbO3/NiO/Conductor EC cell isaccompanied by the modulation of its high frequency (1-20 GHz) dielectric characteristics. In general, according to the state of the art, cells of different material compositions are needed to produce devices of tailor made characteristics. Here, we report the discovery that the microwave dielectric and the optical characteristics of an EC cell can be engineered to suit a variety of applications without changing their material composition. The obtained results indicate the potential for producing novel, tuneable and tailor-engineered materials that can be used to create next generation agile microwave-optical devices.

  8. TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

    2013-11-01

    Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows.

  9. Electrochromic device technology based on nanoporous nanocrystalline thin films on PET foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, C. G.; Avendaño, E.

    2007-12-01

    Electrochromic (EC) device technology can be used for modulating the transmittance of visible light and solar radiation in windows in buildings as well as for other see-through applications. This paper emphasizes the great energy savings that can be achieved in the built environment, jointly with improved indoor comfort for the users of the building. Manufacturing aspects are then considered with particular focus on potentially low-cost roll-to-roll methods. In particular the paper discusses recent work on foil-type devices embodying sputter deposited WO 3 and NiO-based films joined by a polymer electrolyte. This paper also introduces a number of new results showing that double-sided antireflection coatings based on dip coating can enhance the transmittance significantly, that tandem foils can yield a ratio between bleached-state and colored-state transmittance exceeding fifty, that solar irradiance onto the EC device can enhance its charge insertion dynamics and thereby its optical modulation, and that electromagnetic noise spectroscopy may serve for quality assessment of EC devices.

  10. Large area/high rate sputtering of materials for electro-chromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howson, R.P. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1990-12-31

    The preparation of any large area system is going to require a deposition system for the thin film elements of the device which not only have the properties required but also can be made in the large areas, and for the low cost, that will be needed for any device which is to have any large-scale applicability. Techniques for the large-scale production of multi-layer optical filters for use in windows for buildings and cars have appeared over the last few years, and it has been demonstrated that planner magnetron sputtering can give the large area uniformity, low cost and high rate required for such a system. Part of this process includes the reactive deposition of an oxide. The properties of this oxide are not critical, but research is proceeding into the techniques that need to be used to manufacture oxides with much better control of their properties while maintaining the advantages of large area availability and low cost. It is the intention of this contribution to consider this process--d.c. reactive planar magnetron sputtering--and assess the likely use of it to prepare electro-chromic devices for large-scale applications.

  11. Applications of Three Dithienylpyrroles-Based Electrochromic Polymers in High-Contrast Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shan Su

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three dithienylpyrroles (1-(4-(methylthiophenyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-pyrrole (MPS, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-pyrrole (MPO, and 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-pyrrol-1-ylbenzonitrile (ANIL were synthesized and their corresponding polydithienylpyrroles (PSNS were electrosynthesized using electrochemical polymerization. Spectroelectrochemical studies indicated that poly(1-(4-(methylthiophenyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-pyrrole (PMPS film was green, dark green, and brown in the neutral, oxidation, and highly oxidized state, respectively. The incorporation of a MPS unit into the PSNS backbone gave rise to a darker color than those of the MPO and ANIL units in the highly oxidized state. The PMPS film showed higher ΔTmax (54.47% at 940 nm than those of the PMPO (43.87% at 890 nm and PANIL (44.63% at 950 nm films in an ionic liquid solution. Electrochromic devices (ECDs employing PMPS, PMPO, and PANIL as anodic layers and poly(3,4-(2,2-diethypropylenedioxythiophene(PProDOT-Et2 as a cathodic layer were constructed. PMPO/PProDOT-Et2 ECD showed the highest ΔTmax (41.13% and coloration efficiency (674.67 cm2·C−1 at 626 nm, whereas PMPS/PProDOT-Et2 ECD displayed satisfactory ΔTmax (32.51% and coloration efficiency (637.25 cm2·C−1 at 590 nm. Repeated cyclic voltammograms of PMPS/PProDOT-Et2, PMPO/PProDOT-Et2, and PANIL/PProDOT-Et2 ECDs indicated that ECDs had satisfactory redox stability.

  12. FOCUSED R&D FOR ELECTROCHROMIC SMART WINDOWS: SIGNIFICANT PERFORMANCE AND YIELD ENHANCEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus Milling

    2004-09-23

    Developments made under this program will play a key role in underpinning the technology for producing EC devices. It is anticipated that the work begun during this period will continue to improve materials properties, and drive yields up and costs down, increase durability and make manufacture simpler and more cost effective. It is hoped that this will contribute to a successful and profitable industry, which will help reduce energy consumption and improve comfort for building occupants worldwide. The first major task involved improvements to the materials used in the process. The improvements made as a result of the work done during this project have contributed to the enhanced performance, including dynamic range, uniformity and electrical characteristics. Another major objective of the project was to develop technology to improve yield, reduce cost, and facilitate manufacturing of EC products. Improvements directly attributable to the work carried out as part of this project and seen in the overall EC device performance, have been accompanied by an improvement in the repeatability and consistency of the production process. Innovative test facilities for characterizing devices in a timely and well-defined manner have been developed. The equipment has been designed in such a way as to make scaling-up to accommodate higher throughput necessary for manufacturing relatively straightforward. Finally, the third major goal was to assure the durability of the EC product, both by developments aimed at improving the product performance, as well as development of novel procedures to test the durability of this new product. Both aspects have been demonstrated, both by carrying out a number of different durability tests, both in-house and by independent third-party testers, and also developing several novel durability tests.

  13. Development and Manufacture of Polymer-based Electrochromic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Hösel, Markus; Dyer, Aubrey L.

    2015-01-01

    -to-roll methods compatible with upscaling and manufacture. The successful approaches to operational devices are presented in detail, as well as areas where future research would have a high impact and accelerate the development such as highly conducting and transparent substrates, electrolytes adapted......The field of organic electrochromics is reviewed here, with particular focus on how the “electrochromic” as a functional material can be brought from the current level of accurate laboratory synthesis and characterization to the device and application level through a number of suited roll...... for multilayer application and morphologically stable conjugated polymers....

  14. A Study on Electrical Performances and Lifetime of a Flexible Electrochromic Textile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti Constance

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using their ability to change their color according to an external stimulation, chromic materials can be used to form a color-changing textile. Electrochromism, more particularly, is a colour change phenomenon caused by the application of an electrical potential. A flexible textile electrochromic device composed of four layers is presented. In order to improve the lifetime of this structure, the electrical performances of the electrolyte layer are studied. A method to measure and calculate the resistance variations of the electrolyte applied on a textile cotton substrate is given. Relations between the electrical performances of the electrolyte and the electrochromic effect of the device are also highlighted.

  15. Characteristics of laminated electrochromic devices using polyorganodisulfide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M.; Ma, Y.P.; He, Y.; Giron, J.C. (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Energy and Environment Div., Berkely, CA (United States)); Visco, S.J.; Doeff, M.M. (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-05-01

    The application of polyorganodisulfides as optically passive counter-electrodes in a variety of electrochromic smart glazing devices are discussed. Characteristic data is presented for electrochromic devices using proton, and lithium coloration ions with modified polyethylene oxide electrolyte and polydimercaptothiadiazole positive electrodes. Solid state devices consisting of molybdenum doped WO[sub 3], amorphous polyethylene oxide electrolyte (a-PEO), and a polyorganodisulfide counter-electrode colored rapidly from a pale yellow to a deep blue-green, upon application of 1.2 V DC. The photopic transmittance (T[sub p]) changes from 61 to 9%, and the solar transmittance (T[sub s]) changes from 45 to 5% during the coloration process. Also, our experiments with polyimidazole are detailed. This family of compounds due to its unique electrical and ion conduction properties allow a single composite ion storage and ion conductor electrode to be made, simplifying the device construction. Devices made from this family of compounds color to deep blue-gray upon application of 1.2-1.5 V DC. Bleaching occurs at -0.4 to -0.5 V DC. The photopic transmittance changed from 55 to 9%, and the solar transmittance from 34 to 4% during coloration. Both coloration and bleaching are quite rapid

  16. Characterization of MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films for electrochromic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, S. I.; Stefan, N.; Szilágyi, I. M.; Mihailescu, N.; Visan, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stan, G. E.; Besleaga, C.; Iliev, M. T.; Gesheva, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is a widely studied material for electrochromic applications. The structure, morphology and optical properties of WO3 thin films, grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from monoclinic WO3 nano-sized particles, were investigated for their possible application as electrochromic layers. A KrF* excimer (λ=248 nm, ζFWHM=25 ns) laser source was used in all experiments. The MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cyclic voltammetry measurements were also performed, and the coloring and bleaching were observed. The morpho-structural investigations disclosed the synthesis of single-phase monoclinic WO3 films consisting of crystalline nano-grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. All thin films showed good electrochromic properties, thus validating application of the MAPLE deposition technique for the further development of electrochromic devices.

  17. Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

    2014-02-04

    Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

  18. The thermal performance of an electrochromic vacuum glazing with selected low-emittance coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Yueping [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB, N. Ireland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: y.fang@ulster.ac.uk; Eames, Philip C. [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Hyde, Trevor; Huang Ye; Hewitt, Neil [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB, N. Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    An electrochromic (EC) vacuum glazing (VG) is formed when a vacuum glazing is combined with an electrochromic glazing. Three glass panes are required, two of which may have a low-emittance coating separated by a pillar array, the space formed being evacuated and sealed contiguously by a metal edge seal, the third glass pane with an EC layer is sealed to the evacuated glass unit. With the EC glazing installed with the electrochromic component facing the outdoor environment, for an incident solar radiation of 300 W m{sup -2}, when the EC layer is opaque for winter conditions, the inside glass pane of the unit due to solar radiation absorbed by the low-emittance coatings within the vacuum gap and electrochromic layer is a heat source with heat transferred from the glazing to the interior environment.

  19. Variable Emissivity Electrochromics Using Ionic Electrolytes and Low Solar Absorptance Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In recent work, this firm developed a highly promising, patented variable emittance technology based on electrochromic Conducting Polymers, with: (1) Thin (< 0.2...

  20. Manufacture and demonstration of organic photovoltaic-powered electrochromic displays using roll coating methods and printable electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Dam, Henrik Friis; Reynolds, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Electrochromic devices (ECDs) were prepared on flexible substrates using spray coating and slot-die coating methods. The electrochromic materials were the conjugated electroactive polymers, poly((2,2-bis(2-ethylhexyloxymethyl)-propylene-1,3-dioxy)-3,4-thiophene-2,5-diyl) as a vibrantly colored ac...

  1. Windows 10 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  2. Windows 10 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  3. Luminescent ion pairs with tunable emission colors for light-emitting devices and electrochromic switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song; Huang, Tianci; Liu, Shujuan; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Yang, Huiran; Han, Jianmei; Zhao, Qiang; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Most recently, stimuli-responsive luminescent materials have attracted increasing interest because they can exhibit tunable emissive properties which are sensitive to external physical stimuli, such as light, temperature, force, and electric field. Among these stimuli, electric field is an important external stimulus. However, examples of electrochromic luminescent materials that exhibit emission color change induced by an electric field are limited. Herein, we have proposed a new strategy to develop electrochromic luminescent materials based on luminescent ion pairs. Six tunable emissive ion pairs ( IP1-IP6 ) based on iridium(iii) complexes have been designed and synthesized. The emission spectra of ion pairs (IPs) show concentration dependence and the energy transfer process is very efficient between positive and negative ions. Interestingly, IP6 displayed white emission at a certain concentration in solution or solid state. Thus, in this contribution, UV-chip (365 nm) excited light-emitting diodes showing orange, light yellow and white emission colors were successfully fabricated. Furthermore, IPs displayed tunable and reversible electrochromic luminescence. For example, upon applying a voltage of 3 V onto the electrodes, the emission color of the solution of IP1 near the anode or cathode changed from yellow to red or green, respectively. Color tunable electrochromic luminescence has also been realized by using other IPs. Finally, a solid-film electrochromic switch device with a sandwiched structure using IP1 has been fabricated successfully, which exhibited fast and reversible emission color change.

  4. Window cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older types of window cleaners may contain: Ammonia Ethanol Isopropyl alcohol Methanol New types of window cleaners ... D, Hovda KE. Methanol, ethylene glycol, and other toxic alcohols. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, ...

  5. Optimization of PEDOT films in ionic liquid supercapacitors: demonstration as a power source for polymer electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österholm, Anna M; Shen, D Eric; Dyer, Aubrey L; Reynolds, John R

    2013-12-26

    We report on the optimization of the capacitive behavior of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films as polymeric electrodes in flexible, Type I electrochemical supercapacitors (ESCs) utilizing ionic liquid (IL) and organic gel electrolytes. The device performance was assessed based on figures of merit that are critical to evaluating the practical utility of electroactive polymer ESCs. PEDOT/IL devices were found to be highly stable over hundreds of thousands of cycles and could be reversibly charged/discharged at scan rates between 500 mV/s and 2 V/s depending on the polymer loading. Furthermore, these devices exhibit leakage currents and self-discharge rates that are comparable to state of the art electrochemical double-layer ESCs. Using an IL as device electrolyte allowed an extension of the voltage window of Type I ESCs by 60%, resulting in a 2.5-fold increase in the energy density obtained. The efficacies of tjese PEDOT ESCs were assessed by using them as a power source for a high-contrast and fast-switching electrochromic device, demonstrating their applicability in small organic electronic-based devices.

  6. Self-powered electrochromic display as an example for integrated modules in printed electronics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M.; Leyland, N.; Copeland, G.; Cassidy, M.

    2010-09-01

    The growing market for flexible electronics devices is asking for reduction of manufacturing process complexity. One way to reduce complexity is to decrease the number of single components of a device by using integrated modules, i.e. device components providing multiple functions. In this article, the concept of a self-powered electrochromic graphics display device is demonstrated. The device is based on a three electrode system comprising an electrochromic electrode, a battery anode and a battery cathode, all in contact with a common electrolyte. The electrochromic electrode can be charged and discharged directly when connected to either the anode or cathode. Such a self-powered display integrates the functions of both a display and a battery. As part of a flexible electronics device, a self-powered display would be able to power other components, such as driver electronics.

  7. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  8. Windows 7 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Get more done and have more fun with Windows 7 Windows 7 is loaded with features, tools, and shortcuts designedto make life easier for all users. This handy guide is sure to makeWindows as clear as can be. It helps you get started, use foldersand files, find handy gadgets, and search on your PC or online. Open the book and find: Ways to find photos, music, and video on your PCAdvice on jazzing up the Windows 7 interfaceReasons for making the switch to Windows 7Tools for staying organizedSteps for setting up your user accounts and passwords

  9. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  10. Low energy switching driver for printed electrochromic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Ciprian; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    This paper continues our investigations in relatively new developed printed electrochromic displays (ECDs). There are some advantages of ECDs that recommend them for specific low end and short time disposable display applications, for instance the ECD devices present low power consumption (they are non-emissive, reflective, i.e. passive) and have a good viewing angle, looking like ink on paper. It is to note that these displays are still in research, and partly present on the market. There are a lot of papers regarding the chemistry and electro-chemistry of the device, but very few about concrete schematics for driving these displays. Due to their low penetration in applications, and due to lack of standardization, there are not yet realized custom drivers in form of integrated circuits. The driving of these circuits is not at all so simple. These are very sensitive devices in what it concerns exceeding the drive pulse duration and voltage level. In order to take full advantage of the low power consumption of this device, a good driver circuitry needs to be realized also in the "low power" class. We propose in this paper an original driving circuit, that has very low consumption and that can be even supplied by a supercapacitor or by a printed battery. The whole structure can be further integrated as a system on foil.

  11. Electro-chromic device with GZO as a conductive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chih-Chao; Tang, Chien-Jen; Lee, Kun-Hsien; Jaing, Cheng-Chung; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2010-08-01

    Thin films of tungsten oxide (WO3) were deposited on GZO-coated B270 glass substrates and thin films of Ta2O5 were deposited on B270 glass substrates by electron beam gun evaporation at high vacuum pressure of 3×10-5 Torr and varied oxygen pressures ranging from 1.0×10-4 to 6.0×10-4 Torr. The optical properties of the electro-chromic (EC) film were measured by a spectrophotometer. The optical modulation (ΔT) of the tungsten oxide thin film deposited at an oxygen pressure of 1.0×10-4 Torr was found to be ΔT = 67.46% at λ=550nm. The optimum optical properties for deposition of Ta2O5 were attained at an oxygen pressure of 4x10-4 Torr. Gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) was used as a conductive layer instead of ITO. A five layer EC device (Glass/GZO/WO3/Ta2O5/NiO/Al) has been design and fabricated.

  12. Daylight Redirecting Window Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    consisted of inwardly opening casement windows, and the bottom 2’ x 4’ section non-operable, both with clear, double pane glass. The portion of...occasionally closed to block direct sunlight. The casement windows were not actively used in the library. About two months after the DRF was installed...were active users of the casement windows, especially during the summer months. Installation of horizontal blinds would have prevented them from

  13. Programming Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Learn the nuts and bolts of cloud computing with Windows Azure, Microsoft's new Internet services platform. Written by a key member of the product development team, this book shows you how to build, deploy, host, and manage applications using Windows Azure's programming model and essential storage services. Chapters in Programming Windows Azure are organized to reflect the platform's buffet of services. The book's first half focuses on how to write and host application code on Windows Azure, while the second half explains all of the options you have for storing and accessing data on the plat

  14. Windows Server 2008 -infrastruktuuri

    OpenAIRE

    Sundgren, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Tämä työ käsittelee Windows 2008 -verkkoinfrastrukstuuri-kurssin materiaalin suunnittelua ja testausta. Työ toteutettiin Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoululle keväällä 2010. Työn alussa esitellään työssä käytetty virtuaalisointiohjelmisto ja toiminta, sekä Windows Server 2008:n ominaisuuksia. Työssä käydään läpi virtuaaliympäristön luonti sekä Win-dows Server 2008 -palvelinten konfigurointia. Konfigurointi tapahtuu Windows Server 2008 infrastructure -materaalin harjoitustöiden pohjalta. Työssä...

  15. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  16. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  17. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  18. Windows 8 tweaks

    CERN Document Server

    Sinchak, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Acres of Windows 8 tweaks from a Microsoft MVP and creator of Tweaks.com! From a Microsoft MVP, who is also the savvy creator of Tweaks.com, comes this ultimate collection of Windows 8 workarounds. Steve Sinchak takes you way beyond default system settings, deep under the hood of Windows 8, down to the hidden gems that let you customize your Windows 8 system like you wouldn't believe. From helping you customize the appearance to setting up home networking, sharing media, and squeezing every ounce of performance out of the OS, this book delivers. Get ready to rock and roll with Wind

  19. Conductive transition metal oxide nanostructured electrochromic material and optical switching devices constructed thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Tracy M.; Koo, Bonil; Garcia, Guillermo; Milliron, Delia J.; Trizio, Luca De; Dahlman, Clayton

    2017-10-10

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant, a solid state electrolyte, and a counter electrode. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) spectrum and visible spectrum radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  20. Ultra fast electrochromic switching of nanoporous tungsten-tantalum oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgeorg, Robin; Berger, Steffen; Schmuki, Patrik

    2011-01-21

    Self-organized nanoporous oxide layers were grown on a W-Ta alloy by electrochemical anodization. These nanostructured mixed oxide layers show an ultra-fast electrochromic switching kinetics. Compared with porous WO(3) nanostructures more than 10 times higher switching frequencies are reached along with a significantly enhanced lifetime and cyclability.

  1. Giant dendritic molecular electrochrome batteries with ferrocenyl and pentamethylferrocenyl termini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Catia; Ruiz, Jaime; Belin, Colette; Astruc, Didier

    2009-01-21

    Giant redox dendrimers were synthesized with ferrocenyl and pentamethylferrocenyl termini up to a theoretical number of 3(9) tethers (seventh generation). Lengthening of the tethers proved to be a reliable strategy to overcome the bulk constraint at the dendrimers periphery. These redox metallodendrimers were characterized by (1)H, (13)C, and (29)Si NMR; MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (for the low generations); elemental analysis; UV-vis spectroscopy; dynamic light scattering (DLS); atomic force microscopy (AFM); electron-force microscopy (EFM) for half- or fully oxidized dendrimers; cyclic voltammetry; and coulometry. UV-vis spectroscopy, coulometry, and analytical data are consistent with an increasing amount of defects as the generation number increases, with this amount remaining relatively weak up to G(5). AFM shows that the dendrimers form aggregates of discrete size on the mica surface, recalling the agglomeration of metal atoms in monodisperse nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry reveals full chemical and electrochemical reversibility up to G(7), showing that electron transfer is fast among the flexible peripheral redox sites. Indeed, the redox stability of these new electrochromic dendrimers, i.e., a battery behavior, was established by complete chemical oxido-reduction cycles, and the blue 17-electron ferrocenium and deep-green mixed-valence Fe(III)/Fe(II) dendritic complexes were isolated and characterized. AFM studies also show the reversible dendrimer size changes from upon redox switching between Fe(II) and Fe(III), suggesting a breathing mechanism controlled by the redox potential. Considerable adsorption of high-generation dendrimers on Pt electrodes such as G(7)-Fc allows the easy formation of modified electrodes that sense the ATP anion only involving the electrostatic factor even in the absence of any other type of interaction with the redox tethers.

  2. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of electrochromic hydrated nickel oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, P.C.; Nazri, G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1986-07-01

    The electrochromic properties of hydrated nickel oxide thin films electrochemically deposited by anodization onto doped tin oxide-coated glass have been studied by transmittance measurements, cyclic voltammetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and ion-backscattering spectrometry. The spectral transmittance is reported for films switched in both the bleached and colored states. The photopic transmittance (T/sub p/) can be switched from T/sub p/(bleached) = 0.77 to T/sub p/(colored) = 0.21, and the solar transmittance (T/sub S/) can be switched from T/sub S/(bleached) = 0.73 to T/sub S/(colored = 0.35. Also reported is the near-infrared transmittance (T/sub NIR/), which was found to switch from T/sub NIR/(bleached) = 0.72 to T/sub NIR/(colored) = 0.55 for a film thickness of 500 A. The bleached condition is noted to have very low solar absorption in both the visible and solar regions. Ion-backscattering spectrometry was performed on the hydrated nickel oxide film, yielding a composition of NiO/sub 1.0/ (dehydrated). Cyclic voltammetry showed that, for films in the bleached or colored state, the reversible reaction is Ni(OH)/sub 2/ ..-->.. NiOOH + H/sup +/ + e/sup -/. Voltammetry also showed that the switching of the film is controlled by the diffusion of protons, where OH/sup -/ plays a role in the reaction mechanism. Analysis of the hydrated nickel-oxide thin films by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that both the bleached and colored states contain lattice water and hydroxyl groups. The surface hydroxyl groups play an important role in the coloration and bleaching of the anodically deposited nickel oxide thin films.

  3. Synthesis and Performance of Highly Stable Star-Shaped Polyaniline Electrochromic Materials with Triphenylamine Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shanxin; Li, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Xiangkai; Wang, Ru; Zhang, Runlan; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wu, Bohua; Gong, Ming; Chu, Jia

    2018-02-01

    The molecular architecture of conducting polymers has a significant impact on their conjugated structure and electrochemical properties. We have investigated the influence of star-shaped structure on the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of polyaniline (PANI). Star-shaped PANI (SPANI) was prepared by copolymerization of aniline with triphenylamine (TPA) using an emulsion polymerization method. With addition of less than 4.0 mol.% TPA, the resulting SPANI exhibited good solubility in xylene with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as doping acid. The structure and thermal stability of the SPANI were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, and the electrochemical behavior was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrochromic properties of SPANI were tested using an electrochemical workstation combined with an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The results show that, with increasing TPA loading, the thermal stability of SPANI increased. With addition of 4.0 mol.% TPA, the weight loss of SPANI was 36.9% at 700°C, much lower than the value of 71.2% for PANI at the same temperature. The low oxidation potential and large enclosed area of the CV curves indicate that SPANI possesses higher electrochemical activity than PANI. Enhanced electrochromic properties including higher optical contrast and better electrochromic stability of SPANI were also obtained. SPANI with 1.6 mol.% TPA loading exhibited the highest optical contrast of 0.71, higher than the values of 0.58 for PANI, 0.66 for SPANI-0.4%, or 0.63 for SPANI-4.0%. Overdosing of TPA resulted in slow switching speed due to slow ion transport in short branched chains of star-shaped PANI electrochromic material. Long-term stability testing confirmed that all the SPANI-based devices exhibited better stability than the PANI-based device.

  4. Synthesis and Performance of Highly Stable Star-Shaped Polyaniline Electrochromic Materials with Triphenylamine Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shanxin; Li, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Xiangkai; Wang, Ru; Zhang, Runlan; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wu, Bohua; Gong, Ming; Chu, Jia

    2017-11-01

    The molecular architecture of conducting polymers has a significant impact on their conjugated structure and electrochemical properties. We have investigated the influence of star-shaped structure on the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of polyaniline (PANI). Star-shaped PANI (SPANI) was prepared by copolymerization of aniline with triphenylamine (TPA) using an emulsion polymerization method. With addition of less than 4.0 mol.% TPA, the resulting SPANI exhibited good solubility in xylene with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as doping acid. The structure and thermal stability of the SPANI were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, and the electrochemical behavior was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrochromic properties of SPANI were tested using an electrochemical workstation combined with an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The results show that, with increasing TPA loading, the thermal stability of SPANI increased. With addition of 4.0 mol.% TPA, the weight loss of SPANI was 36.9% at 700°C, much lower than the value of 71.2% for PANI at the same temperature. The low oxidation potential and large enclosed area of the CV curves indicate that SPANI possesses higher electrochemical activity than PANI. Enhanced electrochromic properties including higher optical contrast and better electrochromic stability of SPANI were also obtained. SPANI with 1.6 mol.% TPA loading exhibited the highest optical contrast of 0.71, higher than the values of 0.58 for PANI, 0.66 for SPANI-0.4%, or 0.63 for SPANI-4.0%. Overdosing of TPA resulted in slow switching speed due to slow ion transport in short branched chains of star-shaped PANI electrochromic material. Long-term stability testing confirmed that all the SPANI-based devices exhibited better stability than the PANI-based device.

  5. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian D' Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents

  6. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  7. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    ) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security...

  8. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  9. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  10. Equipment-Free Deposition of Graphene-Based Molybdenum Oxide Nanohybrid Langmuir-Blodgett Films for Flexible Electrochromic Panel Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haojie; Jeon, Ki-Wan; Seo, Dong-Kyun

    2016-08-24

    The potential electrochromic application of graphene-based nanohybrids is hampered by the challenges in interfacing the electrochromic nanoparticles with graphene at atomic scale and in fabricating their thin film on the substrate through a scalable method. In an effort to overcome these challenges, we demonstrate a highly dispersible graphene-based molybdenum oxide nanohybrid (mRGO-MoO3-x) for flexible electrochromic application. With only a squeeze pipet, mRGO-MoO3-x could be deposited with a high coverage on various substrates through a scalable equipment-free Langmuir-Blodgett film deposition method. By taking advantage of high transmittance benefited from its remarkable thinness, the mRGO-MoO3-x Langmuir-Blodgett film shows a superior reversible electrochromic property with high coloration efficiency on both hard and flexible substrates.

  11. Zero Energy Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-05-17

    Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

  12. Galvanostatic Rejuvenation of Electrochromic WO3 Thin Films: Ion Trapping and Detrapping Observed by Optical Measurements and by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloukas, Bill; Arvizu, Miguel A; Wen, Rui-Tao; Niklasson, Gunnar A; Granqvist, Claes G; Vernhes, Richard; Klemberg-Sapieha, Jolanta E; Martinu, Ludvik

    2017-05-24

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to decrease our energy footprint while enhancing indoor comfort and convenience. However, the limited durability of these windows, as well as their cost, result in hampered market introduction. Here, we investigate thin films of the most widely studied EC material, WO3. Specifically, we combine optical measurements (using spectrophotometry in conjunction with variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry) with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. Data were taken on films in their as-deposited state, after immersion in a Li-ion-conducting electrolyte, after severe degradation by harsh voltammetric cycling and after galvanostatic rejuvenation to regain the original EC performance. Unambiguous evidence was found for the trapping and detrapping of Li ions in the films, along with a thickness increase or decrease during degradation and rejuvenation, respectively. It was discovered that (i) the trapped ions exhibited a depth gradient; (ii) following the rejuvenation procedure, a small fraction of the Li ions remained trapped in the film and gave rise to a weak short-wavelength residual absorption; and (iii) the surface roughness of the film was larger in the degraded state than in its virgin and rejuvenated states. These data provide important insights into the degradation mechanisms of EC devices and into means of achieving improved durability.

  13. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  14. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto

    1996-01-01

    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  15. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  16. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  17. Windows 8 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 360,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. This guide goes straight to the point with easy-to-follow, two-page tutorials for each task. With full-color screen shots and step-by-step directions, it gets beginners up and running on the newest version of Windows right away. Learn to work with the new interface and improved Internet Explorer, manage files, share your computer, and much more. Perfect fo

  18. Window prototype investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    In case of highly insulating glazings the frame construction becomes the thermally weak part of the construction. The heat flow in window frames are analysed and based on the results a thermally improved frame construction is described....

  19. SAF for Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Timme

    2001-01-01

    SAF for Windows er et computerprogram til parametrisk konstruktion af translationsskaller. Skaloverfladernes tredimensionelle, facetterede form fremkommer ved en kombination af to todimensionelle formbestemmende kurver, som kan vælges og redigeres af brugeren. Programmet kan udfolde de genererede...

  20. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  1. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  2. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  3. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  4. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  5. A Complementary Type of Electrochromic Device by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Lutfi; Kiristi, Melek; Bozduman, Ferhat; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2014-10-01

    Electrochromic (EC) devices can change their optical properties reversibly in the visible region (400-800 nm) upon charge insertion/extraction reactions according to the applied voltage. A complementary type of EC device composes of two electrochromic layers, which is separated by an ionic conduction layer (electrolyte). In this work, the EC device was fabricated using vanadium oxide (V2O5) and titanium doped tungsten oxide (WO3-TiO2) electrodes. The EC electrodes were deposited as thin film structures by a reactive RF magnetron sputtering system in a medium of gas mixture of argon and oxygen. surface morphology of the films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Electrochemical property and durability of the EC device was investigated by a potentiostat system. Optical measurement was examined under applied voltages of +/- 2.5 V by a computer-controlled system, constantly.

  6. Properties of electrochromic nickel-vanadium oxide films sputter-deposited from nonmagnetic alloy target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano, Esteban; Azens, Andris; Niklasson, Gunnar A.

    2001-11-01

    In this study we investigate the structure, composition, diffusion coefficient, and electrochromic properties of nickel-vanadium oxide films as a function of deposition conditions. Polycrystalline films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering from a nonmagnetic target of Ni0.93V0.07 in an atmosphere of O2/Ar and Ar/O2/H2, with the gas flow ratios varied systematically to cover the range from nearly-metallic to overoxidized films. The results contradict the usual view that films deposited in O2/Ar are dark brown in their as-deposited state. While such films can easily be deposited, the optimum electrochromic properties have been observed at O2/Ar ratios giving nearly transparent films. Addition of hydrogen to the sputtering atmosphere improved cycling stability of the films. The diffusion coefficient has been determined by the Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT).

  7. Preparation, Characterization, and Electrochromic Properties of Nanocellulose-Based Polyaniline Nanocomposite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sihang; Sun, Gang; He, Yongfeng; Fu, Runfang; Gu, Yingchun; Chen, Sheng

    2017-05-17

    On the basis of nanocellulose obtained by acidic swelling and ultrasonication, rodlike nanocellulose/polyaniline nanocomposites with a core-shell structure have been prepared via in situ polymerization. Compared to pure polyaniline, the nanocomposites show superior film-forming properties, and the prepared nanocomposite films demonstrate excellent electrochemical and electrochromic properties in electrolyte solution. Nanocomposite films, especially the one prepared with 40% polyaniline coated nanocomposite, exhibited faster response time (1.5 s for bleaching and 1.0 s for coloring), higher optical contrast (62.9%), higher coloration efficiency (206.2 cm(2)/C), and more remarkable switching stability (over 500 cycles). These novel nanocellulose-based nanorod network films are promising novel electrochromic materials with excellent properties.

  8. Lanthanide doped ceria thin films as possible counter electrode materials in electrochromic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hartridge, A

    2000-01-01

    suitability of these thin films as counter electrodes in electrochromic devices. The final chapter then turns to the electrochemical insertion of lithium into these materials using cyclic voltammetry. All films studied enabled the reversible insertion of lithium with varying potentials and charge capacities without the loss of transmission of light common to other potential counter electrode materials. Certain compositions however, comprising ceria doped with Dy, Y, Nd and Pr, allowed enough lithium insertion (charge capacity) to fulfil the requirements of counter electrode materials in electrochromic devices. These materials are therefore worthy of further study. Crystalline solid solutions of lanthanide doped ceria have long been known for their high ionic conductivity and as such have found applications as oxygen sensors and in solid oxide fuel cells. With advances in preparative techniques over the years, thin films of ceria doped with zirconia and titania have been studied and found to possess the necess...

  9. On-chip electrochromic micro display for a disposable bio-sensor chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanjun; Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports an on-chip electrochromic micro display made of polyaniline (PANi) which can be easily made on a CMOS chip. Micro-patterned PANi thin films were selectively deposited on pre-patterned microelectrodes by using electrodeposition. The optimum conditions for deposition and electrochromism were investigated. An 8-pixel on-chip micro display was made on a Si chip. The color of each PANi film could be independently but simultaneously controlled, which means any 1-byte digital data could be displayed on the display. The PANi display had a response time as fast as about 100 ms, which means the transfer data rate was as fast as 80 bits per second.

  10. Influence of electrolyte distribution in PEDOT:PSS based flexible electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavim, Anderson E. X.; Santos, Gustavo H.; de Souza, Edgar H.; Rodrigues, Paula C.; Floriano, João B.; Kamikawachi, Ricardo C.; de Deus, Jeferson F.; Macedo, Andreia G.

    2017-12-01

    Two flexible electrochromic devices based on PEDOT:PSS were prepared by roll-to-roll method, these devices were built with the conventional layered geometry or using PEO:LiClO4 and charge balancing material mixed at the same layer. Analysis of the properties leads to the conclusion that the presence of the percolation channels of PEDOT:PSS inside the PEO/LiClO4 results in the performance improvement as monitored by impedance spectroscopy and the respective Randles equivalent circuits. From mixed electrochromic layer, ηd increases up to 834 C-1 cm2 after 1.5 s of switch time, while the corresponding layered device showed ηd of 472 C-1 cm2 at the same time interval.

  11. Electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured Ti:WO3 thin films grown by sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karuppasamy, A., E-mail: karuppasamy@psnacet.edu.in

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dendrite structured Ti doped WO{sub 3} (WTO) thin films are grown by co-sputtering. • Sputtering condition influences structure and surface morphology of WTO films. • Titanium doping and annealing lead to dendritic surface structures in WTO films. • Structural, optical, electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of WTO films. • Enhanced electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured WTO thin films. - Abstract: Titanium doped tungsten oxide (Ti:WO{sub 3}) thin films with dendrite surface structures were grown by co-sputtering titanium and tungsten in Ar + O{sub 2} atmosphere. Ti:WO{sub 3} thin films were deposited at oxygen flow rates corresponding to pressures in the range 1.0 × 10{sup −3}–5.0 × 10{sup −3} mbar. Argon flow rate and sputtering power densities for titanium (2 W/cm{sup 2}) and tungsten (3 W/cm{sup 2}) were kept constant. Ti:WO{sub 3} films deposited at an oxygen pressure of 5 × 10{sup −3} mbar are found to be better electrochromic and photocatalytic. They have high optical modulation (80% at λ = 550 nm), coloration efficiency (60 cm{sup 2}/C at λ = 550 nm), electron/ion storage and removal capacity (Qc: −22.01 mC/cm{sup 2}, Qa: 17.72 mC/cm{sup 2}), reversibility (80%) and methylene blue decomposition rate (−1.38 μmol/l d). The combined effects of titanium doping, dendrite surface structures and porosity leads to significant enhancement in the electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of Ti:WO{sub 3} films.

  12. Effect of modified ITO substrate on electrochromic properties of polyaniline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Silva, U.; Nicho, M.E.; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEMor, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hu, Hailin [Departamento de Materiales Solares, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Av. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, 62580, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-09-22

    In this work, we report the morphological and electrochromic properties of electrochemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) thin films on bare and modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates. In the last case, the surface of ITO glass was covered by a self-assembled monolayer of N-phenyl-{gamma}-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (PAPTS). Atomic force microscopy images and perfilometry show that smoother and thinner PANI films were grown on PAPTS-modified ITO substrates. PANI-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) were assembled by using a viscous polymeric electrolyte (PE) of LiClO{sub 4} and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) co-dissolved in a mixture of propylene and ethylene carbonate. The architectural design of the devices was glass/ITO/PANI/PE/ITO/glass. A dual ECD was also prepared by collocating a poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MT) thin film as a complementary electrochromic element. The effect of the PAPTS-modified ITO substrate is reflected in a higher optical transmittance at bleach state and a little less color change at 550 nm of PANI-based ECDs. (author)

  13. Control of disability glare by means of electrochromic filtering glasses: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Coco-Martín

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the potential clinical usability of a new prototype of ophthalmic blue light filters developed by using electrochromic technology in pseudophakic patients complaining of glare. Methods: A prototype of electrochromic device was developed, with a specific frame that enclosed an electronic driver that allowed personalizing its function for each patient. A prospective, observational case series study was performed to test it. Five patients who had undergone cataract surgery with clear intraocular lenses and complaining of glare were included in the study. Main outcome measures were the results obtained in the satisfaction questionnaire that was delivered to patients. Then, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and reading ability data were evaluated with and without the prototype under different lighting conditions and different modes of the prototype after a complete month of use. Lens transmittance was also measured. Results: Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and reading function did not change significantly with prototype use. The main activity for which the prototype was used was walking. Only one patient found that the dimming level was insufficient. No patients reported variable discomfort when passing tunnels, not sufficiently clear indoors, or put on and remove discomfort. The lenses slightly decreased their transmittance at the end of the study. Conclusion: Glasses based on electrochromic technology may be acceptable for outdoor/indoor use and for distance–near vision. Future studies with larger samples must be conducted to confirm the clinical usability of these glasses.

  14. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  15. The Luminaire Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    they are seldom considered in a holistic lighting design. Natural daylight is not always sufficient - for instance on an overcast day, or on winter days. This paper explores a new universal design approach for supplementing the qualities of natural dynamic light by boosting the daylight with dynamic LED light...... integrated into the window. A qualitative experiment is carried out by integrating controllable LED in the frame of a façade window in a full-scale mock-up. It is examined how this set-up can support the colour spectrum and intensity of the daylight intake during the transmission time from daylight...... to darkness. The findings illustrate that a “luminaire window” has potentials of supporting circadian rhythm, stimulate peoples natural need for contact with nature and at the same time enhance the architectural potentials by using the window as the main (daylight and electrical) light source to create...

  16. Windows 8.1 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, Jim; Tidrow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Windows 8.1 coverage that goes above and beyond all competitors? Serving as an evolutionary update to Windows 8, Windows 8.1 provides critical changes to parts of Windows 8, such as greater customization of the interface and boot operations, return of a 'start button' that reveals apps, greater integration between the two interfaces, and updates to apps. Weighing in at nearly 1000 pages, Windows 8.1 Bible provides deeper Windows insight than any other book on the market. It's valuable for both professionals needing a guide to the nooks and crannies of Windows and regular users wanting a wide

  17. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  18. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  19. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  20. Window Performance in Extreme Cold,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Casement windows-windows with sashes hinged on ATID difference between the indoor ambient and the side. indoor dewpoint temperatures ATIo difference...did. Installed casement windows (at 0.23 ft 3/ PREVIOUS WORK IN COLD min ft) were the only type of window with airtight- WEATHER WINDOW PERFORMANCE...to calculate air leakage hung sash unit to a casement or possibly adding another with no wind and with double the mean wind as latch to the casement

  1. Achieving rapid Li-ion insertion kinetics in TiO2 mesoporous nanotube arrays for bifunctional high-rate energy storage smart windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhongqiu; Liu, Shikun; Li, Xingang; Mai, Liqiang; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2018-01-31

    Smart electrochromic windows integrated with electrochemical energy storage capacity are receiving increasing interest for green buildings. However, the fabrication of bifunctional devices that demonstrate high-rate capability with stable and desirable optical modulation still remains a great challenge. Herein, a facile sacrificial template-accelerated hydrolysis approach is presented to prepare a designed lithium-ion insertion-type material layer on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate, with TiO2 mesoporous nanotube array (MNTA) film as an example, with rapid Li-ion insertion kinetics and without sacrificing window transparency, to meet requirements. A bifunctional device is assembled to exhibit the optical-electrochemical superiority of MNTA nanostructures. The as-assembled bifunctional smart window exhibits strong electrochromic contrast and high-rate capability in the fast galvanostatic charge/discharge process. For instance, at 1 A g-1, it completes the charge or discharge process within only 232 s and delivers a high, reversible and stable specific capacity of 60 mA h g-1, accompanying obvious transmittance modulation in the visible spectrum, with a typical value of ca. 30.4% at 700 nm, and strong color changes between deep blue and transparency.

  2. Windows and lighting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  3. Opening the Literature Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  4. Windows to Art Excitement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)

  5. Regularity of Dual Gabor Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Christensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a construction of dual windows associated with Gabor frames with compactly supported windows. The size of the support of the dual windows is comparable to that of the given window. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exist dual windows with higher regularity than the canonical dual window. On the other hand, there are cases where no differentiable dual window exists, even in the overcomplete case. As a special case of our results, we show that there exists a common smooth dual window for an interesting class of Gabor frames. In particular, for any value of K∈ℕ, there is a smooth function h which simultaneously is a dual window for all B-spline generated Gabor frames {EmbTnBN(x/2}m,n∈ℕ for B-splines BN of order N=1,…,2K+1 with a fixed and sufficiently small value of b.

  6. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained results......Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls...

  7. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  8. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    performance of windows can be reached by development of each element of the window, but to gain a considerable improvement in the overall energy performance all elements of the windows need to be examined together and the construction optimised. This paper describes potential improvements of window elements......Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...

  9. Sparse window local stereo matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damjanovic, S.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new local algorithm for dense stereo matching of gray images. This algorithm is a hybrid of the pixel based and the window based matching approach; it uses a subset of pixels from the large window for matching. Our algorithm does not suffer from the common pitfalls of the window based

  10. Electrochromic devices based on wide band-gap nanocrystalline semiconductors functionalized with mononuclear charge transfer compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, M.; Argazzi, R.; Bignozzi, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    A series of ruthenium and iron mononuclear complexes were prepared and their spectroeletrochemical behavior characterized oil Optically Transparent Thin Layer Electrodes (OTTLE) and on Fluorine Doped SnO2 (FTO) conductive glasses coated with Sb-doped nanocrystalline SnO2. These systems display...... a reversible electrochemical response and offer potential application in electrochromic devices. On SnO2 films distinct spectral changes are observed in a narrow potential range (-0.5/0.9 V vs SCE) with switching times of the order of 0.8 s. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Electrochromism: basis and application of nanomaterials in development of high performance electrodes; Eletrocromismo: fundamentos e a aplicacao de nanomateriais no desenvolvimento de eletrodos de alto desempenho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilha, Ronaldo C.; Rocha, Igor; Vichessi, Raquel B.; Lucht, Emili; Naidek, Karine; Winnischofer, Herbert; Vidotti, Marcio, E-mail: mvidotti@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    This review deals with the basis and novel trends in electrochromism, describing the basic aspects and methodologies employed for the construction and analyses of different modified electrodes. The work presents the classic materials used for the construction of electrochromic electrodes, such as WO{sub 3} and a view on the basic concepts of chromaticity as a useful approach for analyzing colorimetric results. The report also addresses how the incorporation of nanomaterials and the consequent novel modification of electrodes have furthered this area of science, producing electrochromic electrodes with high performance, high efficiency and low response times. (author)

  12. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  13. Windows Home Server users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edney, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  14. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...

  15. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  16. Windows on animal minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  17. Windows Azure web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  18. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  19. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  20. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  1. Semiconductor/solid electrolyte junctions for optical information storage. Solid-state electrochromic cell using lutecium diphthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammells, A. F.; Pujare, N. U.

    1986-01-01

    The overall program goal is to perform a basic investigation of photoelectrochemical and electrochemical effects by electrochromic materials in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) containing solid-state cells. Initial investigations have been directed towards reversible electrochromic behavior at the interface between lutecium diphthalocyanine deposited onto electronically conducting glass, and the homopolymer poly-2-acrylamido -2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (poly(Amps)). We wish to report here some recent work on solid-state electrochromic cells in which ionic mediation to thin-film deposits of lutecium diphthalocyanine is via the homopolymer poly-2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (poly-Amps). Separation between the working (LuH(Pc)2 deposited onto SnO2 conducting glass) and counter (CeCl3 in poly (Amps)) electrodes in these solid-state cells was realized by the use of the insoluble copolymer perfluorosulfonic acid (Nafion). Solid-state electrochromic cells were prepared using the supporting electrolytes (SEs) 0.1M Na2SO4 and 0.1M KCl. Upon subjecting the cell to anodic and cathodic voltage scans, up to four distinct color changes were observed varying from red (at anodic potentials) to violet (at cathodic potentials). Formation of the violet lutecium diphthalocyanine reduction product was not found contingent upon the absence of alkali cations as reported by others.

  2. WO3∕SiO2 composite optical films for the fabrication of electrochromic interference filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloukas, Bill; Martinu, Ludvik

    2012-06-01

    New security devices based on innovative technologies and ideas are essential in order to limit counterfeiting's profound impact on our economy and society. Interference security image structures have been in circulation for more than 20 years, but commercially available iridescent products now represent a potential threat. Therefore, the introduction of active materials, such as electrochromic WO3, to present-day optical security devices offers interesting possibilities. We have previously proposed electrochromic interference filters based on porous and dense WO3, which possessed an angle-dependent and voltage-driven color shift. However, the low index contrast required filters with a high number of layers. In this article, we increase the index contrast (0.61) by mixing WO3 with SiO2 and study the physical and electrochromic properties of mixtures. We next combine high and low index films in tandem configurations to observe the bleaching/coloration dynamics. To account for the film performance, we propose a simple explanation based on the differences in electron diffusion coefficients. An 11 layer electrochromic interference filter (EIF) based on the alternation of pure WO3 and (WO3)0.17(SiO2)0.83 films with a blue to purple angular color shift is then presented. Finally, we discuss possible applications of these EIFs for security.

  3. Optical detection of ion diffusion in electrochromic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene film using microcantilever electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Rong; Stokbro, Kurt; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    We present measurements of microscale electrochromic switching of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene doped with poly(4-styrene sulfonate), thin film using microfabricated multi-point probe electrodes. After treatment with a dilute hydrochloric acid, a voltage bias above 3 V with respect to the ground...

  4. Electrochromic and electrochemical capacitive properties of tungsten oxide and its polyaniline nanocomposite films obtained by chemical bath deposition method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nwanya, AC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available -tiple colors (electrochromism) during the CV scans, from brownish green to transparent to light greenthen back to brownish green. Surprisingly, the integration of the PANI with the WO3led to synergisticperformance of nanohybrid wherein a true electrochemical...

  5. Windows on the axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  7. Preparation and characterization, stable bismaleimide-triarylamine polymers with reversible electrochromic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyang; Niu, Haijun; Ji, Yan; Wu, Wenjun; Cai, Jiwei; Wang, Cheng; Lian, Yongfu; Bai, Xuduo; Wang, Wen

    2013-07-01

    A series of novel polyimides were synthesized from bismaleimide containing different diaminetriarylamines by Michael addition reaction. The prepolymer is readily soluble in many common organic solvents, such as CHCl3, Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF). Prepolymers can be solution-cast into transparent, tough, and flexible films. These aromatic polyimides display good thermal stabilities, i.e. 5% weight-loss temperatures in excess of 200 °C under nitrogen. All obtained polyimides revealed excellent stability of electrochromic characteristics, changing color from original yellowish to green. The energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels of the investigated the polymers were estimated by experimental method are in the range of -4.78 eV to -4.98 eV and -1.64 eV to -2.09 eV vs the vacuum level, respectively. All the polymer films reveal good electrochemical and electrochromic stability under repeatedly switching electrode voltages, with coloration change from the yellow neutral state to green oxidized state.

  8. A skin-integrated transparent and stretchable strain sensor with interactive color-changing electrochromic displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heun; Kim, Dong Sik; Hong, Soo Yeong; Kim, Chulmin; Yun, Jun Yeong; Oh, Seung Yun; Jin, Sang Woo; Jeong, Yu Ra; Kim, Gyu Tae; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2017-06-08

    In this study, we report on the development of a stretchable, transparent, and skin-attachable strain sensor integrated with a flexible electrochromic device as a human skin-inspired interactive color-changing system. The strain sensor consists of a spin-coated conductive nanocomposite film of poly(vinyl alcohol)/multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) on a polydimethylsiloxane substrate. The sensor exhibits excellent performance of high sensitivity, high durability, fast response, and high transparency. An electrochromic device (ECD) made of electrochemically synthesized polyaniline nanofibers and V2O5 on an indium-tin-oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate film experiences a change in color from yellow to dark blue on application of voltage. The strain sensor and ECD are integrated on skin via an Arduino circuit for an interactive color change with the variation of the applied strain, which enables a real-time visual display of body motion. This integrated system demonstrates high potential for use in interactive wearable devices, military applications, and smart robots.

  9. Synthesis of derivatives of polythiophene and their application in an electrochromic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicho, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62210 (Mexico); Hu, Hailin; Lopez-Mata, C. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Av. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Escalante, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62210 (Mexico)

    2004-05-01

    Poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MT) and poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) are conducting polymers with interesting optoelectronic properties and a wide variety of optoelectronic applications. In this work, 3-octylthiophene was synthesized through a Grignard reactive and was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The morphology of electrosynthesized P3OT and P3MT thin films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and different film morphologies were found for different electrodeposition technique and the solution temperature. Optical absorbance spectra of the two types of films confirm the bipolaron band structure and a starting {pi}-{pi}{sup *} interband transition around 2eV. Electrochromic performance of the polymers with both liquid and polymeric electrolytes showed a high switch potential for P3OT that for P3MT films. The kinetic optical response of a P3MT electrochromic device shows a good color contrast and a capacitive current characteristic under a square electrical potential.

  10. Design of Hybrid Electrochromic Materials with Large Electrical Modulation of Plasmonic Resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledin, Petr A; Jeon, Ju-Won; Geldmeier, Jeffrey A; Ponder, James F; Mahmoud, Mahmoud A; El-Sayed, Mostafa; Reynolds, John R; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2016-05-25

    We present a rational approach to fabricating plasmonically active hybrid polymer-metal nanomaterials with electrochemical tunability of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of noble metal nanostructures embedded in an electroactive polymer matrix. The key requirement for being able to significantly modulate the LSPR band position is a close overlap between the refractive index change [Δn(λ)] of a stimuli-responsive polymeric matrix and the intrinsic LSPR bands. For this purpose, gold nanorods with a controlled aspect ratio, synthesized to provide high refractive index sensitivity while maintaining good oxidative stability, were combined with a solution-processable electroactive and electrochromic polymer (ECP): alkoxy-substituted poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) [PProDOT(CH2OEtHx)2]. Spectral characteristics of the ECP, in particular the Δn(λ) variation, were evaluated as the material was switched between oxidized and reduced states. We fabricated ultrathin plasmonic electrochromic hybrid films consisting of gold nanorods and ECP that exhibited a large, stable, and reversible LSPR modulation of up to 25-30 nm with an applied electrical potential. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations confirm a good match between the experimentally measured refractive index change in the ECP and the plasmonic response during electrochemical modulations.

  11. Electrochromic thin films from a redox active diarylethene by electrochemical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Chijung; Seo, Seogjae; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2010-10-01

    A diarylethene substituted with 3,4-(propane-1,3-diyldioxy)thiophene (ProDOT) was synthesized to induce electrochemical deposition of diarylethenes. The ProDOT substituted diarylethene (BTFPP) showed reversible photochromism from colorless to purple upon exposure to a UV light and bleached to colorless by a visibly light. The oxidation potential of the new ProDOT substituted diarylethene was lower than that of the unsubstituted diarylethenes due to the electroactive ProDOT unit. Under an electrochemical condition, the solution of BTFPP gave soluble polymers but deposited insoluble film on a working electrode coated with a PEDOT layer. This result indicates that the PEDOT nano layer (68 nm thick) function as a seeding layer to induce polymerization and electrodeposition of BTFPP. Furthermore electro-copolymerization using a mixture of BTFPP and EDOT afforded electrodeposition of the copolymers on the PEDOT seeding layer. An electrochromic electrode was successfully fabricated by depositing the photochromic BTFPP on an ITO glass, which shows a reversible electrochromic change from violet to sky blue.

  12. Design, production and characterisation of an all solid state electrochromic medium size device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccari, A. [ENEA, Roma (Italy). Transparent Material Laboratory; Macrelli, G.; Poli, E. [Isoclima SpA, Padova (Italy). R and D Dept.; Polato, P. [Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro, Venezia (Italy)

    1998-10-01

    An electrochromic device based on a five layer coating deposited on a glass sheet was produced. The layers were all obtained by physical vapour deposition in the same vacuum environment, using a commercial apparatus capable of producing thin films on large area substrates. Small (50 x 50 mm{sup 2}) and medium (300 x 300 mm{sup 2}) size specimens were prepared for preliminary study, to establish the electrochemical and optical performances of the device. Electrochemical measurements were performed on each active material, as well as on the whole specimens, in order to relate electrochemical properties to process conditions. Also, luminous and solar parameters were obtained from (near) normal incidence spectrophotometry in both the bleached and coloured states, to confirm the values used in the design phase of the electrochromic device. One of the specimens was also submitted to variable angle photometric and radiometric measurements, using an integrating sphere. This data was then used to evaluate the room luminance distribution and energy loads using a building simulation code. (author)

  13. Working with Windows 7 at CERN (EN)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Overview of new concepts and user interface changes in Windows 7 as compared with older versions of Windows: XP or Vista. Availability of Windows 7 at CERN and its integration with CERN Windows infrastructure will be discussed.

  14. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  15. Window Observational Research Facility (WORF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrey, Joseph; Sledd, Annette

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document concerns the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) Rack, a unique facility designed for use with the US Lab Destiny Module window. WORF will provide valuable resources for Earth Science payloads along with serving the purpose of protecting the lab window. The facility can be used for remote sensing instrumentation test and validation in a shirt sleeve environment. WORF will also provide a training platform for crewmembers to do orbital observations of other planetary bodies. WORF payloads will be able to conduct terrestrial studies utilizing the data collected from utilizing WORF and the lab window.

  16. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  17. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  18. Beginning Windows Phone 7 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft is injecting new energy into the smart phone marketplace with the sophisticated Windows Phone 7. This new energy equates to new opportunities for you, the mobile developer. Beginning Windows Phone 7 Development has been written specifically to help you seize these opportunities and begin creating applications for this exciting new mobile device platform. Beginning Windows Phone 7 Development starts with the basics, walking you through the process of downloading and setting up the right development tools, including Visual Studio, Expression Blend, Silverlight SDK, and Windows Phone SD

  19. Windows 7 the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2010-01-01

    This book provides everything you need to manage and maintain Windows 7. You'll learn all of the features and enhancements in complete detail, along with specifics for configuring the operating system to put you in full control. Bestselling author and Windows expert William Stanek doesn't just show you the steps you need to follow, he also tells you how features work, why they work, and how you can customize them to meet your needs. Learn how to squeeze every bit of power out of Windows 7 to take full advantage of its features and programs. Set up, customize, and tune Windows 7-Optimize its

  20. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  1. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  2. Learning Windows Azure Mobile Services for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8

    CERN Document Server

    Webber-Cross, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This book is based around a case study game which was written for the book. This means that the chapters progress in a logical way and build upon lessons learned as we go. Real-world examples are provided for each topic that are practical and not given out-of-context so they can be applied directly to other applications.If you are a developer who wishes to build Windows 8 and Phone 8 applications and integrate them with Windows Azure Mobile Services, this book is for you. Basic C# and JavaScript skills are advantageous, as well as some knowledge of building Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8 applica

  3. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  4. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  5. Windows for tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Just for you--Windows 8 from the tablet user's perspective If you're an experienced Windows user, you don't need a guide to everything that Windows 8 can do, just to those tools and functions that work on your tablet. And so here it is. This new book zeros in on what you need to know to work best on your tablet with Windows 8. Topics include navigating the new Windows 8 interface and how it works on a touchscreen, how to safely connect to the Internet, how to work with apps or share your tablet in a group, and much more. If you're a new tablet user, you'll particularly appre

  6. False Windows - Yesterday and Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewitecki, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    The article is concerned with a very interesting aspect of architectural design, namely, a contradiction between the building functions and the necessity of giving the building a desired external appearance. One of the possibilities of reconciling this contradiction is using pseudo windows that are visible on the elevation and generally have the form of a black painted recess accompanied by frames and sashes and often single glazing. Of course, there are no windows or openings in the corresponding places in the walls inside the building. The article discusses the differences between false windows and blind widows (German: blende), also known as blank windows, which, in fact, are shallow recesses in the wall having the external appearance of an arcade or a window and which had already been used in Gothic architecture mostly for aesthetic reasons and sometimes to reduce the load of the wall. Moreover, the article describes various false windows that appeared later than blind windows because they did not appear until the 17th century. Contemporary false windows are also discussed and it is shown that contrary to the common belief they are widely used. In his research, the author not only used the Internet data but also carried out his own in situ exploration. The false windows constitute very interesting albeit rare elements of the architectural design of buildings. They have been used successfully for a few hundred years. It might seem that they should have been discarded by now but this has not happened. Quite contrary, since the second half of the 20th century there has been a rapid development of glass curtain walls that serve a similar function in contemporary buildings as the false windows once did, only in a more extensive way.

  7. Electrochromism and Swelling of Polypyrrole Membranes: An Electrochemical and Ellipsometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Zerbino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of polypyrrole (Ppy layers on gold electrodes in nearly neutral pH solutions is analysed using “in situ” voltametric and ellipsometric techniques. Different film structures are obtained depending on the potentiodynamic programme and the composition of the electrolyte. More compact dodecylsulphate-(DS doped Ppy layers were grown at 1.2 V versus RHE than those obtained by applying a higher potential. The more compact layers correspond to the growth of an oxidised Ppy/DS layer that shows low pseudo capacity behaviour. After dipping, the doped Ppy/DS film in KCl solution-significant variations in optical indices and thickness are detected as a function of the applied potential. Higher electrochromism as well as decrease in film thickness after cathodisation is achieved. The optical indices and the thickness of the Ppy layer formed under different applied potential/time programmes are estimated.

  8. Electrochromic device of PEDOT-PANI hybrid system for fast response and high optical contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Joo-Hee; Oh, Yeon-Ji; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Choy, Jin-Ho [Center for Intelligent Nano-Bio Materials (CINBM), Department of Chemistry and Nano Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea); Paek, Seung-Min [Center for Intelligent Nano-Bio Materials (CINBM), Department of Chemistry and Nano Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea); Beamline Research Division, Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang 790-784 (Korea)

    2009-12-15

    An organic-organic hybrid system composed of the polyaniline (PANI) and poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) with controlled thickness was developed successfully in order to realize synergetic effects in electrochromic (EC) properties such as optical contrast and color-switching rate. From the UV transmittance spectra, we found that the optical contrast ({delta}%T) was enhanced up to 6-72% at the wavelength of 580 nm compared with the previous PANI-PEDOT ECDs. Furthermore, the optimized ECD showed an extremely fast response time of less than 160 ms. It is therefore concluded that such a complementary full.cell system of PEDOT-PANI ECD is applicable as an optical device. (author)

  9. Annealing induced structural evolution and electrochromic properties of nanostructured tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ching-Lin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chung-Kwei [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City 110, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Chun-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Sheng-Chang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay, E-mail: JLH888@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-31

    The effect of microstructure on the optical and electrochemical properties of nanostructured tungsten oxide films was evaluated as a function of annealing temperature. The films using block copolymer as the template were prepared from peroxotungstic acid (PTA) by spin-coating onto the substrate and post-annealed at 250–400 °C to form tungsten oxide films with nanostructure. The microstructure of the films was measured by X-ray diffraction and surface electron microscopy. The films annealed at temperatures below 300 °C are characterized by amorphous or nanocrystalline structures with a pore size of less than 10 nm. The evaluated annealing temperature caused a triclinic crystalline structure and microcracks. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed in a LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate electrolyte. The results showed that the ion inserted capacity were maximized for films annealed at 300 °C and decreased with the increasing of annealing temperature. The electrochromic properties of the nanostructured tungsten oxide films were evaluated simultaneously by potentiostat and UV–vis spectroscopy. The films annealed at 300 °C exhibit high transmission modulation (∆T ∼ 40%) at λ = 633 nm and good kinetic properties. As a result, the correlation between the microstructure and kinetic properties was established, and the electrochromic properties have been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Surfactant-assisted WO{sub 3} films have been prepared by sol–gel method. • Nanostructure of porous WO{sub 3} film is retained after crystallization. • Kinetic properties of WO{sub 3} can be improved by nanostructure and crystallinity.

  10. Electrosynthesis and characterization of a donor–acceptor type electrochromic material from poly(4,7-dicarbazol-9-yl-2,1,3-benzothiadia-zole) and its application in electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Caixia [Shandong Key Laboratory of Chemical Energy-storage and Novel Cell Technology, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Zhao, Jinsheng, E-mail: j.s.zhao@163.com [Shandong Key Laboratory of Chemical Energy-storage and Novel Cell Technology, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Min; Cui, Chuansheng; Liu, Renmin [Shandong Key Laboratory of Chemical Energy-storage and Novel Cell Technology, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China)

    2013-01-01

    A donor–acceptor type monomer 4,7-dicarbazol-9-yl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (CBTD) was synthesized by modified Ullmann coupling reaction and its corresponding polymer (PCBTD) was obtained via electrochemical polymerization. Characterizations of the resulting polymer PCBTD were performed by cyclic voltammetry, UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The polymer displayed multiple colors changed from yellow to yellowish green, green, and turquoise blue with the applied potential. The UV–vis spectra depicted that polymer film have two absorption bands as expected for this type of donor–acceptor polymer, at 320 and 467 nm, which attributed to the π–π* transition and intrachain charge transfer transition, respectively. Further, electrochemical and optical band gaps were obtained by using their oxidation and reduction onset potentials and absorption edges, respectively. The optical contrasts of the PCBTD film were found to be 28.1% at 420 nm and 49.9% at 800 nm in the visible region. The dual type electrochromic device constructed utilizing PCBTD and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) showed a maximum contrast (ΔT %) of 49.4% at 620 nm with response time of 0.6 s and exhibited high coloration efficiency (1728 cm{sup 2} C{sup −1}) and good stability. These properties make the polymer a suitable material for electrochromic applications. - Highlights: ► A donor–acceptor carbazole based monomer and its polymer were synthesized. ► The polymer film showed good electrochromic properties and high optical contrast. ► An electrochromic device based on the polymer was also constructed and characterized.

  11. Inkjet-printed all solid-state electrochromic devices based on NiO/WO3 nanoparticle complementary electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guofa; Darmawan, Peter; Cui, Mengqi; Chen, Jingwei; Wang, Xu; Eh, Alice Lee-Sie; Magdassi, Shlomo; Lee, Pooi See

    2015-12-01

    Nanostructured thin films are important in the fields of energy conversion and storage. In particular, multi-layered nanostructured films play an important role as a part of the energy system for energy saving applications in buildings. Inkjet printing is a low-cost and attractive technology for patterning and deposition of multi-layered nanostructured materials on various substrates. However, it requires the development of a suitable ink formulation with optimum viscosity, surface tension and evaporation rate for various materials. In this study, a versatile ink formulation was successfully developed to prepare NiO and WO3 nanostructured films with strong adhesion to ITO coated glass using inkjet printing for energy saving electrochromic applications. We achieved a high performance electrochromic electrode, producing porous and continuous electrochromic films without aggregation. The NiO film with 9 printed layers exhibits an optical modulation of 64.2% at 550 nm and a coloration efficiency (CE) of 136.7 cm2 C-1. An inkjet-printed complementary all solid-state device was assembled, delivering a larger optical modulation of 75.4% at 633 nm and a higher CE of 131.9 cm2 C-1 among all solid-state devices. The enhanced contrast is due to the printed NiO film that not only performs as an ion storage layer, but also as a complementary electrochromic layer.Nanostructured thin films are important in the fields of energy conversion and storage. In particular, multi-layered nanostructured films play an important role as a part of the energy system for energy saving applications in buildings. Inkjet printing is a low-cost and attractive technology for patterning and deposition of multi-layered nanostructured materials on various substrates. However, it requires the development of a suitable ink formulation with optimum viscosity, surface tension and evaporation rate for various materials. In this study, a versatile ink formulation was successfully developed to prepare NiO and

  12. Solvent-annealing-induced self-organization of poly(3-hexylthiophene), a high-performance electrochromic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Hsien; Yang, Chuan-Yi; Hsu, Chih-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Lun; Lin, Lu-Yin; Wang, Rui-Ren; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2009-12-01

    We have systematically studied the self-organization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), an electrochromic material, upon control of the solvent evaporation rate. We characterized these polymer films using atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Well-ordered P3HT structures were developed after solvent annealing; these highly crystalline structures exhibited enhanced electrochromic contrast and reduced resistance within the film, leading to larger coloration efficiencies and faster switching times. The optical contrast (Delta%T), coloration efficiency, and switching time of the P3HT films increased from 54.2%, 182.6 cm(2) C(-1), and 5.3 s, respectively, prior to solvent annealing to 64.8%, 293.5 cm(2) C(-1), and 3.2 s, respectively, after application of the solvent-annealing conditions.

  13. Big Book of Windows Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Bigger, better, and broader in scope, the Big Book of Windows Hacks gives you everything you need to get the most out of your Windows Vista or XP system, including its related applications and the hardware it runs on or connects to. Whether you want to tweak Vista's Aero interface, build customized sidebar gadgets and run them from a USB key, or hack the "unhackable" screensavers, you'll find quick and ingenious ways to bend these recalcitrant operating systems to your will. The Big Book of Windows Hacks focuses on Vista, the new bad boy on Microsoft's block, with hacks and workarounds that

  14. Optimal Time Windows of Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Colonius

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The spatiotemporal window of integration has become a widely accepted concept in multisensory research: crossmodal information falling within this window is highly likely to be integrated, whereas information falling outside is not. Making explicit assumptions about the arrival time difference between peripheral sensory processing times triggered by a crossmodal stimulus set, we derive a decision rule that determines an optimal window width as a function of (i the prior odds in favor of a common multisensory source, (ii the likelihood of arrival time differences, and (iii the payoff for making correct or wrong decisions. Empirical support for this approach will be presented.

  15. Multicriteria evaluation and window selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražić Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of windows that joins and fulfils demands by the building's users, designers and contractors implies the multicriteria analysis. The paper presents the multicriteria decision making methodology for achieving the most optimal variation (type of window. The optimization model is defined with seven criterion functions and the adequate optimization method is selected. The methodology is confirmed on an example of a selection of one out of eight window variations. The adopted method, by selecting the weight coefficients, proposes to the decision maker several different output results and offers the possibility to adopt the final (optimal solution that is in accordance with the optimization goal.

  16. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  17. Windows 8 visual quick tips

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Easy-in, easy-out format covers all the bells and whistles of Windows 8 If you want to learn how to work smarter and faster in Microsoft's Windows 8 operating system, this easy-to-use, compact guide delivers the goods. Designed for visual learners, it features short explanations and full-color screen shots on almost every page, and it's packed with timesaving tips and helpful productivity tricks. From enhancing performance and managing digital content to setting up security and much more, this handy guide will help you get more out of Windows 8. Uses full-color screen shots and short, step-by-

  18. Grab Windows training opportunities; check CERN Windows roadmap!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    CERN Operating Systems and Information Services group (IT-OIS) actively monitors market trends to check how new software products correspond to CERN needs. In the Windows world, Windows 7 has been a big hit, with over 1500 Windows 7 PCs within less than a year since its support was introduced at CERN. No wonder: Windows XP is nearly 10 years old and is steadily approaching the end of its life-cycle. At CERN, support for Windows XP will stop at the end of December 2012. Compared to Vista, Windows 7 has the same basic hardware requirements, but offers higher performance, so the decision to upgrade is rather straightforward. CERN support for Vista will end in June 2011. In the world of Microsoft Office, version 2007 offers better integration with the central services than the older version 2003. Progressive upgrade from 2003 to 2007 is planned to finish in September 2011, but users are encouraged to pro-actively upgrade at their convenience. Please note that Office 2007 brings an important change in the area of ...

  19. Defect engineering of two-dimensional WO{sub 3} nanosheets for enhanced electrochromism and photoeletrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaofang; Zheng, Xiaoli; Yan, Bo; Xu, Tao; Xu, Qun, E-mail: qunxu@zzu.edu.cn

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • We establish a facile strategy by solvothermal reaction and hydrogenation to synthesize 2D WO{sub 3} ultrathin nanosheets with abundant oxygen vacancies. • We find that the hydrogenated WO{sub 3} ultrathin nanosheets exhibit outstanding electrochromism properties. • Moreover, the hydrogenated WO{sub 3} nanosheets also exhibit remarkable photocatalytic performance. • The outstanding electrochromism and photoelectrochemical performances are mainly due to increased oxygen vacancies and narrowed band gap. - Abstract: The capability of introduction of oxygen vacancies in a controlled way has emerged as the heart of modern transition metal oxide semiconductor chemistry. As chemical defects, the oxygen vacancies have been proposed as electron donors, which are prone to increase carrier density and promote charge carrier separation. Herein, we have successfully prepared 2D WO{sub 3} ultrathin nanosheets with abundant surface oxygen vacancies by a combination of facile solvothermal reaction and hydrogenation method. The resultant hydrogenated WO{sub 3} ultrathin nanosheets exhibit remarkable electrochromism and photocatalytic performances compared with the non-hydrogenated samples, mainly due to their increased oxygen vacancies, narrowed band gap coupled with fast charge transfer and enhanced adsorption of visible light.

  20. Optical characterization of the coloration process in electrochromic amorphous and crystalline WO3 films by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guangzhong; Hua, Chenzheng; Huang, Li; Defranoux, Christophe; Basa, Peter; Liu, Yong; Song, Chenlu; Han, Gaorong

    2017-11-01

    Amorphous and crystalline electrochromic WO3 films exhibit quite different optical properties during coloration process. In the present work, amorphous and crystalline electrochromic WO3 films prepared by a solution method were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope techniques. A double-layer model with sharp interfaces was established for the fitting of the ellipsometry parameters. The results show that the proton favors amorphous films more than crystalline WO3 films. The refractive indices of both amorphous and polycrystalline WO3 films decrease while extinction coefficients increase with the inserting of H+ during the coloration process. But the optical parameters of the latter are much more sensitive to the H+ ions injected compared to the amorphous WO3 during the coloration process. That is the refractive index modulation of the crystalline WO3 films is about 53% at 633 nm while that of the amorphous films about 15% at the same wavelength. The Drude-like free electron model for crystalline WO3 and hopping mechanism of small polaron for amorphous WO3 are used to explain the difference in detail. These results are very helpful for the better understanding of the coloration process and for the design of electrochromic devices.

  1. Electrochromic Radiator Coupon Level Testing and Full Scale Thermal Math Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Erika T.; Bower, Chad E.; Sheth, Rubik; Stephan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    In order to control system and component temperatures, many spacecraft thermal control systems use a radiator coupled with a pumped fluid loop to reject waste heat from the vehicle. Since heat loads and radiation environments can vary considerably according to mission phase, the thermal control system must be able to vary the heat rejection. The ability to "turn down" the heat rejected from the thermal control system is critically important when designing the system. Electrochromic technology as a radiator coating is being investigated to vary the amount of heat rejected by a radiator. Coupon level tests were performed to test the feasibility of this technology. Furthermore, thermal math models were developed to better understand the turndown ratios required by full scale radiator architectures to handle the various operation scenarios encountered during a mission profile for the Altair Lunar Lander. This paper summarizes results from coupon level tests as well as the thermal math models developed to investigate how electrochromics can be used to increase turn down ratios for a radiator. Data from the various design concepts of radiators and their architectures are outlined. Recommendations are made on which electrochromic radiator concept should be carried further for future thermal vacuum testing.

  2. Electrosynthesis of Aromatic Poly(amide-amine Films from Triphenylamine-Based Electroactive Compounds for Electrochromic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Huei Hsiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two electropolymerizable monomers with a methoxytriphenylamine core linked via amide groups to two triphenylamine (TPA or N-phenylcarbazole (NPC terminal groups, namely 4,4′-bis(4-diphenylaminobenzamido-4′′-methoxytriphenylamine (MeOTPA-(TPA2 and 4,4′-bis(4-(carbazol-9-ylbenzamido-4′′-methoxytriphenylamine (MeOTPA-(NPC2, were synthesized and characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical polymerization reactions of these MeOTPA-cored monomers over indium tin oxide (ITO electrode allow the generation of electroactive poly(amide-amine films. The electro-generated polymer films exhibited reversible redox processes and multi-colored electrochromic behaviors upon electro-oxidation, together with moderate coloration efficiency and cycling stability. The optical density changes (ΔOD were observed in the range of 0.18–0.68 at specific absorption maxima, with the calculated coloration efficiencies of 42–123 cm2/C. Single-layer electrochromic devices using the electrodeposited polymer films as active layers were fabricated for the preliminary investigation of their electrochromic applications.

  3. A window on urban sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigt, Rien van, E-mail: rien.vanstigt@hu.nl [Research Center for Technology and Innovation, Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 182, 3500 AD Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Spit, Tejo J.M., E-mail: T.J.M.Spit@uu.nl [Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  4. Electrochromic Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-31

    TAB E5 Unannounced [ Justification By-- Distribution/ Availability Codes Avail and/or Dist Speoial 1. A. Objectives of Program: The broad objectives of...the absorption coefficient 0.1 In two / cases, long bar -shaped samples of single crystal KCI and CaF 2 were used to effect the separation of bulk and... RbCl taken with the light passing once (one-pass) or thrice (three-pass) through the interferometer. The improved contrast in the three-pass case is

  5. Redox induced switching dynamics of a three colour electrochromic metallopolymer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Qiang; McNally, Andrea; Keyes, Tia E. [National Centre for Sensor Research, Biomedical Diagnostics Institute, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Forster, Robert J. [National Centre for Sensor Research, Biomedical Diagnostics Institute, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)], E-mail: robert.forster@dcu.ie

    2008-10-15

    Thin films of a novel Ru-phenolate based metallopolymer, [Ru(terpy)(box)PVP{sub 20}]PF{sub 6}, in which one in every twenty of the 4-vinyl pyridine monomer units is labelled with the ruthenium complex have been formed on glassy carbon electrodes, terpy is 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, box is 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole, and PVP is poly(4-vinylpyridine). Cyclic voltammetry and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the Ru{sup 2+/3+} couple is electrochemically reversible but that the phenolate ligand based oxidation is irreversible. These redox processes are associated with reversible colour changes from wine red (reduced) to red orange (mixed composition) then to light green (oxidized) in the visible region and an irreversible change in the near-IR region, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that repeated switching in LiClO{sub 4} aqueous solution does not induce any significant structural change within the deposit films. Cyclic voltammetry has been used to determine the electrochromic switching rate under semi-infinite linear diffusion conditions. In aqueous LiClO{sub 4}, the homogeneous charge transport diffusion coefficient, D{sub CT}, decreases from 3.6 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -13} to 2.7 {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup -13} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} as the LiClO{sub 4} concentration increases from 0.1 to 1.0 M. This weak dependence of D{sub CT} on electrolyte concentration suggests that counterion availability is not rate-determining and that the overall rate of charge transport through the metallopolymer film is limited by the rate of segmental polymer chain motion necessary to bring adjacent centres sufficiently close to allow electron transfer to occur. Also the impact of changing the identity of the charge compensating anion of the redox electrochromic switching rate has been investigated. Finally, the electronic conductivity has been determined using interdigitated array electrodes (IDAs)

  6. Redox induced switching dynamics of a three colour electrochromic metallopolymer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; McNally, Andrea; Keyes, Tia E.; Forster, Robert J. [National Centre for Sensor Research, Biomedical Diagnostics Institute, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2008-10-15

    Thin films of a novel Ru-phenolate based metallopolymer, [Ru(terpy)(box)PVP{sub 20}]PF{sub 6}, in which one in every twenty of the 4-vinyl pyridine monomer units is labelled with the ruthenium complex have been formed on glassy carbon electrodes, terpy is 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, box is 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole, and PVP is poly(4-vinylpyridine). Cyclic voltammetry and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the Ru{sup 2+/3+} couple is electrochemically reversible but that the phenolate ligand based oxidation is irreversible. These redox processes are associated with reversible colour changes from wine red (reduced) to red orange (mixed composition) then to light green (oxidized) in the visible region and an irreversible change in the near-IR region, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that repeated switching in LiClO{sub 4} aqueous solution does not induce any significant structural change within the deposit films. Cyclic voltammetry has been used to determine the electrochromic switching rate under semi-infinite linear diffusion conditions. In aqueous LiClO{sub 4}, the homogeneous charge transport diffusion coefficient, D{sub CT}, decreases from 3.6 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -13} to 2.7 {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup -13} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} as the LiClO{sub 4} concentration increases from 0.1 to 1.0 M. This weak dependence of D{sub CT} on electrolyte concentration suggests that counterion availability is not rate-determining and that the overall rate of charge transport through the metallopolymer film is limited by the rate of segmental polymer chain motion necessary to bring adjacent centres sufficiently close to allow electron transfer to occur. Also the impact of changing the identity of the charge compensating anion of the redox electrochromic switching rate has been investigated. Finally, the electronic conductivity has been determined using interdigitated array electrodes (IDAs). (author)

  7. Windows Server 2012 R2 administrator cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators and IT professionals with experience in Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2012 environments who are looking to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to manage and maintain the core infrastructure required for a Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2 environment.

  8. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  9. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN (FR)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). La mise à disposition de Windows 7 au CERN et son intégration dans l’infrastructure de Windows au CERN seront présentées.

  10. Oscillatory integration windows in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Singh, Swikriti Saran; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle. With a computational model, we show that the non-uniform structure of noise in the membrane potential helps mediate this process. Further experiments performed in vivo demonstrate that integration windows can form in the absence of inhibition and at a broad range of oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal how a fundamental coincidence-detection mechanism in a neural circuit functions to decode temporally organized spiking. PMID:27976720

  11. Teach yourself visually Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A practical guide for visual learners eager to get started with Windows 8 If you learn more quickly when you can see how things are done, this Visual guide is the easiest way to get up and running on Windows 8. It covers more than 150 essential Windows tasks, using full-color screen shots and step-by-step instructions to show you just what to do. Learn your way around the interface and how to install programs, set up user accounts, play music and other media files, download photos from your digital camera, go online, set up and secure an e-mail account, and much more. The tried-and-true format

  12. Windows Server 2012 : Uudet ominaisuudet ja muutokset

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Joni

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opintyön tarkoituksena on valottaa Windows Server 2012 -käyttöjärjestelmän muutoksia verrattuna vanhaan Windows Server 2008 R2 -versioon. Työ aloitettiin ennen Windows Server 2012 -julkaisua Release Candidate -version testauksella ja myöhemmin julkaisun jälkeen Windows Serverin kokeiluversiolla. Työssä on silti ajankohtaista tietoa Windows Server 2012:sta. Aluksi käsitellään Windows Servereiden kehityskaarta lyhyesti ja käsitellään uusinta Windows Serveriä tuotteena se...

  13. Windows 7 is supported at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The new version of the Windows operating system - Windows 7 - is now officially supported at CERN. Windows 7 32-bit is now the default operating system for the new computers at CERN. What’s new in Windows 7 Users of Windows XP will find many new features and options. Users of Windows Vista will feel very familiar with one major difference: higher performance and better responsiveness of the operating system. Other enhancements include: refined Aero desktop that makes it easier to navigate between your different application windows; new snapping windows that allows user to resize a window simply by dragging it to the edge of the screen and “pin” that allows grouping and arranging often accessed applications on the taskbar. Windows 7 introduces the new concept of libraries – containers for user files that have links to different local or network folders. By default, users can see four libraries: Documents, Music, Pictures and Videos. These libraries point to the cor...

  14. *New*: CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  15. *New* CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  16. What's New in Windows Vista?

    CERN Document Server

    Culp, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Get ready for a quick blast through this significant change to Windows! This guide will give you a quick look at many of the most significant new features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in nearly six years. Starting with the changes to the interface, introducing Aero, and showing you some visuals, we then move on to the completely revamped search options. The new task scheduler and printing gadgets, are next with some cool new changes. Probably the most significant changes, however, come in the area of security and this guide takes a look at them from user priveleges, to

  17. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Trotter, Steven

    2017-09-01

    In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  18. Microsoft Windows Server Administration Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies you need to administer a Windows Server OS Administering a Windows operating system (OS) can be a difficult topic to grasp, particularly if you are new to the field of IT. This full-color resource serves as an approachable introduction to understanding how to install a server, the various roles of a server, and how server performance and maintenance impacts a network. With a special focus placed on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) certificate, the straightforward, easy-to-understand tone is ideal for anyone new to computer administration looking t

  19. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  20. Effective medium approximation of the optical properties of electrochromic cerium-titanium oxide compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottkay, K. von; Richardson, T.; Rubin, M.; Slack, J.

    1997-07-01

    Cerium titanium oxide samples derived from a solution have been compared against sputtered films over a wide range of different compositions. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the structural properties of the compound material existing in a two-phase mixture M{sub A}O{sub 2}-M{sub B}O{sub 2}. The optical properties were evaluated over the whole solar spectrum by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry combined with spectrophotometry. The spectral complex refractive index was determined for CeO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, as well as for their compounds. To reduce the large number of permutations in composition of multi-component oxides it would be useful to be able to predict the properties of the mixtures from the pure oxide components. Therefore these results were compared to those obtained by effective medium theory utilizing the optical constants of CeO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to investigate the performance as passive counter-electrode in Li{sup +} based electrochromic devices the films were tested by cyclic voltammetry with in-situ transmission control. Chemical composition was measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Surface morphology was analyzed by atomic force microscopy.

  1. New thin films of NiO doped with V2O5 for electrochromic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Cristiane F.; Balboni, Raphael D. C.; Cholant, Camila M.; Moura, Elton A.; Lemos, Rafaela M. J.; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Gündel, Andre; Flores, Wladimir H.; Pereira, Marcelo; Avellaneda, César O.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on synthesis and characterization of new electrochromic thin films of NiO doped with V2O5 that were prepared by the sol-gel method and deposited by the spin coating technique. The confirmation of the presence of the dopant in the structure of the films was given by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The effect of the addition of vanadium to the films of NiO was evaluated by electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, and chronoamperometry in 0.5 mol/L KOH electrolyte. The morphology and the structure of the films, determined by microscopies (SEM and AFM), reveal smooth and slightly rough surfaces. The addition of vanadium as a dopant does not produce changes in the host NiO matrix as evidenced by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). However, the addition of the dopant causes a significant improvement in a charge density values of the films that increase more than twice from 25.5 mC/cm2 for NiO to 52.8 mC/cm2 for NiO with 10 mol% of V2O5. V2O5 doping of NiO films also improved their optical properties as well as kinetics of insertion and extraction processes.

  2. Electrochemical formation of tin oxide-hydroxide composite films for the application to electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Kentaro; Matsuo, Ryo; Sasano, Junji; Yokoyama, Seiji; Izaki, Masanobu

    2017-07-01

    Liquid-state ion-storage layers which are commonly used for electrochromic devices (ECDs) have the problem of liquid leakage caused from mechanical damage or time degradation of sealing materials. To overcome this drawback, we tried to form Sn(O,H)x films comprising mixtures of tin oxide (SnO2) and tin hydroxide (Sn(OH)4) by electrodeposition in order to apply them to the solid-state ion-storage layers of solid-state ECDs. The Sn(O,H)x films were formed by anodic potentiostatic electrodeposition at 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl using 0.01 mol/L SnSO4 aqueous solution. Characterization of the samples with X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that they are composed of SnO2 and Sn(OH)4. Moreover, a coloring experiment of an ECD having a structure of FTO/ WO3(H2O)0.33/Sn(O,H)x/Cu was carried out under the application of a voltage, and it changed the color from pale yellow to blue in the coloring experiment. This result shows that the Sn(O,H)x films possesses the function as the solid-state ion-storage layers of solid-state ECDs.

  3. Optimized low-temperature fabrication of WO3 films for electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehyun; Seo, Dong Gyu; Park, Su Mi; Park, Kyu Tae; Kim, Haekyoung; Moon, Hong Chul; Kim, Se Hyun

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effect of process conditions on the electrochromic (EC) properties of tungsten trioxide (WO3) films. When WO3 films deposited using a sol-gel method were thermally treated in air at 150 °C, the majority of tungsten species in the films became W6+, which is important for the realization of an optically transparent bleached state. On the other hand, annealing in a vacuum required only 60 °C to induce a similar level of W6+ in the WO3 films. However, a cracked film morphology was observed at higher temperatures, regardless of whether the films were annealed in air or vacuum. Using the WO3 films prepared under various conditions, EC devices (ECDs) were fabricated to evaluate EC properties. We concluded that the optimal annealing conditions for WO3 films for ECDs are 60 °C in vacuum, at which the highest coloration efficiency, largest transmittance difference, and fastest bleaching/coloration dynamics were obtained. These mild fabrication conditions at a low temperature (60 °C) provide the opportunity to utilize flexible electrodes on plastic. Therefore, we successfully demonstrated a flexible WO3-based ECD.

  4. Lithium-titanate-nanotube-supported WO3 for enhancing transmittance contrast in electrochromics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yunbing; Xiong, Chunrong; Zhang, Yilu; Xing, Shuai; Jiang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Lithium titanate nanotubes (Li-TNTs) have been successfully synthesized. The inner and outer diameters of the nanotubes are 5 nm and 8 nm with an interlayer spacing of 0.83 nm. The nanotubes were in accordance with the Li1.81H0.19Ti2O5 · xH2O phase. The chemical component was Li0.9H1.1Ti2O5 · H2O as determined by ICP-AES. The Li-TNT-supported WO3 nanoparticle (WO3/Li-TNTs) thin film was prepared onto ITO glass via spin-coating and then fabricated with an electrochromic device. The Li ion diffusion coefficient in the WO3/Li-TNT film was 6.1 × 10-10 cm2 s-1, which is eight times higher than that for the pure WO3 film. The transmittance contrast of the pure WO3-based ECD was 53.3% at 600 nm. However, this increased to 74.1% for the WO3/Li-TNT-based ECD. Meanwhile, the color-switching times of the WO3/Li-TNT-based ECD were apparently shorter than the ones for the WO3-based ECD.

  5. Composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures for high electrochromic activity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Karla Rosa; Stephens, Zachary Dan.; Robinson, David B.

    2013-05-01

    A composite material consisting of TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with WO3 electrodeposited homogeneously on its surface has been fabricated, detached from its substrate, and attached to a fluorine-doped tin oxide film on glass for application to electrochromic (EC) reactions. A paste of TiO2 made from commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles creates an interface for the TiO2 NT film to attach to the FTO glass, which is conductive and does not cause solution-phase ions in an electrolyte to bind irreversibly with the material. The effect of NT length on the current density and the EC contrast of the material were studied. The EC redox reaction seen in this material is diffusion- limited, having relatively fast reaction rates at the electrode surface. The composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures showed higher ion storage capacity, better stability, enhanced EC contrast and longer memory time compared with the pure WO3 and TiO2.

  6. Fast-switching electrochromic properties of mesoporous WO3 films with oxygen vacancy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Ryul; Ahn, Hyo-Jin

    2017-11-08

    In this study, mesoporous WO3 films with oxygen vacancy defects have been fabricated using the camphene-assisted sol-gel method. By controlling the optimized weight ratio of camphene on the WO3 films, we developed a unique film structure of the WO3 phase with both mesoporous morphology and oxygen vacancy defects due to the distinctive effect of camphene. The mesoporous WO3 films with oxygen vacancy defects fabricated using 10 wt% camphene showed superb multifunctional electrochromic (EC) properties with both fast switching speeds (5.8 s for coloration speed and 1.0 s for bleaching speed) and high coloration efficiency (CE, 51.4 cm(2) C(-1)), which include the most prominent properties, particularly for switching speeds among WO3-based films reported so far. The attractive EC properties are due to the synergistic effects of the mesoporous morphology and oxygen vacancy defects on the WO3. The fast switching speeds are mainly caused by the reduced Li(+) diffusion pathway due to the mesoporous morphology and increased electrical conductivity due to the oxygen vacancy defects. In addition, the increased CE value is due to the large transmittance modulation as a result of a more effective electrostatic contact of the mesoporous morphology and an increased optical bandgap of the oxygen vacancy defects on the WO3. Therefore, this unique film structure of the mesoporous WO3 films with oxygen vacancy defects can be potentially regarded as a novel EC material for high-performance EC devices.

  7. Integration of graphene sensor with electrochromic device on modulus-gradient polymer for instantaneous strain visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Zhong, Yujia; Tao, Dashuai; Li, Xinming; Zang, Xiaobei; Lin, Shuyuan; Jiang, Xin; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Hongwei

    2017-09-01

    In nature, some animals change their deceptive coloration for camouflage, temperature preservation or communication. This astonishing function has inspired scientists to replicate the color changing abilities of animals with artificial skin. Recently, some studies have focused on the smart materials and devices with reversible color changing or light-emitting properties for instantaneous strain visualization. However, most of these works only show eye-detectable appearance change when subjected to large mechanical deformation (100%-500% strain), and conspicuous color change at small strain remains rarely explored. In the present study, we developed a user-interactive electronic skin with human-readable optical output by assembling a highly sensitive resistive strain sensor with a stretchable organic electrochromic device (ECD) together. We explored the substrate effect on the electromechanical behavior of graphene and designed a strategy of modulus-gradient structure to employ graphene as both the highly sensitive strain sensing element and the insensitive stretchable electrode of the ECD layer. Subtle strain (0-10%) was enough to evoke an obvious color change, and the RGB value of the color quantified the magnitude of the applied strain. Such high sensitivity to smaller strains (0-10%) with color changing capability will potentially enhance the function of wearable devices, robots and prosthetics in the future.

  8. Electrochromic enhancement of latent fingerprints by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Hillman, A Robert

    2012-06-28

    Spatially selective electrodeposition of poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) thin films on metallic surfaces is shown to be an effective means of visualizing latent fingerprints. The technique exploits the fingerprint deposit as an insulating mask, such that electrochemical processes (here, polymer deposition) may only take place on deposit-free areas of the surface between the ridges of the fingerprint deposit; the end result is a negative image of the fingermark. Use of a surfactant (sodium dodecylsulphate, SDS) to solubilise the EDOT monomer allows the use of an aqueous electrolyte. Electrochemical (coulometric) data provide a total assay of deposited material, yielding spatially averaged film thicknesses, which are commensurate with substantive filling of the trenches between fingerprint deposit ridges, but not overfilling to the extent that the ridge detail is covered. This is confirmed by optical microscopy and AFM images, which show continuous polymer deposition within the trenches and good definition at the ridge edges. Stainless steel substrates treated in this manner and transferred to background electrolyte (aqueous sulphuric acid) showed enhanced fingerprints when the contrast between the polymer background and fingerprint deposit was optimised using the electrochromic properties of the PEDOT films. The facility of the method to reveal fingerprints of various ages and subjected to plausible environmental histories was demonstrated. Comparison of this enhancement methodology with commonly used fingerprint enhancement methods (dusting with powder, application of wet powder suspensions and cyanoacrylate fuming) showed promising performance in selected scenarios of practical interest.

  9. Variable Emittance Electrochromics Using Ionic Electrolytes and Low Solar Absorptance Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Prasanna

    2011-01-01

    One of the last remaining technical hurdles with variable emittance devices or skins based on conducting polymer electrochromics is the high solar absorptance of their top surfaces. This high solar absorptance causes overheating of the skin when facing the Sun in space. Existing technologies such as mechanical louvers or loop heat pipes are virtually inapplicable to micro (< 20 kg) and nano (< 5 kg) spacecraft. Novel coatings lower the solar absorption to Alpha(s) of between 0.30 and 0.46. Coupled with the emittance properties of the variable emittance skins, this lowers the surface temperature of the skins facing the Sun to between 30 and 60 C, which is much lower than previous results of 100 C, and is well within acceptable satellite operations ranges. The performance of this technology is better than that of current new technologies such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), electrostatics, and electrophoretics, especially in applications involving micro and nano spacecraft. The coatings are deposited inside a high vacuum, layering multiple coatings onto the top surfaces of variable emittance skins. They are completely transparent in the entire relevant infrared region (about 2 to 45 microns), but highly reflective in the visible-NIR (near infrared) region of relevance to solar absorptance.

  10. Synthesis of solution-processable poly(3,4 propylenedioxythiophene) nanobelts for electrochromic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Siju Cherikkattil; Shivaprakash, N. Channegowda; Sindhu, Sukumaran Nair

    2017-11-01

    A new derivative of di-4-isopropyl benzyl substituted propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT-IPBz2) monomer was synthesized and its resultant polymer was prepared by chemical and electrochemical methods. The chemical polymerization was carried out in a hexane/water reverse microemulsion system using sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) as self-assembling template. Chemically synthesized PProDOT-IPBz2 was formed as thin nanobelts with high aspect ratio (3:100), and it was found to be soluble in common organic solvents. The electrochemical and electrochromic (EC) properties of PProDOT-IPBz2 films were studied and it was found that PProDOT-IPBz2 films showed high transparency at oxidized state (+1.0 V) and dark purple color formed at reduced state (-1.0 V). The color contrast of solution cast film was calculated to be 37% T at 550 nm, however electropolymerized PProDOT-IPBz2 film exhibited a color contrast of 48% at 550 nm with switching speed of ∼1 s, and the coloration efficiency was calculated to be 305 cm2C-1.

  11. Low-Absorption Laser Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    ABSORPTION MEASUREMENTS AT 1.06 Urn James W. Davisson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Washington, D.C. 20375 ABSTRACT A procedure for the chemical poli...W. Davisson , Fourth Laser Window Materials Conf. p. 466). The alkaline earth fluorides and LiF were mechanically polished by rubbing: till dry

  12. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...

  13. Soluble narrow band gap and blue propylenedioxythiophene-cyanovinylene polymers as multifunctional materials for photovoltaic and electrochromic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barry C; Kim, Young-Gi; McCarley, Tracy D; Reynolds, John R

    2006-10-04

    A family of soluble narrow band gap donor-acceptor conjugated polymers based on dioxythiophenes and cyanovinylenes is reported. The polymers were synthesized using Knoevenagel polycondensation or Yamamoto coupling polymerizations to yield polymers with molecular weights on the order of 10 000-20 000 g/mol, which possess solubility in common organic solvents. Thin film optical measurements revealed narrow band gaps of 1.5-1.8 eV, which gives the polymers a strong overlap of the solar spectrum. The energetic positions of the band edges were determined by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry and demonstrate that the polymers are both air stable and show a strong propensity for photoinduced charge transfer to fullerene acceptors. Such measurements also suggest that the polymers can be both p- and n-type doped, which is supported by spectroelectrochemical results. These polymers have been investigated as electron donors in photovoltaic devices in combination with PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester) as an electron acceptor based on the near ideal band structures designed into the polymers. Efficiencies as high as 0.2% (AM1.5) with short circuit current densities as high as 1.2-1.3 mA/cm(2) have been observed in polymer/PCBM (1:4 by weight) devices and external quantum efficiencies of more than 10% have been observed at wavelengths longer than 600 nm. The electrochromic properties of the narrow band gap polymers are also of interest as the polymers show three accessible color states changing from an absorptive blue or purple in the neutral state to a transmissive sky-blue or gray in the oxidized and reduced forms. The wide electrochemical range of electrochromic activity coupled with the strong observed changes in transmissivity between oxidation states makes these materials potentially interesting for application to electrochromic displays.

  14. Hybrid Optical Devices: The Case of the Unification of the Electrochromic Device and the Organic Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Hybrid Optical Devices, using some flexible optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the organic electronic industry, when manufacturing new technological products. The Hybrid Optical Device is constituted by the union of the electrochromic device and the organic solar cell. The flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells, in this hybrid optical device, have been the Poly base (3-hexyl thiophene, P3HT, Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM and Polyaniline, PANI, all being deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO. In addition, the thin film, obtained by the deposition of PANI, and prepared in perchloric acid solution, has been identified through PANI-X1. In the flexible electrochromic device, the Poly base (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, has been prepared in Propylene Carbonate, PC, being deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO. Also, both devices have been united by an electrolyte solution prepared with Vanadium Pentoxide, V2O5, Lithium Perchlorate, LiClO4, and Polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA. This device has been characterized through Electrical Measurements, such as UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Thus, the result obtained through electrical measurements has demonstrated that the flexible organic photovoltaic solar cell presented the characteristic curve of standard solar cell after spin-coating and electrodeposition. Accordingly, the results obtained with optical and electrical characterization have revealed that the electrochromic device demonstrated some change in optical absorption, when subjected to some voltage difference. Moreover, the inclusion of the V2O5/PANI-X1 layer reduced the effects of degradation that this hybrid organic device caused, that is, solar irradiation. Studies on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM have found out that the surface of V2O5/PANI-X1 layers can be strongly conditioned by the surface morphology of the

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Potentiostatically Electrodeposited Tungsten Oxide Thin Films for Smart Window Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, A. J.; Patil, R. S.; Dalavi, D. S.; Suryawanshi, M. P.; Burungale, V. V.; Kim, J. H.; Patil, P. S.

    2017-02-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films have been synthesized using electrodeposition in potentiostatic mode and the effect of different deposition potentials on their structural, morphological, optical, and electrochromic (EC) properties investigated. The deposition potential versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) was varied from -0.35 V to -0.50 V in steps of -0.05 V for 20 min each. The electrodeposited WO3 thin films were characterized using x-ray diffraction analysis, micro-Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, revealing amorphous nature with nanograins having average size from 40 nm to 60 nm. The EC performance of the WO3 thin films exhibited response times of 1.35 s for bleaching ( t b) and 3.1 s for coloration ( t c) with excellent reversibility of 64.36%. The highest coloration efficiency of the electrodeposited WO3 thin films was found to be 87.95 cm2/C. The electrochemical reversibility and stability of the WO3 thin films obtained in this study make them promising for use in smart window applications.

  16. Windowed versus windowless solar energy cavity receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, P. O.

    1976-09-01

    A model for a windowed, high-temperature cavity receiver of the heated-air type is developed and used to evaluate the greenhouse effect as a method for obtaining high receiver operating efficiencies. The effects on receiver efficiency of varying the window cutoff wavelength, the amount of absorption in the window pass-band, the cavity operating temperature, and the number of windows are determined. Single windowed cavities are found to offer theoretical efficiencies comparable to windowless ones, while multiple windowed units are found to suffer from low operating efficiencies due to losses resulting from reflections at each window/air interface. A ''first order'' examination is made of the feasibility of air cooling the window to assure its survival. This appears possible if a proper combination of cooling technique and window material characteristics is selected.

  17. Electrochromic performance of RF sputtered WO3 thin films by Li ion intercalation and de-intercalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, M.; Sivakumar, R.; Sivanantharaja, A.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2017-05-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films were prepared by RF sputtering technique at room temperature and 300°C as substrate temperatures keeping the sputtering powers as 100, 150, 200 and 250 W. Films were subjected various characterization like structural by XRD, surface morphology by SEM, composition analysis by EDX, and optical band gap by UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. Optimized films were used for iono-optical studies using Li ion as intercalation and de-intercalation. Electrochromic parameters were evolved and reported.

  18. Measured winter performance of storm windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2002-08-23

    Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

  19. Constructing three-dimensional quasi-vertical nanosheet architectures from self-assemble two-dimensional WO3·2H2O for efficient electrochromic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Haizeng; Wang, Jinmin; Shi, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) quasi-vertical nanosheet (QVNS) architectures are of great importance in the application of electrochromic devices due to its 3D porous structures, large surface area and lamellar permeable space of nanosheets. In this study, we demonstrate successful preparing of WO3·2H2O...... nanosheets via a novel and facile solution route and repurposing the typical electrodeposition technique to obtain 3D QVNS electrodes. The electrode was successfully assembled into an electrochromic device which exhibits good electrochromic performance....

  20. *NEW* CRITICAL Windows Security patches

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 3 October and 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued new CRITICAL security patches MS03-040 and MS03-039. They must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security holes and patches are at: MS03-039: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp MS03-040: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-040.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-040.asp

  1. Virus-templated iridium oxide-gold hybrid nanowires for electrochromic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoon Sung; Park, Heechul; Magyar, Andrew P.; Yun, Dong Soo; Pollom, Thomas S.; Belcher, Angela M.

    2012-05-01

    A highly porous electrode comprised of biologically templated iridium oxide-gold (IrO2-Au) hybrid nanowires is introduced for electrochromic applications. A filamentous M13 virus is genetically engineered to display IrO2-binding peptides on the viral surface and used as a template for the self-assembly of IrO2 nanoclusters into a nanowire. The open porous morphology of the prepared nanowire film facilitates ion transport. Subsequently, the redox kinetics of the IrO2 nanowires seems to be limited by the electric resistance of the nanowire film. To increase the electron mobility in the nanowires, gold nanoparticles are chemically linked to the virus prior to the IrO2 mineralization, forming a gold nanostring structure along the long axis of the virus. The resulting IrO2-Au hybrid nanowires exhibit a switching time of 35 ms for coloration and 25 ms for bleaching with a transmission change of about 30.5% at 425 nm. These values represent almost an order of magnitude faster switching responses than those of an IrO2 nanowire film having the similar optical contrast. This work shows that genetically engineered viruses can serve as versatile templates to co-assemble multiple functional molecules, enabling control of the electrochemical properties of nanomaterials.A highly porous electrode comprised of biologically templated iridium oxide-gold (IrO2-Au) hybrid nanowires is introduced for electrochromic applications. A filamentous M13 virus is genetically engineered to display IrO2-binding peptides on the viral surface and used as a template for the self-assembly of IrO2 nanoclusters into a nanowire. The open porous morphology of the prepared nanowire film facilitates ion transport. Subsequently, the redox kinetics of the IrO2 nanowires seems to be limited by the electric resistance of the nanowire film. To increase the electron mobility in the nanowires, gold nanoparticles are chemically linked to the virus prior to the IrO2 mineralization, forming a gold nanostring

  2. Temporal Windowing of Trapped States

    OpenAIRE

    Castellano, L. M.; Gonzalez, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    Trapped state definition for 3-level atoms in Lambda configuration, is a very restrictive one, and for the case of unpolarized beams, this definition no longer holds.We introduce a more general definition by using a reference frame rotating with the frequency of the control field, obtaining a temporal windowing for the trapped population.This amounts to a time quantization of the coherent population transfer, making possible to study the phase coherence in trapped light.

  3. Imidazolium-based ionic liquid derivatives for application in electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surca Vuk, A.; Jovanovski, V.; Jerman, I.; Orel, B. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pollet-Villard, A. [Joseph Fourier University, BP 53,- 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2008-02-15

    Novel proton-conducting electrolytes were prepared from the sol-gel precursor 1-[3-(trimethoxy-{lambda}{sup 4}-silyl)propyl]imidazole with the addition of either trifluoroacetic or acetic acid. The presence of trimethoxysilyl groups enabled the solvolysis and condensation reactions of silsesquioxane species. IR spectroscopy revealed that more cube-like species formed in the electrolyte prepared from trifluoroacetic acid, while cube- and ladder-like silsesquioxanes were present in the electrolyte with acetic acid. This assignation was independently confirmed by {sup 29}Si NMR analyses revealing the T{sup 3} signals of trisiloxane bonding. IR spectroscopy also pointed to the formation of hydrogen bonding in the latter electrolyte, since the frequencies of the observed bands at 1710, 1409, and 1272 cm{sup -1} approached those of acetic acid. In contrast, the IR bands at 1662, 1204, and 1130 cm{sup -1} confirmed the existence of trifluoroacetate anions in the case when the electrolyte was prepared from trifluoroacetic acid. The presence of free trifluoroacetate anions contributed to the moderately higher specific conductivity of this electrolyte (4.6 x 10{sup -5} S/cm) compared to that of acetic acid (1.6 x 10{sup -5} S/cm). The specific conductivity of the electrolytes could be further increased by the addition of a lithium salt. All electrolytes were employed in electrochromic devices with optically active WO{sub 3} and various inorganic counter-electrodes (CeVO{sub 4}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ti/V-oxide). Photopic transmittance changes from 30% to 40% were achieved. (author)

  4. Thermal performance analysis of an electrochromic vacuum glazing with low emittance coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Hyde, Trevor; Hewitt, Neil [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Eames, Philip C. [Centre for Research in Renewable Energy Science and Technology, University of Loughborough (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Energy Lab, Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-04-15

    Thermal performance of an electrochromic (EC) vacuum glazing (VG) was modelled under ASTM standard winter conditions. The EC VG comprised three 0.5 m by 0.5 m glass panes with a 0.12 mm wide evacuated space between two 4 mm thick panes sealed contiguously by a 6 mm wide indium based edge seal with either one or two low-emittance (low-e) coatings supported by a 0.32 mm diameter square pillar grid spaced at 25 mm. The third glass pane on which the 0.1 mm thick EC layer was deposited was sealed to the evacuated glass unit. The whole unit was rebated by 10 mm within a solid wood frame. The low-e coating absorbed 10% of solar energy incident on it. With the EC VG installed with the EC component facing the outdoor environment, for an incident solar radiation of 300 W m{sup -2}, simulations demonstrated that when the EC layer is opaque for winter conditions, the temperature of the inside glass pane is higher than the indoor air temperature, due to solar radiation absorbed by the low-e coatings and the EC layer, the EC VG is a heat source with heat transferred from the glazing to the interior environment. When the emittance was lower to 0.02, the outdoor and indoor glass pane temperatures of the glazing with single and two low-e coatings are very close to each other. For an insolation of 1000 W m{sup -2}, the outdoor glass pane temperature exceeds the indoor glass pane temperature, consequentially the outdoor glass pane transfers heat to the indoor glass pane. (author)

  5. Fabrication of transparent conductive tri-composite film for electrochromic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dahyun; Lee, Minji; Kim, Hyungsub; Chu, Won-shik; Chun, Doo-man; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2017-12-01

    A transparent conductive electrode (TCE) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was developed using a dry deposition method for application as an electrochromic (EC) device. To improve its electrical conductivity and stable EC performance, AgNW and TiO2 nanoparticles were included in the TCE film. The resulting TiO2/AgNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid film showed electrical sheet resistivity of 23 Ω/sq., similar to that of a commercial TCE film. When +2.0 V was applied to the hybrid film, the response current was stable, maintaining a value of 2.0 mA. We found that the hybrid film could be used as an EC device, without using commercial TCE film. Antimony-doped tin oxide on indium-doped tin oxide-glass as an ion-storage layer was combined with the hybrid film, with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMIM-TFSI) injected into the EC device as an ionic liquid electrolyte. The optical transmittance difference between the colored and bleached states was 23% at 630 nm; under applied voltages of -2.0 V and +2.0 V, the coloration efficiency was 127.83 cm2/C. Moreover, cyclic transmittance with switching voltage for 3 h showed stable optical transmittance of 31% at 630 nm. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicated stable behavior over 50 cycles. Thus, the proposed TCE configuration (TiO2/AgNW/PEDOT:PSS) shows great potential as a substitute for commercial TCEs, the cost of which depends on the availability of rare-earth materials.

  6. Window for preferred axion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luzio, Luca; Mescia, Federico; Nardi, Enrico

    2017-10-01

    We discuss phenomenological criteria for defining "axion windows," namely regions in the parameter space of the axion-photon coupling where realistic models live. Currently, the boundaries of this region depend on somewhat arbitrary criteria, and it would be highly desirable to specify them in terms of precise phenomenological requirements. We first focus on hadronic axion models within post-inflationary scenarios, in which the initial abundance of the new vectorlike quarks Q is thermal. We classify their representations RQ by requiring that (i) the Q are sufficiently short lived to avoid issues with long-lived strongly interacting relics, (ii) the theory remains weakly coupled up to the Planck scale. The more general case of multiple RQ is also studied, and the absolute upper and lower bounds on the axion-photon coupling as a function of the axion mass is identified. Pre-inflationary scenarios in which the axion decay constant remains bounded as fa≤5 ×1011 GeV allow for axion-photon couplings only about 20% larger. Realistic Dine-Fischler-Srednicki-Zhitnitsky type of axion models also remain encompassed within the hadronic axion window. Some mechanisms that can allow to enhance the axion-photon coupling to values sizeably above the preferred window are discussed.

  7. Microsoft Windows Intune 20 Quickstart Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Overton, David

    2012-01-01

    This book is a concise and practical tutorial that shows you how to plan, set up and maintain Windows Intune and manage a group of PCs. If you are an administrator or partner who wants to plan, set up and maintain Windows Intune and manage a group of PCs then this book is for you . You should have a basic understanding of Windows administration, however, knowledge of Windows Intune would not be required.

  8. The improvement of all-solid-state electrochromic devices fabricated with the reactive sputter and cathodic arc technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chuan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS and cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP technology has been developed for smart electrochromic (EC glass application. The EC layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The ion conductor layer Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better porous material structure for ion transportation and showed 1.76 times ion conductivity than devices with all sputtering process. At the same time, the EC layer WO3 and NiO deposited by the reactive DCMS have also provided the high quality and uniform characteristic to overcome the surface roughness effect of the CVAP ion conductor layer in multilayer device structure. The all-solid-state ECD with the CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (ΔT of 55% at 550nm and a faster-switching speed. Furthermore, the lower equipment cost and higher deposition rate could be achieved by the application of CVAP technology.

  9. Multifunctional carbon nanotubes/ruthenium purple thin films: preparation, characterization and study of application as sensors and electrochromic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Samantha; Zarbin, Aldo J G

    2015-04-07

    This work reports the preparation, characterization and application as both electrochromic materials and electrochemical sensors of novel materials: carbon nanotubes/ruthenium purple nanocomposites. Using an innovative route based on a heterogeneous electrochemical reaction involving iron oxide species encapsulated within the cavities of the carbon nanotubes, the nanocomposite materials were obtained as transparent thin films deposited over transparent electrodes. Several experimental parameters related to the nanocomposite synthesis were evaluated and related to the characteristics of the obtained materials, such as morphology and stability. The films were characterized by UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis and Raman spectroelectrochemistry. Four different materials were applied as H2O2 sensors and exhibited impressive analytical parameters, including a limit of detection of 1.27 nmol L(-1) and a sensitivity of 39.6 A M(-1) cm(-2). These nanocomposites also showed great electrochromic properties, with high stability and coloration efficiency over 95% maintained during stability cycles.

  10. Electro-optical evaluation of tungsten oxide and vanadium pentoxide thin films for modeling an electrochromic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Najafi Ashtiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tungsten oxide and vanadium oxide electrochromic thin films were placed in vacuum and in a thickness of 200 nm on a transparent conductive substrate of SnO2:F using the physical method of thermal evaporation. Then they were studied for the optical characteristics in the wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm and for their electrical potentials in the range form +1.5 to -1.5 volts. The films were post heated in order to assess changes in energy gap with temperature, at temperatures120 , 300 and 500°C. Refractive and extinction coefficients and the transition type of films in the visible light range and in the thickness of 200 nm were determined and measured. X-ray diffraction pattern and SEM images and cyclic Voltammetry of layers were also studied. The results of this study due to the deposition of layers, the layer thickness selected, the type of substrate, the range of annealing temperatures and selected electrolyte were in full compliance with the works of other researchers [1,2,3]. Therefore, these layers with features such as crystal structure, refractive and even extinction coefficients in the range of visible light, the appropriate response of chromic switch in the replication potential, good adhesion to the substrate, and the high amount of optical transmition and so on, prove useful to be used in an electrochromic device

  11. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). Le plan de migration à Windows 7 sera aussi débattu.

  12. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). Le plan de migration à Windows 7 sera aussi débattu.

  13. Windows Command Line Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion to any book on Windows Server 2008 or Windows 7, and the quickest way to access critical information. Focusing just on the essentials of command-line interface (CLI), Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference easily shows how to quickly perform day-to-day tasks of Windows administration without ever touching the graphical user interface (GUI). Specifically designed for busy administrators, Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference replaces many tedious GUI steps with just one command at the command-line, while concise, easy to access answers provid

  14. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  15. Microsoft Windows Server 2008 -tietoturva

    OpenAIRE

    Knuutinen, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tutkia ja testata Microsoftin Windows Server 2008 -käyttöjärjestelmän keskeisimpiä tietoturvaominaisuuksia keskittyen erityisesti Network Access Protection -suojausominaisuuteen. Opinnäytetyöprosessi alkoi marraskuussa 2009 ja valmistui lokakuun 2009 lopussa. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantaja Savonia-ammattikorkeakoulu toimitti työtä varten tarvitun laitteiston ja käyttöjärjestelmän. Tämä opinnäytetyö jakaantuu kahteen osioon, joista ensimmäisessä eli teor...

  16. Window Update Patterns in Stream Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patroumpas, Kostas; Sellis, Timos

    Continuous queries applied over nonterminating data streams usually specify windows in order to obtain an evolving -yet restricted- set of tuples and thus provide timely results. Among other typical variants, sliding windows are mostly employed in stream processing engines and several advanced techniques have been suggested for their incremental evaluation. In this paper, we set out to study the existence of monotonic-related semantics in windowing constructs towards a more efficient maintenance of their changing contents. We investigate update patterns observed in common window variants as well as their impact on windowed adaptations of typical operators (like selection, join or aggregation), offering more insight towards design and implementation of stream processing mechanisms. Finally, to demonstrate its significance, this framework is validated for several windowed operations against streaming datasets with simulations at diverse arrival rates and window sizes.

  17. Windows 2012 Server network security securing your Windows network systems and infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Rountree, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Windows 2012 Server Network Security provides the most in-depth guide to deploying and maintaining a secure Windows network. The book drills down into all the new features of Windows 2012 and provides practical, hands-on methods for securing your Windows systems networks, including: Secure remote access Network vulnerabilities and mitigations DHCP installations configuration MAC filtering DNS server security WINS installation configuration Securing wired and wireless connections Windows personal firewall

  18. Broken Windows and Collective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The broken windows thesis posits that signs of disorder increase crime and fear, both directly and indirectly. Although considerable theoretical evidence exists to support the idea that disorder is positively related to fear of crime, the empirical literature on examining the indirect effect of the individual’s perception of incivilities on fear of crime is limited, especially in developing countries. This research was conducted to assess the indirect relationship between perceived disorder and fear of crime through collective efficacy. A total of 235 households from Penang, Malaysia, participated in this study. Results reveal that high perception of disorder is negatively associated with collective efficacy. High collective efficacy is associated with low fear of crime. Moreover, a significant and indirect effect of disorder on fear of crime exists through collective efficacy. The results provide empirical support for the broken windows theory in the Malaysian context and suggest that both environmental conditions and interactions of residents play a role in the perceived fear of crime.

  19. A tunable electrochromic fabry-perot filter for adaptive optics applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaich, Jonathan David; Kammler, Daniel R.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Sweatt, William C.; Verley, Jason C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Yelton, William Graham

    2006-10-01

    The potential for electrochromic (EC) materials to be incorporated into a Fabry-Perot (FP) filter to allow modest amounts of tuning was evaluated by both experimental methods and modeling. A combination of chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD), and electrochemical methods was used to produce an ECFP film stack consisting of an EC WO{sub 3}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/NiO{sub x}H{sub y} film stack (with indium-tin-oxide electrodes) sandwiched between two Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} dielectric reflector stacks. A process to produce a NiO{sub x}H{sub y} charge storage layer that freed the EC stack from dependence on atmospheric humidity and allowed construction of this complex EC-FP stack was developed. The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) for each layer in the EC-FP film stack was measured between 300 and 1700 nm. A prototype EC-FP filter was produced that had a transmission at 500 nm of 36%, and a FWHM of 10 nm. A general modeling approach that takes into account the desired pass band location, pass band width, required transmission and EC optical constants in order to estimate the maximum tuning from an EC-FP filter was developed. Modeling shows that minor thickness changes in the prototype stack developed in this project should yield a filter with a transmission at 600 nm of 33% and a FWHM of 9.6 nm, which could be tuned to 598 nm with a FWHM of 12.1 nm and a transmission of 16%. Additional modeling shows that if the EC WO{sub 3} absorption centers were optimized, then a shift from 600 nm to 598 nm could be made with a FWHM of 11.3 nm and a transmission of 20%. If (at 600 nm) the FWHM is decreased to 1 nm and transmission maintained at a reasonable level (e.g. 30%), only fractions of a nm of tuning would be possible with the film stack considered in this study. These tradeoffs may improve at other wavelengths or with EC materials different than those considered here. Finally, based on our limited investigation and material set

  20. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an

  1. MS Windows domēna darbstaciju migrācija no MS Windows XP uz Windows Vista.

    OpenAIRE

    Tetere, Agate

    2009-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbā izpētīju darbstaciju migrācijas no Windows XP uz Windows Vista plusus un mīnusus. Darba gaitā tika veikti sekojoši uzdevumi: 1.Veikta Windows XP un Windows Vista darbstaciju instalācija, iestatījumu konfigurēšana un tika pārbaudīta sistēmas darbība 2.Veikta Windows Server 2003 un Windows Server 2008 instalācija, iestatījumu konfigurēšana un tika pārbaudīta sistēmas darbība 3.Izstrādāts migrācijas modelis 4.Veikta migrācijas optimizēšana 5.Veikta datu migrāc...

  2. Editorial - Opening windows onto data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Winters

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of Internet Archaeology's strengths and 'unique selling points' not yet replicated by (many other e-journals, is that data is integrated into articles rather than being 'supplementary' or offered for download. The aim has always been for the narrative to be a wave driving readers towards the underlying data. Opening windows onto the data from within the text is one of the things I think the journal does best and is a feature used throughout Emma Durham's article 'Depicting the gods: metal figurines in Roman Britain'. Archaeological data does not speak for itself. It needs a narrative. It needs context. But by intermeshing data with interpretation, readers can dip into the data and start to explore it while reading the article, allowing a more immediate understanding of the bigger picture.

  3. Instant Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Vinith

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical, hands-on tutorial approach that explores the concepts of PowerShell in a friendly manner, taking an adhoc approach to each topic.If you are an administrator who is new to PowerShell or are looking to get a good grounding in these new features, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PowerShell and Windows Server, as well being familiar with the PowerShell command-line.

  4. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping, E-mail: dpc31@cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank [Thin Film Centre, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Smithwick, Quinn [Disney Research, 521 Circle Seven Drive, Glendale, Los Angeles, California 91201 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO{sub x} thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm{sup 2}, exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively.

  5. Effect of solution molarity on optical dispersion energy parameters and electrochromic performance of Co3O4 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, C. Ravi; Venkatesh, R.; Sivakumar, R.; Raj, A. Moses Ezhil; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2017-10-01

    Co3O4 films were deposited on glass and FTO (F:SnO2) substrates by different solution molarities (0.05-0.20 M) through nebulizer spray technique. The crystalline quality of the films was evaluated by X-ray diffraction. The morphological variation of Co3O4 films for different solution concentration was observed from scanning electron microscopy. Optical constants (n and k) and dispersion energy parameters were calculated by fitting the transmittance curves using Swanepoel envelope method. The electrical parameters such as sheet resistance and activation energy were estimated using four probe method. The electrochromic performance of the films was analyzed by electrochemical measurements such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronocoulometry and optical contrast studies.

  6. A Thiophene-Containing Conductive Metallopolymer Using an Fe(II) Bis(terpyridine) Core for Electrochromic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yawei; Strohecker, Daniel; Lynch, Vincent; Holliday, Bradley J; Jones, Richard A

    2016-12-21

    Three Fe(II) bis(terpyridine)-based complexes with thiophene (Fe(L1)2), bithiophene (Fe(L2)2), and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (Fe(L3)2) side chains were designed and synthesized for the purpose of providing two terminal active sites for electrochemical polymerization. The corresponding metallopolymers (poly-Fe(Ln)2, n = 2 or 3) were synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates via oxidative electropolymerization of the thiophene-substituted monomers and characterized using electrochemistry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The film poly-Fe(L2)2 was further studied for electrochromic (EC) color-switching properties and fabricated into a solid-state EC device. Poly-Fe(L2)2 films exhibit an intense MLCT absorption band at 596 nm (ε = 4.7 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1)) in the UV-vis spectra without any applied voltage. Upon application of low potentials (between 1.1 and 0.4 V vs Fc(+)/Fc), the obtained electropolymerized film exhibited great contrast with a change of transmittance percentage (ΔT%) of 40% and a high coloration efficiency of 3823 cm(2) C(-1) with a switching time of 1 s. The film demonstrates commonplace stability and reversibility with a 10% loss in peak current intensity after 200 cyclic voltammetry cycles and almost no loss in change of transmittance (ΔT%) after 900 potential switches between 1.1 and 0.4 V (vs Fc(+)/Fc) with a time interval of 0.75 s. The electropolymerization of Fe(L2)2 provides convenient and controllable film fabrication. Electrochromic behavior was also achieved in a solid-state device composed of a poly-Fe(L2)2 film and a polymer-supported electrolyte sandwiched between two ITO-coated glass electrodes.

  7. Chemically fabricated LiFePO{sub 4} thin film electrode for transparent batteries and electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Béléké, Alexis B. [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, M.H. Wong Building, 3610 rue University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Faure, Cyril [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Röder, Manuel [Center for Applied Electrochemistry, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Neunerplatz 2, 97083 Würzburg (Germany); Hovington, Pierre [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Posset, Uwe [Center for Applied Electrochemistry, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Neunerplatz 2, 97083 Würzburg (Germany); Guerfi, Abdelbast [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Zaghib, Karim, E-mail: zaghib.karim@ireq.ca [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Simplified diagram of the novel sol-gel approach of preparation of colorless and transparent LiFePO{sub 4} thin film electrode. - Highlights: • Novel sol-gel synthesis of colorless LFP thin film electrode for transparent Li-ion battery. • High performance of the electrode at various current densities: 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 μA/cm{sup 2}. • LFP nanoparticles exhibit an excellent electro-activity. • Colorless LFP thin film shows a transmittance above 80% versus FTO. • Higher transmittance of LFP electrode a potential candidate for electrochromic devices. - Abstract: We report a new sol-gel approach of synthesis of LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) thin film and its application as cathode materials for transparent Li-ion battery in half-cell configuration. LFP thin films were obtained from an alcoholic colloidal suspension of iron acetylacetonate (Fe(AcAc){sub 3}) and aqueous lithium dihydrogen phosphate (LiH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) deposited on fluorine tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, followed by heating at 450 °C under nitrogen gas for 1 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that the LFP films have an orthorhombic crystal system with space group Pnma (62). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows spherical LFP nanoparticles aggregates homogenously deposited all over the surface of FTO substrate containing 3-D open pores. The electrochemical behaviors of thin film vs Li/Li{sup +} cell were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The cycle life was evaluated by running 1000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 20 μA/cm{sup 2}. The transmission spectra reveal 85–90% of transparency versus FTO as reference, which makes it a potential candidate as a complementary electrode in electrochromic devices (ECDs).

  8. Microsoft Windows 7 Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2010-01-01

    An on-the-spot reference for Windows 7 administrators. Hundreds of thousands of IT administrators, network administrators, and IT support technicians work daily with Windows 7. This well-organized, portable reference covers every facet of Windows 7, providing no-nonsense instruction that is readily accessible when you need it. Designed for busy administrators, it features thumb tabs and chapter outlines to make answers easy to find.: Windows 7 administrative and support personnel need quick answers to situations they confront each day; this Instant Reference is designed to provide information,

  9. Windows 8.1 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling book on Windows, now updated for the new 8.1 features Microsoft has fine-tuned Windows 8 with some important new features, and veteran author Andy Rathbone explains every one in this all-new edition of a long-time bestseller. Whether you're using Windows for the first time, upgrading from an older version, or just moving from Windows 8 to 8.1, here's what you need to know. Learn about the dual interfaces, the new Start button, how to customize the interface and boot operations, and how to work with programs and files, use the web and social media, manage music and photos, and

  10. Windows PowerShell 20 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Thomas; Schill, Mark E; Tanasovski, Tome

    2011-01-01

    Here's the complete guide to Windows PowerShell 2.0 for administrators and developers Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's next-generation scripting and automation language. This comprehensive volume provides the background that IT administrators and developers need in order to start using PowerShell automation in exciting new ways. It explains what PowerShell is, how to use the language, and specific ways to apply PowerShell in various technologies. Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's standard automation tool and something that every Windows administrator will eventually have to understand; this b

  11. Scott Brothers Windows and Doors Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Brothers Windows and Doors (the Company) is located in Bridgeville, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  12. Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Find in-depth coverage of general networking concepts and basic instruction on Windows Server 2008 installation and management including active directory, DNS, Windows storage, and TCP/IP and IPv4 networking basics in Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations. One of three new books by best-selling author Mark Minasi, this guide explains what servers do, how basic networking works (IP basics and DNS/WINS basics), and the fundamentals of the under-the-hood technologies that support staff must understand. Learn how to install Windows Server 2008 and build a simple network, security co

  13. Windows 7 Annoyances Tips, Secrets, and Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, David

    2010-01-01

    Windows 7 may be faster and more stable than Vista, but it's a far cry from problem-free. David A. Karp comes to the rescue with the latest in his popular Windows Annoyances series. This thorough guide gives you the tools you need to fix the troublesome parts of this operating system, plus the solutions, hacks, and timesaving tips to make the most of your PC. Streamline Windows Explorer, improve the Search tool, eliminate the Green Ribbon of Death, and tame User Account Control promptsExplore powerful Registry tips and tools, and use them to customize every aspect of Windows and solve its sho

  14. Behaviour of one-step spray-coated carbon nanotube supercapacitor in ambient light harvester circuit with printed organic solar cell and electrochromic display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuukkanen, Sampo; Välimäki, Marja; Lehtimäki, Suvi; Vuorinen, Tiina; Lupo, Donald

    2016-03-09

    A printed energy harvesting and storage circuit powered by ambient office lighting and its use to power a printed display is reported. The autonomous device is composed of three printed electronic components: an organic photovoltaic module, a carbon-nanotubes-only supercapacitor and an electrochromic display element. Components are fabricated from safe and environmentally friendly materials, and have been fabricated using solution processing methods, which translate into low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing. A supercapacitor made of spray-coated carbon nanotube based ink and aqueous NaCl electrolyte was charged using a printed organic photovoltaic module exposed to office lighting conditions. The supercapacitor charging rate, self-discharge rate and display operation were studied in detail. The supercapacitor self-discharge rate was found to depend on the charging rate. The fully charged supercapacitor was used as a power source to run the electrochromic display over 50 times.

  15. Conjugated polymer network films of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) with hole-transporting carbazole pendants: dual photoluminescence and electrochromic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnapati, Ramakrishna; Felipe, Mary Jane; Muthalagu, Vetrichelvan; Puno, Katherine; Wolff, Birte; Advincula, Rigoberto

    2012-03-01

    A series of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) copolymers functionalized with hole-transport and electrochemically active carbazole units as pendant moieties is reported. These polymers exhibit photoluminescence properties by virtue of the PPV analogous backbone. They were also designed as precursor polymer bearing the electroactive carbazole group to form conjugated polymer network (CPN) films by electrodeposition. The electrochemical polymerization of the pendant units eventually lead to a dual property electro-optically active thin film - photoluminescence (PL) behavior that can be attenuated with CPN formation, and a reversible doping and dedoping processes at controlled potentials that lead to an electrochromic behavior. This reveals the ability to incorporate complementary optical and electro-optical properties within the same film using the CPN approach. It should be possible to design and synthesize other PPV π-conjugated polymers with efficient pendant hole-transport groups exhibiting tunable PL and electrochromism with cross-linking. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Functional heterogeneity of the fucoxanthins and fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins in diatom cells revealed by their electrochromic response and fluorescence and linear dichroism spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Milán; Premvardhan, Lavanya; Lepetit, Bernard; Goss, Reimund; Wilhelm, Christian; Garab, Győző

    2010-07-01

    In this work, by analyzing the electrochromic transient spectra, the 77 K fluorescence emission and excitation, as well as the linear dichroism (LD) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of low-light (LL) and high-light (HL) grown Phaeodactylum tricornutum cells, we show that the fucoxanthins (Fx) and fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins (FCP) exhibit marked functional heterogeneity. Electrochromic transients reveal that LL and HL cells differ substantially in their relative contents of two Fx forms, which absorb at 501 and 550 nm; they exhibit distinct LD signals but are CD silent. Fluorescence emission and excitation spectra at 77 K reveal that although both forms efficiently transfer excitation energy to Chl a, the red form feeds somewhat more energy to photosystem II than to photosystem I. Similar data obtained in Cyclotella meneghiniana cells suggest that the heterogeneity of the FCP pool, with different Fx forms, plays a role in the regulation of energy utilization in FCP-containing organisms.

  17. The effects of heat treatment on optical, structural, electrochromic and bonding properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coşkun, Özlem Duyar, E-mail: duyar@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Physics Engineering, Thin Film Preparation and Characterization Laboratory, Ankara (Turkey); Demirel, Selen, E-mail: nymph24@gmail.com [Hacettepe University, Department of Physics Engineering, Thin Film Preparation and Characterization Laboratory, Ankara (Turkey); Hacettepe University, Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Department, Ankara (Turkey); Atak, Gamze, E-mail: gbaser@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Physics Engineering, Thin Film Preparation and Characterization Laboratory, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-11-05

    Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were deposited onto heated glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering using a Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} target. The films were annealed in air at temperatures between 400 and 700 °C for 6 h. Effects of the crystalline structure on optical, structural, electrochromic and bonding properties of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, optical spectrophotometry and electrochemical measurements. The film refractive index varied between 2.09 and 2.22 at the wavelength of 550 nm depending on the annealing temperature. The decrease of the optical band gap revealed for the films with increasing annealing temperature is attributed to oxygen-ion vacancies in the film structure. The orthorhombic structure of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films resulted in good electrochromic properties with high colouration efficiencies of 19.56 cm{sup 2}/C and 53.24 cm{sup 2}/C at 550 nm and 1000 nm, respectively. The optical, structural and electrochromic properties of the different crystalline polymorphic forms of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films make them attractive for optical applications. - Highlights: • Stoichiometric Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films prepared using RF magnetron sputtering technique. • The different crystalline forms of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films obtained by annealing. • The optical, structural and electrochromic properties of the films were investigated. • The optical band gap decreased with increasing annealing temperature. • The orthorhombic T-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films exhibited a higher colouration efficiency.

  18. High-performance flexible electrochromic device based on facile semiconductor-to-metal transition realized by WO3·2H2O ultrathin nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lin; Zhang, Jiajia; Zhou, Yingying; Xie, Junfeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Guan, Meili; Pan, Bicai; Xie, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin nanosheets are considered as one kind of the most promising candidates for the fabrication of flexible electrochromic devices (ECDs) due to their permeable channels, high specific surface areas, and good contact with the substrate. Herein, we first report the synthesis of large-area nanosheets of tungsten oxide dihydrate (WO3·2H2O) with a thickness of only about 1.4 nm, showing much higher Li+ diffusion coefficients than those of the bulk counterpart. The WO3·2H2O ultrathin nanosheets are successfully assembled into the electrode of flexible electrochromic device, which exhibits wide optical modulation, fast color-switching speed, high coloration efficiency, good cyclic stability and excellent flexibility. Moreover, the electrochromic mechanism of WO3·2H2O is further investigated by first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations, in which the relationship between structural features of ultrathin nanosheets and coloration/bleaching response speed is revealed. PMID:23728489

  19. Stability-enhanced indium hexacyanoferrate electrodes: Morphological characterization, in situ EQCM analysis in nonaqueous electrolytes and application to a WO{sub 3} electrochromic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.-F. [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-C. [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Bioenergy Research Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chenlinchi@ntu.edu.tw

    2008-06-30

    This paper presents a promising transparent counterelectrode system for a WO{sub 3} electrochromic device (ECD) on the basis of a stability-enhanced indium hexacyanoferrate (InHCF) electrode and a NaClO{sub 4}/propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte. Through SEM characterization it was found that clusters of granular InHCF nanoparticles (ca. 80-140 nm) were deposited on ITO substrates in HCl and KCl-stabilized plating solutions, and uniform micrometer thick films with high charge capacity could be obtained. From in situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study, it was discovered that Na{sup +} would enter or move out from the InHCF film in the 'desolvated' form during the redox process in a PC electrolyte. Besides, NaClO{sub 4}/PC resulted in higher electrochemical activity and reversibility than LiClO{sub 4}/PC. With these discoveries, a durable WO{sub 3}-InHCF ECD featuring blue-to-colorless electrochromism was fabricated successfully. The device remained 73.6 and 88.7% of its initial {delta}T values at 600 and 800 nm after 40,000 rapid and successive coloring/bleaching cycles, respectively. Moreover, the cycling-induced loss of electrochromic performance almost completely restored after 1-month rest and kept unchanged for another month. Thus, the applicability of this nonaqueous InHCF counterelectrode system to ECDs was verified.

  20. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael

    2013-12-05

    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  1. Supporting Multiple Pointing Devices in Microsoft Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a Microsoft Windows driver including APIs supporting multiple pointing devices is presented. Microsoft Windows does not natively support multiple pointing devices controlling independent cursors, and a number of solutions to this have been implemented by us...

  2. Thermal Bridge Effects in Window Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report thermal bridge effects in window grooves are analyzed. The analysis is performed using different thicknesses of the window groove insulation, to evaluate what the optimal solution is.All analysis in the report is performed using both 2- and 3-dimensional numerical analysis....

  3. Location of an acoustic window in dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V V; Supin, A Y

    1990-01-15

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to sound clicks from sources in different positions were recorded in dolphins Inia geoffrensis. The position of the acoustic window was determined by measurement of acoustic delays. The acoustic window was found to lie close to the auditory meatus and the bulla rather than on the lower jaw.

  4. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  5. What are windows on language evolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    This chapter offers an elucidation of the idea that certain phenomena provide windows on language evolution. Non-metaphorically, such windows are shown to be conceptual constructs used for making inferences about aspects of language evolution from data or assumptions about properties of

  6. Android is the new Windows

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Do you recall the early virus attacks in the early 2000s? “Blaster”, “I love you” and “Slammer” were attacking the pretty much unprotected Microsoft Windows operating system.   While Microsoft has been hit hard in the past, they have tried to improve and are now on a par with other software vendors. Today, they can even be happy that Android is taking over the baton - at least on mobile platforms. According to the Sophos 2013 Security Threat Report “Android [is] today’s the biggest target” and Android devices in Australia and the U.S. experienced even more malware attacks, whether successful or unsuccessful, than PCs during the past three months. The Kaspersky security company recently added that 99% of all mobile threats target Android. Lucky you if you use an iPhone, or a good old Nokia with no Internet connectivity at all. But why is that? It is partly down to the same fac...

  7. Windows 8 app projects XAML and C#

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeir, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Become a leading Windows 8 app developer by using Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition to learn techniques, tools, and ideas to create successful, 5-star apps. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition shows you the nuts and bolts of the Windows 8 development ecosystem. Then, through a series of example driven chapters, you'll discover how to leverage the platform's unique features. With each project, you'll be one step closer to building full-featured, responsive, and well designed apps that feel like they're a part of the operating system. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edit

  8. Compact UHV valve with field replaceable windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Freeman, J. (VAT, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)); Powell, F. (Luxel, Inc., Friday Harbor, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    There are many applications in synchrotron radiation research where window valves can be usefully employed. Examples include gas cells for monochromator calibration, filters for high order light rejection, and as vacuum isolation elements between machine and experimental vacua. Often these devices are fairly expensive, and have only fixed (ie non-removable) windows. The development of a new type of seal technology by VAT for their series 01 valves provides a gate surface which is free from obstructions due to internal mechanical elements. This feature allows a threaded recess to be machined into the gate to receive a removable window frame which can carry standard size Luxel thin film windows. The combination of these features results in a DN 40 (2.75in. conflat flange) valve which provides a clear aperture of 21mm diameter for the window material. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Mastering Windows Server 2012 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Booth, Christian; Butler, Robert; McCabe, John; Panek, Robert; Rice, Michael; Roth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Check out the new Hyper-V, find new and easier ways to remotely connect back into the office, or learn all about Storage Spaces-these are just a few of the features in Windows Server 2012 R2 that are explained in this updated edition from Windows authority Mark Minasi and a team of Windows Server experts led by Kevin Greene. This book gets you up to speed on all of the new features and functions of Windows Server, and includes real-world scenarios to put them in perspective. If you're a system administrator upgrading to, migrating to, or managing Windows Server 2012 R2, find what you need to

  10. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... frame profiles is to make enough space for hinges and fasteners and still maintaining the functionality and strength of the window. Proposals for new hinges and fasteners is also given in this paper....... window is made of fiber-reinforced plastic (plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass). This composite material is a weatherproof material with very low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. These properties make the material very suitable for frame profiles due to lower heat loss...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  11. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... frame profiles is to make enough space for hinges and fasteners and still maintaining the functionality and strength of the window. Proposals for new hinges and fasteners is also given in this paper....... window is made of fiber-reinforced plastic (plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass). This composite material is a weatherproof material with very low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. These properties make the material very suitable for frame profiles due to lower heat loss...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  12. AN ASSESSMENT OF MCNP WEIGHT WINDOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. S. HENDRICKS; C. N. CULBERTSON

    2000-01-01

    The weight window variance reduction method in the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code MCNPTM has recently been rewritten. In particular, it is now possible to generate weight window importance functions on a superimposed mesh, eliminating the need to subdivide geometries for variance reduction purposes. Our assessment addresses the following questions: (1) Does the new MCNP4C treatment utilize weight windows as well as the former MCNP4B treatment? (2) Does the new MCNP4C weight window generator generate importance functions as well as MCNP4B? (3) How do superimposed mesh weight windows compare to cell-based weight windows? (4) What are the shortcomings of the new MCNP4C weight window generator? Our assessment was carried out with five neutron and photon shielding problems chosen for their demanding variance reduction requirements. The problems were an oil well logging problem, the Oak Ridge fusion shielding benchmark problem, a photon skyshine problem, an air-over-ground problem, and a sample problem for variance reduction.

  13. Window technology in the future. Ikkunateknologian kehitysnaekymaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmilae, K.

    1993-01-01

    The research analysed the latest applications in window and glazing technology as well as inventions. In the report the main thrust was on solutions influencing energy conservation and the comfort within buildings. The report is based on literature-based research. Window glazing technology has developed greatly in twenty years, and progress appears to be powering ahead unbeaten. Today, the selection of materials can influence light and heat penetrating in through a window as well as affecting heat loss. At present it is possible to manufacture selective coatings, sealed glazing units and filler gases to produce superwindows with a thermal transmittance only a third of present-day triple glazed windows. These superwindows are still considerably more expensive than present windows, but the price difference will become smaller as the quantities manufactured increase and as manufacturing technology progresses. In a few years, glazing will be available whose light and thermal transmittance can be controlled by electricity, temperature of glass or lightning conditions. These electrochromatic, thermochromatic and photochromatic glass panes will eventually partly replace solar control glass, awnings and blinds. The most promising window glazing type for the future, in terms of energy conservation, is vacuum glazing. This will raise the thermal insulation of a window to the same level as that of the wall. However, there are major difficulties in producing vacuum glazing, resulting from the stress of temperature difference and air pressure, in addition to technical manufacturing difficulties. It is estimated it will take ten years to overcome these and other problems of manufacturing technology

  14. AN INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS 2000 AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A demonstration of the new supported Windows environment for all the CERN personal computers (PC) will be given which is based on Windows 2000. This presentation will assume little or no familiarity with the PC, or NICE, and will concentrate on the services being offered to the users of PCs at CERN. How NICE 2000 can facilitate the work of all users, eventually becoming the key access point to all activities in the laboratory will be demonstrated. Date Title Language Location Speaker Fri 1/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Alberto Pace Tue 5/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F LHC Auditorium (30/7th floor) Frederic Hemmer Tue 5/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL Auditorium (864/1s floor) Michel Bornand Tue 5/6 14:00 An introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN E IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Andreas Wagner Wed 6/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL ...

  15. Teach yourself visually Windows 8 tablets

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A visual guide to all the features of the new Windows 8 Tablet This must-have resource features visually rich, step-by-step instructions that show you how to get the most enjoyment from your Windows 8 tablet. Learn about the exciting new Metro UI, optimized specifically for touch devices. The most popular and commonly used apps and functions are covered too, along with the basics of syncing with a network, setting up e-mail, watching videos, listening to music, and common productivity tasks. This book provides all the guidance needed to enjoy all the best the new Windows 8 tablets have to offe

  16. CSS for Windows 8 app development

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    CSS for Windows 8 App Development is your learning guide for CSS - the language of great Windows 8-style apps. Learn the built-in styles that make the built-in controls shine, how to define them, and how to use CSS to give your custom app assets that beautiful Modern UI style. CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is the clear standard for styling web applications, and with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript now powering apps on Windows 8, it's the clear standard there as well. CSS is a powerful styling and layout language that greatly simplifies the selection of page elements and their visual display, layout,

  17. A Memristor Model with Piecewise Window Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a memristor model with piecewise window function, which is continuously differentiable and consists of three nonlinear pieces. By introducing two parameters, the shape of this window function can be flexibly adjusted to model different types of memristors. Using this model, one can easily obtain an expression of memristance depending on charge, from which the numerical value of memristance can be readily calculated for any given charge, and eliminate the error occurring in the simulation of some existing window function models.

  18. Windows PowerShell Quick Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Lee

    2006-01-01

    For years, support for scripting and command-line administration on the Windows platform has paled in comparison to the support offered by the Unix platform. Unix administrators enjoyed the immense power and productivity of their command shells, while Windows administrators watched in envy. Windows PowerShell, Microsoft's next-generation command shell and scripting language, changes this landscape completely. This Short Cut contains the essential reference material to help you get your work done-including the scripting language syntax, a regular-expression reference, useful .NET classes, an

  19. Windows Server 2012 ja Active Directory

    OpenAIRE

    Eteläaho, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tutustua Windows Server 2012–ohjelmiston sisältämiin palveluihin sekä perehtyä tarkemmin Active Directoryn peruskäyttöön. Tavoitteena oli antaa lukijalle ymmärrys Windows Server 2012–ohjelmiston tarjoamista käyttömahdollisuuksista ja Active Directoryn käytöstä. Opinnäytetyön tietoperusta koostui virtuaaliympäristön käytöstä ja erilaisista Windows Server 2012–ohjelman palveluista. Tietoperusta kattoi esimerkiksi seuraavat käsitteet: Virtuaalisointi, Emulointi, Ohj...

  20. Microsoft Windows Server 2012 administration instant reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hester, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Fast, accurate answers for common Windows Server questions Serving as a perfect companion to all Windows Server books, this reference provides you with quick and easily searchable solutions to day-to-day challenges of Microsoft's newest version of Windows Server. Using helpful design features such as thumb tabs, tables of contents, and special heading treatments, this resource boasts a smooth and seamless approach to finding information. Plus, quick-reference tables and lists provide additional on-the-spot answers. Covers such key topics as server roles and functionality, u

  1. Time Modeling: Salvatore Sciarrino, Windows and Beclouding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Tadeu de Camargo Piedade

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I intend to discuss one of the figures created by the Italian composer Salvatore Sciarrino: the windowed form. After the composer's explanation of this figure, I argue that windows in composition can open inwards and outwards the musical discourse. On one side, they point to the composition's inner ambiences and constitute an internal remission. On the other, they instigate the audience to comprehend the external reference, thereby constructing intertextuality. After the outward window form, I will consider some techniques of distortion, particularly one that I call beclouding. To conclude, I will comment the question of memory and of compostition as time modeling.

  2. Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae Claxton

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available “Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s,” Photographs, p. 16, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty FoundationAn African American woman, dressed in her Saturday go-to-town-best, stands outside a store window, chin in hand, contemplating the contents in the window. The image is reflective and thoughtful. What is she thinking? And what lies beyond the frame of this photograph? In Mississippi in the 1930s, could she walk into this store, perhaps try on clothes or hats, and make a purchase? I...

  3. Windows 8 & Office 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Two complete e-books covering Windows and Office for one low price! This unique value-priced e-book set brings together two bestselling For Dummies books in a single e-book file. Including a comprehensive table of contents and the full text of each book, complete with cover, this e-book set gives you in-depth information on the leading PC productivity tools: Windows 8 and Office 2010. Best of all, you'll pay less than the cost of each book purchased separately. You'll get the complete text of: Windows 8 For Dummies, which covers The core component

  4. Microsoft Windows Server 2003: Security Enhancements and New Features

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montehermoso, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    .... Windows NT and Windows 2000 were known to have numerous security vulnerabilities; hence Microsoft focused on improving security by making Windows Server 2003 secure by design, secure by default, secure in deployment...

  5. Tests of RF windows in the resonant ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakin, V.E.; Klyuev, V.F.; Lukin, A.N.; Minkov, A.V.; Pirogov, O.V.; Samoylov, S.L.; Khavin, N.G.; Shemelin, V.D.; Yasnov, G.I. [Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, SB of RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-04-01

    Klystron output window testing was performed with the help of traveling wave resonators. Two versions of windows were tested. After design modifications, the maximal power transmitted through the window increased up to 40 MW. (J.P.N)

  6. The window of opportunity for treatment withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic

    2011-03-01

    Physicians sometimes refer to a "window of opportunity" for withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in patients with acute severe brain injury. There is a period of critical illness and physiological instability when treatment withdrawal is likely to be followed by death but prognosis is uncertain. If decisions are delayed, greater prognostic certainty can be achieved, but with the risk that the patient is no longer dependent on life support and survives with very severe disability. In this article I draw on the example of birth asphyxia and highlight the role that the window of opportunity sometimes plays in decisions about life-sustaining treatment in intensive care. I outline the potential arguments in favor of and against taking the window into account. I argue that it is, at least sometimes, ethical and appropriate for physicians and parents to be influenced by the window of opportunity in their decisions about life-sustaining treatment.

  7. Salutogenic Window of Opportunity in Nutrition Promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.; Swan, E.C.

    2013-01-01

    Their workshop will discuss Antonovsky’s Salutogenic Framework and how it offers a window of opportunity for enabling healthy lifestyle practices and nutrition promotion. During the interactive workshop, participants will have the opportunity to practice Salutogenic thinking through discussion,

  8. Translational nanomedicine--through the therapeutic window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic effect, a second definition of the therapeutic window refers to the often narrow temporal window in which a therapeutic effect can be obtained. Expanding the second definition to explicitly include the spatial dimension, this article explores aspects of the therapeutic spaces created by nanomedicine that shift the traditional dimensions of symptom, sign and pathology. This article analyzes three aspects of the therapeutic window in nanomedicine - temporal, spatial and manner of construction and their impact on the dimensions of modern medicine.

  9. Microsoft Windows 2000 Router Configuration Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richburg, Florence

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide technical guidance to network administrators of small to medium size networks in the configuration and integration of Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Router features...

  10. Microsoft Windows 2000 Network Architecture Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartock, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to inform the reader about the services that are available in the Microsoft Windows 2000 environment and how to integrate these services into their network architecture...

  11. Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bismarck, North Dakota. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Bismarck, North Dakota.

  12. Upstate Windows and Exteriors Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upstate Windows and Exteriors (the Company) is located in Greenville, South Carolina. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Greenville and Easley, South Carolina.

  13. Windows XP Operating System Security Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goktepe, Meftun

    2002-01-01

    .... In this research we performed a security analysis of the Windows XP operating system, assessed its vulnerabilities and made recommendations for XP configurations and use as an extension of enterprise...

  14. Rumor Detection over Varying Time Windows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sejeong Kwon; Meeyoung Cha; Kyomin Jung

    2017-01-01

      This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows--from the first three days to nearly two months...

  15. Dynamic TCP acknowledgment with sliding window

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koga, Hisashi

    .... However, its framework does not consider the sliding window in the TCP protocol that restricts the maximum number of packets that the sender can inject into the network without an acknowledgement...

  16. Holographic window for solar power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasezawa, Toshihiro; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tabuchi, Hiroshi; Shimura, Tsutomu

    2016-12-01

    A new photovoltaic generation unit based on the application of holographic technologies called a Holo-Window is proposed in this work. The basic principle and the optical configuration used for the basic experimental unit are described. Suitable fabrication technology for a hologram with the broadband spectrum required to provide the appropriate sunlight capture capability is then discussed. Finally, a laboratory-prototype Holo-Window unit was developed and its performance was evaluated.

  17. Characteristics of Air Flow through Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Dam, Henrik; Sørensen, Lars C.

    This paper describes the first results of a series of laboratory investigations that is performed to characterise three different window types. The results show the air flow conditions for different ventilation strategies and temperature differences. For one of the windows values of the discharge...... coefficient are shown for both isothermal and non-isothermal flow conditions and the thermal comfort conditions are evaluated by measurements of velocity and temperature levels in the air flow in the occupied zone....

  18. Windows in Low Energy Houses. Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Mari-Louise

    2004-06-01

    A generally accepted way of building passive houses has been to have small windows facing north and a large glass facade to the south. This is to minimize losses on the north side while gaining as much solar heat as possible on the south. In spring 2001, twenty terraced houses were built outside Goeteborg partly in this way. The indoor temperature is kept at a comfortable level by passive methods, using solar gains and internal gains from household appliances and occupants. Heat losses are very low, since the building envelope is well insulated and since modern coated triple-glazed windows have been installed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how decreasing the window size facing south and increasing the window size facing north in low energy houses will influence the energy consumption and maximum power needed to keep the indoor temperature between 23 and 26 deg C. Different climates and orientations have been investigated and so have the influence of occupancy and window type. A dynamic building simulation tool, DEROB, has been used and the simulations indicate an extremely low energy demand for the houses. The results show that the size of the energy efficient windows does not have a major influence on the heating demand in winter, but is of relevant signification looking at the cooling need in summer. This indicates that instead of the traditional technique of building passive houses it is possible to enlarge the window area facing north and get better lighting conditions. To decrease the energy need for cooling, there is an optimal window size facing south that is smaller than the original size of the investigated buildings.

  19. High performance solar control office windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.J.

    1977-12-01

    Investigations conducted over a 9 month period on the use of ion beam sputtering methods for the fabrication of solar control windows for energy conservation are described. Principal emphasis was placed on colored, reflecting, heat rejecting, office building windows for reducing air conditioning loads and to aid in the design of energy conserving buildings. The coating techniques were developed primarily for use with conventional absorbing plate glass such as PPG solarbronze, but were also demonstrated on plastic substrates for retrofit applications. Extensive material investigations were conducted to determine the optimum obtainable characteristics, with associated weathering studies as appropriate aimed at achieving a 20 year minimum life. Conservative estimates indicate that successful commercialization of the windows developed under this program would result in energy savings of 16,000,000 barrels of oil/year by 1990 if installation were only 10 percent of new commercial building stock. These estimates are relative to existing design for energy conserving windows. Installation in a greater percentage of new stock and for retrofit applications could lead to proportionately greater energy savings. All such installations are projected as cost effective as well as energy effective. A secondary program was carried out to modify the techniques to yield thermal control windows for residential applications. These windows were designed to provide a high heat retention capability without seriously affecting their transmission of incident solar radiation, thereby enhancing the greenhouse effect. This part of the program was successful in producing a window form which could be interchanged for standard residential window material in a cost and energy effective manner. The only variation from standard stock in appearance is a very light rose or neutral gray coloring.

  20. On the Correctness of Sliding Window Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    van de Snepscheut, Jan L.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this note some struggles with the sliding window protocol and the special case known as the alternating bit protocol, are reported. We try to give a correctness proof, and discover that we cannot do so for one of the versions of the sliding window protocol. One may either require channels that satisfy stronger assumptions or, as we will do, adapt the protocol and stick to the weaker assumptions. The alternating bit protocol can be traced back to [Bartlett]. We have been unab...

  1. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities.

  2. Functional window of the avian compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonia, Vishvendra Singh; Kondabagil, Kiran; Saha, Dipankar; Ganguly, Swaroop

    2017-05-01

    The functional window is an experimentally observed property of the avian compass that refers to its selectivity around the geomagnetic-field strength. We show that the simple radical-pair model, using biologically feasible hyperfine parameters, can qualitatively explain the salient features of the avian compass as observed in behavioral experiments: its functional window, as well as disruption of the compass action by radio-frequency fields of specific frequencies. Further, we show that adjustment of the hyperfine parameters can tune the functional window, suggesting a possible mechanism for its observed adaptation to field variation. While these lend support to the radical-pair model, we find that in its simplest form—or even with minor augmentations—it cannot quantitatively explain the observed width of the functional window. This suggests deeper generalization of the model, possibly in terms of more nuclei or more subtle environmental interaction than has been considered hitherto. Finally, we examine a possible biological purpose for the functional window; even assuming evolutionary benefit from radical-pair magnetoreception, it seems likely that the functional window could be just a corollary thereof, imparting no additional advantage.

  3. USB Storage Device Forensics for Windows 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Ayesha; Iqbal, Waseem; Abbas, Haider

    2017-07-18

    Significantly increased use of USB devices due to their user-friendliness and large storage capacities poses various threats for many users/companies in terms of data theft that becomes easier due to their efficient mobility. Investigations for such data theft activities would require gathering critical digital information capable of recovering digital forensics artifacts like date, time, and device information. This research gathers three sets of registry and logs data: first, before insertion; second, during insertion; and the third, after removal of a USB device. These sets are analyzed to gather evidentiary information from Registry and Windows Event log that helps in tracking a USB device. This research furthers the prior research on earlier versions of Microsoft Windows and compares it with latest Windows 10 system. Comparison of Windows 8 and Windows 10 does not show much difference except for new subkey under USB Key in registry. However, comparison of Windows 7 with latest version indicates significant variances. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. AN INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS 2000 AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A demonstration of the new supported Windows environment for all the CERN personal computers (PC) will be given which is based on Windows 2000. This presentation will assume little or no familiarity with the PC, or NICE, and will concentrate on the services being offered to the users of PCs at CERN. How NICE 2000 can facilitate the work of all users, eventually becoming the key access point to all activities in the laboratory will be demonstrated. Information: http://winservices.web.cern.ch/winservices/Seminars/Tutorials/ Date Title Language Location Speaker Fri 1/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Alberto Pace Tue 5/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F LHC Auditorium (30/7th floor) Frederic Hemmer Tue 5/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL Auditorium (864/1s floor) Michel Bornand Tue 5/6 14:00 An introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN E IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Andreas Wagner ...

  5. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an anhydrous nanoDNA-surfactant thermotropic liquid crystal system, which exhibits distinctive electrically controlled optical absorption, and temperature-dependent memory. In the liquid crystal isotropic phase, electric field-induced colouration and bleaching have a switching time of seconds. Upon transition to the smectic liquid crystal phase, optical memory of the written state is observed for many hours without applied voltage. The reorientation of the DNA-surfactant lamellar layers plays an important role in preventing colour decay. Thereby, the volatility of optoelectronic state can be controlled simply by changing the phase of the material. This research may pave the way for developing a new generation of DNA-based, phase-modulated, photoelectronic devices.

  6. Windows PowerShell Cookbook For Windows, Exchange 2007, and MOM V3

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Lee

    2008-01-01

    This Cookbook provides hundreds of tested scripts that you can use right away to administer Windows systems using Microsoft's new tool-everything from automating routine tasks to working with files, event logs and other forms of structured data to managing the users and resources of complex Windows networks. Along with its task-based introduction to the Windows PowerShell scripting language and environment, this book meets the needs of system administrators at any level.

  7. Window Area and Development Drive Spatial Variation in Bird-Window Collisions in an Urban Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.; McKay, Kelly J.; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings...

  8. PEDOT:PSS Nanofilms Fabricated by a Nonconventional Coating Method for Uses as Transparent Conducting Electrodes in Flexible Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyanee Sanglee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofilms of a polymer mixer of two ionomers, poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS, were used as conducting materials to develop transparent conducting electrodes. It was firstly found that convective deposition, a versatile and wide-area coating method, could be used for the coating and acid treatment of PEDOT:PSS films. Electrical conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS films was significantly enhanced up to 1814 S/cm by only one-time surface treatment by a mild acid solution (4 M methanesulfonic acid. This is because some PSS chains were removed out from the polymer mixer films without damage on the substrates. UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the acid-treated transparent conducting films. In this report, obtained transparent conducting PEDOT:PSS films on polyester substrates were used as flexible electrodes for fabrication of flexible electrochromic devices. Poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT was used as an active layer, which its color changed reversibly from transparent-light blue to purple with a small applied voltage (±3 V.

  9. Multicolour Electrochromic Film Based on a TiO2@poly[Ni(salen)] Nanocomposite with Excellent Electrochemical Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Marta; Moura, Cosme; Hillman, A Robert; Freire, Cristina

    2017-07-11

    We report the electrochromic properties of a polymeric nanocomposite prepared by potentiodynamic deposition of transition-metal complex [Ni(3-Mesalen)], designated as [1], in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with an average size of 9.7 ± 1.1 nm. Entrapment of TiO2 NPs in the poly[1] matrix was confirmed by several techniques. The nanocomposite TiO2@poly[1] films showed similar electrochemical responses to the original (nanoparticle-free) poly[1] films, but with higher electroactive surface coverages (Γ), showing the advantage of the nanocomposite preparation. The results indicated that the electronic structure of poly[1] was retained in the nanocomposite; nonetheless, a lower ε value was obtained for the charge-transfer band of the former, revealing superior stability of the nanocomposite for ligand high oxidation states. The TiO2@poly[1] nanocomposite showed interesting color changes, from yellow (reduced state) to green and russet (oxidized states), with enhanced electrochemical stability, demonstrated by a charge loss of only 7.3% over ca. 10 000 redox cycles surpassing the original polymer film stability: the loss of electroactivity is a factor of ca. 2 less than for pristine poly[1]. Furthermore, an enhancement of 16.7% in the optical modulation (ΔOD = 0.48) was also observed for the nanocomposite, confirming the benefit of TiO2 incorporation into the EC properties of the original polymer film.

  10. Optoelectrochemical Hydrogen-Phosphate Ion Sensor Based on Electrochromism of Spinel-Type Oxide Thin-Film Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Youichi; Shiotsuka, Masayuki

    2002-10-01

    An optoelectrochemical hydrogen-phosphate ion sensor based on the electrochromism of a spinel-type oxide thin-film electrode was developed. The MnCo2O4 thin-film electrode exhibited a marked change of the absorbance at 500 nm, under a positive potential of +0.80 V applied to the Ag/AgCl electrode, that was dependent on HPO42- concentration. The change of the absorbance at 500 nm, the sensor signal, had an almost linear dependence on the logarithm of HPO42- concentration between 1.0× 10-6 and 1.0× 10-2 M. The 90% response time, when the electrode potential was changed from +0.80 to 0 V vs Ag/AgCl electrode at 1.0× 10-2 M, was about 40 s at room temperature. The MnCo2O4-based element also showed high HPO42- selectivity among the tested anions of HPO42-, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-.

  11. Designing for Windows 8 fundamentals of great design in Windows Store apps

    CERN Document Server

    Schooley, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Designing for Windows 8 is a fast-paced, 150-page primer on the key design concepts you need to create successful Windows 8 apps. This book will help you design a user interface that is both delightful and effective, feels 'right' to your users, and encapsulates a great Windows 8 experience. In this book, you will: Meet the building blocks of solid Windows 8 UI design in a well-designed sample app. Learn how to incorporate key design elements into your apps, such as the app bar, charms and subtle animations from the animation library. Find out how to deliver the core experience that your users

  12. Microsoft Windows 7 Administrator's Reference Upgrading, Deploying, Managing, and Securing Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Orchilles, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft Windows 7 Administrator's Reference gives you a complete overview of all the important day-to-day duties for which administrators are responsible. From a complete overview of upgrading and implementing to a detailed view of security in Windows 7, this book will keep you on track. Coverage includes: installing and deployment, managing the new Windows 7 environment, overview of the new desktop features, and technical help for troubleshooting and networking (to name a few). Written by current systems administrators with a deep experience in Windows, security, and networked and enterpri

  13. A Numerical Study of the Thermal Characteristics of an Air Cavity Formed by Window Sashes in a Double Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae-sik; Oh, Eun-Joo; Bae, Min-Jung; Song, Doo-Sam

    2017-12-01

    Given that the Korean government is implementing what has been termed the energy standards and labelling program for windows, window companies will be required to assign window ratings based on the experimental results of their product. Because this has added to the cost and time required for laboratory tests by window companies, the simulation system for the thermal performance of windows has been prepared to compensate for time and cost burdens. In Korea, a simulator is usually used to calculate the thermal performance of a window through WINDOW/THERM, complying with ISO 15099. For a single window, the simulation results are similar to experimental results. A double window is also calculated using the same method, but the calculation results for this type of window are unreliable. ISO 15099 should not recommend the calculation of the thermal properties of an air cavity between window sashes in a double window. This causes a difference between simulation and experimental results pertaining to the thermal performance of a double window. In this paper, the thermal properties of air cavities between window sashes in a double window are analyzed through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with the results compared to calculation results certified by ISO 15099. The surface temperature of the air cavity analyzed by CFD is compared to the experimental temperatures. These results show that an appropriate calculation method for an air cavity between window sashes in a double window should be established for reliable thermal performance results for a double window.

  14. Self-Stacked Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Coated with Cobalt-Nickel Hydroxide by One-Step Electrochemical Deposition toward Flexible Electrochromic Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Fabian; Yu, Zi-You; Wang, Jin-Long; Yu, Shu-Hong; Lei, Yong

    2015-09-01

    The implementation of an optical function into supercapacitors is an innovative approach to make energy storage devices smarter and to meet the requirements of smart electronics. Here, it is reported for the first time that nickel-cobalt hydroxide on reduced graphene oxide can be utilized for flexible electrochromic supercapacitors. A new and straightforward one-step electrochemical deposition process is introduced that is capable of simultaneously reducing GO and depositing amorphous Co(1-x)Ni(x)(OH)2 on the rGO. It is shown that the rGO nanosheets are homogeneously coated with metal hydroxide and are vertically stacked. No high temperature processes are used so that flexible polymer-based substrates can be coated. The synthesized self-stacked rGO-Co(1-x)Ni(x)(OH)2 nanosheet material exhibits pseudocapacitive charge storage behavior with excellent rate capability, high Columbic efficiency, and nondiffusion limited behavior. It is shown that the electrochemical behavior of the Ni(OH)2 can be modulated, by simultaneously depositing nickel and cobalt hydroxide, into broad oxidization and reduction bands. Further, the material exhibits electrochromic property and can switch between a bleached and transparent state. Literature comparison reveals that the performance characteristics of the rGO-Co(1-x)Ni(x)(OH)2 nanosheet material, in terms of gravimetric capacitance, areal capacitance, and long-term cycling stability, are among the highest reported values of supercapacitors with electrochromic property. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan

    2003-06-01

    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.

  16. Parametric Dependencies of Sliding Window Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakil, Sadia; Billings, Jacob C; Keilholz, Shella D; Lee, Chin-Hui

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we explore the dependence of sliding window correlation (SWC) results on different parameters of correlating signals. The SWC is extensively used to explore the dynamics of functional connectivity (FC) networks using resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) scans. These scanned signals often contain multiple amplitudes, frequencies, and phases. However, the exact values of these parameters are unknown. Two recent studies explored the relationship of window length and frequencies (minimum/maximum) in the correlating signals. We extend the findings of these studies by using two deterministic signals with multiple amplitudes, frequencies, and phases. Afterward, we modulate one of the signals to introduce dynamics (nonstationarity) in their relationship. We also explore the relationship of window length and frequency band for real rsfMRI data. For deterministic signals, the spurious fluctuations due to the method itself minimize, and the SWC estimates the stationary correlation when frequencies in the signals have specific relationship. For dynamic relationship also, the undesirable frequencies were removed under specific conditions for the frequencies. For real rsfMRI data, the SWC results varied with frequencies and window length. In the absence of any "ground truth" for different parameters in real rsfMRI signals, the SWC with a constant window size may not be a reliable method to study the dynamics of the FC. This study reveals the parametric dependencies of the SWC and its limitation as a method to analyze dynamics of FC networks in the absence of any ground truth.

  17. Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-09-01

    There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing β-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  18. Sunstroke opaque windows; Des vitres opaques aux coups de soleil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, V.

    2000-10-01

    The Fraunhofer institute of building applied physics (IBP) of Stuttgart (Germany) has developed T-Opal, a new double glazing material with an acrylate resin film. The acrylate film is a thermo-optical polymer which is transparent at low temperature and becomes opaque when the temperature rises above a given value. This new material allows to regulate the insolation of buildings. The only drawback concerns the threshold temperature which is definitely fixed when the glazing material is manufactured. However, the price of this system is 3 to 10 times lower than the electrochromic or integrated blind systems. (J.S.)

  19. Novel poly(triphenylamine-alt-fluorene) with asymmetric hexaphenylbenzene and pyrene moieties: synthesis, fluorescence, flexible near-infrared electrochromic devices and theoretical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Po-I.

    2016-01-13

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. In this study, a new triphenylamine-alt-fluorene conjugated copolymer, HPBPYFL6, with hexaphenylbenzene (HPB) and pyrene as asymmetrical pendant groups was synthesized via Suzuki coupling polymerization. The conjugated polymer had a weight-average molecular weight of 5.8 × 104 g mol-1 with a polydispersity index of 2.5 characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). HPBPYFL6 showed good solubility in common organic solvents such as NMP, THF, toluene and dichloromethane at 25°C. In addition, HPBPYFL6 possessed a high glass transition temperature of 260°C and a 10% weight-loss temperature of 503°C in nitrogen. HPBPYFL6 bearing a pyrene moiety had a solvatochromic fluorescence shift from a green to an orange emission as the polarity of the solvent increased. Cyclic voltammetry of HPBPYFL6 films cast onto indium-tin oxide-coated glass (ITO-glass) exhibited two oxidation redox couples at an E1/2 value of 0.82 and 1.17 V versus Ag/Ag+ in an acetonitrile solution. The HPBPYFL6 film on graphene-coated PET had an E1/2 value of 0.24 and 1.12 V. Conjugated polymer films exhibited reversible electrochromic behaviour with a colour change from pale yellow to deep blue upon electrochemical oxidation and high absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region. The switching and bleaching times were 5.16 s and 3.12 s for 1231 nm and were 3.30 s and 3.74 s for 1030 nm of HPBPYFL6 on ITO-glass. The strong NIR electrochromic absorbance of HPBPYFL6 was attributed to intervalence charge transfer by the incorporation of the HPB moiety. This phenomenon was confirmed by chemical oxidation as the oxidant contents increased in the solution state. Furthermore, the electrochromic mechanism was interpreted by DFT calculation and the simulated NIR electrochromic spectra of model compound HPBPYFL are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. The Moving Window Technique: A Window into Developmental Changes in Attention during Facial Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Elina; Meixner, Tamara; Iarocci, Grace; Kanan, Christopher; Smilek, Daniel; Tanaka, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies children employ to selectively attend to different parts of the face may reflect important developmental changes in facial emotion recognition. Using the Moving Window Technique (MWT), children aged 5-12 years and adults ("N" = 129) explored faces with a mouse-controlled window in an emotion recognition task. An…

  1. Influence of disordered morphology on electrochromic stability of WO{sub 3}/PPy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Digambar K. [D. Y. Patil College of Engineering & Technology, Kasaba Bawada, Kolhapur, 416006, Maharashtra (India); Mali, Sawanta S.; Hong, Chang K. [Polymer Energy Materials Laboratory, Department of Advanced Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kadam, Anamika V., E-mail: anamikasonavane@rediff.com [D. Y. Patil College of Engineering & Technology, Kasaba Bawada, Kolhapur, 416006, Maharashtra (India); D.Y. Patil Medical University, Kasaba Bawada, Kolhapur, 416006, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-06-05

    Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) films are critical for smart windows because of their capacity of varying the throughput of visible light and solar energy. This study highlights the evolution of structural and morphological changes of electrodeposited WO{sub 3} thin films coated with polypyrrole (PPy) by using chemical bath deposition. The structural and surface properties of WO{sub 3} thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical stability was inspected using repetitive cyclic voltammetry (CV) cycles for each sample in LiClO{sub 4}-PC electrolyte for prolonged periods. The results showed an improvement in the electrochemical stability after the CV study. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism: A schematic of the mechanism is proposed in above fig. The mechanism is based on three step process: (i) WO{sub 3} coated on ITO by electrodeposition followed by thermal treatment. It produces ordered nanoarrayed morphology. (ii) A second step involving deposition of PPy by chemical bath deposition on ITO. It possesses globular morphology. (iii) When PPy coated on WO{sub 3}, PPy applies shearing force on WO{sub 3} and produces disordered nanoarrayed morphology. - Highlights: • Nanoarrayed WO{sub 3}/PPy composite was synthesized. • Interplanar spacing enhances due to PPy coating. • PPy applies shearing force on WO{sub 3} produces disordered morphology. • Nanocomposite showed high stability in LiClO{sub 4}-PC.

  2. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed in...

  3. 49 CFR 238.114 - Rescue access windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue access windows. 238.114 Section 238.114... § 238.114 Rescue access windows. (a) Number and location. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of... rescue access windows. At least one rescue access window shall be located in each side of the car...

  4. Teach yourself visually Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide for visual learners eager to get started with Windows 8.1 If you learn more quickly when you can see how things are done, this Visual guide is the easiest way to get up and running on Windows 8.1. It covers more than 150 essential Windows tasks, using full-color screen shots and step-by-step instructions to show you just what to do. Learn your way around the interface and how to install programs, set up user accounts, play music and other media files, download photos from your digital camera, go online, set up and secure an e-mail account, and much more.The tried-and-true f

  5. Low-E windows: lighting considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salares, V.; Russell, P. [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Technical Research Div.

    1996-08-01

    New and retrofitted houses with low-E windows were surveyed to determine owner satisfaction with the product and to collect impressions and observations about occupants` health, plant growth, and lighting and low-E windows. Results indicated that senior citizens were more affected by inadequate lighting because of reduced transmission by the aging lens of the eye to transmit short wavelength light, i. e. the very same ones that are effectively filtered out by low-E coatings. Especially vulnerable were those with environmental hypersensitivity, and those who suffer from seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Plant growth was found to be improved, possibly due to the filtered light provided by low-E windows. On the other hand, lower levels of daylighting means that higher levels of supplemental lighting would be needed, which may, in turn, negate the energy saving from the low-E glazing. 10 refs.

  6. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  7. PV window - Development and demonstrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugaard, P.

    2011-05-15

    Using the results from the EU project RenewTransnet, which focused on the development of a pane with integrated solar cells, the goal of this project is to develop these principles into a window solution. This window solution is targeted to Danish building tradition and architecture. It is expected that an elegant PV-window solution for both new and retrofit buildings is developed during this project, and which appearance can be customized to each building. Based on results from a related projects carried out by Gaia Solar, the window solution will have the potential of being approximately 30% cheaper than similar products on the market. In this project this price reduction is the objective of the development of a window solution. The project team has succeeded in developing a 2-layer PV-window with glass / glass lamination with EVA as foil, which is 35% cheaper than similar products on the market. Since the price for the frame-profile does not differ significantly at market level, the price comparison is made on the basis of the developed PV-pane. The objective of 30 % price reduction in relation to similar products on the market is met. A special production process to the making glass/glass lamination with EVA as foil has been developed, in which a frame is put around the module which intends both to remove the unwanted tension along the edges, and to prevent the significant spillage of EVA from the module under pressure and prevent the invasive bubbles along the edge of module. Since the developed production method for making glass/glass modules with EVA is simple, a further cost reduction will primarily be in a reduction of the price of the cell. The project process has resulted in the development of a product, which due to continuous restrictions in the building regulations, will be very attractive in future buildings. (LN)

  8. Thin Cryogenic X-ray Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, T O; Davenport, M; Elias, N; Aune, S; Franz, J

    2009-01-01

    We describe the construction and tests of cryogenic X-ray windows of 47 mm diameter made of 15 ìm thick polypropylene foil glued on a UHV flange and supported with a strongback mesh machined by electro-erosion. These hermetic windows of the solar axion telescope of the CAST experiment at CERN withstand the static and dynamic pressures of the buffer gas that are normally below 130 mbar, but may reach 1.2 bar when the magnet quenches. They were tested at 60 K up to 3.5 bar static pressure without permanent deformation.

  9. Windows Server® 2008 Inside Out

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2009-01-01

    Learn how to conquer Windows Server 2008-from the inside out! Designed for system administrators, this definitive resource features hundreds of timesaving solutions, expert insights, troubleshooting tips, and workarounds for administering Windows Server 2008-all in concise, fast-answer format. You will learn how to perform upgrades and migrations, automate deployments, implement security features, manage software updates and patches, administer users and accounts, manage Active Directory® directory services, and more. With INSIDE OUT, you'll discover the best and fastest ways to perform core a

  10. Homometric model sets and window covariograms

    OpenAIRE

    Baake, Michael; Grimm, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Two Delone sets are called homometric when they share the same autocorrelation or Patterson measure. A model set Lambda within a given cut and project scheme is a Delone set that is defined through a window W in internal space. The autocorrelation measure of Lambda is a pure point measure whose coefficients can be calculated via the so-called covariogram of W. Two windows with the same covariogram thus result in homometric model sets. On the other hand, the inverse problem of determining Lamb...

  11. Experimental study of the plasma window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ben-Liang; Huang, Sheng; Zhu, Kun; Lu, Yuan-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The plasma window is an advanced apparatus that can work as the interface between a vacuum and a high pressure region. It can be used in many applications that need atmosphere-vacuum interface, such as a gas target, electron beam welding, synchrotron radiation and a spallation neutron source. A test bench of the plasma window is constructed in Peking University. A series of experiments and the corresponding parameter measurements have been presented in this article. The experiment result indicates the feasibility of such a facility acting as an interface between a vacuum and a high pressure region.

  12. Windows Phone 7:n ja Androidin kommunikointi

    OpenAIRE

    Vuolle, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin älypuhelimien kommunikointia ja datan siirtoa. Älypuhelimet siirtävät tietoa palvelimen kautta toisille älypuhelimille, tämä mahdollistaa keskitetyn ja hallittavan tiedonsiirron. Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin Windows Phone 7- ja Android-älypuhelimia ja palvelin tekniikoista kolmea eri tekniikkaa. Palvelintekniikoista sovellettiin WCF (Windows Communications foundation)-tekniikkaa. REST (Representational State Transfer)-tekniikan käyttöä harkittiin sekä Web Apin käyttöä...

  13. MOVING WINDOW SEGMENTATION FRAMEWORK FOR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first component segments points within a window shifting over the point cloud. The second component stitches the segments within the windows together. In this fashion a point cloud can be streamed through these two components in sequence, thus producing a segmentation. The algorithm has been tested on airborne lidar point cloud and some results of the performance of the framework are presented.

  14. Windows Phonen ja HTML5:n sovelluskehitys

    OpenAIRE

    Timonen, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä kehitettiin Ampparit Oy:lle Ampparit.com-mobiilisovellus Windows Phone -alustalle. Mobiilisovelluksen haluttiin näyttävän jo olemassa oleva Ampparit.com HTML5-sivusto ja saada se toimimaan hyvin yhteen alustan kanssa. Ampparit Oy oli jo tuonut Android-sovelluksen saataville ja nyt oli Windows Phonen vuoro. Sovellukset luotiin noudattamalla yksinkertaista ohjelmistotuotantotapaa, jossa käytiin läpi neljä vaihetta: suunnittelu, toteutus, testaus ja julkaisu. Sovellukse...

  15. Compare of Energy Efficiency of Windows in Aalborg and Chongqing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenguo, Lin; Heiselberg, Per; Yao, Runming

    2007-01-01

    Focus on window's energy efficiency, this paper compared the difference of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing. The author analysed the designing process, the thermal insulation performances, the sun shading devices and the ventilation of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing respectively. Furthermore, t......, the author explored the reasons for window problems in Chongqing, found out the main barriers to overcome and measures to take for solving the problem. Deeper analysis should be made before the energy efficient windows of Aalborg used in Chongqing....

  16. Microsoft Windows Server 2003 security enhancements and new features

    OpenAIRE

    Montehermoso, Ronald Centeno

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The purpose of this thesis is to discuss the new features and enhancements of Windows Server 2003. Windows NT and Windows 2000 were known to have numerous security vulnerabilities; hence Microsoft focused on improving security by making Windows Server 2003 "secure by design, secure by default, secure in deployment." This thesis examines the differences between the five unique editions of the Windows Server 2003 family. Some of the pro...

  17. Electrochromic Type E-Paper Using Poly(1H-Thieno[3,4-d]Imidazol-2(3H-One Derivatives by a Novel Printing Fabrication Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirihiro Nakano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report poly(1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-2(3H-one (pTIO derivatives for an electrochromic (EC type e-paper and its novel printing fabrication process. pTIO is a kind of conductive polymer (CP s which are known as one of the EC materials. The electrochromism of pTIO is unique, because its color in doped state is almost transparent (pale gray. A transparent state is required to show a white color in a see-through view of an EC type e-paper. An electrochromism of CP has a good memory effect which is applicable for e-paper. The corresponding monomers of CP are able to be polymerized with an electrochemical method, which be made good use of for the fabrication process of e-paper. pTIO derivatives are copolymerized with other pi-conjugated X unit, which adjusts the color of electrochromism. Finally, we fabricated a segment matrix EC display using pTIO derivatives by ink-jet printing.

  18. Using an Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Process for the Development of V2O5 as an Electrochromic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Vernardou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium pentoxide coatings were grown by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition varying the gas precursor ratio (vanadium (IV chloride:water and the substrate temperature. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and transmittance measurements. The water flow rate was found to affect the crystallinity and the morphological characteristics of vanadium pentoxide. Dense stacks of long grains of crystalline oxide are formed at the highest amount of water utilized for a substrate temperature of 450 °C. Accordingly, it was indicated that for higher temperatures and a constant gas precursor ratio of 1:7, the surface morphology becomes flattened, and columnar grains of uniform size and shape are indicated, keeping the high crystalline quality of the material. Hence, it was possible to define a frame of operating parameters wherein single-phase vanadium pentoxide may be reliably expected, including a gas precursor ratio of 1:7 with a substrate temperature of >450 °C. The as-grown vanadium pentoxide at 550 °C for a gas precursor ratio of 1:7 presented the best electrochemical performance, including a diffusion coefficient of 9.19 × 10−11 cm2·s−1, a charge density of 3.1 mC·cm−2, and a coloration efficiency of 336 cm2·C−1. One may then say that this route can be important for the growth of large-scale electrodes with good performance for electrochromic devices.

  19. Applications of Tris(4-(thiophen-2-ylphenylamine- and Dithienylpyrrole-based Conjugated Copolymers in High-Contrast Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzi-Yi Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tris(4-(thiophen-2-ylphenylamine- and dithienylpyrrole-based copolymers (P(TTPA-co-DIT and P(TTPA-co-BDTA were electropolymerized on ITO electrode by applying constant potentials of 1.0, 1.1, and 1.2 V. Spectroelectrochemical investigations revealed that P(TTPA-co-DIT film displayed more color changes than P(TTPA-co-BDTA film. The P(TTPA-co-DIT film is yellow in the neutral state, yellowish-green and green in the intermediate state, and blue (1.2 V in highly oxidized state. The ∆Tmax of the P(TTPA-co-DIT and P(TTPA-co-BDTA films were measured as 60.3% at 1042 nm and 47.1% at 1096 nm, respectively, and the maximum coloration efficiency (η of P(TTPA-co-DIT and P(TTPA-co-BDTA films were calculated to be 181.9 cm2·C−1 at 1042 nm and 217.8 cm2·C−1 at 1096 nm, respectively, in an ionic liquid solution. Dual type electrochromic devices (ECDs consisting of P(TTPA-co-DIT (or P(TTPA-co-BDTA anodic copolymer, ionic liquid-based electrolyte, and poly(3,4-(2,2-diethylpropylenedioxythiophene (PProDOT-Et2 cathodic polymer were constructed. P(TTPA-co-BDTA/PProDOT-Et2 ECD showed high ΔTmax (48.1% and high coloration efficiency (649.4 cm2·C−1 at 588 nm. Moreover, P(TTPA-co-DIT/PProDOT-Et2 and P(TTPA-co-BDTA/PProDOT-Et2 ECDs displayed satisfactory optical memory and long term switching stability.

  20. Windows XP ends its life at CERN – register for Windows 7 training!

    CERN Multimedia

    Michał Kwiatek (IT-OIS)

    2012-01-01

    Windows XP has been around for over 10 years and it is now time to move on. At CERN, general support for Windows XP will end in December 2012, and before this date users are requested to schedule a migration to the next version of WindowsWindows 7.   Windows 7 is already well established at CERN – it is used by a large majority of users. In fact, there was a considerable user demand even before its official release in October 2009 and its adoption has been smooth. Users praise Windows 7 for its improved stability and a clear advantage on laptops is a much more efficient implementation of offline files. The migration to Windows 7 involves a reinstallation of the operating system. Files stored in user home folders on DFS will be immediately available after the reinstallation. Applications will be upgraded to more recent versions and in certain cases, an application may even be replaced by another application providing the same functionality. Microsoft Office suite is a good ...

  1. Window of Opportunity? Adolescence, Music, and Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmrich, Barbara H.

    2010-01-01

    Research has suggested that musicians process music in the same cortical regions that adolescents process algebra. An early adolescence synaptogenesis might present a window of opportunity during middle school for music to create and strengthen enduring neural connections in those regions. Six school districts across Maryland provided scores from…

  2. The Window of locational opportunity-concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Boschma, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    This article aims to set out a theoretical concept, i.e. the Window of Locational Opportunity concept, which accounts for notions like indeterminacy, human agency and historical accidents when explaining the spatial pattern of newly emerging industries. We will state that their spatial formation

  3. Windows Phone 8 application development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Szostak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    A mini-tutorial full of code examples and strategies to give you plenty of options when building your own applications for Windows Phone 8.This book is ideal if you are a developers who wants to get into mobile development. Some C# background may be useful for a complete understanding.

  4. New Window into the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Michael Vannier, MD, a former NASA engineer, recognized the similarity between NASA's computerized image processing technology and nuclear magnetic resonance. With technical assistance from Kennedy Space Center, he developed a computer program for Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology enabling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to scan body tissue for earlier diagnoses. Dr. Vannier feels that "satellite imaging" has opened a new window into the human body.

  5. Translational nanomedicine : Through the therapeutic window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierce, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic

  6. Implementing Audio-CASI on Windows' Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Philip C; Turner, Charles F

    1998-01-01

    Audio computer-assisted self interviewing (Audio-CASI) technologies have recently been shown to provide important and sometimes dramatic improvements in the quality of survey measurements. This is particularly true for measurements requiring respondents to divulge highly sensitive information such as their sexual, drug use, or other sensitive behaviors. However, DOS-based Audio-CASI systems that were designed and adopted in the early 1990s have important limitations. Most salient is the poor control they provide for manipulating the video presentation of survey questions. This article reports our experiences adapting Audio-CASI to Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 platforms. Overall, our Windows-based system provided the desired control over video presentation and afforded other advantages including compatibility with a much wider array of audio devices than our DOS-based Audio-CASI technologies. These advantages came at the cost of increased system requirements --including the need for both more RAM and larger hard disks. While these costs will be an issue for organizations converting large inventories of PCS to Windows Audio-CASI today, this will not be a serious constraint for organizations and individuals with small inventories of machines to upgrade or those purchasing new machines today.

  7. Probabilistic modeling durability of wooden window frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van; Abspoel-Bukman, L.M.; Courage, W.M.G.; Mennink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, maintenance of wooden window frames strongly depends on the practical experience of the parties involved. To get a better understanding of the required maintenance period and maintenance actions, a model has been developed to predict durability. This model makes it possible to optimize

  8. Modelling window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    showed that other factors than thermal effects impact the behaviour of the occupants. Some of these factors were included in the model. We present data from repeated questionnaire surveys that show that occupants tend to adjust heating setpoints, adjust clothing and operate windows when feeling thermally...

  9. SOT: A rapid prototype using TAE windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mark; Eike, David; Harris, Elfrieda; Miller, Dana

    1986-01-01

    The development of the window interface extension feature of the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) is discussed. This feature is being used to prototype a space station payload interface in order to demonstrate and assess the benefits of using windows on a bit mapped display and also to convey the concept of telescience, the control and operation of space station payloads from remote sites. The prototype version of the TAE with windows operates on a DEC VAXstation 100. This workstation has a high resolution 19 inch bit mapped display, a keyboard and a three-button mouse. The VAXstation 100 is not a stand-alone workstation, but is controlled by software executing on a VAX/8600. A short scenario was developed utilizing the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) as an example payload. In the scenario the end-user station includes the VAXstation 100 plus an image analysis terminal used to display the CCD images. The layout and use of the prototype elements, i.e., the root menu, payload status window, and target acquisition menu is described.

  10. Windows 8: What Educators Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    In October 2012, Microsoft will release the commercial version of its next operating system, presently called "Windows 8." This version represents a significant departure from the past. Microsoft wants this operating system to meet user needs regardless of physical platform (e.g., desktop, notebook, tablet, mobile phone). As part of this mission,…

  11. Schools Facing the Expiration of Windows XP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Microsoft's plans to end support for Windows XP, believed to be the dominant computer operating system in K-12 education, could pose big technological and financial challenges for districts nationwide--issues that many school systems have yet to confront. The giant software company has made it clear for years that it plans to stop supporting XP…

  12. Broken windows, mediocre methods, and substandard statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Broken windows theory states that cues of inappropriate behavior like litter or graffiti amplify norm-violating behavior. In a series of quasi-experiments, Keizer, Lindenberg, and Steg altered cues of inappropriate behavior in public places and observed how many passersby subsequently violated

  13. Managing customer arrivals with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Jiang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    in a terminal system, and second develop an optimization model for scaling time windows with three alternative strategies: namely fixed ending-point strategy (FEP), variable end-point strategy and greedy algorithm strategy. Third, to compare the strategies in terms of effectiveness, numerical experiments...

  14. AHP 47: STUCK IN A WINDOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pad ma skyid པདྨ་སྐྱིད།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One late afternoon, A rig rgad po reached the Jo khang Temple in Lha sa but, finding the temple door locked, he stuck his head through a small window to see the Jo bo image. After gazing at it for some time, he found he couldn't pull his head out, no matter how hard he pulled. ...

  15. Multistate Luminescent Solar Concentrator "Smart" Windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, Jeroen A.H.P.; Timmermans, Gilles H.; Breugel, van Abraham J.; Schenning, Albertus P.H.J.; Debije, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    A supertwist liquid crystalline luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) "smart" window is fabricated which can be switched electrically between three states: one designed for increased light absorption and electrical generation (the "dark" state), one for transparency (the "light" state), and one for

  16. Parametric Study Of Window Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a parametric study on window frame geometry with the goal of designing frames with very good thermal properties. Three different parametric frame models are introduced, deseribed by a number of variables. In the first part of the study, a process of sensitivity analysis...

  17. Considerations When Upgrading and Renovating Window Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Today's educational facilities managers face many challenges. As stewards of their campus' physical assets, these professionals are charged with improving students' learning environments, saving money, and maintaining the historical and aesthetic integrity of their buildings. For schools and universities that have not replaced their windows in…

  18. Business entry and window of opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Kurczewska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the nascence period - the time between idea generation and business entry -among women entrepreneurs with a graduate degree. To address this research problem and to better understand the specifics of a window of opportunity, we combine selected theories of human and social...

  19. Edit Distance to Monotonicity in Sliding Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei

    2011-01-01

    of a data stream is becoming well-understood over the past few years. Motivated by applications on network quality monitoring, we extend the study to estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a sliding window covering the w most recent items in the stream for any w ≥ 1. We give a deterministic...

  20. Pyloromyotomy through a sliding umbilical window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomori, Kinji; Oue, Takaharu; Odajima, Takayuki; Baba, Naokatsu; Hashimoto, Daijo

    2006-12-01

    The semi-circumumbilical incision for treatment of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, described by Tan and Bianchi (Tan KC, Bianchi A. Circumumbilical incision for pyloromyotomy. Br J Surg 1986;73:399), does not allow a comfortable access to the pylorus in up to 30% of cases, resulting, not infrequently, in unexpected seromuscular lacerations. To get easier access to the pylorus we have performed the Ramstedt pyloromyotomy through a sliding umbilical window after full-circumumbilical incision in 13 initial consecutive cases. Skin was incised along the entire circumference of the umbilicus, and then was undermined, creating a circular subcutaneous space, 8 cm in diameter. The umbilical window, about 1.5 cm in diameter, was slid diagonally toward the right upper quadrant, by shifting a pair of muscle retractors, 3 to 4 cm from the umbilicus, with the umbilicus left in its original position under the slid skin. Through the sliding window at the right upper quadrant, the abdomen was entered, and the hypertrophied pylorus was identified within the center of the window. Then the pyloromyotomy was performed intracorporeally with ease. In all 13 infants, an adequate pyloromyotomy was safely performed. The wound healed primarily in all cases, without leaving conspicuous scar, subcutaneous abscess formation, or incisional hernia. The postoperative course was quite uneventful in each. This new approach allows far easier access to and exposure of the pylorus, and facilitates a safe intracorporeal pyloromyotomy, and achieves an excellent cosmetic outcome.

  1. Novel morphology changes from 3D ordered macroporous structure to V2O5 nanofiber grassland and its application in electrochromism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhongqiu; Lv, Haiming; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Haowei; Tian, Yanlong; Li, Na; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2015-11-01

    Because vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is the only oxide that shows both anodic and cathodic coloration electrochromism, the reversible lithium ion insertion/extraction processes in V2O5 lead to not only reversible optical parameter changes but also multicolor changes for esthetics. Because of the outstanding electrochemical properties of V2O5 nanofibers, they show great potential to enhance V2O5 electrochromism. However, the development and practical application of V2O5 nanofibers are still lacking, because traditional preparation approaches have several drawbacks, such as multiple processing steps, unsatisfactory electrical contact with the substrate, expensive equipment, and rigorous experimental conditions. Herein, we first report a novel and convenient strategy to prepare grass-like nanofiber-stacked V2O5 films by a simple annealing treatment of an amorphous, three-dimensionally ordered macroporous vanadia film. The V2O5 nanofiber grassland exhibits promising transmittance modulation, fast switching responses, and high color contrast because of the outstanding electrochemical properties of V2O5 nanofibers as well as the high Li-ion diffusion coefficients and good electrical contact with the substrate. Moreover, the morphology transformation mechanism is investigated in detail.

  2. The approach of in-situ doping ion conductor fabricated with the cathodic arc plasma for all-solid-state electrochromic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS and in-situ doping cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP technology has been developed. The electrochromic (EC layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The in-situ doping ion conductor Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better material structure for ion transportation and showed about 2 times ion conductivity than the external doping process. The all-solid-state ECD with the in-situ doping CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (ΔT of 71% at 550 nm, and a faster switching speed. The lower production cost and higher process stability could be achieved by the application of in-situ doping CVAP technology without breaking the vacuum process. Furthermore, the ion doping process with the reuse of energy during the CVAP process is not only decreasing the process steps, but also reducing the process energy consumption.

  3. High-performance electrochromic device based on nanocellulose/polyaniline and nanocellulose/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sihang; Fu, Runfang; Du, Zoufei; Jiang, Mengjin; Zhou, Mi; Gu, Yingchun; Chen, Sheng

    2017-07-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, nanocomposite materials based on renewable resources are the focus of this research. Nanocellulose was prepared using sulfuric acid to swell cotton pulp, following with extensive ultrasonication. Nanocellulose/polyaniline (NC/PANI) and nanocellulose/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (NC/PEDOT) nanocomposites with core/shell structure were manufactured by in situ polymerization. The film-forming properties and electrochromic properties of PANI and PEDOT were significantly improved using the nanocellulose as matrix. NC/PANI and NC/PEDOT composite films were studied in single and dual electrochromic devices (ECDs). A viscous gel electrolyte (GE) was used in ECDs. The architectural design of single and dual device was ITO/NC-PANI/GE/ITO or ITO/NC-PEDOT/GE/ITO and ITO/NC-PANI/GE/NC-PEDOT/ITO, respectively. The dual ECD based on NC/PANI and NC/PEDOT composite films exhibited a higher color contrast (30.3%), shortest response time (1.5 s for bleaching and 1.9 s for coloring), largest coloration efficiency (241.6 C/cm2), and best cycling stability (over 150 cycles) compared with the single devices.

  4. Improvement of the electrochromic response of a low-temperature sintered dye-modified porous electrode using low-resistivity indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yuichi, E-mail: yuichi.watanabe@aist.go.jp; Suemori, Kouji; Hoshino, Satoshi [Flexible Electronics Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    An indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticle-based porous electrode sintered at low temperatures was investigated as a transparent electrode for electrochromic displays (ECDs). The electrochromic (EC) response of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode sintered at 150 °C, which exhibited a generally low resistivity, was markedly superior to that of a conventional dye-modified TiO{sub 2} porous electrode sintered at the same temperature. Moreover, the EC characteristics of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode sintered at 150 °C were better than those of the high-temperature (450 °C) sintered conventional dye-modified TiO{sub 2} porous electrode. These improvements in the EC characteristics of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode are attributed to its lower resistivity than that of the TiO{sub 2} porous electrodes. In addition to its sufficiently low resistivity attained under the sintering conditions required for flexible ECD applications, the ITO porous film had superior visible-light transparency and dye adsorption capabilities. We conclude that the process temperature, resistivity, optical transmittance, and dye adsorption capability of the ITO porous electrode make it a promising transparent porous electrode for flexible ECD applications.

  5. Thickness dependence of electro-optical properties of WO{sub 3} films as an electrochromic functional material for energy-efficient applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmail, Ayat; Hashem, Hany; Soltan, Soltan; Hammam, Mahmoud; Ramadan, Ahmed [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-01-15

    WO{sub 3} films of different thicknesses (100, 200, and 300 nm) were prepared by two vacuum physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods (thermal evaporation and an electron gun). Electrophysical measurements (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry) were carried out using a potentiostat in an electrochromic cell (liquid device) that consists of a substrate coated with double layers of F: SnO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} served as working electrodes. X-ray diffraction showed an amorphous structure for all the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films. While the transmission in the bleached state does not change and it is close to the as-deposited state, it is slightly less at larger thickness. The cyclic voltammogram was more open (more current flow) for thicker films due to the less dense structure with many channels. Also, the coloration efficiency was higher at low thickness. The response time was of the order of seconds and decreased for coloration, while it increased for the bleaching process as the film thickness increases. According to the proposed figure of merit, the electrochromic performance deteriorates as the WO{sub 3} film thickness decreases. However, the thickness is more effective in the case of an electron gun. Generally, continuous films but thinner than 200 nm, are recommended for deposition methods. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Gabor windows supported on [-1,1] and compactly supported dual windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, H. O.; Rae Young, Kim

    2010-01-01

    window. More precisely, we show that if b window supported on [-N, N]. Under the additional assumption that g is continuous and only has a finite number of zeros on inverted left perpendicular-1, 1inverted right perpendicular, we...... characterize the frame property of {E(mb)T(n)g}(m,n is an element of Z). As a consequence we obtain easily verifiable criteria for a function g to generate a Gabor frame with a dual window having compact support of prescribed size....

  7. Windows registry forensics advanced digital forensic analysis of the Windows registry

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2011-01-01

    Harlan Carvey brings readers an advanced book on Windows Registry - the most difficult part of Windows to analyze in forensics! Windows Registry Forensics provides the background of the Registry to help develop an understanding of the binary structure of Registry hive files. Approaches to live response and analysis are included, and tools and techniques for postmortem analysis are discussed at length. Tools and techniques will be presented that take the analyst beyond the current use of viewers and into real analysis of data contained in the Registry. This book also has a DVD containing tools, instructions and videos.

  8. Windows 7 Tweaks A Comprehensive Guide on Customizing, Increasing Performance, and Securing Microsoft Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Sinchak, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The definitive guide to unlocking the hidden potential of the Windows 7 OS. Written by bestselling author and the creator of tweaks.com Steve Sinchak, this unique guide provides you with the ultimate collection of hidden gems that will enable you to get the most out of Windows 7. Packed with more than 400 pages of insider tips, the book delves beneath the surface to reveal little-known ways to tweak, modify, and customize Windows 7 so you can get every ounce of performance from your operating system. Regardless of your experience with tweaking your system, you'll find fascinating and fun tips

  9. Aortopulmonary window. Experience of eleven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Isabel; Paramés, Filipa; Rebelo, Mónica; Martins, José Diogo Ferreira; Pinto, Maria Fátima F; Kaku, Sashicanta

    2008-12-01

    Aortopulmonary (AP) window is a communication between the ascending aorta and the main pulmonary artery, in the presence of two separate arterial valves arising from separate subarterial ventricular outflow tracts. It is a rare anomaly that accounts for approximately 0.1% to 0.2% of all congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical features, surgical treatment and outcome of patients with aortopulmonary window referred to a tertiary pediatric cardiac center over a 30-year period. Eleven patients were diagnosed with AP window, ten with the proximal type and one with the distal type defect. Age at first evaluation ranged from three days to 13 years (mean 44.5+/-63.3 months; median three months). Echocardiography enabled correct diagnosis in the four most recent cases. Seven patients underwent closure of the AP window through a transaortic approach and three patients underwent ligation. Simultaneously, significant associated cardiac anomalies were corrected in three patients: correction of interrupted aortic arch in two patients and closure of ventricular septal defect and Dacron patch enlargement of the right ventricular outflow tract in one patient. One patient was not operated because of fixed high pulmonary vascular resistance. Operative mortality was 10% (1/10) and there were no late deaths. Mean follow-up was 10+/-4.9 years. All nine surviving operated patients are asymptomatic, without medication, with no residual defects and without pulmonary hypertension. In conclusion, advances in diagnostic and surgical approaches to AP window in recent years have enabled earlier intervention with good outcome.

  10. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is

  11. Windows 8 XAML primer your essential guide to Windows 8 development

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 XAML Primer is a fast-paced introduction to XAML for Windows 8 developers who are already proficient C# coders. It introduces you specifically to the world of XAML development for Windows 8 apps in a practical, hands-on way - so you'll be building apps from the very first pages. Building on your existing C# knowledge, you're introduced to XAML from the ground up - what it is, what it does, and why it's important in Windows 8 development. You'll quickly learn how to use XAML efficiently within Visual Studio. You'll find practical coding quickstarts to get your XAML hands-on knowledge

  12. Convex optimization-based windowed Fourier filtering with multiple windows for wrapped-phase denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, Kohei; Oikawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-10

    The windowed Fourier filtering (WFF), defined as a thresholding operation in the windowed Fourier transform (WFT) domain, is a successful method for denoising a phase map and analyzing a fringe pattern. However, it has some shortcomings, such as extremely high redundancy, which results in high computational cost, and difficulty in selecting an appropriate window size. In this paper, an extension of WFF for denoising a wrapped-phase map is proposed. It is formulated as a convex optimization problem using Gabor frames instead of WFT. Two Gabor frames with differently sized windows are used simultaneously so that the above-mentioned issues are resolved. In addition, a differential operator is combined with a Gabor frame in order to preserve discontinuity of the underlying phase map better. Some numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is able to reconstruct a wrapped-phase map, even for a severely contaminated situation.

  13. Windows 7 A quick, hands-on introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Wei-Meng

    2009-01-01

    This compact book offers the quickest path for Windows users to get started with Microsoft's Windows 7 operating system. You get the essential information you need to upgrade or install the system and configure it to fit your activities, along with a tour of Windows 7's features and built-in applications. Microsoft has learned from the mistakes of Windows Vista, and Windows 7 shows it-this new OS is much faster and more stable. With Windows 7: Up and Running, you'll learn what's new and what's changed from XP and Vista, and get advice on ways to use this system for work, entertainment, inst

  14. Finite Element Analysis of PVC window profile &aluminium window profile with and without thermal break

    OpenAIRE

    ENG. Mohammad Buhemdi

    2016-01-01

    Examine a thermal analysis .Numerous analogies exist between thermal and structuralanalysis for PVC window profile &aluminium window profile with and without thermalbreak ,Finite Element Analysis, commonly called FEA, is a method of numerical analysis. FEA isused for solving problems in many engineering disciplines such as machine design,acoustics, electromagnetism, soil mechanics, fluid dynamics, and many others. Inmathematical terms, FEA is a numerical technique used for solving...

  15. MS Windows domēna darbstacijas migrācijas iespējas no MS Windows XP uz MS Windows 7.

    OpenAIRE

    Zariņš, Valdis

    2009-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbā tiek aprakstītas MS Windows domēna darbstacijas migrācijas iespējas no MS Windows XP uz MS Windows 7, kā servera operētājsistēmas izmantojot tādus Microsoft produktus, kā Microsoft Windows Server 2003 un Microsoft Windows Server 2008. Kvalifikācijas darba teorētiskaja daļā tiek apskatīti Microsoft Windows 7 priekšrocības un uzlabojumus gan no darbstacijas lietotāja , gan no darbstacijas administratora puses. Ir aprakstītas Microsoft Windows Server 2008 jauninājumu ie...

  16. Thermo- and electro-dual responsive poly(ionic liquid) electrolyte based smart windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Yongyuan; Guo, Jiangna; Yan, Feng

    2017-01-31

    Thermo- and electro-dual responsive poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) based electrolytes were synthesized by co-polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) with (or without) 3-butyl-1-vinyl-imidazolium bromide ([BVIm][Br]) using diallyl-viologen (DAV) as both the cross-linking agent and electrochromic material.

  17. Doing smooth pursuit paradigms in Windows 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are interesting to study as they reflect the subject’s ability to predict movement of external targets, keep focus and move the eyes appropriately. The process of smooth pursuit requires collaboration between several systems in the brain and the resulting action may p...... in Windows 7 with live capturing of eye movements using a Tobii TX300 eye tracker. In particular, the poster describes the challenges and limitations created by the hardware and the software...

  18. Performance Evaluation of Vinyl Replacement Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-15

    VINYL REPLACEMENT WINDOWS P. B. SHEPHERD JOHNS-MANVILLE SALES CORPORATION LEU ! RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CENTER CLE 0 KEN- CARYL RANCH DENVER, COLORADO...AE OKUI UBR Research & Development Center i 0010 Ken- Caryl Ranch, Denver, Colorado 80217(W II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12 5CPORT DATE U.S...The letter sent to manufacturers is reproduced on the following page. The source of manufacturers solicited was the Thomas Register I0 and all firms

  19. GreenRiders : Windows Phone application

    OpenAIRE

    Klatik, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was written during the author’s practical training in Bravioz Oy, a company which has created GreenRiders solution for carpooling (ride sharing) management. A part of the work in the company was working on the mobile version of this service. The main objective of this project was to develop a well working basis of the Windows Phone application. The application has all basic functions of the Web version, such as creating, searching and joining of rides as ...

  20. Reverse Skyline Computation over Sliding Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Junchang Xin; Zhiqiong Wang; Mei Bai; Guoren Wang

    2015-01-01

    Reverse skyline queries have been used in many real-world applications such as business planning, market analysis, and environmental monitoring. In this paper, we investigated how to efficiently evaluate continuous reverse skyline queries over sliding windows. We first theoretically analyzed the inherent properties of reverse skyline on data streams and proposed a novel pruning technique to reduce the number of data points preserved for processing continuous reverse skyline queries. Then, an ...

  1. An Introduction to Radar Sliding Window Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Graham V.

    2017-01-01

    An introduction to the theory of sliding window detection processes, used as alternatives to optimal Neyman-Pearson based radar detectors, is presented. Included is an outline of their historical development, together with an explanation for the resurgence of interest in such detectors for operation in modern maritime surveillance radar clutter. In particular, recent research has developed criteria that enables one to construct such detection processes with the desired constant false alarm ra...

  2. Attosecond light sources in the water window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Li, Jie; Yin, Yanchun; Zhao, Kun; Chew, Andrew; Wang, Yang; Hu, Shuyuan; Cheng, Yan; Cunningham, Eric; Wu, Yi; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu

    2018-02-01

    As a compact and burgeoning alternative to synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers, high harmonic generation (HHG) has proven its superiority in static and time-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy for the past two decades and has recently gained many interests and successes in generating soft x-ray emissions covering the biologically important water window spectral region. Unlike synchrotron and free-electron sources, which suffer from relatively long pulse width or large time jitter, soft x-ray sources from HHG could offer attosecond time resolution and be synchronized with their driving field to investigate time-resolved near edge absorption spectroscopy, which could reveal rich structural and dynamical information of the interrogated samples. In this paper, we review recent progresses on generating and characterizing attosecond light sources in the water window region. We show our development of an energetic, two-cycle, carrier-envelope phase stable laser source at 1.7 μm and our achievement in producing a 53 as soft x-ray pulse covering the carbon K-edge in the water window. Such source paves the ways for the next generation x-ray spectroscopy with unprecedented temporal resolution.

  3. Forensic Analysis of the Windows 7 Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawla Abdulla Alghafli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of digital evidence of crimes from storage media is an increasingly time consuming process as the capacity of the storage media is in a state of constant growth. It is also a difficult and complex task for the forensic investigator to analyse all of the locations in the storage media. These two factors, when combined, may result in a delay in bringing a case to court. The concept of this paper is to start the initial forensic analysis of the storage media in locations that are most likely to contain digital evidence, the Windows Registry. Consequently, the forensic analysis process and the recovery of digital evidence may take less time than would otherwise be required. In this paper, the Registry structure of Windows 7 is discussed together with several elements of information within the Registry of Windows 7 that may be valuable to a forensic investigator. These elements were categorized into five groups which are system, application, networks, attached devices and the history lists. We have discussed the values of identified elements to a forensic investigator. Also, a tool was implemented to perform the function of extracting these elements and presents them in usable form to a forensics investigator.

  4. Windows Server 2012 vulnerabilities and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyses the history of the vulnerabilities of the base system Windows Server 2012 highlighting the most critic vulnerabilities given every 4 months since its creation until the current date of the research. It was organized by the type of vulnerabilities based on the classification of the NIST. Next, given the official vulnerabilities of the system, the authors show how a critical vulnerability is treated by Microsoft in order to countermeasure the security flaw. Then, the authors present the recommended security approaches for Windows Server 2012, which focus on the baseline software given by Microsoft, update, patch and change management, hardening practices and the application of Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS. AD RMS is considered as an important feature since it is able to protect the system even though it is compromised using access lists at a document level. Finally, the investigation of the state of the art related to the security of Windows Server 2012 shows an analysis of solutions given by third parties vendors, which offer security products to secure the base system objective of this study. The recommended solution given by the authors present the security vendor Symantec with its successful features and also characteristics that the authors considered that may have to be improved in future versions of the security solution.

  5. Windows with an improved energy balance of 30%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    carried out in the project. The large glass distance helps to reduce the traditional thermal bridge effect of the spacer and the integrated frame leads to an increase in transmitted solar energy. Furthermore, a controlled air exchange in case of pressure differences between the enclosures in the glazing......The aim of the project has been to investigate and to develop thermally improved windows based on an evaluation of the energy balance of the window, i.e. the total influence of the window on the energy consumption for space heating. The energy balance is the net heat flow per window area which...... been developed, which combines the results from several different building types and building orientations. The energy balance of the reference window has been calculated to -50 kWh/m2 window area, i.e. the refence window accounts for a net energy consumption for space heating of 50 kWh/m2 window area...

  6. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Stephen B; Cosentino, Bradley J; McKay, Kelly J; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to

  7. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Hager

    Full Text Available Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22% species (34 total carcasses recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52. These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window

  8. An Intelligent Window for Optimal Ventilation and Minimum Thermal Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rose, Jørgen; Liu, Mingzhe

    This report compares the simulation results of 12 window typologies for four countries on four selected days. The simulation results are used to select the window frame construction including glazing type and pane configuration.......This report compares the simulation results of 12 window typologies for four countries on four selected days. The simulation results are used to select the window frame construction including glazing type and pane configuration....

  9. Iterative algorithms to approximate canonieal Gabor windows: Computational aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, A. J. E. M.; Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2007-01-01

    In this article we investigate the computational aspects of some recently proposed iterative methods for approximating the canonical tight and canonical dual window of a Gabor frame (g, a, b). The iterations start with the window g while the iteration steps comprise the window g, the k(th) iteran...

  10. Innovation of the Dutch window frame: The Kapla concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Kroon, J.C.A. de; Bouma, P.W.

    2003-01-01

    The development of the Kapla@ window frame means a breakthrough in the timber window frame market in the Netherlands. This development is a typical example of a combined process and product innovation, a joint project with the relevant branch organizations. The success of the Kapla@ window frame

  11. 14 CFR 23.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 23.775 Section 23... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.775 Windshields and windows. (a) The internal panels of windshields and windows must be constructed of a nonsplintering material, such as nonsplintering safety glass. (b...

  12. 30 CFR 18.66 - Tests of windows and lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of windows and lenses. 18.66 Section 18... Tests § 18.66 Tests of windows and lenses. (a) Impact tests. A 4-pound cylindrical weight with a 1-inch-diameter hemispherical striking surface shall be dropped (free fall) to strike the window or lens in its...

  13. 14 CFR 27.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 27.775 Section 27.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not break...

  14. 14 CFR 25.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 25.775 Section 25... § 25.775 Windshields and windows. (a) Internal panes must be made of nonsplintering material. (b.... (d) The design of windshields and windows in pressurized airplanes must be based on factors peculiar...

  15. 14 CFR 29.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 29.775 Section 29.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Accommodations § 29.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not...

  16. Verifying a sliding window protocol in mCRL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Fokkink (Wan); J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J. Pang; B. Badban (Bahareh); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe prove the correctness of a sliding window protocol with an arbitrary finite window size n and sequence numbers modulo 2n. The correctness consists of showing that the sliding window protocol is branching bisimilar to a queue of capacity 2n. The proof is given entirely on the basis of

  17. Verifying a sliding window protocol in mCRL

    OpenAIRE

    Fokkink, Wan; Groote, Jan Friso; Pang, J; Badban, Bahareh; van de Pol, Jaco

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe prove the correctness of a sliding window protocol with an arbitrary finite window size n and sequence numbers modulo 2n. The correctness consists of showing that the sliding window protocol is branching bisimilar to a queue of capacity 2n. The proof is given entirely on the basis of an axiomatic theory.

  18. Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Performance of Heated Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammulamadaka, Hari Swarup

    The study about the evaluation of the performance of the heated windows was funded by the WVU Research Office as a technical assistance award at the 2014 TransTech Energy Business Development Conference to the Green Heated Glass company/project owned by Frank Dlubak. The award supports a WVU researcher to conduct a project important for commercialization. This project was awarded to the WVU Industrial Assessment Center in 2015. The current study attempted to evaluate the performance of the heated windows by developing an experimental setup to test the window at various temperatures by varying the current input to the window. The heated double pane window was installed in an insulated box. A temperature gradient was developed across the window by cooling one side of the window using gel based ice packs. The other face of the window was heated by passing current at different wattages through the window. The temperature of the inside and outside panes, current and voltage input, room and box temperature were recorded, and used to calculate the apparent R-value of the window when not being heated vs when being heated. It has been concluded from the study that the heated double pane window is more effective in reducing heat losses by as much as 50% than a non-heated double pane window, if the window temperature is maintained close to the room temperature. If the temperature of the window is much higher than the room temperature, the losses through the window appear to increase beyond that of a non-heated counterpart. The issues encountered during the current round of experiments are noted, and recommendations provided for future studies.

  19. Right-to-left-shunt detected by c-TCD using the orbital window in comparison with temporal bone windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kimura, Kazumi; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Sakai, Kenichirou; Aoki, Junya; Iwanaga, Takeshi; Shibazaki, Kensaku

    2012-01-01

    There have been some reports on right-to-left shunt as a cause of cryptogenic stroke. Although contrast transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) can detect RLS, an insufficient temporal window has occasionally restricted its applicability. Thus, we compared the rates of detecting RLS among temporal windows for the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) and the orbital window for the internal carotid artery (ICA) on c-TCD. We used c-TCD to detect RLS in patients with suspected ischemic stroke. We enrolled patients who had both sufficient bilateral temporal windows for MCAs and a right orbital window for ICA and performed c-TCD using all three windows simultaneously. We enrolled 106 consecutive patients and identified microembolic signals (MES) in 30 (28%) of them. Among these 30 patients, 15 had MES from all 3 windows. When these 30 patients were defined as being positive for RLS, the rates of detection were 67%, 73%, and 80% from the right temporal, left temporal, and right orbital windows, respectively (P= .795). The right orbital window as well as the temporal window for c-TCD could detect RLS. Insonation from the orbital window should be useful for patients who lack temporal windows. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  20. Electrochromic properties and performance of NiOx films and their corresponding all-thin-film flexible devices preparedby reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dongmei; Wang, Wenwen; Dong, Guobo; Zhang, Fan; He, Yingchun; Yu, Hang; Liu, Famin; Wang, Mei; Diao, Xungang

    2016-10-01

    Nickel oxide (NiOx) thin films were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering technique onto flexible substrates with various oxygen (O2) partial pressures. The influence of O2 contents during deposition process on film structure, morphology, composition, optical and electrochromic (EC) characteristics of the films were investigated. The EC response for nonstoichiometric NiOx films shows a strong dependence on grain size variations and surface morphology. Finally, the multiple-layer stacks ITO/NiOx/Ta2O5:H/WO3/ITO were sequentially vacuum deposited over flexible polyethylene terephthalate plates based on the optimization of NiOx single layers. A large optical contrast up to 60% and a good durability are obtained for full device. To perform preliminary research on the mechanical properties within flexible devices, we introduced nontrivial changes to the interfacial properties by replacing the glass with flexible polymers. The effects were studied through static bending and the nano-scratch test.

  1. Exam 70-411 administering Windows Server 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Course, Microsoft Official Academic

    2014-01-01

    Microsoft Windows Server is a multi-purpose server designed to increase reliability and flexibility of  a network infrastructure. Windows Server is the paramount tool used by enterprises in their datacenter and desktop strategy. The most recent versions of Windows Server also provide both server and client virtualization. Its ubiquity in the enterprise results in the need for networking professionals who know how to plan, design, implement, operate, and troubleshoot networks relying on Windows Server. Microsoft Learning is preparing the next round of its Windows Server Certification program

  2. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  3. Windows Server 2012 -palvelimen hallinta PowerShell-komennoilla

    OpenAIRE

    Pitkänen, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli perehtyä Windows Server 2012 -palvelimen ja aktiivihakemiston hallintaan käyttäen Windows PowerShell -komentotulkkia. PowerShell on Microsoftin kehittämä komentotulkki ja skriptausympäristö, jonka tarkoitus on tehostaa ja automatisoida Windows-käyttöjärjestelmien ja sovellusten hallintaa komentorivin ja skriptien avulla. Opinnäytetyössä käsiteltiin Windows Server 2012 -käyttöjärjestelmään, aktiivihakemistoon ja Windows PowerShell -komentotulkkiin liitty...

  4. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, John [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR; Haglund, Kerry [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  5. Adaptive explanations for sensitive windows in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Tim W; Frankenhuis, Willem E

    2015-01-01

    Development in many organisms appears to show evidence of sensitive windows-periods or stages in ontogeny in which individual experience has a particularly strong influence on the phenotype (compared to other periods or stages). Despite great interest in sensitive windows from both fundamental and applied perspectives, the functional (adaptive) reasons why they have evolved are unclear. Here we outline a conceptual framework for understanding when natural selection should favour changes in plasticity across development. Our approach builds on previous theory on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, which relates individual and population differences in plasticity to two factors: the degree of uncertainty about the environmental conditions and the extent to which experiences during development ('cues') provide information about those conditions. We argue that systematic variation in these two factors often occurs within the lifetime of a single individual, which will select for developmental changes in plasticity. Of central importance is how informational properties of the environment interact with the life history of the organism. Phenotypes may be more or less sensitive to environmental cues at different points in development because of systematic changes in (i) the frequency of cues, (ii) the informativeness of cues, (iii) the fitness benefits of information and/or (iv) the constraints on plasticity. In relatively stable environments, a sensible null expectation is that plasticity will gradually decline with age as the developing individual gathers information. We review recent models on the evolution of developmental changes in plasticity and explain how they fit into our conceptual framework. Our aim is to encourage an adaptive perspective on sensitive windows in development.

  6. Pro WF Windows Workflow in NET 40

    CERN Document Server

    Bukovics, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) is a revolutionary part of the .NET 4 Framework that allows you to orchestrate human and system interactions as a series of workflows that can be easily mapped, analyzed, adjusted, and implemented. As business problems become more complex, the need for workflow-based solutions has never been more evident. WF provides a simple and consistent way to model and implement complex problems. As a developer, you focus on developing the business logic for individual workflow tasks. The runtime handles the execution of those tasks after they have been composed into a wor

  7. Window taper functions for subaperture processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the spectrum of a signal can be calculated with a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), where best resolution is achieved by processing the entire data set. However, in some situations it is advantageous to use a staged approach, where data is first processed within subapertures, and the results are then combined and further processed to a final result. An artifact of this approach is the creation of grating lobes in the final response. The nature of the grating lobes, including their amplitude and spacing, is an artifact of window taper functions, subaperture offsets, and subaperture processing parameters. We assess these factors and exemplify their effects.

  8. Windows Vista for Starters The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    Fast-paced and easy to use, this concise book teaches you the basics of Windows Vista so you can start using this operating system right away. Written by "New York Times" columnist, bestselling author, Emmy-winning CBS News correspondent and Missing Manuals creator David Pogue, the book will help you: Navigate the desktop, including the fast, powerful and fully integrated desktop search functionUse the Media Center to record TV and radio, present photos, play music, and record all of these to a DVDBreeze across the Web with the vastly improved Internet Explorer 7 tabbed browserBecome familiar

  9. Launch window extensions and launch opportunities for Navstar GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Scott H.; Mullikin, Thomas L.

    The original nine minute launch window for Navstar Global Positioning System vehicles allowed a very limited capability to overcome problems late in the countdown sequence. A longer launch window was desired in order to minimize the chance of an aborted launch attempt. However, the methods used to determine the original launch window could not provide an extended window without producing a conflict with the tight tolerances required for the final orbit plane. By taking full advantage of the dynamics and geometry of the plane change maneuver, we have developed a launch window definition that will provide as much as a 32 minute window. This definition maintains tight orbit plane tolerances and identifies all possible launch opportunities. The extended launch window has been in use since the eighth Navstar launch and has been highly successful.

  10. High-R window technology development. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arasteh, D.

    1991-01-01

    Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 ``super`` windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

  11. Infecting Windows, Linux & Mac in one go

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Still love bashing on Windows as you believe it is an insecure operating system? Hold on a second! Just recently, a vulnerability has been published for Java 7.   It affects Windows/Linux PCs and Macs, Internet Explorer, Safari and Firefox. In fact, it affects all computers that have enabled the Java 7 plug-in in their browser (Java 6 and earlier is not affected). Once you visit a malicious website (and there are plenty already out in the wild), your computer is infected… That's "Game Over" for you.      And this is not the first time. For a while now, attackers have not been targeting the operating system itself, but rather aiming at vulnerabilities inherent in e.g. your Acrobat Reader, Adobe Flash or Java programmes. All these are standard plug-ins added into your favourite web browser which make your web-surfing comfortable (or impossible when you un-install them). A single compromised web-site, however, is sufficient to prob...

  12. Real time programming environment for Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, D.R. [LaBelle (Dennis R.), Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

  13. Windows 7 ieviešana

    OpenAIRE

    Laurens, Matīss

    2011-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbā „Windows 7 ieviešana” tiek izveidota Windows 7 operētājsistēmas ieviešanas sistēma virtuālajā vidē, kas sevī ietver visu ieviešanas produktu un rīku apvienojumu, lai būtu pieejami visi „Lite Touch Installation” ieviešanas veidi noteiktu ieviešanas situāciju risināšanai. Ieviešanas sistēma tiek veidota ar mērķi izveidot pilnība strādājošu infrastruktūru virtuālajā vidē, pēc kuras piemēra pēc tam būtu iespējams realizēt strādājošu ievi...

  14. Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis; Dokos, Adam; Burns, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    The Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device (PHOWID) is a measurement system for imaging small defects (scratches, pits, micrometeor impacts, and the like) in the field. Designed primarily for window inspection, PHOWID attaches to a smooth surface with suction cups, and raster scans a small area with an optical pen in order to provide a three-dimensional image of the defect. PHOWID consists of a graphical user interface, motor control subsystem, scanning head, and interface electronics, as well as an integrated camera and user display that allows a user to locate minute defects before scanning. Noise levels are on the order of 60 in. (1.5 m). PHOWID allows field measurement of defects that are usually done in the lab. It is small, light, and attaches directly to the test article in any orientation up to vertical. An operator can scan a defect and get useful engineering data in a matter of minutes. There is no need to make a mold impression for later lab analysis.

  15. Development of dielectric window to conductor assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikinheimo, L.; Nuutinen, S.; Taehtinen, S. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Materials and Structural Integrity

    1998-12-31

    The report summarises the work done by Association Euratom-Tekes in developing manufacturing procedures for vacuum tight ceramic to metal joints and in manufacturing full scale components for the ICRF vacuum window construction. The development started at VTT Manufacturing Technology in 1996 under the Task T238.2 and continued in 1997 under the Underlying Technology tasks. In the design of the components, the following issues were addressed and resolved: (1) The choice of dielectric material; The choice is made as the best compromise among nuclear, mechanical, and thermal properties, but in due consideration of material availability, fabrication issues and response to cyclic loads, (2) Layout and detailed design. The shape of the dielectric window is optimized to minimize electric fields in the dielectric materials; The optimised field distribution is computed in a 2D geometry; The design includes thermal calculation and the cooling layout and includes provision for remote handling replacement in one block, (3) Metal/dielectric joining. The joining technology is selected and justified. Joining tests on material selections to verify the applicability has been done, the validation of the design pre-prototype tests have been carried out selectively. The steps for the manufacture of these full scale components are described in the report with the appropriate concluding remarks and suggestions for the further actions. (orig.)

  16. User's manual for the Gaussian windows program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1992-01-01

    'Gaussian Windows' is a method for exploring a set of multivariate data, in order to estimate the shape of the underlying density function. The method can be used to find and describe structural features in the data. The method is described in two earlier papers. I assume that the reader has access to both of these papers, so I will not repeat material from them. The program described herein is written in BASIC and it runs on an IBM PC or PS/2 with the DOS 3.3 operating system. Although the program is slow and has limited memory space, it is adequate for experimenting with the method. Since it is written in BASIC, it is relatively easy to modify. The program and some related files are available on a 3-inch diskette. A listing of the program is also available. This user's manual explains the use of the program. First, it gives a brief tutorial, illustrating some of the program's features with a set of artificial data. Then, it describes the results displayed after the program does a Gaussian window, and it explains each of the items on the various menus.

  17. Windows Phone lietotnes izstrāde

    OpenAIRE

    Asars, Jānis

    2014-01-01

    Attīstoties modernajām tehnoloģijām pasaulē arvien vairāk cilvēku sāk izmantot viedtālruņus un tie jau lielā mērā sāk aizstāt datorus. Uz dažādām platformām kopumā ir pieejamas jau aptuveni 2 miljoni mobilo lietotņu. Salīdzinoši nelielu tirgus daļu no šī kopskaita ieņem Windows Phone lietotnes. Šajā kvalifikācijas darbā tiek aprakstīta Windows Phone lietotnes par Jūrmalu izstrāde. Lietotne ir domāta galvenokārt tūristiem , lai tie vieglāk varētu orientēties Jūrmalas pilsētā, atrast skaist...

  18. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel glazing for Window (HILIT Aerogel Window)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The HILIT AEROGEL WINDOW project with participants from Denmark (coordinator), France, Germany, Norway and Sweden, was formulated in order to develop a safe and clean production of monolithic silica aerogel based on supercritical CO2 drying of the gels, to study the process parameters and to tran...

  19. Window design : visual and thermal consequences : analysis of the thermal and daylighting performance of windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergem-Jansen, P.M. van; Soeleman, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Selected results of an analysis for the thermal and lighting requirements associated with windows in utility buildings are presented. This analysis concerns the effects of r¡indow size and shape, orientation and of different ways of supplementing the daylight by artifieial light for a typical office

  20. An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing An innovative transparent cranial window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T. H.; Luo, Q. M.; Zhu, D.

    2012-06-01

    Noninvasive optical methods for viewing the structural and functional organization of cortex have been playing important roles in brain research, which usually suffer from turbid skull. Various cranial window models based on surgical operation have been proposed, but have respective limitations. Here, an innovative transparent cranial window of mouse was established by topically treatment with a skull optical clearing solution (SOCS), rather than by craniotomy. Based on the experiment of optical clearing efficacy of skull in vitro, we found that the turbid skull became transparent within 25 min after application of SOCS. The USAF target is visible through the treated skull, and the calculated resolution can achieve 8.4 μm. After the in vivo skull was topically treated with SOCS, the cortical micro-vessels can be visible clearly. The quantitative analysis indicated that the minimum resolution diameter of micro-vessels in 14.4±0.8 μm through the transparent cranial window closed to that in 12.8±0.9 μm of the exposed cortical micro-vessels. Further, preliminary results from Laser Speckle Imaging demonstrated that there was no influence on cortical blood flow distribution of mouse after topically treatment with SOCS on skull. This transparent cranial window will provide a convenient model for cortex imaging in vivo, which is very significant for neuroscience research.

  1. INFLUENCE OF WINDOW SIZE IN SMALL-WINDOW COLOR MEASUREMENT, PARTICULARLY OF TEETH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLT, RA; TENBOSCH, JJ; COOPS, JC

    Tooth colour is often measured with a small window for illumination and measurement. This causes edge loss of the light, resulting in systematic errors in colour coordinates. This paper gives a quantification of the edge losses, and explains their cause. We measured reflectance spectra for 27

  2. Pilot case-control study of paediatric falls from windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian D; Quistberg, D Alexander; Shandro, Jamie R; Partridge, Rebecca L; Song, Hyun Rae; Ebel, Beth E

    2011-12-01

    Unintentional falls from windows are an important cause of paediatric morbidity. There have been no controlled studies to identify modifiable environmental risk factors for window falls in young children. The authors have piloted a case-control study to test procedures for case identification, subject enrolment, and environmental data collection. Case windows were identified when a child 0-9 years old presented for care after a fall from that window. Control windows were identified (1) from the child's home and (2) from the home of an age- and gender-matched child seeking care for an injury diagnosis not related to a window fall. Study staff visited enrolled homes to collect window measurements and conduct window screen performance tests. The authors enrolled and collected data on 18 case windows, 18 in-home controls, and 14 matched community controls. Six potential community controls were contacted for every one enrolled. Families who completed the home visit viewed study procedures positively. Case windows were more likely than community controls to be horizontal sliders (100% vs 50%), to have deeper sills (6.28 vs 4.31 inches), to be higher above the exterior surface (183 vs 82 inches), and to have screens that failed below a threshold derived from the static pressure of a 3-year-old leaning against the mesh (60.0% vs 16.7%). Case windows varied very little from in-home controls. Case-control methodology can be used to study risk factors for paediatric falls from windows. Recruitment of community controls is challenging but essential, because in-home controls tend to be over-matched on important variables. A home visit allows direct measurement of window type, height, sill depth, and screen performance. These variables should all be investigated in subsequent, larger studies covering major housing markets.

  3. Effects of window width and window level adjustment on detection tasks in computed tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khobragade, P.; Fan, Jiahua; Rupcich, Franco; Crotty, Dominic J.; Gilat Schmidt, Taly

    2017-03-01

    This study experimentally evaluated the effect of window width (WW) and window level (WL) on the task based detectability index (d'). Window-level transformation is frequently performed on CT images to improve visualization in clinical arena. Numerous model observers and metrics have been used to assess CT image quality. However, objective assessment is typically performed on the reconstructed CT image without considering the WW and WL settings used by the reader. In this study, the ACR CT phantom was scanned at 120 kV and 90 mAs and images were reconstructed using filtered backprojection. The bone and acrylic contrast objects from module one of the ACR phantom were selected for calculating the effect of the WW/WL on the detectability index (d'). The d' for each object at 90 mAs was calculated for a range of WW and WL values. The results demonstrated that the d' values were affected by the WW and WL settings. For example, WL setting of 20 HU and window width of 150 HU resulted in a 35% decrease in d' compared to that of the untransformed image. A WL of 20 and WW of 1400 resulted in a 33% decrease in the d' value for the high contrast object. The investigated WW and WL settings did not improve d' for any of the investigated objects when reconstructed with the standard kernel. The results suggest that d' is affected by the WW/WL settings. However, because d' does not model the contrast adaptation of the human visual system, it may not represent the change in perceived image quality with window-level transformation.

  4. Melt sonoquenching: an affective process to obtain new hybrid material and achieve enhanced electrochromic performances based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/2,4,5-tris(1-methyl- 4-pyridinium)-imidazolide tetrafluoroborate nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Renato S. de; Goulart, Juliana da S.; Miranda, Fabio S.; Ponzio, Eduardo A., E-mail: eaponzio@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2014-03-15

    Hybrid electrochromic materials are a very important class of compounds, because they enable new and/or better optical and electrochemical properties to be unfolded. This paper reports the synthesis of the new V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.1.26H{sub 2}O([C{sub 3}N{sub 2}(C{sub 6}H{sub 7}N){sub 3}]){sub 0.07} using the combination of two traditional methods, melting quenching and sonochemistry. The new material was characterized by several methods in order to verify the physical and chemical characteristics and its possible use as an electrochromic electrode. The organic guest provokes an interlayer spacing decrease of the inorganic matrix and the electrostatic interaction between the oxo groups of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} matrix and the pyridinium rings of the organic guest demonstrate a strong interaction. The new hybrid nanostructure presented good reversibility and cyclability during 50 cycles, electrochromic efficiency of 22 cm{sup 2} C{sup -1} (410 nm) and 96 % color retention after 50 cycles of color changing. (author)'.

  5. Simulating Complex Window Systems using BSDF Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantoglou, Maria; Jonsson, Jacob; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-06-22

    Nowadays, virtual models are commonly used to evaluate the performance of conventional window systems. Complex fenestration systems can be difficult to simulate accurately not only because of their geometry but also because of their optical properties that scatter light in an unpredictable manner. Bi-directional Scattering Distribution Functions (BSDF) have recently been developed based on a mixture of measurements and modelling to characterize the optics of such systems. This paper describes the workflow needed to create then use these BSDF datasets in the Radiance lighting simulation software. Limited comparisons are made between visualizations produced using the standard ray-tracing method, the BSDF method, and that taken in a full-scale outdoor mockup.

  6. Reverse Skyline Computation over Sliding Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchang Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse skyline queries have been used in many real-world applications such as business planning, market analysis, and environmental monitoring. In this paper, we investigated how to efficiently evaluate continuous reverse skyline queries over sliding windows. We first theoretically analyzed the inherent properties of reverse skyline on data streams and proposed a novel pruning technique to reduce the number of data points preserved for processing continuous reverse skyline queries. Then, an efficient approach, called Semidominance Based Reverse Skyline (SDRS, was proposed to process continuous reverse skyline queries. Moreover, an extension was also proposed to handle n-of-N and (n1,n2-of-N reverse skyline queries. Our extensive experimental studies have demonstrated the efficiency as well as effectiveness of the proposed approach with various experimental settings.

  7. Launch window definition for sky target experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, N. H.

    1973-01-01

    This paper is a brief report on the computer program developed for the Extraterrestrial Physics Barium Ion Cloud (BIC) Project. The mathematical analysis developed for the program along with its programing characteristics are pointed out to show that this program is adaptable to similar sky target projects. Definite viewing constraints are specified so that the chosen ground tracking stations can photograph the behavior of the sky target after its release. Viewing factors include the illumination of the target by the sun, the relative elevation look angle to the target from each tracking station, the solar and lunar depression angles at each tracking station, and the total sky background brightness of the target relative to each tracking station. Numeric values are assigned to each factor through program input. The program output is flexible so that the results of the window calculations can be studied to the depth required.

  8. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2011-01-11

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  9. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-02-21

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  10. The wide window of face detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershler, Orit; Golan, Tal; Bentin, Shlomo; Hochstein, Shaul

    2010-08-20

    Faces are detected more rapidly than other objects in visual scenes and search arrays, but the cause for this face advantage has been contested. In the present study, we found that under conditions of spatial uncertainty, faces were easier to detect than control targets (dog faces, clocks and cars) even in the absence of surrounding stimuli, making an explanation based only on low-level differences unlikely. This advantage improved with eccentricity in the visual field, enabling face detection in wider visual windows, and pointing to selective sparing of face detection at greater eccentricities. This face advantage might be due to perceptual factors favoring face detection. In addition, the relative face advantage is greater under flanked than non-flanked conditions, suggesting an additional, possibly attention-related benefit enabling face detection in groups of distracters.

  11. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  12. A Tubular Aortopulmonary Window: An Embryological Curiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambarathanu, Shanthi; Agarwal, Ravi; Hussain, Zahra M; Brown, Nigel A; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    We describe, in this report, an unusually shaped aortopulmonary communication observed in a six-month-old infant who presented with an associated ventricular septal defect. The defect was tubular, measuring 7 mm in length, and located intrapericardially between the proximal ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. It was well defined by transthoracic echocardiogram and was suitable for surgical ligation. We share our dilemma in naming this defect appropriately. We base our explanation on our understanding of normal development of the intrapericardial arterial trunks. There is initially an extensive aortopulmonary foramen. This is closed by apposition of a protrusion from the dorsal wall of the aortic sac, the aortopulmonary septum, with the distal margins of the outflow cushions. The spiral nature of formation of the aortopulmonary septum provides an understanding of the configuration of our tubular aortopulmonary window. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Windows 8.1 for seniors for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Weverka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Seniors, here's what you need to get up and running on Windows 8.1 Microsoft, now a little older and wiser, is back with Windows 8.1, the revamped version that brings fresh changes and welcome improvements to the Windows 8 operating system. And now you savvy seniors can get the very most out of this easier-to-use Windows 8.1 with our friendly new guide. Using large print that makes the book easier to read plus magnified screen shots to help make Windows less intimidating, this book walks you through common tasks and show you how to get things done in fine style. Helps you get to know Windows

  14. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  15. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... orientation or averaged over different orientations. The averaged value may be used for energy labeling of windows of standard size. Requirements in building codes may also be based on the net energy gain instead of the thermal transmittance of the window. The size and the configuration of the window, i.......e. number of glazing units, have a very large effect on the net energy gain. Therefore the energy labeling or the requirements based on the standard size may not give valid information on the energy performance of windows of non-standard size. The paper presents a method to set up requirements and classes...

  16. Post irradiation evaluation of inconel alloy 718 beam window

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, H. T.; Saleh, T. A.; Maloy, S. A.; Anderoglu, O.; Romero, T.J.; Connors, M A; Kelsey, C. T.; Olivas, E. R.; John, K.D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Annealed Inconel 718 alloy was chosen for the beam window at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Isotope Production Facility (IPF) [1]. The window was replaced after 5 years of operation. Mechanical properties and microstructure changes were measured to assess its expected lifetime. Material and Methods A cutting plan was developed based on the IPF rasterred beam profile (FIG. 1). 3-mm OD samples were cut out from the window and thinned to 0.25-mm thick. Shea...

  17. 46 CFR 72.05-30 - Windows and airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Windows and airports. 72.05-30 Section 72.05-30 Shipping... Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-30 Windows and airports. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, all glass in windows or airports shall be at least 1/4 inch thick. However, greater thickness may be required for...

  18. Knowing When to Slide :: Efficient Scheduling for Sliding Window Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Ali; Riahi, Mehdi; Michel, Sebastian; Aberer, Karl

    2009-01-01

    We consider sliding window query execution scheduling in stream processing engines. Sliding windows are an essential building block to limit the query focus at a particular part of the stream, based either on value count or time ranges. These so called sliding window predicates specify the execution condition for the query. Due to the often massive amount of registered queries, efficient algorithms to check these predicates are essential. While there exists a comprehensive set of work...

  19. Long term monitoring of window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: During the first eight months of 2008, measurements of occupant behaviour and eight environmental variables was carried out in 15 dwellings. Logistical regression was applied to infer the probability of open window as a function of the outdoor temperature. The results were compared...... and outdoor temperature affected when the window was closed and finally the time of day had an impact on the window opening behaviour of the occupants....

  20. Transparency of 2μ m window of Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannou, P.; Seignovert, B.; Le Mouélic, S.; Maltagliati, L.; Rey, M.; Sotin, C.

    2018-02-01

    Titan's atmosphere is optically thick and hides the surface and the lower layers from the view at almost all wavelengths. However, because gaseous absorptions are spectrally selective, some narrow spectral intervals are relatively transparent and allow to probe the surface. To use these intervals (called windows) a good knowledge of atmospheric absorption is necessary. Once gas spectroscopic linelists are well established, the absorption inside windows depends on the way the far wings of the methane absorption lines are cut-off. We know that the intensity in all the windows can be explained with the same cut-off parameters, except for the window at 2 μm. This discrepancy is generally treated with a workaround which consists in using a different cut-off description for this specific window. This window is relatively transparent and surface may have specific spectral signatures that could be detected. Thus, a good knowledge of atmosphere opacities is essential and our scope is to better understand what causes the difference between the 2 μm window and the other windows. In this work, we used scattered light at the limb and transmissions in occultation observed with VIMS (Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) onboard Cassini, around the 2 μm window. Data shows an absorption feature that participates to the shape of this window. Our atmospheric model fits well the VIMS data at 2 μm with the same cut-off than for the other windows, provided an additional absorption is introduced in the middle of the window around ≃ 2.065 μm. It explains well the discrepency between the cut-off used at 2 μm, and we show that a gas with a fairly constant mixing ratio, possibly ethane, may be the cause of this absorption. Finally, we studied the impact of this absorption on the retrieval of the surface reflectivity and found that it is significant.