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Sample records for electro-fenton uva photoelectro-fenton

  1. Acetaminophen degradation by electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton using a double cathode electrochemical cell

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    Luna, Mark Daniel G. de [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines, 1011 Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Environmental Engineering Graduate Program, University of the Philippines, 1011 Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Veciana, Mersabel L. [Environmental Engineering Graduate Program, University of the Philippines, 1011 Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Su, Chia-Chi [Department of Environmental Resources Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China); Lu, Ming-Chun, E-mail: mmclu@mail.chan.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Resources Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electro-Fenton reactor using a double cathode electrochemical cell was applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The initial Fe{sup 2+} concentration was the most significant parameter for the acetaminophen degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thirteen intermediates were identified and a degradation pathway was proposed. - Abstract: Acetaminophen is a widely used drug worldwide and is one of the most frequently detected in bodies of water making it a high priority trace pollutant. This study investigated the applicability of the electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton processes using a double cathode electrochemical cell in the treatment of acetaminophen containing wastewater. The Box-Behnken design was used to determine the effects of initial Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations and applied current density. Results showed that all parameters positively affected the degradation efficiency of acetaminophen with the initial Fe{sup 2+} concentration being the most significant parameter for both processes. The acetaminophen removal efficiency for electro-Fenton was 98% and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 43% while a 97% acetaminophen removal and 42% COD removal were observed for the photoelectro-Fenton method operated at optimum conditions. The electro-Fenton process was only able to obtain 19% total organic carbon (TOC) removal while the photoelectro-Fenton process obtained 20%. Due to negligible difference between the treatment efficiencies of the two processes, the electro-Fenton method was proven to be more economically advantageous. The models obtained from the study were applicable to a wide range of acetaminophen concentrations and can be used in scale-ups. Thirteen different types of intermediates were identified and a degradation pathway was proposed.

  2. Electrochemical treatment of Acid Red 1 by electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo González-Vargas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Small volumes (100 mL of acidic aqueous solutions with 30-200 mg L-1 TOC of the toxic azo dye Acid Red 1 (AR1 have been comparatively treated by various electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs. The electrolytic system consisted of a BDD anode able to produce ·OH and an air-diffusion cathode that generated H2O2, which subsequently reacted with added Fe2+ to yield additional ·OH from Fenton’s reaction. Under optimized conditions (i.e., 1.0 mM Fe2+, 60 mA cm-2, pH 3.0, 35 ºC, the analysis of the initial rates for decolourization and AR1 decay assuming a pseudo-first-order kinetics revealed a much higher rate constant for photoelectro-Fenton (PEF, ~ 2.7x10-3 s-1 compared to electro-Fenton (EF, ~ 0.6x10-3 s-1. Mineralization after 180 min was also greater in the former treatment (90 % vs 63 %. The use of UV radiation in PEF contributed to Fe(III photoreduction as well as to photodecarboxylation of refractory intermediates, yielding a mineralization current efficiency as high as 85% during the treatment of solutions of 200 mg L-1 TOC. Primary reaction intermediates included three aromatic derivatives with the initial naphthalenic structure and four molecules only featuring benzenic rings, which were totally mineralized in PEF. 

  3. Degradation of trans-ferulic acid in acidic aqueous medium by anodic oxidation, electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton

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    Flores, Nelly; Sirés, Ignasi; Garrido, José Antonio; Centellas, Francesc; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.edu

    2016-12-05

    Highlights: • trans-Ferulic acid degradation by EAOPs using a stirred BDD/air-diffusion cell. • Slow substrate abatement and poor mineralization by AO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • 98% Mineralization by PEF, but with rapid and similar substrate decay than by EF. • Quicker degradation by SPEF due to the more potent photolytic action of sunlight. • Reaction pathway with four primary aromatic products and three final carboxylic acids. - Abstract: Solutions of pH 3.0 containing trans-ferulic acid, a phenolic compound in olive oil mill wastewater, have been comparatively degraded by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (AO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Trials were performed with a BDD/air-diffusion cell, where oxidizing ·OH was produced from water discharge at the BDD anode and/or in the solution bulk from Fenton’s reaction between cathodically generated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and added catalytic Fe{sup 2+}. The substrate was very slowly removed by AO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, whereas it was very rapidly abated by EF and PEF, at similar rate in both cases, due to its fast reaction with ·OH in the bulk. The AO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process yielded a slightly lower mineralization than EF, which promoted the accumulation of barely oxidizable products like Fe(III) complexes. In contrast, the fast photolysis of these latter species under irradiation with UVA light in PEF led to an almost total mineralization with 98% total organic carbon decay. The effect of current density and substrate concentration on the performance of all treatments was examined. Several solar PEF (SPEF) trials showed its viability for the treatment of wastewater containing trans-ferulic acid at larger scale. Four primary aromatic products were identified by GC–MS analysis of electrolyzed solutions, and final carboxylic acids like fumaric, acetic and oxalic were detected by ion-exclusion HPLC. A reaction sequence for trans-ferulic acid mineralization

  4. Electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton degradations of the drug beta-blocker propranolol using a Pt anode: Identification and evolution of oxidation products

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    Isarain-Chavez, Eloy; Cabot, Pere Lluis; Centellas, Francesc; Rodriguez, Rosa Maria; Arias, Conchita; Garrido, Jose Antonio [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.edu [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-30

    The beta-blocker propranolol hydrochloride has been degraded by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes like electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) using a single cell with a Pt anode and an air diffusion cathode (ADE) for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrogeneration and a combined system containing the above Pt/ADE pair coupled in parallel to a Pt/carbon-felt (CF) cell. Organics are mainly oxidized with hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) formed from Fenton's reaction between added Fe{sup 2+} and electrogenerated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The PEF treatment in Pt/ADE-Pt/CF system yields almost total mineralization because {center_dot}OH production is enhanced by Fe{sup 2+} regeneration from Fe{sup 3+} reduction at the CF cathode and Fe(III) complexes with generated carboxylic acids are rapidly photodecarboxylated under UVA irradiation. Lower mineralization degree is found for PEF in Pt/ADE cell due to the little influence of UVA light on Fe{sup 2+} regeneration. The homologous EF processes are much less potent as a result of the persistence of Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes. Aromatic intermediates such as 1-naphthol, 1,4-naphthoquinone and phthalic acid and generated carboxylic acids such as pyruvic, glycolic, malonic, maleic, oxamic, oxalic and formic are identified. While chloride ion remains stable, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions are released to the medium. A reaction sequence for propranolol hydrochloride mineralization is proposed.

  5. Treatment of a mixture of food color additives (E122, E124 and E129) in different water matrices by UVA and solar photoelectro-Fenton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Abdoulaye; Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric

    2015-09-15

    The degradation of 130 mL of mixtures of food azo dyes E122, E124 and E129 has been studied by electro-Fenton (EF) and UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) using a stirred tank reactor with either a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode. The main oxidant was hydroxyl radical formed at the anode from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and H2O2 generated at the cathode. In sulfate medium, fast decolorization was found for all systems, but the almost total mineralization was more rapidly achieved by PEF with BDD. The performance with a real water matrix was slightly worse, although the removal of total organic load was still as high as 95%. The solar PEF (i.e., SPEF) treatment of dye mixtures using a 2.5 L flow plant with a BDD/air-diffusion cell coupled to a planar solar photoreactor is also reported. Fast decolorization and almost total mineralization was found in the presence of either sulfate, perchlorate, nitrate or a mixture of sulfate + chloride ions. In chloride medium, however, the formation of recalcitrant chloroderivatives decelerated the degradation process. Greater current efficiency and lower specific energy consumption were attained in sulfate medium at lower current density and higher azo dye content. A plausible reaction sequence based on 18 aromatic intermediates identified by GC-MS and 6 short-linear carboxylic acids detected by ion-exclusion HPLC has been proposed. The SPEF process promoted the photodegradation of Fe(III)-oxalate complexes and other undetected products. Sulfate and nitrate ions were always released to the medium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mineralization of aromatics in water by sunlight-assisted electro-fenton technology in a pilot reactor.

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    Casado, Juan; Fornaguera, Jordi; Galán, María Isabel

    2005-03-15

    The viability of the degradation of aqueous solutions of aniline, nitrobenzene, and 4-chlorophenol by the so-called Photoelectro-Fenton process in a pilot reactor is reported. The Electro-Fenton process stage, based on the flow of oxygen through a gas diffusion cathode to produce H2O2, allows mineralization of about a half of the TOC content in ca. 1 h, because anodic oxidation is coupled with Fenton reaction in the presence of Fe2+ catalyst. An intensity of 20 A was applied in a flow cell comprising a Ti/Pt anode and a carbon-PTFE cathode. After electrolysis, samples of the effluent were exposed to sunlight, and almost complete mineralization was reached after ca. 50 min. Effect of parameters such as electrolysis time, pH, initial concentration, and solar or UVA irradiation on the process efficiencies and the running costs are studied. The Photoelectro-Fenton process using sunlight effectively diminishes these costs. The analogous behavior of the three aromatics suggests similar degradation pathways, regardless of the different groups attached to the ring.

  7. Degradation of disperse azo dyes from waters by solar photoelectro-Fenton

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    Salazar, Ricardo [Departamento de Ciencias del Ambiente, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACh, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Garcia-Segura, Sergi [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ureta-Zanartu, M.S. [Departamento de Ciencias del Ambiente, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACh, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.edu [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Reactive azo dyes are almost totally mineralized by solar photoelectro-Fenton. > The process yields high current efficiencies and low energy consumptions. > It is more efficient and inexpensive by decreasing current and increasing dye content. > Nitrate ions are the main inorganic ions released during the mineralization process. > The process is also effective for the remediation of textile dyeing solutions. - Abstract: Solutions of the azo dyes Disperse Red 1 (DR1) and Disperse Yellow 3 (DY3), commonly used in the Chilean textile industry, in 0.1 mol dm{sup -3} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.5 mmol dm{sup -3} Fe{sup 2+} of pH 3.0 were comparatively degraded by electro-Fenton (EF) and solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) using a 2.5 dm{sup 3} recirculation flow plant containing a BDD/air-diffusion cell coupled with a solar photoreactor. Organics were oxidized in EF with hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between electrogenerated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and added Fe{sup 2+}. The oxidizing power of SPEF was enhanced by the additional production of hydroxyl radicals from the photolysis of Fe(III) hydrated species and the photodecomposition of Fe(III) complexes with intermediates by UV light of solar irradiation. Total decolorization, complete dye removal and almost overall mineralization for both dye solutions were only achieved using the most potent SPEF process, yielding higher current efficiencies and lower energy consumptions than EF. Final carboxylic acids like pyruvic, acetic, oxalic and oxamic were detected during the SPEF treatments. NO{sub 3}{sup -} ion was released as inorganic ion. The use of a solution pH of 2.0-3.0 at 50 mA cm{sup -2} was found preferable for SPEF. Synthetic textile dyeing solutions containing the dyes were treated under these conditions yielding lower decolorization rate, slower dye removal and smaller mineralization degree than only using 0.1 mol dm{sup -3} Na

  8. Salicylic acid degradation by advanced oxidation processes. Coupling of solar photoelectro-Fenton and solar heterogeneous photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Campos, Benjamin; Brillas, Enric; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; El-Ghenymy, Abdellatif; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Ruiz-Ruiz, Edgar J

    2016-12-05

    A 3.0 L solar flow plant with a Pt/air-diffusion (anode/cathode) cell, a solar photoreactor and a photocatalytic photoreactor filled with TiO2-coated glass spheres has been utilized to couple solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) and solar heterogeneous photocatalysis (SPC) for treating a 165mgL(-1) salicylic acid solution of pH 3.0. Organics were destroyed by OH radicals formed on the TiO2 photocatalyst and at the Pt anode during water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and cathodically generated H2O2, along with the photolytic action of sunlight. Poor salicylic acid removal and mineralization were attained using SPC, anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2) and coupled AO-H2O2-SPC. The electro-Fenton process accelerated the substrate decay, but with low mineralization by the formation of byproducts that are hardly destroyed by OH. The mineralization was strongly increased by SPEF due to the photolysis of products by sunlight, being enhanced by coupled SPEF-SPC due to the additional oxidation by OH at the TiO2 surface. The effect of current density on the performance of both processes was examined. The most potent SPEF-SPC process at 150mAcm(-2) yielded 87% mineralization and 13% current efficiency after consuming 6.0AhL(-1). Maleic, fumaric and oxalic acids detected as final carboxylic acids were completely removed by SPEF and SPEF-SPC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mineralization of the textile dye acid yellow 42 by solar photoelectro-Fenton in a lab-pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Carolina; Romero, Julio; Villegas, Loreto; Cornejo-Ponce, Lorena; Salazar, Ricardo

    2016-12-05

    A complete mineralization of a textile dye widely used in the Chilean textile industry, acid yellow 42 (AY42), was studied. Degradation was carried out in an aqueous solution containing 100mgL(-1) of total organic carbon (TOC) of dye using the advanced solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) process in a lab-scale pilot plant consisting of a filter press cell, which contains a boron doped diamond electrode and an air diffusion cathode (BDD/air-diffusion cell), coupled with a solar photoreactor for treat 8L of wastewater during 270min of electrolysis. The main results obtained during the degradation of the textile dye were that a complete transformation to CO2 depends directly on the applied current density, the concentration of Fe(2+) used as catalyst, and the solar radiation intensity. The elimination of AY42 and its organic intermediates was due to hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between electrogenerated H2O2 and added Fe(2+). The application of solar radiation in the process (SPEF) yield higher current efficiencies and lower energy consumptions than electro-Fenton (EF) and electro-oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (E OH2O2) by the additional production of hydroxyl radicals from the photolysis of Fe(III) hydrated species and the photodecomposition of Fe(III) complexes with organic intermediates. Moreover, some products and intermediates formed during mineralization of dye, such as inorganic ions, carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds were determined by photometric and chromatographic methods. An oxidation pathway is proposed for the complete conversion to CO2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient mineralization of antibiotic ciprofloxacin in acid aqueous medium by a novel photoelectro-Fenton process using a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimin; Zhang, Yanyu; Zhong, Huihui; Chen, Yu; Tian, Xiujun; Li, Desheng; Li, Jiuyi

    2018-01-15

    In this study, a novel photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) process using microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL) as a UV irradiation source was developed for the removal of antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) in water. Comparative degradation of 200mgL-1 CIP was studied by direct MDEL photolysis, anodic oxidation (AO), AO in presence of electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), AO-H2O2 under MDEL irradiation (MDEL-AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and MDEL-PEF processes. Higher oxidation power was found in the sequence: MDEL photolysis < AO < AO-H2O2< MDEL-AO-H2O2< EF < MDEL-PEF. Effects of current density, pH, initial Fe2+ concentration and initial CIP concentration on TOC removal in MDEL-PEF process were examined, and the optimal conditions were ascertained. The releases of three inorganic ions (F-, NH4+ and NO3-) and two carboxylic acids (oxalic and formic acids) were qualified. Seven aromatic intermediates mainly generated from hydroxylation, dealkylation and defluorination of CIP were detected by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS technology. Therefore, plausible degradation sequences for CIP degradation in MDEL-PEF process including all detected products were proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Solar photoelectro-Fenton degradation of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid optimized by response surface methodology

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    Garcia-Segura, Sergi [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Almeida, Lucio Cesar; Bocchi, Nerilso [Laboratorio de Pesquisas em Eletroquimica, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C.P. 676, 13560-970 Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.edu [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The herbicide MCPA is quickly mineralized by solar photoelectro-Fenton. {yields} A CCRD allowed the optimization of current, Fe{sup 2+} content and solution pH. {yields} TOC, MCE and energy consumption are described by response surface methodology. {yields} Generated hydroxyl radical destroys MCPA and its aromatic oxidation by-products. {yields} UV light of solar irradiation photolyzes the Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes produced. - Abstract: A central composite rotatable design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the experimental variables of the solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) treatment of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA). The experiments were made with a flow plant containing a Pt/air-diffusion reactor coupled to a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) under recirculation of 10 L of 186 mg L{sup -1} MCPA solutions in 0.05 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at a liquid flow rate of 180 L h{sup -1} with an average UV irradiation intensity of about 32 W m{sup -2}. The optimum variables found for the SPEF process were 5.0 A, 1.0 mM Fe{sup 2+} and pH 3.0 after 120 min of electrolysis. Under these conditions, 75% of mineralization with 71% of current efficiency and 87.7 kWh kg{sup -1} TOC of energy consumption were obtained. MCPA decayed under the attack of generated hydroxyl radicals following a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Hydroxyl radicals also destroyed 4-chloro-2-methylphenol, methylhydroquinone and methyl-p-benzoquinone detected as aromatic by-products. Glycolic, maleic, fumaric, malic, succinic, tartronic, oxalic and formic acids were identified as generated carboxylic acids, which form Fe(III) complexes that are quickly photodecarboxylated by the UV irradiation of sunlight at the CPC photoreactor. A reaction sequence for the SPEF degradation of MCPA was proposed.

  12. Solar photoelectro-Fenton degradation of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid optimized by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Almeida, Lucio Cesar; Bocchi, Nerilso; Brillas, Enric

    2011-10-30

    A central composite rotatable design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the experimental variables of the solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) treatment of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA). The experiments were made with a flow plant containing a Pt/air-diffusion reactor coupled to a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) under recirculation of 10 L of 186 mg L(-1) MCPA solutions in 0.05 M Na(2)SO(4) at a liquid flow rate of 180 L h(-1) with an average UV irradiation intensity of about 32 Wm(-2). The optimum variables found for the SPEF process were 5.0 A, 1.0mM Fe(2+) and pH 3.0 after 120 min of electrolysis. Under these conditions, 75% of mineralization with 71% of current efficiency and 87.7 k Wh kg(-1) TOC of energy consumption were obtained. MCPA decayed under the attack of generated hydroxyl radicals following a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Hydroxyl radicals also destroyed 4-chloro-2-methylphenol, methylhydroquinone and methyl-p-benzoquinone detected as aromatic by-products. Glycolic, maleic, fumaric, malic, succinic, tartronic, oxalic and formic acids were identified as generated carboxylic acids, which form Fe(III) complexes that are quickly photodecarboxylated by the UV irradiation of sunlight at the CPC photoreactor. A reaction sequence for the SPEF degradation of MCPA was proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elimination of radiocontrast agent diatrizoic acid by photo-Fenton process and enhanced treatment by coupling with electro-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocos, Elvira; Oturan, Nihal; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-10-01

    The removal of radiocontrast agent diatrizoic acid (DIA) from water was performed using photo-Fenton (PF) process. First, the effect of H2O2 dosage on mineralization efficiency was determined using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The system reached a maximum mineralization degree of 60 % total organic carbon (TOC) removal at 4 h with 20 mM initial H2O2 concentration while further concentration values led to a decrease in TOC abatement efficiency. Then, the effect of different concentrations of Fenton's reagents was studied for homogeneous Fenton process. Obtained results revealed that 0.25 mM Fe(3+) and 20 mM H2O2 were the best conditions, achieving 80 % TOC removal efficiency at 4 h treatment. Furthermore, heterogeneous PF treatment was developed using iron-activated carbon as catalyst. It was demonstrated that this catalyst is a promising option, reaching 67 % of TOC removal within 4 h treatment without formation of iron leachate in the medium. In addition, two strategies of enhancement for process efficiency are proposed: coupling of PF with electro-Fenton (EF) process in two ways: photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) or PF followed by EF (PF-EF) treatments, achieving in both cases the complete mineralization of DIA solution within only 2 h. Finally, the Microtox tests revealed the formation of more toxic compounds than the initial DIA during PF process, while, it was possible to reach total mineralization by both proposed alternatives (PEF or PF-EF) and thus to remove the toxicity of DIA solution.

  14. Heterogeneous electro-Fenton catalyst for 1-butylpyridinium chloride degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Jessica; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, Maria Ángeles

    2017-10-15

    The application of the electro-Fenton process for organic compound mineralisation has been widely reported over the past years. However, operational problems related to the use of soluble iron salt as a homogeneous catalyst involve the development of novel catalysts that are able to operate in a wide pH range. For this purpose, polyvinyl alcohol-alginate beads, containing goethite as iron, were synthesised and evaluated as heterogeneous electro-Fenton catalyst for 1-butylpyridinium chloride mineralisation. The influence of catalyst dosage and pH solution on ionic liquid degradation was analysed, achieving almost total oxidation after 60 min under optimal conditions (2 g/L catalyst concentration and pH 3). The results showed good catalyst stability and reusability, although its effectiveness decreases slightly after three successive cycles. Furthermore, a plausible mineralisation pathway was proposed based on the oxidation byproducts determined by chromatographic techniques. Finally, the Microtox® test revealed notable detoxification after treatment which demonstrates high catalyst ability for pyridinium-based ionic liquid degradation by the electro-Fenton process.

  15. Abatement of the antibiotic levofloxacin in a solar photoelectro-Fenton flow plant: Modeling the dissolved organic carbon concentration-time relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, Gabriela; Pérez, Tzayam; Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Nava, José L

    2018-05-01

    The degradation of solutions of the antibiotic levofloxacin (LVN) in sulfate medium at pH 3.0 has been investigated at pre-pilot scale by solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) process. The flow plant included an FM01-LC filter-press cell equipped with a Ti|Pt anode and a three-dimensional-like air-diffusion cathode, connected to a compound parabolic collector as photoreactor and a continuous stirred tank under recirculation batch mode. The effect of volumetric flow rate on H 2 O 2 electrogeneration from O 2 reduction was assessed. Then, the influence of initial LVN concentration and Fe 2+ concentration as catalyst on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal was thoroughly investigated. LVN was gradually mineralized by SPEF process, with faster DOC abatement at 0.50 mM Fe 2+ , yielding 100% after 360 min at applied cathodic potential of -0.30 V|SHE. The high mineralization current efficiency (MCE) and low specific energy consumption (EC DOC ) revealed the extraordinary role of homogeneous hydroxyl radicals and natural UV light, which allowed the degradation of the antibiotic and its by-products with MCE values greater than 100%. Five cyclic by-products, N,N-diethylformamide and three short-chain linear carboxylic acids were detected by GC-MS and HPLC analyses. A parametric model to simulate the DOC decay versus electrolysis time was implemented for the SPEF pre-pilot flow plant, showing good agreement with experimental data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Supported Nanosized α-FeOOH Improves Efficiency of Photoelectro-Fenton Process with Reaction-Controlled pH Adjustment for Sustainable Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall photoelectro-Fenton (PE-Fenton process for water treatment with neutral initial pH includes three steps of pH reduction, PE-Fenton reaction, and pH elevation. Reaction-controlled pH adjustment (RCpA, which utilizes the intrinsic electrochemical reactions instead of chemical addition, has been employed to lower the pH, maintain the lowered pH for the Fenton reaction, and recover the pH for final effluent discharge. This study demonstrated that the overall efficiency of this sustainable PE-Fenton process was improved by rapidly recycling the iron substance. Nanosized iron oxide was prepared and employed to ensure such rapid recycling. SEM and XRD results showed that the as-prepared iron oxide was α-FeOOH with 20 nm in size. The experimental results of dimethyl phthalate (DMP degradation showed that diatomite-supported α-FeOOH (N-α-FeOOH/diatomite could efficiently reduce the DMP concentration and total organic carbon. Furthermore, compared with Fe3+, the N-α-FeOOH/diatomite saved 160 min for iron settlement at 20 mg L−1 DMP concentration. Also, with the increment in the initial DMP concentration, extra energy consumed by the individual step of PE-Fenton reaction using the N-α-FeOOH/diatomite became negligible compared with that using free iron ions with the increment in the initial DMP concentration. This development is expected to be a major step of the PE-Fenton process with RCpA towards actual water treatment.

  17. Electro-Fenton degradation of antimicrobials triclosan and triclocarban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sires, Ignasi [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oturan, Nihal [Universite de Marne la Vallee, Laboratoire des Geomateriaux et Geologie de l' Ingenieur, 5 Boulevard Descartes, Champs-sur-Marne, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee Cedex 2 (France); Oturan, Mehmet A. [Universite de Marne la Vallee, Laboratoire des Geomateriaux et Geologie de l' Ingenieur, 5 Boulevard Descartes, Champs-sur-Marne, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee Cedex 2 (France); Rodriguez, Rosa Maria [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garrido, Jose Antonio [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brillas, Enric [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: brillas@ub.edu

    2007-05-05

    The antimicrobials triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) and triclocarban (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea) have been degraded by four electro-Fenton systems using undivided electrolytic cells with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon felt or O{sub 2} diffusion cathode. The main oxidant is hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) produced both on the anode surface from water oxidation and in the medium by Fenton's reaction, which takes place between electrogenerated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 2+} coming from cathodic reduction of O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively. Triclosan from saturated aqueous solutions of pH 3.0 is completely removed in all cells, decreasing its decay rate in the order: Pt/carbon felt > BDD/carbon felt > Pt/O{sub 2} diffusion > BDD/O{sub 2} diffusion, in agreement with their {center_dot}OH generation ability from Fenton's reaction. Glyoxylic, maleic and oxalic acids are identified as aliphatic intermediates. Complexes between oxalic acid and iron ions persist largely in solution, although Fe{sup 2+}-oxalato complexes are mineralized by {center_dot}OH in the medium and Fe{sup 3+}-oxalato complexes are destroyed by {center_dot}OH on BDD. Analogous treatments of more concentrated triclosan solutions using a 20:80 (v/v) acetonitrile/water mixture as solvent evidence the role of hydroxyl radicals along the degradation. In this hydroorganic medium hydroxylated derivatives such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chlorocatechol, chlorohydroquinone and chloro-p-benzoquinone, and carboxylic acids such as maleic, oxalic, formic and acetic acids are detected as products. Complete destruction of iron-oxalato complexes and released Cl{sup -} ion involves some oxidizing species coming from parallel acetonitrile oxidation. The same electro-Fenton systems also yield the overall removal of triclocarban in acetonitrile/water mixtures, giving rise to urea, hydroquinone, chlorohydroquinone, 1-chloro-4

  18. Application of Electro-Fenton Technology to Remediation of Polluted Effluents by Self-Sustaining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ángeles Fernández de Dios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of electro-Fenton technology to remediation of wastewater contaminated by several organic pollutants such as dyes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been evaluated using iron-enriched zeolite as heterogeneous catalyst. The electro-Fenton technology is an advanced oxidation process that is efficient for the degradation of organic pollutants, but it suffers from the high operating costs due to the need for power investment. For this reason, in this study microbial fuel cells (MFCs were designed in order to supply electricity to electro-Fenton processes and to achieve high treatment efficiency at low cost. Initially, the effect of key parameters on the MFC power generation was evaluated. Afterwards, the degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye and phenanthrene was evaluated in an electro-Fenton reactor, containing iron-enriched zeolite as catalyst, using the electricity supplied by the MFC. Near complete dye decolourization and 78% of phenanthrene degradation were reached after 90 min and 30 h, respectively. Furthermore, preliminary reusability tests of the developed catalyst showed high degradation levels for successive cycles. The results permit concluding that the integrated system is adequate to achieve high treatment efficiency with low electrical consumption.

  19. Repeated oxidative degradation of methyl orange through bio-electro-Fenton in bioelectrochemical system (BES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ting; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Mingxing; Yan, Qun; Shen, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Composite Fe2O3/ACF electrode facilitated methyl orange (MO) oxidative degradation using bio-electro-Fenton in bioelectrochemical system (BES) was investigated. Characterized by both XPS and FT-IR techniques, it was found that the composite Fe2O3/ACF electrode with highest Fe loading capacity of 11.02% could be prepared after the carbon felt was oxidized with nitric acid. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide production reached steadily at 88.63 μmol/L with the external resistance as 100 Ω, cathodic aeration rate at 750 mL/min, and the pH of the bio-electro-Fenton system adjusted to 2. Significantly, not only the electrochemical profiles of the BES reactor as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was bettered, but the MO oxidative degradation could be accomplished for eight repeated batches, with the MO removal efficiency varied slightly from 73.9% to 86.7%. It indicated that the bio-electro-Fenton might be a promising eco-friendly AOP method for Azo-dye wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of electro-Fenton oxidation for the detoxification of olive mill wastewater phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoufi, S.; Aouissaoui, H.; Sayadi, S. [Lab. des Bioprocedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Sfax (Tunisia); Penninckx, M. [UPEM, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    Olive mill effluent (OMW) is an example of a wastewaters containing high concentrations of recalcitrant and toxic compounds which are polyphenolics of different molecular weight. It causes disposal problems because they contain powerful pollutants. Treatment and detoxification of phenolic fraction extracted from olive mill wastewaters as well as a synthetic phenolic mixture was investigated by electro-Fenton method. Results shows that this method is highly efficient in polymerising low molecular mass phenolics and removing a large amount of recalcitrant polyphenolic compounds. This treatment decreased 78% of the toxicity which sustained a good anaerobic post-treatment. (orig.)

  1. A Bio-Electro-Fenton System Employing the Composite FePc/CNT/SS316 Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ta Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells generate energy through the decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms. The generated electricity drives a Fenton reaction in a cathode chamber, which can be used for the decolorization of dye wastewater. Most of the previous works added expensive platinum catalyst to improve the electrical property of the system. In this research, aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs were generated on the surface of SS316 stainless steel by chemical vapor deposition, and an iron phthalocyanine (FePc catalyst was added to fabricate a compound (FePc/CNT/SS316 that was applied to the cathode electrode of the fuel cell system. This was expected to improve the overall electricity generation efficiency and extent of decolorization of the system. The results showed that the maximum current density of the system with the modified electrode was 3206.30 mA/m2, and the maximum power was 726.55 mW/m2, which were increased by 937 and 2594 times, respectively, compared to the current and power densities of a system where only the SS316 stainless steel electrode was used. In addition, the decolorization of RB5 dye reached 84.6% within 12 h. Measurements of the electrical properties of bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells and dye decolorization experiments with the FePc/CNT/SS316 electrode showed good results.

  2. Sequential two-column electro-Fenton-photolytic reactor for the treatment of winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, A M; Sanromán, M A; Pazos, M

    2017-01-01

    The high amount of winery wastewaters produced each year makes their treatment a priority issue due to their problematic characteristics such as acid pH, high concentration of organic load and colourful compounds. Furthermore, some of these effluents can have dissolved pesticides, due to the previous grape treatments, which are recalcitrant to conventional treatments. Recently, photo-electro-Fenton process has been reported as an effective procedure to mineralize different organic contaminants and a promising technology for the treatment of these complex matrixes. However, the reactors available for applying this process are scarce and they show several limitations. In this study, a sequential two-column reactor for the photo-electro-Fenton treatment was designed and evaluated for the treatment of different pesticides, pirimicarb and pyrimethanil, used in wine production. Both studied pesticides were efficiently removed, and the transformation products were determined. Finally, the treatment of a complex aqueous matrix composed by winery wastewater and the previously studied pesticides was carried out in the designed sequential reactor. The high removals of TOC and COD reached and the low energy consumption demonstrated the efficiency of this new configuration.

  3. Electrochemical dissolution of steel as a typical catalyst for electro-Fenton oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočanová, Veronika; Dušek, Libor

    Although traditional Fenton reaction is known for a long time, it is still a perspective method for removal of pollution from wastewater. Applications of electro-Fenton oxidation are commonly used in wastewater treatment. These methods are classified into groups-electrochemical advanced oxidation processes. Typical catalysts for these technologies are Fe(2+) ions. Comparison between two material types of steel was investigated in this paper. Alloy steel Cr-Ni and non-alloy steel were used as a source of Fe(2+) ions as catalyst for electro-Fenton oxidation. Electrochemical dissolution was chosen as a method of catalyst dosage. Various parameters were tested depending on the type of material of alloy and non-alloy steel at a time. Corrosion properties were also experimentally tested of both materials of steel anodes. Electrochemically dissolved Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) sludge could be very well removed from treated water by the sedimentation process. At first the solutions were adjusted, then loosely precipitated, and at the end sedimented. Residual concentrations of iron in the solutions determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometry were in compliance with the threshold limits stated by the government regulation.

  4. Bio-Electro-Fenton process for the degradation of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadais, Helena; Li, Xiaohu; Alves, Nadine

    2018-01-01

    Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are ubiquitous municipal wastewater pollutants of which several are resistant to degradation in conventional wastewater treatment, and represent a major environmental health concern worldwide. An alternative treatment, the bio-electro-Fenton process,...

  5. Electrochemical destruction of chlorophenoxy herbicides by anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton using a boron-doped diamond electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillas, Enric; Boye, Birame; Sires, Ignasi; Garrido, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Rosa Maria; Arias, Conchita; Cabot, Pere-Lluis; Comninellis, Christos

    2004-10-01

    The degradation of herbicides 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) in aqueous medium of pH 3.0 has been comparatively studied by anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. All solutions are totally mineralized by electro-Fenton, even at low current, being the process more efficient with 1 mM Fe{sup 2+} as catalyst. This is due to the production of large amounts of oxidant hydroxyl radical (OH{center_dot}) on the BDD surface by water oxidation and from Fenton's reaction between added Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrogenerated at the O{sub 2}-diffusion cathode. The herbicide solutions are also completely depolluted by anodic oxidation. Although a quicker degradation is found at the first stages of electro-Fenton, similar times are required for achieving overall mineralization in both methods. The decay kinetics of all herbicides always follows a pseudo first-order reaction. Reversed-phase chromatography allows detecting 4-chlorophenol, 4-chloro-o-cresol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol as primary aromatic intermediates of 4-CPA, MCPA, 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, respectively. Dechlorination of these products gives Cl{sup -}, which is slowly oxidized on BDD. Ion-exclusion chromatography reveals the presence of persistent oxalic acid in electro-Fenton by formation of Fe{sup 3+}-oxalato complexes, which are slowly destroyed by OH{center_dot} adsorbed on BDD. In anodic oxidation, oxalic acid is mineralized practically at the same rate as generated.

  6. Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by Electro-Fenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Ugur [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ukurt@yildiz.edu.tr; Apaydin, Omer [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: apaydin@yildiz.edu.tr; Gonullu, M. Talha [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: gonul@yildiz.edu.tr

    2007-05-08

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have led the way in the treatment of aqueous waste and are rapidly becoming the chosen technology for many applications. In this paper, COD reduction potential of leather tanning industry wastewaters by Electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, as one of the AOPs, was experimentally evaluated. The wastewater sample was taken from an outlet of an equalization basin in a common treatment plant of an organized tannery industrial region in Istanbul, Turkey. Treatment of the wastewater was carried out by an electrochemical batch reactor equipped with two iron electrodes, which were connected parallel to each other. The oxidation process was studied for optimization of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the electricity consumptions were observed at different contact times under different pH conditions (3.0, 5.0 and 7.2). In each case, electricity consumption for decreased COD mass was estimated. In this process, COD was reduced by 60-70% within 10 min. By taking into consideration the local sewerage discharge limit, applicability of EF process for the tannery wastewaters was evaluated.

  7. [Modification of activated carbon fiber for electro-Fenton degradation of phenol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Tian, Yao-Jin; Yang, Guang-Ping; Xie, Xin-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Microwave-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-1), nitric acid-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-2), phosphoric acid-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-3) and ammonia-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-4) were successfully fabricated. The electro-Fenton catalytic activities of modified activated carbon fiber were evaluated using phenol as a model pollutant. H2O2 formation, COD removal efficiency and phenol removal efficiency were investigated compared with the unmodified activated carbon fiber (ACF-0). Results indicated that ACF-1 showed the best adsorption and electrocatalytic activity. Modification was in favor of the formation of H2O2. The performance of different systems on phenol degradation and COD removal were ACF-1 > ACF-3 > ACF-4 > ACF-2 > ACF-0 and ACF-1 > ACF-4 > ACF-3 > ACF-2 > ACF-0, respectively, which confirmed that electrocatalytic activities of modified activated carbon fiber were better than the unmodified. In addition, phenol intermediates were not the same while using different modified activated carbon fibers.

  8. Activated sludge treatment by electro-Fenton process: Parameter optimization and degradation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, Ali Reza; Azarian, Ghasem; Berizi, Zohreh [Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nematollahi, Davood [Bu-Ali-Sina University, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Godini, Kazem [Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the mineralization of activated sludge (MAS) by a facile and environmentally friendly electro-Fenton process (EFP). The effects of initial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, pH value, applied current density and operating time on MAS through determining the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total coliform (TC) were studied. 72% of COD was removed by indirect oxidation double-mediated based on the electro- generation of hydroxyl radical and active chlorine, under the following optimum conditions: 127mmol L{sup -}1 of hydrogen peroxide, pH=3.0, 10 mA cm{sup -}2 of DC current, 120min of operating time, and 0.22mol L{sup -}1 of NaCl as the supporting electrolyte. Only in 10 min and pH 3.0 approximately 100% of TC was removed. The findings indicated that EFP can be applied efficiently for MAS by selecting appropriate operating conditions. The bottom line is that the process is entirely effective owing to the application of green oxidants (hydroxyl radical and active chlorine) and lack of being influenced by environmental situations, which can be introduced as an alternative to current conventional methods.

  9. Removal of polyvinylamine sulfonate anthrapyridone dye by application of heterogeneous electro-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzayani, Bakhta; Meijide, Jessica; Pazos, Marta; Elaoud, Sourour Chaâbane; Sanroman, Maria Angeles

    2017-08-01

    Diversity and rapidly multiplication of the pollutants incite as to improve the conventional treatments wastewater methods. One of the bottlenecks often faced is the presence into wastewater of organic pollutants with complex structures that requests the design of efficient processes. Thus, this work investigates the removal of polyvinylamine sulfonate anthrapyridone (PSA) dye which complex structure makes difficult its degradation by conventional technologies. For that, a heterogeneous oxidative process using pyrite as sustainable catalyst was designed. Initially, the performance of the system BBD-carbon felt as anode and cathode, respectively for the production of H2O2 was determined in comparison with system boron-doped diamond nickel foam. The carbon felt electrode provided the highest oxidant production, and it was selected for the treatment of the polymeric dye. Several oxidative processes were evaluated, and the best degradation levels were obtained by application of electro-Fenton-pyrite process. In addition, it was determined that dye removal followed a kinetic model of pseudo-first-order achieving the highest efficiency by operation at optimum dosage of pyrite 2 g/L and 200 mA of current intensity. Depending on the optimal experimental conditions, these values lead to a nearly complete mineralization (total organic carbon removal of 95%) after 6 h. Furthermore, the reusability of pyrite was evaluated, by removal of PSA in four cycles.

  10. Preparation of transition metal composite graphite felt cathode for efficient heterogeneous electro-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Yu, Fangke; An, Yiran; Liu, Mengmeng; Zhou, Minghua

    2017-01-01

    A composite graphite felt (GF) modified with transition metal was fabricated and used as cathode in heterogeneous electro-Fenton (EF) for methyl orange (MO) degradation. Characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the morphology and surface physicochemical properties of the cathodes after modification were observed considerably changed. After loading metals, the current response became higher, the accumulation of H2O2 and the degradation efficiency of MO were improved. Under the same conditions, GF-Co had the highest catalytic activity for electro-reduction of O2 to H2O2 and MO degradation. At pH 3, 99 % of MO degradation efficiency was obtained using GF-Co after 120 min treatment and even at initial pH 9, 82 % of that was obtained. TOC removal efficiency reached 93.8 % using GF-Co at pH 3 after 120 min treatment while that was 12.3 % using GF. After ten-time runs, the mineralization ratio of the GF-Co was still 89.5 %, suggesting that GF-Co was very promising for wastewater treatment. The addition of isopropanol proved that (·)OH played an important role in degradation of MO.

  11. Degradation of acid red 97 dye in aqueous medium using wet oxidation and electro-Fenton techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayan, Berkant; Gözmen, Belgin; Demirel, Muhammet; Gizir, A Murat

    2010-05-15

    Degradation of the acid red 97 dye using wet oxidation, by different oxidants, and electro-Fenton systems was investigated in this study. The oxidation effect of different oxidants such as molecular oxygen, periodate, persulfate, bromate, and hydrogen peroxide in wet oxidation system was compared. Mineralization of AR97 with periodate appeared more effective when compared with that of the other oxidants at equal initial concentration. When 5 mM of periodate was used, at the first minute of the oxidative treatment, the decolorization percentage of AR97 solution at 150 and 200 degrees C reached 88 and 98%, respectively. The total organic carbon removal efficiency at these temperatures also reached 60 and 80%. The degradation of AR97 was also studied by electro-Fenton process. The optimal current value and Fe(2+) concentration were found to be 300 mA and 0.2 mM, respectively. The results showed that electro-Fenton process can lead to 70 and 95% mineralization of the dye solution after 3 and 5h giving carboxylic acids and inorganic ions as final end-products before mineralization. The products obtained from degradation were identified by GC/MS as 1,2-naphthalenediol, 1,1'-biphenyl-4-amino-4-ol, 2-naphthalenol diazonium, 2-naphthalenol, 2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedion, phthalic anhydride, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, phthaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 4-amino-benzoic acid, and 2-formyl-benzoic acid. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimizing electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton process for treating car wash wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedali Mirshahghassemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Car wash wastewater contains several contaminants such as organic matter, oil, grease, detergents and phosphates, all of which are harmful for the environment. In this study, the application of electrocoagulation (EC to treat car wash wastewater has been studied, and the operating parameters optimized. The electro-Fenton (EF for further contaminant removal was also investigated. Methods: In EC process, the effect of pH, current density, and the reaction time of the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, phosphate, and turbidity were investigated using the response surface methodology (RSM. The electrochemical cell consisted of four iron electrodes that were connected to a power supply using a monopolar arrangement. In the EF process, the effect of pH, reaction time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on COD removal efficiency were probed. Results: The optimum pH, current density, and the reaction time for the EC process were 7.3, 4.2 mA cm-2 and 20.3 minutes, respectively. Under these conditions, the COD, phosphate, and turbidity removal percentages were 80.8%, 94.9% and 85.5%, respectively, and the specific energy consumption was 1.5 kWh m-3. For the EF process, the optimum pH, reaction time, current and hydrogen peroxide dosage were 3, 10 minutes, 2 A and 500 mg L-1, respectively. The EF showed higher COD removal efficiency (85.6% with a lower specific energy consumption (0.5 kWh m-3 and reaction time compared to the EC. Conclusion: This study shows that both EC and EF can effectively treat car wash wastewater with high removal efficiency within a short reaction time.

  13. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2013-05-01

    Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H2O2 generation and Fe2+ release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75±2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Design of a visible light driven photo-electrochemical/electro-Fenton coupling oxidation system for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xing; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2012-11-15

    In this study, we report on a photo-electrochemical/electro-Fenton oxidation (PEC/EF) system by coupling visible light driven photo-electrochemical oxidation (PEC) and electro-Fenton oxidation (EF) in an undivided cell. Bi2WO6 nanoplates deposited on FTO glass (Bi2WO6/FTO) and Fe@Fe2O3 core-shell nanowires supported on activated carbon fiber (Fe@Fe2O3/ACF) were used as the anode and the cathode in the PEC/EF system, respectively. This novel PEC/EF system showed much higher activity than the single PEC and EF systems on degradation of rhodamine B in aqueous solution at natural pH. Moreover, the degradation and the instantaneous current efficiencies of the PEC/EF system were increased by 154% and 26% in comparison with the sum of those of single PEC and EF systems, respectively. These significant enhancements could be attributed to the synergetic effect from better separation of photo-generated carriers in the photo-anode and the transfer of photo-electrons to the oxygen diffusion cathode to generate more electro-generated H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals on the Fenton cathode. The better separation of photo-generated carriers contribute more to the overall degradation enhancement than the photo-electrons generated H2O2 and the subsequent Fenton reaction on the cathode during the PEC/EF process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. p-Nitrophenol degradation by electro-Fenton process: Pathway, kinetic model and optimization using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, J; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2017-10-01

    The chemical process scale-up, from lab studies to industrial production, is challenging and requires deep knowledge of the kinetic model and the reactions that take place in the system. This knowledge is also useful in order to be employed for the reactor design and the determination of the optimal operational conditions. In this study, a model substituted phenol such as p-nitrophenol was degraded by electro-Fenton process and the reaction products yielded along the treatment were recorded. The kinetic model was developed using Matlab software and was based on main reactions that occurred until total mineralization which allowed predicting the degradation pathway under this advanced oxidation process. The predicted concentration profiles of p-nitrophenol, their intermediates and by-products in electro-Fenton process were validated with experimental assays and the results were consistent. Finally, based on the developed kinetic model the degradation process was optimized using central composite design taking as key parameters the ferrous ion concentration and current density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electro-Fenton oxidation of coking wastewater: optimization using the combination of central composite design and convex optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Sun, Jiwei; Wang, Qin; Fan, Niansi; Ni, Jialing; Li, Weicheng; Gao, Yingxin; Li, Yu-You; Xu, Changyou

    2017-10-01

    The electro-Fenton treatment of coking wastewater was evaluated experimentally in a batch electrochemical reactor. Based on central composite design coupled with response surface methodology, a regression quadratic equation was developed to model the total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. This model was further proved to accurately predict the optimization of process variables by means of analysis of variance. With the aid of the convex optimization method, which is a global optimization method, the optimal parameters were determined as current density of 30.9 mA/cm2, Fe2+ concentration of 0.35 mg/L, and pH of 4.05. Under the optimized conditions, the corresponding TOC removal efficiency was up to 73.8%. The maximum TOC removal efficiency achieved can be further confirmed by the results of gas chromatography-mass spectrum analysis.

  17. Using iron-loaded sepiolite obtained by adsorption as a catalyst in the electro-Fenton oxidation of Reactive Black 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, O; Fernández de Dios, M A; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-09-01

    This study explores the possibility of using iron-loaded sepiolite, obtained by recovering iron from polluted water, as a catalyst in the electro-Fenton oxidation of organic pollutants in textile effluents. The removal of iron ions from aqueous solution by adsorption on sepiolite was studied in batch tests at iron concentrations between 100 and 1,000 ppm. Electro-Fenton experiments were carried out in an electrochemical cell with a working volume of 0.15 L, an air flow of 1 L/min, and 3 g of iron-loaded sepiolite. An electric field was applied using a boron-doped diamond anode and a graphite sheet cathode connected to a direct current power supply with a constant potential drop. Reactive Black 5 (100 mg/L) was selected as the model dye. The adsorption isotherms proved the ability of the used adsorbent. The removal of the iron ion by adsorption on sepiolite was in the range of 80-100 % for the studied concentration range. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were found to be applicable in terms of the relatively high regression values. Iron-loaded sepiolite could be used as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the electro-Fenton process. Successive batch processes were performed at optimal working conditions (5 V and pH 2). The results indicate the suitability of the proposed combined process, adsorption to iron remediation followed by the application of the obtained iron-loaded sepiolite to the electro-Fenton technique, to oxidize polluted effluents.

  18. Enhanced Electro-Fenton Mineralization of Acid Orange 7 Using a Carbon Nanotube Fiber-Based Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Xuan Huong Le

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A new cathodic material for electro-Fenton (EF process was prepared based on a macroscopic fiber (CNTF made of mm-long carbon nanotubes directly spun from the gas phase by floating catalyst CVD, on a carbon fiber (CF substrate. CNTF@CF electrode is a highly graphitic material combining a high surface area (~260 m2/g with high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability. One kind of azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7, was used as model bio-refractory pollutant to be treated at CNTF@CF cathode in acidic aqueous medium (pH 3.0. The experimental results pointed out that AO7 and its organic intermediate compounds were totally mineralized by hydroxyl radical generated from Fenton reaction. In fact, 96.7% of the initial total organic carbon (TOC was eliminated in 8 h of electrolysis by applying a current of −25 mA and ferrous ions as catalyst at concentration of 0.2 mM. At the same electrolysis time, only 23.7% of TOC removal found on CF support which proved the high mineralization efficiency of new material thanks to CNTF deposition. The CNTF@CF cathode maintained stable its activity during five experimental cycles of EF setup. The results indicated that CNTF@CF material could be a potential choice for wastewater treatment containing bio-refractory by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

  19. Insights into the Role of Humic Acid on Pd-catalytic Electro-Fenton Transformation of Toluene in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peng; Al-Ani, Yasir; Malik Ismael, Zainab; Wu, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed Pd-based electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) process enables efficient in situ remediation of organic contaminants in groundwater. In the process, H2O2, Fe(II), and acidic conditions (~pH 3) are produced in situ to facilitate the decontamination, but the role of ubiquitous natural organic matters (NOM) remain unclear. This study investigated the effect of Aldrich humic acid (HA) on the transformation of toluene by the Pd-based E-Fenton process. At pH 3 with 50 mA current, the presence of HA promoted the efficiency of toluene transformation, with pseudo-first-order rate constants increase from 0.01 to 0.016 as the HA concentration increases from 0 to 20 mg/L. The HA-enhanced toluene transformation was attributed to the accelerated thermal reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which led to production of more hydroxyl radicals. The correlation of the rate constants of toluene transformation and HA decomposition validated hydroxyl radical (·OH) as the predominant reactive species for HA decomposition. The finding of this study highlighted that application of the novel Pd-based E-Fenton process in groundwater remediation may not be concerned by the fouling from humic substances. PMID:25783864

  20. Removal of organic micropollutants from drinking water by a novel electro-Fenton filter: Pilot-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, Konstantinos V; Sklari, Stella D; Yiankakis, Dimitrios A; Sideropoulos, Georgios Th; Zaspalis, Vassilis T; Karabelas, Anastasios J

    2016-03-15

    To assess the performance of a novel 'filter'-type electro-Fenton (EF) device, results are reported from pilot-scale studies of continuous water treatment, to degrade diclofenac (DCF), a typical organic micro-pollutant, with no addition of oxidants. The novel 'filter' consisted of three pairs of anode/cathode electrodes made of carbon felt, with cathodes impregnated with iron nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3/F3O4 oxides). The best 'filter' performance was obtained at applied potential of 2 V and low water superficial velocities (∼0.09 cm/s), i.e., the mineralization current efficiency (MCE) was >20%, during continuous steady state treatment of tap water with low DCF concentrations (16 μg/L). The EF 'filter' exhibited satisfactory stability regarding both electrode integrity (no iron leaching) and removal efficiency, even after multiple filtration/oxidation treatment cycles, achieving (under steady conditions) DCF and TOC removal 85% and 36%, respectively. This performance is considered satisfactory because the EF process took place under rather unfavorable conditions, such as neutral pH, low dissolved O2 concentration, low electrical conductivity, and presence of natural organic matter and inorganic ions in tap water. Ongoing R&D is aimed at 'filter' development and optimization for practical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrocatalytic properties of N-doped graphite felt in electro-Fenton process and degradation mechanism of levofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaocheng; Yang, Danxing; Zhou, Yaoyu; Zhang, Jiachao; Luo, Lin; Meng, Sijun; Chen, Song; Tan, Mengjiao; Li, Zhicheng; Tang, Lin

    2017-09-01

    The degradation of antibiotic levofloxacin was investigated by dimensionally stable anode as well as modified cathode using low-cost chemical reagents of hydrazine hydrate and ethanol for electro-Fenton in an undivided cell at pH 3.0 under room temperature. Comparison of unmodified and modified cathode was performed. The apparent rate constant of levofloxacin decay was found to be 0.2883 min(-1) for graphite felt-10 with the best performance at 200 mA, which is lower than graphite felt at 400 mA. The optimum modified cathode showed a significant improvement of complete mineralization of levofloxacin, reaching a 92% TOC removal at 200 mA for 480 min higher than unmodified one at twice the current. Surface physicochemical properties and morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscope, contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical characterization of hydrogen evolution reaction was adopted to clarify a possible pathway for the higher mineralization of levofloxacin, indicating a potential pilot-scale study to the pollution with the similar structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electricity generation through degradation of organic matters in medicinal herbs wastewater using bio-electro-Fenton system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjandi, Noushin; Younesi, Habibollah; Ghoreyshi, Ali Asghar; Rahimnejad, Mostafa

    2016-09-15

    In the present study, the potential application of the bio-electro-Fenton (BEF) process for the treatment of medicinal herbs wastewater in a mediator-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) system is investigated. This process is operated in a dual-chamber MFC with anaerobic seed sludge as biocatalyst in an anode chamber under conditions of neutral pH, an aerobic cathode chamber equipped with a Fe@Fe2O3/graphite composite cathode and a Nafion membrane as a separator. The performance of the MFC is determined in three different mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) loadings, Nafions (112, 115) and a salt bridge in an air-cathode BEF process, in terms of power generation, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, columbic and energy efficiencies. Under optimal conditions, the batch experiment results show that the cathode chamber of the BEF reactor, equipped with Nafion 112 and inoculated with seed sludge at 3000 mg L(-1) MLSS concentration, produces the maximum power density of 49.76 mW m(-2), 0.56 mg L(-1) and 29 mol L(-1) of H2O2 and Fe(2+), respectively. Under these conditions, the MFC achieves COD removal 78.05% in the anaerobic anode chamber and 84.02% as a result of aerobic processes from the air-cathode BEF chamber, whilst the maximum voltage εcb and εE values are 600 mV, 4.09% and 1.37%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient degradation of rhodamine B using modified graphite felt gas diffusion electrode by electro-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiangnan; Olajuyin, Ayobami Matthew; Mu, Tingzhen; Yang, Maohua; Xing, Jianmin

    2016-06-01

    The electro-Fenton (EF) process treatment of 0.1-M (rhodamine B) RhB solution was studied with different graphite cathode materials, and graphite felt (GF) was selected as a promising material in further investigation. Then, the degradation performances of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) and graphite felt (GF) were compared, and GDE was confirmed to be more efficient in RhB removal. The operational parameters such as Fe(2+) dosage and current density were optimized, and comparison among different modified methods-polytetrafluoroethylene-carbon black (PTFE-CB), polytetrafluoroethylene-carbon nanotube (PTFE-CNT), electrodeposition-CB, and electrodeposition-CNT-showed 98.49 % RhB removal by PTFE-CB-modified cathode in 0.05 M Na2SO4 at a current density of 50 A/m(2) and an air flow rate of 1 L/min after 20 min. Meanwhile, after cathode modified by PTFE-CB, the mineralization efficiency and mineralization current efficiency performed absolutely better than the pristine one. Cyclic voltammograms, SEM images, contact angles, and BET surface area were carried out to demonstrate stronger current responses and higher hydrophilicity of GF after modified. The value of biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.049 to 0.331 after 90-min treatment, suggesting the solution was biodegradable, and the modified cathode was confirmed to be stable after ten circle runs. Finally, a proposed degradation pathway of RhB was put forward.

  4. Use of Both Anode and Cathode Reactions in Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi; Cabot, Pere LluíS.

    Here, we describe the fundamentals, laboratory experiments, and environmental applications of indirect electrooxidation methods based on H2O2 electrogeneration such as electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton and peroxicoagulation for the treatment of acidic wastewaters containing toxic and recalcitrant organics. These methods are electrochemical advanced oxidation processes that can be used in divided and undivided electrolytic cells in which pollutants are oxidized by hydroxyl radical (•OH) produced from anode and/or cathode reactions. H2O2 is generated from the two-electron reduction of O2 at reticulated vitreous carbon, graphite, carbon-felt, and O2-diffusion cathodes. The most usual method is electro-Fenton where Fe2 + added to the wastewater reacts with electrogenerated H2O2 to yield •OH and Fe3 + from Fenton's reaction. An advantage of this technique is that Fe2 + is continuously regenerated from cathodic reduction of Fe3 +. The characteristics of different electro-Fenton systems where pollutants are simultaneously destroyed by •OH formed in the medium from Fenton's reaction and at the anode surface from water oxidation are explained. The effect of the anode [Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD)] and cathode (carbon-felt or O2-diffusion) on the degradation rate of persistent industrial by-products, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, dyes, etc. is examined. Initial pollutants react much more rapidly with •OH formed in the medium and their degradation sequences are discussed from aromatic intermediates and finally short aliphatic acids are detected. The synergetic positive catalytic effect of Cu2 + on the electro-Fenton process is evidenced. The photoelectro-Fenton method involves the irradiation of the wastewater with UVA light that rapidly photodecomposes complexes of Fe3 + with final carboxylic acids enhancing total decontamination. The peroxicoagulation method uses a sacrificial Fe anode that is continuously oxidized to Fe2 + and organics are either mineralized

  5. Application of excitation and emission matrix fluorescence (EEM) and UV-vis absorption to monitor the characteristics of Alizarin Red S (ARS) during electro-Fenton degradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Bo; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Juling; Yang, Zhishan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative degradation of Alizarin Red S (ARS) in aqueous solutions by using electro-Fenton was studied. At first, effect of operating parameters such as current density, aeration rate and initial pH on the degradation of ARS were studied by using UV-vis spectrum, respectively. Then, under the optimal operating conditions (current density: 10.0mAcm(-2), aeration rate: 1000mLmin(-1), initial pH: 2.8), the identification of degradation products of ARS was carried out by using GC-MS and HPLC, meanwhile its degradation pathway was proposed according to the intermediates. Considering the location, intensity and intensity ratio of fluorescence center peak of the ARS in aqueous solution, a convenient and quick monitoring method by using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectrum technology was developed to monitor the degradation degree of ARS through electro-Fenton process. Furthermore, it is suggested that the developed method would be promising for the quick analysis and evaluation of the degradation degree of the pollutants with π-conjugated system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of three-dimensional catalytic electro-Fenton and membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng

    2015-12-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system three-dimensional catalytic electro-Fenton (3DCEF, catalyst of sewage sludge based activated carbon which loaded Fe3O4) integrating with membrane bioreactor (3DCEF-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. The results indicated that 3DCEF-MBR represented high efficiencies in eliminating COD and total organic carbon, giving the maximum removal efficiencies of 80% and 75%, respectively. The integrated 3DCEF-MBR system significantly reduced the transmembrane pressure, giving 35% lower than conventional MBR after 30 days operation. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation and bacteria self repair function were the mechanisms for 3DCEF-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated 3DCEF-MBR was expected to be the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Pilot-scale in situ treatment of landfill leachate using combined coagulation-flocculation, hydrolysis acidification, SBR and electro-Fenton oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Xiaogang; Qiu, Di; Mao, Jianguo; Zhang, Hui

    2017-05-29

    The treatment of a landfill leachate was developed at the pilot scale using a combination of processes, including coagulation, hydrolysis acidification (HA)-sequence batch reactors (SBR) and electro-Fenton oxidation in series. The aim was to enhance the removal of pollutants in the landfill leachate, which contained high organic and NH3-N loadings. During the 156-day in situ operation, the average removal efficiency of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 97.8% and the lowest effluent COD was 78 mg/L. The removal efficiencies of colour, turbidity and total phosphorus were all higher than 97%. The overall operating cost was US$ 4.84/m3. This combined process showed a high potential to efficiently remediate landfill leachate at an acceptable expense.

  8. One-step preparation of nanostructured martite catalyst and graphite electrode by glow discharge plasma for heterogeneous electro-Fenton like process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, Alireza; Sajjadi, Saeed; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Vahid, Behrouz; Joo, Sang Woo

    2017-09-01

    Natural Martite ore particles and graphite were modified by alternating current (AC) glow discharge plasma to form nanostructured catalyst and cathode electrode for using in the heterogeneous-electro Fenton-like (Het-EF-like) process. The performance of the plasma-treated martite (PTM) and graphite electrode (PTGE) was studied for the treatment of paraquat herbicide in a batch system. 85.78% degradation efficiency for 20 mg L -1 paraquat was achieved in the modified process under desired operational conditions (i.e. current intensity of 300 mA, catalyst amount of 1 g L -1 , pH = 6, and background electrolyte (Na 2 SO 4 ) concentration of 0.05 mol L -1 ) which was higher than the 41.03% for the unmodified one after 150 min of treatment. The ecofriendly modification of the martite particles and the graphite electrode, no chemical needed, low leached iron and milder operational pH were the main privileges of plasma utilization. Moreover, the degradation efficiency through the process was not declined after five repeated cycles at the optimized conditions, which proved the stability of the nanostructured PTM and PTGE in the long-term usage. The archived results exhibit this method is the first example of high efficient, cost-effective, and environment-friendly method for generation of nanostructured samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemical destruction of trans-cinnamic acid by advanced oxidation processes: kinetics, mineralization, and degradation route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nelly; Thiam, Abdoulaye; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Centellas, Francesc; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Garrido, José Antonio; Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi

    2017-03-01

    Acidic solutions of trans-cinnamic acid at pH 3.0 have been comparatively treated by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). The electrolytic experiments were carried out with a boron-doped diamond (BDD)/air-diffusion cell. The substrate was very slowly abated by AO-H2O2 because of its low reaction rate with oxidizing (•)OH produced from water discharge at the BDD anode. In contrast, its removal was very rapid and at similar rate by EF and PEF due to the additional oxidation by (•)OH in the bulk, formed from Fenton's reaction between cathodically generated H2O2 and added Fe(2+). The AO-H2O2 treatment yielded the lowest mineralization. The EF process led to persistent final products like Fe(III) complexes, which were quickly photolyzed upon UVA irradiation in PEF to give an almost total mineralization with 98 % total organic carbon removal. The effect of current density and substrate concentration on all the mineralization processes was examined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of electrolyzed solutions allowed identifying five primary aromatics and one heteroaromatic molecule, whereas final carboxylic acids like fumaric, acetic, and oxalic were quantified by ion exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). From all the products detected, a degradation route for trans-cinnamic acid is proposed.

  10. Decolorization and mineralization of Allura Red AC aqueous solutions by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Abdoulaye; Sirés, Ignasi; Garrido, José A; Rodríguez, Rosa M; Brillas, Enric

    2015-06-15

    The decolorization and mineralization of solutions containing 230 mg L(-1) of the food azo dye Allura Red AC at pH 3.0 have been studied upon treatment by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed with a stirred tank reactor containing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode to generate H2O2. The main oxidants were hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between H2O2 and added Fe(2+). The oxidation ability increased in the sequence EO-H2O2 process with BDD yielded almost total mineralization following similar trends in SO4(2-), ClO4(-) and NO3(-) media, whereas in Cl(-) medium, mineralization was inhibited by the formation of recalcitrant chloroderivatives. GC-MS analysis confirmed the cleavage of the −N=N− bond with formation of two main aromatics in SO4(2-) medium and three chloroaromatics in Cl(-) solutions. The effective oxidation of final oxalic and oxamic acids by BDD along with the photolysis of Fe(III)-oxalate species by UVA light accounted for the superiority of PEF with BDD. NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) ions were released during the mineralization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pd-catalytic in situ generation of H2O2 from H2 and O2 produced by water electrolysis for the efficient electro-fenton degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Fan, Ye; Zhang, Yucheng; Tong, Man; Liao, Peng

    2011-10-01

    A novel electro-Fenton process was developed for wastewater treatment using a modified divided electrolytic system in which H2O2 was generated in situ from electro-generated H2 and O2 in the presence of Pd/C catalyst. Appropriate pH conditions were obtained by the excessive H+ produced at the anode. The performance of the novel process was assessed by Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation in an aqueous solution. Experimental results showed that the accumulation of H2O2 occurred when the pH decreased and time elapsed. The maximum concentration of H2O2 reached 53.1 mg/L within 120 min at pH 2 and a current of 100 mA. Upon the formation of the Fenton reagent by the addition of Fe2+, RhB degraded completely within 30 min at pH 2 with a pseudo first order rate constant of 0.109 ± 0.009 min(-1). An insignificant decline in H2O2 generation and RhB degradation was found after six repetitions. RhB degradation was achieved by the chemisorption of H2O2 on the Pd/C surface, which subsequently decomposed into •OH upon catalysis by Pd0 and Fe2+. The catalytic decomposition of H2O2 to •OH by Fe2+ was more powerful than that by Pd0, which was responsible for the high efficiency of this novel electro-Fenton process.

  12. Effective degradation of rhodamine B by electro-Fenton process, using ferromagnetic nanoparticles loaded on modified graphite felt electrode as reusable catalyst: in neutral pH condition and without external aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiangnan; Zhao, Jixiang; Olajuyin, Ayobami Matthew; Sharshar, Moustafa Mohamed; Mu, Tingzhen; Yang, Maohua; Xing, Jianmin

    2016-08-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene/ferromagnetic nanoparticle/carbon black (PTFE/MNP/CB)-modified graphite felt (GF) was successfully applied as cathode for the mineralization of rhodamine B (RhB) in electro-Fenton (EF) process. The modified cathode showed high decolorization efficiency for RhB solution even in neutral pH condition and without external aeration, achieving nearly complete decolorization and 89.52 % total organic carbon (TOC) removal after 270-min oxidation with the MNP load 1.2 g at 50 A/m(2). Moreover, the operational parameters (current density, MNP load, initial pH, and airflow rate) were optimized. After that, adsorption isotherm was also conducted to compare the absorption quantity of CB and carbon nanotube (CNT). Then, the surface morphologies of MNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray detector (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); and the modified cathode was characterized by SEM and contact angle. Finally, the stability and reusability of modified cathode were tested. Result uncovered that the PTFE/MNP/CB-modified cathode has the potential for industrial application and the solution after treatment was easily biodegradable.

  13. An activated carbon fiber cathode for the degradation of glyphosate in aqueous solutions by the Electro-Fenton mode: Optimal operational conditions and the deposition of iron on cathode on electrode reusability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Huachun; He, Wenjing; Wang, Aimin; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Huang, C P

    2016-11-15

    An activated carbon fiber (ACF) cathode was fabricated and used to treat glyphosate containing wastewater by the Electro-Fenton (EF) process. The results showed that glyphosate was rapidly and efficiently degraded and the BOD5/COD ratio was increased to >0.3 implying the feasibility of subsequent treatment of the treated wastewater by biological methods. The results of ion chromatography and HPLC measurements indicated that glyphosate was completely decomposed. Effective OH generation and rapid recycling/recovery of the Fe(2+) ions at the cathode were responsible primarily for the high performance of the ACF-EF process. Factors such as inlet oxygen gas flow rate, Fe(2+) dosage, initial glyphosate concentration, applied current intensity, and solution pH that may affect the efficiency of the ACF-EF process were further studied and the optimum operation condition was established. Results of SEM/EDX, BET and XPS analysis showed the deposition of highly dispersed fine Fe2O3 particles on the ACF surface during the EF reaction. The possibility of using the Fe2O3-ACF as iron source in the EF process was assessed. Results showed that the Fe2O3-ACF electrode was effective in degrading glyphosate in the EF process. The deposition of Fe2O3 particles on the ACF electrode had no adverse effect on the reusability of the ACF cathode. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Continuous Bulk FeCuC Aerogel with Ultradispersed Metal Nanoparticles: An Efficient 3D Heterogeneous Electro-Fenton Cathode over a Wide Range of pH 3-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongying; Qian, Lin; Guan, Xiaohong; Wu, Deli; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-05-17

    Novel iron-copper-carbon (FeCuC) aerogel was fabricated through a one-step process from metal-resin precursors and then activated with CO2 and N2 in environmentally friendly way. The activated FeCuC aerogel was applied in a heterogeneous electro-Fenton (EF) process and exhibited higher mineralization efficiency than homogeneous EF technology. High total organic carbon (TOC) removal of organic pollutants with activated FeCuC aerogel was achieved at a wide range of pH values (3-9). The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of real dyeing wastewater was below China's discharge standard after 30 min of treatment, and the specific energy consumption was low (9.2 kW·h·kg(-1)COD(-1)), corresponding to a power consumption of only ∼0.34 kW·h per ton of wastewater. The enhanced mineralization efficiency of FeCuC aerogel was mostly attributable to ultradispersed metallic Fe-Cu nanoparticles embedded in 3D carbon matrix and the CO2-N2 treatment. The CO2 activation enhanced the accessibility of the aerogel's pores, and the secondary N2 activation enlarged the porosity and regenerated the ultradispersed zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) with reductive carbon. Cu(0) acted as a reduction promoter for interfacial electron transfer. Moreover, activated FeCuC aerogel presented low iron leaching (<0.1 ppm) in acidic solution and can be molded into different sizes with high flexibility. Thus, this material could be used as a low-cost cathode and efficient heterogeneous EF technology for actual wastewater treatment.

  15. Degradation of the beta-blocker propranolol by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes based on Fenton's reaction chemistry using a boron-doped diamond anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isarain-Chavez, Eloy; Rodriguez, Rosa Maria; Garrido, Jose Antonio; Arias, Conchita; Centellas, Francesc; Cabot, Pere Lluis [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.ed [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) degradation of solutions of the beta-blocker propranolol hydrochloride with 0.5 mmol dm{sup -3} Fe{sup 2+} at pH 3.0 has been studied using a single cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air diffusion cathode (ADE) for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrogeneration and a combined cell containing the above BDD/ADE pair coupled in parallel to a Pt/carbon felt (CF) cell. This naphthalene derivative can be mineralized by both methods with a BDD anode. Almost overall mineralization is attained for the PEF treatments, more rapidly with the combined system due to the generation of higher amounts of hydroxyl radical from Fenton's reaction by the continuous Fe{sup 2+} regeneration at the CF cathode, accelerating the oxidation of organics to Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes that are more quickly photolyzed by UVA light. The homologous EF processes are less potent giving partial mineralization. The effect of current density, pH and Fe{sup 2+} and drug concentrations on the oxidation power of PEF process in combined cell is examined. Propranolol decay follows a pseudo first-order reaction in most cases. Aromatic intermediates such as 1-naphthol and phthalic acid and generated carboxylic acids such as maleic, formic, oxalic and oxamic are detected and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chloride ions present in the starting solution are slowly oxidized at the BDD anode. In PEF treatments, all initial N of propranolol is completely transformed into inorganic ions, with predominance of NH{sub 4}{sup +} over NO{sub 3}{sup -} ion.

  16. 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid oxidation in sulfate and real olive oil mill wastewater by electrochemical advanced processes with a boron-doped diamond anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nelly; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi

    2017-01-05

    The degradation of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, a ubiquitous component of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW), has been studied by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H 2 O 2 (AO-H 2 O 2 ), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed in either a 0.050M Na 2 SO 4 solution or a real OOMW at pH 3.0, using a cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H 2 O 2 generation. Hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface from water oxidation in all processes and/or in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe 2+ and generated H 2 O 2 in EF and PEF were the main oxidants. In both matrices, the oxidation ability of the processes increased in the order AO-H 2 O 2 UVA radiation on photosensitive by-products, as deduced from the quick removal of Fe(III)-oxalate complexes. The effect of current density and organic content on the performance of all treatments was examined. 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid decay obeyed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The PEF treatment of 1.03mM 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in 0.050M Na 2 SO 4 allowed 98% mineralization at 360min even at low current density, whereas 80% mineralization and a significant enhancement of biodegradability were achieved with the real OOMW. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes to the mineralization of the herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipi, Angelo R F; Sirés, Ignasi; De Andrade, Adalgisa R; Brillas, Enric

    2014-08-01

    Here, solutions with 0.185mM of the herbicide diuron of pH 3.0 have been treated by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) like electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) or solar PEF (SPEF). Trials were performed in stirred tank reactors of 100mL and in a recirculation flow plant of 2.5L using a filter-press reactor with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H2O2 electrogeneration. Oxidant hydroxyl radicals were formed from water oxidation at the anode and/or in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and generated H2O2. In both systems, the relative oxidation ability of the EAOPs increased in the sequence EO-H2O2processes were more powerful due to the photolysis of intermediates by UV radiation. In the stirred tank reactor, the PEF treatment with BDD was the most potent method, yielding 93% mineralization after 360 min at 100 mA cm(-2). In the flow plant, the SPEF process attained a maximum mineralization of 70% at 100 mA cm(-2). Lower current densities slightly reduced the mineralization degree in SPEF, enhancing the current efficiency and dropping the energy consumption. The diuron decay always obeyed a pseudo-first-order kinetics, with a much greater apparent rate constant in EF and SPEF compared to EO-H2O2. Oxalic and oxamic acids were detected as final carboxylic acids. Ammonium and chloride ions were also released, the latter ion being partially converted into chlorate and perchlorate ions at the BDD surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Degradation of the insecticide propoxur by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes using a boron-doped diamond/air-diffusion cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelfi, Diego Roberto Vieira; Gozzi, Fábio; Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Machulek, Amílcar; de Oliveira, Silvio César

    2017-03-01

    A solution with 0.38 mM of the pesticide propoxur (PX) at pH 3.0 has been comparatively treated by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). The trials were carried out with a 100-mL boron-doped diamond (BDD)/air-diffusion cell. The EO-H2O2 process had the lowest oxidation ability due to the slow reaction of intermediates with (•)OH produced from water discharge at the BDD anode. The EF treatment yielded quicker mineralization due to the additional (•)OH formed between added Fe(2+) and electrogenerated H2O2. The PEF process was the most powerful since it led to total mineralization by the combined oxidative action of hydroxyl radicals and UVA irradiation. The PX decay agreed with a pseudo-first-order kinetics in EO-H2O2, whereas in EF and PEF, it obeyed a much faster pseudo-first-order kinetics followed by a much slower one, which are related to the oxidation of its Fe(II) and Fe(III) complexes, respectively. EO-H2O2 showed similar oxidation ability within the pH range 3.0-9.0. The effect of current density and Fe(2+) and substrate contents on the performance of the EF process was examined. Two primary aromatic products were identified by LC-MS during PX degradation.

  19. Proyecto de agronegocios uva isabella

    OpenAIRE

    María Emilia Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    Prestación que abaca información sobre el proyecto de agronegocios uva isabella, como parte del IV Taller de la Red de Proyectos de Integración Productiva - FOMIN, cuya finalidad es lograr la consolidación de la cadena productiva de la Uva Isabella en el Valle del Cauca, contribuyendo con ello a la reactivación económica de los pequeños productores de la zona.

  20. Decolorization and mineralization of Allura Red AC aqueous solutions by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiam, Abdoulaye; Sirés, Ignasi; Garrido, José A.; Rodríguez, Rosa M.; Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.edu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Quicker degradation of Allura Red AC in the order EO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} < EF < PEF with Pt or BDD anode. • Almost total mineralization achieved by the most powerful PEF process with BDD. • Similar decolorization and mineralization rate in SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} media. • In Cl{sup −} medium, only slightly larger decolorization rate but strong inhibition of mineralization. • Identification of aromatic products, carboxylic acids and released NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions. - Abstract: The decolorization and mineralization of solutions containing 230 mg L{sup −1} of the food azo dye Allura Red AC at pH 3.0 have been studied upon treatment by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (EO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed with a stirred tank reactor containing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode to generate H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The main oxidants were hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton’s reaction between H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and added Fe{sup 2+}. The oxidation ability increased in the sequence EO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} < EF < PEF and faster degradation was always obtained using BDD. PEF process with BDD yielded almost total mineralization following similar trends in SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} media, whereas in Cl{sup −} medium, mineralization was inhibited by the formation of recalcitrant chloroderivatives. GC–MS analysis confirmed the cleavage of the −N=N− bond with formation of two main aromatics in SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} medium and three chloroaromatics in Cl{sup −} solutions. The effective oxidation of final oxalic and oxamic acids by BDD along with the photolysis of Fe(III)-oxalate species by UVA light accounted for the superiority of PEF with BDD. NH{sub 4

  1. Incorporation of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes in a multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Soler, J; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-09-15

    The current study has proved the technical feasibility of including electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) in a multistage strategy for the remediation of a sanitary landfill leachate that embraced: (i) first biological treatment to remove the biodegradable organic fraction, oxidize ammonium and reduce alkalinity, (ii) coagulation of the bio-treated leachate to precipitate humic acids and particles, followed by separation of the clarified effluent, and (iii) oxidation of the resulting effluent by an EAOP to degrade the recalcitrant organic matter and increase its biodegradability so that a second biological process for removal of biodegradable organics and nitrogen content could be applied. The influence of current density on an UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) process was firstly assessed. The oxidation ability of various EAOPs such as electro-Fenton (EF) with two distinct initial total dissolved iron concentrations ([TDI]0), PEF and solar PEF (SPEF) was further evaluated and these processes were compared with their analogous chemical ones. A detailed assessment of the two first treatment stages was made and the biodegradability enhancement during the SPEF process was determined by a Zahn-Wellens test to define the ideal organics oxidation state to stop the EAOP and apply the second biological treatment. The best current density was 200 mA cm(-2) for a PEF process using a BDD anode, [TDI]0 of 60 mg L(-1), pH 2.8 and 20 °C. The relative oxidation ability of EAOPs increased in the order EF with 12 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) process was much superior to the Fenton one, the superiority of PEF over photo-Fenton was less evident and SPEF attained similar degradation to solar photo-Fenton. To provide a final dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of 163 mg L(-1) to fulfill the discharge limits into the environment after a second biological process, 6.2 kJ L(-1) UV energy and 36 kWh m(-3) electrical energy were consumed using SPEF with a BDD anode at 200

  2. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total dissolved polyphenols content of 0

  3. UVA, pheomelanin and the carcinogenesis of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, H Z; Hill, G J

    2000-01-01

    Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma cells vary in constitutive and inducible melanin levels. Survival, mutation induction and DNA damage were quantitated after exposure to UVB, UVA and FS20 lamps. Assuming that the observed differences are related to melanin, induced pigment is photo-protective for survival and mutation after UVB and FS20 exposure, and is photosensitizing for survival after UVA exposure. No changes in pyrimidine dimers could be measured. DNA damage in pigmented mouse melanocytes (melan-a and melan-b) was greater than that in albino melanocytes (melan-c) after UVB and FS20, and the pigmented cells were more sensitive to killing. Pigment appears to be protective for killing by UVA in these melanocytes. Human melanocytes from different skin types vary in both melanin amount and composition (eu- and pheomelanin). Effects of pigmentation on UVB responses are unclear. In UVA, heavily pigmented cells have more DNA damage than lightly pigmented cells, but are resistant to killing. Increased pheomelanin photosensitizes DNA damage in lightly pigmented cells. Since eumelanin predominates in the mouse melanoma cells and melanocytes, they are less likely than human cells to provide a satisfactory model for human solar melanomagenesis. In order to understand the mechanism of photocarcinogenesis of melanoma, melanins in human melanocytes from different pigment types should be carefully quantitated and characterized. Mutations induced in them by solar wavelength-emitting lamps with well-characterized spectra should be measured, and mutant DNA should be sequenced to determine the nature of the solar-induced lesions. Research should focus on UVA and pheomelanin.

  4. Phyllosphere Methylobacterium bacteria contain UVA-absorbing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shigenobu; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Koitabashi, Motoo; Kamo, Tsunashi; Tsushima, Seiya

    2017-02-01

    Microbes inhabiting the phyllosphere encounter harmful ultraviolet rays, and must develop adaptive strategies against this irradiation. In this study, we screened bacterial isolates originating from the phyllosphere of various plants which harbored absorbers of ultraviolet A (UVA), a wavelength range which is recognized as harmful to human skin. Of the 200 phyllosphere bacterial isolates we screened, methanol extracts from bacterial cells of seventeen isolates absorbed wavelengths in the range of 315-400nm. All of the UVA-absorbing strains belonged to Methylobacterium species based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, suggesting that cells of this bacterial genus contain specific UVA-absorbing compounds. When cells of a representative Methylobacterium strain were extracted using various solvents, UVA absorption was observed in the extracts obtained using several aqueous solvents, indicating that the UVA-absorbing compounds were highly polar. A compound was purified using solid columns and HPLC separation, and comparative analysis revealed that the absorption strength and spectrum of the compound were similar to those of the known UVA filter, avobenzone. The compound was also verified to be stable under UVA exposure for at least 480min. Based on these results, the UVA-absorbing compound harbored by Methylobacterium has potential to be used as a novel sunscreen ingredient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Controlling powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa) with potassium bicarbonate and risk of phytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic currant growing effective control measures are needed,

  6. Evaluation of the cloudy sky solar UVA radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J

    2014-09-05

    The influence of cloud on the solar UVA (320-400 nm) exposures over five minute periods on a horizontal plane has been investigated. The first approach used cloud modification factors that were evaluated using the influence of clouds on the global solar exposures (310-2800 nm) and a model developed to apply these to the clear sky UVA exposures to allow calculation of the five minute UVA exposures for any cloud conditions. The second approach established a relationship between the UVA and the global solar exposures. The models were developed using the first six months of data in 2012 for SZA less than or equal to 70° and were applied and evaluated for the exposures in the second half of 2012. This comparison of the modelled exposures for all cloud conditions to the measured data provided an R(2) of 0.8 for the cloud modification model, compared to an R(2) of 0.7 for the UVA/global model. The cloud modification model provided 73% of the five minute exposures within 20% of the measured UVA exposures. This was improved to 89% of the exposures within 20% of the measured UVA exposures for the cases of cloud with the sun not obscured. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Intervention of nicotinamide on skin melanin genesis after UVA exposed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patam, Muhammad; Jin, Xi-peng; Zhang, Yu-bin; Pan, Jian-ying; Shen, Guang-zu

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the interference effect of nicotinamide on UVA-induced melanin genesis and melanin transport in human skin melanocyte. The optimum UVA dose expected to cause cell proliferation: 0.2 J/cm(2), nicotinamide was added immediately after the 0.2 J/cm(2) UVA exposure and the melanin content, cell cycles, cell apoptosis and mRNA express level were measured respectively. Melanin content in melanocytes was increased significantly after exposed to 0.2 J/cm(2) UVA. Melanin content in melanocytes was decreased after treatment with 10.0 mmol/ml nicotinamide following UVA exposure, but the cell cycles and the cell apoptosis rate were not significantly altered. mRNA express levels of TYR, TRP-1 were modulated by nicotinamide. Nicotinamide has more effect on decreasing melanin genesis after UVA exposure, nicotinamide also plays a role in modulating the mRNA express of TYR, TRP-1 gene. It is possible to consider nicotinamide as an efficient and safe sun screen to provide a certain level of protection for UVA exposed skin.

  8. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Oturan, Mehmet A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Panizza, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, new advanced oxidation processes based on the electrochemical technology, the so-called electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), have been developed for the prevention and remediation of environmental pollution, especially focusing on water streams. These methods are based on the electrochemical generation of a very powerful oxidizing agent, such as the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in solution, which is then able to destroy organics up to their mineralization. EAOPs include heterogeneous processes like anodic oxidation and photoelectrocatalysis methods, in which (•)OH are generated at the anode surface either electrochemically or photochemically, and homogeneous processes like electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton, and sonoelectrolysis, in which (•)OH are produced in the bulk solution. This paper presents a general overview of the application of EAOPs on the removal of aqueous organic pollutants, first reviewing the most recent works and then looking to the future. A global perspective on the fundamentals and experimental setups is offered, and laboratory-scale and pilot-scale experiments are examined and discussed.

  9. Successful Treatment with UVA 1 Laser of Non - Responder Vitiligo Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torello Lotti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Authors discuss their experience in treating non-responder vitiligo patients with a UVA-1 laser. Laser Alba 355® is an innovative device of target UVA - 1 phototherapy. The present report suggests that UVA1 laser could be an applicable therapeutic option in patients with vitiligo, also for the ones who did not respond to the more conventional phototherapies.

  10. Impact of UVA on pruritus during UVA/B phototherapy of inflammatory skin diseases: a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, J-T; Kretschmer, L; Anzengruber, F; Pink, A; Murer, C; French, L E; Hofbauer, G F; Navarini, A A

    2017-07-01

    Narrowband (TL-01) UVB phototherapy (UVB nb) is effective in treating inflammatory skin disease. The addition of UVA is traditionally advocated to reduce pruritus, but lacks evidence for this recommendation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of UVB nb and UVA phototherapy in combination compared against UVB nb monotherapy on pruritus, disease activity and quality of life. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 53 patients suffering from inflammatory skin diseases with pronounced itching (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pruritus ≥5) were randomized into two treatment groups. One group received UVB nb (311 nm) phototherapy alone and another group received a combination of UVB nb and UVA (320-400 nm) phototherapy. UV therapy was performed three times per week over 16 weeks. Pruritus (VAS and 5-D itch score), disease activity and quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index, DLQI) were assessed at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 12 and 16. In both treatment groups, there was a reduction in pruritus scores, disease activity and DLQI. No difference in pruritus score, disease activity and quality of life could be detected between the group receiving UVB nb alone and those receiving UVB nb combined with UVA. Phototherapy with UVB nb alone, and UVB nb combined with UVA are equally effective in treating inflammatory skin disease and indifferent in reducing disease-associated pruritus. Given this non-inferiority for UVB nb monotherapy, the recommendation of adding UVA to UVB nb phototherapy for pruritic inflammatory skin disease should be abandoned. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Derivation and validation of a universal vital assessment (UVA) score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Christopher C; Hazard, Riley; Saulters, Kacie J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critical illness is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Identifying patients with the highest risk of death could help with resource allocation and clinical decision making. Accordingly, we derived and validated a universal vital assessment (UVA...

  12. UVA I-protection effectiveness of bioactive compound and organic UV filters: an in vitro assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rolim Baby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work aimed at determining the UVA effectiveness (UVA I/UV ratio, by diffuse transmittance analysis, of sunscreens developed with a bioactive substance, the rutin, associating or not with organic UVB-UVA filters incorporated at a phosphate-base O/W emulsion. Sunscreens provided conflicting and unpredictable results concerning the anti-UVA protection, specially, at the UVA I region. Possible interactions among the organic UV filters and the polyphenolic bioactive substance may have accounted with improvement or reduction of UV protection by a complex and not yet elucidated mechanism, probably regarding wavelength delocalization to superior or inferior values, by resonant molecule stabilization or destabilization.

  13. Proteomic identification of cathepsin B and nucleophosmin as novel UVA-targets in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamore, Sarah D; Qiao, Shuxi; Horn, David; Wondrak, Georg T

    2010-01-01

    Solar UVA exposure plays a causative role in skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Here, we describe the proteomic identification of novel UVA-targets in human dermal fibroblasts following a two-dimensional-difference-gel-electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) approach. Fibroblasts were exposed to noncytotoxic doses of UVA or left untreated, and total protein extracts underwent CyDye-labeling followed by 2D-DIGE/mass-spectrometric identification of differentially expressed proteins, confirmed independently by immunodetection. The protein displaying the most pronounced UVA-induced upregulation was identified as the nucleolar protein nucleophosmin. The protein undergoing the most pronounced UVA-induced downregulation was identified as cathepsin B, a lysosomal cysteine-protease displaying loss of enzymatic activity and altered maturation after cellular UVA exposure. Extensive lysosomal accumulation of lipofuscin-like autofluorescence and osmiophilic material occurred in UVA-exposed fibroblasts as detected by confocal fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Array analysis indicated UVA-induced upregulation of oxidative stress response gene expression, and UVA-induced loss of cathepsin B enzymatic activity in fibroblasts was suppressed by antioxidant intervention. Pharmacological cathepsin B inhibition using CA074Me mimicked UVA-induced accumulation of lysosomal autofluorescence and deficient cathepsin B maturation. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that cathepsin B is a crucial target of UVA-induced photo-oxidative stress causatively involved in dermal photodamage through the impairment of lysosomal removal of lipofuscin. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation. The American Society of Photobiology.

  14. The impact of natural sunlight exposure on the UVB-sun protection factor (UVB-SPF) and UVA protection factor (UVA-PF) of a UVA/UVB SPF 50 sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas J; Herndon, James H; Colón, Luz E; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2011-02-01

    To compare the functional stability of Cetaphil UVA/UVB Defense SPF 50 as measured by its ultraviolet B sun protection factor (UVB-SPF) and ultraviolet A protection factor (UVA-PF) values following exposure to natural sunlight versus the UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values of unexposed product. These two randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded, single-center trials were conducted according to the methods outlined in the 2007 Proposed Amendment to the Final Monograph, “Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use.” Sunscreen samples were applied to glass plates and exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the form of natural sunlight in four minimal erythemal doses (MED) ranging from 2–6 MED (42–36 mJ/cm2). Three test sites were identified on the back of each study subject. Exposed sunscreen (one of four doses), unexposed sunscreen, and a UVB-SPF 15 control sunscreen were applied to the three test sites in a randomized fashion, followed by UV irradiation of incremental doses. Erythema and pigment darkening responses were assessed immediately following UV exposure and again 16–24 hours (erythema) or three to 24 hours (pigment darkening) after exposure. UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values were calculated for the exposed and unexposed samples. The calculated UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values for all test samples (exposed and unexposed) were >50 and >9, respectively, which were greater than the stated UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values on the product label. No differences were observed between the exposed and unexposed samples in UVB-SPF or UVA-PF. The UVA and UVB protection using standard evaluation techniques of Cetaphil UVA/UVB Defense SPF 50 remains stable despite exposure of the sunscreen to natural sunlight containing UVB ranging from 2–16 MED (41–336 mJ/cm2) and coexistent UVA.

  15. In vitro assessments of UVA protection by popular sunscreens available in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Steven Q; Stanfield, Joseph W; Osterwalder, Uli

    2008-12-01

    The importance of adequate ultraviolet A (UVA) protection has become apparent with improved understanding of the mechanism of UVA-induced damage to tissues. Currently in the United States, there is no regulation on testing and labeling of sunscreens for UVA protection. In August 2007, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) addressed this issue in a proposed rule. We sought to assess in vitro the degree of UVA protection provided by 13 popular sunscreen products that are commercially available in the United States. Thirteen sunscreen products were purchased. UVA protection of each product was measured and assessed with 3 in vitro UVA labeling indices: (1) the FDA Proposed Amendment of Final Monograph, August 27, 2007; (2) European Commission Recommendation--the Colipa and critical wavelength methods; (3) and United Kingdom's Boots star rating system. Based on the new FDA-proposed guidelines, 8 products achieved the medium protection category, and 5 products achieved high protection. The latter 5 products also fulfilled the UVA protection based on the Colipa guideline desired by the European Commission Recommendation. Nine products achieved the desired critical wavelength value of 370 or higher. Based on the United Kingdom's Boots star rating system, 6 products achieved a rating of 3 stars, and the remaining 7 products achieved no star rating. The study only evaluated a small number of sunscreen products, and only in vitro methods were used to assess the degree of UVA protection. The majority of the tested sunscreens in this study offered a medium degree of UVA protection. Compared with the sunscreens in the past, this study shows that UVA protection of sunscreens has improved. Sunscreens with avobenzone and octocrylene provided a higher degree of UVA protection. Globally, there is no uniform standard on testing and labeling sunscreens for UVA protection. In the United States, the FDA has just started to create a much-needed standard. This effort is necessary to

  16. Scleral crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bikbov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crosslinking is a formation of chemical bonds between large molecules. It makes material stronger. Corneal crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA has been successfully used in keratectasia treatment since 2003. There are some presuppositions of the scleral crosslinking successful using in the progressive myopia, characterized by thinning and mechanical strength decrease of the sclera, as well as in corneal ectasia. Experimental investigations showed an increase in the mechanical strength of the sclera after crosslinking with riboflavin and UVA in vitro. At the same time there were no changes in the thickness of the sclera. Achieved biomechanical effect was constant over a time with interval during up to 8 months in rabbits in vivo. Scleral structure changes after crosslinking were studied with light, electron and atomic force microscopy. Dense collagen bundle at the same time with fibers diameter increase was observed. The spatial pattern of fibrils within crosslinked scleral tissue was tangled and running in different directions. Some authors found such side effects of the procedure as damage of the retina and cornea on the irradiation side because of the high irradiance and thinning of the sclera as a result of dehydration. The optimal duration of riboflavin instillation (20 minutes and irradiation with 3 mW/cm² (40 minutes were determined in the experiments. It was shown in vivo, that crosslinking of the sclera with riboflavin and UVA prevented the growth of the rabbit eyes in occlusion-induced myopia. There are several data about successful clinical using of the scleral crosslinking. However, only 6 patients (12 eyes were observed, procedure parameters are not clear, follow-up period was only 6 months. Thus, now there are many unsolved questions about efficacy and safety of the scleral crosslinking with riboflavin and UVA. Experimental results encourage for a new method of the progressive myopia treatment will be

  17. Sensing and Responding to UV-A in Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Chung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation can cause stresses or act as a photoregulatory signal depending on its wavelengths and fluence rates. Although the most harmful effects of UV on living cells are generally attributed to UV-B radiation, UV-A radiation can also affect many aspects of cellular processes. In cyanobacteria, most studies have concentrated on the damaging effect of UV and defense mechanisms to withstand UV stress. However, little is known about the activation mechanism of signaling components or their pathways which are implicated in the process following UV irradiation. Motile cyanobacteria use a very precise negative phototaxis signaling system to move away from high levels of solar radiation, which is an effective escape mechanism to avoid the detrimental effects of UV radiation. Recently, two different UV-A-induced signaling systems for regulating cyanobacterial phototaxis were characterized at the photophysiological and molecular levels. Here, we review the current understanding of the UV-A mediated signaling pathways in the context of the UV-A perception mechanism, early signaling components, and negative phototactic responses. In addition, increasing evidences supporting a role of pterins in response to UV radiation are discussed. We outline the effect of UV-induced cell damage, associated signaling molecules, and programmed cell death under UV-mediated oxidative stress.

  18. Sensing and Responding to UV-A in Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Seung Il; Chung, Young-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause stresses or act as a photoregulatory signal depending on its wavelengths and fluence rates. Although the most harmful effects of UV on living cells are generally attributed to UV-B radiation, UV-A radiation can also affect many aspects of cellular processes. In cyanobacteria, most studies have concentrated on the damaging effect of UV and defense mechanisms to withstand UV stress. However, little is known about the activation mechanism of signaling components or their pathways which are implicated in the process following UV irradiation. Motile cyanobacteria use a very precise negative phototaxis signaling system to move away from high levels of solar radiation, which is an effective escape mechanism to avoid the detrimental effects of UV radiation. Recently, two different UV-A-induced signaling systems for regulating cyanobacterial phototaxis were characterized at the photophysiological and molecular levels. Here, we review the current understanding of the UV-A mediated signaling pathways in the context of the UV-A perception mechanism, early signaling components, and negative phototactic responses. In addition, increasing evidences supporting a role of pterins in response to UV radiation are discussed. We outline the effect of UV-induced cell damage, associated signaling molecules, and programmed cell death under UV-mediated oxidative stress. PMID:23208372

  19. Homogeneous UVA system for corneal cross-linking treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres Pereira, Fernando R.; Stefani, Mario A.; Otoboni, José A.; Richter, Eduardo H.; Ventura, Liliane

    2010-02-01

    The treatment of keratoconus and corneal ulcers by collagen cross-linking using ultraviolet type A irradiation, combined with photo-sensitizer Riboflavin (vitamin B2), is a promising technique. The standard protocol suggests instilling Riboflavin in the pre-scratched cornea every 5min for 30min, during the UVA irradiation of the cornea at 3mW/cm2 for 30 min. This process leads to an increase of the biomechanical strength of the cornea, stopping the progression, or sometimes, even reversing Keratoconus. The collagen cross-linking can be achieved by many methods, but the utilization of UVA light, for this purpose, is ideal because of its possibility of a homogeneous treatment leading to an equal result along the treated area. We have developed a system, to be clinically used for treatment of unhealthy corneas using the cross-linking technique, which consists of an UVA emitting delivery device controlled by a closed loop system with high homogeneity. The system is tunable and delivers 3-5 mW/cm2, at 365nm, for three spots (6mm, 8mm and 10mm in diameter). The electronics close loop presents 1% of precision, leading to an overall error, after the calibration, of less than 10% and approximately 96% of homogeneity.

  20. Low-Dose UVA Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Cultured Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongrong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the mechanism of the adaptive response induced by low-dose ultraviolet A (UVA radiation. Methods. Cultured dermal fibroblasts were irradiated by a lethal dose of UVA (86.4 J/cm2 with preirradiation of single or repetitive low dose of UVA (7.2 J/cm2. Alterations of cellular morphology were observed by light microscope and electron microscope. Cell cycle and cellular apoptosis were assayed by flow cytometer. The extent of DNA damage was determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE. Results. The cultured dermal fibroblasts, with pretreatment of single or repetitive irradiation of 7.2 J/cm2 UVA relieved toxic reaction of cellular morphology and arrest of cell cycle, decreased apoptosis ratio, reduced DNA chain breakage, and accelerated DNA repair caused by subsequent 86.4 J/cm2 UVA irradiation. Compared with nonpretreatment groups, all those differences were significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Conclusions. The adaptation reaction might depend on the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA irradiation. Low-dose UVA radiation might induce adaptive response that may protect cultured dermal fibroblasts from the subsequent challenged dose of UVA damage. The duration and protective capability of the adaptive reaction might be related to the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA Irradiation.

  1. Photoprotection by dietary phenolics against melanogenesis induced by UVA through Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiprasongsuk, Anyamanee; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Limsaengurai, Saowalak; Panich, Uraiwan

    2016-08-01

    Dietary phenolics may play a protective role in UV-mediated skin pigmentation through their antioxidant and UV-absorbing actions. In this study, we investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2, regulating the transcription of antioxidant genes, affected melanogenesis in primary human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn) and B16F10 melanoma cells subjected to UVA (8J/cm(2)) exposure. Then, we explored the antimelanogenic actions of phenolics; caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) providing partial UVA protection; quercetin (QU) and rutin (RU) providing strong UVA protection and; avobenzone (AV), an efficient UVA filter, in association with modulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defenses in response to UVA insults in B16F10 cells. Upon oxidative insults, Nrf2 silencing promoted melanogenesis in both HEMn and B16F10 cells irradiated with UVA. Stimulation of melanogenesis by UVA correlated with increased ROS and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), GSH depletion as well as a transient downregulation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and of Nrf2-ARE signaling in B16F10 cells. All test compounds exerted antimelanogenic effects with respect to their abilities to reverse UVA-mediated oxidative damage as well as downregulation of Nrf2 activity and its target antioxidants (GCLC, GST and NQO1) in B16F10 cells. In conclusion, defective Nrf2 may promote melanogenesis under UVA irradiation through oxidative stress mechanisms. Compounds with antioxidant and/or UVA absorption properties could protect against UVA-induced melanogenesis through indirect regulatory effect on Nrf2-ARE pathway. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphology, anatomy and histology of Doto uva Marcus, 1955 (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) from the Chilean coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.A.; Velde, van der G.; Roubos, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Doto uva Marcus, 1955 is a nudibranch species recorded from the Brazilian and Chilean coast. In spite of its wide distribution, D. uva has been described only superficially, mainly as to the pattern of its coloration, external morphology, radular teeth and reproductive system. Here we substantially

  3. Exposure of vitamins to UVB and UVA radiation generates singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knak, Alena; Regensburger, Johannes; Maisch, Tim; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Deleterious effects of UV radiation in tissue are usually attributed to different mechanisms. Absorption of UVB radiation in cell constituents like DNA causes photochemical reactions. Absorption of UVA radiation in endogenous photosensitizers like vitamins generates singlet oxygen via photosensitized reactions. We investigated two further mechanisms that might be involved in UV mediated cell tissue damage. Firstly, UVB radiation and vitamins also generate singlet oxygen. Secondly, UVB radiation may change the chemical structure of vitamins that may change the role of such endogenous photosensitizers in UVA mediated mechanisms. Vitamins were irradiated in solution using monochromatic UVB (308 nm) or UVA (330, 355, or 370 nm) radiation. Singlet oxygen was directly detected and quantified by its luminescence at 1270 nm. All investigated molecules generated singlet oxygen with a quantum yield ranging from 0.007 (vitamin D3) to 0.64 (nicotinamide) independent of the excitation wavelength. Moreover, pre-irradiation of vitamins with UVB changed their absorption in the UVB and UVA spectral range. Subsequently, molecules such as vitamin E and vitamin K1, which normally exhibit no singlet oxygen generation in the UVA, now produce singlet oxygen when exposed to UVA at 355 nm. This interplay of different UV sources is inevitable when applying serial or parallel irradiation with UVA and UVB in experiments in vitro. These results should be of particular importance for parallel irradiation with UVA and UVB in vivo, e.g. when exposing the skin to solar radiation.

  4. UV-A radiation effects on higher plants: Exploring the known unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer, Dolors; Jansen, Marcel A K; Llorens, Laura; Morales, Luis O; Neugart, Susanne

    2017-02-01

    Ultraviolet-A radiation (UV-A: 315-400nm) is a component of solar radiation that exerts a wide range of physiological responses in plants. Currently, field attenuation experiments are the most reliable source of information on the effects of UV-A. Common plant responses to UV-A include both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on biomass accumulation and morphology. UV-A effects on biomass accumulation can differ from those on root: shoot ratio, and distinct responses are described for different leaf tissues. Inhibitory and enhancing effects of UV-A on photosynthesis are also analysed, as well as activation of photoprotective responses, including UV-absorbing pigments. UV-A-induced leaf flavonoids are highly compound-specific and species-dependent. Many of the effects on growth and development exerted by UV-A are distinct to those triggered by UV-B and vary considerably in terms of the direction the response takes. Such differences may reflect diverse UV-perception mechanisms with multiple photoreceptors operating in the UV-A range and/or variations in the experimental approaches used. This review highlights a role that various photoreceptors (UVR8, phototropins, phytochromes and cryptochromes) may play in plant responses to UV-A when dose, wavelength and other conditions are taken into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of electrochemical advanced oxidation to bisphenol A degradation in water. Effect of sulfate and chloride ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Castillo, Rutely C; Sirés, Ignasi; Sillanpää, Mika; Brillas, Enric

    2017-12-05

    Electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO- H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) have been applied to mineralize bisphenol A solutions in 0.050 M Na2SO4 or 0.008 M NaCl + 0.047 M Na2SO4 at pH 3.0. The assays were performed in an undivided cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for continuous H2O2 production. The PEF and SPEF processes yielded almost total mineralization due to the potent synergistic action of generated hydroxyl radicals and active chlorine, in conjunction with the photolytic action of UV radiation. The higher intensity of UV rays from sunlight explained the superior oxidation ability of SPEF. The effect of applied current density was studied in all treatments, whereas the role of bisphenol A concentration was examined in PEF. Bisphenol A abatement followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics, which was very quick in SPEF since UV light favored a large production of hydroxyl radicals from Fenton's reaction. Eight non-chlorinated and six chlorinated aromatics were identified as primary products in the chloride matrix. Ketomalonic, tartronic, maleic and oxalic acids were detected as final short-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids. The large stability of Fe(III)-oxalate complexes in EF compared to their fast photomineralization in PEF and PEF accounted for by the superior oxidation power of the latter processes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Solar or UVA-Visible Photocatalytic Ozonation of Water Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Fernando J; Rey, Ana

    2017-07-14

    An incipient advanced oxidation process, solar photocatalytic ozonation (SPO), is reviewed in this paper with the aim of clarifying the importance of this process as a more sustainable water technology to remove priority or emerging contaminants from water. The synergism between ozonation and photocatalytic oxidation is well known to increase the oxidation rate of water contaminants, but this has mainly been studied in photocatalytic ozonation systems with lamps of different radiation wavelength, especially of ultraviolet nature (UVC, UVB, UVA). Nowadays, process sustainability is critical in environmental technologies including water treatment and reuse; the application of SPO systems falls into this category, and contributes to saving energy and water. In this review, we summarized works published on photocatalytic ozonation where the radiation source is the Sun or simulated solar light, specifically, lamps emitting radiation to cover the UVA and visible light spectra. The main aspects of the review include photoreactors used and radiation sources applied, synthesis and characterization of catalysts applied, influence of main process variables (ozone, catalyst, and pollutant concentrations, light intensity), type of water, biodegradability and ecotoxicity, mechanism and kinetics, and finally catalyst activity and stability.

  7. Impact of UVA exposure on psychological parameters and circulating serotonin and melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauermann Kirsten

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People tend to feel better after exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation. This study was performed to investigate the impact of UVA exposure on psychological and neuroendocrine parameters. Methods Fifty-three volunteers were separated into 42 individuals who had UVA exposure and 11 individuals who had no UVA exposure. The UVA-exposed volunteers had irradiation sessions six times in a three-week period. All volunteers completed two questionnaires at baseline (T1 and at the end of the study (T3. For the determination of serotonin and melatonin serum levels of all volunteers blood samples were collected at baseline (T1, after the first UVA exposure (T2, and at the end of the study after the sixth exposure (T3. Results UVA-exposed volunteers felt significantly more balanced, less nervous, more strengthened, and more satisfied with their appearance at T3. By contrast, the controls did not show significant changes of psychological parameters. In comparison to T1 and T3, serum serotonin was significantly higher and the serum melatonin was significantly lower for the volunteers exposed to UVA at T2. Both, for exposed and non-exposed volunteers serotonin and melatonin levels did not significantly differ at T1 and T3. Conclusions It remains obscure, whether the exposure to UVA or other components of the treatment were responsible for the psychological benefits observed. The changes of circulating neuroendocrine mediators found after UVA exposure at T2 may be due to an UVA-induced effect via a cutaneous pathway. Nevertheless, the positive psychological effects observed in our study cannot be attributed to circulating serotonin or melatonin.

  8. Estudo cinético da secagem da uva Isabel para produção de uva passa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Vitor Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A fruticultura é um dos segmentos mais importantes na agricultura nacional, porém um grande problema enfrentado pelos fruticultores é a conservação dos frutos maduros. A falta de tecnologias adequadas para o melhor aproveitamento dos frutos tem resultado em um alto índice de desperdício, cerca de toneladas ano. A uva Isabel, é uma das principais variedades Vitis labrusca, que apresenta sabor característico e pigmentação bastante acentuada, destacando-se como uva de mesa comum, apresentando-se como uma variedade de grande aceitação pelo consumidor e pela indústria de alimentos. A desidratação de frutas vem sendo objeto de muitas pesquisas com o propósito de se obter técnicas que proporcionem, além de baixo custo de produção, a manutenção da qualidade dos produtos desidratados e a redução das perdas pós-colheita. Neste sentido o presente trabalho objetivou estudar a secagem da uva Isabel para obtenção de uva passa desidratada, visando obter informações sobre a qualidade do fruto in-natura e após processamento, realizando-se para isto à caracterização físico-química do fruto in-natura e desidratado. Foram realizadas análises de pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável,  umidade, atividade de água e do teor de antocianinas nos Laboratórios de Tecnologia da UFERSA e UFCG. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os frutos desidratados apresentaram um incremento nos teores de sólidos solúveis (de 11,17 para 45° brix, da acidez titulável (de 0,73 para 1,34% e do teor de antocianina, que foi elevado de 117,83 mg/100g para 380,52 mg/100g de fruto desidratado, e redução quanto aos valores de umidade (de 85,65 para 21,75% e atividade de água (de 0,90 para 0,66, estes valores de nutrientes apresentaram-se próximos aos relatados na literatura demonstrando que a secagem solar é uma excelente alternativa para a conservação da uva Isabel, contribuindo assim para redução das perdas pós-colheita e com a

  9. Protective effect of UV-A radiation during acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to UV-B treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štroch, Michal; Materová, Zuzana; Vrábl, Daniel; Karlický, Václav; Šigut, Ladislav; Nezval, Jakub; Špunda, Vladimír

    2015-11-01

    We examined the acclimation response of the photosynthetic apparatus of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to a combination of UV-A and UV-B radiation (UVAB) and to UV-B radiation alone. Our aim was to evaluate whether UV-A radiation prevents UV-B-induced damage to the photosynthetic apparatus and whether UV-A pre-acclimation is required to mitigate the negative influence of UV-B radiation. Barley plants were grown from seeds under low photosynthetically active radiation (50 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) either in the absence or presence of UV-A radiation (UVA- and UVA+ plants, respectively). After 8 days of development, plants were exposed simultaneously to UV-A and UV-B radiation for the next 6 days. Additionally, UVA- plants were exposed to UV-B radiation alone. The UVA+ plants had a higher CO2 assimilation rate near the light-saturation region (A(N)) and a higher content of both total chlorophylls (Chls) and total carotenoids than the UVA- plants. Chls content, A(N), the potential quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (F(V)/F(M)), the capacity of light-induced thermal energy dissipation and the efficiency of excitation energy transfer within PSII remained the same or even increased in both UVA+ and UVA- plants after UVAB treatment. On the contrary, exposure of UVA- plants to UV-B radiation itself led to a reduction in all these characteristics. We revealed that the presence of UV-A radiation during UVAB treatment not only mitigated but completely eliminated the negative effect of UV-B radiation on the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and that UV-A pre-acclimation was not crucial for development of this UV-A-induced resistance against UV-B irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Platelet-Rich Fibrin Lysate Can Ameliorate Dysfunction of Chronically UVA-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirohadidjojo, Yohanes Widodo; Budiyanto, Arief; Soebono, Hardyanto

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether platelet-rich fibrin lysate (PRF-L) could restore the function of chronically ultraviolet-A (UVA)-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), we isolated and sub-cultured HDFs from six different human foreskins. HDFs were divided into two groups: those that received chronic UVA irradiation (total dosages of 10 J cm⁻²) and those that were not irradiated. We compared the proliferation rates, collagen deposition, and migration rates between the groups and between chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in control and PRF-L-treated media. Our experiment showed that chronic UVA irradiation significantly decreased (p<0.05) the proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition of HDFs, compared to controls. Compared to control media, chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L had significantly increased proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition (p<0.05), and the migration rates and collagen deposition of chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L were equal to those of normal fibroblasts. Based on this experiment, we concluded that PRF-L is a good candidate material for treating UVA-induced photoaging of skin, although the best method for its clinical application remains to be determined.

  11. [The intervention of nicotinamide on skin melanocyte's cell proliferation after UVA (365 nm) exposed.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patam, Muhammad; Jin, Xi-peng; Pan, Jian-ying; Shen, Guang-zu; Jin, Tai-Yi

    2005-02-01

    To investigate the interference effect of nicotinamide on UVA-induced cell proliferation in human skin melanocyte. To apply the optimum UVA dose expected to cause cell proliferation: 0.2 cm2, nicotinamide was added after the 0.2 cm2 UVA exposure immediately or 48 h later, then the rate of cell proliferation, calcium concentration and the activities of Na+-K+, Ca2+-ATP enzymes of melanocytes were measured respectively. After treatment with 1.000 mg/ml nicotinamide following UVA exposure, the rate of cell proliferation was decreased significantly 24 hours later. Treatment with 0.125 mg/ml nicotinamide 48 hours after UVA exposure also significantly inhibited the cell proliferation; 1.25 mg/ml nicotinamide increased calcium concentration in cells; 0.250 mg/ml nicotinamide increased the activities of Na+-K+, Ca2+-ATP enzymes in melanocytes (P Nicotinamide has more obvious effect on inhibiting melanocyte's proliferation if added immediately following UVA exposure. Our discovery indicated that nicotinamide may affect the melanocyte through modulating the calcium concentration. It is possible to consider nicotinamide as an efficient and safe sun screen to provide a certain level of protection for UVA exposed skin.

  12. UVA-1 exposure in vivo leads to an IL-6 surge within the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lars Alexander; Raizner, Katharina; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Brenneisen, Peter; Gethöffer, Kerstin; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2017-09-01

    UVA-1 is a known promotor of skin ageing. Cytokines like IL-1α, Il-1β or TNF-α, VEGF and IL-6 orchestrate UV effects, and IL-6 is furthermore an effector of UVA-induced photoageing. We investigated how fractionated UVA-1 doses influence the cytokine milieu and especially the IL-6 levels in the skin in vivo. In a study with 35 participants, we exposed previously unirradiated human skin to three UVA-1 irradiation regimes. Cytokine levels in interstitial skin fluid were measured up to 48 hours postexposure and compared to unirradiated control skin fluid. Our results show that IL-6 levels increased significantly after UVA-1 exposure at selected time points. The other candidates IL-1α, Il-1β or TNF-α and VEGF show no significant response after UVA-1 exposure in vivo. UVA-1 thus raises selectively IL-6 levels in vivo, a fact that underlines its role in photoageing and has potential implications for its modulatory effect on photoageing pathology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Autophagic-lysosomal dysregulation downstream of cathepsin B inactivation in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamore, Sarah D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2012-01-01

    Recently, using 2D-DIGE proteomics we have identified cathepsin B as a novel target of UVA in human Hs27 skin fibroblasts. In response to chronic exposure to noncytotoxic doses of UVA (9.9 J cm(-2), twice a week, 3 weeks), photooxidative impairment of cathepsin B enzymatic activity occurred with accumulation of autofluorescent aggregates colocalizing with lysosomes, an effect mimicked by pharmacological antagonism of cathepsin B using the selective inhibitor CA074Me. Here, we have further explored the mechanistic involvement of cathepsin B inactivation in UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations using autophagy-directed PCR expression array analysis as a discovery tool. Consistent with lysosomal expansion, UVA upregulated cellular protein levels of the lysosomal marker glycoprotein Lamp-1, and increased levels of the lipidated autophagosomal membrane constituent LC3-II were detected. UVA did not alter expression of beclin 1 (BECN1), an essential factor for initiation of autophagy, but upregulation of p62 (sequestosome 1, SQSTM1), a selective autophagy substrate, and α-synuclein (SNCA), an autophagic protein substrate and aggresome component, was observed at the mRNA and protein level. Moreover, UVA downregulated transglutaminase-2 (TGM2), an essential enzyme involved in autophagolysosome maturation. Strikingly, UVA effects on Lamp-1, LC3-II, beclin 1, p62, α-synuclein, and transglutaminase-2 were mimicked by CA074Me treatment. Taken together, our data suggest that UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations occur as a consequence of impaired autophagic flux downstream of cathepsin B inactivation, a novel molecular mechanism potentially involved in UVA-induced skin photodamage. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies 2012

  14. Serum folate levels after UVA exposure: a two-group parallel randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmeyer Peter

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photodegradation of certain vitamins such as riboflavins, carotinoids, tocopherol, and folate has been well-documented. Previous observations suggest that ultraviolet (UV radiation may cause folate deficiency. This is of great importance since folate deficiency is also known to be linked with the development of neural tube defects. To investigate the influence of UVA radiation on serum folate levels in vivo, we conducted a two-group randomised controlled trial on healthy subjects. Material and methods Twenty-four healthy volunteers with skin type II were enrolled into the study. Eight volunteers of the study population were randomly assigned to the control group. UVA irradiation was administered with an air-conditioned sunbed. Blood samples were taken from all volunteers at baseline (T1, 30 min after the first UVA exposure (T2, and at the end of the study 24 h after the sixth UV exposure (T3. The volunteers had two UVA exposures weekly within three weeks (cumulative UVA dose: 96 J/cm2. Volunteers of the control group had no UVA exposures. Serum folate was analysed with an automated immunoassay system. Results At all times of blood collection the differences between serum folate levels were insignificant (P > 0.05, except of the non-exposed controls at T2 (P 0.05. Conclusions Our data suggest that both single and serial UVA exposures do not significantly influence serum folate levels of healthy subjects. Therefore, neural tube defects claimed to occur after periconceptual UVA exposure are probably not due to UVA induced folate deficiency.

  15. Reguladores vegetais influenciando numero e tamanho de celulas das bagas da uva 'Niagara Rosada'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vieira, Cassia Regina Yuriko Ide; Pires, Erasmo Jose Paioli; Terra, Maurilo Monteiro; Tecchio, Marco Antonio; Vieira, Maria Do Carmo

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do acido giberelico, thidiazuron e quinmerac na anatomia das bagas de uvas cultivar 'Niagara Rosada', provenientes de vinhedo localizado em Dourados - MS...

  16. Stress response of Nidula niveo-tomentosa to UV-A light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupp, Daniela E; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G; Zorn, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Exposition to UV-A light stimulated the growth and synthesis of raspberry ketone in submerged cultures of the basidiomycete Nidula niveotomentosa. To investigate the fungus' response to UV-A light differentially expressed proteins were identified by means of 2D-electrophoresis. Light induced proteins were de novo sequenced by ESI-MS/MS spectrometry, and the encoding nucleotide sequences were cloned from cDNA or genomic DNA. The spectrum of UV-A light-induced proteins comprised several stress-related proteins including a catalase, heat-shock proteins, glutathione S-transferases and proteasomes. In addition, growth-related enzymes of the citric cycle were found to be up-regulated as a response to irradiation with UV-A.

  17. Autophagic-lysosomal dysregulation downstream of cathepsin B inactivation in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA

    OpenAIRE

    Lamore, Sarah D.; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, using 2D-DIGE proteomics we have identified cathepsin B as a novel target of UVA in human Hs27 skin fibroblasts. In response to chronic exposure to noncytotoxic doses of UVA (9.9 J/cm2, twice a week, 3 weeks), photooxidative impairment of cathepsin B enzymatic activity occurred with accumulation of autofluorescent aggregates colocalizing with lysosomes, an effect mimicked by pharmacological antagonism of cathepsin B using the selective inhibitor CA074Me. Here, we have further explor...

  18. Cellular Studies with UVA Radiation: A Role for Iron (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, R.M.; Pourzand, C.A.; Brown, J.; Hejmadi, V.; Kvam, V.; Ryter, S.; Watkin, R.D

    2000-07-01

    The UVA (320-380 nm) component of sunlight or sunbeds acts as an oxidising carcinogen and has been clearly implicated in skin cancer. Since UVA radiation interacts with cells by generating active oxygen species, the damaging effects of this radiation will be exacerbated by the presence of catalytically reactive iron in cells. It has now been shown by two independent techniques (dequenching of metal-quenched calcein fluorescence in cells and changes in the binding activity of the iron responsive protein IRPI) that UVA radiation causes an immediate release of 'free' iron in human skin fibroblasts via the proteolysis of ferritin (Ft). Within minutes of exposure to a range of doses of UVA at natural exposure levels, the binding activity of IRP-1, as well as Ft levels, decrease in a dose-dependent manner. It is proposed that the oxidative damage to lysosomes that leads to Ft degradation and the consequent release of potentially harmful 'free' iron to the cytosol might be a major factor in UVA-induced damage to the skin. UVA radiation also breaks down heme-containing proteins in the microsomal membrane to release free heme as an additional photosensitising component. This will provide another source of enhanced free iron in skin cells since constitutive heme oxygenase 2 (in keratinocytes) and UVA-inducible heme oxygenase-1 (in fibroblasts) are likely to break down any free heme to biliverdin and release iron and carbon monoxide in the process. It is postulated that, in skin fibroblasts, this free heme release and the enhanced free iron pools will lead to an adaptive response involving heme oxygenase (with a maximum about 10 h) and ferritin (in 24-48 h) that will scavenge the heme and iron released by subsequent oxidising (UVA) treatments. (author)

  19. Keratocyte apoptosis after corneal collagen cross-linking using riboflavin/UVA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollensak, Gregor; Spoerl, Eberhard; Wilsch, Michaela; Seiler, Theo

    2004-01-01

    Combined riboflavin/UVA treatment inducing collagen cross-links in the cornea has been shown to increase the biomechanical rigidity of the cornea and has been used successfully in the treatment of progressive keratoconus. The current study was undertaken to investigate the possible cytotoxic effect of combined riboflavin/UVA treatment on corneal keratocytes in vivo. Thirty-four New Zealand white rabbits were treated with 0.1% riboflavin solution and surface UVA irradiances ranging from 0.75 to 4 mW/cm2 (1.35- 7.2 J/cm2) for 30 minutes. The animals were euthanized either 4 (n = 6) or 24 (n = 28) hours postoperatively. Four additional control eyes underwent epithelial debridement alone. The corneas of the enucleated eyes were evaluated in routine histologic sections. In addition, the TUNEL technique and transmission electron microscopy were used for the detection of keratocyte apoptosis. In the control eyes with corneal epithelial debridement only, apoptotic keratocytes were found in the anterior 50 microm of the corneal stroma 4 hours postoperatively. However, riboflavin/UVA-induced apoptosis was only visible in the rabbit eyes enucleated 24 hours postoperatively. In these eyes, we found apoptosis of keratocytes down to a variable stromal depth depending on the applied UVA irradiance. A cytotoxic UVA irradiance for keratocytes in the range of 0.5-0.7 mW/cm2 could be deduced. Riboflavin/UVA treatment leads to a dose-dependent keratocyte damage that can be expected in human corneas down to a depth of 300 microm using a surface UVA dose of 5.4 J/cm2. Future studies should be done to examine the keratocyte repopulation and exclude possible adverse sequelae of keratocyte loss like stromal scarring or thinning.

  20. Sunlight-induced immunosuppression in humans is initially because of UVB, then UVA, followed by interactive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Terence S C; Barnetson, Ross St C; Halliday, Gary M

    2005-10-01

    Solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation (ssUV) suppresses immunity in humans. The ultraviolet B (UVB) waveband is recognized as immunosuppressive; however the relative significance of UVA to ssUV immunosuppression is unknown. We created dose and time-response curves for UVB-, UVA-, and ssUV-induced suppression of memory immunity to nickel in humans. UVB caused immunosuppression within 24 h. UVA immunosuppression required 48 h and was normalized by 72 h. UVB alone accounts for ssUV immunosuppression at 24 h, but both UVB and UVA contributed at 48 h. By 72 h neither waveband accounted for ssUV immunosuppression. An interaction between these wavebands was therefore the major contributor. To confirm this dose-response curves were used to determine immune protection factors (IPF) for sunscreens with nickel challenge 72 h following ssUV. A sunscreen with good UVA protection had an IPF twice that of a poor UVA protector, despite providing similar protection from sunburn. Thus UVA was a major contributor to ssUV-induced immunosuppression at 72 h but only with the cooperation of UVB. Hence, UVB initiates immunosuppressive signals within 24 h, followed by UVA at 48 h, then an interaction between UVB and UVA. By 72 h following ssUV exposure, neither UVB nor UVA, but an interaction between them is the major cause of sunlight-induced immunosuppression.

  1. Psoralen-mediated virus photoinactivation in platelet concentrates: enhanced specificity of virus kill in the absence of shorter UVA wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis-Nunno, Henrietta; Robinson, Richard; Horowitz, Bernard; Ben-Hur, Ehud [New York Blood Center, NY (United States); Geacintov, N.E. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-11-01

    Treatments with psoralens and long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm; PUVA) have shown efficacy for virus sterilization of platelet concentrates (PC). We have employed the psoralen derivative 4`-aminomethyl-4,5`,8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT), and have found that platelet integrity is best preserved when rutin, a flavonoid that quenches multiple reactive oxygen species, is present during AMT/UVA treatment of PC. In this report, we examine the effects of different UVA spectra under our standard PC treatment conditions (i.e. 50 {mu}g/mL AMT, 0.35 mM rutin and 38 J/cm{sup 2} UVA). Added vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; {>=} 5.5 log{sub 10}) was completely inactivated with the simultaneous maintenance of the platelet aggregation response (> 90% of control) when a UVA light source with transmission mainly between 360 and 370 nm (narrow UVA1) was used. In contrast, with a broad-band UVA (320-400 nm; broad UVA) light source, the aggregation response was greatly compromised (< 50% of control) with only a minor increase in the rate of VSV kill. With this lamp, platelet function could be improved to about 75% of the control by adding a long-pass filter, which reduced the transmission of shorter ({<=} 345 nm) UVA wavelengths (340-400 nm; UVA1). At equivalent levels of virus kill, aggregation function was always best preserved when narrow UVA1 was used for PUVA treatment. Even in the absence of AMT, and with or without rutin present, narrow UVA1 irradiation was better tolerated by platelets than was broad UVA. (author).

  2. Purinergic signaling mediates oxidative stress in UVA-exposed THP-1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Kawano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet A (UVA radiation, the major UV component of solar radiation, can penetrate easily to the dermis, where it causes significant damage to cellular components by inducing formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. On the other hand, extracellular ATP is released in response to various stimuli, and activates purinergic P2X7 receptor, triggering ROS production and cell death. Here, we examined the hypothesis that ATP release followed by activation of P2X7 receptor plays a role in UVA-induced oxidative cell damage, using human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Indeed, UVA irradiation of THP-1 cells induced ATP release and activation of P2X7 receptor. Irradiated cells showed a rapid increase of both p67phox in membrane fraction and intracellular ROS. Pretreatment with ecto-nucleotidase or P2X7 receptor antagonist blocked the UVA-initiated membrane translocation of p67phox and ROS production. Furthermore, pretreatment with antioxidant or P2X7 receptor antagonist efficiently protected UVA-irradiated cells from caspase-dependent cell death. These findings show that autocrine signaling through release of ATP and activation of P2X7 receptor is required for UVA-induced stimulation of oxidative stress in monocytes.

  3. Lipid nanoparticles based on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vitro UVA blocking effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculae, G.; Lacatusu, I.; Badea, N.; Meghea, A.

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain efficient lipid nanoparticles loaded with butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in order to develop cosmetic formulations with enhanced UVA blocking effect. For this purpose, two adequate liquid lipids (medium chain triglycerides and squalene) have been used in combination with two solid lipids (cetyl palmitate and glyceryl stearate) in order to create appropriate nanostructured carriers with a disordered lipid network able to accommodate up to 1.5% BMDBM. The lipid nanoparticles (LNs) were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and in vitro UVA blocking effect. The efficiency of lipid nanoparticles in developing some cosmetic formulations has been evaluated by determining the in vitro erythemal UVA protection factor. In order to quantify the photoprotective effect, some selected cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs and a conventional emulsion were exposed to photochemical UV irradiation at a low energy to simulate the solar energy during the midday. The results obtained demonstrated the high ability of cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs to absorb more than 96% of UVA radiation. Moreover, the developed cosmetic formulations manifest an enhanced UVA blocking effect, the erythemal UVA protection factor being four times higher than those specific to conventional emulsions.

  4. Epidermal changes in human skin following irradiation with either UVB or UVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearse, A.D.; Gaskell, S.A.; Marks, R.

    1987-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that following UVB irradiation to normal volunteers there is an increase in epidermal and stratum corneum thickness and an increase in the thymidine autoradiographic labeling index. These changes are coupled with alterations in epidermal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and succinic dehydrogenase activities, despite the absence of erythema clinically. The use of a sunscreen did not completely prevent these changes. In this study, we have examined the effects of repeated irradiation of human skin with either UVB or UVA alone in order to compare the changes produced in the epidermis and to ascertain whether UVA irradiation could cause these. Irradiation with either UVB or UVA alone was found to increase the mean epidermal thickness, the mean stratum corneum thickness, and mean keratinocyte height significantly. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased throughout the epidermis, and succinic dehydrogenase activity was significantly decreased. The autoradiographic labeling index was significantly increased following UVB irradiation but not following UVA irradiation. These results demonstrate that UVA alone can have a direct effect on epidermal morphology and metabolism, suggesting that protection of skin from UV radiation should include adequate protection from UVA.

  5. Membrane lipid peroxidation by UV-A: Mechanism and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B.; Agarwal, S.; Chatterjee, S.N. (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India))

    1990-10-01

    UV-A produced a dose-dependent linear increase of lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane, as detected by the assay of (i) conjugated dienes, (ii) lipid hydroperoxides, (iii) malondialdehydes (MDA), and (iv) the fluorescent adducts formed by the reaction of MDA with glycine and also a linear dose-dependent increase of ({sup 14}C)glucose efflux from the liposomes. UV-A-induced MDA production could not be inhibited by any significant degree by sodium formate, dimethyl sulfoxide, EDTA, or superoxide dismutase but was very significantly inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene, alpha-tocopherol, sodium azide, L-histidine, dimethylfuran, and beta-carotene. MDA formation increased with an increase in the D{sub 2}O content in water, leading to a maximal amount of nearly 50% enhancement of lipid peroxidation in 100% D{sub 2}O vis-a-vis water used as dispersion medium. The experimental findings indicate the involvement of singlet oxygen as the initiator of the UV-A-induced lipid peroxidation.

  6. [Corneal Cross-Linking with Riboflavin and UVA in Keratoconus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiskup, F; Terai, N; Veliká, V; Spörl, E

    2016-08-01

    Changes in the biomechanical properties of the human cornea play an important role in the pathogenesis of corneal ectatic diseases. Many different pathological conditions in the cornea may reduce its biomechanical resistance. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) has emerged as a promising technique to slow or even to stop the progression of ectasia. In this procedure, riboflavin (vitamin B2) is administered in conjunction with ultraviolet A light (UVA, 365 nm). This interaction causes the formation of reactive oxygen species, leading to additional covalent bonds between collagen molecules, with consequent biomechanical stiffening of the cornea. Although this method is not yet accepted as an evidence-based treatment of corneal ectasia, the results of prospective, randomised studies of CXL used in the treatment of this pathological entity show significant changes in the properties of corneal tissue. This procedure is currently the only aetiopathogenetic treatment of ectatic eyes that can delay or stop the process of cornea destabilisation, reducing the necessity for keratoplasty. Despite promising results, CXL is associated with issues that include long-term safety and duration of the stabilising effect. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Protective Effects of Resveratrol against UVA-Induced Damage in ARPE19 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation, especially UVA, can penetrate the lens, reach the retina, and induce oxidative stress to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Even though it is weakly absorbed by protein and DNA, it may trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and generate oxidative injury; oxidative injury to the retinal pigment epithelium has been implicated to play a contributory role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Studies showed that resveratrol, an abundant and active component of red grapes, can protect several cell types from oxidative stress. In this study, adult RPE cells being treated with different concentrations of resveratrol were used to evaluate the protective effect of resveratrol on RPE cells against UVA-induced damage. Cell viability assay showed that resveratrol reduced the UVA-induced decrease in RPE cell viability. Through flow cytometry analysis, we found that the generation of intracellular H2O2 induced by UVA irradiation in RPE cells could be suppressed by resveratrol in a concentration-dependent manner. Results of Western blot analysis demonstrated that resveratrol lowered the activation of UVA-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-jun-NH2 terminal kinase and p38 kinase in RPE cells. In addition, there was also a reduction in UVA-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in RPE cells pretreated with resveratrol. Our observations suggest that resveratrol is effective in preventing RPE cells from being damaged by UVA radiation, and is worth considering for further development as a chemoprotective agent for the prevention of early AMD.

  8. Novel bio-electro-Fenton technology for azo dye wastewater treatment using microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohu; Jin, Xiangdan; Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-03-01

    Development of sustainable technologies for treatment of azo dyes containing wastewaters has long been of great interest. In this study, we proposed an innovative concept of using microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell (MREC) based Fenton process to treat azo dye wastewater. In such MREC-Fenton integrated process, the production of H2O2 which is the key reactant of fenton-reaction was driven by the electrons harvested from the exoelectrogens and salinity-gradient between sea water and fresh water in MREC. Complete decolorization and mineralization of 400mgL-1 Orange G was achieved with apparent first order rate constants of 1.15±0.06 and 0.26±0.03h-1, respectively. Furthermore, the initial concentration of orange G, initial solution pH, catholyte concentration, high and low concentration salt water flow rate and air flow rate were all found to significantly affect the dye degradation. This study provides an efficient and cost-effective system for the degradation of non-biodegradable pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional group influences on the reactive azo dye decolorization performance by electrochemical oxidation and electro-Fenton technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Soares, Izabelle Cristina; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; do Nascimento, José Heriberto Oliveira; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical water treatment technologies are highly promising to achieve complete decolorization of dyebath effluents, as demonstrated by several studies reported in the literature. However, these works are focused on the treatment of one model pollutant and generalize the performances of the processes which are not transposable since they depend on the pollutant treated. Thus, in the present study, we evaluate, for the first time, the influence of different functional groups that modify the dye structure on the electrochemical process decolorization performance. The textile azo dyes Reactive Orange 16, Reactive Violet 4, Reactive Red 228, and Reactive Black 5 have been selected because they present the same molecular basis structure with different functional groups. The results demonstrate that the functional groups that reduce the nucleophilicity of the pollutant hinder the electrophilic attack of electrogenerated hydroxyl radical. Thereby, the overall decolorization efficiency is consequently reduced as well as the decolorization rate. Moreover, the presence of an additional chromophore azo bond in the molecule enhances the recalcitrant character of the azo dyes as pollutants. The formation of a larger and more stable conjugated π system increases the activation energy required for the electrophyilic attack of (•)OH, affecting the performance of electrochemical technologies on effluent decolorization.

  10. Novel bio-electro-Fenton technology for azo dye wastewater treatment using microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaohu; Jin, Xiangdan; Zhao, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    was achieved with apparent first order rate constants of 1.15 ± 0.06 and 0.26 ± 0.03 h-1, respectively. Furthermore, the initial concentration of orange G, initial solution pH, catholyte concentration, high and low concentration salt water flow rate and air flow rate were all found to significantly affect....... In such MREC-Fenton integrated process, the production of H2O2 which is the key reactant of fenton-reaction was driven by the electrons harvested from the exoelectrogens and salinity-gradient between sea water and fresh water in MREC. Complete decolorization and mineralization of 400 mg L-1 Orange G...... the dye degradation. This study provides an efficient and cost-effective system for the degradation of non-biodegradable pollutants....

  11. Hematotoxic and biochemical effects of UVA on the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H

    2016-01-01

    To study the adverse impacts of ultraviolet radiation-A (UVA 320-400 nm) on some hematological and biochemical parameters of Bufo regularis was considered. Samples were classified into four groups: (i) Control; (ii) ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-treated group (for 3 days/for 15 min/day); (iii) UVR-treated group (for 3 days/for 30 min/day); and (iv) (for 3 days/for 60 min/day). The destructive effects of UVA radiation was evaluated by red blood cells (RBC) count, hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrite (Ht), erythrocytic indices, white blood cells (WBC) count, total protein, glucose, aspartic amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehyderogenase (LDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehyderogenase (G6PDH) and total bilribuin. No mortality was observed. However, some physiological effects after the exposure to UVA were reported. The UVA-induced malformations recorded in the red blood cells included crenated cells (Cr), Acanthocytes (Ac), tear drop-like cells (Tr) and sickle cells (Sk). The present study revealed the exposure to UVA from 15-60 min/day for three days could promote several biochemical and physiological disturbances as well as some changes in RBC.

  12. Are the surgeons safe during UV-A radiation exposure in collagen cross-linking procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Rashmi; Shetty, Rohit; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2012-02-01

    To quantify the effect of scattered UV-A radiation used in the collagen cross-linking (CXL) procedure and the amount of radiation reaching the surgeon and the surrounding area and to estimate the dampening effect by various protective devices. In this case series, 3 patients [aged 25-30 (±2.5) years] with keratoconus underwent a CXL procedure with UV-A light and riboflavin. Irradiance was measured using a spectrometer (Model USB2000; Ocean Optics, Inc) for various distances from the source, at various angles, and for different durations of radiation. The spectrometer was also used to measure the dampening effect produced by gown, latex gloves, and UV-protective glasses. Maximum UV-A radiation (1.4 × 10(-9) mW/cm(2)) was measured at 2 cm from the limbus, when the probe was held at a 45-degree angle to the floor. UV-A radiation reaching the surgeon's eye and the abdomen was 3.403 × 10(-11) and 2.36 × 10(-11) mW/cm(2), respectively. Gown, latex gloves, and UV-protective glasses showed dampening effects of 99.58%, 95.01%, and 99.73%, respectively. CXL appears to be a safe procedure with respect to UV-A radiation exposure to the surgeon. Further safety can be ensured by UV-protective devices.

  13. UVA and UVB in sunlight, Optimal Utilization of UV rays in Sunlight for phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasaraswathy P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The disadvantages of sunlight as the source of UVA for phototherapy include variation with time, place, season, and atmospheric conditions. In the present study at Coimbatore, India we measured the UVa and UVB irradiance for one year using PMA 2100 meter. UVB irradiance was mazimum between 12.00 noon- 1.00 p.m (19.50µw/cm2 to 40.2µw/cm2 and UVA between 12 noon-1.15 p.m. (4.70mw/cm2 tp 6.59mw/cm2. The ratio of UVA was 1:500 to 1:600 during early hours and late evening and 1:200 during mid-day. At peak time (11.30 a.m. to 1.30 p.m., the exposure time for 1 June of UVA was 2 min. 32 sec. to 4 min. 31 sec and for 10mj of UVB it was from 4 min. 55 sec. to 11 min. 22 sec. We recommend the ideal time for UVB phototheraphy between 11.00 a.m. to 2.00 p.m. and for PUVASOL between 9.30 a.m. to 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. to 3.30 p.m. when incidental UVB and infrared rays responsible for heat are less.

  14. Singlet Oxygen-Mediated Oxidation during UVA Radiation Alters the Dynamic of Genomic DNA Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Graindorge

    Full Text Available UVA radiation (320-400 nm is a major environmental agent that can exert its deleterious action on living organisms through absorption of the UVA photons by endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers. This leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as singlet oxygen (1O2 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which in turn can modify reversibly or irreversibly biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We have previously reported that UVA-induced ROS strongly inhibit DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of the cell cycle checkpoints activation. Here, we report that the production of 1O2 by UVA radiation leads to a transient inhibition of replication fork velocity, a transient decrease in the dNTP pool, a quickly reversible GSH-dependent oxidation of the RRM1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and sustained inhibition of origin firing. The time of recovery post irradiation for each of these events can last from few minutes (reduction of oxidized RRM1 to several hours (replication fork velocity and origin firing. The quenching of 1O2 by sodium azide prevents the delay of DNA replication, the decrease in the dNTP pool and the oxidation of RRM1, while inhibition of Chk1 does not prevent the inhibition of origin firing. Although the molecular mechanism remains elusive, our data demonstrate that the dynamic of replication is altered by UVA photosensitization of vitamins via the production of singlet oxygen.

  15. Growth of antarctic cyanobacteria under ultraviolet radiation: UVA counteracts UVB inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, A. [Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)]|[Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Mouget, J.L.; Vincent, W.F. [Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    A mat-forming cyanobacterium (Phormidium murayi West and West) isolated from an ice-shelf pond in Antarctica was grown under white light combined with a range of UVA and UVB irradiance. The 4-day growth rate decreased under increasing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, with a ninefold greater response to UVB relative to UVA. In vivo absorbance spectra showed that UVA and to a greater extent UVB caused a decrease in phycocyanin/chlorophyll a and an increase in carotenoids/chlorophyll a. The phycocyanin/chlorophyll a ratio was closely and positively correlated to the UVB-inhibited growth rate. Under fixed spectral gradients of UV radiation, the growth inhibition effect was dominated by UVB. However, at specific UVB irradiances the inhibition of growth depended on the ratio of UVB to UVA, and growth rates increased linearly with increasing UVA. These results are consistent with the view that UVB inhibition represents the balance between damage and repair processes that are each controlled by separate wavebands. They also underscore the need to consider UV spectral balance in laboratory and field assays of UVB toxicity. 49 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Outdoor solar UVA dose assessment with EBT2 radiochromic film using spectrophotometer and densitometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukassem, I; Bero, M A

    2015-04-01

    Direct measurements of solar ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) have an important role in the protection of humans against UVR hazard. This work presents simple technique based on the application of EBT2 GAFCHROMIC(®) film for direct solar UVA dose assessment. It demonstrates the effects of different parts of the solar spectrum (UVB, visible and infrared) on performed UVA field measurements and presents the measurement uncertainty budget. The gradient of sunlight exposure level permitted the authors to establish the mathematical relationships between the measured solar UVA dose and two measured quantities: the first was the changes in spectral absorbance at the wavelength 633 nm (A633) and the second was the optical density (OD). The established standard relations were also applied to calculate the solar UVA dose variations during the whole day; 15 min of exposure each hour between 8:00 and 17:00 was recorded. Results show that both applied experimental methods, spectrophotometer absorbance and densitometer OD, deliver comparable figures for EBT2 solar UVA dose assessment with relative uncertainty of 11% for spectral absorbance measurements and 15% for OD measurements. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of opthalmic solution preservatives and UVA radiation in L5178Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withrow, T.J.; Brown, N.T.; Hitchins, V.M.; Strickland, A.G. (Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD (USA). Center for Devices and Radiological Health)

    1989-09-01

    Four preservatives used in ophthalmic solutions were tested for toxic and mutagenic potential in mouse lymphoma cells with and without exposure of cells to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. The preservatives tested were benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorhexidine, thimerosal and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Cell survival and mutagenesis were measured using the L5178Y mouse lymphoma (TK{sup +/-}) system. Cells were exposed to varying amounts of preservatives for 1 h at 37{sup 0}C, and aliquots irradiated with UVA radiation (during exposure to preservative). Cells were then assayed for survival, and mutagenesis at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. In concentrations commonly found in ophthalmic solutions, BAK, chlorhexidine, and thimerosal were toxic to cells, and thimerosal was slightly mutagenic. When cells were exposed to preservative and UVA radiation, chlorhexidine was mutagenic and the mutagenic activity of thimerosal was enhanced. (author).

  18. Voriconazole N-oxide and its UVB photoproduct sensitize keratinocytes to UVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ona-Vu, K.; Oh, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The antifungal agent, voriconazole, is associated with phototoxicity and photocarcinogenicity. Prior work has indicated that voriconazole and its hepatic N-oxide metabolite do not sensitize keratinocytes to ultraviolet B (UVB). Clinical observations have suggested ultraviolet A (UVA) may be involved. Objectives To determine the photochemistry and photobiology of voriconazole and its major hepatic metabolite, voriconazole N-oxide. Methods Voriconazole and voriconazole N-oxide were spectrophotometrically monitored following various doses of UVB. Cultured human keratinocytes were treated with parental drugs or with their UVB photoproducts, and survival following UVA irradiation was measured by thiazolyl blue metabolism. Reactive oxygen species and 8-oxoguanine were monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Results Voriconazole and voriconazole N-oxide have varying ultraviolet B (UVB) absorption but do not acutely sensitize cultured human keratinocytes following UVB exposure. However, sustained UVB exposures produced notable dose- and solvent-dependent changes in the absorption spectra of voriconazole N-oxide which in aqueous solution acquires a prominent ultraviolet A (UVA) absorption band, suggesting formation of a discrete photoproduct. Neither the parental drugs nor their photoproducts sensitized cells to UVB though all but voriconazole N-oxide were moderately toxic to cells in the dark. Notably, both voriconazole N-oxide and its UVB photoproduct, but not voriconazole or its photoproduct, additionally sensitized cells to UVA by >3-fold relative to controls in association with UVA-induced reactive oxygen species and 8-oxoguanine levels. Conclusions Voriconazole N-oxide and its UVB-photoproduct act as UVA-sensitizers that generate reactive oxygen species and that produce oxidative DNA damage. These results suggest a mechanism for the phototoxicity and photocarcinogenicity observed with voriconazole treatment. PMID:25919127

  19. Assessment of oxidative stress in the planktonic diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana in response to UVA and UVB radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijstenbil, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Induction of oxidative stress by UVA and UVB in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was experimentally studied. Cells, pre-grown in a light-limited continuous culture, were incubated for 4 h at 175 µmol m-2s-1photosynthetically active radiation, with optional supplementary UVA at an unweighted dose

  20. Extracellular Polysaccharide Production in a Scytonemin-Deficient Mutant of Nostoc punctiforme Under UVA and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Tanya; Shipe, Dexter; Lothamer, Justin

    2016-10-01

    Some cyanobacteria can protect themselves from ultraviolet radiation by producing sunscreen pigments. In particular, the sheath pigment scytonemin protects cells against long-wavelength UVA radiation and is only found in cyanobacteria which are capable of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. The presence of a putative glycosyltransferase encoded within the scytonemin gene cluster, along with the localization of scytonemin and EPS to the extracellular sheath, prompted us to investigate the relationship between scytonemin and EPS production under UVA stress. In this study, it was hypothesized that there would be a relationship between the biosynthesis of scytonemin and EPS under both UVA and oxidative stress, since the latter is a by-product of UVA radiation. EPS production was measured following exposure of wild-type Nostoc punctiforme and the non-scytonemin-producing strain SCY59 to UVA and oxidative stress. Under UVA, SCY59 produced significantly more EPS than the unstressed controls and the wild type, while both strains produced more EPS under oxidative stress compared to the controls. The results suggest that EPS secretion occurs in response to the oxidative stress by-product of UVA rather than as a direct response to UVA radiation.

  1. Extracción y determinación de aromas en orujos de uva

    OpenAIRE

    Frago Ramos, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Los orujos de uva son los principales subproductos generados en la vinificación. Existen diversas vías de valorización de estos residuos, destacando la extracción de polifenoles. Sin embargo, no se ha estudiado su composición aromática y las posibilidades de su recuperación. Con el fin de determinar el potencial aromático en orujos de uva de variedades tintas, se ha llevado a cabo un procedimiento experimental basado en una extracción verde empleando disoluciones acuosas y un a...

  2. Pilot Study for UVA-LED Disinfection of Escherichia coli in Water for Space and Earth Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragolta, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    To test the efficacy of UVA-LED disinfection, a solution of Escherichia coli was pumped through a modified drip flow reactor at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The experiment was conducted in a controlled environment chamber to ensure that temperature did not cause disinfection. The reactor featured three wells with different treatments: UVA-LED irradiation, UVA-LEDs with Ti02, and UVA-LEDs with nanosilver. Samples from each well were taken throughout a 340 hour period, inactivated, assayed, and analyzed for E. coli disinfection. Results of the duplicate experiments indicated longer exposure times are needed for UVA-LED disinfection of E. coli in water. Further research would consider a longer sampling period and different test conditions, such as increased contact area and various flow rates.

  3. Transformation products formation of ciprofloxacin in UVA/LED and UVA/LED/TiO2 systems: Impact of natural organic matter characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si; Hu, Jiangyong

    2018-04-01

    The role of natural organic matter (NOM) in contaminants removal by photolysis and photocatalysis has aroused increasing interest. However, evaluation of the influence of NOM characteristics on the transformation products (TPs) formation and transformation pathways of contaminants has rarely been performed. This study investigated the decomposition kinetics, mineralization, TPs formation and transformation pathways of antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) during photolysis and photocatalysis in the presence of three commercial NOM isolates (Sigma-Aldrich humic acid (SAHA), Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) and Suwannee River NOM (SRNOM)) by using UVA light emitting diode (UVA/LED) as an alternative light source. NOM isolates insignificantly affected CIP photolysis but strongly inhibited CIP photocatalysis due to competitive radical quenching. The inhibitory effect followed the order of SAHA (49.6%) > SRHA (29.9%) > SRNOM (21.2%), consistent with their •OH quenching abilities, SUVA254 values and orders of aromaticity. Mineralization rates as revealed by F- release were negatively affected by NOM during CIP photocatalysis. TPs arising from hydroxylation and defluorination were generally suppressed by NOM isolates in UVA/LED and UVA/LED/TiO2 systems. In contrast, dealkylation and oxidation of piperazine ring were promoted by NOM. The enhancement in the apparent formation kinetics (kapp) of TP245, TP291, TP334a, TP334b and TP362 followed the order of SRNOM > SRHA > SAHA. kapp values were positively correlated with O/C ratio, carboxyl content, E2/E3 and fluorescence index (FI) of NOM and negatively related with SUVA254 values. The observed correlations indicate that NOM properties are important in determining the fate and transformation of organic contaminants during photolysis and photocatalysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo UVA irradiation of mouse is more efficient in promoting pulmonary melanoma metastasis than in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylianttila Lasse

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown in vitro that UVA increases the adhesiveness of mouse B16-F1 melanoma cells to endothelium. We have also shown in vivo that UVA exposure of C57BL/6 mice, i.v. injected with B16-F1 cells, increases formation of pulmonary colonies of melanoma. The aim of the present animal study was to confirm the previously observed in vivo UVA effect and to determine whether in vitro UVA-exposure of melanoma cells, prior the i.v. injection, will have an enhancing effect on the pulmonary colonization capacity of melanoma cells. As a second aim, UVA-derived immunosuppression was determined. Methods Mice were i.v. injected with B16-F1 cells into the tail vein and then immediately exposed to UVA. Alternatively, to study the effect of UVA-induced adhesiveness on the colonization capacity of B16-F1 melanoma, cells were in vitro exposed prior to i.v. injection. Fourteen days after injection, lungs were collected and the number of pulmonary nodules was determined under dissecting microscope. The UVA-derived immunosuppression was measured by standard contact hypersensitivity assay. Results and Discussion Obtained results have confirmed that mice, i.v. injected with B16-F1 cells and thereafter exposed to UVA, developed 4-times more of melanoma colonies in lungs as compared with the UVA non-exposed group (p in vitro exposure of melanoma cells prior to their injection into mice, led only to induction of 1.5-times more of pulmonary tumor nodules, being however a statistically non-significant change. The obtained results postulate that the UVA-induced changes in the adhesive properties of melanoma cells do not alone account for the 4-fold increase in the pulmonary tumor formation. Instead, it suggests that some systemic effect in a mouse might be responsible for the increased metastasis formation. Indeed, UVA was found to induce moderate systemic immunosuppression, which effect might contribute to the UVA-induced melanoma

  5. Convenient Synthesis of a Novel Flavonoid with Extended π-System: Active Agent for UVA Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Al-Busafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoid derivative with extended cinnamic acid moiety was synthesized using Baker-Venkataraman reaction. The compound shows interesting UV absorption properties which make it a good UVA absorber. A bathochromic shift of 18 nm was observed when the size of cinnamic acid segment was increased by one styrylogous extension.

  6. Photoprotective Effects of Cycloheterophyllin against UVA-Induced Damage and Oxidative Stress in Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hua Huang

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation, particularly ultraviolet A (UVA, is known to play a major role in photoaging of the human skin. Many studies have demonstrated that UV exposure causes the skin cells to generate reactive oxygen species and activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway. Previous studies have also demonstrated that cycloheterophyllin has an antioxidant effect and can effectively scavenge free radicals. Extending the aforementioned investigations, in this study, human dermal fibroblasts were used to investigate the protective effect of cycloheterophyllin against UV-induced damage. We found that cycloheterophyllin not only significantly increased cell viability, but also attenuated the phosphorylation of MAPK after UVA exposure. Furthermore, cycloheterophyllin could reduce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generation and down-regulate H2O2-induced MAPK phosphorylation. In the in vivo studies, the topical application of cycloheterophyllin before UVA irradiation significantly decreased trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL, erythema, and blood flow rate. These results indicate that cycloheterophyllin is a photoprotective agent that inhibits UVA-induced oxidative stress and damage, and could be used in the research on and prevention of skin photoaging.

  7. Strawberry-Based Cosmetic Formulations Protect Human Dermal Fibroblasts against UVA-Induced Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Gasparrini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme exposure of skin to Ultraviolet A (UVA-radiation may induce a dysregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS which can interact with cellular biomolecules leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, and alteration of cellular molecular pathways, responsible for skin photoaging, hyperplasia, erythema, and cancer. For these reasons, the use of dietary natural bioactive compounds with remarkable antioxidant activity could be a strategic tool to counteract these UVA-radiation-caused deleterious effects. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to test the efficacy of strawberry (50 μg/mL-based formulations supplemented with Coenzyme Q10 (100 μg/mL and sun protection factor 10 in human dermal fibroblasts irradiated with UVA-radiation. The apoptosis rate, the amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production, the expression of proteins involved in antioxidant and inflammatory response, and mitochondrial functionality were evaluated. The results showed that the synergic topical use of strawberry and Coenzyme Q10 provided a significant (p < 0.05 photoprotective effect, reducing cell death and ROS, increasing antioxidant defense, lowering inflammatory markers, and improving mitochondrial functionality. The obtained results suggest the use of strawberry-based formulations as an innovative, natural, and useful tool for the prevention of UVA exposure-induced skin diseases in order to decrease or substitute the amount of synthetic sunscreen agents.

  8. Strawberry-Based Cosmetic Formulations Protect Human Dermal Fibroblasts against UVA-Induced Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Afrin, Sadia; Reboredo-Rodriguez, Patricia; Cianciosi, Danila; Mezzetti, Bruno; Quiles, Josè L; Bompadre, Stefano; Battino, Maurizio; Giampieri, Francesca

    2017-06-14

    Extreme exposure of skin to Ultraviolet A (UVA)-radiation may induce a dysregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can interact with cellular biomolecules leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, and alteration of cellular molecular pathways, responsible for skin photoaging, hyperplasia, erythema, and cancer. For these reasons, the use of dietary natural bioactive compounds with remarkable antioxidant activity could be a strategic tool to counteract these UVA-radiation-caused deleterious effects. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to test the efficacy of strawberry (50 μg/mL)-based formulations supplemented with Coenzyme Q10 (100 μg/mL) and sun protection factor 10 in human dermal fibroblasts irradiated with UVA-radiation. The apoptosis rate, the amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, the expression of proteins involved in antioxidant and inflammatory response, and mitochondrial functionality were evaluated. The results showed that the synergic topical use of strawberry and Coenzyme Q10 provided a significant (p defense, lowering inflammatory markers, and improving mitochondrial functionality. The obtained results suggest the use of strawberry-based formulations as an innovative, natural, and useful tool for the prevention of UVA exposure-induced skin diseases in order to decrease or substitute the amount of synthetic sunscreen agents.

  9. IBIS UvA: Combining theory and practice in the area of quality and efficiency improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.

    2012-01-01

    The institute for Business and Industrial Statistics of the University of Amsterdam (IBIS UvA) is an independent consultancy firm. The institute sees the interaction between scientific research, on the one hand, and the application of technology in business and healthcare, on the other, as its core.

  10. (Pheo)melanin photosensitizes UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human melanocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenczl, E.; Schans, G.P. van der; Roza, L.; Kolb, R.M.; Timmerman, A.J.; Smit, N.P.M.; Pavel, S.; Schothorst, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The question of whether melanins are photoprotecting and/or photosensitizing in human skin cells continues to be debated. To evaluate the role of melanin upon UVA irradiation, DNA single-strand breaks (ssb) were measured in human melanocytes differing only in the amount of pigment produced by

  11. Comparison of the effects of UV-A radiation on Leptospira interrogan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Interestingly, Cullen and co-workers found that by applying thermal stress on pathogenic Leptospira serovar Lai, varying the temperature at 20, 30 and 37°C, the lipL48 was unaffected (Haake and Matsunaga, 2002). This finding suggests that 48-kDa could be damaged by UV-A radiation not by heat ...

  12. Comparison of the effects of UV-A radiation on Leptospira interrogan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Comparison of the effects of UV-A radiation on. Leptospira interrogan serovar Bataviae, Canicola and. Pomona. Sudarat Chadsuthi1, Jirasak Wong-ekkabut1,2, Wannapong Triampo1,3,6*, Galayanee. Doungchawee4 and Darapond Triampo1,3,5,6. 1Group of Biological and ...

  13. Endonuclease IV Is the Main Base Excision Repair Enzyme Involved in DNA Damage Induced by UVA Radiation and Stannous Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen S. Motta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stannous chloride (SnCl2 and UVA induce DNA lesions through ROS. The aim of this work was to study the toxicity induced by UVA preillumination, followed by SnCl2 treatment. E. coli BER mutants were used to identify genes which could play a role in DNA lesion repair generated by these agents. The survival assays showed (i The nfo mutant was the most sensitive to SnCl2; (ii lethal synergistic effect was observed after UVA pre-illumination, plus SnCl2 incubation, the nfo mutant being the most sensitive; (iii wild type and nfo mutants, transformed with pBW21 plasmid (nfo+ had their survival increased following treatments. The alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis assays pointed that (i UVA induced DNA breaks and fpg mutant was the most sensitive; (ii SnCl2-induced DNA strand breaks were higher than those from UVA and nfo mutant had the slowest repair kinetics; (iii UVA+SnCl2 promoted an increase in DNA breaks than SnCl2 and, again, nfo mutant displayed the slowest repair kinetics. In summary, Nfo protects E. coli cells against damage induced by SnCl2 and UVA+ SnCl2.

  14. Susceptibility to UV-A and UV-B provocation does not correlate with disease severity of polymorphic light eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Artiena Soe; Pavel, Stan; Ling, Tsui; Winhoven, Sandra Maria; Anastasopoulou, Nikoletta; Stratigos, Alexander; Antoniou, Christina; Diepgen, Thomas; de Gruijl, Frank; Rhodes, Lesley Elisabeth

    2007-05-01

    To examine whether the ease of disease provocation by UV-A and/or UV-B radiation correlates with clinical features of polymorphic light eruption (PLE), including those indicative of disease severity. Intervention study. One hundred forty-three patients with PLE. Provocation testing with broadband UV-A and UV-B lamps. Additionally, a range of clinical characteristics of the disorder, including a 5-item PLE severity score, was assessed by questionnaire. Percentage of PLE rash induction by UV-A and UV-B provocation, differences between the skin types, and correlation between the results of provocation and a range of clinical characteristics of the disorder, including a 5-item PLE severity score. Rash provocation was seen in 78.3% of patients after UV-A and in 46.7% after UV-B exposure. Neither UV-A nor UV-B provocation showed a significant association with the total 5-item severity score. The UV-B reactivity was associated with a high score on the severity item "number of months affected per year" (P = .04), whereas UV-A responsiveness showed a tendency for association with facial involvement (P = .06). The objective assessment of UV-A or UV-B susceptibility in this large group of patients showed no significant relationship with clinical disease severity.

  15. Effect of supplemental UV-A irradiation in solid-state lighting on the growth and phytochemical content of microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazaitytė, A.; Viršilė, A.; Jankauskienė, J.; Sakalauskienė, S.; Samuolienė, G.; Sirtautas, R.; Novičkovas, A.; Dabašinskas, L.; Miliauskienė, J.; Vaštakaitė, V.; Bagdonavičienė, A.; Duchovskis, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we sought to find and employ positive effects of UV-A irradiation on cultivation and quality of microgreens. Therefore, the goal of our study was to investigate the influence of 366, 390, and 402 nm UV-A LED wavelengths, supplemental for the basal solid-state lighting system at two UV-A irradiation levels on the growth and phytochemical contents of different microgreen plants. Depending on the species, supplemental UV-A irradiation can improve antioxidant properties of microgreens. In many cases, a significant increase in the investigated phytochemicals was found under 366 and 390 nm UV-A wavelengths at the photon flux density (12.4 μmol m-2 s-1). The most pronounced effect of supplemental UV-A irradiation was detected in pak choi microgreens. Almost all supplemental UV-A irradiation treatments resulted in increased leaf area and fresh weight, in higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging activity, total phenols, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol.

  16. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Photocatalytic Oxidation Using UV-A Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.; O'Neal, Jeremy A.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has long been used in terrestrial water treatment systems for photodisinfection and the removal of organic compounds by several processes including photoadsorption, photolysis, and photocatalytic oxidation/reduction. Despite its effectiveness for water treatment, UV has not been explored for spacecraft applications because of concerns about the safety and reliability of mercury-containing UV lamps. However, recent advances in ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have enabled the utilization of nanomaterials that possess the appropriate optical properties for the manufacture of LEDs capable of producing monochromatic light at germicidal wavelengths. This report describes the testing of a commercial-off-the-shelf, high power Nichia UV-A LED (250mW A365nnJ for the excitation of titanium dioxide as a point-of-use (POD) disinfection device in a potable water system. The combination of an immobilized, high surface area photocatalyst with a UV-A LED is promising for potable water system disinfection since toxic chemicals and resupply requirements are reduced. No additional consumables like chemical biocides, absorption columns, or filters are required to disinfect and/or remove potentially toxic disinfectants from the potable water prior to use. Experiments were conducted in a static test stand consisting of a polypropylene microtiter plate containing 3mm glass balls coated with titanium dioxide. Wells filled with water were exposed to ultraviolet light from an actively-cooled UV-A LED positioned above each well and inoculated with six individual challenge microorganisms recovered from the International Space Station (ISS): Burkholderia cepacia, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Wautersia basilensis. Exposure to the Nichia UV-A LED with photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a complete (>7-log) reduction of each challenge bacteria population in <180 minutes of contact

  17. Application of UVA-riboflavin crosslinking to enhance the mechanical properties of extracellular matrix derived hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearne, Mark; Coyle, Aron

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogels derived from extracellular matrix (ECM) have become increasing popular in recent years, particularly for use in tissue engineering. One limitation with ECM hydrogels is that they tend to have poor mechanical properties compared to native tissues they are trying to replicate. To address this problem, a UVA (ultraviolet-A) riboflavin crosslinking technique was applied to ECM hydrogels to determine if it could be used to improve their elastic modulus. Hydrogels fabricated from corneal, cardiac and liver ECM were used in this study. The mechanical properties of the hydrogels were characterized using a spherical indentation technique. The microstructure of the hydrogels and the cytotoxic effect of crosslinking on cell seeded hydrogels were also evaluated. The combination of UVA light and riboflavin solution led to a significant increase in elastic modulus from 6.8kPa to 24.7kPa, 1.4kPa to 6.9kPa and 0.9kPa to 1.6kPa for corneal, cardiac and liver ECM hydrogels respectively. The extent of this increase was dependent on a number of factors including the UVA exposure time and the initial hydrogel concentration. There were also a high percentage of viable cells within the cell seeded hydrogels with 94% of cells remaining viable after 90min exposure to UVA light. These results suggest that UVA-riboflavin crosslinking is an effective approach for improving the mechanical properties of ECM hydrogels without resulting in a significant reduction of cell viability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro testing to assess the UVA protection performance of sun care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gers-Barlag, H; Klette, E; Bimczok, R; Springob, C; Finkel, P; Rudolph, T; Gonzenbach, H U; Schneider, P H; Kockott, D; Heinrich, U; Tronnier, H; Bernklau, R; Johncock, W; Langner, R; Driller, H J; Westenfelder, H

    2001-02-01

    The UVA protection delivered by sunscreens is an issue of increasing importance due to the increasing knowledge about UVA-induced skin damage. In Europe there is no officially accepted method available to determine the degree of UVA protection. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to design a protocol combining the merits of an in vitro model, which are simple and reproducible, with aspects known to be relevant from in vivo studies. The principle is: an UV-transparent support to which the test product is applied, a (pre)irradiation and a transmission measurement. Transpore(R) tape (standard support for SPF determinations) was found to be incompatible with many preparations on prolonged contact times. Roughened quartz was adopted as a suitable alternative. Transmission measurements on this support are not reliable with a layer of 2 mg cm(-2) (standard for SPF) due to detection limitations of spectrophotometers, hence a reduced layer of 0.75 mg cm(-2) was adopted. Overall, it is very difficult to apply products in a reproducible thin layer on appropriate substrates. As a consequence, absolute parameters derived from the transmission profile show relatively large dispersion, whereas relative parameters, such as critical wavelength lambda(c)[1] or UVA/UVB ratio are much less sensitive to unavoidable variations in layer thickness. An increase in deviations was observed when the samples were irradiated before measurement. It is crucial to control the output carefully (spectral distribution and even more importantly, irradiance and dose delivered) of the light source. By doing so and also taking into account the previous learning steps, a protocol was drafted and tested in a ringtest (four samples in six laboratories). The results are encouraging and show that if relative parameters (e.g. lambda(c), UVA/UVB ratio) are considered, the intra- as well as interlaboratory reproducibility is clearly better than can be obtained in vivo. In general, we describe a

  19. Direct effects of visible and UVA light on pigment migration in erythrophores of Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masako; Ishikura, Ryo; Oshima, Noriko

    2004-10-01

    Erythrophores derived from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) are sensitive to visible light of defined wavelengths in primary culture in the same manner as erythrophores in the skin. Cultured erythrophores aggregate their pigment in response to light with peak wavelengths near 400 or 600 nm, while dispersion is caused by light near 500 nm. In this study, we report that ultraviolet A (UVA) with a peak wavelength near 365 nm also induces pigment aggregation in erythrophores in the skin and in primary culture. The responses of erythrophores in the skin or in culture depend on the light intensity, although the photo-sensitivity differs among individual cells. From the results, we conclude that the action of visible light and UVA light on tilapia erythrophores is direct, and that multiple types of visual pigments may coexist in individual erythrophores.

  20. The global response of Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 to UVA stress, assessed in a temporal DNA microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Tanya; Gao, Qunjie; Stout, Valerie; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria in nature are exposed not only to the visible spectrum of sunlight but also to its harmful ultraviolet components (UVA and UVB). We used Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 as a model to study the UVA response by analyzing global gene expression patterns using genomic microarrays. UVA exposure resulted in the statistically detectable differential expression of 573 genes of the 6903 that were probed, compared with that of the control cultures. Of those genes, 473 were up-regulated, while only 100 were down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis, indicating a significant shift in this metabolism. As expected, we detected the up-regulation of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and the sunscreen, scytonemin. However, a majority of the up-regulated genes, 47%, were unassignable bioinformatically to known functional categories, suggesting that the UVA stress response is not well understood. Interestingly, the most dramatic up-regulation involved several contiguous genes of unassigned metabolism on plasmid A. This is the first global UVA stress response analysis of any phototrophic microorganism and the differential expression of 8% of the genes of the Nostoc genome indicates that adaptation to UVA in Nostoc has been an evolutionary force of significance. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. UVA and UVB irradiation differentially regulate microRNA expression in human primary keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kraemer

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA-mediated regulation of the cellular transcriptome is an important epigenetic mechanism for fine-tuning regulatory pathways. These include processes related to skin cancer development, progression and metastasis. However, little is known about the role of microRNA as an intermediary in the carcinogenic processes following exposure to UV-radiation. We now show that UV irradiation of human primary keratinocytes modulates the expression of several cellular miRNAs. A common set of miRNAs was influenced by exposure to both UVA and UVB. However, each wavelength band also activated a distinct subset of miRNAs. Common sets of UVA- and UVB-regulated miRNAs harbor the regulatory elements GLYCA-nTRE, GATA-1-undefined-site-13 or Hox-2.3-undefined-site-2 in their promoters. In silico analysis indicates that the differentially expressed miRNAs responding to UV have potential functions in the cellular pathways of cell growth and proliferation. Interestingly, the expression of miR-23b, which is a differentiation marker of human keratinocytes, is remarkably up-regulated after UVA irradiation. Studying the interaction between miR-23b and its putative skin-relevant targets using a Luciferase reporter assay revealed that RRAS2 (related RAS viral oncogene homolog 2, which is strongly expressed in highly aggressive malignant skin cancer, to be a direct target of miR-23b. This study demonstrates for the first time a differential miRNA response to UVA and UVB in human primary keratinocytes. This suggests that selective regulation of signaling pathways occurs in response to different UV energies. This may shed new light on miRNA-regulated carcinogenic processes involved in UV-induced skin carcinogenesis.

  2. Assessing the effects of UVA photocatalysis on soot-coated TiO2-containing mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rosa, José M; Miller, Ana Z; Pozo-Antonio, J Santiago; González-Pérez, José A; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Dionisio, Amelia

    2017-12-15

    The deposition of soot on building surfaces darkens their colour and leads to undesirable black crusts, which are one of the most serious problems on the conservation of built cultural heritage. As a preventive strategy, self-cleaning systems based on the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings have been employed on building materials for degrading organic compounds deposited on building surfaces, improving their durability and performance. In this study, the self-cleaning effect of TiO2-containing mortars coated with diesel soot has been appraised under laboratory conditions. The mortar samples were manufactured using lime putty and two different doses of TiO2 (2.5% and 5%). The lime mortars were then coated with diesel engine soot and irradiated with ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination for 30days. The photocatalytic efficiency was evaluated by visual inspection, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and colour spectrophotometry. Changes in the chemical composition of the soot particles (including persistent organic pollutants) were assessed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. The FESEM and colour spectrophotometry revealed that the soot-coated TiO2-containing mortars promoted a self-cleaning effect after UVA irradiation. The combination of analytical pyrolysis and 13C solid state NMR showed that the UVA irradiation caused the cracking of polycyclic aromatic structures and n-alkyl compounds of the diesel soot and its transformation into methyl polymers. Our findings also revealed that the inclusion of TiO2 in the lime mortar formulations catalysed these transformations promoting the self-cleaning of the soot-stained mortars. The combined action of TiO2 and UVA irradiation is a promising proxy to clean lime mortars affected by soot deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and a new potent antioxidant and UVA-protective formulation as prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadshiew, I M; Treder-Conrad, C; v Bülow, R; Klette, E; Mann, T; Stäb, F; Moll, I; Rippke, F

    2004-08-01

    Polymorphous light eruption (PLE) is the most common photodermatosis. While its etiology still remains elusive, pathogenesis seems to involve UVA-induced oxidative stress and subsequent deregulation of antioxidative immune responses. Only few and often ineffective prophylactic and therapeutic measures exist to date. In our randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we compared the efficacy of a new topical formulation, consisting of 0.25%alpha-glucosylrutin (AGR) (a natural, modified flavonoid), 1% tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) and a broad-spectrum, highly UVA-protective sunscreen (SPF 15) in a hydrodispersion gel vehicle, to a sunscreen-only gel and vehicle. Thirty patients with a history of PLE were pretreated with either the above formulation, a similar preparation (with the same concentration for vitamin E and AGR, but a different UV filter system), placebo or a SPF 15 sunscreen-only gel, 30 min prior to daily photoprovocation with UVA irradiations of 60-100 J/cm(2) to 5 x 5 cm(2) areas on the upper arms. After 4 days, results revealed a statistically highly significant difference (PPLE. While only one patient developed clinical signs of PLE with accompanying itch in the area treated with the new antioxidant UV-protective gel formulation, 62.1% of the placebo-treated areas and 41.3% of the sunscreen-only treated areas showed mild to moderate signs of PLE. Combining a potent antioxidant with a broad-spectrum, highly UVA-protective sunscreen is far more effective in preventing PLE than sunscreen alone or placebo and should thus be employed as the prophylaxis of choice for PLE.

  4. The bystander effect is a novel mechanism of UVA-induced melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hideki; Kumagai, Jun; Kashino, Genro; Okada, Takuya; Tano, Keizo; Watanabe, Masami

    2012-01-01

    We successfully identified the bystander effect in B16 murine melanoma cells exposed to UVA irradiation. The effect was identified based on melanogenesis following the medium transfer of the B16 cells, which had been cultured for 24 h after being exposed to UVA irradiation, to nonirradiated cells (bystander cells). Our confirmation study of the functional mechanism of bystander cells confirmed the reduced levels of mitochondrial membrane potential 1-4 h after the medium transfer. In addition, we observed increased levels of intracellular oxidation after 9-12 h, and the generation of melanin radicals, including long-lived radicals, 24 h after medium transfer. Further analysis of bystander factors revealed that the administration of EGTA treatment at the time of medium transfer led to an inhibition of melanogenesis and to neutralization of the mitochondrial membrane potential level, as well as to the restoration of intracellular oxidation levels to those of controls. The results demonstrated that the UVA irradiation bystander effect in B16 cells, as indicated by melanogenesis, was induced by the increase in intracellular oxidation due to the mitochondrial activity of calcium ions, which were among the bystander factors involved in the increase. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen

    2016-03-01

    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations.

  6. Bacteria and fungi inactivation by photocatalysis under UVA irradiation: liquid and gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Silva, Caio; Miranda, Sandra M; Lopes, Filipe V S; Silva, Mário; Dezotti, Márcia; Silva, Adrián M T; Faria, Joaquim L; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pinto, Eugénia

    2017-03-01

    In the last decade, environmental risks associated with wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have become a concern in the scientific community due to the absence of specific legislation governing the occupational exposure limits (OEL) for microorganisms present in indoor air. Thus, it is necessary to develop techniques to effectively inactivate microorganisms present in the air of WWTPs facilities. In the present work, ultraviolet light A radiation was used as inactivation tool. The microbial population was not visibly reduced in the bioaerosol by ultraviolet light A (UVA) photolysis. The UVA photocatalytic process for the inactivation of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi, ATCC strains and isolates from indoor air samples of a WWTP) using titanium dioxide (TiO 2 P25) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was tested in both liquid-phase and airborne conditions. In the slurry conditions at liquid phase, P25 showed a better performance in inactivation. For this reason, gas-phase assays were performed in a tubular photoreactor packed with cellulose acetate monolithic structures coated with P25. The survival rate of microorganisms under study decreased with the catalyst load and the UVA exposure time. Inactivation of fungi was slower than resistant bacteria, followed by Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. Graphical abstract Inactivation of fungi and bacteria in gas phase by photocatalitic process performed in a tubular photoreactor packed with cellulose acetate monolith structures coated with TiO 2 .

  7. Intraoperative OCT Pachymetry in Patients Undergoing Dextran-Free Riboflavin UVA Accelerated Corneal Collagen Crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechichi, Miguel; Mazzotta, Cosimo; Daya, Sheraz; Mencucci, Rita; Lanza, Michele; Meduri, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    To assess intraoperative corneal pachymetry in patients undergoing accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking with a dextran-free riboflavin solution. Prospective, non-comparative, multicenter interventional study. Thirty patients with progressive keratoconus were enrolled in the study from the Siena Crosslinking Center™ in Siena, Italy and the Eye Center in Catanzaro, Italy. The mean age was 26.9 ± 6.5 years. Patients underwent pulsed light accelerated crosslinking (PL-ACXL) by KXL I UV-A source (Avedro Inc., Waltham, MS, USA) with 8 min (1 s on/1 s off) of UV-A exposure, 30 mW/cm(2) and an energy dose of 7.2 J/cm(2). Corneal stroma was soaked with a dextran-free 0.1% riboflavin solution plus hydroxyl-propyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (VibeX Rapid, Avedro). Intraoperative corneal thickness was preoperatively (PRE-OP) evaluated by corneal optical coherence tomography (iVUE Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) after epithelium removal (EPI-R), after 10 min of riboflavin soaking (RS) and after UV-A irradiation (IR). Statistical analysis was conducted using a Wilcoxon test and SPSS v16.0. A p-value of collagen crosslinking by using dextran free HPMC 0.1% riboflavin solution.

  8. Photo-Fenton treatment of valproate under UVC, UVA and simulated solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funai, Daniel Haranaka; Didier, Florian; Giménez, Jaime; Esplugas, Santiago; Marco, Pilar; Machulek, Amilcar

    2017-02-05

    The abatement of valproic acid sodium salt (VA) via photo-Fenton process was investigated to evaluate the effect of irradiation type. Three different light sources have been used: UVA (black light blue lamps, BLB reactor), UVC (UVC reactor) and simulated sunlight in a Solarbox (SB). Using the highest concentrations of Fe2+ (10mgL-1) and H2O2 (150mgL-1), 100% of VA degradation was observed in BLB and UVC devices, and 89.7% in Solarbox. Regarding mineralization, 67.4% and 76.4% of TOC conversion were achieved in BLB and UVC, respectively. In Solarbox, mineralization was negligible. Treated solutions under UVA or UVC radiation became biodegradable (BOD5/COD≥0.25), which was not observed in Solarbox where BOD5/COD achieved was only 0.20. Regarding to toxicity (Vibrio Fischeri method), all processes have promoted the overall toxicity reduction of VA solution. Transformation products were identified by a LC-ESI-TOF mass spectrometer, and degradation pathways were proposed. Operating costs and the energy needed by mg of VA removed were estimated and compared, for the different installations, showing that UVA can remove around 3 times more VA than SB and 2 times more VA than UVC, under the same conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Degradation of pharmaceutical beta-blockers by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes using a flow plant with a solar compound parabolic collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarain-Chávez, Eloy; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Arias, Conchita; Garrido, José Antonio; Brillas, Enric

    2011-08-01

    The degradation of the beta-blockers atenolol, metoprolol tartrate and propranolol hydrochloride was studied by electro-Fenton (EF) and solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF). Solutions of 10 L of 100 mg L⁻¹ of total organic carbon of each drug in 0.1 M Na₂SO₄ with 0.5 mM Fe²⁺ of pH 3.0 were treated in a recirculation flow plant with an electrochemical reactor coupled with a solar compound parabolic collector. Single Pt/carbon felt (CF) and boron-doped diamond (BDD)/air-diffusion electrode (ADE) cells and combined Pt/ADE-Pt/CF and BDD/ADE-Pt/CF cells were used. SPEF treatments were more potent with the latter cell, yielding 95-97% mineralization with 100% of maximum current efficiency and energy consumptions of about 0.250 kWh g TOC⁻¹. However, the Pt/ADE-Pt/CF cell gave much lower energy consumptions of about 0.080 kWh g TOC⁻¹ with slightly lower mineralization of 88-93%, then being more useful for its possible application at industrial level. The EF method led to a poorer mineralization and was more potent using the combined cells by the additional production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) from Fenton's reaction from the fast Fe²⁺ regeneration at the CF cathode. Organics were also more rapidly destroyed at BDD than at Pt anode. The decay kinetics of beta-blockers always followed a pseudo first-order reaction, although in SPEF, it was accelerated by the additional production of •OH from the action of UV light of solar irradiation. Aromatic intermediates were also destroyed by hydroxyl radicals. Ultimate carboxylic acids like oxalic and oxamic remained in the treated solutions by EF, but their Fe(III) complexes were photolyzed by solar irradiation in SPEF, thus explaining its higher oxidation power. NO₃⁻ was the predominant inorganic ion lost in EF, whereas the SPEF process favored the production of NH₄⁺ ion and volatile N-derivatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the control of powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenneker, M; Kanne, J

    2010-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic gooseberry growing effective control measures are needed, because powdery mildew infections may result in a total loss of the crop. In organic currant growing the number of adequate control methods is very limited. Sulphur as a fungicide against powdery mildew in e.g. gooseberry or table grape growing is not recommendable due to possible bleaching of berries and scorching of tender shoots. Various bicarbonate salts are suggested as a good option to control powdery mildew. In a field trial the effect of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the on the control of powdery mildew of gooseberry was evaluated. Four treatments; i.e. two preventive strategies and two curative strategies, were applied. PLants were sprayed until runoff. The percent of infected fruits and disease severity were assessed. In the unsprayed control plots very high disease incidences were observed; on average more than 90% of the berries were infected with powdery mildew. The weekly (preventive) spray applications with potassium carbonate reduced the disease incidences on fruits significantly. On average approximately 10% of the fruits were affected by powdery mildew. However, the number of spray applications was high. In conclusion, our results indicate that applications of potassium bicarbonate (as Armicarb) are effective in reducing the incidence and severity of American powdery mildew in gooseberry. Early spray applications are necessary to protect berries against powdery mildew infections. Future research will focus on reducing the number of applications, e.g. warning models based on powdery mildew of rose (Sphaerotheca pannosa).

  11. Thymol and Thymus Vulgaris L. activity against UVA- and UVB-induced damage in NCTC 2544 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Rossella; Visone, Clementina M; Marabini, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Many authors focused on the research of natural compounds in order to protect skin from indirect (UVA) and direct (UVB) ultraviolet radiation side effects. The aim of this study to evaluate the protective effect of a dry extract from T. vulgaris L. and of its major synthetic compound thymol (about 60%), against oxidative and genotoxic UVA- and UVB damage. Experiments were reproduced in a low differentiated keratinocytes cell line (NCTC 2544) Cells were pretreated for 1h, in serum-free medium, with thymol (1μg/mL) or T. vulgaris L. (1.82μg/mL) then exposed to different UVA (8-24J/cm(2)) or UVB doses (0.016-0.72J/cm(2)). Immediately after the UV exposure the intracellular redox status was evaluated by ROS quantification and by LPO. Genotoxic aspects were evaluated 24h after the end of irradiations using the alkaline comet assay, the micronucleus formation assay and the immunostaining of phosphorylated H2AX histone protein (detected 1h after the end of UV exposure). Thymol and T. vulgaris L. extract inhibited ROS generation in UVA and UVB-irradiated cells. On the contrary, MDA formation was reduced only in UVA treated cells. Both agents decreased the DNA damage evaluated by the alkaline comet assay, but not in the micronucleus and H2AX tests probably because of the severity of damage (double strands) detected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole Limits the Oxidative Damage in UVA-Irradiated Dysplastic Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tamara Nechifor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by UVA irradiation affect the keratinocyte cell membrane, DNA, and proteins and may cause serious injury to the skin. Treating human dysplastic keratinocytes (DOK with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AMT, a common catalase inhibitor, induced a compensatory mechanism for the hydrogen peroxide detoxification, which included a rise in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. Here, we examined a possible role of AMT in protecting a human DOK cell line against UVA-induced damage. In DOK cells exposed to UVA irradiation, we observed a substantial decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase and an increase in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels. Treating DOK cells with AMT prior to UVA exposure enhanced the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase, relative to nontreated cells. The enhanced antioxidant activities were correlated with decreased protein oxidation levels. Based on these results, we suggest that AMT may protect dysplastic keratinocytes against the harmful effects of UVA radiation.

  13. An ascorbic acid-enriched tomato genotype to fight UVA-induced oxidative stress in normal human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, Ganna; Raiola, Assunta; Del Giudice, Rita; Barone, Amalia; Frusciante, Luigi; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Monti, Daria Maria

    2016-10-01

    UVA radiations contribute up to 95% of the total UV exposure and are known to induce cell damage, leading to apoptosis. Since the benefic effects of ascorbic acid on human health are well known, a new tomato genotype (named DHO4), highly rich in ascorbic acid, has been recently obtained. Here, we compared the effects of ascorbic acid and hydrophilic DHO4 extracts in protecting human keratinocytes exposed to UVA stress. Keratinocytes were pre-incubated with ascorbic acid or with extracts from the ascorbic acid enriched tomato genotype and irradiated with UVA light. Then, ROS production, intracellular GSH and lipid peroxidation levels were quantified. Western blots were carried out to evaluate mitogen-activated protein kinases cascade, activation of caspase-3 and inflammation levels. We demonstrated that ROS, GSH and lipid peroxidation levels were not altered in cell exposed to UVA stress when cells were pre-treated with ascorbic acid or with tomato extracts. In addition, no evidence of apoptosis and inflammation were observed in irradiated pre-treated cells. Altogether, we demonstrated the ability of an ascorbic acid enriched tomato genotype to counteract UVA-oxidative stress on human keratinocytes. This protective effect is due to the high concentration of vitamin C that acts as free radical scavenger. This novel tomato genotype may be used as genetic material in breeding schemes to produce improved varieties with higher antioxidant levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mycorrhiza of the host-specific Lactarius deterrimus on the roots of Picea abies and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlmann, O; Göbl, F

    2006-06-01

    The ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete species Lactarius deterrimus Gröger is considered to be a strictly host-specific mycobiont of Picea abies (L.) Karst. However, we identified arbutoid mycorrhiza formed by this fungus on the roots of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in a mixed stand at the alpine timberline; typical ectomycorrhiza of P. abies were found in close relation. A. uva-ursi is known as an extremely unspecific phytobiont. The mycorrhizae of both associations are described and compared morphologically. The mycorrhiza formed by L. deterrimus on both A. uva-ursi and P. abies show typical ectomycorrhizal features such as a hyphal mantle and a Hartig net. The main difference between the mycorrhizal symbioses with the different phytobionts is the occurrence of intracellular hyphae in the epidermal cells of A. uva-ursi. This emphasizes the importance of the plant partner for mycorrhizal anatomy. This is the first report of a previously considered host-specific ectomycorrhizal fungus in association with A. uva-ursi under natural conditions. The advantages of this loose specificity between the fungus and plant species is discussed.

  15. Assessment of cumulative exposure to UVA through study of asymmetric facial skin damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mac-Mary1

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Mac-Mary1, Jean-Marie Sainthillier1, Adeline Jeudy3, Christelle Sladen2, Cara Williams2, Mike Bell2, Philippe Humbert31Skinexigence SAS, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, Besançon, France; 2The Boots Company, Nottingham, United Kingdom; 3Research and Studies Center on the Integument, Department of Dermatology, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, FranceBackground: Published studies assessing whether asymmetric facial ultraviolet light exposure leads to underlying differences in skin physiology and morphology are only observational. The aim of this study was to assess the visual impact on the skin of repeated ultraviolet-A (UVA exposure through a window.Methods: Eight women and two men presenting with asymmetric signs of photoaging due to overexposure of one side of their face to the sun through a window over a long period of time were enrolled in the study. Split-face biometrologic assessments were performed (clinical scoring, hydration with Corneometer®, mechanical properties with a Cutometer®, transepidermal water loss with AquaFlux®, skin relief with fringe projection, photography, stripping, and then lipid peroxidation analyses.Results: Significant differences were observed in clinical scores for wrinkles, skin roughness assessed by fringe projection on the cheek, and skin heterogeneity assessed with spectrocolorimetry on the cheekbone. Other differences were observed for skin hydration, as well as skin laxity, which tended towards significance.Discussion: This study suggests the potential benefit of daily UVA protection during nondeliberate exposure indoors as well as outside.Keywords: UVA, asymmetry, photodamage, face

  16. Aerosol forcing efficiency in the UVA region from spectral solar irradiance measurements at an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kazadzis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectral Ultraviolet (UV measurements using a Brewer MKIII double spectroradiometer were used for the determination of the aerosol forcing efficiency (RFE under cloud free conditions at Thessaloniki, Greece for the period 1998–2006. Using measured spectral UVA irradiance in combination with synchronous aerosol optical depth (AOD measurements at 340 nm, we calculated the seasonal and the percent RFE changes with the help of radiative transfer model calculations used for cloud and aerosol free conditions reference. The calculated RFE for the 325–340 nm wavelength integral was found to be −0.71±0.30 W m−2/τs340 nm and corresponds to a mean calculated RFE% value of −15.2%±3.8% (2 σ per unit of τs340 nm, for the whole period. This indicates a mean reduction of 15.2% of the 325–340 nm irradiance for a unit of aerosol optical depth slant column increase. Lower RFE% was found during summertime, which is a possible indication of lower absorbing aerosols. Mean AOD slant at 340 nm for the city of Thessaloniki were processed in combination with RFE% and a mean monthly UVA attenuation of ~10% for the whole period was revealed. The nine years' analysis results showed a reduction in RFE%, which provides a possible indication of the changes in the optical properties over the city area. If such changes are only due to changes in the aerosol absorbing properties, the above finding suggests a 2% per decade increase in UVA due to changes in the aerosol absorption properties, in addition to the calculated increase by 4.2%, which is attributed only to AOD decrease at Thessaloniki area over the 1998–2006 period.

  17. Aerosol forcing efficiency in the UVA region from spectral solar irradiance measurements at an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kazadzis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectral Ultraviolet (UV measurements using a Brewer MKIII double spectroradiometer were used for the determination of the aerosol forcing efficiency (RFE under cloud free conditions at Thessaloniki, Greece for the period 1998–2006. Using measured spectral UVA irradiance in combination with synchronous aerosol optical depth (AOD measurements at 340 nm, we calculated the seasonal and the percent RFE changes with the help of radiative transfer model calculations used for cloud and aerosol free conditions reference. The calculated RFE for the 325–340 nm wavelength integral was found to be −0.71±0.30 W m−2/τs340 nm and corresponds to a mean calculated RFE% value of −15.2%±3.8% (2 σ per unit of τs340 nm, for the whole period. This indicates a mean reduction of 15.2% of the 325–340 nm irradiance for a unit of aerosol optical depth slant column increase. Lower RFE% was found during summertime, which is a possible indication of lower absorbing aerosols. Mean AOD slant at 340 nm for the city of Thessaloniki were processed in combination with RFE% and a mean monthly UVA attenuation of ~10% for the whole period was revealed. The nine years' analysis results showed a reduction in RFE%, which provides a possible indication of the changes in the optical properties over the city area. If such changes are only due to changes in the aerosol absorbing properties, the above finding suggests a 2% per decade increase in UVA due to changes in the aerosol absorption properties, in addition to the calculated increase by 4.2%, which is attributed only to AOD decrease at Thessaloniki area over the 1998–2006 period.

  18. Wound healing in the rabbit cornea after corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin and UVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollensak, Gregor; Iomdina, Elena; Dittert, Dag-Daniel; Herbst, Hermann

    2007-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the wound healing process of the first 6 weeks after photodynamic cross-linking treatment in the rabbit cornea, using the photosensitizer riboflavin and UVA. After removal of the central epithelium, the right corneas of 8 Chinchilla rabbits were cross-linked with a photosensitizing 0.1% riboflavin solution and UVA light (370 nm; irradiance, 3 mW/cm(2); dose, 5.4 J/cm(2)) for 30 minutes. Two animals were euthanized 3 days, 7 days, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks postoperatively. The corneas of the enucleated eyes were evaluated using 4-microm light microscopic sections with routine stains and avidin-biotin complex immunostaining with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin. By day 3 after treatment, complete apoptotic damage and loss of the endothelial cells and the stromal keratocytes were found in the irradiated area through the entire thickness of the stroma. There was marked stromal edema (850 +/- 66 vs. 332 +/- 43 microm in the untreated controls; P neutrophils. By day 7, the endothelium was already intact again, and keratocyte repopulation of the posterior stroma was noted. By week 4, the keratocyte repopulation of the anterior stroma was observed with some acellular areas between. By week 6, the cytoarchitecture of the cornea seemed normal again. By weeks 4 and 6, alpha-actin-positive keratocytes were identified, especially in the periphery of the irradiated area. After riboflavin/UVA cross-linking of rabbit cornea, a complete cell loss occurs in the irradiation area with an irradiance of 3 mW/cm(2). The cytotoxic damage is repaired by repopulation after approximately 4-6 weeks. A combination of cross-linking with other procedures such as the implantation of intracorneal rings should be performed only after a sufficient time interval of approximately 2 months, allowing cellular regeneration.

  19. Extração de antocianina de casca de uva Isabel

    OpenAIRE

    Mezaroba, Maria Elizabeth de Paula Cançado

    2001-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química Este estudo objetivou avaliar a concentração de antocianina (corantes naturais) presentes no suco extraído da casca de uva da variedade Isabel . No processo de extração de antocianinas foram utilizados água e condensado vegetal com dióxido de enxofre a diferentes concentrações (1200, 1500, 2000ppm) com e sem enzima e etanol acidificado a 1% com e sem enzima. ...

  20. High-intensity corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and UVA in rat cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yirui; Reinach, Peter S; Zhu, Hanlei; Tan, Qiufan; Zheng, Qinxiang; Qu, Jia; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) halts human corneal ectasias progression by increasing stromal mechanical stiffness. Although some reports describe that this procedure is effective in dealing with some infectious and immunologic corneal thinning diseases, there is a need for more animal models whose corneal thickness more closely resemble those occurring in these patients. To meet this need, we describe here high-intensity protocols that are safe and effective for obtaining CXL in rat corneas. Initially, a range of potentially effective UVA doses were evaluated based on their effectiveness in increasing tissue enzymatic resistance to dissolution. At UVA doses higher than a threshold level of 0.54 J/cm2, resistance to enzymatic digestion increased relative to that in non-irradiated corneas. Based on the theoretical threshold CXL dose, a CXL regimen was established in which the UVA tissue irradiance was 9 mW/cm2, which was delivered at doses of either 2.16, 2.7 or 3.24 J/cm2. Their dose dependent effects were evaluated on ocular surface morphological integrity, keratocyte apoptotic frequency, tissue thickness and endothelial cell layer density. Doses of 2.16 and 2.7 J/cm2 transiently decreased normal corneal transparency and increased thickness. These effects were fully reversed after 14 days. In contrast, 3.24 J/cm2 had more irreversible side effects. Three days after treatment, apoptotic frequency in the CXL-2.16 group was lower than that at higher doses. Endothelial cell losses remained evident only in the CXL-3.24 group at 42 days posttreatment. Stromal fiber thickening was evident in all the CXL-treated groups. We determined both the threshold UVA dose using the high-intensity CXL procedure and identified an effective dose range that provides optimal CXL with minimal transient side effects in the rat cornea. These results may help to provide insight into how to improve the CXL outcome in patients afflicted with a severe corneal thinning disease.

  1. The selects of bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (l. spreng. from natural populations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Malinowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five plants of bearberry selected from natural stands in Poland and one from a Botanical Garden were propagated by cuttings. The clonal plants were first kept under observation for two years planted on different substrates in containers and were afterwards field cultivated for three subsequent years. The existence of a significant differentiation within these Arctostaphylos uva-ursi clones was proved. Two selects of good ornamental features as well as with high concentration of medicinal substance - arbutin were chosen. Plants started fruiting in the fourth year of growth and the area covered by a single plant exceeded 2 m2 after five years of cultivation.

  2. Curtición vegetal con extracto de semilla de uva

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Arcal, Salvador; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la viabilidad de usar el extracto de semilla de uva procedente de subproductos de la industria vinícola, como fuente sostenible y renovable de taninos para curtir pieles vacunas al vegetal, frente a los extractos vegetales convencionales de quebracho, mimosa, castaño, gambier, o tara que provienen de arboles cultivados en zonas geográficas concretas. La substitución parcial en el proceso industrial de las tenerías de alguno de los extractos ...

  3. Manejo de residuos solidos en un evento turistico: Fiesta Nacional de la Uva (RS - Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Gisele Silva; Conto,Suzana Maria De

    2008-01-01

    este artículo plantea al manejo de residuos solidos como objecto de estudio en eventos turisticos. El trabajo de campo se realisó con tecnicas de observación directa y entrevistas. Éstas ultimas fueron realizadas al presidente, los dos vice-presidentes y los directores de las 15 comisiones organizadoras de la Fiesta Nacional de la Uva 2006. Los resultados muestram la importancia de desarrollar programas de educaciín ambiental para los colaboradores de la fiesta y de considerar el control de l...

  4. Assessment of extracts of Helichrysum arenarium, Crataegus monogyna, Sambucus nigra in photoprotective UVA and UVB; photostability in cosmetic emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzycka, Anna; Lewińska, Agnieszka; Gancarz, Roman; Wilk, Kazimiera A

    2013-11-05

    The aim of our study was to investigate the photoprotective activity and photostability efficacy of sunscreen formulations containing Helichrysum arenarium, Sambucus nigra, Crataegus monogyna extracts and their combination. UV transmission of the emulsion films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection and photostability efficacy were evaluated according to the following parameters: sun protection factor (SPF), UVA protection factor (PF-UVA), UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength (λc) before and after UV irradiation. The results obtained show that the formulations containing polyphenols fulfill the official requirements for sunscreen products due to their broad spectrum of UV protection combined with their high photostability and remarkable antioxidant properties. Therefore H. arenarium, S. nigra, C. monogyna extracts represent useful additives for cosmetic formulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Divergência fenotípica entre acessos de uvas de mesa no Semi-Árido brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Borges,Rita Mércia Estigarribia; Gonçalves,Nadja Pollyanna da Silva; Gomes,Ana Patrícia de Oliveira; Alves,Elaini Oliveira dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a divergência fenotípica em uvas da Coleção da Embrapa Semi-Árido, com base em oito variáveis morfoagronômicas avaliadas nos anos 2005 e 2006. Nas uvas com sementes, a análise por componentes principais identificou oito grupos contrastantes. As variáveis mais relevantes, quanto à divergência genética, foram peso e comprimento de bagas. Em uvas sem sementes, formou-se apenas um grupo, e as variáveis mais relevantes foram peso de bagas e produção. A distânc...

  6. EVOLUÇÃO DA COR DURANTE A MATURAÇÃO DAS UVAS TINTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Massashi Ide

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitos estudos de tonalidade e intensidade de cor na película e na polpa durante o desenvolvimento e a maturação da uva das cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir (Vitis vinifera e Isabel (Vitis labrusca nas safras de 1990 e 1991. A tonalidade na película diminuiu acentuadamente no início do desenvolvimento das bagas estabilizando-se após a "veraison". As boas condições climáticas (baixa precipitação pluviométrica e umidade, alta insolação da safra de 1991 tiveram pouca influência sobre a tonalidade. A intensidade de cor na película aumentou durante a maturação da uva e as condições climáticas de 1991 propiciaram maior intensidade nas cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc e Merlot pouco influindo, no entanto, nas cultivares Pinot Noir e Isabel. Na polpa houve estabilidade da intensidade de cor, porém, a tonalidade apresentou-se variável com tendência a estabilizar-se durante a maturação.

  7. Suco de uva enriquecido com soro: elaboração e aceitabilidade sensorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vilela Talma

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudos têm sido realizados em diversos países visando oferecer ao mercado novas formas de utilização do soro de leite. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver suco de uva enriquecido com soro lácteo e avaliar a aceitação sensorial utilizando a escala hedônica facial e a técnica Mapa de Preferência. As diferentes formulações foram avaliadas por 111 crianças com idade entre 7 e 11 anos, no período de setembro a novembro de 2009, em uma escola pública do município de Rio Pomba, MG. Para o preparo da bebida foram adicionados 250 mL de suco de uva concentrado em 1750 mL da mistura de água e soro nas proporções de 40%, 60%, 80% e 100% de soro e 7% de açúcar. As amostras que continham 40% e 60% de soro na mistura de água e soro foram classificadas pelas crianças entre os termos hedônicos "gostei extremamente" e "gostei moderadamente", respectivamente, indicando a boa aceitação pela maioria dos consumidores. Entretanto, do total de provadores, 44 classificaram a amostra contendo 100% de soro na mistura entre os termos hedônicos "desgostei moderadamente" e "desgostei extremamente" indicando rejeição.

  8. The respiratory chain is the cell's Achilles' heel during UVA inactivation in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshard, Franziska; Bucheli, Margarete; Meur, Yves; Egli, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) is used as an effective and inexpensive tool to improve the microbiological quality of drinking water in developing countries where no other means are available. Solar UVA light is the agent that inactivates bacteria during the treatment. Damage to bacterial membranes plays a crucial role in the inactivation process. This study showed that even slightly irradiated cells (after less than 1 h of simulated sunlight) were strongly affected in their ability to maintain essential parts of their energy metabolism, in particular of the respiratory chain (activities of NADH oxidase, succinate oxidase and lactate oxidase were measured). The cells' potential to generate ATP was also strongly inhibited. Many essential enzymes of carbon metabolism (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase) and defence against oxidative stress (catalases and glutathione-disulfide reductase) were reduced in their activity during SODIS. The work suggests that damage to membrane enzymes is a likely cause of membrane dysfunction (loss of membrane potential and increased membrane permeability) during UVA irradiation. In this study, the first targets on the way to cell death were found to be the respiratory chain and F(1)F(0) ATPase.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus Suscetibilidade antimicrobiana da terapia fotodinâmica (UVA/riboflavina contra Staphylococcus aureus

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    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess S. aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet light A (UVA and riboflavin (B2. METHODS: Samples of S. aureus in 96 well plates (in triplicate were exposed to riboflavin (B2 and ultraviolet light A (365 nm wavelength at a power density of 3 mW/cm², 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. Control groups were prepared as well in triplicate: blank control, ultraviolet light A only, riboflavin only and dead bacteria Control. The bacterial viability was measured using fluorescent microscopy. In order to investigate the occurrence of "viable but non-culturable" microorganisms after treatment, the cell viability was also investigated by plate culture procedure onto a broth medium. Statistical analysis was performed using the triplicate values from each experimental condition. RESULTS: No difference was observed among the treatment group and the control samples (p=1. CONCLUSION: The combination of riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet light A at 365 nm did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against oxacillin susceptible S. aureus.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade celular de S. aureus in vitro após a exposição de riboflavina (B2 e luz ultravioleta A (UVA. MÉTODOS: Amostras de S. aureus colocadas em uma placa de 96 poços (em triplicata foram expostas a riboflavina 0,1% (B2 e luz ultravioleta (comprimento de onda de 365 nm poder de 3 mW/cm², 8 mm de diâmetro, por 30 minutos. Grupos controles foram também preparados em triplicata: controle branco, somente luz ultravioleta A, somente riboflavina e controle morto. A viabilidade bacteriana foi analisada usando microscópio de fluorescência. Para investigar a ocorrência de micro-organismos "viáveis porem não cultiváveis" a viabilidade celular foi avaliada utilizando-se placas de meio de cultivo bacteriano. Analise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se os valores obtidos em triplicata de cada grupo experimental. RESULTADOS: Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre o grupo

  10. UVA radiation is highly mutagenic in cells that are unable to repair 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmin, S; Slezak, G; Reynaud-Angelin, A; Elie, C; de Rycke, Y; Boiteux, S; Sage, E

    2005-09-20

    UVA (320-400 nm) radiation constitutes >90% of the environmentally relevant solar UV radiation, and it has been proposed to have a role in skin cancer and aging. Because of the popularity of UVA tanning beds and prolonged periods of sunbathing, the potential deleterious effect of UVA has emerged as a source of concern for public health. Although generally accepted, the impact of DNA damage on the cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect of UVA radiation remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity of a panel of yeast mutants affected in the processing of DNA damage to the lethal and mutagenic effect of UVA radiation. The data show that none of the major DNA repair pathways, such as base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, homologous recombination, and postreplication repair, efficiently protect yeast from the lethal action of UVA radiation. In contrast, the results show that the Ogg1 DNA glycosylase efficiently prevents UVA-induced mutagenesis, suggesting the formation of oxidized guanine residues. Furthermore, sequence analysis of UVA-induced canavanine-resistant mutations reveals a bias in favor of GC-->TA events when compared with spontaneous or H(2)O(2)-, UVC-, and gamma-ray- induced canavanine-resistant mutations in the WT strain. Taken together, our data point out a major role of oxidative DNA damage, mostly 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine, in the genotoxicity of UVA radiation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the capacity of skin cells to repair 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine may be a key parameter in the mutagenic and carcinogenic effect of UVA radiation in humans.

  11. MC1R expression in HaCaT keratinocytes inhibits UVA-induced ROS production via NADPH oxidase- and cAMP-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Pauline; Beaumel, Sylvain; Guezennec, Anne; Poumès, Carine; Stoebner, Pierre-Emmanuel; Stasia, Marie-José; Guesnet, Joëlle; Martinez, Jean; Meunier, Laurent

    2012-06-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiations are responsible for deleterious effects, mainly due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) binds to melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) in melanocytes to stimulate pigmentation and modulate cutaneous inflammatory responses. MC1R may be induced in keratinocytes after UV exposure. To investigate the effect of MC1R signaling on UVA-induced ROS (UVA-ROS) production, we generated HaCaT cells that stably express human MC1R (HaCaT-MC1R) or the Arg151Cys (R(151)C) non-functional variant (HaCaT-R(151)C). We then assessed ROS production immediately after UVA exposure and found that: (1) UVA-ROS production was strongly reduced in HaCaT-MC1R but not in HaCaT-R(151)C cells compared to parental HaCaT cells; (2) this inhibitory effect was further amplified by incubation of HaCaT-MC1R cells with α-MSH before UVA exposure; (3) protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent NoxA1 phosphorylation was increased in HaCaT-MC1R compared to HaCaT and HaCaT-R(151)C cells. Inhibition of PKA in HaCaT-MC1R cells resulted in a marked increase of ROS production after UVA irradiation; (4) the ability of HaCaT-MC1R cells to produce UVA-ROS was restored by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) activity before UVA exposure. Our findings suggest that constitutive activity of MC1R in keratinocytes may reduce UVA-induced oxidative stress via EGFR and cAMP-dependent mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Orally administered Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases psoralen-UVA-induced phototoxicity, pigmentation, and damage of human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A.; Pathak, Madhu A.; Parrado, Concepcion; Garcia-Caballero, Tomas; Rius-Díaz, Francisca; Fitzpatrick, Thomas B.; González, Salvador

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of psoralen-UVA (PUVA) in patients of skin phototype I to II is limited by side effects of acute phototoxicity and possible long-term carcinogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess oral Polypodium leucotomos (PL) extract in decreasing PUVA-induced phototoxicity of human skin on a

  13. UvA Rescue - Team Description Paper - Virtual Robot competition - Rescue Simulation League RoboCup Iran Open 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2014-01-01

    This year the task of the UvA Rescue Team is to break up the monolith architecture of the control architecture. On the one hand this will make the existing modules reusable by other researchers; on the other hand it opens the possibility to incorporate efficient modules from other research groups. A

  14. UvA Rescue team description paper: Virtual Robot competition, Rescue Simulation League, RoboCup 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Dijkshoorn, N.; van Noort, S.; Zwennes, O.; de Waard, M.; Katt, S.; Rozeboom, R.

    2012-01-01

    This year's contribution of the UvA Rescue Team is twofold. On the one hand a contribution is made to infrastructure of the Virtual Robot competition [1]. On the other hand progress is made with visual mapping with a ying platform. The progress was not only shown on the RoboCup, but in addition also

  15. Effciency and safety of the use of long-wave UVA-1 phototherapy in treatment of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakulev A.L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

     

    The effectiveness of the long wavelength ultraviolet therapy (UVA-1 in complex treatment of patients with psoriasis has been studied during the research. There 20 patients with moderately severe and severe psoriasis in the phase of progressive dermatosis have been observed. The therapy was organized using photobox Waldmann UV-7001K (Herbert Waldmann GmbH & Co, Germany and F85 100W-TL10R lamps, creating radiation spectrum of UVA-1 (ƛ = 340 – 400 nm and emission maximum was ƛ=370 nm. 20 patients of the comparison group receive standard therapy in combination with PUVA therapy. The group did not differ from the main group of patients in age, duration and form of the disease. The effectiveness of the treatment was measured according to the dynamic assessment of PASI index. The usage of a long wavelength ultraviolet therapy (UVA-1 has caused a reduction of the severity and the extent of skin lesions, gave positive outcomes in all patients of the study. No adverse effects caused by the therapy undertaken have been noted. The administration of long wavelength ultraviolet therapy (UVA-1 is safe and effective in patients with psoriasis.

  16. Photoprotective potential of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) extract against UV-A irradiation damage on human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè M; Tulipani, Sara; Gonzàles-Paramàs, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Bompadre, Stefano; Quiles, José L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2012-03-07

    Exposure to UV-A radiation is known to induce discrete lesions in DNA and the generation of free radicals that lead to a wide array of skin diseases. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) contains several polyphenols with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Because the major representative components of strawberry are anthocyanins, these may significantly contribute to its properties. To test this hypothesis, methanolic extracts from the Sveva cultivar were analyzed for anthocyanin content and for their ability to protect human dermal fibroblasts against UV-A radiation, as assayed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenytetrazolium bromide and Comet assays. Five anthocyanin pigments were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. Moreover, the strawberry extract showed a photoprotective activity in fibroblasts exposed to UV-A radiation, increasing cellular viability, and diminishing DNA damage, as compared to control cells. Overall, our data show that strawberry contains compounds that confer photoprotective activity in human cell lines and may protect skin against the adverse effects of UV-A radiation.

  17. Nieuwe ontdekkingen en mogelijkheden in het onderzoek aan Scholeksters dankzij het UvA Bird Tracking Systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, B. J.; Bom, R. A.; Dokter, A. M.; Oosterbeek, K.; de Jong, Jan; Bouten, W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on new discoveries and new possibilities due to the deployment of the UvA Bird Tracking System (UvA-BiTS; Bouten et al. 2013) in our investigations of the behavioural ecology of Oystercatchers. This GPS tracker is powered by solar cells and not only stores GPS locations, but also

  18. Eutypa lata, causal agent of dieback in red currant (Ribes rubrum) and gooseberry (R. uva-crispa) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Raak, van M.; Brouwershaven, van I.R.; Martin, W.S.; Kox, L.F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Dieback of red currant (Ribes rubrum) and gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa) is an increasing problem in commercial fields in the Netherlands. Field surveys were done in 2006–2007 and samples with dieback symptoms were analysed. In this study the causal agent was diagnosed as Eutypa lata, based on

  19. Five Board Games for the Language Classroom: Uvas, Montana Rusa, El Futbol, La Corrida de Verbos, Paso a Paso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Barbara

    A collection of five board games for the Spanish language classroom contains gameboards, game markers, and directions for each game. It also contains general instructions for the teacher about the classroom use of board games. The games include: "Uvas," for use in vocabulary development and cultural awareness; "Montana Rusa," for general…

  20. Characterization of the UVA protection provided by avobenzone, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide in broad-spectrum sunscreen products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Donathan G; Meyer, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    Solar UV radiation (UVR) is composed of UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm) wavelengths. Only two sunscreen active ingredients approved in the US, avobenzone (butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane) and zinc oxide (ZnO), provide true broad-spectrum protection against UVA wavelengths >360 nm. Although effective against shorter UVR wavelengths sunscreen film during UVR exposure, avobenzone needs to be formulated into sunscreen products using sound formulation strategies. To characterize the efficacy of avobenzone, ZnO, and TiO(2) in terms of their abilities to provide broad UVA protection and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the different formulation strategies used today to maintain the efficacy of avobenzone even during prolonged exposures to UVR. UVA efficacy was assessed by measuring absorbance profiles in vitro using Vitro Skin® (IMS Inc., Orange, CT, USA) as an inert substrate and by determining UVA protection factors (PFA) on human skin. The impact of avobenzone loss on sun protection factor (SPF) and PFA values was evaluated by serially reducing avobenzone concentrations in an otherwise photostable product. The photostabilizing influence of specific formulation ingredients was monitored by measuring the extent to which they prevented UVR-induced degradation of avobenzone, whereas photostability of commercial sunscreen products was quantified by measuring the percentage change in absorbance within the UVB and UVA spectral regions following irradiation of thin product films on inert substrates. Model formulations containing 3% avobenzone or 5% ZnO provided superior attenuation of UVA wavelengths >360 nm compared with formulas containing 5% TiO(2). Additionally, sunscreen products of similar SPF containing avobenzone or ZnO exhibited significantly higher PFA values than those containing TiO(2). The addition of photostabilized avobenzone or ZnO increased PFA values nearly 3-fold, whereas the addition of TiO(2) increased PFA values only modestly. Judicious

  1. Conservative treatment of keratoconus by riboflavin-uva-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen: qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, C; Traversi, C; Baiocchi, S; Sergio, P; Caporossi, T; Caporossi, A

    2006-01-01

    To assess corneal tissue modifications after riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen in patients with progressive keratoconus as well as regeneration of epithelium and subepithelial nerve plexus by in vivo HRT II system confocal microscopy in humans. Ten patients with progressive keratoconus were treated by riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen, involving assessment of ultrastructural modifications of the corneal epithelium and subepithelial nerve plexus by HRT II system confocal microscopy. Treatment included instillation of 0.1% riboflavin-20% dextrane solution 5 minutes before UVA irradiation and every 5 minutes for a total of 30 minutes. Radiant energy was 3 mW/cm 2 or 5.4 Joule/cm 2 and the source was dual UVA (370 nm) light-emitting LED. The protocol included the operation followed by antibiotic medication and eye dressing with a soft therapeutic contact lens. Changes in epithelium and subepithelial and stromal nerve plexus were assessed by HRT II system confocal microscopy in vivo. After 5 days of soft contact lens wearing, corneal epithelium has a regular morphology and density. Disappearance of subepithelial stromal nerve fibers was observed in the central irradiated area where, 1 month after the operation, initial reinnervation was microscopically observed. No changes in nerve fibers were observed in the peripheral untreated with a clear lateral transition between the two areas. Six months after the operation, the anterior subepithelial stroma was recolonized by nerve fibers with restoration of corneal sensitivity. HRT II system confocal microscopy confirms corneal epithelium restore and re-innervation after riboflavin-UVA-induced collagen cross-linking directly in vivo in humans.

  2. Evaluation of UVA Cytotoxicity for Human Endothelium in an Ex Vivo Corneal Cross-linking Experimental Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooren, Pepijn; Gobin, Laure; Bostan, Nezahat; Wouters, Kristien; Zakaria, Nadia; Mathysen, Danny G P; Koppen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate endothelial cytotoxicity after exposure of human corneas to ultraviolet-A (UVA) (λ = 365 nm; 5.4 J/cm(2)) in an experimental ex vivo corneal cross-linking setting. Sixteen pairs of human donor corneas were cut into two pieces. One piece of each cornea was treated with 0.025% riboflavin solution prior to UVA irradiation (5 minutes; 18 mW/cm(2)), whereas the other piece was not irradiated but treated with riboflavin (right eye) or preservation medium (left eye). By irradiating from the endothelial side, the UVA dosage applied to endothelial cells exceeded at least eight times the cytotoxic threshold established in animal models (0.65 J/cm(2)). Endothelial cell counts were performed by two independent investigators after storage (4 to 5 days at 31 °C) and staining (trypan blue, alizarin red). Normality (Q-Q plot; Shapiro-Wilk test) and equivalence (mixed-effects modeling with a 10% equivalence threshold) of the endothelial cell counts of the different groups were evaluated. Equivalence of mean endothelial cell density between both groups was observed: 2,237 ± 208 cells/mm(2) in UVA-irradiated pieces and 2,290 ± 281 cells/mm(2) in control pieces (mean difference of 53 ± 240 cells/mm(2) between both groups). Despite direct irradiation of human donor endothelium using the clinical dosage for cross-linking, equivalence in endothelial cell counts was observed between irradiated tissues and controls. Ex vivo human corneal endothelial cells seem to be far more resistant to riboflavin-enhanced UVA irradiation than previously estimated by animal experiments. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Analysis and sensory evaluation of gooseberry (Ribes uva crispa L.) volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempfling, Katrin; Fastowski, Oxana; Kopp, Markus; Nikfardjam, Martin Pour; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-07-03

    Volatiles of gooseberries (Ribes uva cripsa L.) were isolated by means of vacuum-headspace-extraction, and the obtained concentrates were analyzed via capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. To ensure the quantitation of highly volatile compounds, headspace analysis was additionally performed on selected batches. C₆-components (e.g., (Z)-hex-3-enal, (E)-hex-2-enal), derived from lipid oxidation, and short-chain esters (e.g., ethyl acetate, methyl butanoate, ethyl butanoate) turned out to be the major compound classes in the fresh fruit. The compositional variability was demonstrated by analyzing several gooseberry varieties at different stages of ripeness. The contributions of volatiles to the gooseberry aroma were assessed by using gas chromatography-olfactometry in combination with aroma extract dilution analysis and calculation of odor activity values. C₆-components and esters were shown to be responsible for the green and fruity character of fresh gooseberries.

  4. Evaluación sensorial del vino artesanal de uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán; Andrea Johana Reyes-M.; Marco Luis Ayala; William Balaguera-L.; Pablo Antonio Serrano-Cely

    2015-01-01

    El consumo de vino en Colombia se ha incrementado durante los últimos años, en especial el de los vinos tinto. A pesar de las pocas características vínicas de la uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.), su bajo contenido de azúcares y su alta concentración de ácidos le otorgan el potencial para la elaboración de un vino que presenta sabores y aromas intensos. La combinación de color, aroma y sabor provoca la denominada textura del vino. El análisis sensorial de los vinos, a través de catas, da orige...

  5. UVA-UVB photoprotective activity of topical formulations containing Morinda citrifolia extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Detoni, Cassia Britto; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Pereira Filho, Rose Nely; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Vieira, Maria José Fonseca; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation, particularly its ultraviolet (UV) component, has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Some of these effects include sunburn cell formations, basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin, and immune suppression. The beneficial photoprotective effects of topical formulations with the extract, Morinda citrifolia, have not been investigated. This present study aims to investigate the potential benefits of M. citrifolia topical application on the dorsal skin of mice, exposed to UVA-UVB light. Using 7 days of treatment, [before (baseline values) and 20 h after UV exposure], the thickness, skin barrier damage (TEWL), erythema, and histological alterations were evaluated. The results showed that the formulations containing the extract protected the skin against UV-induced damage.

  6. Detecting free radicals in sunscreens exposed to UVA radiation using chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millington, Keith R; Osmond, Megan J; McCall, Maxine J

    2014-04-05

    One of the current concerns with the application of nanoparticles in sunscreens, and in particular nano-TiO2 and ZnO, is their potential to photogenerate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they absorb ultraviolet wavelengths from sunlight. Free radicals and ROS are known to be associated with UV-induced skin damage and oxidative stress, from which sunscreens are expected to offer significant protection. Here we describe a simple method, based on chemiluminescence emission, for detecting free radicals generated in commercial sunscreens alone, and when applied to various substrates, following exposure to UVA (320-400nm) radiation. This photo-induced chemiluminescence (PICL) technique could be used to optimise sunscreen formulations so as to minimise free radical photogeneration during exposure to sunlight. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. HPTLC densitometric analysis of arbutin in bulk drug and methanolic extracts of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, P; Alqasoumi, S I; Shakeel, F; Abdel-Kader, M S

    2011-10-01

    A high-performance thin layer chromatographic densitometric method for the analysis of arbutin was developed and validated in the present investigation. Arbutin was separated on aluminium-backed silica gel 60 F(254) plates with methanol : chloroform (3:7)% (v/v) as the mobile phase. This system was found to give a compact spot of arbutin at a retention factor (R(f)) value of 0.32 ± 0.02. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 35.42 and 106.26 ng/spot, respectively. The proposed method with a high degree of precision and accuracy was employed for the analysis of arbutin in the bulk drug and methanolic extract of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.

  8. Response and Defense Mechanisms of Taxus chinensis Leaves Under UV-A Radiation are Revealed Using Comparative Proteomics and Metabolomics Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Komatsu, Setsuko; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ximin; Cui, Lei; Tian, Jingkui

    2016-09-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is a species endemic to south-eastern China and one of the natural sources for the anticancer medicine paclitaxel. To investigate the molecular response and defense mechanisms of T. chinensis leaves to enhanced ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation, gel-free/label-free and gel-based proteomics and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed. The transmission electron microscopy results indicated damage to the chloroplast under UV-A radiation. Proteomics analyses in leaves and chloroplasts showed that photosynthesis-, glycolysis-, secondary metabolism-, stress-, and protein synthesis-, degradation- and activation-related systems were mainly changed under UV-A radiation. Forty-seven PSII proteins and six PSI proteins were identified as being changed in leaves and chloroplasts under UV-A treatment. This indicated that PSII was more sensitive to UV-A than PSI as the target of UV-A light. Enhanced glycolysis, with four glycolysis-related key enzymes increased, provided precursors for secondary metabolism. The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase were identified as being significantly increased during UV-A radiation, which resulted in paclitaxel enhancement. Additionally, mRNA expression levels of genes involved in the paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway indicated a down-regulation under UV-A irradiation and up-regulation in dark incubation. These results reveal that a short-term high dose of UV-A radiation could stimulate the plant stress defense system and paclitaxel production. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. UVA Photoirradiation of Halogenated-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Leading to Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the finding in the 1930s, a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs of different structures have been tested for potential tumorigenicity. Structure-activity relationships of halo-PAHs have been investigated to determine the regions of a PAH that may be involved in cancer initiation. From these studies, a number of halo-PAHs were found to be tumorigenic in experimental animals. It was not until the 1980s that halo-PAHs were found to be present in the environment, including municipal incinerator fly ash, urban air, coal combustion, soil, snow, automobile exhausts, and tap water. Due to their widespread presence in the environment and their genotoxic activities, including carcinogenicity, many of these compounds may pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of halo-PAHs have been studied their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. In this study, we study the photoirradiation of a series of structure-related halo-PAHs by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, and determine as to whether or not these compounds can induce lipid peroxidation. The halo-PAHs chosen for study include 2-bromonaphthalene, 1-chloroanthracene, 9,10-dibromoanthracene, 9-chlorophenanthrene, 9-bromophenanthrene, 7-chlorobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromo-5-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 6-chlorobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6-bromobenzo[a]pyrene. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation at different levels. These results suggest that halo-PAHs may be harmful to human health.

  10. [Polymorphic light eruption: prophylaxis using a topical combination of antioxidants and UVA protection formulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmougin, M; Peyron, J-L; Thomas, P; Beani, J-C; Guez, E; Bachot, N

    2006-05-01

    In a recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, the efficacy of a combination consisting of 0.25% alpha-glucosyl-rutin, 1% vitamin E and a broad-spectrum, highly UVA-protective sunscreen (sun protector factor 15 - persistent pigmentation darkening 6) regarding prevention of polymorphous light eruption was well demonstrated. We evaluated this combination under real solar exposure conditions. Patients with three previous typical polymorphous light eruptions (including one in the last year) were included in an open prospective multicenter study. The preparation was applied every two hours after the first summer exposure. No topical or systemic treatments presumed to be effective against polymorphous light eruption were given concomitantly. Evaluation was performed after the summer by a dermatologist. Two of the 54 patients dropped out of the study, one for an adverse effect (contact dermatitis). At the end of the study following application of the test preparation, no eruption was seen for 35 patients (67%), with minor eruption for 10 patients (19%) and an marked eruption for 7 patients (13%). Pruritus (present in all patients the year before) was not seen in 36 patients (69%), was considered bearable for 36 patients and unbearable for only 3 patients compared to 27 before inclusion. For the dermatologists, efficacy was excellent for 35 patients and good for 7 patients, giving global efficacy of around 80%, with inadequate results in 10% of cases (5 patients). Concerning protection against erythema, the test product reduced sunburn by 60% compared with the previous year. Because of the high clinical efficacy of the product noted after UVA challenge tests and verified by this clinical study under actual conditions of exposure, it may be proposed as a new prophylactic treatment for polymorphous light eruption.

  11. Disinfection of surfaces by photocatalytic oxidation with titanium dioxide and UVA light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Klaus P; Chaberny, Iris F; Massholder, Karl; Stickler, Manfred; Benz, Volker W; Sonntag, Hans-Günther; Erdinger, Lothar

    2003-10-01

    Particularly in microbiological laboratories and areas in intensive medical use, regular and thorough disinfection of surfaces is required in order to reduce the numbers of bacteria and to prevent bacterial transmission. The conventional methods of disinfection with wiping are not effective in the longer term, cannot be standardized, are time- and staff-intensive and use aggressive chemicals. Disinfection with hard ultraviolet C (UVC) light is usually not satisfactory, as the depth of penetration is inadequate and there are occupational medicine risks. Photocatalytic oxidation on surfaces coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) might offer a possible alternative. In the presence of water and oxygen, highly reactive OH-radicals are generated by TiO2 and mild ultraviolet A (UVA). These radicals are able to destroy bacteria, and may therefore be effective in reducing bacterial contamination. Direct irradiation with UVC however can produce areas of shadow in which bacteria are not inactivated. Using targeted light guidance and a light-guiding sheet (out of a UVA-transmittant, Plexiglas, for example), as in the method described in the present study, bacterial inactivation over the entire area is possible. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated using bacteria relevant to hygiene such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium. For these bacteria, a reduction efficiency (RE) more than 6log10 steps in 60 min was observed. Using Candida albicans, a RE of 2log10 steps in 60 min was seen. Light and scanning electron microscopic examinations suggest that the germ destruction achieved takes place through direct damage to cell walls caused by OH-radicals.

  12. Evaluación sensorial del vino artesanal de uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de vino en Colombia se ha incrementado durante los últimos años, en especial el de los vinos tinto. A pesar de las pocas características vínicas de la uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L., su bajo contenido de azúcares y su alta concentración de ácidos le otorgan el potencial para la elaboración de un vino que presenta sabores y aromas intensos. La combinación de color, aroma y sabor provoca la denominada textura del vino. El análisis sensorial de los vinos, a través de catas, da origen a una escala entre los vinos y a una descripción que genera cierto impacto en el posicionamiento de este licor en el mercado. Esta investigación buscó evaluar la calidad organoléptica del vino artesanal de uva Isabella, mediante una cata a ciegas. Se evaluaron tres tipos de vino; dos producidos en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (semiseco y semidulce y uno procedente del municipio de Cerrito, Valle del Cauca. El panel conformado por 20 catadores evaluó los vinos de acuerdo con los parámetros establecidos por el Concurso Internacional de Vinos y Espirituosos (CINVE. Los resultados presentaron diferencias significativas entre el vino Portal del Paraíso® y los vinos Uptc. Los vinos Uptc obtuvieron la menor puntuación, catalogándolos, de acuerdo con el CINVE, como los mejores sensorialmente.

  13. Tendências climáticas e produção de uva na região dos Vales da Uva Goethe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Back

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tendências nas séries climáticas e nos índices agroclimáticos para o cultivo da videira na região dos Vales da Uva Goethe, em Santa Catarina. A região apresenta clima mesotérmico úmido. Foram utilizados dados de temperatura máxima e mínima do ar, do período de 1924 a 2010, e de precipitação pluvial, de 1955 a 2010. O teste de Mann‑Kendall foi utilizado para avaliar a tendência nas séries, cuja magnitude foi estimada pela declividade mediana determinada pelo teste de Theil-Sen. Foi observada tendência de aumento nas séries de temperatura mínima do ar, em escala anual, bem como nas estações do ano. Quanto à temperatura máxima, somente houve tendência de aumento na série de verão. Em relação aos índices agrometeorológicos, foi observada tendência de diminuição do número de geadas, diminuição do período entre a brotação e a colheita, aumento da soma térmica e dos índices de Huglin e de frio. Foram evidenciadas tendências de aumento da precipitação pluvial total anual e da precipitação no período de crescimento da videira, bem como aumento do número de dias, com chuva igual ou superior a 20 mm, e aumento na temperatura mínima e noturna.

  14. Carcinogenesis induced by UVA (365-nm) radiation: the dose-time dependence of tumor formation in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, A; van der Leun, J C; de Gruijl, F R

    1997-05-01

    Although ultraviolet B (UVB wavelengths 280-315 nm) dominates the carcinogenic effect of sunlight, ultraviolet A (UVA 315-400 nm) is estimated to contribute 10-20% to the carcinogenic dose; a substantial background that is not affected by a depletion of the ozone layer. Furthermore, certain high-power modern tanning lamps emit mainly long wave UVA (UVA1; 340-400 nm). For a proper risk estimate of UVA exposure its carcinogenicity relative to that of UVB exposure needs to be determined more accurately. To this end we determined the dose-time relationship for skin tumor induction in hairless mice that were irradiated daily with custom-made Philips 365-nm sources. Irradiation of the group exposed to the highest of the four daily doses (430, 240, 140 and 75 kJ/m2) had to be discontinued because severe scratching set in after 3 months (no tumors). In the lower dose-groups the prevalence curves for skin carcinomas (percentage of tumor-bearing mice versus logarithm of time) ran virtually parallel, and were similar to those found with daily UVB exposure. However, the relationship between the daily dose (D) and the median tumor induction time (t50) appeared to differ: with UVB we found that t50 D(r) = constant, with r = 0.6, whereas with UVA1 we found r approximately 0.4. This would imply that 365-nm carcinogenesis shows less of a dose-dependency than UVB carcinogenesis, and that 365-nm radiation becomes more carcinogenic, relative to UVB, as the daily doses are lowered. This relative shift at low doses complicates extrapolation of UVB to UVA risks in humans. Based on the t50 from the lowest dose-group we found that the carcinogenicity at 365 nm (per J/m2) is 0.9 x 10(-4) times that at 293 nm, the wavelength of maximum carcinogenicity in hairless mice. This result for 365-nm carcinogenicity falls well within the margins of error of the wavelength dependency that was estimated earlier from experiments with broadband UV sources.

  15. The PARP inhibitor PJ-34 sensitizes cells to UVA-induced phototoxicity by a PARP independent mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, Petra; Hegedűs, Csaba [Department of Medical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Salazar Ayestarán, Nerea; Juarranz, Ángeles [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Autónoma of Madrid, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Kövér, Katalin E. [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Szabó, Éva [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Virág, László, E-mail: lvirag@med.unideb.hu [Department of Medical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); MTA-DE Cell Biology and Signaling Research Group, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • PARP-1 is not a key regulator of photochemotherapy. • The PARP inhibitor PJ-34 sensitizes cells to UVA-induced phototoxicity by a PARP independent mechanism. • Photosensitization by PJ-34 is associated with increased ROS production and DNA damage. • Cells sensitized by PJ-34 undergo caspase-mediated apoptosis. - Abstract: A combination of a photosensitizer with light of matching wavelength is a common treatment modality in various diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and tumors. DNA damage and production of reactive oxygen intermediates may impact pathological cellular functions and viability. Here we set out to investigate the role of the nuclear DNA nick sensor enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in photochemical treatment (PCT)-induced tumor cell killing. We found that silencing PARP-1 or inhibition of its enzymatic activity with Veliparib had no significant effect on the viability of A431 cells exposed to 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and UVA (2.5 J/cm{sup 2}) indicating that PARP-1 is not likely to be a key player in either cell survival or cell death of PCT-exposed cells. Interestingly, however, another commonly used PARP inhibitor PJ-34 proved to be a photosensitizer with potency equal to 8-MOP. Irradiation of PJ-34 with UVA caused changes both in the UV absorption and in the 1H NMR spectra of the compound with the latter suggesting UVA-induced formation of tautomeric forms of the compound. Characterization of the photosensitizing effect revealed that PJ–34 + UVA triggers overproduction of reactive oxygen species, induces DNA damage, activation of caspase 3 and caspase 8 and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cell death in this model could not be prevented by antioxidants (ascorbic acid, trolox, glutathione, gallotannin or cell permeable superoxide dismutase or catalase) but could be suppressed by inhibitors of caspase-3 and −8. In conclusion, PJ-34 is a photosensitizer and PJ–34 + UVA causes DNA damage and caspase

  16. Effect of 8-MOP plus UVA treatment on survival and repair of plasmid pBR322; Efecto del tratamiento con 8-MOP mas UVA en la supervivencia y reparacion de pBR322

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R. de

    1991-07-01

    We have studied the lethality produced in pBR322 DNA after PUVA treatment (8-MOP+UVA). As recipients, we used a collection of E. coli strains differing in their repair capacities and analysed the involvement of several DNA repair pathways in the removal of plasmid lesions. We have also studied the effect of UVA radiation alone, in order to determine more precisely the effect attributable only to psoralen molecules. Results showed a strong lethal effect derived from PUVA treatment; however, some plasmid recovery was achieved in bacterial hosts proficient in Excision repair and SOS repair. Another repair pathway, only detectable at high density of lesions, appeared to be relevant for the removal of 8-MOP:DNA adducts.(Author) 11 refs.

  17. Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation in growth of cv. New Red Fire lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krizek, D.T.; Britz, S.J.; Mirecki, R.M. [Climate Stress Laboratory, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The influence of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation at Beltsville, MD, USA, on growth of Lactuca sativa L. (cv. New Red Fire lettuce) was examined during early summer of 1996 and 1997. Plants were grown from seed in plastic window boxes covered with Llumar to exclude UV-A and UV-B, polyester to exclude UV-B, or tefzel (1996) or teflon (1997) to transmit UV-A and UV-B radiation. After 31-34 days, plants grown in the absence of solar UV-B radiation (polyester) had 63 and 57% greater fresh weight and dry weight of tops, respectively, and 57, 72 and 47% greater dry weight of leaves, stems and roots, respectively, as compared to those grown under ambient UV-B (tefzel or teflon). Plants protected from UV-A radiation as well (Llumar) showed an additional 43 and 35% increase, respectively, in fresh and dry weight of tops and a 33 and 33% increase, respectively, in dry weight of leaves and stems, but no difference in root biomass over those grown under polyester. Excluding ambient UV-B (polyester) significantly reduced the UV absorbance of leaf extracts at 270, 300 and 330 nm (presumptive flavonoids) and the concentration of anthocyantins at 550 nm as compared to those of leaf extract from plants grown under ambient UV-A and UV-B. Additional removal of ambient UV-A (Llumar) reduced the concentration of anthocyanins, but had no further effect on UV absorbance at 270, 300 or 330 nm. These findings provide evidence that UV-B radiation is more important than UV-A radiation for flavonoid induction in this red-pigmented lettuce cultivar. Although previous workers have obtained decreases in lettuce yield under enhanced UV-B, this is the first evidence for inhibitory effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on lettuce growth. (au) 34 refs.

  18. Prevention of polymorphic light eruption with a sunscreen of very high protection level against UVB and UVA radiation under standardized photodiagnostic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Verena; Weber, Oliver; Yazdi, Amir; Benedix, Frauke; Dietz, Klaus; Röcken, Martin; Berneburg, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE), with an overall prevalence of 10-20%, is mainly provoked by ultraviolet A (UVA) (320-400 nm) and to a lesser degree by UVB (280-320 nm). The most effective prophylaxis of PLE, application of UV protection clothing, is not feasible for all sun-exposed areas of the skin and UV-hardening is time-consuming and may be associated with side-effects. Most sunscreens protect predominantly against UVB and therefore fail to prevent PLE. The protection level of potent UVA-protective filters remains unresolved. This single-centre, open, placebo-controlled, intra-individual, comparative study, analysed the efficacy of a sunscreen of very high protection level against UVB and UVA, containing methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (Tinosorb M), bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (Tinosorb S) and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane as UVA absorbing filters, in the prevention of PLE under standardized photodiagnostic conditions. After determination of the minimal erythema dose at day 0, photoprovocation was performed in 12 patients with a clinical history of PLE, on days 1, 2 and 3 with 100 J/cm2 UVA and variable doses of UVB, starting with the 1.5-fold minimal erythema dose of UVB. Prior to irradiation, placebo was applied to the right and sunscreen to the left dorsal forearm under COLIPA (European Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association) conditions. In 10 patients PLE could be provoked at the placebo site, with positive reactions in 90% of the UVA, 40% of the UVB and 90% of the UVA/UVB irradiated fields. At the site with the active treatment none of these patients developed PLE. These data demonstrate that a sunscreen with effective filters against UVA and UVB can successfully prevent the development of PLE. Further studies are needed to examine whether regular application of sunscreen under everyday conditions, especially in doses less than the tested COLIPA-norm, could be an equivalent alternative to UV-hardening therapy.

  19. Influence of constant current stress on the conduction mechanisms of reverse leakage current in UV-A light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingzhe; Zheng, Xuefeng; Dai, Feng; Zhu, Jiaduo; Li, Peixian; Ma, Xiaohua; Hao, Yue

    2017-12-01

    The influence of constant current stress on the conduction mechanism of reverse leakage current in ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the UV-A spectral range has been investigated for the first time using temperature-dependent current-voltage measurement from 370 K to 55 K. Below 220 K, variable range hopping mechanism dominates in UV-A LEDs. While, above 220 K, the leakage current is attributed to Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism within the bias range of -3 ∼ -6 V. With the increasing of the reverse bias, the conduction mechanism transforms from Poole-Frenkel emission to space-charge-limited conduction mechanism. In particular, applying electrical stress yields an alteration of the transition voltage from -7.5 V to -6.5 V. We propose that stress could lead to a reduction of the thermal activation energy, and therefore alters the transition voltage.

  20. Solar radiation (PAR, UV-A, UV-B) penetration in a shallow maturation pond operating in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniel F C; von Sperling, Marcos

    2017-07-01

    Solar radiation is considered the primary route for disinfection of pathogenic bacteria in maturation ponds. There is scarce information on depth profiling and attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), UV-A and UV-B in shallow maturation ponds operating in tropical climates. Measurements of solar irradiance of the three wavelength ranges, together with turbidity, have been acquired from different depths for over 1 year in a shallow maturation pond (44 cm of depth) operating in Brazil. UV-A and UV-B were still detected at 10 cm from the surface, but from 15 cm both were undetectable. PAR was still detected at 30 cm of depth. Irradiation attenuation showed to be related to turbidity. Attenuation coefficients were calculated and simple models without turbidity (traditional structure) or including log 10 of turbidity are proposed for predicting PAR irradiance attenuation as a function of depth.

  1. UVA, UVB Light, and Methyl Jasmonate, Alone or Combined, Redirect the Biosynthesis of Glucosinolates, Phenolics, Carotenoids, and Chlorophylls in Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Moreira-Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting phytochemicals that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV or phytohormones. The separate and combined effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ, UVA, or UVB lights on glucosinolate, phenolic, carotenoid, and chlorophyll profiles were assessed in broccoli sprouts. Seven-day-old broccoli sprouts were exposed to UVA (9.47 W/m2 or UVB (7.16 W/m2 radiation for 120 min alone or in combination with a 25 µM MJ solution, also applied to sprouts without UV supplementation. UVA + MJ and UVB + MJ treatments increased the total glucosinolate content by ~154% and ~148%, respectively. MJ induced the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates, especially neoglucobrassicin (~538%, showing a synergistic effect with UVA stress. UVB increased the content of aliphatic and indole glucosinolates, such as glucoraphanin (~78% and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin (~177%. UVA increased several phenolics such as gallic acid (~57% and a kaempferol glucoside (~25.4%. MJ treatment decreased most phenolic levels but greatly induced accumulation of 5-sinapoylquinic acid (~239%. MJ treatments also reduced carotenoid and chlorophyll content, while UVA increased lutein (~23%, chlorophyll b (~31%, neoxanthin (~34%, and chlorophyll a (~67%. Results indicated that UV- and/or MJ-treated broccoli sprouts redirect the carbon flux to the biosynthesis of specific glucosinolates, phenolics, carotenoids, and chlorophylls depending on the type of stress applied.

  2. Puesta a punto del método de PCR en tiempo real para la cuantificación de Aspergillus carbonarius en uvas Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Garmendia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La ocratoxina A (OTA es una micotoxina que ha sido detectada en uvas y vinos. Es producida por Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus carbonarius y especies pertenecientes al agregado Aspergillus niger. En los últimos años se ha descrito la presencia de Aspergillus aculeatus y Aspergillus japonicus en la superficie de uvas y su capacidad de producir OTA. A pesar de que la concentración detectada de cepas pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri fue < 100/g de uva, se han aislado, identificado y caracterizado 56 cepas de Aspergillus pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri. El 51 % fue identificado como A. niger, el 39 % como A. japonicus, 5 % como A. tubingensis -like y 5 % como A. foetidus. Ninguna cepa de A. carbonarius fue aislada. Debido a que esta especie ha sido descrita como la principal responsable de la presencia de OTA en uvas y vinos por su capacidad de producir altas concentraciones de OTA, se requiere un método más sensible que los métodos convencionales para detectar y cuantificar la presencia de A. carbonarius en uva. En este trabajo se optimizó la técnica de PCR en tiempo real para la detección y cuantificación de esta especie en uvas d e la variedad Tannat.

  3. A broad-spectrum sunscreen prevents UVA radiation-induced gene expression in reconstructed skin in vitro and in human skin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marionnet, Claire; Grether-Beck, Susanne; Seité, Sophie; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Lejeune, François; Bastien, Philippe; Rougier, André; Bernerd, Françoise; Krutmann, Jean

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of sunscreens to protect against ultraviolet (UV) A radiation is usually assessed by measuring erythema formation and pigmentation. The biological relevance of these endpoints for UVA-induced skin damage, however, is not known. We therefore carried out two complementary studies to determine UVA protection provided by a broad-spectrum sunscreen product at a molecular level by studying UVA radiation-induced gene expression. One study was performed on human reconstructed skin in vitro with a semi-global gene expression analysis of 227 genes in fibroblasts and 244 in keratinocytes. The second one was conducted in vivo in human volunteers and focused on genes involved in oxidative stress response and photo-ageing (haeme oxygenase-1, superoxide dismutase-2, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, matrix metalloproteinase-1). In-vitro UVA radiation induced modulation of genes involved in extracellular matrix homeostasis, oxidative stress, heat shock responses, cell growth, inflammation and epidermal differentiation. Sunscreen pre-application abrogated or significantly reduced these effects, as underlined by unsupervised clustering analysis. The in vivo study confirmed that the sunscreen prevented UVA radiation-induced transcriptional expression of the five studied genes. These findings indicate the high efficacy of a broad-spectrum sunscreen in protecting human skin against UVA-induced gene responses and suggest that this approach is a biologically relevant complement to existing methods. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.

  5. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: PROTETORES SOLARES ANTI UVA E ANTI UVB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Dourado Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento da temperatura no planeta devido o efeito estufa, há uma preocupação com as radiações ultravioletas que incidem na pele dos seres humanos. Diante disso a indústria cosmética vem desenvolvendo constantemente formulações contendo filtros solares, anti UVA, anti UVB e também os dois filtros associados numa mesma formulação, retardando o envelhecimento cutâneo, formação dos radicais livres e prevenindo uma grande problemática atual, o câncer de pele. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção para conhecimento do desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico relacionado à aplicação de filtros solares associados em uma mesma formulação baseando-se no número de patentes depositadas e de artigos publicados. A prospecção foi realizada no Banco Europeu de Patentes (EPO, no Banco Americano de Marcas e Patentes (USPTO e no Banco de dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial do Brasil (INPI, bem como nas bases de periódicos, CAPES, Pubmed, Science Direct e ACS Publications. O maior número de patentes foi depositado nos últimos 5 anos. As patentes em sua maioria estão classificadas em A61K. Os responsáveis por maior número de patentes foram os Estados Unidos, China e Japão. Há uma diminuição no número de depósitos de patentes quando se associou a UVA e UVB no fotoprotetor. Em relação à produção científica o número de publicações referente a formulações fotoprotetoras contendo os dois filtros associados é maior que o de depósito de patentes, porém segue o mesmo perfil de redução ao associar os filtros numa mesma formulação.

  6. The Effect of NaCl and CMA on the Growth and Morphology of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Kinnikinnick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have described the negative effects of the commonly used deicer, NaCl, on plants; this has led to research on less toxic alternatives, for example, calcium magnesium acetate (CMA. The present research investigated the native ground cover species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (kinnikinnick, as a possible candidate for landscaping in high salt conditions. The effect of NaCl and CMA on the growth, morphology, and survival of A. uva-ursi plants was examined to explore the use of CMA as a potential environmentally friendly alternative deicing agent to that of NaCl. The influence of these deicing agents on selected soil properties was also investigated. It was found that this ground cover species was able to tolerate moderate-to-high levels of NaCl and even greater concentrations of CMA. Therefore, A. uva-ursi proved to be a candidate for landscaping use in a north central city of Canada, where deicing agents are used in winter months.

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activities of Morinda citrifolia seed extract and its constituents in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether a 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) of the seeds of Morinda citrifolia (noni) and its constituents have matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity in UVA-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The MCS-ext (10 μg/mL) inhibited MMP-1 secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, without cytotoxic effects, at 48 h after UV exposure. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of MCS-ext was the most potent inhibitor of MMP-1 secretion. Among the constituents of the fraction, a lignan, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), inhibited the MMP-1 secretion at a concentration of 0.3 μM without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the level of intracellular MMP-1 expression. Other constituents, namely americanin A (2), quercetin (3) and ursolic acid (4), were inactive. To elucidate inhibition mechanisms of MMP-1 expression and secretion, the effect of 1 on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation was examined. Western blot analysis revealed that 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the phosphorylations of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that 1 suppresses intracellular MMP-1 expression, and consequent secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, by down-regulation of MAPKs phosphorylation.

  8. Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevremont, A.-C., E-mail: anne-celine.chevremont@imbe.fr [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Farnet, A.-M. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Coulomb, B.; Boudenne, J.-L. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2012-06-01

    Wastewater reuse for irrigation is an interesting alternative for many Mediterranean countries suffering from water shortages. The development of new technologies for water recycling is a priority for these countries. In this study we test the efficiency of UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet-Light-Emitting Diodes) emitting UV-A or UV-C radiations, used alone or coupled, on bacterial and chemical indicators. We monitored the survival of fecal bioindicators found in urban wastewaters and the oxidation of creatinine and phenol which represent either conventional organic matter or the aromatic part of pollution respectively. It appears that coupling UV-A/UV-C i) achieves microbial reduction in wastewater more efficiently than when a UV-LED is used alone, and ii) oxidizes up to 37% of creatinine and phenol, a result comparable to that commonly obtained with photoreactants such as TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We test UV-LEDs as an urban wastewater tertiary treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-A and UV-C are coupled, combining germicidal and oxidative properties of UV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupled wavelengths have the most efficient bactericidal effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling UV-A and UV-C leads to photooxidation of creatinine and phenol.

  9. Protein oxidation and aggregation in UVA-irradiated Escherichia coli cells as signs of accelerated cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshard, Franziska; Riedel, Kathrin; Schneider, Thomas; Geiser, Carina; Bucheli, Margarete; Egli, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) is a simple drinking water treatment method that improves microbiological water quality where other means are unavailable. It makes use of the deleterious effect of solar irradiation on pathogenic microbes and viruses. A positive impact on health has been documented in several epidemiological studies. However, the molecular mechanisms damaging cells during this simple treatment are not yet fully understood. Here we show that protein damage is crucial in the process of inactivation by sunlight. Protein damages in UVA-irradiated Escherichia coli cells have been evaluated by an immunoblot method for carbonylated proteins and an aggregation assay based on semi-quantitative proteomics. A wide spectrum of structural and enzymatic proteins within the cell is affected by carbonylation and aggregation. Vital cellular functions like the transcription and translation apparatus, transport systems, amino acid synthesis and degradation, respiration, ATP synthesis, glycolysis, the TCA cycle, chaperone functions and catalase are targeted by UVA irradiation. The protein damage pattern caused by SODIS strongly resembles the pattern caused by reactive oxygen stress. Hence, sunlight probably accelerates cellular senescence and leads to the inactivation and finally death of UVA-irradiated cells. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. A simplified procedure for semi-targeted lipidomic analysis of oxidized phosphatidylcholines induced by UVA irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Florian; Bicker, Wolfgang; Oskolkova, Olga V.; Tschachler, Erwin; Bochkov, Valery N.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) are increasingly recognized as signaling mediators that are not only markers of oxidative stress but are also “makers” of pathology relevant to disease pathogenesis. Understanding the biological role of individual molecular species of OxPLs requires the knowledge of their concentration kinetics in cells and tissues. In this work, we describe a straightforward “fingerprinting” procedure for analysis of a broad spectrum of molecular species generated by oxidation of the four most abundant species of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines (OxPCs). The approach is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by reversed-phase HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization MS/MS. More than 500 peaks corresponding in retention properties to polar and oxidized PCs were detected within 8 min at 99 m/z precursor values using a single diagnostic product ion in extracts from human dermal fibroblasts. Two hundred seventeen of these peaks were fluence-dependently and statistically significantly increased upon exposure of cells to UVA irradiation, suggesting that these are genuine oxidized or oxidatively fragmented species. This method of semitargeted lipidomic analysis may serve as a simple first step for characterization of specific “signatures” of OxPCs produced by different types of oxidative stress in order to select the most informative peaks for identification of their molecular structure and biological role. PMID:22414483

  11. Effect of UVA/Riboflavin Collagen Crosslinking on Biomechanics of Artificially Swollen Corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Jayaram, Sandeep M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the relation between corneal hydration and stiffening effects of the UVA/riboflavin collagen crosslinking treatment and to investigate how artificially swelling the cornea prior to this treatment procedure affects tensile property improvement. Porcine corneas were collagen crosslinked in vitro at different hydration levels using a number of hypoosmolar and isoosmolar riboflavin solutions. Thickness of the specimens prior to crosslinking was taken as a proxy for their hydration and was used to divide them into different thickness groups. A Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) machine was used to perform mechanical tensile tests. The hydration of specimens during the mechanical tests was kept similar to the hydration at which they were crosslinked. The recorded force was used to calculate the maximum tensile stress and tangent modulus as a function of thickness (hydration) prior to collagen crosslinking treatment. Collagen crosslinking with either a hypoosmolar or isoosmolar solution significantly increased corneal tensile modulus (P crosslinking showed significantly softer tensile properties compared with those that were crosslinked at lower hydration (P degree of tensile property improvement was hydration dependent, the stiffness of samples crosslinked at higher hydration was not significantly different than the stiffness of those crosslinked at lower hydration when the hydration was kept similar in the mechanical experiments. Swelling porcine corneas to the different extents prior to collagen crosslinking treatment does not significantly change the amount of biomechanical improvement if tensile properties are measured at similar hydration.

  12. Artificial aging of Uva di Troia and Primitivo wines using oak chips inoculated with Penicillium purpurogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzi, Leonardo; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Ciccarone, Claudio; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Irlante, Giuseppina; Lamacchia, Carmela; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2012-01-30

    Two red wines (Primitivo and Uva di Troia) treated with oak chips inoculated with Penicillium purpurogenum were analysed in order to assess their contents of furfural, cis-β-methyl-γ-octalactone, syringol, eugenol, vanillin and 4-vinylguaiacol. Two different sizes of oak chips (small and big, of length 2 and 8 mm respectively) and two different degrees of toasting (low and high) were used in the study. Aroma compounds were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine differences among samples after 15 days of chip contact time. Big oak chips inoculated with P. purpurogenum increased the level of 4-vinylguaiacol, while small oak chips inoculated with P. purpurogenum, in some conditions, increased the level of eugenol. Chip size and degree of toasting also played an important role in the content of eugenol. The use of oak chips inoculated with mould might be a promising alternative to barrel aging. Moreover, different fungal inocula could contribute to the enrichment of wine with specific compounds (e.g. 4-vinylguaiacol and eugenol). Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Triiodide in UVA-Exposed Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carnie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UVA irradiation of glass mounted dye-sensitized solar cells without UV filtration causes failure within 400 hours of light exposure. The failure mode is shown to relate to consumption of I3−, which is directly related to TiO2 photo-catalysis. The onset of failure is easily determined from electrochemical impedance data where the recombination resistance of the TiO2/electrolyte back reaction drops markedly prior to the onset of degradation. At the point of complete cell failure this impedance value then dramatically increases as there is no longer an interfacial reaction possible between the TiO2 and the I3− depleted electrolyte. Device failure is most rapid for cells under electrical load indicating that the degradation of the electrolyte is related to photogenerated hole production by excitation of the TiO2. Once depleted by UV exposure, the I3− can be regenerated by simple application of a reverse bias which can restore severely UV degraded devices to near original working conditions.

  14. UVA-induced reset of hydroxyl radical ultradian rhythm improves temporal lipid production in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Ranjini; Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    We report for the first time that the endogenous, pseudo-steady-state, specific intracellular levels of the hydroxyl radical (si-OH) oscillate in an ultradian fashion (model system: the microalga, Chlorella vulgaris), and also characterize the various rhythm parameters. The ultradian rhythm in the endogenous levels of the si-OH occurred with an approximately 6 h period in the daily cycle of light and darkness. Further, we expected that the rhythm reset to a shorter period could rapidly switch the cellular redox states that could favor lipid accumulation. We reset the endogenous rhythm through entrainment with UVA radiation, and generated two new ultradian rhythms with periods of approximately 2.97 h and 3.8 h in the light phase and dark phase, respectively. The reset increased the window of maximum lipid accumulation from 6 h to 12 h concomitant with the onset of the ultradian rhythms. Further, the saturated fatty acid content increased approximately to 80% of total lipid content, corresponding to the peak maxima of the hydroxyl radical levels in the reset rhythm. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus

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    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess S. aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet light A (UVA and riboflavin (B2. METHODS: Samples of S. aureus in 96 well plates (in triplicate were exposed to riboflavin (B2 and ultraviolet light A (365 nm wavelength at a power density of 3 mW/cm², 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. Control groups were prepared as well in triplicate: blank control, ultraviolet light A only, riboflavin only and dead bacteria Control. The bacterial viability was measured using fluorescent microscopy. In order to investigate the occurrence of "viable but non-culturable" microorganisms after treatment, the cell viability was also investigated by plate culture procedure onto a broth medium. Statistical analysis was performed using the triplicate values from each experimental condition. RESULTS: No difference was observed among the treatment group and the control samples (p=1. CONCLUSION: The combination of riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet light A at 365 nm did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against oxacillin susceptible S. aureus.

  16. La economía y "Las uvas de la ira"

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    Mourão Paulo Reis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Un estudiante me dijo una vez: "La economía no es verdadera". Este trabajo trata de mostrar cómo nos ayuda la economía a entender mejor nuestro mundo. Usando la muy conocida novela de Steinbeck Las uvas de la ira traté de relacionar los conceptos económicos básicos con la acción que se narra en el libro, para mostrar que la economía, o la literatura, son útiles para explicar la complejidad de la Gran Depresión, específicamente la complejidad asociada con las migraciones de trabajadores a otros estados. Este texto puede ser estimulante en los cursos de introducción, pues indica que las leyes del mercado son nociones básicas útiles, así como la información imperfecta, los mercados competitivos o la negociación colectiva.

  17. Corneal resistance to shear force after UVA-riboflavin cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Anders P; Ivarsen, Anders; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2013-07-26

    We evaluated whether UVA-riboflavin collagen cross-linking (CXL) increases transverse stromal shear moduli ex vivo, whether the shear moduli are greater in the anterior compared to the posterior stroma, and whether the shear moduli are affected by CXL. The resistance to unidirectional transverse shear of human (n = 18) and porcine (n = 42) corneas was measured in a custom engineered biaxial biomechanical setup at different hydrations. The corneas were separated into untreated, riboflavin solution-treated, and CXL-treated groups. The depth dependency of shear moduli within groups was assessed in femtosecond laser cut sheets. Dry weights were obtained for solids correction. In porcine full-thickness buttons and 300 μm anterior sheets, a significantly increased unidirectional transverse shear modulus was detected in riboflavin-treated and CXL-treated groups compared to the respective untreated groups. There was no significant difference in shear modulus between riboflavin- and CXL-treated groups. In all groups, the shear moduli were greater in the anterior sheets compared to posterior sheets. Similar results were detected in human corneas. A method for unidirectional transverse shear resistance measurement was developed. The shear moduli were greater in the anterior compared to the posterior sheets. Increase in shear moduli was observed in the riboflavin and CXL groups compared to the untreated group, indicating that the immediate effects of the riboflavin or CXL treatment may be due partly to ground substance/dextran-5-phosphate interaction.

  18. Decreased frost hardiness of Vaccinium vitis-idaea in reponse to UV-A radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulavuori, Kari; Keränen, Johanna; Suokanerva, Hanne; Lakkala, Kaisa; Huttunen, Satu; Laine, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate plant frost hardiness responses to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, since the few results reported are largely contradictory. It was hypothesized that functional adaptation of life forms could explain these contradictions. Dwarf shrubs and tree seedlings, representing both evergreen and deciduous forms, were tested (Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Vaccinium myrtillus, Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens and its red form f. rubra). The research was performed in Sodankylä, Northern Finland (67°N), with enhanced UV-B- and UV-A-radiation treatments between 2002 and 2009. Plant frost hardiness was determined using the freeze-induced electrolyte leakage method in early autumn, during the onset of the frost hardening process. Additional physiological variables (malondialdehyde, glutathione, total phenols, C and N contents) were analyzed in V. vitis-idaea to explain the possible responses. These variables did not respond significantly to UV-radiation treatments, but explained the frost hardiness well (r² = 0.678). The main finding was that frost hardiness decreased in the evergreen shrub V. vitis-idaea, particularly with enhanced UV-A radiation. No significant responses were observed with the other plants. Therefore, this study does not support the idea that enhanced UV radiation could increase plant frost hardiness. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  19. UVA Photoirradiation of Oxygenated Benz[a]anthracene and 3-Methylcholanthene - Generation of Singlet Oxygen and Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Herreño Sáenz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants and potentially pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological and toxicological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of PAHs have been thoroughly studied, their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. We have long been interested in phototoxicity of PAHs and their derivatives induced by irradiation with UV light. In this paper we report the photoirradiation of a series of oxygenated benz[a]anthracene (BA and 3-methylcholanthene (3-MC by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate. The studied PAHs include 2-hydroxy-BA (2-OH-BA, 3-hydroxy-BA (3-OH-BA, 5-hydroxymethyl-BA (5-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-BA (7-CH2OH-BA, 12-hydroxymethyl-BA (12-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methyl-BA (7-CH2OH-12-MBA, 5-formyl-BA (5-CHO-BA, BA 5,6-cis-dihydrodiol (BA 5,6-cis-diol, 1-hydroxy-3- methylcholanthene (1-OH-3-MC, 1-keto-3-methylcholanthene (1-keto-3-MC, and 3-MC 1,2-diol. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA at 7 and 21 J/cm2, respectively all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation and exhibited a relationship between the dose of the light and the level of lipid peroxidation induced. To determine whether or not photoirradiation of these compounds by UVA light produces ROS, an ESR spin-trap technique was employed to provide direct evidence. Photoirradiation of 3-keto-3-MC by UVA (at 389 nm in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMP, a specific probe for singlet oxygen, resulted in the formation of TEMPO, indicating that singlet oxygen was generated. These overall results suggest that UVA photoirradiation of oxygenated BA and 3-methylcholanthrene generates singlet oxygen, one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS, which induce lipid peroxidation.

  20. Animal and human responses to UVA and UVB[UV; Skin; Eye; Carcinogenesis; Immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, R.; Cridland, N.; Kowalczuk, C

    1997-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) comprises the most energetic region of the optical radiation spectrum and is able to induce photochemical changes in the superficial tissues of animals and people which can lead to various acute or chronic adverse health effects. The evidence concerning experimental studies of animals and, where available, volunteers of the effects of occupationally relevant wavelengths (principally UVB, 280-315 rim, and UVA, 315-400 nm) has been reviewed. Experimental studies on animals indicate that exposure to UVR elicits transient (acute) and long-lasting (chronic) effects in the skin and the eye, the severity of which increases in proportion to the exposure. Transient responses have also been investigated in human volunteers and these include adaptive changes such as immediate pigment darkening, melanogenesis and epidermal hyperplasia, and inflammatory responses such as erythema in the skin and keratitis and conjunctivitis in the eye. Irreversible, long-lasting changes also occur following exposure; these include photoageing of the skin, and the development of cataracts in the lens of the eye. Animal studies show that UVR can act either as a complete carcinogen, capable of inducing tumours when applied by itself, or as a co-carcinogen acting in combination with tumour initiators and promoters. The interaction of UVR with the immune system is complex. Exposure to UVR affects the immune system, depressing certain types of cell-mediated antigen-specific responses. Variable immunosuppressive effects have also been reported in humans. In addition, exogenous chemical sensitisers can initiate phototoxic or photoallergic responses in humans and animals; these can precede the development of more persistent idiopathic photodermatoses in which the sensitiser may be an endogenous chemical or antigen. Recommendations for further research are made. (author)

  1. Evaluation of uva camarona (Macleania rupestris Kunth A.C. Smith propagation with air layering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Durán-Casas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Uva camarona (Macleania rupestris Kunth A.C. Smith belongs to the Ericaceae family and grows in páramo and subpáramo areas in Colombia, between 2,200 and 3,500 m a.s.l. This plant presents edible berries that serve as a source of food and small income for local communities. The absence of a propagation protocol for this species limits its use. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of asexual propagation of M. rupestris with air layering, using indole-butyric acid (IBA as a rooting hormone at different concentrations: 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg L-1. The results showed that an exogenous application of IBA accelerated the rooting process in the layered zone, with a notable emission of first adventitious roots at 60 days from the start of the experiment. The treatments of 500 and 1,000 mg L-1 IBA had the highest number of roots per layer, being two to three times higher than those presented in the control. No significant differences were seen in root length between treatments. The treatments of 500 and 1,000 mg L-1 IBA showed a high production for the dry weights of the roots and callus, with a higher weight of callus compared to root weight. Air layering negatively affected the longitudinal growth of the branches, since their average growth rate was 1.49 cm per month, while the growth of intact branches was 2.78 cm per month. The results suggest that the best concentration for rooting was 1.200 mg L-1 IBA because it had the largest number and dry weight of roots in air-layered M. rupestris

  2. Avaliação de mosto de uva fermentado Evaluation of fermented grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a concentração de compostos voláteis nos mostos de uva Chardonnay e Pinot Noir fermentados pela Pichia membranaefaciens, como também analisar as fases de crescimento da levedura durante a fermentação a 15 e 20 °C. Compostos voláteis majoritários da fermentação como: etanol, acetato de etila, acetato de isoamila, acetaldeido, 1-propanol, isobutanol e álcool isoamílico foram isolados e quantificados pelo sistema de "Purge and Trap". A fermentação conduzida a 15 °C mostrou ser mais adequada na produção de acetato de etila, com valores inferiores a 200 mg.L-1 (131,3 e 147,0 mg.L-1 nos mostos Pinot Noir e Chardonnay, respectivamente, enquanto que a 20 °C a produção foi de 286,0 e 270,0 mg.L-1 nos mostos Pinot Noir e Chardonnay, respectivamente.The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of volatile compounds in Chardonnay and Pinot Noir grape musts. The study also aims to analyze yeast growth phases during fermentation at 15 and 20 °C. Major volatile compounds of fermentation such as ethanol, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, acetaldehyde, 1-propanol, 3-methyl butanol and 2-methyl butanol were isolated and quantified using the Purge and Trap system. Fermentation carried out at 15 °C was more appropriate in the production of ethyl acetate (131.3 and 147.0 mg.L-1 in the Pinot Noir and Chardonnay musts, respectively, whilst at 20 °C the production was of 286.0 and 270.0 mg.L-1 in the Pinot Noir and Chardonnay musts respectively.

  3. Impact of UV-A radiation on the performance of aphids and whiteflies and on the leaf chemistry of their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dáder, Beatriz; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moreno, Aránzazu; Winters, Ana; Fereres, Alberto

    2014-09-05

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation directly regulates a multitude of herbivore life processes, in addition to indirectly affecting insect success via changes in plant chemistry and morphogenesis. Here we looked at plant and insect (aphid and whitefly) exposure to supplemental UV-A radiation in the glasshouse environment and investigated effects on insect population growth. Glasshouse grown peppers and eggplants were grown from seed inside cages covered by novel plastic filters, one transparent and the other opaque to UV-A radiation. At a 10-true leaf stage for peppers (53 days) and 4-true leaf stage for eggplants (34 days), plants were harvested for chemical analysis and infested by aphids and whiteflies, respectively. Clip-cages were used to introduce and monitor the insect fitness and populations of the pests studied. Insect pre-reproductive period, fecundity, fertility and intrinsic rate of natural increase were assessed. Crop growth was monitored weekly for 7 and 12 weeks throughout the crop cycle of peppers and eggplants, respectively. At the end of the insect fitness experiment, plants were harvested (68 days and 18-true leaf stage for peppers, and 104 days and 12-true leaf stage for eggplants) and leaves analysed for secondary metabolites, soluble carbohydrates, amino acids, total proteins and photosynthetic pigments. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that UV-A modulates plant chemistry with implications for insect pests. Both plant species responded directly to UV-A by producing shorter stems but this effect was only significant in pepper whilst UV-A did not affect the leaf area of either species. Importantly, in pepper, the UV-A treated plants contained higher contents of secondary metabolites, leaf soluble carbohydrates, free amino acids and total content of protein. Such changes in tissue chemistry may have indirectly promoted aphid performance. For eggplants, chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid levels decreased with supplemental UV-A over the entire

  4. Treatment of progressive keratoconus by riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen: ultrastructural analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II in vivo confocal microscopy in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, Cosimo; Balestrazzi, Angelo; Traversi, Claudio; Baiocchi, Stefano; Caporossi, Tomaso; Tommasi, Cristina; Caporossi, Aldo

    2007-05-01

    To assess ultrastructural stromal modifications after riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen in patients with progressive keratoconus. This was a second-phase prospective nonrandomized open study in 10 patients with progressive keratoconus treated by riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen and assessed by means of Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II Rostock Corneal Module (HRT II-RCM) in vivo confocal microscopy. The eye in the worst clinical condition was treated for each patient. Treatment under topical anesthesia included corneal deepithelization (9-mm diameter) and instillation of 0.1% riboflavin phosphate-20% dextran T 500 solution at 5 minutes before UVA irradiation and every 5 minutes for a total of 30 minutes. UVA irradiation was 7 mm in diameter. Patients were assessed by HRT II-RCM confocal microscopy in vivo at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Rarefaction of keratocytes in the anterior and intermediate stroma, associated with stromal edema, was observed immediately after treatment. The observation at 3 months after the operation detected keratocyte repopulation in the central treated area, whereas the edema had disappeared. Cell density increased progressively over the postoperative period. At approximately 6 months, keratocyte repopulation was complete, accompanied by increased density of stromal fibers. No endothelial damage was observed at any time. Reduction in anterior and intermediate stromal keratocytes followed by gradual repopulation has been confirmed directly in vivo in humans by HRT II-RCM confocal microscopy after riboflavin-UVA-induced corneal collagen cross-linking.

  5. Protective effect of Vaccinium myrtillus extract against UVA- and UVB-induced damage in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Rossella; Marabini, Laura

    2014-03-05

    Recently, the field of skin protection have shown a considerable interest in the use of botanicals. Vaccinium myrtillus contains several polyphenols and anthocyanins with multiple pharmacological properties. The purpose of our study was to examine whether a water-soluble V. myrtillus extract (dry matter 12.4%; total polyphenols 339.3mg/100 g fw; total anthocyanins 297.4 mg/100 g fw) was able to reduce UVA- and UVB-induced damage using a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). HaCaT cells were pretreated for 1h with extract in a serum-free medium and then irradiated with UVA (8-40 J/cm(2)) and UVB (0.008-0.72 J/cm(2)) rays. All experiments were performed 24h after the end of irradiation, except for oxidative stress tests. The extract was able to reduce the UVB-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity (studied by comet and micronucleous assays) at lower doses. V. myrtillus extract reduced lipid peroxidation UVB-induced, but had no effect against the ROS UVB-produced. With UVA-induced damage V. myrtillus reduced genotoxicity as well as the unbalance of redox intracellular status. Moreover our extract reduced the UVA-induced apoptosis, but had no effect against the UVB one. V. myrtillus extract showed its free radical scavenging properties reducing oxidative stress and apoptotic markers, especially in UVA-irradiated cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Fe3O4Nanocrystals with Predominantly Exposed Facets and Their Heterogeneous UVA/Fenton Catalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuanhong; Yu, Lin; Chen, Zhi-Feng; He, Hongping; Ye, Fei; Cheng, Gao; Zhang, Qianxin

    2017-08-30

    Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals with five different morphologies (i.e., nanospheres, nanorods, nanocubes, nano-octahedrons, and nanoplates) were acquired using a simple, efficient, and economic microwave-assisted oxidation technique. The microstructure, morphology, predominant exposed facets, and iron atom local environment of Fe 3 O 4 were revealed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), and Mössbauer spectrum. We demonstrated that the heterogeneous UVA/Fenton catalytic activities of Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals are morphology/facets dependent. Under UVA irradiation, the catalytic activity of the as-prepared Fe 3 O 4 was in the sequence of nanospheres > nanoplates > nano-octahedrons ≈ nanocubes > nanorods > nano-octahedrons (by coprecipitation). The dominating factor for the catalytic performance was the particle size and BET specific surface area; moreover, the exposed {111} facets, which contained more Fe 2+ species, on the nanocrystal surface led to a stronger UVA/Fenton catalytic activity. Both • OH and O 2 •- radicals participated in the UVA/Fenton degradation process, and • OH played the dominant role. These morphology-controlled nanomagnetites showed great potential in applications as heterogeneous UVA/Fenton catalysts for effectively treating nonbiodegradable organic pollutants.

  7. Effect of UVC, UVB, UVA and a solar simulator on the survival of mouse melanoma cell lines differing in melanin content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, H.Z.; Hill, G.J.; Cieszka, K.; Azure, M. [New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    These studies were designed to determine the survival of cells that vary in constitutive pigment levels after exposure to different UV wave lengths. The lamps employed emitted UVC (near monochromatic 254 nm), UVB (Philips TL01-88.7% of UV output is UVB), UVA (Philips HPW125-89% of output is at 365 nm) and Westinghouse FS20 (broad band UVB and UVA). Dish lids were used to cut off UVC in the UVB and FS20 experiments and 0.25 inch plate glass was used to cut off UVB in the UVA experiments. UVC photons interact with putative intracellular photosensitizers which in turn convert O{sub 2} to active oxygen species which damage DNA to produce strand breaks, cross links and base damage. UVB acts by both mechanisms. The two cell lines studied were Cloudman S91/I3 (3.6 pg melanin/cell) and the closely related S91/amel (1.2 pg melanin/cell). Attached cells were covered with Ca{sup ++} and Mg{sup ++} free PBS and irradiated in the cold. Colonies were scored after 2 weeks. The two cell lines exhibit similar survival kinetics after UVC. S91/IE is more sensitive to killing by either UVB (TL01) or UVA. However, S91/amel cells are more sensitive to killing by UVB plus UVA (FS20). It is clear that UV of different qualities can interact to produce effects that would not be predicted based on responses to monochromatic wave lengths.

  8. Antimicrobial photodisinfection with Zn(II) phthalocyanine adsorbed on TiO2 upon UVA and red irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantareva, Vanya; Eneva, Ivelina; Kussovski, Vesselin; Borisova, Ekaterina; Angelov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The light exposure on a daily basis has been well accepted as a competitive method for decontamination of wastewater. The catalytic properties of TiO2 offer a great potential to reduce the transmission of pathogens in the environment. Although the titanium dioxide shows high activity against pathogens, its general usage in water cleaning is limited due to the insufficient excitation natural light (about 3% of the solar spectrum). A hydrophobic dodecylpyridyloxy Zn(II)-phthalocyanine with four peripheral hydrocarbon chains of C12 (ZnPcDo) was immobilized on a photocatalyst TiO2 anatase (P25). The resulted greenish colored nanoparticles of phthalocyanine were characterized by the means of absorption, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize the phthalocyanine dye by the red fluorescence emission (650 - 740 nm). The intensive Q-band in the far red visible spectral region (~ 690 nm) suggested a monomeric state of phthalocyanine on TiO2 nanoparticles. Two pathogenic bacterial strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA and Salmonella enteritidis) associated with wastewater were photoinactivated with the suspension of the particles. The effective photoinactivation was observed with 1 g.L-1 TiO2 anatase at irradiation with UVA 364 nm as with UVA 364 nm and LED 643 nm. The gram-negative Salmonella enteritidis was fully photoinactivated with ZnPcDo-TiO2 and TiO2 alone at UVA 346 nm and at irradiation with two light sources (364 nm + 643 nm). The proposed conjugate appears as an useful composite material for antibacterial disinfection.

  9. In vivo persistent pigment darkening method: proposal of a new standard product for UVA protection factor determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyal, D; Pissavini, M; Boyer, F; Perier, V; Frêlon, J H

    2007-12-01

    The European Commission (EC) has recommended assessing the level of ultraviolet A (UVA) protection afforded by sunscreen products using the in vivo persistent pigment darkening (PPD) method or other methods giving equivalent results. In this context, the reproducibility of the in vivo PPD method is of importance. To check the validity of the UVA protection factor (UVAPF) tests, the Japanese Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) recommends using a standard product (JCIA standard) with an expected UVAPF 3.75 (SD 1.01). However, considering the increase in UVA efficacy of the new sunscreen products available in the market, with UVAPF up to 30, it seemed useful to develop a new standard product to be used when testing products with expected UVAPF > or =10. The PPD method was used in six centres to determine the UVAPF of the two products. Reproducibility of results was also studied by testing two batches of the new product at two different times. There was no statistical difference between the six centres with regard to the JCIA standard. The ring study showed that the mean value of UVAPF (4.3) was higher than that given by JCIA (3.75). These data enable the proposal of a new acceptance range for the JCIA standard product (3.4-5.2) derived from actual results from European laboratories. Whereas this range is different from that proposed by JCIA (2.74-4.76), there is an overlapping of the values. Data on the new standard product show that reproducibility is not influenced by the batches of this product. The mean UVAPF value obtained is 12.1. An acceptance range (9.6-14.6) is proposed for the new standard. Data presented here demonstrate that if an identical protocol is used, reproducible results can be expected and that the PPD method is reproducible and reliable.

  10. Influencia del estrés académico en el sistema binocular en universitarios de la UVA

    OpenAIRE

    López Gómez, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: El estrés visual, tras trabajo prolongado en cerca, produce modificaciones en el sistema binocular. Esta hipótesis ha sido poco contrastada experimentalmente. El objetivo principal es medir la influencia del estrés académico en estudiantes universitarios de la UVA mediante la medida de la foria. Métodos: Se ha medido la foria en 22 estudiantes, con su corrección habitual, antes y después de un examen, mediante tres métodos: técnica de la varilla de Maddox, técnica de Von Graefe y...

  11. ANÁLISE SENSORIAL DO SUCO INTEGRAL DE UVA ‘ISABEL’ SUBMETIDA À APLICAÇÃO DE ÁCIDO ABSCÍSICO

    OpenAIRE

    RENATA KOYAMA; ADRIANE MARINHO DE ASSIS; LILIAN YUKARI YAMAMOTO; SANDRA HELENA PRUDENCIO; SERGIO RUFFO ROBERTO

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO O suco de uva ‘Isabel’ apresenta deficiência de cor e uma alternativa é o uso de ácido abscísico para aumentar a coloração. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aceitação do suco integral de uva ‘Isabel’ tratada com ácido abscísico (S-ABA) em diferentes concentrações e épocas, por meio da análise sensorial, obtido em duas safras consecutivas (2011 e 2012). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições e cin...

  12. Visible light is a better co-inducer of apoptosis for curcumin-treated human melanoma cells than UVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Stephan; Dobra, Jadranka; Goerg, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Stephanie; Kippenberger, Stefan; Kaufmann, Roland; Hofmann, Matthias; Bernd, August

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin attracts worldwide scientific interest due to its anti-proliferative and apoptosis inducing effects on different tumor cells at concentrations ranging from 10 to 150 µM (3.7-55 µg/ml). Unfortunately, because of a low oral bioavailability, only low and pharmacologically ineffective serum levels are achievable. In this study, an alternative treatment concept consisting of low concentration curcumin (0.2-5 µg/ml) and irradiation with UVA or visible light (VL) has been tested. The experimental results show clearly that this treatment decreases the proliferation and the viability of human melanoma cells while the cell membrane integrity remains intact. We identified the onset of apoptosis characterized by typical markers such as active caspases 8, 9 and 3 as well as DNA fragmentation accompanied by the loss of cell adhesion. The mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway is predominant due to an early activation of caspase-9. The present data indicate a higher efficacy of a combination of curcumin and VL than curcumin and UVA. Reduced effects as a result of light absorption by heavily pigmented skin are unlikely if VL is used. These results indicate that a combination of curcumin and light irradiation may be a useful additional therapy in the treatment of malignant disease.

  13. Visible light is a better co-inducer of apoptosis for curcumin-treated human melanoma cells than UVA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Buss

    Full Text Available Curcumin attracts worldwide scientific interest due to its anti-proliferative and apoptosis inducing effects on different tumor cells at concentrations ranging from 10 to 150 µM (3.7-55 µg/ml. Unfortunately, because of a low oral bioavailability, only low and pharmacologically ineffective serum levels are achievable. In this study, an alternative treatment concept consisting of low concentration curcumin (0.2-5 µg/ml and irradiation with UVA or visible light (VL has been tested. The experimental results show clearly that this treatment decreases the proliferation and the viability of human melanoma cells while the cell membrane integrity remains intact. We identified the onset of apoptosis characterized by typical markers such as active caspases 8, 9 and 3 as well as DNA fragmentation accompanied by the loss of cell adhesion. The mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway is predominant due to an early activation of caspase-9. The present data indicate a higher efficacy of a combination of curcumin and VL than curcumin and UVA. Reduced effects as a result of light absorption by heavily pigmented skin are unlikely if VL is used. These results indicate that a combination of curcumin and light irradiation may be a useful additional therapy in the treatment of malignant disease.

  14. Low concentrations of curcumin induce growth arrest and apoptosis in skin keratinocytes only in combination with UVA or visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Jadranka; Kippenberger, Stefan; Hoffmann, Stephanie; Ramirez-Bosca, Ana; Miquel, Jaime; Diaz-Alperi, Joquin; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Kaufmann, Roland; Bernd, August

    2007-08-01

    It is well known that curcumin, a dietary pigment from the plant Curcuma longa, inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in different cell lines at concentrations ranging from 10 to 150 microM (3.7-55 microg/ml). In this study, we show that curcumin at low concentrations (0.2-1 microg/ml) also has an antiproliferative effect when applied in combination with UVA or visible light. We demonstrate that such a treatment induces apoptosis in human skin keratinocytes represented by the increase of fragmented cell nuclei, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, activation of caspases-9 and -8, and inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. Furthermore, inhibition of extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 and protein kinase B was found to ensure the proapoptotic effect. Additionally, the EGFR, an upstream regulator of both kinases, was inhibited indicating that apoptosis is induced by blocking survival- and proliferation-associated signal cascades at the receptor level. In summary, these findings suggest a new therapeutic concept for the treatment of hyperproliferative diseases by combining topical curcumin with UVA or visible light. In particular, the latter avoids the use of carcinogenic irradiation that is part of regular phototherapy.

  15. Preillumination of lettuce seedlings with red light enhances the resistance of photosynthetic apparatus to UV-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavski, Vladimir D; Lyubimov, Valery Yu; Shirshikova, Galina N; Shmarev, Alexander N; Kosobryukhov, Anatoly A; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Friedrich, Thomas; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2013-05-05

    Seedlings of 10-day-old lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cultivar Berlin) were preilluminated by low intensity red light (λmax=660 nm, 10 min, 5 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) and far-red light (λmax=730 nm, 10 min, 5 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) to study the effect of pre-treatment on photosynthesis, photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII), the contents of photosynthetic and UV-A-absorbing pigments (UAPs) and H2O2, as well as total and ascorbate peroxidase activities in cotyledonary leaves of seedlings exposed to UV-A. UV radiation reduced the photosynthetic rate (Pn), the activity of PSII, and the contents of Chl a and b, carotenoids and UAPs in the leaves, but increased the content of H2O2 and the total peroxidase activity. Preillumination with red light removed these effects of UV. In turn, the illumination with red light, then far-red light removed the effect of the red light. Illumination with red light alone increased the content of UAPs, as well as peroxidase activity. It is suggested that higher resistance of the lettuce photosynthetic apparatus to UV-A radiation is associated with involvement of the active form of phytochrome B, thereby increasing peroxidase activities as well as UAPs and saving preservation of photosynthetic pigment contents due to pre-illumination with red light. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Repair of the three main types of bipyrimidine DNA photoproducts in human keratinocytes exposed to UVB and UVA radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courdavault, Sophie; Baudouin, Caroline; Charveron, Marie; Canguilhem, Bruno; Favier, Alain; Cadet, Jean; Douki, Thierry

    2005-07-12

    Induction of DNA damage by solar UV radiation is a key event in the development of skin cancers. Bipyrimidine photoproducts, including cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), (6-4) photoproducts (64 PPs) and their Dewar valence isomers, have been identified as major UV-induced DNA lesions. In order to identify the predominant and most persistent lesions, we studied the repair of the three types of photolesions in primary cultures of human keratinocytes. Specific and quantitative data were obtained using HPLC associated with tandem mass spectrometry. As shown in other cell types, 64 PPs are removed from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes much more efficiently than CPDs. In contrast, CPDs are still present in high amounts when cells recover their proliferation capacities after cell cycle arrest and elimination of a part of the population by apoptosis. The predominance of CPDs is still maintained when keratinocytes are exposed to a combination of UVB and UVA. Under these conditions, 64 PPs are converted into their Dewar valence isomers that are as efficiently repaired as their (6-4) precursors. Exposure of cells to pure UVA radiation generates thymine cyclobutane dimers that are slightly less efficiently repaired than CPDs produced upon UVB irradiation. Altogether, our results show that CPDs are the most frequent and the less efficiently repaired bipyrimidine photoproducts irrespectively of the applied UV treatment.

  17. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. cladodes against UVA-induced oxidative stress in normal human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, Ganna; Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Imbimbo, Paola; Silipo, Alba; Bonina, Andrea; Rizza, Luisa; Piccoli, Renata; Monti, Daria Maria; Lanzetta, Rosa

    2017-12-15

    Opuntia ficus-indica L. is known for its beneficial effects on human health, but still little is known on cladodes as a potent source of antioxidants. Here, a direct, economic and safe method was set up to obtain water extracts from Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes rich in antioxidant compounds. When human keratinocytes were pre-treated with the extract before being exposed to UVA radiations, a clear protective effect against UVA-induced stress was evidenced, as indicated by the inhibition of stress-induced processes, such as free radicals production, lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion. Moreover, a clear protective effect against apoptosis in pre-treated irradiated cells was evidenced. We found that eucomic and piscidic acids were responsible for the anti-oxidative stress action of cladode extract. In conclusion, a bioactive, safe, low-cost and high value-added extract from Opuntia cladodes was obtained to be used for skin health/protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Características energéticas de combustibles densificados de residuos de la uva isabella (viti labrusca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de densificación son utilizados para mejorar las características fisicoquímicas de biomasa, con la finalidad de que esta sea empleada como combustible. En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de las características energéticas que presentan los residuos provenientes del cultivo (sarmientos y producción de jugo de uva (hollejos, escobajos y semillas, al ser densificados. Para evaluar las características energéticas, tanto los residuos como las briquetas se caracterizaron respecto a su análisis próximo, análisis último y se determinó el índice de reactividad por medio de la relación materia volátil/carbono fio (MV/CF. Se encontró no fue posible densificar las semillas por la presencia de aceite en su composición, pero es el residuo de mayor HHV. También se encontró que el proceso de densificación favorece la concentración de energía y se recomienda elaborar briquetas con la mezcla de los residuos tal cual se obtienen en el cultivo y procesamiento de la uva.

  19. Wafer-scaled monolayer WO3 windows ultra-sensitive, extremely-fast and stable UV-A photodetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Zhenyin; Akbari, Mohammad Karbalaei; Xue, Chenyang; Xu, Hongyan; Hyde, Lachlan; Zhuiykov, Serge

    2017-05-01

    The monolayer WO3-based UV-A photodetectors, fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique at the large area of SiO2/Si wafer, have demonstrated vastly improved functional capabilities: extremely fast response time of less than 40 μs and photoresponsivity reaching of ∼0.329 A W-1. Their ultrafast photoresponse time is at least 400-fold improvement over the previous reports for any other WO3-based UV photodetectors that have ever been fabricated, and significantly faster than most of other photodetectors based on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials reported-to-date. Moreover, their measured long-term stability exceeds more than 200 cycles without any visible degradation. The ALD-deposited WO3 monolayer has also exhibited wider bandgap of 3.53 eV and the UV-A photodetector based on it is environmentally friendly, highly reliable, with excellent reproducibility and long-term stability. Thus, the shift to mono-layered semiconductors, which possess completely new quantum-confined effects, has the greatest potential in creating a new class of nano-materials, which in return windows new functional opportunities for various opto-electronic instruments built on semiconductor monolayer and, more importantly, can result in new strategy for fabrication highly-flexible, inexpensive and extremely-sensitive devices. This strategy also opens up the great opportunities for industrialization and commercialization of the photodetectors and other optoelectronic devices based on monolayer or few-layered 2D nanomaterials.

  20. Validation of a quantitative assay of arbutin using gas chromatography in Origanum majorana and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Arbutin is a skin-whitening agent that occurs naturally in the bark and leaves of various plants. It is commonly quantified in plant extracts and skin-whitening products by HPLC. To develop an alternative gas chromatographic method for the separation and quantification of arbutin in Origanum majorana and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi extracts. N,O-Bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide and trimethylchlorosilane were used as silylation reagents, and the gas chromatographic separation of silylated extracts and standards was performed using a DB-5 narrow bore column. GC-MS was used for the compound identification, and the quantification was carried out by GC-FID. The quantitative results were compared with those of HPLC analysis. The developed method gave a good sensitivity with linearity in the range 0.33-500 mg/mL and recovery >98%, allowing the quantification of arbutin in O. majorana and A. uva-ursi extracts. The relative standard deviations (RSD) relating to intra-day and inter-day precision were arbutin could be screened alternatively by gas chromatography.

  1. Inactivation/reactivation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by a novel UVA/LED/TiO2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pei; Hu, Jiangyong

    2013-09-01

    In this study, an effective photocatalytic disinfection system was established using the newly emerged high power UVA/LED lamp. Crystallizing dish coated with TiO2 was prepared by 32-times impregnation-drying processes, and served as the supporting container for water samples. This study focused on the application of this UVA/LED system for the photocatalytic disinfection of selected antibiotic-resistant bacteria, Escherichia coli ATCC 700891. The disinfection performances were studied under various light intensities and illumination modes. Results show that higher light intensity could reach more significant inactivation of E. coli ATCC 700891. With the same UV dose, log-removal of antibiotic-resistant bacteria decreased with circle time in the studied range, while increased with duty circle. A "residual disinfecting effect" was found in the following dark period for bacteria collected at different phases of photocatalytic process. Residual disinfecting effect was found not significant for bacteria with 30 min periodic illumination. While residual disinfecting effect could kill almost all bacteria after 90 min UV periodic illumination within the following 240 min dark period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Focus on Quality and Safety Traits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Uva di Troia Grape Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzi, Leonardo; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Speranza, Barbara; Capozzi, Vittorio; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from vineyards of the autochthonous grape variety "Uva di Troia" located in different geographical areas of Apulian region (Southern Italy). Four hundred isolates were studied in relation to H2 S production, β-glucosidase activity, and pigments adsorption from grape skin. Thus, 81 isolates were selected, identified through the amplification of the interdelta region, and grouped in 19 biotypes (from I to XIX). The enological performances were assessed to determine the content of residual sugars, ethanol, glycerol, and volatile acidity, after a microfermentation in Uva di Troia must for each isolate. The ability to remove ochratoxin A (OTA) was studied as an additional tool to select promising strains. A geographical-dependent technological variability was found for glycerol and volatile acidity, suggesting that the different indigenous yeasts can have a peculiar impact on the final characteristics of the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"). Only 2 biotypes (VI and XVII) were able to remove OTA throughout fermentation, with the highest reduction achieved by the biotype XVII (ca. 30%). © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Effect of Light Irradiation and Sex Hormones on Jurkat T Cells: 17β-Estradiol but Not Testosterone Enhances UVA-Induced Cytotoxicity in Jurkat Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Angel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern cultures, such as India, it is traditionally recommended that women but not men cover their heads while working in the scorching sun. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether there was any scientific basis for this cultural tradition. We examined the differential cytotoxic effects of ultraviolet A light (UVA on an established T cell line treated with female and male sex hormones. CD4+ Jurkat T cells were plated in 96 well plates at 2 x 106 cells/ml and treated with 17β-estradiol (EST or testosterone (TE. These cells were irradiated by UVA light with an irradiance of 170 J/cm2 for 15min at a distance of 6 cm from the surface of the 96-well plate. Controls included cells not treated with hormones or UVA. The effects of EST and TE were investigated between 1 and 20 ng/mL. Cytotoxicity by fluorescein-diacetate staining and COMET assay generating single strand DNA cleavage, tail length and tail moment measurements were examined. The effect of estrogen (5ng/mL on apoptosis and its mediators was further studied using DNA laddering and western blotting for bcl-2 and p53. We found that EST alone, without UVA, enhanced Jurkat T cell survival. However, EST exhibited a dose-related cytotoxicity in the presence of UVA; up to 28% at 20 ng/ml. TE did not alter UVA-induced cytotoxicity. Since TE did not alter cell viability in the presence of UVA further damaging studies were not performed. COMET assay demonstrated the harmful effects of EST in the presence of UVA while EST without UVA had no significant effect on the nuclear damage. Apoptosis was not present as indicated by the absence of DNA laddering on agarose gel electrophoresis at 5ng/ml EST or TE ± UVA. Western blot showed that estrogen down regulated bcl-2 independently of UVA radiation while p53 was down regulated in the presence of UVA treatment. EST and TE have differential effects on UVA-induced cytotoxicity in Jurkat T-lymphocyte which suggested that women

  4. UVA1 for diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis in a Fitzpatrick skin type VI patient: outcomes in the modified Rodnan skin score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Roque Ferreira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cutaneous sclerosis can lead to important mobility impairment. Ultraviolet (UV A1 phototherapy may improve skin sclerosis, although most of the studies have been with Caucasian patients. Material and Methods: A 44-year-old patient, Fitzpatrick skin type VI, was being followed up with the diagnosis of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. He had significant mobility impairment, especially of the right hand and arm. In 2015 he started UVA1 phototherapy daily, Monday until Friday (Waldmann® 7001 UVA cabin equipped with 40 Philips TL/10R lamps − spectral irradiation between 340 and 400 nm. The initial dose was 10 J/cm2, rapidly increased up to a steady dose of 35 J/cm2. Results: After 40 sessions of UVA1, active fingers flexion and abduction of the right arm significantly improved and the modified Rodnan skin score changed from 26 to 11. Conclusion: The modified Rodnan skin score is a practical and useful tool during the follow-up of patients with systemic sclerosis. UVA1 phototherapy improves cutaneous sclerosis, and the related mobility impairment, and a dose of 35 J/cm2 is effective, even in higher phototypes, having a good safety profile.

  5. UvA Rescue - Team Description Paper - Infrastructure competition - Rescue Simulation League RoboCup 2014 - João Pessoa - Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2014-01-01

    The UvA Rescue Team has several innovative ideas to further improve the infrastructure of the RoboCup Rescue Simulation League. Those ideas range from providing USARSim an interface compatible with the RoboCup@Home Simulation, to provide the possibility to specify robots in the URDF format, to

  6. Qualidade sensorial e físico-química de uvas finas de mesa cultivadas no submédio São Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson de Jesus Mascarenhas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar uvas Vitis vinifera L. das variedades comerciais: Brasil, Benitaka, Itália e Red Globe, quanto às características físico-químicas e sensoriais. Os teores de sólidos solúveis, diâmetro e comprimento das bagas, cujos resultados apresentaram conformidade com os padrões comerciais, foram determinados. A avaliação sensorial foi realizada por meio da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa - ADQ. Foram selecionados e treinados os julgadores que, sob orientação de um líder, estabeleceram os atributos sensoriais capazes de descrever com fidedignidade as características das uvas, conforme se segue: tonalidade de cor, uniformidade de cor, aroma característico, firmeza, gosto doce, gosto amargo, gosto ácido, adstringência, sabor e qualidade global. Constatou-se que as médias obtidas nos atributos tonalidade de cor, uniformidade de cor, firmeza, sabor e qualidade global diferiram estatisticamente dentre as uvas avaliadas e, ainda, que os atributos do sabor, seguido do gosto doce e da tonalidade da cor, apresentaram as correlações mais fortes com a qualidade global, determinantes, portanto, das características sensoriais das uvas.

  7. The direct observation of a psoralen-thymine UVA induced solid-state cycloaddition reaction product by single-crystal x-ray diffractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfluger, C E; Ostrander, R L

    1989-04-01

    Single-crystal x-ray diffraction methods have been used to directly observe and simultaneously determine the molecular structure of the UVA induced cis-syn photocycloaddition product in a partially photolyzed single crystal of a psoralen(pyrone ring side)-DNA(thymine) interaction model compound, 1'-(8-oxypsoralen)-8'(thym-1"yl)3',6'-dioxaoctane.

  8. Control of dieback, caused by Eutypa lata, in red currant (Ribes rubrum) and gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Steeg, van der P.A.H.; Vink, P.; Brouwershaven, van I.R.; Raak, van M.

    2011-01-01

    Wenneker, M., Vink, P., Steeg, van der P., Brouwershaven, van I., Raak, van M., 2011. Control of dieback, caused by Eutypa lata, in red currant (Ribes rubrum) and gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa) in the Netherlands. In: book of abstracts (p. 63) – 10th International Rubus & Ribes Symposium,

  9. Establishment of Photo-aging In Vitro by Repetitive UVA Irradiation: Induction of Characteristic Markers of Senescence and its Prevention by PAPLAL with Potent Catalase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Satoshi; Yoshida, Moemi; Ando, Hideya; Ichihashi, Masamitsu

    2017-12-18

    To understand a role of UVA radiation in photo-aging of the skin, we established a model of photo-aging cells using cultured human dermal fibroblasts. Repeated low dose UVA radiation for 10 consecutive days induced senescence in fibroblasts, characterized with 1) increased level of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, 2) flattened large cell shape, 3) accumulation of reactive oxygen species, 4) yellowish coloration and 5) expression of p16. These were also observed in chronologically aged fibroblasts (doubling times >20), whereas none of these were detected in young cells (doubling times senescence. In addition, H 2 O 2 was produced in the culture medium by a single low dose of UVA irradiation. Further, PAPLAL, a nanoparticle of platinum and palladium having potent catalase-like activity, significantly delayed the onset of H 2 O 2 -induced cell senescence. The present study strongly indicates that repetitive short term UVA irradiation induces aging of cells possibly via H 2 O 2 and may be suppressed by potent anti-H 2 O 2 agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of UV-A radiation as an environmental stress on the development, longevity, and reproduction of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arif; Rashid, Muhammad Adnan; Huang, Qiu Ying; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-09-01

    The ultraviolet light (UV-A) range of 320-400 nm is widely used as light trap for insect pests. Present investigation was aimed to determine the effect of UV light-A radiation on development, adult longevity, reproduction, and development of F1 generation of Mythimna separata. Our results revealed that the mortality of the second instar larvae was higher than the third and fourth instar larvae after UV-A radiation. As the time of UV-A irradiation for pupae prolonged, the rate of adult emergence reduced. Along with the extension of radiation time decreased the longevity of adult females and males. However, the radiation exposure of 1 and 4 h/day increased fecundity of female adults, and a significant difference was observed in a 1 h/day group. The oviposition rates of female adults in all the treatments were significantly higher than the control. In addition, UV-A radiation treatments resulted in declined cumulative survival of F1 immature stages (eggs, larvae, and pupae). After exposure time of 4 and 7 h/day, the developmental periods of F1 larvae increased significantly, but no significant effects on F1 pupal period were recorded.

  11. Ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for the measurement of oxidative stress induced by UVA radiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Anshu; Pospíšil, Pavel

    2013-06-05

    All living organisms emit ultra-weak photon emission as a result of oxidative processes caused by the physical or chemical stress factors. In the present study, the effect of oxidative stress induced by the exposure of the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation was studied using ultra-weak photon emission. When Arabidopsis plants and leaves were exposed to UVA radiation, two kinetically distinguished phases in the ultra-weak photon emission decay were observed: the fast decay phase (τ1=0.805±0.024 min) and slow decay phase (τ2=4.321±0.166 min). The spectral analysis of the UVA radiation-induced ultra-weak photon emission showed that the photon emission during the fast decay phase is from both blue-green and red regions of the spectrum, whereas the photon emission during the slow decay phase is solely from the blue-green region of the spectrum. These observations reveal that triplet excited carbonyls contribute to ultra-weak photon emission during both fast and slow decay phases, whereas chlorophylls participate in the ultra-weak photon emission solely during the fast decay phase. It is illustrated here that the ultra-weak photon emission serves as a non-invasive method for the monitoring of oxidative stress in plants caused by UVA radiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. SnO{sub 2} foam grain-shaped nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and UVA light induced photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelkader, Elaziouti, E-mail: elaziouti_a@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Electronic Microscope and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO M. B), BP 1505 El M' naouar, 31000 Oran (Algeria); Nadjia, Laouedj, E-mail: nlaouedj@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry and Application, University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO M. B), BP 1505 El M' naouar, 31000 Oran (Algeria); Naceur, Benhadria, E-mail: nacer1974@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry and Application, University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO M. B), BP 1505 El M' naouar, 31000 Oran (Algeria); Noureddine, Bettahar, E-mail: nbettahar2001@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry and Application, University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO M. B), BP 1505 El M' naouar, 31000 Oran (Algeria)

    2016-09-15

    Cassiterite (tin oxide; SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (NPs), has been successfully synthesized via a sol-gel method. The obtained compounds are subsequently calcined at 80, 450 and 650 °C for 4 h and are assigned as SnO{sub 2}-80, SnO{sub 2}-450 NPs and SnO{sub 2}-650 NPs, respectively. All prepared samples were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-SM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS). The XRD results confirmed the aggregated cassiterite SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) with a size ranging from 13 to 23 nm. The absorption edge of the SnO{sub 2} NPs samples calcined at higher temperatures showed 25 nm (SnO{sub 2}-450 NPs) and 10 nm (SnO{sub 2}-650 NPs) red shifted compared with that of commercial SnO{sub 2}-com NPs sample. The photodegradation efficiency of SnO{sub 2} NPs was investigated using Congo red (CR) dye, as model organic pollutant. The effect of environmental factors (e.g., reaction time and calcination temperature) on the photocatalysis process of CR on SnO{sub 2} NPs was investigated in photocatalysis process under UVA light irradiation. We found that the SnO{sub 2}-650 NPs with 23 nm particle size and about 3.49 eV band gap was higher than that of the SnO{sub 2}-450 as well as the commercial SnO{sub 2}-com NPs. Pseudo-first-order kinetic model gave the best fit, with highest correlation coefficients (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.95). On the basis of the energy band diagram positions, the enhanced photodegradation efficiency SnO{sub 2} NPs catalyst could be proceeded via direct reactions with (O{sub 2}·{sup -} and ·OH), as active oxidative species involved in the photocatalysis process of CR dye under UVA-light irradiation. - Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} NPs photocatalysts were synthesized using a facile sol–gel route. • As-prepared SnO{sub 2} NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM and UV–vis-DRS techniques. • Noticeably UVA

  13. Raleio de cachos sobre o potencial enológico da uva 'Cabernet Franc' em duas safras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Marcon Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a maturação tecnológica e fenólica das uvas na variedade 'Cabernet Franc', submetida a diferentes níveis de raleio de cachos, de modo a estabelecer critérios que contribuam para definir o manejo mais apropriado para a obtenção de uvas destinadas à elaboração de vinhos finos, em regiões acima de 900m de altitude. Os ensaios foram conduzidos durante as safras 2009/10 e 2010/11 em um vinhedo comercial a 1,230m de altitude, localizado no município de São Joaquim, SC, coordenadas 28º 17' 39" S e 49º 55' 56" W. Foi utilizada a variedade 'Cabernet Franc', enxertada sobre 'Paulsen 1103', conduzida em espaldeira, com espaçamento de 3,0m x 1,2m e cobertura anti-granizo. Os níveis de raleio de cachos, ajustados na virada de cor "véraison", corresponderam à produção máxima, com reduções percentuais em sua produtividade em 25%, 50% e 75%. Observou-se que, em região de altitude, a prática de raleio de cachos modifica as características químicas da uva 'Cabernet Franc', aumentando o pH, reduzindo o teor de SS do mosto e polifenóis da casca. A realização do raleio de cachos, além de reduzir a produção por área, não teve um efeito compensatório na qualidade do mosto, além de não ter sido observado equilíbrio vegetativo/produtivo das plantas. A redução da carga através da prática do raleio de cachos não gerou os benefícios esperados para a cv 'Cabernet Franc', cultivada em região de altitude nas duas safras avaliadas.

  14. Herpes simplex virus-1 entrapped in Candida albicans biofilm displays decreased sensitivity to antivirals and UVA1 laser treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ascione

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, we published data suggesting a mutualistic relationship between HSV-1 and Candida. albicans; in particular: (a HSV-1 infected macrophages are inhibited in their anti-Candida effector function and (b Candida biofilm protects HSV-1 from inactivation. The present in vitro study is aimed at testing the effects of Candida biofilm on HSV-1 sensitivity to pharmacological and physical stress, such as antiviral drugs (acyclovir and foscarnet and laser UVA1 irradiation. We also investigated whether fungus growth pattern, either sessile or planktonic, influences HSV-1 sensitivity to antivirals. Methods Mature Candida biofilms were exposed to HSV-1 and then irradiated with laser light (UVA1, 355 λ. In another set of experiments, mature Candida biofilm were co-cultured with HSV-1 infected VERO cells in the presence of different concentrations of acyclovir or foscarnet. In both protocols, controls unexposed to laser or drugs were included. The viral yield of treated and untreated samples was evaluated by end-point titration. To evaluate whether this protective effect might occur in relation with a different growth pattern, HSV-1 infected cells were co-cultured with either sessile or planktonic forms of Candida and then assessed for susceptibility to antiviral drugs. Results UVA1 irradiation caused a 2 Log reduction of virus yield in the control cultures whereas the reduction was only 1 Log with Candida biofilm, regardless to the laser dose applied to the experimental samples (50 or 100 J/cm2. The presence of biofilm increased the IC90 from 18.4–25.6 J/cm2. Acyclovir caused a 2.3 Log reduction of virus yield in the control cultures whereas with Candida biofilm the reduction was only 0.5 Log; foscarnet determined a reduction of 1.4 Log in the controls and 0.2 Log in biofilm cultures. Consequently, the ICs50 for acyclovir and foscarnet increased by 4- and 12-folds, respectively, compared to controls. When HSV-1 was exposed to

  15. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes located above the tree line attenuate UV-A radiation more strongly than typical temperate alpine lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Ximena; Lazzaro, Xavier; Coronel, Jorge S

    2013-09-01

    Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are physically harsh ecosystems. Located above the treeline (≥4000 m a.s.l.), they share common features with temperate alpine lakes, which impose extreme conditions on their aquatic organisms: e.g., strong winds, broad diel variations in water temperature, and intense solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, because of their latitude, they differ in two major ecological characteristics: they lack ice cover during the winter and they do not present summer water column stratification. We sampled 26 tropical high-altitude Andean lakes from three regions of the Bolivian Eastern Andes Cordillera during the wet period (austral summer). We performed an ordination to better describe the typology of Andean lakes in relation to the environmental variables, and we assessed the relationships among them, focussing on the UV-A transparency (360 nm) throughout the water column. We found a positive correlation between UV-A transparency calculated as Z(1%) (the depth which reaches 1% of the surface UV-A), the lake maximum depth and Secchi transparency (r = 0.61). Z(1%) of UV-A was smaller in shallow lakes than in deep lakes, indicating that shallow lakes are less transparent to UV-A than deep lakes. We hypothesize that, compared to shallow lakes, deep lakes (maximum depth > 10 m) may have lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (that absorb UV radiation) due to lower temperature and reduced macrophyte cover. Based on our data, tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are less transparent to UV-A (K(d) range = 1.4-11.0 m(-1); Z(1%) depth range = 0.4-3.2 m) than typical temperate alpine lakes (1-6 m(-1), 3-45 m, respectively). Moreover, they differ in vertical profiles of UV-A, chlorophyll-a, and temperature, suggesting that they may have a distinct ecological functioning. Such peculiarities justify treating tropical high-altitude Andean lakes as a separate category of alpine lakes. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes have been poorly

  16. The effect of riboflavin/UVA collagen cross-linking therapy on the structure and hydrodynamic behaviour of the ungulate and rabbit corneal stroma.

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    Sally Hayes

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the effect of riboflavin/UVA corneal crosslinking on stromal ultrastructure and hydrodynamic behaviour. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen enucleated ungulate eyes (112 pig and 5 sheep and 3 pairs of rabbit eyes, with corneal epithelium removed, were divided into four treatment groups: Group 1 (28 pig, 2 sheep and 3 rabbits were untreated; Group 2 (24 pig were exposed to UVA light (3.04 mW/cm(2 for 30 minutes and Group 3 (29 pig and Group 4 (31 pig, 3 sheep and 3 rabbits had riboflavin eye drops applied to the corneal surface every 5 minutes for 35 minutes. Five minutes after the initial riboflavin instillation, the corneas in Group 4 experienced a 30 minute exposure to UVA light (3.04 mW/cm(2. X-ray scattering was used to obtain measurements of collagen interfibrillar spacing, spatial order, fibril diameter, D-periodicity and intermolecular spacing throughout the whole tissue thickness and as a function of tissue depth in the treated and untreated corneas. The effect of each treatment on the hydrodynamic behaviour of the cornea (its ability to swell in saline solution and its resistance to enzymatic digestion were assessed using in vitro laboratory techniques. RESULTS: Corneal thickness decreased significantly following riboflavin application (p<0.01 and also to a lesser extent after UVA exposure (p<0.05. With the exception of the spatial order factor, which was higher in Group 4 than Group 1 (p<0.01, all other measured collagen parameters were unaltered by cross-linking, even within the most anterior 300 microns of the cornea. The cross-linking treatment had no effect on the hydrodynamic behaviour of the cornea but did cause a significant increase in its resistance to enzymatic digestion. CONCLUSIONS: It seems likely that cross-links formed during riboflavin/UVA therapy occur predominantly at the collagen fibril surface and in the protein network surrounding the collagen.

  17. Preferencias y disposición a pagar por uva de mesa orgánica en la región del Maule, Chile

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    Arcadio Alberto Cerda Urrutia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar las preferencias y disposición a pagar por consumo de uva de mesa orgánica. Específicamente, se buscó determinar la utilidad y jerarquizar los atributos más importantes que consideran los individuos al momento de la elección de uva de mesa y determinar la disposición a pagar por uva de mesa orgánica en la Región del Maule, Chile. Se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra probabilística y estratificada por niveles socioeconómico en los hogares en los principales centros urbanos de la región. Se utilizó el método de análisis conjunto a fin de determinar las preferencias de los individuos por los distintos atributos y el método de valoración contingente para determinar el monto medio de sobreprecio que una persona está dispuesta a pagar por un kilo de uva orgánica. Igualmente se calculó la disposición a pagar marginal vía el método de análisis conjunto. Se determinó que el atributo más importante a la hora de adquirir este bien es el precio, mientras que la mezcla de atributos que más tiene utilidad por orden de importancia es el sabor dulce, de producción orgánica, que no posea semillas y de piel delgada.Además, se estimó que las personas están dispuestas a pagar un sobreprecio por la uva de mesa orgánica, abriendo nuevas oportunidades de negocios para el sector frutícola.

  18. Derivation and validation of a universal vital assessment (UVA) score: a tool for predicting mortality in adult hospitalised patients in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher C; Hazard, Riley; Saulters, Kacie J; Ainsworth, John; Adakun, Susan A; Amir, Abdallah; Andrews, Ben; Auma, Mary; Baker, Tim; Banura, Patrick; Crump, John A; Grobusch, Martin P; Huson, Michaëla A M; Jacob, Shevin T; Jarrett, Olamide D; Kellett, John; Lakhi, Shabir; Majwala, Albert; Opio, Martin; Rubach, Matthew P; Rylance, Jamie; Michael Scheld, W; Schieffelin, John; Ssekitoleko, Richard; Wheeler, India; Barnes, Laura E

    2017-01-01

    Critical illness is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Identifying patients with the highest risk of death could help with resource allocation and clinical decision making. Accordingly, we derived and validated a universal vital assessment (UVA) score for use in SSA. We pooled data from hospital-based cohort studies conducted in six countries in SSA spanning the years 2009-2015. We derived and internally validated a UVA score using decision trees and linear regression and compared its performance with the modified early warning score (MEWS) and the quick sepsis-related organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score. Of 5573 patients included in the analysis, 2829 (50.8%) were female, the median (IQR) age was 36 (27-49) years, 2122 (38.1%) were HIV-infected and 996 (17.3%) died in-hospital. The UVA score included points for temperature, heart and respiratory rates, systolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation, Glasgow Coma Scale score and HIV serostatus, and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.77 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.79), which outperformed MEWS (AUC 0.70 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.71)) and qSOFA (AUC 0.69 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.72)). We identified predictors of in-hospital mortality irrespective of the underlying condition(s) in a large population of hospitalised patients in SSA and derived and internally validated a UVA score to assist clinicians in risk-stratifying patients for in-hospital mortality. The UVA score could help improve patient triage in resource-limited environments and serve as a standard for mortality risk in future studies.

  19. Retina damage after exposure to UVA radiation on the early developmental stages of the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis Reuss

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    Alaa El-Din H. Sayed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the retina on different developmental stages of Egyptian toad Bufo regularis. Our experiment started when tadpoles begin to feed. The adapted embryos are divided into 3 large tanks of 200 embryos each, collections of samples started from feeding age every three days. Both histological and histochemical results showed that the general architecture of the retina organ is correlated with the state of development. Therefore, it displayed different characteristic features depending on the investigated developmental stage starting from the larval stage (feeding began, stage 44 and ending with the post-metamorphic stage 66. Also, the present work aimed to study the chronic effects of UVA on the retina structure of B. regularis during development and metamorphosis for the first time.

  20. Solar disinfection of drinking water (SODIS): an investigation of the effect of UV-A dose on inactivation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Navntoft, Christian; Polo-López, M Inmaculada; Fernandez-Ibáñez, Pilar; McGuigan, Kevin G

    2009-05-01

    The effect of solar UV-A irradiance and solar UV-A dose on the inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 using solar disinfection (SODIS) was studied. E. coli K-12 was seeded in natural well-water contained in borosilicate glass tubes and exposed to sunlight at different irradiances and doses of solar UV radiation. In addition, E. coli K-12 was also inoculated into poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET) bottles and in a continuous flow system (10 L min(-1)) to determine the effect of an interrupted and uninterrupted solar dose on inactivation. Results showed that inactivation from approximately 10(6) CFU mL(-1) to below the detection level (4 CFU/mL) for E. coli K-12, is a function of the total uninterrupted dose delivered to the bacteria and that the minimum dose should be >108 kJ m(-2) for the conditions described (spectral range of 0.295-0.385 microm). For complete inactivation to below the limit of detection, this dose needs to be received regardless of the incident solar UV intensity and needs to be delivered in a continuous and uninterrupted manner. This is illustrated by a continuous flow system in which bacteria were not fully inactivated (residual viable concentration approximately 10(2) CFU/mL) even after 5 h of exposure to strong sunlight and a cumulative dose of >108 kJ m(-2). This has serious implications for attempts to scale-up solar disinfection through the use of re-circulatory continuous flow reactors.

  1. Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity Based on a Synergistic Combination of Sublethal Levels of Stresses Induced by UV-A Light and Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Erick F; Cossu, Andrea; Tikekar, Rohan V; Nitin, Nitin

    2017-06-01

    The reduction of microbial load in food and water systems is critical for their safety and shelf life. Conventionally, physical processes such as heat or light are used for the rapid inactivation of microbes, while natural compounds such as lactic acid may be used as preservatives after the initial physical process. This study demonstrates the enhanced and rapid inactivation of bacteria based on a synergistic combination of sublethal levels of stresses induced by UV-A light and two food-grade organic acids. A reduction of 4.7 ± 0.5 log CFU/ml in Escherichia coli O157:H7 was observed using a synergistic combination of UV-A light, gallic acid (GA), and lactic acid (LA), while the individual treatments and the combination of individual organic acids with UV-A light resulted in a reduction of less than 1 log CFU/ml. Enhanced inactivation of bacteria on the surfaces of lettuce and spinach leaves was also observed based on the synergistic combination. Mechanistic investigations suggested that the treatment with a synergistic combination of GA plus LA plus UV-A (GA+LA+UV-A) resulted in significant increases in membrane permeability and intracellular thiol oxidation and affected the metabolic machinery of E. coli In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the synergistic combination of GA+LA+UV-A was effective only against metabolically active E. coli O157:H7. In summary, this study illustrates the potential of simultaneously using a combination of sublethal concentrations of natural antimicrobials and a low level of physical stress in the form of UV-A light to inactivate bacteria in water and food systems.IMPORTANCE There is a critical unmet need to improve the microbial safety of the food supply, while retaining optimal nutritional and sensory properties of food. Furthermore, there is a need to develop novel technologies that can reduce the impact of food processing operations on energy and water resources. Conventionally, physical processes such as heat and light are

  2. Hepatoprotección antioxidante de la cáscara y semilla de Vitis vinifera L. (uva

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    Miguel Sandoval

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la capacidad hepatoprotectora antioxidante, inducida por las semillas y cáscaras de la uva Vitis vinifera L., en animales de experimentación con agresión alcohólica, mediante la prueba del TBARS (sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición Alberto Guzmán Barrón, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Ratones albinos, machos, adultos y cáscaras y semillas de Vitis vinifera L. (uva. Métodos: Las cáscaras y semillas de uva fueron del valle de Cañete; se las separó manualmente, se las exprimió en gasa y fueron desecadas con aire circulante, a 40º C, por 24 horas; luego, fueron trituradas, y la mezcla de cáscaras y semillas (cas-sem fue administrada ad libitum en la dieta. Se utilizó 104 ratones albinos machos adultos, separados en grupos, a los que se administró: (A cas-sem al 20%; (B alcohol al 5%; (C cas-sem con alcohol; (D silimarina 50 mg/100 g de alimento; (E silimarina con alcohol; y, (F grupo control. Bajo anestesia con éter y mediante laparotomía, se extrajo los hígados, fueron pesados y analizados por lipoperoxidación, mediante TBARS, y se evaluó la hepatomegalia, por peso a las 24, 48 y 72 horas, y a los 4, 5 y 7 días de tratamiento. Principales medidas de resultados: Lipoperoxidación hepática y hepatomegalia. Resultados: La hepatomegalia se presentó desde las 24 horas (36,68% de incremento de masa hepática, en el grupo alcohol, y fue menor en el grupo cas-sem. La prueba TBARS fue mayor en el grupo alcohol (63,91 a 67,07 nmol/g-tejido y fue menor en el grupo cas-sem (40,85 a 47,46 nmol/g-tejido; en el grupo cas-sem con alcohol, fue 43 a 63 nmol/g-tejido y la protección se observó hasta el quinto día (44 nmol/g-tejido. Conclusiones: El cas-sem administrado en la dieta, al 20% en peso, protege al tejido hepático, hasta el quinto d

  3. Análise comparativa do efeito redutor de colesterol do extrato de semente e casca de uva em ratos Wistar

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    Tharcia Kiara Beserra de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Os flavonóides são compostos fenólicos presentes na maioria das plantas. Têm um importante papel na prevenção e tratamento da aterosclerose, pois, atuam como agentes antiaterogênicos e hipocolesterolêmicos. Objetivou-se nessa pesquisa estudar o efeito redutor de colesterol do extrato de semente e de casca de uva (Vitis vinifera em ratos Wistar submetidos a uma dieta hipercalórica (ração acrescida de 10% de óleo vegetal no período de 20 semanas, a partir da 4ª semana de vida. A amostra, composta por 30 espécimes e distribuída entre o Grupo Controle - A (com apenas dieta hipercalórica, n=10 o Grupo Experimental Casca de Uva - B (dieta hipercalórica + extrato de casca de uva, n=10 e Grupo Experimental Semente de Uva – C (dieta hipercalórica + de extrato de semente de uva, n=10. Os resultados mostraram em média, uma redução dos níveis séricos de colesterol total de 14% e de 17,65% em relação ao grupo controle, respectivamente para os animais com dieta a base de casca e de semente de uva. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na redução dos valores de colesterol entre os animais dos dois grupos, não sendo possível assim determinar qual componente da uva representa a melhor alternativa na prevenção e controle da hipercolesterolemia.Comparative analysis of reducing seed extract of cholesterol and effect bark uva in rats WistarAbstract: Flavonoids are phenolic compounds present in most plants. They play an important role in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, as hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic act as agents. This research aimed to study and compare the cholesterol-lowering effect of seed extract and grape skin (Vitis vinifera in rats subjected to a high calorie diet (increased ration of 10% vegetable oil in the 20-week period, from the 4th week of life. The sample consisted of 30 specimens and distributed between the Control - A (with only high calorie diet, n = 10 Experimental Group

  4. Prevention of UVA-induced oxidative damage in human dermal fibroblasts by new UV filters, assessed using a novel in vitro experimental system.

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    Francesca Brugè

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: UVA rays present in sunlight are able to reach the dermal skin layer generating reactive oxygen species (ROS responsible for oxidative damage, alterations in gene expression, DNA damage, leading to cell inflammation, photo-ageing/-carcinogenesis. Sunscreens contain UV filters as active ingredients that absorb/reflect/dissipate UV radiation: their efficiency depends on their spectral profile and photostability which should then be reflected in biological protection of underlying skin. METHODS: A set of new UV filters was synthesized, and the most photostable one was compared to BMDBM, a widely used UVA filter. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to UVA radiation which was filtered by a base cream containing or not UV filters placed above cell culture wells. The endpoints measured were: cell viability (MTT assay, ROS generation (DCFH-DA assay, mitochondrial function (JC-1 assay, DNA integrity (Comet assay and gene expression (MMP-1, COL1A1 by RT-qPCR. RESULTS: The new UV filter resulted more efficient than BMDBM in preserving cell viability, mitochondrial functionality and oxidative DNA damage, despite similar inhibition levels of intracellular ROS. Moreover, expression of genes involved in dermal photoageing were positively affected by the filtering action of the tested molecules. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental model proposed was able to validate the efficacy of the new UV filter, taking into account important cellular events related to UV-induced intracellular oxidative stress, often underestimated in the assessments of these compounds. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: The model may be used to compare the actual biological protection of commercial sunscreens and suncare products aside from their SPF and UVA-PF values.

  5. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

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    Ole Rechner

    Full Text Available Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm, violet (420 nm, blue (470 nm, or green (515 nm. We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates, and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants over control plants.

  6. An Innovative Therapeutic Protocol for Vitiligo: Experience with the Use of Fraxel Herbium Laser, Topical Latanoprost and Successive Irradiation with UVA - 1 Laser

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    Torello Lotti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the continuous introduction of innovative therapies for vitiligo, today none of them provide constant and excellent results in term of repigmentation. The authors report their experience in treating a localised form of vitiligo with a new protocol consisting in the use of a Fraxel Herbium laser, and in the following application of topical Latanoprost solution and, one day after, in lesional irradiation with UVA1 laser.

  7. Efeito da safra vitícola na composição da uva, do mosto e do vinho Isabel da Serra Gaúcha, Brasil

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    Rizzon Luiz Antenor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre os fatores que interferem na composição e na qualidade do vinho, destaca-se a safra vitícola, com suas variações climáticas. Com este objetivo, avaliou-se o efeito das safras de 1999, 2000 e 2001 na composição da uva, do mosto e do vinho Isabel da Serra Gaúcha. Nesse sentido, foram selecionados vinte e dois produtores de uva Isabel de onze municípios dessa região. Por ocasião da maturação, para as avaliações da uva e do mosto e a elaboração das microvinificações, foram colhidos 60kg de uva de cada viticultor. A safra vitícola interferiu significativamente no peso do cacho e da baga, mas não alterou a relação peso da ráquis/peso do cacho. No mosto, observaram-se diferenças em todas as variáveis, exceto para a relação degreesBrix/acidez total. No vinho, teve efeito na maior parte das variáveis avaliadas, com exceção aos cátions K, Mn, Cu e Rb. Em geral, a safra de 1999 foi a melhor, pois apresentou parâmetros mais adequados de acidez total, extrato seco, extrato seco reduzido, alcalinidade das cinzas, taninos, antocianinas e glicerol, variáveis essas que determinam a estrutura e a cor dos vinhos, importantes fatores para sua qualidade.

  8. The Effect of Riboflavin/UVA Collagen Cross-linking Therapy on the Structure and Hydrodynamic Behaviour of the Ungulate and Rabbit Corneal Stroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sally; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Boote, Craig; Young, Robert D.; Quantock, Andrew J.; Rost, Anika; Khatib, Yasmeen; Harris, Jonathan; Yagi, Naoto; Terrill, Nicholas; Meek, Keith M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of riboflavin/UVA corneal crosslinking on stromal ultrastructure and hydrodynamic behaviour. Methods One hundred and seventeen enucleated ungulate eyes (112 pig and 5 sheep) and 3 pairs of rabbit eyes, with corneal epithelium removed, were divided into four treatment groups: Group 1 (28 pig, 2 sheep and 3 rabbits) were untreated; Group 2 (24 pig) were exposed to UVA light (3.04 mW/cm2) for 30 minutes and Group 3 (29 pig) and Group 4 (31 pig, 3 sheep and 3 rabbits) had riboflavin eye drops applied to the corneal surface every 5 minutes for 35 minutes. Five minutes after the initial riboflavin instillation, the corneas in Group 4 experienced a 30 minute exposure to UVA light (3.04 mW/cm2). X-ray scattering was used to obtain measurements of collagen interfibrillar spacing, spatial order, fibril diameter, D-periodicity and intermolecular spacing throughout the whole tissue thickness and as a function of tissue depth in the treated and untreated corneas. The effect of each treatment on the hydrodynamic behaviour of the cornea (its ability to swell in saline solution) and its resistance to enzymatic digestion were assessed using in vitro laboratory techniques. Results Corneal thickness decreased significantly following riboflavin application (pcollagen parameters were unaltered by cross-linking, even within the most anterior 300 microns of the cornea. The cross-linking treatment had no effect on the hydrodynamic behaviour of the cornea but did cause a significant increase in its resistance to enzymatic digestion. Conclusions It seems likely that cross-links formed during riboflavin/UVA therapy occur predominantly at the collagen fibril surface and in the protein network surrounding the collagen. PMID:23349690

  9. Otimização da desidratação osmótica de uva Crimson Seedless

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    Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

    Full Text Available A uva Crimson Seedless (Vitis vinifera L. é uma das mais importantes variedades sem sementes, devido ao seu atraente cacho médio, e grandes bagas rosadas escuras. Apresenta característica sensorial excelente devido à sua textura firme e crocante, sabor que varia do doce ao neutro, e coloração uniforme. A desidratação osmótica apresenta-se como boa alternativa para reduzir a atividade de água desta uva, permitindo o seu armazenamento por períodos longos, melhorando a sua estabilidade e qualidade. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo relacionar as influências de diferentes parâmetros para um eficiente processo de desidratação osmótica deste fruto, com a finalidade de reduzir as perdas pós-colheita e oferecer novas alternativas para o produtor. Para otimizar a desidratação osmótica foi realizado um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: temperatura (30 a 50 ºC, tempo (1 a 4 horas e concentração (40 a 50 ºBrix, sendo constante o branqueamento (30 segundos e perfurações (8 perfurações cm-2; as variáveis dependentes foram PU (Perda de Umidade, IS (Incorporação de Sólidos e IED (Índice de Eficiência de Desidratação. As melhores condições para a desidratação osmótica utilizando o IED como parâmetro foi a aplicação de branqueamento, solução osmótica com 42 ºBrix, tempo de imersão de 1,6 horas e temperatura de 46 ºC. Os modelos de superfície de resposta obtidos foram preditivos para PU e IS, exceto para o IED. O produto selecionado ajustou melhor a equação de Page (R² = 0,995.

  10. New insight into the disinfection mechanism of Fusarium monoliforme and Aspergillus niger by TiO2 photocatalyst under low intensity UVA light.

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    Pokhum, Chonlada; Viboonratanasri, Duangamon; Chawengkijwanich, Chamorn

    2017-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalytic reaction has great potential for the disinfection of harmful pathogens. However, the disinfection mechanisms of TiO2 photocatalysis are not yet well-known for fungi and protozoa. In this work, the photocatalytic disinfection mechanism of Fusarium monoliforme and Aspergillus niger under low intensity UVA light (365nm, niger was more sensitive to UVA-light. Serious destructions of cell membrane and cellular organelles were shown in A. niger exposed to UVA-light only and photocatalytic treatments. However, morphological change in A. niger cell wall was only observed in photocatalytic treatment. Changes to the outermost melanin like layer and cell wall of A. niger spore due to photocatalytic treatment were greatly apparent while the intracellular organelles of A. niger spore were not affected. Therefore, regrowth of A. niger on agar plate was expected from the germination of A. niger spore in the subsequent dark. These observations give a better understanding of the photocatalytic disinfection mechanism toward fungi. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sistema geovitícola para a produção de uvas para vinho na região do Circuito das Frutas-SP

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    Ludmila Bardin-Camparotto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, tem-se observado aumento na produção de uvas destinadas à elaboração de vinhos na região do Circuito das Frutas, Estado de São Paulo, promovido principalmente pelo turismo rural. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o potencial climático dessa região para produção de uvas para vinho, utilizando o Sistema de Classificação Climática Multicritérios Geovitícola, baseado nos índices biometeorológicos: heliotérmico, de frio noturno e de seca, considerando as safras de verão e de inverno. Para a safra de verão, foram identificadas áreas com clima quente, úmidas e com noites quentes, situadas na região oeste do Circuito das Frutas; na região centro-leste, as noites foram caracterizadas como temperadas e, nas áreas de altitudes mais elevadas, o clima encontrado foi o temperado quente, sem período seco e com noites temperadas. Para a safra de inverno, os valores de umidade mantiveram-se elevados, com as classes climáticas variando entre quente, temperado quente e temperado, com noites muito frias. O Circuito das Frutas apresentou características que podem favorecer a obtenção de uvas para vinhos brancos e espumantes.

  12. Solar ultraviolet radiation induces biological alterations in human skin in vitro: Relevance of a well-balanced UVA/UVB protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bernerd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous damages such as sunburn, pigmentation, and photoaging are known to be induced by acute as well as repetitive sun exposure. Not only for basic research, but also for the design of the most efficient photoprotection, it is crucial to understand and identify the early biological events occurring after ultraviolet (UV exposure. Reconstructed human skin models provide excellent and reliable in vitro tools to study the UV-induced alterations of the different skin cell types, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using different in vitro human skin models, the effects of UV light (UVB and UVA were investigated. UVB-induced damages are essentially epidermal, with the typical sunburn cells and DNA lesions, whereas UVA radiation-induced damages are mostly located within the dermal compartment. Pigmentation can also be obtained after solar simulated radiation exposure of pigmented reconstructed skin model. Those models are also highly adequate to assess the potential of sunscreens to protect the skin from UV-associated damage, sunburn reaction, photoaging, and pigmentation. The results showed that an effective photoprotection is provided by broad-spectrum sunscreens with a potent absorption in both UVB and UVA ranges.

  13. Identification of influential events concerning the Antarctic ozone hole over southern Brazil and the biological effects induced by UVB and UVA radiation in an endemic treefrog species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaglia Schuch, André; Dos Santos, Mauricio Beux; Mendes Lipinski, Victor; Vaz Peres, Lucas; Dos Santos, Caroline Peripolli; Zanini Cechin, Sonia; Jorge Schuch, Nelson; Kirsh Pinheiro, Damaris; da Silva Loreto, Elgion Lúcio

    2015-08-01

    The increased incidence of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) due to ozone depletion has been affecting both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and it may help to explain the enigmatic decline of amphibian populations in specific localities. In this work, influential events concerning the Antarctic ozone hole were identified in a dataset containing 35 years of ozone measurements over southern Brazil. The effects of environmental doses of UVB and UVA radiation were addressed on the morphology and development of Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpole (Anura: Hylidae), as well as on the induction of malformation after the conclusion of metamorphosis. These analyzes were complemented by the detection of micronucleus formation in blood cells. 72 ozone depletion events were identified from 1979 to 2013. Surprisingly, their yearly frequency increased three-fold during the last 17 years. The results clearly show that H. pulchellus tadpole are much more sensitive to UVB than UVA light, which reduces their survival and developmental rates. Additionally, the rates of micronucleus formation by UVB were considerably higher compared to UVA even after the activation of photolyases enzymes by a further photoreactivation treatment. Consequently, a higher occurrence of malformation was observed in UVB-irradiated individuals. These results demonstrate the severe genotoxic impact of UVB radiation on this treefrog species and its importance for further studies aimed to assess the impact of the increased levels of solar UVB radiation on declining species of the Hylidae family. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Action of UV-A and blue light on enzymes activity and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in attached and detached frog retinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapina, Victoria A.; Doutsov, Alexander E.

    1994-07-01

    The effect of the UV-A and blue light on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and activities of succinate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase in the retina was examined in eye cup model of dark and light adapted frogs R. temporaria. Retinas were exposed to UV-A radiation (8 mW/cm2) and blue light (10 to 150 mW/cm2) for periods from 5 min to 1 hr. We have measured TBA-active products both in the retina homogenates and in the reaction media. Enzyme activities was measured in the retina homogenates only. The measurements revealed a significant increase in the endogenous and exogenous forms of lipid peroxidation products in the retina of dark adapted frog (1.6+/- 0.4; 1.4+/- 0.3 nmole TBA-active products per mg protein, respectively) compared to light adapted (0.85+/- 0.16; 0.32+/- 0.06 nmole TBA-active products per mg protein, respectively). In the same conditions succinate dehydrogenase activity was decline more than 50% but superoxide dismutase activity didn't decrease. Disorganized inner and outer segments were observed after 40 min exposures. No light microscopic changes were detected after 5 min exposures. Light damage was significantly higher in the retina of dark adapted frog. The results indicate that the retina from eye cup of dark adapted frog is more susceptible to UV-A and blue light damages.

  15. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from January 1, 1992 to June 30, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  16. Coilin is rapidly recruited to UVA-induced DNA lesions and γ-radiation affects localized movement of Cajal bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, Eva; Foltánková, Veronika; Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Suchánková, Jana; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Cajal bodies are important nuclear structures containing proteins that preferentially regulate RNA-related metabolism. We investigated the cell-type specific nuclear distribution of Cajal bodies and the level of coilin, a protein of Cajal bodies, in non-irradiated and irradiated human tumor cell lines and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Cajal bodies were localized in different nuclear compartments, including DAPI-poor regions, in the proximity of chromocenters, and adjacent to nucleoli. The number of Cajal bodies per nucleus was cell cycle-dependent, with higher numbers occurring during G2 phase. Human ES cells contained a high coilin level in the nucleoplasm, but coilin-positive Cajal bodies were also identified in nuclei of mouse and human ES cells. Coilin, but not SMN, recognized UVA-induced DNA lesions, which was cell cycle-independent. Treatment with γ-radiation reduced the localized movement of Cajal bodies in many cell types and GFP-coilin fluorescence recovery after photobleaching was very fast in nucleoplasm in comparison with GFP-coilin recovery in DNA lesions. By contrast, nucleolus-localized coilin displayed very slow fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, which indicates very slow rates of protein diffusion, especially in nucleoli of mouse ES cells.

  17. Rutin as a Mediator of Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Signaling Pathways Interactions in Fibroblasts Altered by UVA and UVB Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gęgotek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rutin is a natural nutraceutical that is a promising compound for the prevention of UV-induced metabolic changes in skin cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of rutin on redox and endocannabinoid systems, as well as proinflammatory and proapoptotic processes, in UV-irradiated fibroblasts. Methods. Fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB radiation were treated with rutin. The activities and levels of oxidants/antioxidants and endocannabinoid system components, as well as lipid, DNA, and protein oxidation products, and the proinflammatory and pro/antiapoptotic proteins expression were measured. Results. Rutin reduced UV-induced proinflammatory response and ROS generation and enhanced the activity/levels of antioxidants (SOD, GSH-Px, vitamin E, GSH, and Trx. Rutin also normalized UV-induced Nrf2 expression. Its biological activity prevented changes in the levels of the lipid mediators: MDA, 4-HNE, and endocannabinoids, as well as the endocannabinoid receptors CB1/2, VR1, and GPR55 expression. Furthermore, rutin prevented the protein modifications (tyrosine derivatives formation in particular and decreased the levels of the proapoptotic markers—caspase-3 and cytochrome c. Conclusion. Rutin prevents UV-induced inflammation and redox imbalance at protein and transcriptional level which favors lipid, protein, and DNA protection. In consequence rutin regulates endocannabinoid system and apoptotic balance.

  18. Establishing Corneal Cross-Linking With Riboflavin and UV-A in the Mouse Cornea In Vivo: Biomechanical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Arthur; Kling, Sabine; Boldi, Marc-Olivier; Richoz, Olivier; Tabibian, David; Randleman, J Bradley; Hafezi, Farhad

    2015-10-01

    To establish corneal cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin and UV-A in in the mouse cornea in vivo and to develop tools to measure the biomechanical changes observed. A total of 55 male C57BL/6 wild-type mice (aged 5 weeks) were divided into 14 groups. Standard CXL parameters were adapted to the anatomy of the mouse cornea, and riboflavin concentration (0.1%-0.5%) and fluence series (0.09-5.4 J/cm²) were performed on the assumption of the endothelial damage thresholds. Untreated and riboflavin only corneas were used as controls. Animals were killed at 30 minutes and at 1 month after CXL. Corneas were harvested. Two-dimensional (2D) biomechanical testing was performed using a customized corneal holder in a commercially available stress-strain extensometer/indenter. Both elastic and viscoelastic analyses were performed. Statistical inference was performed using t-tests and specific mathematical models fitted to the experimental stress-strain and stress-relaxation data. Adjusted P values by the method of Benjamini and Hochberg are reported. For all CXL treatment groups, stress-relaxation showed significant differences (P biomechanical effect successfully measured. This could create opportunities to study molecular pathways of CXL in transgenic mice.

  19. Corneal Biomechanical Response Following Collagen Cross-Linking With Rose Bengal-Green Light and Riboflavin-UVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekesi, Nandor; Kochevar, Irene E; Marcos, Susana

    2016-03-01

    To compare the biomechanical corneal response of two different corneal cross-linking (CXL) treatments, rose bengal-green light (RGX) and riboflavin-UVA (UVX), using noninvasive imaging. A total of 12 enucleated rabbit eyes were treated with RGX and 12 with UVX. Corneal dynamic deformation to an air puff was measured by high speed Scheimpflug imaging (Corvis ST) before and after treatment. The spatial and temporal deformation profiles were evaluated at constant intraocular pressure of 15 mm Hg, and several deformation parameters were estimated. The deformation profiles were modeled numerically using finite element analysis, and the hyperelastic corneal material parameters were obtained by inverse modeling technique. The corneal deformation amplitude decreased significantly after both CXL methods. The material parameters obtained from inverse modeling were consistent with corneal stiffening after both RGX and UVX. Within the treated corneal volume, we found that the elasticity decreased by a factor of 11 after RGX and by a factor of 6.25 after UVX. The deformation of UVX-treated corneas was smaller than the RGX-treated corneas. However, the reconstructed corneal mechanical parameters reveal that RGX produced in fact larger stiffening of the treated region (100-μm depth) than UVX (137-μm depth). Rose bengal-green light stiffens the cornea effectively, with shorter treatment times and shallower treated areas. Dynamic air puff deformation imaging coupled with mechanical simulations is a useful tool to characterize corneal biomechanical properties, assess different treatments, and possibly help optimize the treatment protocols.

  20. Antibacterial activity of the marine sponge Ircinia Campana collected at Punta Uva Limón against Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rojas Brenes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sponges are simple multicellularorganisms; they inhabit in marine environments from the polar seas to the tropical waterswhere they are more abundant. These species are exposed to large populations of microbes, reason that explains their complex morphological and cellular defense mechanism, which are used by these organisms to fight against pathogens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the marine sponge Ircinia campana, whichinhabits in the south of the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica against  Sthapylococcus aureus gram-positive bacteria. Sampleswere collected in Punta Uva in Limónduring July of 2007. The active compounds were obtainedby extraction with acetone (crude extract; and subsequently, chromatographic extracts were obtained using fractions 1:4 hexane: ethyl acetate. The antibacterial activities of the different fractions, including the  crude extract were tested.Our results suggest a zone of inhibition of 14.60 ±0.25 mm for the crude extract and18.70±0.25mm for the most active fraction separated by chromatography. The metabolite responsible for the antibacterial activity was isolated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLCand preliminarily characterized through ultraviolet (UV and infrared (IR spectroscopy.

  1. Comparative Study of the Leaf Volatiles of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L. Spreng. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (Ericaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosav Palić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The first GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils hydrodistilled from dry leaves of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea enabled the identification of 338 components in total (90.4 and 91.7% of the total GC peak areas, respectively. Terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid- and carotenoid derived compounds were predominant in the two samples. Both oils were characterized by high relative percentages of α-terpineol and linalool (4.7-17.0%. Compositional data on the volatiles of the presently analyzed and some other Ericaceae taxa (literature data were mutually compared by means of multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. This was done in order to determine, based on the essential oil profiles, possible mutual relationships of the taxa within the family, especially that of species from the genera Arctostaphylos and Vaccinium. Results of the chemical and statistical analyses pointed to a strong relation between the genera Vaccinium and Arctostaphylos.

  2. Teores de antocianinas, fenóis totais, taninos e ácido ascórbico em uva 'bordô' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos

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    Maria Suzana Vial Pozzan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o conteúdo de antocianinas, fenóis totais, taninos e ácido ascórbico, em variedade de uva 'Bordô', cultivada sobre os porta-enxertos '420A', 'IAC-766' e 'Ripária-do-Traviú', em três períodos de colheita distintos. O experimento foi realizado em vinhedo de uva 'Bordô', no município de Missal, no Oeste do Paraná, na safra 2007/2008. O efeito dos porta-enxertos foi avaliado em três períodos de colheita, a partir da época de floração: 90 dias, com bagas em amadurecimento, tendendo ao roxo definitivo; 100 dias, com bagas totalmente roxas; e 110 dias, com bagas em sobrematuração. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. As variáveis analisadas foram sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, índice de fenóis totais, antocianinas, taninos e teor de ácido ascórbico. Os resultados mostraram que, nos porta-enxertos '420A' e 'IAC-766', a uva 'Bordô' apresentou respostas similares em acúmulos de antocianinas, taninos, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis, mas os acúmulos de fenóis totais, tanto na polpa, quanto na epiderme das bagas, foram maiores no '420A'. Ocorreram menores acúmulos de antocianinas, fenóis totais e taninos da epiderme da uva 'Bordô', quando enxertada em 'Ripária-do-Traviú'. Acúmulos superiores de ácido ascórbico foram verificados nas uvas enxertadas em 'IAC-766'. Há evidências que apontam o porta-enxerto 'Ripária-do-Traviú' como inferior aos demais, nos aspectos nutricional e enológico.

  3. Composição do suco de uva caseiro de diferentes cultivares Composition of homemade grape juice from different varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Um volume considerável de uva do grupo das americanas da Serra Gaúcha é destinado para a produção de suco de uva caseiro. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das cultivares Isabel, Bordô (Ives e Concord de Vitis labrusca e Cabernet Sauvignon de Vitis vinifera, na composição do suco de uva, elaborado na Embrapa Uva e Vinho na safra de 2003. Os sucos foram avaliados quanto às análises clássicas: densidade, °Brix, acidez total, acidez volátil, pH e relação °Brix/acidez total, efetuadas através de métodos físico-químicos. Os compostos voláteis etanol, metanol e aldeído acético foram determinados através da cromatografia gasosa. Os elementos minerais Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu e Zn foram analisados por absorção atômica, enquanto que o K, Na e Rb, por emissão de chama. O P foi determinado por colorimetria. Os resultados evidenciaram variabilidade entre os sucos das diferentes cultivares. O suco de Cabernet Sauvignon diferenciou-se dos demais pelos menores teores de metanol e etanol e pelos maiores de acidez volátil e Fe. Os sucos da uva Bordô e Concord apresentaram menor teor de acidez total e de Mn.A great amount of American grapes is employed to produce homemade juice in the Serra Gaúcha Region. The purpose of this work was to evaluated the effects of Vitis labrusca cultivars (Isabel, Bordô (Ives, Concord and a Vitis vinifera cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon, in the juice composition. The juice was prepared at Embrapa in Bento Gonçalves, RS, in the 2003 vintage. The juices had been evaluated as classic analysis: density, °Brix, total and volatile acidity, pH, °Brix total acidity ratio, made by the physical-chemical methods. The volatile components ethanol, methanol and acetaldehyde were determined by gas chromatography. The mineral elements Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn had been analysed by atomic absorption when the K, Na and Rb by flame emission. The results showed variability among juices from different grape

  4. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of microcystin-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light using nanostructured nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triantis, T.M.; Fotiou, T. [Laboratory of Catalytic - Photocatalytic Processes (Solar Energy - Environment), Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Neapoleos 25, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Kaloudis, T. [Organic Micropollutants Laboratory, Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP SA), WTP Aharnon, Menidi (Greece); Kontos, A.G.; Falaras, P. [Laboratory of Photo-redox Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy, Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Neapoleos 25, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Dionysiou, D.D.; Pelaez, M. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Hiskia, A., E-mail: hiskia@chem.demokritos.gr [Laboratory of Catalytic - Photocatalytic Processes (Solar Energy - Environment), Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Neapoleos 25, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-TiO{sub 2} exhibited effective degradation of MC-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under UV-A and solar light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic nitrogen is mainly released as ammonium and nitrate ions. - Abstract: In an attempt to face serious environmental hazards, the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most common and more toxic water soluble cyanotoxin compounds released by cyanobacteria blooms, was investigated using nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} (N-TiO{sub 2}) photocatalyst, under UV-A, solar and visible light. Commercial Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2}, Kronos and reference TiO{sub 2} nanopowders were used for comparison. It was found that under UV-A irradiation, all photocatalysts were effective in toxin elimination. The higher MC-LR degradation (99%) was observed with Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} followed by N-TiO{sub 2} with 96% toxin destruction after 20 min of illumination. Under solar light illumination, N-TiO{sub 2} nanocatalyst exhibits similar photocatalytic activity with that of commercially available materials such as Degussa P25 and Kronos TiO{sub 2} for the destruction of MC-LR. Upon irradiation with visible light Degussa P25 practically did not show any response, while the N-TiO{sub 2} displayed remarkable photocatalytic efficiency. In addition, it has been shown that photodegradation products did not present any significant protein phosphatase inhibition activity, proving that toxicity is proportional only to the remaining MC-LR in solution. Finally, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic ions (NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}) determinations confirmed that complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under both UV-A and solar light.

  5. Atmosfera modificada na conservação da qualidade de uva 'Thompson Seedless' e na redução da podridão de Aspergillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Brito Camargo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma demanda, na região semiárida produtora de uvas no Submédio São Francisco, por medidas sustentáveis de controle de doenças pós-colheita, uma vez que o modelo atual de revestimento de caixas com polietileno de alta densidade, associado ao metabissulfito de sódio, não tem se mostrado eficiente no controle dos fungos que ocorrem na região. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar um controle da podridão por Aspergillus em uvas 'Thompson Seedless' por meio da modificação da atmosfera, pelo envolvimento de caixas de uva em bolsões de poliamida. Comparou-se o bolsão de poliamida (PA ao de polietileno alta densidade (PEAD, comumente usado na região, combinados ou não com o metabissulfito de sódio (SO2. Frutos provenientes de propriedade comercial, após serem selecionados e desinfestados foram feridos com alfinete entomológico e inoculados com uma suspensão de Aspergillus niger na concentração de 10(6 conídios.mL-¹ e submetidos à câmara úmida por 24 horas. Em seguida as caixas de uva foram colocadas em bolsões específicos de acordo com o tratamento e armazenadas em câmara fria à temperatura de 2 ºC e umidade relativa de 75%, durante 40 dias. A partir do 12º dia de armazenagem foram feitas avaliações semanais da incidência da doença e de variáveis físico-químicas: perda de massa, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, pH, acidez titulável (AT, ratio (SST/AT; peroxidase (POD e medição das concentrações de CO2 e O2 até o 40º dia. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas com cinco repetições. O revestimento de caixas de uva em bolsões de poliamida, mesmo sem o uso de metabissulfito de sódio, apresenta-se como uma alternativa viável na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de uva "Thompson Seddless", bem como na redução de podridão causada por A. Niger. A enzima peroxidase pode ter atuado no processo de manutenção de qualidade da fruta, contribuindo

  6. Intoxicação experimental pelos frutos de uva-Japão, Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae, em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita C. Cardoso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hovenia dulcis Thunberg (uva-Japão é uma árvore caducifolia nativa da China e de alguns lugares do Japão. Nos últimos anos essa planta foi utilizada como forma de sombreamento para aviários no Oeste e Meio-Oeste de Santa Catarina e passou a disseminar-se por toda a região. Os bovinos comem avidamente seus frutos maduros quando caem ao chão. Suspeitas de intoxicação ocorreram no outono e início de inverno e coincidiam com a maturação dos frutos. A doença foi reproduzida em 2004 por outros autores através da administração dos frutos a bovinos, em dose única de 24,5g/kg. Nos anos subsequentes não ocorreram reclamações sobre a intoxicação pelos frutos dessa planta, embora, muitos criadores afirmavam que os bovinos, na temporada de maturação, continuavam a ingerir os frutos. Experimentalmente, nove bovinos que receberam frutos da planta em doses únicas entre 30 e 50g/kg, apenas dois bovinos adoeceram gravemente e um morreu. O quadro clínico e as lesões foram semelhantes à intoxicação reproduzida em 2004; porém, a dose necessária para reproduzirmos a doença foi 100% superior à dose tóxica preconizada como letal em 2004.

  7. UVA, VINHO E ANARQUISMO: perspectivas e possibilidades para o enoturismo na região de Palmeira - PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilena Margraf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available O enoturismo tem se destacado nos últimos anos como modalidade turística. A união do vinho com o turismo faz parte de uma atividade que vem se desenvolvendo rapidamente e que atrai apaixonados pela bebida e curiosos. Assim surgiu o interesse de analisar as propriedades vínicas de Palmeira – Paraná, suas características e possibilidades. Foi desenvolvido um estudo de caso com base em pesquisa bibliográ ca, entrevistas, observação e análise documental com vistas a investigar perspectivas e possibilidades com relação ao desenvolvimento do enoturismo em Palmeira-PR. Foram realizadas doze entrevistas: dez com os produtores de vinho durante visita às suas propriedades; uma com a presidente da Associação de Turismo do município; uma com descendente do primeiro produtor de vinho. Os resultados apontam que as propriedades ainda estão em preparo para receber turistas principalmente com relação à infraestrutura. Contudo, uma rota enoturística já está entre as prioridades da associação. Ademais, Palmeira pode se valer do diferencial de possuir a única experiência anarquista da América Latina, a Colônia Cecília, onde os italianos produziam uvas e vinho. Palavras-chave: Enoturismo; Palmeira - PR; Colônia Cecília; Anarquismo.

  8. Colour Changes on the Surface of the Rock Materials Due to UV-A and UV-B Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binal, Adil; Ayderman, Aykut; Sel, Aylin

    2015-04-01

    The colour of the rocks used in the current buildings, and historical monuments is an important parameter in architecture and engineering. In addition, engineering geologists use the colour in order to identify the weathering class of rock material. The main colour of the stone, especially, are affected by the mineral size, the colour of the primary minerals and matrix material, as well as the colour of the accessory minerals. Due to atmospheric effects, changes in the outer surface colour of the rocks used as siding materials occur with over time. Factors causing the colour change are carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), sulphate (SO2, SO3) and nitrate (NOx) from the atmosphere with aerosols as well as UV rays from the sun. There is no more work in the literature on colour changes caused by UV-A and UV-B rays. In this study, the effects of ultraviolet in the colour of the surfaces of basalt, limestone, ignimbrite, travertine and sandstone have been simulated with a new experimental device in the laboratory medium. Lutron colour analyser (RGB-1002) was used for the measurements of RGB colours. Colour differences between the beginning and end of tests were determined with the standard practice for calculation of colour tolerances and colour differences from instrumentally measured colour coordinates (ASTM D2244). As a result of the experiments performed, lighten that seem on dark-grey micritic limestone (colour change ratio, CCR: 17.06) and basalt samples (CCR: 8.24) become even visually noticeable. Black and red ignimbrite samples having high porosity were presented the lower rate of colour changes. Finally, colour darkening has been observed in the light-coloured travertine (CCR: 13.8) and sandstone samples (CCR: 20.99).

  9. Insight into photocatalytic degradation of dissolved organic matter in UVA/TiO₂ systems revealed by fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, Diep Dinh; Hur, Jin

    2015-12-15

    Photocatalytic degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) using TiO2 as a catalyst and UVA as a light source was examined under various experimental settings with different TiO2 doses, solution pH, and the light intensities. The changes in UV absorbance and fluorescence with the irradiation time followed a pseudo-first order model much better than those of dissolved organic carbon. In general, the degradation rates were increased by higher TiO2 doses and light intensities. However, the exact photocatalytic responses of DOM to the irradiation were affected by many other factors such as aggregation of TiO2, light scattering, hydroxyl radicals produced, and DOM sorption on TiO2. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed that the DOM changes in fluorescence could be described by the combinations of four dissimilar components including one protein-like, two humic-like, and one terrestrial humic-like components, each of which followed well the pseudo-first order model. The photocatalytic degradation rates were higher for protein-like versus humic-like component, whereas the opposite order was displayed for the degradation rates in the absence of TiO2, suggesting different dominant mechanisms operating between the systems with and without TiO2. Our results based on EEM-PARAFAC provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms associated with the photocatalytic degradation of DOM as well as the potential environmental impact of the treated water. This study demonstrated a successful application of EEM-PARAFAC for photocatalytic systems via directly comparing the kinetic rates of the individual DOM components with different compositions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomechanical Changes After In Vivo Collagen Cross-Linking With Rose Bengal-Green Light and Riboflavin-UVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekesi, Nandor; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Ibarés-Frías, Lucía; Perez-Merino, Pablo; Martinez-Garcia, M Carmen; Kochevar, Irene E; Marcos, Susana

    2017-03-01

    To compare corneal biomechanical properties after in vivo and ex vivo cross-linking (CXL) using rose bengal-green light (RGX) or riboflavin-UVA (UVX). Corneas of 30 rabbits were treated in vivo by the two CXL modalities monolaterally (Group 1) or bilaterally (Group 2). Rabbits in Group 1 were euthanized 1 month after treatments and in Group 2 two months after treatment. Ex vivo CXL was also performed. Eyes were measured by Scheimpflug air puff corneal deformation imaging (Corvis ST) under constant IOP. Corneal deformation parameters were assessed. Inherent corneal biomechanical properties were estimated using inverse finite element modeling. Peak to peak distance decreased 16% 2 months after RGX, and 4% and 20% 1 and 2 months after UVX, respectively. The equivalent Young's modulus (Eeq) increased relative to the control during the post treatment period for both RGX and UVX. The Eeq increased by factors of 3.4 (RGX) and 1.7 (UVX) 1 month and by factors of 10.7 (RGX) and 7.3 (UVX) 2 months after treatment. However, the Eeq values for ex vivo CXL were much greater than produced in vivo. The ex vivo Eeq was greater than the 1-month in vivo values by factors of 8.1 (RGX) and 9.1 (UVX) and compared with 2 month by factors of 2.5 (RGX) and 2.1 (UVX). These results indicate that corneal stiffness increases after CXL, and further increases as a function of time after both RGX and UVX. Also, while biomechanical properties determined after ex vivo CXL are indicative of corneal stiffening, they may not provide entirely accurate information about the responses to CXL in vivo.

  11. Compostos fenólicos totais e antocianinas em suco de uva Total phenolics and anthocyanins in grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia R. Malacrida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As concentrações de compostos fenólicos totais e antocianinas em sucos de uva reconstituídos e simples, de diferentes marcas, disponíveis no comércio varejista da região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais foram quantificadas. Também se determinou a contribuição das antocianinas poliméricas à cor e o índice de degradação das antocianinas. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 0,27 e 2,41 g/L e as concentrações de antocianinas de 1,17 a 66,80 mg/L. Foram observadas diferenças significativas (Teste de Duncan, pTotal phenolics and anthocyanins contents were quantified in simple and reprocessed grape juices of different brands, commercially available in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil metropolitan area. The contribution of polymeric anthocyanins to color and the anthocyanins degradation index were also determined. Total phenolics levels varied from 0,27 to 2,41 g/L and anthocyanin concentrations from 1,17 to 66,80 mg/L. Significant differences were found (Duncan's test, p<0,05 in total phenolic and anthocyanin concentrations among different brands of reprocessed grape juice as well as the simple juice. The percent contribution of polymeric anthocyanins to color also varied significantly among different brands, the simple grape juice showing a higher percentage (81,6% than the reprocessed one (77,5%. The latter presented total mean value of anthocyanins degradation (3,92 higher than the former one (3,44.

  12. COMPARAÇÃO DO TEOR DE FENÓLICOS TOTAIS E DA AÇÃO ANTIOXIDANTE DE SUCOS INDUSTRIALIZADOS DE UVA E DE VINHOS TINTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Paula Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios do consumo diário de vinho tinto já são bem conhecidos e descritos, e incluem a diminuição da probabilidade de ocorrência de doenças coronárias e de complicações cardiovasculares. Atribui-se esta ação benéfica e “protetora” à presença de compostos flavonoides encontrados na casca da uva (Vitis vinifera, principalmente antocianidinas e do derivado fenólico resveratrol. Apesar disto, o vinho é caracterizado por apresentar entre 5 a 12% de álcool e o seu consumo diário pode trazer, juntamente aos benefícios cardíacos grandes prejuízos à saúde. O presente trabalho objetivou verificar se o consumo frequente de suco de uva tinto seria capaz de trazer os mesmos efeitos protetores do vinho tinto.  Observou-se nestas análises que a atividade antioxidante dos vinhos amostrados foi superior a dos sucos. Não foi possível observar diferença significativa entre os teores de compostos fenólicos totais nas amostras de suco e de vinho. Uma vez que a atividade antioxidante está muito relacionada à proteção cardiovascular, conclui-se que o consumo do suco de uva tinto não é capaz de substituir o vinho em sua ação protetora

  13. The hazard assessment of nanostructured CeO{sub 2}-based mixed oxides on the zebrafish Danio rerio under environmentally relevant UV-A exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemec, Anita, E-mail: anita.jemec@bf.uni-lj.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Laboratory for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Djinović, Petar; Črnivec, Ilja Gasan Osojnik; Pintar, Albin [National Institute of Chemistry, Laboratory for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-02-15

    The effect of nanomaterials on biota under realistic environmental conditions is an important question. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on how different illumination conditions alter the toxicity of some photocatalytic nanomaterials. We have investigated how environmentally relevant UV-A exposure (intensity 8.50 ± 0.61 W/m{sup 2}, exposure dose 9.0 J/cm{sup 2}) affected the toxicity of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2})-based nanostructured materials to the early-life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio. Pure cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}), copper–cerium (CuO–CeO{sub 2}) (with a nominal 10, 15 and 20 mol.% CuO content), cerium–zirconium (CeO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2}) and nickel and cobalt (Ni–Co) deposited over CeO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} were tested. It was found that under both illumination regimes, none of the tested materials affected the normal development or induced mortality of zebrafish early-life stages up to 100 mg/L. Only in the case of CuO–CeO{sub 2}, the growth of larvae was decreased (96 h LOEC values for CuCe10, CuCe15 and CuCe20 were 50, 50 and 10 mg/L, respectively). To conclude, CeO{sub 2}-based nanostructured materials are not severely toxic to zebrafish and environmentally relevant UV-A exposure does not enhance their toxicity. - Highlights: • CeO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} nanomaterials and pure CeO{sub 2} (up to 100 mg/L) were not harmful to zebrafish. • Only CuO modified CeO{sub 2} affected the growth of zebrafish larvae. • UV-A radiation did not enhance the toxicity of tested nanomaterials.

  14. Photo-pollution stress in skin: Traces of pollutants (PAH and particulate matter) impair redox homeostasis in keratinocytes exposed to UVA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeur, Jérémie; Belaïdi, Jean-Philippe; Chollet, Christel; Denat, Laurence; Dimitrov, Ariane; Jones, Christophe; Perez, Philippe; Zanini, Martine; Zobiri, Olivia; Mezzache, Sakina; Erdmann, Dominique; Lereaux, Guillaume; Eilstein, Joan; Marrot, Laurent

    2017-05-01

    It is likely that skin is exposed to low concentrations of pollutants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) either through topical penetration by ultrafine particles or by systemic distribution. No precise estimation of pollutants in living skin is available, but literature has reported contamination of blood by PAH at concentrations in the nanomolar range. Some pollutants (PAH for example) are photo-reactive and phototoxic: sunlight and pollution might thus synergistically compromise skin health. Here, the biological effects of particulate matter, PM extract and various PAH were compared in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and reconstructed skin model exposed to either daily UV (d-UV 300-400nm) or UVA1 (350-400nm). Impact of pollutants (PM, PAH or PM extract) combined to UV was studied on NHEK by measuring toxicity, redox homeostasis and GSH metabolism in NHEK. NHEK were exposed to UV from solar simulator (either d-UV or UVA1) combined with pollutants. Viability, clonogenic efficiency, redox homeostasis and GSH metabolism were assessed. Pollutants (PAH, PM or PM extract) ±UVA1 irradiation was associated with a significant phototoxic effect that was equal to or greater than that produced by d-UV. This result is interesting considering that UVA1 represents around 80% of daily UV and reaches the dermal-epidermal junction with ease. Moreover, among PAH studied, benzo[a]pyrene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were phototoxic at very low concentrations (nanomolar range) on cultured cells or in reconstructed epidermis and also impaired keratinocyte clonogenic potential at sub-toxic doses. ROS generation within cells and in the inner mitochondrial compartment, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and/or reduced ATP production were also noted. Meanwhile, intracellular glutathione concentrations transiently decreased several hours post-treatment and reduction of its synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine potentiated PAH phototoxicity. Consequently, expression

  15. Antocianinas do bagaço de uva : extração e biossorção em Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Stafussa, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Orientador : Prof. Dr. Charles Windson Isidoro Haminiuk Co-orientadora : Profª. Drª. Giselle Maria Maciel Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Tecnologia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Alimentos. Defesa: Curitiba, 05/09/2014 Inclui referências Resumo: Dois resíduos da indústria de alimentos foram analisados neste estudo. A biossorção de antocianinas de bagaço de uva foi avaliada pela aplicação da levedura esgotada do processo de fabricação...

  16. Utilización de Uvas en la Elaboración de Mermeladas: Estudio de Estabilidad de Compuestos Fenólicos

    OpenAIRE

    Olachea Arce, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Se recoge en la bibliografía consultada diversos trabajos dónde se ha comprobado la presencia de compuestos con actividad beneficiosa para la salud humana en los residuos y subproductos del cultivo de la uva y del proceso de vinificación, concretamente compuestos de tipo fenólicos, carbohidratos y restos proteicos. Los restos de la vinificación representan un volumen importante de residuos/subproductos en el entorno enológico. En concreto, según estadísticas y datos del 2011, en España se ...

  17. Detection of the pediocin gene pedA in strains from human faeces by real-time PCR and characterization of Pediococcus acidilactici UVA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cereghetti Tania

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria are commonly used as natural protective cultures. Among them, strains of the genus Pediococcus are particularly interesting for their ability to produce pediocin, a broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide with a strong antagonistic activity against the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore, there is increasing interest in isolating new bacteriocin-producing strains of human intestinal origin that could be developed for probiotic effects and inhibition of pathogenic bacteria in the gut. In this work, we typed a new strain, co-isolated from baby faeces together with a Bifidobacterium thermophilum strain, and characterized its proteinaceous compound with strong antilisterial activity. Results The newly isolated strain UVA1 was identified as a Pediococcus acidilactici by carbohydrate fermentation profile, growth at 50°C and 16S rDNA sequencing. The partially purified bacteriocin was heat resistant up to 100°C, active over a wide range of pH (2 to 9 and susceptible to proteolytic enzymes. The molecular weight, estimated by SDS-PAGE, was similar to that of pediocin AcH/PA-1 (4.5 kDa. P. acidilactici UVA1 harboured a 9.5-kb plasmid that could be cured easily, which resulted in the loss of the antimicrobial activity. Southern hybridization using the DIG-labelled pedA-probe established that the bacteriocin gene was plasmid-borne as for all pediocin described so far. Nucleotide sequence of the whole operon (3.5 kb showed almost 100 % similarity to the pediocin AcH/PA-1 operon. The mRNA transcript for pedA could be detected in P. acidilactici UVA1 but not in the cured derivative, confirming the expression of the pedA-gene in UVA1. Using a new real-time PCR assay, eleven out of seventeen human faecal samples tested were found to contain pedA-DNA. Conclusion We identified and characterised the first pediocin produced by a human intestinal Pediococcus acidilactici isolate and

  18. Efeitos da suplementa??o de suco de uva sobre estresse oxidativo, inflama??o, imunocompet?ncia, desgaste muscular e desempenho de corredores recreacionais

    OpenAIRE

    Toscano, Leydiane Tavares

    2015-01-01

    O uso de suplementos esportivos j? ? algo bem estabelecido na pr?tica desportiva, entretanto os anos recentes t?m sido marcados pela descoberta de alimentos que desempenham atividade ergog?nica similar ? dos suplementos esportivos. V?rios destes alimentos mostraram-se capazes de minimizar estresse oxidativo, inflama??o e dano muscular induzidos por treinamentos intensos. As uvas tintas e seus derivados t?m uma particular a??o antioxidante e anti-inflamat?ria devido a sua rica composi??o em po...

  19. Qualidade de uva ‘Isabel’ tratada na pré-colheita com CaCl2 e elicitor à base de biomassa cítrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo da Silva Santos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available O alto índice de degrana e podridão das bagas reduzem a qualidade e elevam as perdas pós-colheita em uvas ‘Isabel’, demandando técnicas de manejo na pré e pós-colheita acessíveis ao pequeno produtor, que mantenham a qualidade e ampliem a vida útil pós-colheita dos cachos. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação na pré-colheita de CaCl2 e elicitor à base de biomassa cítrica em uvas ‘Isabel’ na manutenção da qualidade durante o armazenamento na condição ambiente sob atmosferas ambiente e modificada. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados a campo, no município de São Vicente Férrer-PE com 8 repetições. Videiras ‘Isabel’ foram tratadas, 28 dias antes da colheita, com: elicitor de Biomassa Cítrica (BC, elicitor de Biomassa Cítrica + CaCl2 (BC+C, CaCl2 (C e Testemunha (T - sem aplicação. Cachos colhidos na maturação comercial foram armazenados em arranjo fatorial 4×2×7, sendo 4 tratamentos (aplicados no campo, 2 condições de armazenamento, atmosferas ambiente (AA e modificada (AM, sob condição ambiente (25±2°C e 75±2% de UR e 7 períodos de avaliação em quatro repetições. A aplicação de CaCl2 e do elicitor BC reduziu o índice de degrana (55 e 75%, respectivamente, a podridão e a perda de massa dos cachos de uva ‘Isabel’. Estes tratamentos, associados ou não, aumentaram a eficiência da AM em manter a qualidade dos cachos. O índice de degrana de uva ‘Isabel’ foi influenciado diretamente pela relação SS/AT, pH e índice de podridão das bagas.

  20. Stimulation of the Fibrillar Collagen and Heat Shock Proteins by Nicotinamide or Its Derivatives in Non-Irradiated or UVA Radiated Fibroblasts, and Direct Anti-Oxidant Activity of Nicotinamide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Philips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In skin aging, from intrinsic factors or exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation, there is loss of structural fibrillar collagen and regulatory heat shock proteins. Phenolic compounds, with hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotinamide is an amide derivative of niacin or vitamin B3, with an amide linked to an aromatic ring, with UV absorptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cell death/apoptosis properties. The goal of this research was to investigate the anti-skin aging mechanism of nicotinamide and its derivatives, 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide, 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxynicotinamide, and 3-hydroxypicolinamide (collectively niacin derivatives, through the stimulation of fibrillar collagens (type I, III and V, at protein and/or promoter levels and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP-27, 47, 70, and 90 in non-irradiated or UVA radiated dermal fibroblasts; and from its direct antioxidant activity. UVA radiation inhibited the expression of types I and III collagen, and HSP-47 in dermal fibroblasts. The niacin derivatives significantly and similarly stimulated the expression of types I (transcriptionally, III and V collagens in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating predominant effects. The 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide had greater stimulatory effect on types I and III collagen in the non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts, as well as greater direct antioxidant activity than the other niacin derivatives. The niacin derivatives, with a few exceptions, stimulated the expression of HSP-27, 47, 70 and 90 in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts. However, they had varied effects on the expression of the different HSPs in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating non-predominant, albeit stimulatory, effect. Overall, nicotinamide and its derivatives have anti skin aging potential through the stimulation of fibrillar collagen and HSPs.

  1. Quantitative analysis of UV-A shock and short term stress using iTRAQ, pseudo selective reaction monitoring (pSRM) and GC-MS based metabolite analysis of the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wase, Nishikant; Pham, Trong Khoa; Ow, Saw Yen; Wright, Phillip C

    2014-09-23

    A quantitative proteomics and metabolomics analysis was performed using iTRAQ, HPLC and GC-MS in the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 to understand the effect of short and long term UV-A exposure. Changes in the proteome were measured for short-term stress (4-24h) using iTRAQ. Changes in the photosynthetic pigments and intracellular metabolites were observed at exposures of up to 7days (pigments) and up to 11days (intracellular metabolites). To assess iTRAQ measurement quality, pseudo selected reaction monitoring (pSRM) was used, with this confirming underestimation of protein abundance levels by iTRAQ. Our results suggest that short term UV-A radiation lowers the abundance of PS-I and PS-II proteins. We also observed an increase in abundance of intracellular redox homeostasis proteins and plastocyanin. Additionally, we observed statistically significant changes in scytonemin, Chlorophyll A, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene. Assessment of intracellular metabolites showed significant changes in several, suggesting their potential role in the Nostoc's stress mitigation strategy. Cyanobacteria under UV-A radiation have reduced growth due to intensive damage to essential functions, but the organism shows a defense response by remodeling bioenergetics pathway, induction of the UV protection compound scytonemin and increased levels of proline and tyrosine as a mitigation response. The effect of UV-A radiation on the proteome and intracellular metabolites of N. punctiforme ATCC 29133 including photosynthetic pigments has been described. We also verify the expression of 13 iTRAQ quantified protein using LC-pSRM. Overall we observed that UV-A radiation has a drastic effect on the photosynthetic machinery, photosynthetic pigments and intracellular amino acids. As a mitigation strategy against UV-A radiation, proline, glycine, and tyrosine were accumulated. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Reciclado del orujo de uva como medio sólido de fermentación para la producción de enzimas hidrolíticas de interés industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Sánchez, Ana Belén

    2009-01-01

    En la presente tesis se pretende profirndizar en el desarrollo de un nuevo proceso, de bajo impacto medioambiental y de costes muy reducidos, para aprovechar el principal subproducto de la industria vitivinícola: el orujo de uva. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que mediante la fermentación en estado sólido (FES) del hongo Aspergillus awamori sobre el orujo de uva se secretan las enzimas pectinasas, xilanasas y celulasas. Sin embargo, la composición de este sustrato natura...

  3. Influencia de la madurez de la uva y de ciertas prácticas vitivinícolas sobre el color, los compuestos fenólicos y los polisacáridos del vino tinto

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Cortiella, Mariona

    2013-01-01

    La madurez de la uva ejerce una gran influencia sobre la composición química del vino tinto, lo que a su vez condiciona severamente propiedades organolépticas como el color, la astringencia y el amargor. La enorme heterogeneidad de la uva, así como la variabilidad de los factores que condicionan el proceso de maduración y que pueden conducir a una madurez inadecuada, van en detrimento de la calidad de los vinos tintos de alta gama. Con el fin de paliar los efectos de dicha madurez inadecuada,...

  4. Enhanced coagulation-photocatalytic treatment of Acid red 73 dye and real textile wastewater using UVA/synthesized MgO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorfi, Sahand; Barzegar, Gelavizh; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Alah Jafarzadeh Haghighifard, Nemat; Takdastan, Afshin; Saeedi, Reza; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh

    2016-07-15

    Sequencing coagulation - photocatalytic degradation using UVA/MgO nanoparticles process was investigated for Acid red 73dye removal and then treatment of a real textile wastewater. Effective operational parameters including pH and coagulant and photocatalyst dosage were studied in synthetic wastewater and then the process was applied for real wastewater. Both coagulation and photocatalytic processes were pH dependent. At coagulant dosage of 200 mg/L and initial pH of 6, the dye concentration decreased from 200 to 31 mg/L. Complete removal of AR73 was observed with MgO nanoparticles of 0.8 g/L, initial pH of 5 and reaction time of 60 min. Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was well fitted with removal results (R(2): 0.939-0.988 for different initial dye concentration). In the case of real textile wastewater, the sequence coagulation-UVA/MgO nanoparticles photocatalytic degradation yielded considerable total COD and TOC removal 98.3% and 86.9%respectively, after 300 min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on gene expression and phenolic accumulation in Betula pendula leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.O.; Tegelberg, R.; Brosche, M.; Aphalo, P.J. [Helsinki Univ., Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of Plant Biology; Keinanen, M. [Eastern Finland Univ., Joensuu (Finland). Faculty of Biosciences; Lindfors, A. [Edinburgh Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Geosciences, Grant Inst.

    2010-07-15

    Several physiological and ecological processes in plant ecosystems are regulated by solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Although UV radiation is an important environmental factor for plant communities, plant responses to solar UV are not fully understood. Therefore, this study examined the effects of different doses of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on the expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis and on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in birch leaves after 30 days of exposure outdoors. Plants were exposed to 6 UV treatments using 3 types of plastic film. Epidermal flavonoids measured in vivo decreased when UV-B was excluded. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the concentrations of 6 flavenoids declined linearly with UV-B exclusion, and transcripts of PAL and HYH measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were expressed at lower levels. The results provide a better understanding of plant responses to solar UV radiation at both molecular and metabolite levels. It was concluded that different doses of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation differentially regulate gene expression and the accumulation of flavonoids in birch leaves. 63 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. BAC-EDTA transepithelial riboflavin-UVA crosslinking has greater biomechanical stiffening effect than standard epithelium-off in rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Andre A M; Ford, Matthew R; Singh, Vivek; Santhiago, Marcony R; Dupps, William J; Wilson, Steven E

    2014-08-01

    Studies suggest that standard corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) is a safe and effective treatment to stiffen the cornea for keratoconus and other ectatic corneal disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the biomechanical effects of transepithelial benzalkonium chloride-EDTA (BAC-EDTA) riboflavin-UVA crosslinking to standard epithelium-off riboflavin-UVA crosslinking in a rabbit model. Corneal stiffness was quantified using optical coherence elastography at two months after treatment. The mean lateral-to-axial displacement ratio for the BAC-EDTA transepithelial CXL group was lower (greater stiffness) [0.062 ± 0.042, mean ± SD] than epithelium-off CXL (mean ± SD: 0.065 ± 0.045) or untreated control eyes (0.069 ± 0.044). Using ANOVA with Tukey correction, a statistically significant difference was found between the BAC-EDTA transepithelial CXL group and standard epithelium-off CXL (p = 0.0019) or the untreated control (p biomechanical stiffness also showed a greater shift in stiffening in the BAC-EDTA transepithelial CXL group than the standard epithelium-off CXL or untreated control group. These results demonstrated that the biomechanical stiffening effect produced by BAC-EDTA transepithelial CXL was greater than that produced by standard epithelium-off CXL in a rabbit model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. UVA, UVB and UVC Light Enhances the Biosynthesis of Phenolic Antioxidants in Fresh-Cut Carrot through a Synergistic Effect with Wounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadeth B. Surjadinata

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (AOX in carrots increased with wounding intensity. It was also reported that UV radiation may trigger the phenylpropanoid metabolism in plant tissues. Here, we determined the combined effect of wounding intensity and UV radiation on phenolic compounds, AOX, and the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activity of carrots. Accordingly, phenolic content, AOX, and PAL activity increased in cut carrots with the duration of UVC radiation, whereas whole carrots showed no increase. Carrot pies showed a higher increase compared to slices and shreds. Phenolics, AOX, and PAL activity also increased in cut carrots exposed to UVA or UVB. The major phenolics were chlorogenic acid and its isomers, ferulic acid, and isocoumarin. The type of UV radiation affected phenolic profiles. Chlorogenic acid was induced by all UV radiations but mostly by UVB and UVC, ferulic acid was induced by all UV lights to comparable levels, while isocoumarin and 4,5-diCQA was induced mainly by UVB and UVC compared to UVA. In general, total phenolics correlated linearly with AOX for all treatments. A reactive oxygen species (ROS mediated hypothetical mechanism explaining the synergistic effect of wounding and different UV radiation stresses on phenolics accumulation in plants is herein proposed.

  8. The effect of riboflavin/UVA cross-linking on anti-degeneration and promoting angiogenic capability of decellularized liver matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Junxi; Liu, Peng; Zheng, Xinglong; Dong, Dinghui; Fan, Shujuan; Dong, Jian; Zhang, Xufeng; Liu, Xuemin; Wang, Bo; Lv, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Weak mechanical property and unstable degradation rate limited the application of decellularized liver matrix in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to explore a new method for improving the mechanical properties, anti-degeneration and angiogenic capability of decellularized liver matrix. This was achieved by a novel approach using riboflavin/ultraviolet A treatment to induce collagen cross-linking of decellularized matrix. Histological staining and scanning electron microscope showed that the diameter of cross-linked fibers significantly increased compared with the control group. The average peak load and Young's modulus of decellularized matrix were obviously improved after cross-linking. Then we implanted the modified matrix into the rat hepatic injury model to test the anti-degeneration and angiogenic capability of riboflavin/UVA cross-linked decellularized liver scaffolds in vivo. The results indicated that cross-linked scaffolds degrade more slowly than those in the control group. In the experiment group, average microvessel density in the implanted matrix was higher than that in the control group since the first week after implantation. In conclusion, we initiated the method to improve the biomechanical properties of decellularized liver scaffolds by riboflavin/UVA cross-linking, and more importantly, its improvement on anti-degeneration and angiogenesis was identified. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2662-2669, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Effect of long-wave ultraviolet light (UV-A) and medium-wave ultraviolet rays (UV-B) on human skin. Critical comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, W

    1980-04-15

    When discussing the effects of ultraviolet radiation on human skin, one should carefully distinguish between the long wave ultraviolet light (UV-A) and the short wave radiations (UV-B and UV-C). Ultraviolet A induces immediate pigmentation but, if high energies are applied, a permanent pigmentation is elicited. This type of ultraviolet A-induced pigmentation has been called "spontaneous" pigmentation as no erythematous reaction is necessary to induce or accelerate melanine formation. Ultraviolet B provokes erythema and consecutive pigmentation. Upon chronic exposure, ultraviolet B causes the wellknown actinic damage of the skin and even provokes carcinoma. With exposures to the sunlight (global radiation), one should be most careful. The public must be informed extensively about the dangers of excessive sunbaths. The use of artificial "suns" with spectra between 260 and 400 nm is limited as it may cause the same type of damage as the global radiation. An exact schedule for use of artificial lamps is strongly recommended. After one cycle of exposures, an interruption is necessary until the next cycle of irradiations may start. Upon continual use for tanning of the skin, artificial lamps may provoke irreversible damage of the skin. Radiation sources with emission spectra of wavelengths between 315 and 400 nm exclusively are well suited for the induction of skin pigmentation (cosmetic use). Potent radiation such as UVASUN systems provoke a "pleasant" permanent pigmentation after exposures for less than one hour. The use of ultraviolet A (UV-A) does not carry any risk for the human skin.

  10. Effects of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on green algae under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiations: no evidence of enhanced algal toxicity under UV pre-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo

    2013-04-01

    Some metal oxide nanoparticles are photoreactive, thus raising concerns regarding phototoxicity. This study evaluated ecotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiation conditions. The nanoparticles were prepared in algal test medium, and the test units were pre-irradiated by UV light in a photoreactor. Algal assays were also conducted with visible, UVA or UVB lights only without nanoparticles. Algal growth was found to be inhibited as the nanoparticle concentration increased, and ZnO NPs caused destabilization of the cell membranes. We also noted that the inhibitory effects on the growth of algae were not enhanced under UV pre-irradiation conditions. This phenomenon was attributed to the photocatalytic activities of ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs in both the visible and UV regions. The toxicity of ZnO NPs was almost entirely the consequence of the dissolved free zinc ions. This study provides us with an improved understanding of toxicity of photoreactive nanoparticles as related to the effects of visible and UV lights. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparing the effects of mitochondrial targeted and localized antioxidants with cellular antioxidants in human skin cells exposed to UVA and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewole, Anne O; Wilmot, Marie-Claire; Fowler, Mark; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer and aging are linked to increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly following exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) in sunlight. As mitochondria are the main source of cellular ROS, this study compared the protective effects of mitochondria-targeted and -localized antioxidants (MitoQ and tiron, respectively) with cellular antioxidants against oxidative stress-induced [UVA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)] mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in human dermal fibroblasts. With the use of a long quantitative PCR assay, tiron (EC50 10 mM) was found to confer complete (100%) protection (Pantioxidants investigated. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway provides cellular protection against oxidative stress. An ELISA assay for the Nrf2 target gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and studies using Nrf2 small interfering RNA both indicated that tiron's mode of action was Nrf2 independent. The comet assay showed that tiron's protective effect against H2O2-induced nuclear DNA damage was greater than the cellular antioxidants and MitoQ (Pantioxidants.

  12. Effect of prestorage UV-A, -B, and -C radiation on fruit quality and anthocyanin of 'Duke' blueberries during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chau T T; Kim, Jeongyun; Yoo, Kil Sun; Lim, Sooyeon; Lee, Eun Jin

    2014-12-17

    Ultraviolet (UV)-A, -B, and -C were radiated to full-ripe blueberries (cv. 'Duke'), and their effects on fruit qualities and phytonutrients during subsequent cold storage were investigated. The blueberries were exposed to each UV light at 6 kJ/m(2) and then stored at 0 °C for 28 days. Weight loss and decay of the fruits after UV treatment were significantly decreased during the cold storage. The total phenolics and antioxidant activities of blueberries after UV-B and -C treatments were always higher than those of the control and UV-A treatment. Individual anthocyanins were markedly increased during the 3 h after the UV-B and -C treatments. The correlation matrix between total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity measured by the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay indicated a significantly close correlation with the individual anthocyanin contents. It was confirmed that the prestorage treatments of UV-B and -C increased the storability and phytochemical accumulation of the full-ripe 'Duke' blueberries during cold storage.

  13. Preparation and characterization of p–n heterojunction CuBi2O4/CeO2 and its photocatalytic activities under UVA light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Elaziouti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CuBi2O4/CeO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by the solid state method and were characterized by a number of techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated under UVA light and assessed using Congo red (CR dye as probe reaction. The efficiency of the coupled CuBi2O4/CeO2 photocatalyst was found to be related to the amount of added CuBi2O4 and to the pH medium. The CuBi2O4/CeO2 photocatalyst exhibited the high efficiency as a result of 83.05% of degradation of CR under UVA light for 100 min of irradiation time with 30 wt% of CuBi2O4 at 25 °C and pH 7, which is about 6 times higher than that of CeO2. The photodegradation reactions satisfactorily correlated with the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the enhanced photocatalytic efficiency was explained by the heterojunction model.

  14. The influence of light spectra, UV-A, and growth regulators on the in vitro seed germination of Senecio cineraria DC.

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    Cristiane Pimentel Victório

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of light spectra, additional UV-A, and different growth regulators on the in vitro germination of Senecio cineraria DC. Seeds were surface-sterilized and inoculated in MS medium to evaluate the following light spectra: white, white plus UV-A, blue, green, red or darkness. The maximum germinability was obtained using MS0 medium under white light (30% and MS + 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 in the absence of light (30.5%. S. cineraria seeds were indifferent to light. Blue and green lights inhibited germination. Different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0.1; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 and indole-3-acetic acid IAA (0.1; 0.3 and 1.0 mg L-1 were evaluated under white light and darkness. No concentration of GA3 enhanced seed germination percentage under white light. However, when the seeds were maintained in darkness, GA3 improved germination responses in all tested concentrations, except at 1.0 mg L-1. Under white light, these concentrations also increased the germination time and reduced germination rate. Germination rate, under light or darkness, was lower using IAA compared with GA3.

  15. A broad spectrum high-SPF photostable sunscreen with a high UVA-PF can protect against cellular damage at high UV exposure doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Curtis; Appa, Yohini; Ou-Yang, Hao

    2014-08-01

    Advances in sunscreen technologies have yielded broad spectrum sunscreens at high-sun protection factor (SPF) and ultraviolet A protection factor (UVA-PF) levels that are photostable and powerful in protecting skin from erythema. Questions arise whether these sunscreens protect proportionally against cellular skin damage caused by high ultraviolet exposures. The objective of this study is to evaluate if high-SPF sunscreen can protect skin at a cellular level under UV exposure doses [>50 minimal erythema dose (MED)] similarly to the SPF value. Sunburn cells, Langerhans cells, thymine dimers, protein 53 (p53), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9 endpoints were evaluated in biopsies from 12 subjects following four treatments: unprotected exposed to 0, 1 and 3 MED and sunscreen (SPF 55) protected exposed to 55 MED of UV radiation. All the markers showed significantly more damage for the 3 MED-untreated sites when compared with non-irradiated control, and majority of the markers showed marked damage following unprotected 1 MED exposure. After 55 MEDs, sunscreen-protected sites showed significantly less p53 and MMP-9 (keratinocyte) staining than the 1 MED-exposed unprotected sites, while all the other biomarkers in sunscreen protected sites showed no statistical differences from 1 MED-exposed unprotected sites. A high-SPF photostable sunscreen with high UVA-PF can provide proportionately high protection against multiple cellular damage markers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. FESTA DA UVA DE CAXIAS DO SUL/RS: A mémoria de uma festa através de seus cartazes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Zottis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} A Festa da Uva teve sua primeira edição em 1930, sendo talvez um dos mais antigos eventos turísticos do país. Pela sua importância e duração, a Festa tem sido estudada em diferentes aspectos, inclusive sob o ponto de vista da comunicação. No que se refere à comunicação, o cartaz tem sido uma peça publicitária recorrente na área do turismo. Como recurso de divulgação de baixo custo, o cartaz acabou sendo empregado em grande escala, também na divulgação das Festas da Uva. Alves e Tonet (s.d. incluem o cartaz como elemento importante, inclusive, no Memorial da Festa da Uva, ao lado de outros tipos de documentos como fotografias, relatórios e atas. Os cartazes também refletiram um recorte da época, permitindo várias leituras de imagens associadas ao contexto histórico. Em algumas oportunidades, a representação dos símbolos escolhidos para figurar no cartaz, acabaram refletindo contradições e gerando dificuldades da própria comunidade em se reconhecer nesses símbolos. As 24 edições da Festa da Uva de Caxias do Sul, realizadas de 1931 a 2002, acompanharam o desenvolvimento do município sede do evento. De município agrícola, Caxias do Sul

  17. Efeito agudo da ingestão de concentrado de uva sobre os biomarcadores do estresse oxidativo em triatletas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Silvestre

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n5p533  O objetivo deste estudo crossover foi avaliar o efeito de um concentrado de uva (bebida teste - BT sobre biomarcadores do estresse oxidativo (substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico – TBARS, catalase – CAT, superóxido dismutase – SOD e glutationa – GSH. Seis triatletas do sexo masculino foram avaliados quanto à aptidão física, percentual de gordura (%G e ingestão alimentar. Posteriormente, em duas ocasiões, os atletas receberam duas doses de 300 ml de BT (45,8g de polifenóis/kg ou bebida placebo (PL no desjejum e após uma sessão de treinamento (100 km de ciclismo, 6 km de corrida e 1,5 km de natação. Amostras de sangue (5 ml foram coletadas em jejum, imediatamente após o exercício e 1h após o mesmo. Caracterização da amostra: idade: 43,8±10,2 anos, VO2máx: 45±5,15 ml/kg/min, %G: 13,6±4,2%, volume de treino: 270,8±87,1 km/semana e 3,1±1,88 horas/treino/dia. Houve aumento significativo da atividade de SOD da 1ª para as 2ª (p=0,027 e 3ª coletas (p=0,02 em resposta ao exercício, independente da bebida consumida. Os valores de GSH foram superiores 1 hora após o exercício quando houve consumo do PL (27,5% em relação ao consumo da BT (1,8%. Ainda, o exercício elevou as concentrações de TBARS, mas no grupo PL os valores médios foram superiores (PL=2,5±1,2 nmol/ml vs. BT=1,77±1,3 nmol/ml. Em relação à atividade da CAT, os valores médios (BT=34,2±6,9 U/mgHb vs. PL=24,6±12,5 U/mgHb foram menores quando comparadas 1ª e 2ª coletas (28,6% para os atletas que consumiram PL. Os resultados referentes à concentração de TBARS, atividade de CAT e níveis de GSH sugerem que a BT modulou o estresse oxidativo induzido pelo exercício.

  18. Mecanismos moleculares de ação anti-inflamatória e antioxidante de polifenóis de uvas e vinho tinto na aterosclerose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Séfora-Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa investigar os possíveis mecanismos moleculares de ação dos polifenóis de uvas e vinho tinto contra os processos oxidativos e inflamatórios envolvidos na aterosclerose. Trata-se de um estudo de revisão de literatura realizado por meio de buscas nas bases de dados PubMed e ScienceDirect utilizando os seguintes descritores: vinho tinto, uva, polifenóis, resveratrol, aterosclerose, LDL-oxidada, inflamação, estresse oxidativo, NF-kB, AP-1, Nrf2, SIRT-1, MicroRNA. Embora tais mecanismos ainda não estejam totalmente esclarecidos, os estudos indicam que compostos fenólicos presentes em uvas podem se complexar com metais (como ferro e cobre que provocam peroxidação dos lipídios, aumentam a atividade antioxidante do plasma, associam-se com a LDL-c aumentando sua resistência à oxidação, preservam a atividade da enzima paraoxonase, neutralizam radicais livres, e ativam fatores de transcrição como o Nrf2, que aumenta a expressão de genes que codificam proteínas importantes na defesa antioxidante, como a superóxido dismutase e a glutationa peroxidase. Além disso, os polifenóis inibem a fosforilação de MAP quinases, inibindo assim os fatores de transcrição NF-kB e AP-1 e, consequentemente, reduzindo a síntese do TNF-á, interleucinas, moléculas de adesão e quimiocinas. Também inibem a atividade das enzimas cicloxigenase e lipoxigenase. Outro mecanismo proposto é a ação do resveratrol sobre a atividade de deacetilases de histonas, como a SITR-1. Estas ações em conjunto reduzem a oxidação da LDL-c e o processo inflamatório, atenuando o processo aterogênico.

  19. Produtividade e qualidade de uva, cv. Isabel, em dois sistemas de produção Vineyard yield and grape quality in two diferent cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Valmor Rombaldi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a produtividade e a qualidade da uva, cv. Isabel, produzida em dois sistemas de produção, convencional e alternativo. O sistema convencional corresponde àquele empregado pela maioria dos produtores dessa cultivar, que consiste no controle de plantas concorrentes com o emprego de capinas e/ou herbicidas e no controle de doenças com fungicidas sintéticos orgânicos e não orgânicos. O sistema alternativo corresponde àquele onde se manteve a cobertura do solo e se inseriu a aveia como complemento, e o controle de doenças foi feito apenas com o emprego de calda bordalesa. Essas práticas foram realizadas desde 1998 e, nas safras 2001-2002 e 2002-2003, avaliaram-se a produtividade e a qualidade da uva produzida nos dois sistemas. Pelos resultados, observou-se que a produtividade e a qualidade da uva são mais afetadas pelas condições climáticas de safra do que pelo sistema de produção, indicando que o sistema de produção alternativo, onde se empregou menor número de pulverizações, não se usou herbicida, nem fungicida orgânico sintético, tem elevado potencial de adoção para essa cultivar.Vineyards of Vitis labrusca, cv. Isabel, were evaluated for yield and grape quality in two different cultivation systems: conventional and alternative. In the conventional cultivation system diseases and plant weeds are controlled by synthetic organic fungicides and herbicides, respectively. In the alternative system, diseases and plant weeds are controlled by cupric solution and oat mulching, respectively. The two production systems have been under general evaluation since 1998. In 2002 and 2003 the vineyards were evaluated in terms of yield and grape quality and none differences were found between cultivation systems despite the evident impact of climatic conditions. It suggests that the alternative system, where was used less aplications, it wasn't used herbicide and fungicidal organic synthetic, has a potential to be adopted for

  20. Genetic diversity of table grape based on morphoagronomic traits Diversidade genética de acessos de uvas de mesa baseada em caracteres morfoagronômicos

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    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and characterization of grape (Vitis spp genetic resources in germplasm banks have been the basis of its use in breeding programs that result in development of new cultivars. There are at least 10,000 grape cultivars kept in germplasm collection. The genetic diversity in 136 table grape accessions from the state of Bahia, Brazil, was evaluated. Continuous and discrete morphoagronomic traits were assessed. The clustering analysis by the Tocher otimization method resulted in 30 clusters (considering continuous morphoagronomic traits, and 9 clusters (taking into consideration multicategorical traits. There was no agreement between clusters obtained by both, continuous or discrete phenotypic descriptors, independent of the cluster method analysis used. A satisfactory genetic variability among the table grape accessions was observed.A conservação e caracterização dos recursos genéticos de videira (Vitis spp. em bancos de germoplasma tem sido a base para a sua utilização nos programas de melhoramento, que resultam no desenvolvimento de novas cultivares, estimando-se a existência de pelo menos 10.000 cultivares de uva mantidos em coleções de germoplasma. Avaliou-se a diversidade genética presente em 136 acessos de uvas de mesa de uma coleção de germoplasma do estado da Bahia, com base em caraterísticas morfoagronômicas de variação contínua e discreta. A análise de agrupamento pelo método de Tocher resultou na formação de 30 grupos utilizando-se descritores morfo-agronômicos de variação contínua e 9 grupos, com base em caracteres multicategóricos. Não houve concordância entre os grupos obtidos pela análise de descritores fenotípicos contínuos e discretos, independente do método de agrupamento utilizado. Detectou-se a existência de variabilidade genética satisfatória entre os acessos de uvas de mesa da coleção.

  1. Cross-Linking Biomechanical Effect in Human Corneas by Same Energy, Different UV-A Fluence: An Enzymatic Digestion Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios J; Loukas, Yannis L; Asimellis, George

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate ex vivo the possible difference in corneal cross-linking (CXL) biomechanical effect of different ultraviolet-A (UV-A) irradiances. The study involved 25 human donor corneas, randomly allocated to 5 groups (n = 5 each). CXL was applied with UV-A irradiances of 3, 9, 18, 30, and 45 mW/cm2, maintaining equal cumulative energy dose of 5.4 J/cm2. UV-A was delivered on half of the cornea. The nonirradiated halves served as controls. Specimens were subjected to collagenase-A enzymatic digestion. The time to complete dissolution in each specimen was recorded. Time to dissolution in group-A (3 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes) was 321 ± 13.4 minutes (range: 300-330) compared with 171 ± 8.2 (range: 165-180) for their control. In group-B (9 mW/cm2 for 10 minutes), it was 282 ± 19.6 minutes (range: 270-315) compared with 177 ± 6.7 (165-180) for their control. In group-C (18 mW/cm2 for 5 minutes), it was 267 ± 19.6 minutes (range: 240-285) compared with 177 ± 7.7 (range: 165-180) for their control. In group-D (30 mW/cm2 for 3 minutes), it was 252 ± 12.5 minutes (range: 240-270) compared with 180 ± 10.6 minutes (range: 165-195) for their control. In group-E (45 mW/cm2 for 2 minutes), it was 204 ± 17.1 minutes (range: 180-225) compared with 186 ± 8.2 minutes (range: 180-195) for their control. The data in this ex vivo human corneal study indicate that the biomechanical effect of CXL studied by resistance to enzymatic digestion in human corneas is comparable between irradiances of 9, 18 and 30 mW/cm and seems to be reduced at a fluence of 45 mW/cm2.

  2. Scleral Cross-Linking Using Riboflavin UVA Irradiation for the Prevention of Myopia Progression in a Guinea Pig Model: Blocked Axial Extension and Altered Scleral Microstructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Liu

    Full Text Available To develop methods of collagen cross-linking (CXL in the sclera for the treatment of progressive myopia and to investigate the biomechanical and histological changes that occur in as a result.Twenty 14-day-old guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups: the cross-linking group (CL, n = 8, non cross-linking group (NCL, n = 8, and control group (n = 4. The scleras of the right eyes of the guinea pigs in the CL group were surgically exposed and riboflavin was dropped onto the irradiation zone for 20 seconds prior to ultraviolet-A (UVA irradiation. The same procedure was conducted on the NCL group but without UVA irradiation. No procedure was conducted on the control group. The right eyes of the guinea pigs in the CL and NCL groups were then fitted with -10.00DS optics for six weeks. Retinoscopy and the axial lengths (AXL were measured at baseline, and at the second, fourth and sixth weeks post-treatment in all three groups. All animal subjects were euthanized after the sixth week and then biomechanical and histopathological examinations of the scleras were conducted.The mean AXL of the NCL group was longer than both the control and CL groups at six weeks (P = 0.001. The mean refractive error in the NCL group was statistically significantly more negative than both the control and the CL groups at six weeks (P = 0.001. The scleral collagen fiber arrangements of the CL and control groups were denser and more regularly distributed than the NCL group. Ultimate stress of the sclera was lowest in the NCL group, followed by the CL then the control group (P<0.05. Ultimate strain (% of the sclera was lowest in the CL group followed by the NCL and then the control group (P<0.05.Our study demonstrates that scleral CXL using riboflavin UVA irradiation effectively prevents the progression of myopia by increasing scleral biomechanical strength in a guinea pig model.

  3. [Vitamins C and E protect cultures of bovine lens epithelium from the damaging effects of blue light (430 nm) and UVA light (300-400 nm)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, U M; Müller, Y; Blüthner, K

    2001-02-01

    In 1992 Radlmaier showed that catalase can protect bovine lens epithelial cultures from blue light. The following experiments have the aim to examine, if vitamin C and E have protective functions, also. 367 cultures of bovine lens epithelial cells were incubated in Medium 199 added by 20% foetal calf serum FCS, by 125 I.U./ml penicillin, by 125 mg/ml Streptomycin, by 0.31 microgram/ml amphotericin B, by 2% L-Glutamin (200 mM), and by 1.25% Hepesbuffer. The incubation temperature was kept at 36 degrees C at a pCO2 of 5%. In order to avoid secondary morphologic alterations, we experimented only on the second to the third subculture. Light exposure followed three days after addition of the substances such as Cebion 500 (R) ad injection (6 mg/dl) and E-Vicotrat (R) ad injection (0.5 mg/dl). The blue light (420-430 nm, Draeger) was applied in a baby bed at 36 degrees C for four hours (1.1 mW/cm). The UV-A lamp was constructed and described by Heller [7]; at a wave length of 300-400 nm, the irradiation time was 10 minutes at 100 mW/cm2. In morphologic evaluation we looked for criteria such as cell diameter, cellular wall alterations, cellular inclusions and vacuoles. The cell count was done after staining with the vital dye trypan-blue in Neubauer's chamber. In statistic evaluation we used the pair comparison of Tuckey and Kruskall-Wallis-Test. After addition of 0.5 mg/ml vitamin E: In 89 cultures, morphologic evaluation and cell count showed a significant protection against light toxicity: After Uv-A-irradiation we counted 50% more living cells and after blue light 30% more. After addition of 6 mg/ml Cebion vitamin C: Morphologic evaluation and cell count of 223 cultures showed them also to be significantly protected: after irradiation by UV-A we counted 25% more and after exposition to blue light 15% more living cells. The demonstrated experiments significantly showed, that vitamin C and vitamin E can protect lens epithelial cultures from toxic stress by blue and by UV-A

  4. Caracterização social e tecnológica da produção de uvas para mesa em pequenas propriedades rurais da região de Jales-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Vieira da Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A viticultura é uma atividade relevante para os produtores rurais do Estado de São Paulo, sobretudo aqueles detentores de pequenas áreas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar os principais aspectos sociais e tecnológicos utilizados na produção de uvas para mesa na região de Jales (SP. Os dados foram levantados nos anos de 2009 e 2010, a partir da aplicação de questionários a 19 produtores de uva e do acompanhamento do ciclo de produção de 10 propriedades. Os produtores cultivam pelo menos três cultivares diferentes de uva, sendo as principais: 'Niagara Rosada', 'Itália' e 'Benitaka'. A área média das propriedades é de, aproximadamente, 21 ha, e a área média com parreiras de uva é de 2,4 ha. A maioria dos produtores não conta com assistência técnica regular, não segue recomendações de adubação e não emprega critérios técnicos para o manejo da irrigação. O controle de doenças é realizado de forma preventiva e intensa, chegando a superar 100 aplicações por ciclo, no caso das uvas finas para mesa. Os resultados devem subsidiar a realização de outras pesquisas, assim como programas de planejamento e transferência de tecnologia, proporcionando ao produtor um manejo mais adequado da cultura, bem como o desenvolvimento sustentável rural regional.

  5. Formation hybride en agroécologie basée sur le module introductif de l'UVAE "Qu'est que ce que l'agroécologie?" : Co-construite UVAE-Institutions-Collectif localisé de recherche du Campus Inra AgroParisTech de Grignon au sens large (labex BASC)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Basée sur le module introductif de l’UVAE « Qu’est-ce que l’agroécologie ? » la formation vise à permettre à un groupe restreint (en configuration de «classe») de : - s’approprier les concepts et la diversité des approches de l’agroécologie, - construire une culture commune autour de l’agroécologie, - partager et interroger ses questions et objets de recherche dans le contexte de l’agroécologie, - expérimenter une démarche de formation mixte et collaborative. Chevronnés ou néop...

  6. Prediction of daily UV-A from daily global solar irradiance using the Ktuv and Kt clearness index; Prediccion de valores diarios de radiacion solar UV-A (295-385 nm) utilizando los indices de transparencia K{sub t}uv y K{sub t} y tecnicas de resdes neuronales artificiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, F. J.; Lopez, G.; Batlles, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    In this work we compare two methodologies in order to estimate daily UV-A from daily global solar irradiance measurements. The first one is based on standard statistical procedures for relating the daily clearness indices Ktuv and Kt and the relative air mass, whereas the second methodology is based on the novel techniques of artificial neuronal networks. In both cases, we employed data recorded at the radiometric station located at the University of Almeria between 1993 and 1996. Both models are checked against data for years not previously used. (Author)

  7. Characterizing reactive oxygen generation and bacterial inactivation by a zerovalent iron-fullerene nano-composite device at neutral pH under UV-A illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdim, Esra [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Environmental Engineering Department, Marmara University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Badireddy, Appala Raju [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Wiesner, Mark R., E-mail: wiesner@duke.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • We synthesized a novel ZVI/nC{sub 60} nano-composite device for multi-ROS generation. • O{sub 2}·{sup −} (UV-A independent) and {sup 1}O{sub 2} (UV-A dependent) are generated at neutral pH. • At low Fe concentration, ZVI/nC{sub 60} device is a better ROS generator than ZVI alone. • C{sub 60} mediates electron transfer from ZVI surface to dissolved O{sub 2} to produce O{sub 2}·{sup −}. • Bacteria are rapidly inactivated by O{sub 2}·{sup −} even at low ZVI/nC{sub 60} ratio. - Abstract: A nano-composite device composed of nano-scale zerovalent iron (ZVI) and C{sub 60} fullerene aggregates (ZVI/nC{sub 60}) was produced via a rapid nucleation method. The device was conceived to deliver reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by photosensitization and/or electron transfer to targeted contaminants, including waterborne pathogens under neutral pH conditions. Certain variations of the nano-composite were fabricated differing in the amounts of (1) ZVI (0.1 mM and 2 mM) but not nC{sub 60} (2.5 mg-C/L), and (2) nC{sub 60} (0–25 mg-C/L) but not ZVI (0.1 mM). The generation of ROS by the ZVI/nC{sub 60} nano-composites and ZVI nanoparticles was quantified using organic probe compounds. 0.1 mM ZVI/2.5 mg-C/L C{sub 60} generated 3.74-fold higher O{sub 2}·{sup −} concentration and also resulted in an additional 2-log inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa when compared to 0.1 mM ZVI (3-log inactivation). 2 mM ZVI/2.5 mg-C/L nC{sub 60} showed negligible improvement over 2 mM ZVI in terms of O{sub 2}·{sup −} generation or inactivation. Further, incremental amounts of nC{sub 60} in the range of 0–25 mg-C/L in 0.1 mM ZVI/nC{sub 60} led to increased O{sub 2}·{sup −} concentration, independent of UV-A. This study demonstrates that ZVI/nC{sub 60} device delivers (1) enhanced O{sub 2}·{sup −} with nC{sub 60} as a mediator for electron transfer, and (2) {sup 1}O{sub 2} (only under UV-A illumination) at neutral pH conditions.

  8. Epidermal UV-A absorbance and whole-leaf flavonoid composition in pea respond more to solar blue light than to solar UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siipola, Sari M; Kotilainen, Titta; Sipari, Nina; Morales, Luis O; Lindfors, Anders V; Robson, T Matthew; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    Plants synthesize phenolic compounds in response to certain environmental signals or stresses. One large group of phenolics, flavonoids, is considered particularly responsive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, here we demonstrate that solar blue light stimulates flavonoid biosynthesis in the absence of UV-A and UV-B radiation. We grew pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Meteor) outdoors, in Finland during the summer, under five types of filters differing in their spectral transmittance. These filters were used to (1) attenuate UV-B; (2) attenuate UV-B and UV-A radiation signals that extend into the visible region of the solar spectrum. Furthermore, solar blue light instead of solar UV-B radiation can be the main regulator of phenolic compound accumulation in plants that germinate and develop outdoors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Transepithelial Phototherapeutic Keratectomy Using a 213-nm Solid-State Laser System Followed by Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking with Riboflavin and UVA Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Kymionis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present a case of a keratoconic patient who underwent epithelial removal with transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (t-PTK using a 213-nm solid-state laser system followed by corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A (UVA irradiation. Methods. Case report. Results. A twenty-four-year-old male with keratoconus underwent CXL treatment after epithelial removal with t-PTK using a solid-state laser system. No intra- or early postoperative complications were found. One month postoperatively, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA improved from 20/63 to 20/32 while best spectacle- corrected visual acuity (BSCVA improved from 20/40 to 20/25. Corneal topography revealed a significant improvement which remained stable during the six-month followup period. Conclusions. Epithelial removal with t-PTK before CXL could improve patient's visual outcome.

  10. EL CULTIVO DE LA UVA DE MESA EN EL MEDIO VINALOPÓ: RECURSOS HÍDRICOS Y RIEGOS LOCALIZADOS DE ALTA FRECUENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ramón Morte

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Aridez y escasez de recursos hídricos han propiciado la existencia en el Vinalopó Medio de una extensa superficie regada, sometida a la explotación de acuíferos subterráneos. La ampliación descontrolada del cultivo de la uva de mesa unida a un irracional uso del agua, comprometen la propia viabilidad económica del sector agrario en la zona. La utilización de sistemas de riego localizado de alta frecuencia y la ampliación de la capacidad de embalse, forman parte de un proceso de renovación y una posible solución al problema.

  11. Efecto del almacenamiento de Uva Caimarona (Pourouma cecropiifolia) a diferentes temperaturas sobre los sólidos solubles y la actividad de catalasa

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Narvaez Cuenca; Patricia Restrepo

    2010-01-01

    La uva caimarona fue almacenada durante seis días entre 1 y 25 °C. Los frutos manifestaron lesiones por frío a l , 10 y 15 °C, estos daños se hicieron mayores al incrementar el tiempo de exposición al frío y al disminuir la temperatura. Tanto a 20 como a 25 °C los frutos maduraron de manera adecuada. La disminución de la temperatura de almacenamiento de 25 a 20 °C inhibió el metabolismo de azúcares y ácidos carboxílicos. Las lesiones por frío en los frutos refrigerados a 1 °C estuvieron re...

  12. Efecto del almacenamiento de Uva Caimarona (Pourouma cecropiifolia a diferentes temperaturas sobre los sólidos solubles y la actividad de catalasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Narvaez Cuenca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La uva caimarona fue almacenada durante seis días entre 1 y 25 °C. Los frutos manifestaron lesiones por frío a l , 10 y 15 °C, estos daños se hicieron mayores al incrementar el tiempo de exposición al frío y al disminuir la temperatura. Tanto a 20 como a 25 °C los frutos maduraron de manera adecuada. La disminución de la temperatura de almacenamiento de 25 a 20 °C inhibió el metabolismo de azúcares y ácidos carboxílicos. Las lesiones por frío en los frutos refrigerados a 1 °C estuvieron relacionadas con menores valores de pH, sólidos solubles y actividades de catalasa.

  13. Ácido abscísico e Etefom: influência sobre a maturação e qualidade das uvas Cabernet Sauvignon

    OpenAIRE

    João Peterson Pereira Gardin; Rafael Lizandro Schumacher; Jean Carlos Bettoni; José Luiz Petri; Edson Luiz de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Neste estudo, objetivou-se determinar os efeitos da aplicação exógena de ABA e ETEFOM sobre a maturação e a qualidade de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon. O presente trabalho foi realizado em um vinhedo, localizado na Estação Experimental da Epagri de Videira - SC, durante a safra de 2009/2010. Foram utilizadas as doses de 0; 20 e 40g i.a. 100L-1 de ácido abscísico (ABA) e 0; 136,8 e 273,6g i.a. 100L-1 de ETEFOM, configurando um experimento fatorial 3x3. Os tratamentos foram aplicados no início da mud...

  14. Aplicação de AG3 e CPPU na qualidade da uva 'Itália' em Porto Feliz-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A videira 'Itália' (Vitis vinifera L. é a cultivar de uva fina para mesa mais consumida no Brasil. A qualidade dos cachos é uma característica fundamental, sendo o tamanho das bagas o componente mais valorizado pelos consumidores. Uma das alternativas para incrementar a qualidade das bagas é o uso de biorreguladores. Avaliaram-se, em três ciclos de produção, os efeitos de doses de ácido giberélico (AG3 isolado e associado com forchlorfenuron (CPPU, na qualidade dos cachos de uva Itália produzida em Porto Feliz-SP. A aplicação dos biorreguladores foi realizada aos 25 dias após o florescimento, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4X4 (zero, 10; 20 e 30 mg L-1 AG3 X zero, 5; 10 e 15 mg L-1 CPPU, com oito repetições para o primeiro ciclo, e fatorial 3X3 (zero, 20 e 30 mg L-1 AG3 X zero, 10 e 20 mg L-1 CPPU com dez repetições para o segundo e terceiro ciclos. A mistura de 20 mg L-1 de AG3 com 10 mg L-1 de CPPU promoveu o incremento do comprimento e do diâmetro das bagas sem prejuízo da massa dos cachos, melhorando sua qualidade, em Porto Feliz-SP. O uso de CPPU isoladamente acarretou em redução do teor de sólidos solúveis das bagas.

  15. 4,6,4'-trimethylangelicin shows high anti-proliferative activity on DU145 cells under both UVA and blue light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miolo, G; Sturaro, G; Cigolini, G; Menilli, L; Tasso, A; Zago, I; Conconi, M T

    2018-01-10

    Furocoumarins (psoralens and angelicins) have been already used under ultraviolet A light (UVA) for the treatment of skin diseases and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Besides their high anti-proliferative activity, some severe long-term side effects have been observed, for example genotoxicity and mutagenicity, likely strictly related to the formation of crosslinks. It has been demonstrated that blue light (BL) activation of 8-methoxypsoralen, an FDA-approved drug, leads to less mutagenic monoadducts in the DNA. So far, in this work the less toxic and more penetrating BL is proposed to activate 4,6,4'-trimethylangelicin (TMA), an already known UVA photoactivatable compound. Photocleavage, crosslink formation and oxidative damage were detected in pBR322 plasmid DNA treated with 300.0 μmol/L TMA activated with various exposures of BL. Anti-proliferative activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and activation status of some signalling pathways involved in cell growth and apoptosis were verified on DU145 cells treated with 5.0 μmol/L TMA plus 2.0 J/cm2 of BL. Under BL-TMA, no mutagenic crosslinks, no photocleavage and neither photooxidative lesions were detected on isolated plasmid DNA. TMA showed high anti-proliferative activity on DU145 cells through induction of apoptosis. Besides ROS generation, the proapoptotic effect seemed to be related to activation of p38 and inhibition of p44/42 phosphorylation. Interestingly, the decrease in nuclear β-catenin was coupled with a significant dropping of CD44-positive cells. Overall, our results indicate that TMA can be activated by BL and may be considered for targeted phototherapy of prostate cancer lesions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage Características analíticas e discriminação de suco, néctar e bebida de uva comerciais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nectar, and grape beverage were evaluated. Classical variables were analyzed by means of physicochemical methods; tartaric and malic acids, by HPLC; methanol, by gas chromatography; minerals, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These products were discriminated by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results show that whole and sweetened grape juices were discriminated from other grape products because they featured higher values of total soluble solids, tartaric and malic acids, most minerals, phenolic compounds, and K/Na ratio, whereas grape nectar and grape beverage presented higher values of ºBrix/titratable acidity ratio. Reprocessed juice was discriminated due to its higher concentrations of Li and Na and lower hue.A produção e a comercialização de suco de uva brasileiro estão aumentando anualmente devido a sua tipicidade, qualidade e valor nutritivo. Por isso, realizou-se este trabalho em face de sua importância para a agroindústria de vinho e de suco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição e discriminação do suco de uva em relação a outras bebidas dele derivadas. Avaliaram-se 24 amostras de sucos de uva −integral, adoçado e reprocessado −, néctar de uva e bebida de uva. As variáveis clássicas foram determinadas por meio de métodos físico-químicos; os ácidos tartárico e málico, por HPLC; o metanol, por cromatografia gasosa; e os minerais, por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Esses produtos foram

  17. Tertiary treatment of a municipal wastewater toward pharmaceuticals removal by chemical and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Soler, J; Alpendurada, M F; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2016-11-15

    This study focuses on the degradation of pharmaceuticals from a municipal wastewater after secondary treatment by applying various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and electrochemical AOPs (EAOPs) like UVC, H2O2/UVC, anodic oxidation (AO), AO with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), AO-H2O2/UVC and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) using either UVC radiation (PEF-UVC) or UVA radiation (PEF-UVA). The municipal wastewater after secondary treatment was spiked with 5.0 mg L(-1) of trimethoprim (TMP) antibiotic. The efficiency of processes to remove TMP followed the order UVC < AO-H2O2 < PEF-UVA < AO ≈ PEF-UVC < AO-H2O2/UVC < PEF-UVA (pH = 2.8) < H2O2/UVC ≈ PEF-UVC (pH = 2.8), using neutral pH, except when identified. While the UVC radiation alone led to a very low TMP removal, the H2O2/UVC process promoted a very high TMP degradation due to the production of hydroxyl radicals (OH) by H2O2 cleavage. In the AO-H2O2/UVC process, the electrogeneration of H2O2 can avoid the risks associated with the transportation, storage and manipulation of this oxidant and, furthermore, OH at the anode surface are also formed. Nevertheless, low contents of H2O2 were detected mainly at the beginning of the reaction, leading to a lower initial reaction rate when compared with the H2O2/UVC system. In the PEF-UVC, the addition of iron at neutral pH led to the visible formation of insoluble iron oxides that can filter the light. At pH 2.8, the iron remained dissolved, thereby promoting the Fenton's reaction and increasing the organics removal. The UVA-driven processes showed limited efficiency when compared with those using UVC light. For all processes with H2O2 electrogeneration, the active chlorine species can be scavenged by the H2O2, diminishing the efficiency of the processes. This can explain the lower efficiency of AO-H2O2 when compared with AO. Moreover, the degradation of the MWWTP effluent spiked with 18 pharmaceuticals in μg L(-1) during AO process was assessed

  18. Potássio em uvas II: análise peciolar e sua correlação com o teor de potássio em uvas viníferas Potassium in grapes II: analysis of petioles and their correlation with the potassium content of wine grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Oliveira Fogaça

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi acompanhar a evolução da absorção de potássio pelas uvas durante o processo de maturação e verificar sua influência no pH, bem como tentar correlacionar ambas com os teores encontrados nos pecíolos na época da floração. Amostras das uvas foram coletadas durante o processo de maturação de três variedades: Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon e Merlot. Durante os dois anos de estudo, ocorreram variações nos teores de potássio absorvidos pelos frutos durante a maturação, sendo o aumento acompanhado pela elevação do pH; a redução no teor de potássio foi acompanhada pela estabilização dos valores de pH, fato também influenciado pela queda nos teores de acidez titulável. Sugere-se, assim, que os altos valores de pH encontrados nos vinhos elaborados com uvas destes vinhedos, em anos anteriores, estão relacionados com a absorção de potássio e a diminuição da acidez total durante a maturação da uva. A retirada de amostras peciolares na floração e trinta dias após mostrou-se um mecanismo eficiente na avaliação do teor de potássio nos tecidos próximos aos grãos. Dessa forma, a análise peciolar, além de ser utilizada para monitorar os níveis de potássio na planta e avaliar a necessidade de adubações e tratos culturais, pode servir de diagnóstico futuro para os teores de potássio nas uvas e nos vinhos.Grapes from three Vitis vinifera varieties (Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were analyzed over a two-year period to determine their potassium content, aiming to monitor this mineral content during the ripening process and evaluate its influence on pH values. Grape samples were harvested periodically during the berries’ development until their harvest. As expected, the grapes’ potassium content showed variations, i.e., high potassium content went hand-in-hand with increased pH values while low potassium content led to stabilized pH; this process was also affected by the

  19. Efeito da temperatura no armazenamento de uvas apirênicas minimamente processadas Effect of stored temperature in minimally processed seedless table grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Mattiuz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita de três cultivares de uvas de mesa sem semente submetidas ao processamento mínimo e armazenadas sob refrigeração e à temperatura ambiente. Para tanto, foram utilizadas uvas das cultivares BRS Clara, BRS Linda e BRS Morena, produzidas na Embrapa Uva e Vinho/Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical, em Jales-SP. Os cachos, depois de higienizados e imersos em água clorada a 200 mg de cloro.L-1 por 5 minutos, foram mantidos em câmara fria, a 12ºC, por 12 h. As bagas foram degranadas e lavadas em solução de álcool a 70%, por 5 segundos. Depois de escorrido o excesso da solução alcoólica, as bagas foram acondicionadas em bandejas de tereftalato de polietileno (PET transparente com tampa e com capacidade para 500 mL. Cada unidade, contendo 200 g de bagas, foi armazenada a 12±1,8ºC e 24±0,8ºC, por 12 dias. Avaliaram-se, a cada três dias, a perda de massa fresca, a aparência, a coloração e os teores de sólidos solúveis (SS e de acidez titulável (AT. A temperatura de 12ºC manteve a turgidez, a coloração, as qualidades organoléptica (relação SS/AT e comercial das bagas das três cultivares testadas, por nove dias, enquanto no armazenamento à temperatura ambiente (24ºC, ocorre perda da qualidade comercial das bagas aos três dias para as cvs. BRS Clara e BRS Linda, e aos seis dias para a cv. BRS Morena.The objective of this research was to evaluate the postharvest quality of three apirenic (seedless table grapes cultivars submitted to minimally processed and stored under refrigeration and room temperature. It was used the cultivars BRS Clara, BRS Linda and BRS Morena produced at Embrapa Grapes and Wine/Tropical Viticulture of Experimental Station, in Jales, state of São Paulo. The clusters were immersed in a solution of sodium hypochlorite (200 mg Cl.L-1 for 5 minutes before being stored at 12ºC for 12 hours. The berries were removed and rinsed with

  20. Mechanical behavior of 'Niagara Rosada' grape berry detachment Comportamento mecânico do destacamento de bagos de uva 'Niagara Rosada'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 'Niagara Rosada' grape is the main Brazilian table grape belonging to the Labrusca family. It develops medium, cylindrical and compact bunches with berries presenting a pinkish skin and a foxy flavor that is valued in the Brazilian market. These berries are tender and have a pedicel-berry connection provided by the vascular bundles and surrounding skin. This cultivar is very susceptible to berry drop mainly caused by vibration and senescence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the temporal mechanical behavior of the pedicel-berry detachment, using resistance indexes extracted from traction force-deformation curves. Test results showed two different detachment types. In the first one, which exhibited higher average resistance, a considerable portion of the vascular bundle came out attached to the pedicel and in the second type; the vascular bundle was retained inside the berry. The proposed indexes based on maximum detachment force, force at 0.2; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.2 mm, and maximum force to corresponding deformation ratio did not discriminate the senescence of the berry.A uva Niagara Rosada é a principal uva de mesa brasileira, da família das Labruscas, possui cachos médios cilíndricos e compactos, coloração rosada e sabor denominado Foxy muito apreciado pelo consumidor brasileiro. Os frutos são delicados, a junção do pedicelo com o bago é feita pela casca e por feixes vasculares. Essa cultivar é muito suscetível à degrana causada, principalmente, pela vibração e pelo envelhecimento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento mecânico da junção pedicelo-bago e sua variação temporal, utilizando-se de índices de resistência ao destacamento, extraídos das curvas força-deslocamento, obtidos em ensaios de tração de uvas. Os ensaios revelaram dois tipos de destacamento: um em que porção considerável do pincel (feixes vasculares saiu preso ao pedicelo, e outro, em que o pincel ficou no interior do bago

  1. Evaluación de la influencia del contenido de borras y azúcares reductores del vino base de uva italia (Vitis vinífera L.) para la obtención del pisco mosto verde

    OpenAIRE

    Chaparro Montoya, Efren Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como finalidad evaluar la influencia del contenido de borras y azúcares reductores del vino base de uva Italia (Vitis vinífera L.) para la obtención de pisco Mosto Verde. La muestra de uva Italia fue de Magollo -Tacna, la fermentación del mosto se inició con una acidez tartárica de 7,0 g/L; 14,0 grados Baumé (239 g/L de azúcares reductores, considerado como 100 % de azúcares reductores) y un pH=3,6. Se utilizó un diseño central compuesto con tres repe...

  2. AVALIAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DE UVA MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADA ADICIONADA DE ÁCIDO ASCÓRBIDO E DE ÁCIDO CÍTRICO

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Ferreira Chaves; Welliton Fagner da Cruz; Aurélia Dornelas de Oliveira Martins; Vanessa Riani Olmi Silva; Maurício Henriques Louzada Silva; Eliane Maurício Furtado Martins

    2011-01-01

    Os principais problemas de conservação pós-colheita em uvas de mesa são a ocorrência de danos mecânicos,podridões, escurecimento das bagas e degrana, o que compromete a aceitação pelos consumidores, muitosdos quais estão atentos aos benefícios de uma vida saudável, que incluem o consumo de uma variedade defrutas na dieta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-químicas da uva cultivar “Rubi”minimamente processada adicionada de antioxidantes. Após o processamento, foi ...

  3. Removing UV-A and UV-C radiation from UV-B fluorescent lamp emissions. Differences in the inhibition of photosynthesis in the marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta using chromate versus cellulose acetate-polyester filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrea L; Jahnke, Leland S

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm)-emitting lamps unavoidably emit ultraviolet-A (UV-A; 320-400 nm) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C; <280 nm) radiation. Short-wavelength-blocking filters are generally used to limit the wave bands of UV under investigation. The widespread use of such filters means that all exposures to UV-B radiation will have a significant UV-A component. Therefore, the physiological effects unique to UV-B exposure are difficult to clearly isolate. This study presents a method to remove the UV-A and UV-C "contamination" using a liquid potassium chromate (K(2)CrO(4)) filter, thus allowing more direct assessment of the effects of UV-B exposure. Cultures of the green marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta were grown in the absence of UV radiation. Sunlamps supplied the UV radiation for a 24 h exposure (solar radiation was not used in this study). The UV radiation was filtered either by the standard method (i.e. cellulose acetate (CA) with polyester = Mylar controls) or by a liquid filter of potassium chromate. Photosynthetic responses were compared. Major decreases in the ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence in dark-adapted cells and photosynthetic capacity were observed in CA-filtered cultures, whereas no change was observed in cells exposed to the same UV-B flux with the UV-A removed by K(2)CrO(4). The use of a CA filter with a Mylar control does not link results unequivocally to UV-B radiation. Such results should be interpreted with caution.

  4. Simultaneous chemical and photochemical protein crosslinking induced by irradiation of eye lens proteins in the presence of ascorbate: the photosensitizing role of an UVA-visible-absorbing decomposition product of vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Felipe; Friguet, Bertrand; Silva, Eduardo

    2010-10-28

    Exposure to light has been implicated as a risk factor during aging of the eye lens and in cataract generation. In order to visualize the actual effect of UVA-visible light on this tissue, we incubated water-soluble eye lens proteins with ascorbate in the presence and absence of UVA-visible light for 3, 6 and 9 days at low oxygen concentration. The samples incubated in the presence of light were characterized by an initially small but continuous increase over time of the protein crosslinking. This was not the result of more extensive glycation because the decrease in amino group content of the proteins and the decomposition of ascorbate was the same in both irradiated and unirradiated samples. The augmented crosslinking capacity observed in the presence of UVA-visible light is due to the generation of a chromophore from the decomposition of ascorbate. This chromophore, obtained after 3, 6 and 9 days of incubation of solutions containing only ascorbate, induces both protein-crosslinking and oxidation after exposure to UVA-visible light in the presence of lens proteins. The extent of the crosslinking was proportional to the amount of the chromophore present in the solution. The presence of this chromophore was also determined when ascorbate was incubated with four-fold higher concentrations of N-α-acetyl lysine and N-α-acetyl arginine. When these samples were used as photosensitizers, the crosslinking degree was conditioned by the presence of this chromophore; nonetheless, the ascorbate-mediated advanced glycation end product (AGE) generation also made a contribution. The results of this work indicate that ascorbate oxidation, which generates the AGEs responsible for the chemical crosslinking of the lens proteins, also simultaneously produces a chromophore that can act as a photosensitizer, further increasing the protein crosslinking.

  5. Wafer-scaled monolayer WO{sub 3} windows ultra-sensitive, extremely-fast and stable UV-A photodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Zhenyin; Akbari, Mohammad Karbalaei [Ghent University Global Campus, Department of Applied Analytical & Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, 119 Songdomunhwa-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21985 (Korea, Republic of); Xue, Chenyang [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement of Ministry of Education, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China); Xu, Hongyan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China); Hyde, Lachlan [Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Zhuiykov, Serge, E-mail: serge.zhuiykov@ugent.be [Ghent University Global Campus, Department of Applied Analytical & Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, 119 Songdomunhwa-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21985 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Monolayer WO{sub 3}-based photodetectors were fabricated for the first time. • The device has ultrafast response time of ∼40 μs and responsivity of ∼0.329 A W{sup −1}. • The response time is 400-fold improvement over any other WO{sub 3} UV photodetectors. • The device has better characteristics than many 2D materials-based photodetectors. • This proposed strategy has great potential for commercialization of photodetectors. - Abstract: The monolayer WO{sub 3}-based UV-A photodetectors, fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique at the large area of SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer, have demonstrated vastly improved functional capabilities: extremely fast response time of less than 40 μs and photoresponsivity reaching of ∼0.329 A W{sup −1}. Their ultrafast photoresponse time is at least 400-fold improvement over the previous reports for any other WO{sub 3}-based UV photodetectors that have ever been fabricated, and significantly faster than most of other photodetectors based on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials reported-to-date. Moreover, their measured long-term stability exceeds more than 200 cycles without any visible degradation. The ALD-deposited WO{sub 3} monolayer has also exhibited wider bandgap of 3.53 eV and the UV-A photodetector based on it is environmentally friendly, highly reliable, with excellent reproducibility and long-term stability. Thus, the shift to mono-layered semiconductors, which possess completely new quantum-confined effects, has the greatest potential in creating a new class of nano-materials, which in return windows new functional opportunities for various opto-electronic instruments built on semiconductor monolayer and, more importantly, can result in new strategy for fabrication highly-flexible, inexpensive and extremely-sensitive devices. This strategy also opens up the great opportunities for industrialization and commercialization of the photodetectors and other optoelectronic devices based on

  6. Tratamiento enzimático en la extracción de aceite de pipa de uva, Vitis vinifera, por prensado en frío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zúñiga, M. E.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of enzyme incorporation is analyzed over the yield of grapeseed oil extraction by cold pressing. By this type of process the objective is to preserve grapeseed active compounds and to diminish the environmental impact in comparison to oil extraction conventional methods which use higher temperatures. The enzymatic hydrolysis takes place with a commercial enzyme previous to pressing stage. Its effectiveness is compared to a control without the biocatalyst. An oil extraction yield of 72 % d.b. is obtained with an enzymatic pre-treatment for 4 hours at 50 ºC, and 60 % of moisture, increasing in 26 % the control result. It is concluded that the incorporation of an enzymatic processing would be a feasible alternative to extract grapeseed oil under softener process conditions improving the yield of extraction in comparison to the same type of methodology without an enzyme.Se analiza el efecto de la incorporación de enzimas sobre el rendimiento de extracción de aceite por prensado en frío. Con el prensado en frío se busca preservar los compuestos activos de la pipa de uva y minimizar el impacto medioambiental en comparación con los métodos convencionales de extracción de aceite que utilizan altas temperaturas. El tratamiento enzimático se efectúa previo al prensado con una enzima comercial y su efectividad se compara con un control sin catalizador. Un rendimiento de extracción de aceite del 72 % b.s. se logra con un pre-tratamiento enzimático durante 4 horas a 50 ºC, y 60 % de humedad, superando en un 26 % al control. Se concluye que la incorporación de un tratamiento enzimático sería una alternativa factible para extraer el aceite de pipa de uva bajo condiciones suaves de proceso mejorando el rendimiento de extracción en comparación con el mismo tipo de proceso sin enzima.

  7. Armazenamento refrigerado da uva de mesa 'Romana' (A1105 cultivada sob cobertura plástica Cold storage of 'Romana' (A1105 table grape cultivated under plastic cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lulu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A videira é uma das principais fruteiras cultivadas em todo o mundo e atualmente a preferência por uvas do tipo "sem sementes" ou "apirênicas" vem aumentando gradativamente no mercado interno brasileiro. A cultivar 'Romana' (A1105 tem mostrado grande potencial como nova alternativa de uva de mesa apirênica na região de Jundiaí - SP. No entanto, a qualidade dos cachos tem sido afetada pela ocorrência de chuvas na época da colheita, propiciando a incidência de rachaduras nas bagas ("cracking" e podridões. Visando a solucionar essa dificuldade, foram conduzidos experimentos de campo em vinhedo cultivado em cortina dupla e sob cobertura plástica. Após a colheita, foram coletadas oito amostras com seis cachos cada, que foram armazenadas a 3 ºC e submetidas a avaliações de qualidade por um período máximo de 36 dias. A perda de massa ultrapassou o valor de 6% após três semanas de armazenamento refrigerado, quando apresentou sinais de murchamento das bagas, concluindo-se que o período máximo de armazenamento em câmara fria para a cultivar 'Romana' (A1105 foi de 21 dias.The grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop and nowadays the preference for seedless grapes is gradualy increasing in the Brazilian internal market. The table grape cultivar 'Romana' (A1105 has been showing potential as a new option for the growers from Jundiaí - SP, Brazil, as a seedless grape. However the bunch quality has been affected by rain at the harvest allowing the incidence of cracking and bunch rot. Aiming to solve this problem a field trial was carried out with grapes cultivated under plastic cover and Geneva Double Curtain training system. After harvest, eight samples of six bunches each were taken and stored at 3 ºC and evaluated for quality during a period of 36 days. After three weeks of storage, the weight loss was higher than 6%, showing bunch fade and the rot bunch increased significantly. It was concluded that maximum shelf life for

  8. Redox Mechanisms of AVS022, an Oriental Polyherbal Formula, and Its Component Herbs in Protection against Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in UVA-Irradiated Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells

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    Thanyawan Pluemsamran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurved Siriraj HaRak (AVS022 formula has been used for topical remedy of dermatologic disorders. Oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV A irradiation could be implicated in photoaged skin through triggering matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1. We, therefore, explored the antioxidant mechanisms by which AVS022 formulation and its individual components protected against UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. TLC analysis revealed the presence of multiple phenolics including gallic acid (GA in the AVS022 extracts. We demonstrated that pretreatment with the whole formula and individual herbal components except T. triandra protected against increased MMP-1 activity in irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, all herbal extracts and GA, used as the reference compound, were able to reverse cytotoxicity, oxidant production, glutathione (GSH loss, and inactivation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. F. racemosa was observed to yield the strongest abilities to abolish UVA-mediated induction of MMP-1 and impairment of antioxidant defenses including GSH and catalase. Our observations suggest that upregulation of endogenous antioxidants could be the mechanisms by which AVS022 and its herbal components suppressed UVA-stimulated MMP-1 in HaCaT cells. In addition, pharmacological actions of AVS022 formula may be attributed to the antioxidant potential of its components, in particular F. racemosa, and several phenolics including GA.

  9. Requirements of blue, UV-A, and UV-B light for normal growth of higher plants, as assessed by actions spectra for growth and related phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T. [Kobe Women`s Univ., Higashisuma (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    It is very important for experimental purposes, as well as for the practical use of plants when not enough sunlight is available. To grow green higher plants in their normal forms under artificial lighting constructing efficient and economically reasonable lighting systems is not an easy task. One possible approach would be to simulate sunlight in intensity and the radiation spectrum, but its high construction and running costs are not likely to allow its use in practice. Sunlight may be excessive in irradiance in some or all portions of the spectrum. Reducing irradiance and removing unnecessary wavebands might lead to an economically feasible light source. However, removing or reducing a particular waveband from sunlight for testing is not easy. Another approach might be to find the wavebands required for respective aspects of plant growth and to combine them in a proper ratio and intensity. The latter approach seems more practical and economical, and the aim of this Workshop lies in advancing this approach. I summarize our present knowledge on the waveband requirements of higher plants for the regions of blue, UV-A and UV-B.

  10. A prospective, active haemovigilance study with combined cohort analysis of 19 175 transfusions of platelet components prepared with amotosalen–UVA photochemical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, F; Osselaer, J; Pierelli, L; Lozano, M; Cid, J; Tardivel, R; Garraud, O; Hervig, T; Domanovic, D; Cukjati, M; Gudmundson, S; Hjalmarsdottir, I B; Castrillo, A; Gonzalez, R; Brihante, D; Santos, M; Schlenke, P; Elliott, A; Lin, J-S; Tappe, D; Stassinopoulos, A; Green, J; Corash, L

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives A photochemical treatment process (PCT) utilizing amotosalen and UVA light (INTERCEPT™ Blood System) has been developed for inactivation of viruses, bacteria, parasites and leucocytes that can contaminate blood components intended for transfusion. The objective of this study was to further characterize the safety profile of INTERCEPT-treated platelet components (PCT-PLT) administered across a broad patient population. Materials and Methods This open-label, observational haemovigilance programme of PCT-PLT transfusions was conducted in 21 centres in 11 countries. All transfusions were monitored for adverse events within 24 h post-transfusion and for serious adverse events (SAEs) up to 7 days post-transfusion. All adverse events were assessed for severity (Grade 0–4), and causal relationship to PCT-PLT transfusion. Results Over the course of 7 years in the study centres, 4067 patients received 19 175 PCT-PLT transfusions. Adverse events were infrequent, and most were of Grade 1 severity. On a per-transfusion basis, 123 (0·6%) were classified an acute transfusion reaction (ATR) defined as an adverse event related to the transfusion. Among these ATRs, the most common were chills (77, 0·4%) and urticaria (41, 0·2%). Fourteen SAEs were reported, of which 2 were attributed to platelet transfusion (haemovigilance safety programme to monitor PCT-PLT transfusions demonstrated a low rate of ATRs, and a safety profile consistent with that previously reported for conventional platelet components. PMID:25981525

  11. Degradation characteristics of humic acid over iron oxides/Fe{sup 0} core-shell nanoparticles with UVA/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie Yulun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Hu Chun, E-mail: nyl@sdu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhou Lei; Qu Jiuhui; Wei Qunshan; Wang Dongsheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Iron oxides coated on Fe{sup 0} core-shell nanospheres (nIOCI) were synthesized through the reduction of ferrous sulfate aqueous solution by sodium borohydride at ambient atmosphere. The catalyst was highly effective for the degradation of humic acid (HA) in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UVA at neutral pH. Under deoxygenated conditions in the dark, the generation of hydroxyl radicals in aqueous nIOCI dispersion verified its galvanic cell-like performance, which enhanced the interfacial electron transfer and led to its higher reactivity. By the total organic carbon, the absorbance of UV{sub 254}, FTIR, the molecular weight distribution and the chemical fractional character analysis, the degradation process of HA was shown to proceed by the disappearance of aromaticity, the increase of hydrophilic fraction and aromatic ring openings into CO{sub 2} and small organic acid. The treated HA showed much lower reactivity toward chlorine and the disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potential was also greatly reduced. Moreover, it was found that the DBP formation potential more depended on the structure of the intermediates of HA degradation than TOC removal.

  12. Six-day selenium supplementation led to either UVA-photoprotection or toxic effects in human fibroblasts depending on the chemical form and dose of Se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazane-Puch, Florence; Champelovier, Pierre; Arnaud, Josiane; Trocmé, Candice; Garrel, Catherine; Faure, Patrice; Laporte, François

    2014-09-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element with a narrow safety zone and unclear effects on skin photoageing. The aim of this work was to investigate the photoageing properties of sodium selenite or selenomethionine (SeMet) after a long term (6 days) Se supplementation in normal human skin fibroblasts (NHSF) subjected to ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation inducing 30% cell death. The uptake, toxicity and antioxidant effects of sodium selenite and SeMet were compared to better understand their photoageing properties. SeMet uptake was better than sodium selenite and their uptake by fibroblasts was not via an actively transport process. Sodium selenite induced a higher toxicity than SeMet. At 5 μM, sodium selenite inhibited cell proliferation associated with a blockage in the G2 phase and induced DNA fragmentation leading to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis cell death. At low doses (selenium forms. SeMet may be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skin photoageing.

  13. Caracterización del aceite de semilla de uva extraído con dióxido de carbono supercrítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero Gómez, A.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the quality of grape seed oil obtained by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. At the optimun operating conditions (313 K and 25 MPa, the yield of supercritical extraction is similar to the conventional extraction by liquid solvent, but the quality of the grape seed oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide is higher.
    Furthermore, supercritical extraction could be more economical than liquid extraction because the solvent removal by distillation is not necessary and several steps of the subsequent oil refining process can be eliminated.

    En este trabajo se realiza un estudio de la calidad del aceite de semillas de uva obtenido por extracción con dióxido de carbono supercrítico. En las condiciones operativas óptimas del proceso (313 K y 25 MPa el rendimiento de la extracción supercrítica es similar al de la extracción con disolventes líquidos, pero la calidad del aceite es muy superior.
    En consecuencia, el proceso supercrítico resulta competitivo con el convencional al reducir las etapas de refinado del aceite y eliminar la destilación del disolvente, las más costosas desde el punto de vista energético.

  14. Structural and biomechanical effects of photooxidative collagen cross-linking with photosensitizer riboflavin and 370 nm UVA light on human corneoscleral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Samjin; Shin, Jae-Ho; Cheong, Youjin; Jin, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-10-01

    This study quantitatively investigated the immediate effects of a photooxidative collagen cross-linking treatment with photosensitizer riboflavin (RF) and 370 nm UVA light in in vitro human corneoscleral collagen fibrils using histology, thickness, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy analyses. Twenty 8 x 2 mm corneoscleral strips were dissected sagittally from donor tissue using a scalpel. Four parameters were investigated, including the density, thickness, adhesion force, and stiffness of corneoscleral tissues before and after the collagen cross-linking treatment. The RFUVA-catalyzed collagen cross-linking treatment led to an increase in the density of both corneal (8%) and scleral (23%) stromal collagens. However, there was no difference in corneoscleral thickness. Furthermore, RFUVA-catalyzed collagen cross-linking treatment led to an increased biomechanical response of corneosclera: 25 and 8% increases in corneoscleral stiffness, and 24 and 22% increases in corneoscleral adhesion force. The collagen cross-linking treatment through RF-sensitized photoreaction may cause structural and biomechanical changes in the collagen fibril network of the cornea and the sclera. This is due to narrowing of the interfibrillar spacing and the stromal edema.

  15. Decomposition of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim by continuous UVA/LED/TiO2 photocatalysis: Decomposition pathways, residual antibacterial activity and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qinqing; Hu, Jiangyong

    2017-02-05

    In this study, continuous LED/UVA/TiO2 photocatalytic decomposition of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) was investigated. More than 90% of SMX and TMP were removed within 20min by the continuous photoreactor (with the initial concentration of 400ppb for each). The removal rates of SMX and TMP decreased with higher initial antibiotics loadings. SMX was much easier decomposed in acidic condition, while pH affected little on TMP's decomposition. 0.003% was found to be the optimum H2O2 dosage to enhance SMX photocatalytic decomposition. Decomposition pathways of SMX and TMP were proposed based on the intermediates identified by using LC-MS-MS and GC-MS. Aniline was identified as a new intermediate generated during SMX photocatalytic decomposition. Antibacterial activity study with a reference Escherichia coli strain was also conducted during the photocatalytic process. Results indicated that with every portion of TMP removed, the residual antibacterial activity decreased by one portion. However, the synergistic effect between SMX and TMP tended to slow down the antibacterial activity removal of SMX and TMP mixture. Chronic toxicity studies conducted with Vibrio fischeri exhibited 13-20% bioluminescence inhibition during the decomposition of 1ppm SMX and 1ppm TMP, no acute toxicity to V. fischeri was observed during the photocatalytic process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aplicação de ethephon e qualidade da uva 'Rubi' em Porto Feliz-SP Ethephon on 'Rubi' grapevine quality in Porto Feliz, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de uvas de mesa é uma importante atividade econômica no Estado de São Paulo. A região de Porto Feliz, em clima Cwa, apresenta grande número de agricultores familiares dedicados a esta atividade. Condições climáticas e manejo da cultura durante a fase de amadurecimento determinam a qualidade dos bagos, sendo o uso de fitorreguladores uma ferramenta útil para o ajustamento de atributos da qualidade. Avaliaram-se sete concentrações de ethephon, aplicadas por imersão dos cachos no início da mudança de coloração dos bagos, sobre a qualidade de uva 'Rubi', durante os ciclos de 2007 e de 2008, em propriedade comercial localizada em Porto Feliz-SP. Os atributos de qualidade avaliados foram a coloração de bagos, teor de sólidos solúveis totais e desbagoamento pós-colheita, sendo determinado também o índice de velocidade de desbagoamento. Os dados coletados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão. Em 2007, observaram-se maiores coloração e teor de sólidos solúveis totais, associados às maiores temperaturas registradas no período entre o início de maturação e a colheita. O uso de ethephon, independentemente da concentração utilizada, promoveu coloração mais avermelhada dos bagos de 'Rubi' nas duas safras. Não houve efeito do uso do ethephon sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Não foi possível inferir sobre o efeito do etephon no desbagoamento em função do elevado coeficiente de variação. Estudos básicos para avaliar o efeito de fatores climáticos, nutricionais e de manejo do vinhedo são necessários no desenvolvimento de coloração dos bagos da cultivar 'Rubi' em clima tropical.Grapevine production for fresh market is an important economic activity in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The region of Porto Feliz is located in Cwa climate and concentrates several small producers. Climatic conditions and cultural practices during fruit maturation determine berry quality, and

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DO CLONE HÍBRIDO A1105 DE UVAS BRANCAS SEM SEMENTES SOBRE DOIS PORTA-ENXERTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CELSO VALDEVINO POMMER

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O clone híbrido A1105 de uvas brancas sem sementes, obtido no Arkansas (EUA, foi avaliado sobre os porta-enxertos IAC 766 e Kober 5BB, em Campinas (SP. As obser-vações foram efetuadas em 1994 quando, após a segunda poda de produção, acompanhou-se o desenvolvimento de seu ciclo vegetativo. Na colheita, avaliaram-se: produção de uvas por planta, número, massa, comprimento e largura dos cachos, massa, comprimento e largura das bagas, teor de sólidos solúveis totais e o diâmetro do caule a 60 cm do solo. O comportamento do A1105 foi semelhante sobre os dois porta-enxertos, sendo a largura das bagas a única característica influenciada diferencialmente por eles. As bagas mostraram variação da massa entre 3 e 6 g, mesmo sem aplicação de ácido giberélico; sabor neutro agradável e textura crocante. As plantas, vigorosas, de boa fertilidade de gemas, podem produzir até 26 cachos em um metro de cordão esporonado, o que representaria produção de mais de 20 t/ha. Os cachos são bem formados, de compacidade média, cônicos, com massa média de mais de 225 g. O ciclo vegetativo foi curto, de 113 dias, mostrando ser material genético bem precoce.Scions of A1105, a white seedless grape obtained at University of Arkansas, USA, were grafted on IAC 766 and Kober 5BB rootstocks at Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Plants were evaluated in 1994, after the second production pruning, and data were obtained on yield per plant, cluster number, weight, length and width, berry weight, length and width, total soluble solids and trunk diameter at 60 cm height. The performance of A1105 on both rootstocks was similar, except for berry width, which was larger on Kober 5BB. Berry weight ranged from 3 to 6 g without application of gibberellic acid. Berries showed a nice neutral flavor and an almost crisp texture, with good eating quality. Plants showed high vigor and very high bud fertility, producing 26 bunches per meter of cordon, which led to an

  18. Effect of Partial Grapevine Defoliation (Vitis vinifera on Wine Quality / Efecto de la Defoliación Parcial en Uva (Vitis vinifera sobre la Calidad del Vino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Olmos Jaime Ernesto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine quality was determined for partially-defoliatedgrapevines grown in Villa de Leyva, Colombia at an elevation of2,143 masl. The experimental design was totally randomized,with two treatments (50% defoliation and 0% defoliation andthree repetitions per treatment. The planting material consistedof five-year-old vines of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay, trainedto trellises, with a spacing of 2.1 m x 1 m. Every fifteen days,the plants in the defoliation treatment underwent the removalof half of the newly-emerged leaves. Before undertaking themicro-vinification process, the total soluble solids (TSS weremeasured in the grape must, and after a fermentation of 100days, wine quality parameters were measured, namely: residual sugars (TSS of the wine, pH, total titratable acid (TTA, and potential alcohol content of the wine. In the plants undergoing partial defoliation, the total soluble solids in the grape must increased, as well as the wine pH and potential alcohol content. At the same time, total titratable acid decreased in the wine of partially-defoliated plants. These results demonstrate that the wine quality was greatly improved by the reduction of leaf area in Chardonnay variety grape plants. / Con el uso de un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con dos tratamientos (defoliación al 50% y sin defoliación parcial y tres repeticiones por tratamiento, se determinó la calidad del vino en plantas de uva sometidas a defoliación parcial temprana en Villa de Leyva – Colombia a una altitud de 2.143 msnm. Como material vegetal se utilizaron plantas de Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay de cinco años de edad, sembradas en un sistema de espalderas a 2,1 x 1 m. Quincenalmente, se realizó la defoliación parcial a las plantas, la cual consistió en retirar una de cada doshojas recién emergidas en cada una de las plantas sometidas al tratamiento de defoliación. Antes de iniciar el proceso de microvinificación se determinaron los sólidos solubles

  19. Efeito de reguladores de crescimento em uva apirênica, cv. BRS Clara Effect of growth regulators on the seedless grape cv. BRS Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Costa Nachtigal

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações do ácido giberélico (AG3, do thidiazuron (TDZ e do forchlorfenuron (CPPU no aumento do tamanho dos cachos e das bagas e no teor de sólidos solúveis totais de uva sem semente, cv. BRS Clara. As plantas foram conduzidas no sistema de latada, sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572, no espaçamento 2,5 x 2,0m e com irrigação por microaspersão. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical, da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Jales-SP. Os reguladores de crescimento foram aplicados via pulverização localizada no cacho, utilizando-se de concentrações de 0 a 4mg.L-1 de CPPU; 0 a 10mg.L-1 de TDZ, e de 0 a 90mg.L-1 de AG3, isolados ou em conjunto. De modo geral, a aplicação dos reguladores de crescimento promove a melhoria da qualidade dos cachos da cv. BRS Clara; o uso do TDZ e do CPPU em conjunto com o AG3 produz um efeito sinérgico, proporcionando melhor resposta do que o uso isolado do AG3; os tratamentos com 60mg.L-1 de AG3; 20mg.L-1 de AG3 + 4mg.L-1 de CPPU, e 10mg.L-1 de AG3 + 5mg.L-1 de TDZ proporcionam os melhores resultados para o aumento do diâmetro das bagas; a aplicação de AG3 antes da floração da cv. BRS Clara provoca abortamento excessivo, reduzindo a qualidade comercial dos cachos; a utilização de concentrações elevadas dos reguladores reduz o teor de sólidos solúveis totais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of gibberellic acid (AG3, thidiazuron (TDZ and forchlorfenuron (CPPU on the size of bunches and berries and on the total soluble solids content, when applied in different concentrations on the seedless grapes, cv. BRS Clara. The grapevines were grafted on the rootstock IAC 572, trained in the pergola system and, spaced 2.5 x 2.0m and irrigated by micro sprinklers. The experiments were carried out at the Embrapa Grape and Wine Experimental

  20. Corneal thickness changes during corneal collagen cross-linking with UV-A irradiation and hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas

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    Belquiz Amaral Nassaralla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the thinnest corneal thickness changes during and after corneal collagen cross-linking treatment with ultraviolet-A irradiation, using hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution in thin corneas. METHODS: Eighteen eyes of 18 patients were included in this study. After epithelium removal, iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution was instilled to the cornea every 3 minutes for 30 minutes. Hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution was then applied every 20 seconds for 5 minutes or until the thinnest corneal thickness reached 400 µm. Ultraviolet-A irradiation was performed for 30 minutes. During irradiation, iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops were applied every 5 minutes. Ultrasound pachymetry was performed at approximately the thinnest point of the cornea preoperatively, after epithelial removal, after iso-osmolar riboflavin instillation, after hypo-osmolar riboflavin instillation, after ultraviolet-A irradiation, and at 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment. RESULTS: Mean preoperative thinnest corneal thickness was 380 ± 11 µm. After epithelial removal it decreased to 341 ± 11 µm, and after 30 minutes of iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops, to 330 ± 7.6 µm. After hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops, mean thinnest corneal thickness increased to 418 ± 11 µm. After UVA irradiation, it was 384 ± 10 µm. At 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment, it was 372 ± 10 µm, 381 ± 12.7, and 379 ± 15 µm, respectively. No intraoperative, early postoperative, or late postoperative complications were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution seems to be effective for swelling thin corneas. The swelling effect is transient and short acting. Corneal thickness should be monitored throughout the procedure. Larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are required in order to make meaningful conclusions regarding safety.

  1. Mechanisms of corneal tissue cross-linking in response to treatment with topical riboflavin and long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, A Scott; Kraft, Stefan; Edelhauser, Henry F; Kidder, George W; Lundquist, Richard R; Bradshaw, Helen E; Dedeic, Zinaida; Dionne, Megan J C; Clement, Ethan M; Conrad, Gary W

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of de-epithelialized human corneas with riboflavin (RF) + long-wavelength ultraviolet light (UVA; RFUVA) increases corneal stroma tensile strength significantly. RFUVA treatment retards the progression of keratoconus, perhaps by cross-linking of collagen molecules, but exact molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Research described here tested possible chemical mechanisms of cross-linking. Corneas of rabbits and spiny dogfish sharks were de-epithelialized mechanically, subjected to various chemical pretreatments, exposed to RFUVA, and then subjected to destructive tensile stress measurements. Tensile strength was quantified with a digital force gauge to measure degree of tissue cross-linking. For both rabbit and shark corneas, RFUVA treatment causes significant cross-linking by mechanism(s) that can be blocked by the presence of sodium azide. Conversely, such cross-linking is greatly enhanced in the presence of deuterium oxide (D(2)O), even when RF is present at only one tenth the currently used clinical concentrations. Blocking carbonyl groups preexisting in the stroma with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazide or hydroxylamine blocks essentially all corneal cross-linking. In contrast, blocking free amine groups preexisting in the stroma with acetic anhydride or ethyl acetimidate does not affect RFUVA corneal cross-linking. When both carbonyl groups are blocked and singlet oxygen is quenched, no RFUVA cross-linking occurs, indicating the absence of other cross-linking mechanisms. RFUVA catalyzes cross-linking reactions that require production of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)), whose half-life is extended by D(2)O. Carbonyl-based cross-linking reactions dominate in the corneal stroma, but other possible reaction schemes are proposed. The use of D(2)O as solution media for RF would enable concentration decreases or significant strength enhancement in treated corneas.

  2. Interoperability of 300 watt and 150 watt xenon arc solar simulators in sun protection factor and in UVA protection factor clinical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alexa; Roberts, Glenn; Garzarella, Katherine; Lutz, Michael; Caswell, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of these clinical trials was to determine if 300 W and 150 W xenon arc solar simulators (SSs) deliver the same sun protection factor (SPF) and UVA protection factor (PFA). First, the SPF of the P7 control standard and of the P2 control standard was determined, testing 20 subjects using the method described in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Final Monograph and using 150 W and 300 W SSs. In the second clinical trial, the PFA of the Japanese Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) control standard and of the P2 control standard was determined, testing 10 subjects using the method described in the JCIA Technical Bulletin and using 150 W and 300 W SSs. The SPF values for P7 control standard determined using the 150 W and 300 W SSs were 4.54 ± 0.35 and 4.61 ± 0.32, respectively. The SPF values for P2 control standard determined using the 150 W and 300 W SSs were 17.0 ± 0.9 and 16.7 ± 0.9, respectively. The resultant PFA values for JCIA control standard determined using the 150 W and 300 W SSs were 4.06 ± 0.70 and 4.06 ± 0.70, respectively. The resultant PFA values for P2 control standard determined using the 150 W and 300 W SSs were 3.28 ± 0.25 and 3.44 ± 0.39, respectively. As the values are essentially identical for SPF and for PFA, the 150 W and 300 W SSs can be used interchangeably for SPF and PFA determinations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. A prospective, active haemovigilance study with combined cohort analysis of 19,175 transfusions of platelet components prepared with amotosalen-UVA photochemical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, F; Osselaer, J; Pierelli, L; Lozano, M; Cid, J; Tardivel, R; Garraud, O; Hervig, T; Domanovic, D; Cukjati, M; Gudmundson, S; Hjalmarsdottir, I B; Castrillo, A; Gonzalez, R; Brihante, D; Santos, M; Schlenke, P; Elliott, A; Lin, J-S; Tappe, D; Stassinopoulos, A; Green, J; Corash, L

    2015-11-01

    A photochemical treatment process (PCT) utilizing amotosalen and UVA light (INTERCEPT(™) Blood System) has been developed for inactivation of viruses, bacteria, parasites and leucocytes that can contaminate blood components intended for transfusion. The objective of this study was to further characterize the safety profile of INTERCEPT-treated platelet components (PCT-PLT) administered across a broad patient population. This open-label, observational haemovigilance programme of PCT-PLT transfusions was conducted in 21 centres in 11 countries. All transfusions were monitored for adverse events within 24 h post-transfusion and for serious adverse events (SAEs) up to 7 days post-transfusion. All adverse events were assessed for severity (Grade 0-4), and causal relationship to PCT-PLT transfusion. Over the course of 7 years in the study centres, 4067 patients received 19,175 PCT-PLT transfusions. Adverse events were infrequent, and most were of Grade 1 severity. On a per-transfusion basis, 123 (0.6%) were classified an acute transfusion reaction (ATR) defined as an adverse event related to the transfusion. Among these ATRs, the most common were chills (77, 0.4%) and urticaria (41, 0.2%). Fourteen SAEs were reported, of which 2 were attributed to platelet transfusion (haemovigilance safety programme to monitor PCT-PLT transfusions demonstrated a low rate of ATRs, and a safety profile consistent with that previously reported for conventional platelet components. © 2015 The Authors ISBT Science Series published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. VALES DA UVA GOETHE: UMA ANÁLISE DO PROCESSO DE INSTITUCIONALIZAÇÃO DA INDICAÇÃO GEOGRÁFICA PARA O DESENVOLVIMENTO SOCIOECONOMICO

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    Adriana Carvalho Pinto Vieira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar o processo de institucionalização da indicação de procedência no Brasil como promotor do desenvolvimento socioeconômico regional. Para tal foi estudado a história do reconhecimento da Indicação Geográfica no Brasil e o caso da ação coletiva que resultou na implementação da Indicação Geográfica (IG pela Indicação de Procedência (IP dos “Vales da Uva Goethe”. Pela análise da história e o estudo de caso pode-se identificar treze etapas a serem respeitadas pelos pleiteantes brasileiros de IG para que alcancem o objetivo de agregar valor os produtos de maneira a promover o seu próprio desenvolvimento e de toda a região. Pode-se inclusive concluir que a institucionalização das IG tem grandes vantagens para a competitividade dos produtores bem como para o desenvolvimento socioeconômico regional que poderão proporcionar oportunidades de organizar a cadeia produtiva, aprofundar e compartilhar os conhecimentos, estabelecer critérios técnicos de produção, contribuir para a melhoria da qualidade dos produtos e, promover o desenvolvimento social, cultural e econômico da região. Porém, a institucionalização da IG depende da gestão de processos complexos e este estudo é importante para apoiar neste caminho, pois com o processo mapeado e a clareza em relação à descrição de suas etapas facilita-se o envolvimento consciente dos participantes.  

  5. Composição físico-química de uvas para vinho fino em ciclos de verão e inverno

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    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de maturação das cultivares Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay e Sauvignon Blanc submetidas ao regime de dupla poda, em Cordislândia, região cafeeira do sul de Minas Gerais. As plantas foram submetidas a dois ciclos de produção, um de primavera-verão, compreendido entre agosto e janeiro, e outro ciclo de outono-inverno, entre janeiro e julho. Como parâmetros de qualidade, foram avaliados os diâmetros transversal e longitudinal da baga, acidez, ácidos tartárico e málico, pH, sólidos solúveis, antocianinas, fenólicos totais e os teores de glicose, frutose e sacarose. Todas as variedades apresentaram maiores teores de pH, sólidos solúveis, açúcares, antocianinas e fenólicos totais, e redução nos diâmetros transversal e longitudinal na safra de inverno. A cultivar Syrah destacou-se das demais no conteúdo de antocianinas e fenólicos totais tanto no verão quanto no inverno, entretanto apresentou o menor conteúdo de açúcares. A alteração do ciclo de produção da videira através da técnica da dupla poda para colheita, no período de inverno, na região cafeeira de Minas Gerais, favorece a maturação dos frutos e melhora consideravelmente a qualidade das uvas para vinificação.

  6. Grape extract and α-Tocopherol effect in cardiovascular disease model of Apo E -/- Mice Efeito do extrato de uva e α-Tocoferol em camundongos Apo E -/-, modelo de doença cardiovascular

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    Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify the effect of consumption of grape extract isolated or combined with α-tocopherol supplementation on atherosclerosis model with Apo E -/- mice. METHODS: After six weeks of atherogenic diet, Apo E -/- mice were divided into the following groups: Control, Grape, Tocopherol and Grape plus Tocopherol. The treatment progressed for 11 weeks when animals were submitted to euthanasia. RESULTS: All the treatments presented hypocholesterolemic effect with reduction of serum and liver cholesterol levels. This effect was parallel to an increase in the fecal excretion of cholesterol. There was also a higher fecal excretion of saturated fatty acids in groups receiving grape extract or α-tocopherol. All the groups treated presented a tendency to show higher levels of vitamin E. The fatty acid profile showed a tendency for monounsaturated fatty acid preservation after grape extract and α-tocopherol consumption. Morphological analysis revealed a lower degree of evolution of the atherosclerotic plaque of the animals that were fed α-tocopherol combined with grape extract, even when no difference was found in the size of the largest lesion. CONCLUSION: A synergistic effect between the polyphenols and α-tocopherol was observed, resulting in diminished evolution of atherosclerosis and a greater beneficial effect on atherosclerosis than the isolated consumption of antioxidants.OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do consumo de extrato de uva isolada ou combinada com a suplementação de α-tocoferol em modelo de aterosclerose, utilizando camundongos Apo E -/-. MÉTODOS: Os camundongos Apo E -/- foram tratados com dieta aterogênica por seis semanas e foram divididos em quatro grupos: Controle, Uva, Tocoferol e Uva e Tocoferol. Após 11 semanas de tratamento os animais foram submetidos à eutanasia. RESULTADOS: Todos os tratamentos apresentaram efeito hipocolesterolêmico, com redução de colesterol plasmático e hepático. Este efeito foi acompanhado

  7. Influência da altitude na qualidade das uvas 'Chardonnay' e 'Pinot Noir' em Minas Gerais Altitude influence on the quality of 'Chardonnay' and 'Pinot Noir' grapes in the state of Minas Gerais

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    Murillo de Albuquerque Regina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available No Sul e Sudeste brasileiros, o excesso de chuvas durante o período de maturação afeta negativamente a qualidade dos vinhos tintos. Por outro lado, estas regiões possuem potencial para a elaboração de espumantes, uma vez que, para a elaboração desta bebida, a uva é colhida antes de completar o amadurecimento. No Estado de Minas Gerais, as condições de verão chuvoso estão presentes em todas as regiões de potencial vitícola, e a variação de altitude entre elas pode exercer influência na composição das uvas. Desta forma, este estudo buscou avaliar o potencial de maturação de uvas 'Chardonnay' e 'Pinot Noir' destinadas à elaboração de espumantes em dois locais de Minas Gerais: Cordislândia (873m e Caldas (1.150m. As plantas foram enxertadas sobre 1.103 Paulsen e conduzidas em espaldeira. Foram avaliados os teores de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total, ácidos málico e tartárico, e pH do mosto, tamanho e massa das bagas, compostos fenólicos nas cascas e sementes, antocianinas na casca e açúcares solúveis nas bagas, em duas safras consecutivas. As bagas apresentaram maior tamanho e massa quando cultivadas em Caldas. As uvas colhidas em Cordislândia apresentaram maior grau de maturação, sendo observados maior pH, maiores teores de glicose e frutose, e quantidade inferior de acidez e fenólicos totais nas sementes. Os maiores teores de ácido málico presentes nas uvas provenientes de Caldas sugerem que esta região pode ser mais indicada à produção de uvas para elaboração de vinhos espumantes.In the southern and southeastern of Brazil, the excessive rainfall during the maturation period negatively affects the quality of red wines. On the other hand, these regions have great potential for the development of sparklings since that for the elaboration of this drink, the grape is harvested before complete its maturation. In the state of Minas Gerais, the conditions of rainy summer season are present in all

  8. Subprodutos da uva como promotores de crescimento em dietas de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade = Grape by-products as growth promoters for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age

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    Rui Rotava

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento para se avaliar os efeitos da utilização de compostos fenólicos contidos em subprodutos da uva (Vitis vinifera como promotores de crescimento em dietas de frango de corte. Foram utilizados 600 pintos de corte machos Ross, de um a 21 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado,com seis tratamentos, inoculados ou não, com cepas de Escherichia coli, constituindo-se fatorial 6 x 2 com cinco repetições de dez aves cada uma. Foi utilizada uma dieta isonutritiva composta por ração inicial basal, com subproduto de uva ou antibiótico, de acordo com osseguintes tratamentos: T1-controle negativo; T2-0,05% de flavomicina e sulfato de colistina; T3-0,04% extrato de semente de uva desengordurada; T4-0,1% de semente de uva integral (SUI; T5-0,47% de SUI e T6-2,35% de SUI. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganhode peso, consumo de ração, ganho de peso médio, peso final, conversão alimentar e índice de eficiência produtiva. A inclusão de subprodutos da uva não influenciou as variáveis zootécnicas nem apresentou atividade promotora de crescimento. A inoculação com E. colipiorou o ganho de peso e o peso final. Os resultados não recomendam a utilização de subprodutos de uva.An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of phenoliccompounds from grape by-products (Vitis vinifera as growth promoters in the diets of broilers between 1 and 21 days of age. Six hundred Ross male chicks were raised from 1 to 21 days of age. The experimental design was completely randomized a 6 x 2 factorialscheme (six diets, inoculated or not inoculated with strains of Escherichia coli, and five repetitions consisting of 10 animals each. Each bird received an isonutritive basal diet consisting of grape by-products or antibiotics as follows: T1-negative control; T2 – positive control-0.05% of flavomycin and colistin sulphate; T3 – 0.04% defatted grape seed extract; T4 – 0.1% grape seed (WGS; T5 – 0

  9. Compuestos volátiles libres y enlazados glicosídicamente en la pulpa de la uva Caimarona (Pourouma cecropiifolia Mart. Compostos voláteis livres e enlaçados glicosídicamente na polpa da uva Caimarona (Pourouma cecropiifolia Mart.

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    Juliana Constanza Barrios Guio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los componentes volátiles presentes en la pulpa de la uva Caimarona se estudiaron mediante GC-MS. Éstos se extrajeron por tres técnicas: evaporación del aroma asistida con solvente (Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation SAFE, extracción continua líquido-líquido (LL y destilación por arrastre con vapor-extracción simultanea con solvente orgánico (DES. En general los componentes volátiles predominantes en la pulpa fueron alcoholes alifáticos y terpénicos. Las notas olfativas del extracto SAFE fueron descritas como floral tenue y verde herbal similares a las exhibidas por la pulpa fresca. Este extracto presentó como componentes mayoritarios linalol 1,2-propanodiol y salicilato de metilo. En contraste, el extracto LL presentó notas que recuerdan la uva pasa y el vino moscatel y sus componentes mayoritarios fueron el ácido acético, el salicilato de metilo y el 2,6-dimetil-2(Z,7-octadien-1,6-diol. El extracto DES fue descrito con notas fresca, floral, cereal y amargo y está constituido por un reducido número de componentes mostrando el efecto negativo de la temperatura en la extracción; sus componentes mayoritarios fueron 1,2-propanodiol, linalol y salicilato de metilo. Adicionalmente, los componentes volátiles mayoritarios liberados por hidrólisis enzimática (Rohapect D5L de los glicósidos de la pulpa fueron ácido acético, ácido benzoico y vainillina. Cabe destacar que aunque el linalol no se encontró entre las agliconas volátiles, se detectaron los dioles biogenéticamente relacionados: 3,7-dimetil-1,5-octadien-3,7-diol y los isómeros E y Z del 2,6-dimetil-2,7-octadien-1,6-diol.Os componentes voláteis presentes na polpa da uva Caimarona foram estudados mediante GC-MS. Estes foram extraídos por três técnicas: evaporação de aroma assistida com solvente (Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation SAFE, extração continua líquido-líquido (LL e destilação por arraste com vapor-extração simultânea com solvente org

  10. Determinação de resveratrol em sucos de uva no Brasil Determination of resveratrol in grape juice produced in Brazil

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    Cláudia K. Sautter

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A detecção de resveratrol em vinhos vem sendo estudada mais intensamente nos últimos anos. O isômero trans-resveratrol tem reconhecidas atividades biológicas, e algumas delas são de uso terapêutico, tais como ação antiinflamatória, inibição da enzima lipoxigenase e ação anticarcinogênica in vitro. A presença do composto resveratrol (4,3',5'-trihidroxiestilbeno, em seus isômeros (trans e cis, foi determinada nos diferentes tipos de sucos de uva produzidos no Brasil. Além destes, também foram quantificados os polifenóis totais, acidez, açúcares redutores, sólidos solúveis e densidade, em conformidade com a legislação vigente. O resveratrol foi quantificado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência segundo SOUTO et al. [23], com adaptação da temperatura para 50° C. Foi detectada a presença de trans-resveratrol em todos os sucos analisados na concentração de 0,19mg.L-1 a 0,90mg.L-1 e o isômero cis-resveratrol foi de 0,07 a 1,59mg.L-1 .The resveratrol detection in wines has been studied more intensely in the last years. The isomeric trans-resveratrol has recognized biological activities, and some of them are therapeutic, such as anti-inflammatory action, enzyme lipoxigenase inhibition and anti-carcinogenic action in vitro. The presence of resveratrol (4,3',5'-trihydroxystilbene, trans and cis isomers, was investigated in industrial grape juices produced in Brazil. Additionally, total phenols, acidity, reducing sugars, soluble solids and specific gravity of samples were determined in accordance with law. Resveratrol was determined by high performance liquid chromatography by SOUTO et al. [23], adapted to the temperature of 50°C. Trans and cis-resveratrol were found in all the juices analyzed, tran-resveratrol in the concentration range of 0.19 to 0.90mg.L-1 and cis-resveratrol in the concentration range of 0.07 to 1.59mg.L-1.

  11. Distribution of Young's modulus in porcine corneas after riboflavin/UVA-induced collagen cross-linking as measured by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Jan; Hammer, Christian M; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Sel, Saadettin; Scholz, Michael; Paulsen, Friedrich; Schäffer, Tilman E

    2014-01-01

    Riboflavin/UVA-induced corneal collagen cross-linking has become an effective clinical application to treat keratoconus and other ectatic disorders of the cornea. Its beneficial effects are attributed to a marked stiffening of the unphysiologically weak stroma. Previous studies located the stiffening effect predominantly within the anterior cornea. In this study, we present an atomic force microscopy-derived analysis of the depth-dependent distribution of the Young's modulus with a depth resolution of 5 µm in 8 cross-linked porcine corneas and 8 contralateral controls. Sagittal cryosections were fabricated from every specimen and subjected to force mapping. The mean stromal depth of the zone with effective cross-linking was found to be 219 ± 67 µm. Within this cross-linked zone, the mean Young's modulus declined from 49 ± 18 kPa at the corneal surface to 46 ± 17 kPa, 33 ± 11 kPa, 17 ± 5 kPa, 10 ± 4 kPa and 10 ± 4 kPa at stromal depth intervals of 0-50 µm, 50-100 µm, 100-150 µm, 150-200 µm and 200-250 µm, respectively. This corresponded to a stiffening by a factor of 8.1 (corneal surface), 7.6 (0-50 µm), 5.4 (50-100 µm), 3.0 (100-150 µm), 1.6 (150-200 µm), and 1.5 (200-250 µm), when compared to the Young's modulus of the posterior 100 µm. The mean Young's modulus within the cross-linked zone was 20 ± 8 kPa (2.9-fold stiffening), while it was 11 ± 4 kPa (1.7-fold stiffening) for the entire stroma. Both values were significantly distinct from the mean Young's modulus obtained from the posterior 100 µm of the cross-linked corneas and from the contralateral controls. In conclusion, we were able to specify the depth-dependent distribution of the stiffening effect elicited by standard collagen cross-linking in porcine corneas. Apart from determining the depth of the zone with effective corneal cross-linking, we also developed a method that allows for atomic force microscopy-based measurements of gradients of Young's modulus in soft tissues in

  12. Distribution of Young's modulus in porcine corneas after riboflavin/UVA-induced collagen cross-linking as measured by atomic force microscopy.

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    Jan Seifert

    Full Text Available Riboflavin/UVA-induced corneal collagen cross-linking has become an effective clinical application to treat keratoconus and other ectatic disorders of the cornea. Its beneficial effects are attributed to a marked stiffening of the unphysiologically weak stroma. Previous studies located the stiffening effect predominantly within the anterior cornea. In this study, we present an atomic force microscopy-derived analysis of the depth-dependent distribution of the Young's modulus with a depth resolution of 5 µm in 8 cross-linked porcine corneas and 8 contralateral controls. Sagittal cryosections were fabricated from every specimen and subjected to force mapping. The mean stromal depth of the zone with effective cross-linking was found to be 219 ± 67 µm. Within this cross-linked zone, the mean Young's modulus declined from 49 ± 18 kPa at the corneal surface to 46 ± 17 kPa, 33 ± 11 kPa, 17 ± 5 kPa, 10 ± 4 kPa and 10 ± 4 kPa at stromal depth intervals of 0-50 µm, 50-100 µm, 100-150 µm, 150-200 µm and 200-250 µm, respectively. This corresponded to a stiffening by a factor of 8.1 (corneal surface, 7.6 (0-50 µm, 5.4 (50-100 µm, 3.0 (100-150 µm, 1.6 (150-200 µm, and 1.5 (200-250 µm, when compared to the Young's modulus of the posterior 100 µm. The mean Young's modulus within the cross-linked zone was 20 ± 8 kPa (2.9-fold stiffening, while it was 11 ± 4 kPa (1.7-fold stiffening for the entire stroma. Both values were significantly distinct from the mean Young's modulus obtained from the posterior 100 µm of the cross-linked corneas and from the contralateral controls. In conclusion, we were able to specify the depth-dependent distribution of the stiffening effect elicited by standard collagen cross-linking in porcine corneas. Apart from determining the depth of the zone with effective corneal cross-linking, we also developed a method that allows for atomic force microscopy-based measurements of gradients of Young's modulus in soft

  13. Photopheresis with UV-A light and 8-methoxypsoralen leads to cell death and to release of blebs with anti-inflammatory phenotype in activated and non-activated lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, K. [Department for Internal Medicine 3, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Frey, B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Munoz, L.E.; Finzel, S.; Rech, J. [Department for Internal Medicine 3, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Fietkau, R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Herrmann, M. [Department for Internal Medicine 3, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Hueber, A. [Centre for Rheumatic Diseases, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gaipl, U.S., E-mail: udo.gaipl@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-08-14

    Background: Extracorporeal photopheresis is a therapy for treatment of autoimmune diseases, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, organ graft rejection as well as graft-versus-host diseases. The exact mechanism how the combination of 8-methoxypsoralen plus UV-A irradiation (PUVA) acts is still unclear. We investigated the cell death of activated and non-activated lymphocytes after PUVA treatment as well as the rate of released blebs and their antigen composition. Results: In presence of 8-MOP, UV-A light highly significantly increased the cell death of activated lymphocytes. The same was observed to a lesser extent in non-activated cells. Blebs derived from activated lymphocytes after PUVA treatment showed the highest surface exposition of phosphatidylserine. These blebs also displayed a high exposure of the antigens CD5 and CD8 as well as a low exposure of CD28 and CD86. Conclusion: PUVA treatment exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inducing apoptosis and apoptotic cell-derived blebs with immune suppressive surface composition.

  14. Ensaio de vinificação: influência da mistura de variedades de uva, sôbre a qualidade do vinho Wine fermentation: the blending of grape varieties to improve wine quality

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    Odette Zardetto de Toledo

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados ensaios de vinificação, para observar a influência da associação de variedades de uvas cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo, sôbre a melhoria da qualidade do vinho. As uvas empregadas no ensaio foram das variedades Seibel 2 e Seibel 10096. A mistura dos mostos constituída de 70% da var. Seibel 10096 e 30% da var. Seibel 2 foi a que apresentou melhores resultados.The musts of two grape varieties (Seibel 2 and Seibel 10.096 raised in the State of S. Paulo were blended in different percentages to observe their influence on the wine quality. The variety Seibel 2 produces wines of very poor quality. A must composed of 50% Seibel 2 and 50% Seibel 10.096 produced a much better wine. The most remarkable improvement was obtained through the fermentation of a must composed of 70% Seibel 10.096 and 30% Seibel 2.

  15. Acidez na vinificação em tinto das uvas Isabel, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc The acidity in the vinification of Isabella, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Cabernet Franc red grapes

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    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A acidez é uma das características gustativas mais importantes dos vinhos e influencia sua estabilidade e coloração. Devido à insolubilização do ácido tartárico sob a forma de sais, a acidez titulável e o pH podem ser alterados durante a vinificação de acordo com o teor de potássio da uva. Este trabalho avaliou a evolução da acidez durante a vinificação de três cultivares de uvas tintas (Isabel - Vitis labrusca -, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc - Vitis vinifera da Serra Gaúcha. Os vinhos foram elaborados por microvinificação na safra de 1995, sendo avaliados a evolução da acidez titulável, pH, ácido tartárico e potássio imediatamente após o esmagamento da uva, na descuba e após a fermentação alcoólica, a fermentação malolática e a estabilização tartárica, totalizando análises em cinco fases da vinificação. Os resultados mostraram uma evolução diferente da acidez, avaliados através do pH, da acidez titulável, do ácido tartárico e do potássio, na vinificação em tinto da uva Isabel em relação à Cabernet Sauvignon e à Cabernet Franc, nas fases compreendidas entre o esmagamento da uva e a descuba. O vinho Isabel se caracterizou por apresentar teores mais elevados de acidez titulável e ácido tartárico e mais baixos de potássio e pH, em relação aos vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc.The acidity is an important sensory characteristic of the wine, and influences stability and collor. The insolubility of tartaric acid in the vinification by salt forms can change the titratable acidity and the pH of wines. This work evaluated the acidity evolution during the vinification of Isabella, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Cabernet Franc varieties in the Serra Gaucha region. The wines were elaborated by the microvinification process in the 1995 vintage. The evolution of titratable acidity, pH, tartaric acid, and potassium were analyzed in five phases of winemaking: immediately after crushing, after

  16. Compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante da casca de uvas Niágara e Isabel Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in skin of Niagara and Isabel grapes

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    Marcia Soares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A produção de uvas no Brasil está localizada nas regiões Sul, Sudeste e Nordeste. Constitui-se em atividade consolidada, com importância socioeconômica, principalmente nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina, os quais respondem por 97% da produção nacional de vinhos. A uva Isabel é uma das principais cultivares de Vitis labrusca, e a Niágara Rosada, resultado da mutação somática ocorrida na uva Niágara Branca (Vitis labrusca L. x Vitis vinifera L.. São destaques como uvas de mesa comuns, sendo variedades rústicas e, portanto, menos exigentes. O desenvolvimento do trabalho foi feito com o objetivo de determinar conteúdo total de compostos fenólicos, utilizando acetona como solvente em diferentes concentrações, a determinação da atividade antioxidante, do teor de antocianinas totais, flavanóis nos extratos da casca das uvas de mesa Niágara Rosada e Isabel. Os resultados médios do teor de fenólicos totais no extrato acetona 75% foi de 1.026,69 a 1.242,78 mg GAE/100g de peso seco nas cultivares Isabel e Niágara , respectivamente. A atividade antioxidante avaliada apresentou valores de 89,22 e 157,31 µmol TEAC/g de amostra com o método ABTS e de 197,00 e 189,82 µmol TEAC/g de amostra no método DPPH para as cultivares Isabel e Niágara. A quantidade de antocianinas foi baixa comparada com outros frutos. Os valores de polifenóis refletem-se nos valores de TEAC, e observa-se uma correlação positiva entre a média do conteúdo de polifenóis totais com a média dos valores TEAC, o que se pode atribuir aos compostos fitoquímicos presentes nas cascas.Grape production in Brazil is located in the South, Southeast and Northeast regions. It is a consolidated activity of great social and economical importance mainly in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states. These states are responsible for 97% of national wine production. Isabel grape is one of the main varieties of Vitis labrusca and Niagara Rosada is

  17. Characterization of Sugars and Organic Acids in Commercial Varieties of Table Grapes Caracterización de Azúcares y Ácidos Orgánicos en Variedades Comerciales de Uva de Mesa

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    Pablo Muñoz-Robredo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavor composition has been defined as a complex attribute of fruit quality, in which the mix of sugars, acids and volatiles play a primary role. In table grapes (Vitis vinifera L., sweetness and sourness are the most important flavor attributes for fresh consumption. However, most of the studies available have been performed on wine grapes, which are grown, cultured and processed differently to table grapes. Therefore, the objective of this work was to characterize the changes in sugars and organic acids during the development of ‘Thompson Seedless’, ‘Red Globe’ and ‘Crimson Seedless’ grown under the same agroclimatic conditions. Each variety was sampled weekly from 2 wk before véraison until commercial harvest. Sugars and organic acids were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC equipped with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD and ultra violet detector, respectively. The ranges of acid and sugars concentrations found in grapes were as follows: tartaric acid, 1.28-7.45 g L-1; malic acid, 0.38-29.92 g L-1, citric acid traces-1.03 g L-1; fructose, 0.15-8.74 g (sugar 100 g(grape-1; glucose, 0.19-8.71 g (sugar 100 g(grape-1 and sucrose 0.02-0.91 g (sugar 100 g(grape-1. Among sugars, glucose was the most abundant one in early stages and then it decreased until the harvest period, when the amount of fructose and glucose converged to an average of 47% for each sugar. Despite organic acids reaching steady levels 3-4 wk before commercial harvest, there were important differences in the organic acid profiles among varieties, with ‘Thompson Seedless’ showing the lowest tartaric/malic acid ratio of 1.19. These differences are an important aspect in terms of overall flavor.La composición del sabor ha sido definida como un atributo complejo de la calidad de la fruta, en el cual la mezcla de azúcares, ácidos y volátiles juega un rol determinante. En uva de mesa (Vitis vinifera L., el dulzor y la acidez son

  18. Efectos del policosanol, el extracto de semillas de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas Effect of Polycosanol, a grape seed extract and its combined therapy on oxidation markers in rats

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    Ambar Oyarzábal Yera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El policosanol, mezcla de alcoholes alifáticos primarios superiores obtenida de la cera de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum, L. y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinífera, L, producen efectos antioxidantes demostrados experimental y clínicamente. El objetivo del trabajo consistió en comparar los efectos del policosanol, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en plasma e hígado de ratas. Las ratas se distribuyeron en 4 grupos: un control y 3 tratados con policosanol, extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada, respectivamente, todos a dosis de 25 mg/kg, durante 4 semanas. Las monoterapias redujeron significativamente las concentraciones plasmáticas de malondialdehído y de grupos carbonilos asociados a proteínas con respecto al control, lo que mostró similar eficacia. La terapia combinada redujo (p The Polycosanol, a mixture of superior primary aliphatic alcohols obteined from the sugarcane wax (Sacharum officinarum, L. and the grape seeds extract (Vitis vinífera, L. produces antioxidant effects experimentally and clinically demonstrated. The aim of present paper was to compare the effects of Polycosanol, the grape seed extract, and its combined therapy on oxidative markers in plasma and liver of rats. The rats were distributed into 4 groups: a control one and three treated with Polycosanol, grape seed extract and its combined therapy, respectively, using a 25 mg/kg dose over 4 weeks. The single-therapies significantly reduced the plasmatic concentrations of malonyldialdehyde and of proetin-associated carbonyl groups regarding the control, showing a similar efficacy. Combined therapy reduced in a more effective way (p < 0,001 the malonyldialdehyde concentrations of carbonyl groups, and also decreased (p < 0,01 the concentrations of carbonyl groups, but no more than the single-therapies. Each single-therapy reduced the malonyldialdehyde concentrations generated by spontaneous

  19. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cola and grape flavored soft drinks in bone marrow cells of rodents Citotoxicidade e mutagenicidade de refrigerantes sabor cola e uva, em células de medula óssea de roedor

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    Elisângela Düsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large consumption of soft drinks in Brazil and worldwide in recent years and considering that some of the components present in their composition pose potential risks to human health, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of specific cola and grape-flavored soft drink brands. Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were initially treated by gavage with one single dose of Cola or Grape soft drink, which was next offered ad libitum (instead of water for 24 hours. A negative control treatment was performed by administering one single dose of water and a positive control administering cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally. Statistical analysis showed that the Cola and Grape soft drinks studied were not cytotoxic. However, the Cola soft drink proved mutagenic in this experiment treatment time. Therefore, this study serves as a warning about the consumption of Cola-flavored soft drink and for the need for further subchronic and chronic studies on soft drinks in order to evaluate the long term mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these substances.Devido ao grande consumo de refrigerantes no Brasil e no mundo nos últimos anos, e tendo em vista que alguns dos componentes presentes na composição destes possuem potenciais danosos para os organismos, em especial o humano, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial citotóxico e mutagênico de uma marca de refrigerante sabor Cola e uma de sabor Uva. Foram utilizadas como sistema-teste as células de medula óssea de ratos Wistar, tratados via gavagem com dose única do refrigerante sabor Cola ou Uva e, em seguida, fornecidos ad libitum (no lugar da água, por 24 horas. Foi feito um controle negativo, administrando água, em dose única, e um controle positivo administrando ciclofosfamida, via intraperitoneal. A análise estatística mostrou que os refrigerantes sabor Cola e Uva não foram citotóxicos. Entretanto, o refrigerante sabor Cola foi mutagênico neste

  20. AVALIAÇÃO DA ROTULAGEM, CARACTERIZAÇÃO QUÍMICA, FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E REOLÓGICA DE NÉCTARES DE UVA COMERCIALIZADOS NA CIDADE DE FORTALEZA - CE

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    Alessandra Pinheiro de Góes CARNEIRO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, há diferentes tipos de bebidas de frutas, dentre elas pode-se citar o suco e o néctar, que, de acordo com a legislação brasileira diferem entre si na quantidade de polpa de fruta que é adicionada em cada formulação, sendo o néctar a bebida com menor proporção de polpa de fruta. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar diferentes marcas comerciais de néctar de uva quanto às características de rotulagem, propriedades químicas, físico-químicas e reológicas. O estudo foi realizado com dezesseis amostras de néctares de uva de diferentes marcas, sendo doze “tradicionais” e quatro “lights”, as quais foram obtidas em supermercados da cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Foram realizadas análises de pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, relação sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável, açúcares totais e redutores e ácido ascórbico. Apesar de 15% das amostras não apresentarem a denominação de venda do produto e 57% não continham o conteúdo líquido e o lote de fabricação descritos no rótulo, pode-se afirmar, que de um modo geral, os parâmetros analisados estão de acordo com o exigido pela legislação brasileira quanto à rotulagem e as características químicas e físico-químicas. Quanto às características reológicas, os néctares de uva classificam-se como fluidos newtonianos.

  1. Efeito do microclima na qualidade da uva de mesa 'Romana' (A 1105 cultivada sob cobertura plástica Effect of microclimate in the quality of 'Romana' (A 1105 table grape cultivated under plastic cover

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    Jorge Lulu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A videira é uma das principais fruteiras cultivadas em todo o mundo, e atualmente a preferência por uvas do tipo "sem sementes" ou "apirênicas" vem aumentando gradativamente no mercado interno brasileiro. A cultivar 'Romana' (A 1105 tem mostrado grande potencial como nova alternativa de uva de mesa apirênica na região de Jundiaí (SP. No entanto, a qualidade dos cachos tem sido afetada pela ocorrência de chuvas na época da colheita, propiciando a incidência de rachaduras nas bagas ("cracking" e podridões. Levando-se em consideração a viabilidade do cultivo desta uva sob cobertura plástica, foi realizada a presente pesquisa, objetivando-se analisar os parâmetros microclimáticos dentro e fora dos ambientes protegidos e a qualidade do produto na época de colheita. Os valores médios de transmissividade à radiação solar global entre os tratamentos foram decrescentes na seguinte ordem: efeito apenas da cobertura plástica > efeito apenas do sistema de condução da planta > efeito da cobertura plástica + sistema de condução da planta. Logo após a colheita, foram observadas reduções significativas na incidência de podridões, dano profundo e dano superficial nos cachos da videira cultivada sob cobertura plástica. A massa do cacho também foi significativamente maior no tratamento com cobertura plástica. Assim, pode-se concluir que o uso da cobertura plástica para o cultivo da uva 'Romana' (A 1105 foi capaz de melhorar a qualidade dos frutos, principalmente por reduzir significativamente a incidência de podridões nos cachos, importante problema que afetava esta cultivar.The grapevine is an important crop grown worldwide and nowadays the preference by seedless grapes is increasing in the brazilian market. The cultivar 'Romana' (A 1105 is showing great potential as a new seedless table grape for the growing region of Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil. However, the bunch quality has been influenced by rain during the harvest

  2. Compostos fenólicos, ácidos graxos e capacidade antioxidante do bagaço da vinificação de uvas tintas (Vitis vinifera e Vitis labrusca)

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    Rockenbach, Ismael Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência dos Alimentos. A vitivinicultura no Brasil está concentrada nas regiões Sul, Sudeste e Nordeste, sendo uma atividade consolidada e com significativa importância sócio-econômica. Em Santa Catarina, a vitivinicultura apresenta expressão econômica principalmente na região do Vale do Rio do Peixe, onde a maior parte da produção de uvas destina-se à elaboração de vi...

  3. Evaluación del potencial energético y bioactivo de residuos generados en la producción y transformación de la uva

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    Ruales Salcedo, Angela Viviana

    2015-01-01

    En los últimos años se ha manifestado un interés creciente en el aprovechamiento de la biomasa generada como residuo de los procesos industriales, por su fácil accesibilidad y características físico-químicas. Este aprovechamiento, además de contribuir con el medio ambiente, está enfocado a dar o mejorar el valor económico de los residuos. En la producción y transformación de la uva son generados residuos que poseen características de interés para el uso agronómico, farmacéutico/cosmético y en...

  4. Producción de uva y Fabricación de vino Control de la Calidad y Seguridad en las Cadenas de Producción Orgánica

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    Wyss, Gabriela; Elzakker, Bo van

    2005-01-01

    Este catálogo se destina a productores y otros agentes envueltos en la producción de la uva y fabricación de vino orgánico, y pretende dar una visión práctica sobre lo que se puede hacer en varias etapas de la cadena de producción para a mejorar la calidad y la seguridad del vino orgánico, de acuerdo con los requisitos generales de la certificación de la seguridad alimenticia. Fueron también preparados catálogos para otros productos, así como catálogos dirigidos a los consumidores y vendedore...

  5. Desenvolvimento e estudos de estabilidade de cremes e géis contendo sementes e extratos do bagaço da uva Isabel (Vitis labrusca L.

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    JOãO RONALDO N. FERREIRA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No cenário mundial, inúmeras indústrias de cosméticos buscam a inovação, utilizando-se de matérias-primas de origens diversificadas, principalmente oriundas de vegetais, representando uma alternativa de substituição de materiais sintéticos por naturais. Com esse intuito, no presente estudo, realizou-se o desenvolvimento e a avaliação da estabilidade de emulsões e géis contendo extratos e sementes do bagaço da uva Isabel (Vitis labrusca L., uma espécie de uva rica em compostos fenólicos e flavonoides com grande atividade antioxidante. Com isso, buscou-se evidenciar o período em que os produtos mantiveram suas propriedades físico-químicas, frente a variações climáticas forçadas em estudos acelerados, durante o período de armazenamento. Foram preparados cremes contendo 5 e 10% de extrato glicólico do bagaço da uva e géis contendo 10% de sementes trituradas, sendo acondicionados em condições ambientais distintas e avaliados, através de testes físico-químicos, no período de 60 dias. Durante esse período, não foram evidenciados sinais de instabilidade físico-química nos cremes analisados frente às condições testadas. No entanto, o gel apresentou leve alteração da cor e do odor, sugerindo a necessidade de estabilização físico-química de seus constituintes naturais com a adição de antioxidantes. Palavras-chave: Antioxidante. Esfoliante. Estabilidade. Uva Isabel. Vitis labrusca L. ABSTRACT Development and testing of the stability of creams and gels containing extracts of the pomace and seeds of Isabel grapes (Vitis labrusca L. Numerous cosmetic companies around the world seek innovation, using raw materials of various origins, mainly derived from plants, as natural alternatives to synthetic materials. With this in mind, this study was carried out to develop and test the stability of emulsions and gels, respectively containing extracts of pomace and seeds of Isabel grape (Vitis labrusca L., a

  6. Uva "Niágara Rosada" cultivada no sistema orgânico e armazenada em diferentes temperaturas "Niágara Rosada" grapes cultivated under organic system and stored at different temperatures

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    Alessandra M. Detoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de cultivo, as cultivares, as condições de colheita e pós-colheita têm efeito direto na conservação e qualidade das uvas. Diante disso, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do tempo (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias e da temperatura de armazenamento (1, 14 e 24ºC na qualidade pós-colheita da uva "Niágara Rosada" cultivada no sistema orgânico. O fator limitante para o armazenamento foi o elevado índice de degrana, porém, as uvas ainda possuíam qualidade para o consumo, por observar a manutenção do teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e pH. Dentre as avaliações químicas, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais, a acidez total titulável e o teor de vitamina C foram as únicas variáveis que apresentaram diminuição acentuada para as frutas armazenadas a 24ºC, resultando em um curto período de armazenamento. As frutas armazenadas a 14ºC não apresentaram grandes variações nas características químicas, mantendo uma boa qualidade para o consumo por até 28 dias de armazenamento. A melhor temperatura para a conservação das frutas foi 1ºC, em que as uvas alcançaram 35 dias de armazenamento sem grande variação na qualidade para o consumo.The cultivation system, the cultivars, the crop conditions and post harvest, can effect the conservation and quality of the grapes. This work aimed the evaluation of the affect of the time of storage (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days and the storage temperature (1, 14 and 24ºC in the quality of the grape "Niágara Rosada" pots harvest cultivated in the organic system. The limiting point for the storage was the high number of free berries observed, however the grapes still have quality for consumption, because observing without modification in the tenor of total soluble, the total titratable acidity and pH. Among the chemical assay, the determination of the tenor of total soluble solids, the total titratable acidity and the vitamin tenor C were the only ones which

  7. Elaboração e aceitabilidade de biscoitos enriquecidos com aveia e farinha de bagaço de uva Elaboration and acceptability of cookies enhanced with oat and flour grape pomace

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    Alessandra Piovesana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A crescente demanda por alimentos benéficos à saúde é acompanhada pela busca por processos que gerem baixo volume de resíduos sólidos ou que proporcionem seu reaproveitamento. Este trabalho propõe a elaboração e a avaliação da aceitabilidade de biscoitos enriquecidos com aveia e farinha de bagaço de uva. A farinha de bagaço de uva, produzida como alternativa de utilização do grande volume deste resíduo gerado pela indústria vitivinícola, representa uma ótima fonte de fibras e antioxidantes naturais de baixo custo. Esta foi obtida por meio da moagem do bagaço seco e posterior padronização granulométrica. A farinha integral de aveia, fonte de fibras alimentares, foi obtida pela moagem da aveia em flocos. Para a elaboração dos biscoitos, foram utilizadas três formulações com diferentes percentuais de substituição da farinha de trigo por farinha integral de aveia e farinha de bagaço de uva, as quais foram denominadas formulações A, B e C, com níveis de substituição de 30%, 40% e 50%, respectivamente. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, os resultados submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de significância. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os biscoitos elaborados apresentaram propriedades sensoriais aceitáveis, sendo os percentuais de substituição utilizados neste estudo aceitos pelos julgadores, dentre todos os atributos avaliados. O uso da aveia fornece um incremento de fibra alimentar e a farinha de bagaço de uva é um ingrediente alternativo para o reaproveitamento de um produto normalmente descartado.The growing demand for healthy food is accompanied by a search for processes that generate low volumes of solid waste, or which provide for its reuse. This paper proposes the development and evaluation of the acceptability of cookies enriched with oat and grape pomace flour. The grape pomace flour, produced as an alternative

  8. Assimetria de transmissão de preço na comercialização da uva fina de mesa no Paraná: 1997 a 2011

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    Alexandre Florindo Alves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O Paraná se destaca como um dos principais produtores de uva fina de mesa no Brasil, tendo como característica a presença de pequenos e médios produtores. O presente estudo objetiva analisar a assimetria na transmissão de preço entre os níveis produtor, atacado e varejo da uva fina de mesa no Paraná, no período de janeiro de 1997 a outubro de 2011. A metodologia empregada para verificar como ocorre a transmissão de preços entre os agentes foi o Vetor Autorregressivo (VAR. O modelo utilizado para mensurar Assimetria de Transmissão de Preços (ATP foi baseado na metodologia desenvolvida por Grififth e Piggott (1994. Os principais resultados foram: na análise de transmissão de preço ao varejo, o atacado apresentou um coeficiente de elasticidade maior do que o nível do produtor; o sentido unicausal atacado-varejo do teste de Granger é uma evidência de presença de informações assimétricas; e os acréscimos dos preços são transmitidos com mais rapidez do que os decréscimos, que, junto aos resultados do teste t de Griffith e Piggott (1994, comprova a existência de assimetria na transmissão de preços.

  9. Turismo de Eventos na Serra Gaúcha: O Caso da Festa Nacional da Uva de Caxias do Sul, RS / Tourism Events in Serra Gaucha: The Case of Caxias do Sul, RS, National Grape Festival

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    Fabrício Silva Barbosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eventos são, cada vez mais, utilizados como instrumentos de promoção de destinos e de localidades turísticas. O rápido crescimento do setor é considerado um fenômeno global, pois os eventos impulsionam a economia local, sendo uma alternativa para minimizar os efeitos da sazonalidade nos centros receptores de turismo. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar como ocorre o planejamento da Festa da Uva de Caxias do Sul, RS, tomando como base as fases do pré-evento, trans-evento e pós- evento propostas por Allen et al (2008. Trata-se de um estudo de caso, em pesquisa de viés qualitativo e descritivo. Os resultados da pesquisa apontam para a existência de um planejamento logístico do evento estruturado e organizado com divisão de tarefas e atividades que contribuem para o sucesso da festa. Palavras-chaves: Turismo. Turismo de Eventos. Festa Nacional da Uva. Caxias do Sul, RS. Tourism Events in Serra Gaucha: The Case of Caxias do Sul, RS, National Grape Festival - Events are increasingly being used to promoting tourism destinations and localities. Events help the local economy as alternative for decreasing the effects caused by seasonality in the major host centers of tourism. This article investigates the planning of the Grape Festival of Caxias do Sul, it’s pre-event, trans-event and post-event structure as proposed by Allen et al (2008. It’s a qualitative and exploratory study. The results point the presence of a logistic plan well-organized, with the division of tasks and activities that contribute to the success of the festival. Keywords: Tourism. Events Tourism.  National Grape Festival. Caxias do Sul, RS, Brasil.

  10. Produtividade da cultivar de uva de mesa niagara rosada sobre diferentes porta-enxertos, em Monte Alegre do Sul-SP Yield of the niagara rosada table grape cultivar grafted on different rootstocks, in Monte Alegre do Sul-SP

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    Maurilo Monteiro Terra

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento da cultivar de uva de mesa Niagara Rosada enxertada sobre diferentes porta-enxertos, um experimento foi conduzido na região de Monte Alegre do Sul-SP, durante seis anos consecutivos. Os porta-enxertos estudados foram 'Schwarzmann', IAC 572 'Jales', IAC 313 'Tropical', 'Traviú', IAC 766 'Campinas' e 'Kober 5BB'. Os porta-enxertos IAC-313 'Tropical', IAC 766 'Campinas' e 'Traviú' são recomendados para a uva de mesa 'Niagara Rosada' na região de Monte Alegre do Sul-SP. A cultivar Niagara Rosada sobre o porta-enxerto 'Kober 5BB' teve menor produtividade em comparação com os demais porta-enxertos avaliados, não sendo recomendado para a região de Monte Alegre do Sul-SP.With the objective of studying the behavior of the Niagara Rosada table grape cultivar grafted on different rootstocks, a trial was carried out in the region of Monte Alegre do Sul-SP, Brazil, by six consecutive years. The rootstocks studied were 'Schwarzmann', IAC 572 'Jales', IAC 313 'Tropical', 'Traviú', IAC 766 'Campinas' e 'Kober 5BB'. It was verified from the results obtained, that the rootstocks IAC 313 'Tropical', IAC 766 'Campinas' and 'Traviú' are recommend for the 'Niagara Rosada' for the region of Monte Alegre do Sul-SP. The Niagara Rosada grafted on the rootstock 'Kober 5BB' had a minor yield per vine compared with the others rootstocks, and can not be recommended for the region of Monte Alegre do Sul-SP.

  11. Mutation spectrum produced on PBR322 by 8-Methoxypsoralen plus UV-A light. Localizacion puntual de mutaciones producidas en PBR322 por tratamiento con 8-metoxipsoraleno mas luz ultravioleta-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R.

    1990-01-01

    The mutagenic effect of 8-MOP+UVA (PUVA treatment) on pBR322 has been analysed by determining the frequency of mutation in the tet gene and identifying the type and position of the mutations produced inside a 276 pb-fragment (Bam-H1-SalI) of the same gene. pBR322 DNA was irradiated with UVA light in the presence of increasing concentrations of 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). The number of psoralen adducts formed in pBR322 upon that treatment ranged from 0 to 10.7 adducts per plasmid molecule. Modified DNA samples were used to transform several strains of E. Coli (differing in their repair capacities), both in constitutive conditions and after sos pre-induction by 254 nm-irradiation of cells. Mutation frequencies in the tet gene showed to increase in the wild type and uvrA strains along with the number of psoralen adduts per plasmid molecule; higher mutation frequencies were found in cells that had been previously irradiated to induce the SOS expression. Mutant plasmids were isolated from ApRTcS colonies and sequenced by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. Mutations appeared to be unique in most of the cases and were always punctual, i.e. affecting only to one base pair. The relative positions of the mutations showed a high frequency of coincidence among the sequenced fragments, indicating the existence of several DNA regions with high probability to mutated ([sup h]ot spots[sup )]. (author)

  12. Mutation spectrum produced on PBR322 by 8-Methoxypsoralen plus UV-A light; Localizacion puntual de mutaciones producidas en PBR322 por tratamiento con 8-metoxipsoraleno mas luz ultravioleta-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R.

    1990-12-31

    The mutagenic effect of 8-MOP+UVA (PUVA treatment) on pBR322 has been analysed by determining the frequency of mutation in the tet gene and identifying the type and position of the mutations produced inside a 276 pb-fragment (Bam-H1-SalI) of the same gene. pBR322 DNA was irradiated with UVA light in the presence of increasing concentrations of 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). The number of psoralen adducts formed in pBR322 upon that treatment ranged from 0 to 10.7 adducts per plasmid molecule. Modified DNA samples were used to transform several strains of E. Coli (differing in their repair capacities), both in constitutive conditions and after sos pre-induction by 254 nm-irradiation of cells. Mutation frequencies in the tet gene showed to increase in the wild type and uvrA strains along with the number of psoralen adduts per plasmid molecule; higher mutation frequencies were found in cells that had been previously irradiated to induce the SOS expression. Mutant plasmids were isolated from ApRTcS colonies and sequenced by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. Mutations appeared to be unique in most of the cases and were always punctual, i.e. affecting only to one base pair. The relative positions of the mutations showed a high frequency of coincidence among the sequenced fragments, indicating the existence of several DNA regions with high probability to mutated ({sup h}ot spots{sup )}. (author)

  13. Caracterização de diferentes marcas de sucos de uva comercializados em duas regiões do Brasil Characterization of different trading marks of grape juice in two regions of Brazil

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    Merce Teodora Aguil Santana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar três marcas de diferentes sucos de uva integral (Vitis labrusca L. oriundos de duas regiões do Brasil (Sudeste e Centro-Oeste. Os sucos foram avaliados quanto às seguintes análises: sólidos solúveis (°Brix, acidez titulável (AT, pH, vitamina C, açúcares redutores, totais e não-redutores. Os resultados indicaram variabilidade entre as diferentes marcas de sucos de uva, evidenciando que estas encontram-se fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira em vigor. De acordo com os elevados valores de açúcares totais e não redutores, pode-se inferir que houve adição de sacarose nas três marcas dos sucos analisados.The purpose of this work was to evaluated three different marks of juice of integral grape (Vitis labrusca L. originating from two regions of Brazil (Southeast and Center-west. The juices had been evaluated as the following analyses: soluble solids (ºBrix, titratable acidity (AT, pH, vitamin C, reducing sugars, total and no-reducing sugars. The results indicated variability among the differents marks of grape juice, showing that they find themselves out of the established patterns by the vigorating Brazilian legislation. Acording to the high values of total and non reducing sugars, it may be inferred that there was addition of sucrose in the three analyzed juice marks.

  14. Porta-enxertos para o cultivar Máximo IAC 138-22 de uvas de vinho em Monte Alegre do Sul, SP Rootstocks for wine grape cultivar IAC 138-22

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    Maurilo Monteiro Terra

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Em Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, efetuou-se um experimento de longa duração para observar o comportamento do cultivar IAC 138-22 (Máximo de uvas para vinho, sobre cinco porta-enxertos: RR 101-14, 'Golia', "Ripária do Traviú', IAC 572 e IAC 313. Em oito colheitas sucessivas anuais, de 1974 a 1981, analisaram-se as produções médias de uvas por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o IAC 572' foi o melhor porta-enxerto para o IAC 138-22 'Máximo'. O IAC 313 superou o IAC 572 em um dos anos estudados. Todos os outros porta-enxertos apresentaram desempenho inferior.A long term experiment was conducted at Monte Alegre do Sul, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to study the behaviour of wine grape cultivar IAC 138-22 Máximo on five rootstocks: RR 101 14, 'Golia', "Ripária do Traviú', IAC 313 and IAC 572 The yields of eight consecutive annual harvests (from 1974 to 1981 were analysed. The results indicated that IAC 572 was the best rootstock. IAC 313 can also be used but with fair results. "Ripária do Traviú', RR 101-14 and 'Golia' are not recommended as rootstocks for IAC 138-22. Considering the row spacing (2 x 1m which allows 5,000 plants/ha, the difference between average yields of the best and the worst rootstock was 8,475kg/ha of grapes, a considerable figure for the grape grower.

  15. Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Partially Defoliated Grape Plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay / Fluorescencia de la Clorofila en Plantas de Uva (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Defoliadas Parcialmente

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    Peña Olmos Jaime Ernesto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The chlorophyll content and fluorescence weredetermined in five-year-old grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv.Chardonnay that were subjected to early partial defoliation,in Villa de Leyva, Colombia. The experimental design wascompletely randomized, consisting of two treatments (50%defoliation and control, each with four replications of 35 plants. Every two weeks, one of every two recently-emerged leaves was removed from the non-control plants. The determination of total chlorophyll content was carried out on six leaves per plant using a CCM-200 Plus chlorophyll meter, while chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were taken with one darkadapted leaf per plant using a Junior-PAM fluorometer. Initial fluorescence (Fo, maximum fluorescence (Fm, terminal fluorescence (Ft, variable fluorescence (Fv, electron transport rate (ETR, maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Fv/ Fm, effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (Y(II, photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (qP, two non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qN and NPQ,quantum yield of light-induced non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (Y(NPQ, and quantum yield of non-light-induced non-photochemical quenching (Y(NO were measured. The chlorophyll concentration index showed higher values in the defoliated plants. There were no significant differences for the values of Fm, Ft and Fv. Fo was higher in the defoliated plants, while ETR, Fv/Fm and Y(II showed higher values in the control plants. It is evident that a reduction in leaf area modifies thepartitioning of excitation energy destined for photochemicaland non-photochemical processes, thus directly influencing the photosynthetic process of the plants evaluated. / Utilizando un diseño completamente aleatorizado,con dos tratamientos (defoliación al 50% y control y cuatrorepeticiones de 35 plantas cada una, se determinó el contenido y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en plantas de uva, sometidas a defoliación parcial

  16. Manejo da irrigação com restrição hídrica sobre a fisiologia, produção e qualidade da uva e do vinho da cultivar Chenin Blanc no Vale do São Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, André Luis Chaves

    2014-01-01

    O manejo da irrigação em videiras para a produção de uvas e vinhos é fundamental nas condições do Nordeste brasileiro, região caracterizada por uma estação seca prolongada e bem definida, localizada entre os paralelos 8-9º de latitude sul. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes lâminas de irrigação sobre a qualidade de uvas e as características analíticas e sensoriais dos vinhos experimentais elaborados. Utilizou-se um vinhedo de Chenin Blanc, com dois anos de i...

  17. Polifenóis totais e avaliação sensorial de suco de uvas Isabel tratadas com ultrassom Phenolic compounds and sensory evaluation of juice from Isabel grapes treated with ultrasound

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    Carine Glaucia Comarella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O suco de uva no Brasil é um produto amplamente consumido por suas características sensoriais e nutricionais; porém, tratamentos durante o seu processamento podem ocasionar perdas de compostos fenólicos importantes na definição dessas características. O ultrassom é apontado como um possível elicitor desses compostos, visto que o estresse mecânico provocado por cavitação acústica e microagitação estimula respostas de defesa na planta que levam à síntese dessas substâncias. Neste estudo, diferentes densidades de potência (53 e 113 W.cm-2 e tempos de exposição (1, 5 e 10 minutos de ultrassom foram aplicados em uvas Isabel e seu efeito sobre o conteúdo de polifenóis totais e o aspecto sensorial dos sucos foi avaliado. O ultrassom causou um acréscimo de até 83% no teor de polifenóis totais, melhorando também as características sensoriais dos sucos, tendo sido estes os preferidos pelos provadores.Grape juice in Brazil is a product widely consumed for their sensory and nutritional characteristics, however, treatments during processing can cause loss of phenolic compounds important in defining these characteristics. Ultrasound is cited as a possible elicitor of these compounds, since the mechanical stress caused by acoustic cavitation and microstreaming stimulates the plant defense responses that lead to synthesis of these substances. In this study, different power densities (53 and 113 W.cm-2 and exposure times (1, 5 and 10 minutes of ultrasound were applied in Isabel grapes and its effect on the total polyphenols content and sensory aspect of the juices was evaluated. The ultrasound caused an increase of up to 83% in total polyphenols content, improving the sensory characteristics of juices, being chosen as preferred by the tasters.

  18. Extração, secagem por atomização e microencapsulamento de antocianinas do bagaço da uva "Isabel" (Vitis labrusca Extraction, spray drying and microencapsulating of 'Isabel' grape (Vitis labrusca bagasse anthocyanin

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    Eunice Valduga

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se obter neste trabalho um corante natural (antocianina, na forma de pó a partir do bagaço de uva da cultivar "Isabel" (Vitis labrusca, onde foram realizados estudos de extração e encapsulamento. Empregou-se o método de extração por imersão mediante técnica de planejamento experimental, onde as variáveis avaliadas foram pH da solução de extração (1-2, volume de etanol (100-250 mL, tempo de extração (3-7 h e temperatura de extração (15-35ºC. A concentração máxima de antocianinas totais obtidas foi de 300 mg/100 g de bagaço de uva (umidade 5% nos níveis inferiores de pH (1,0 e tempo (3 horas e superiores de temperatura (35ºC e volume de etanol (250 mL. Os extratos foram secos por atomização. A melhor condição para o encapsulamento e a secagem foi quando utilizaram-se proporções iguais de maltodextrina e goma arábica.This work had the aim of obtaining a natural pigment (anthocyanin at powder form from 'Isabel' grape bagasse (Vitis labrusca, studying the extraction and encapsulating steps one applied the method of extraction by immersion by experimental design technique, when the factors investigated were pH of the extraction solution (1-2, volume of ethanol (100-250 mL, extraction time (3-7 h and extraction temperature (15-35 °C. The maximum concentration of total anthocyanin was 300 mg/100g of grape bagasse (5% moisture at the lower levels of pH (1.0 and time (3 h, and at upper levels of temperature (35ºC and amount of ethanol (250 mL. The extracts were dried by a spray process. The best condition for encapsulating and drying was obtained when equal amounts of maltodextrin and Arabic gum were used.

  19. Grape varieties in Chile and Argentina (1550-1850. Genealogy of torrontés Variedades de uva en Chile y Argentina (1550-1850. Genealogía del torrontés

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    Pablo Lacoste

    2010-01-01

    llegada de los españoles hasta el ingreso de las cepas francesas a mediados del siglo XIX. Particular atención se presta al inicio de la coexistencia entre la uva País y la uva de Italia (moscatel de Alejandría, situación que generó las condiciones para el surgimiento del torrontés, única variedad criolla de alto valor enológico y actual cepa emblemática de los vinos blancos argentinos

  20. Avaliação do potencial de cinco cultivares de videiras americanas para sucos de uva no sul de Minas Gerais Potential evaluation of five american cultivars for grape juices in the south of Minas Gerais state

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    Giuliano Elias Pereira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho realizar uma caracterização dos sucos de uva de cinco cultivares de videira americana Vitis labrusca (Folha de Figo, Alwood, Concord, BRS-Rúbea e Isabel segundo suas características visuais, olfativas e gustativas, utilizando um método descritivo por um painel de degustadores da Embrapa Uva e Vinho (EMBRAPA/CNPUV de Bento Gonçalves e da Associação Brasileira de Enologia (ABE, constituído por doze degustadores. De acordo com os resultados, os sucos das cultivares Isabel e Folha de Figo foram superiores aos demais, segundo a análise de componentes principais (ACP, principalmente pelas variáveis limpidez, equilíbrio olfativo, intensidade e corpo gustativo, persistência olfato-gustativa e julgamento geral (notas. O suco Folha de Figo foi superior ao Isabel quanto à tonalidade, sendo o primeiro caracterizado como vermelho-violáceo. A cultivar Folha de Figo é a mais utilizada na região para a produção de suco, podendo os produtores utilizarem também a cultivar Isabel, que mostrou potencial nas condições edafo-climáticas do sul de Minas Gerais.The present work was designed to accomplish the characterization of the different grape juices of five grapevine cultivars of Vitis labrusca (Folha de Figo, Alwood, Concord, BRS-Rúbea e Isabel according to their visual, smell and taste characteristics utilizing a descriptive method by a panel of tasters of Embrapa Grape and Wine (EMBRAPA/CNPUV of Bento Gonçalves, and of the Brazilian Enology Association (ABE consisting of 12 tasters. According to the results, the juices of the cultivars Isabel and Folha de Figo were higher than the others, analyzed statistically according to the Principal Component Analysis (PCA, mainly by the visual cleanliness variables, olfatory equilibrium, gustative body and quality, olfato-gustative persistence and general judgement (scores and the juice of Folha de Figo was higher than Isabel according to visual shade, the former

  1. Defensive effects of fullerene-C60/liposome complex against UVA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and cell death in human skin keratinocytes HaCaT, associated with intracellular uptake and extracellular excretion of fullerene-C60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinya; Kikuchi, Risa; Aoshima, Hisae; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2010-02-12

    The UVA-irradiation of 10 J/cm(2) on HaCaT keratinocytes increased 59.1% of the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NBT assay and the cell viability decreased to 31.5% by WST-1 assay, comparing to the non-irradiated control. In the presence of fullerene-C60 (C60) incorporated in phospholipid membrane vehicle (LiposomeFullerene: Lpsm-Flln) of 250-500 ppm, they were restored to -9.1% to +2.3% of the ROS and 83.0-84.8% of the cell viability, but scarcely restored by the liposome without C60 (Lpsm). In HaCaT cells administered with Lpsm-Flln (150 ppm), C60 was ingested at the intracellular concentrations of 1.4-21.9 ppm for 4-24 h, and, intracellular C60 was excreted by 80% at 4h after rinsing-out, and decreased to 2-10% after 24-48 h. C60 was predominantly distributed around the outside of nuclear membrane without deterioration of intact cell morphology according to fluorescent immunostain. Thus Lpsm-Flln is found to be an effective antioxidant that could preserve HaCaT keratinocytes against UVA-induced cellular injury. Lpsm-Flln has a potential to serve as a cosmetic material for skin protection against UVA. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Previsão do preço de venda da uva itália e da manga tommy produzidas no vale do são francisco via análise de séries temporais: um estudo de caso

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    Abdinardo Moreira Barreto de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available 10.12957/cadest.2009.15746O presente estudo investiga a adequação de uma metodologia de previsão de preços para a manga Tommy e a uva Itália, produzidas e comercializadas no Vale do São Francisco, através da utilização das técnicas de Análise de Séries Temporais. Foram coletados e calculados, junto aos registros da Secretaria de Agricultura do Estado da Bahia, os preços médios mensais destes produtos entre 2002 e 2008, totalizando uma amostra de 84 períodos. Para a interpretação dos resultados, foram utilizados os modelos de previsão Holt-Winters e ARIMA. Os resultados indicam, dentre outras coisas, uma estacionariedade no preço da manga e uma tendência de aumento no preço da uva. A metodologia desenvolvida pôde ser considerada válida, pois forneceu os menores erros quadráticos de previsão por meio da suavização exponencial aditiva para a uva Itália (Holt-Winters e o modelo ARIMA(2,0,1 para a manga Tommy. Sugestões de novos estudos são elaboradas ao final do artigo.

  3. Comportamento de cultivares de uva sem sementes no submédio São Francisco Behavior of grape seedless varieties in the valley of São Francisco River

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    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de introduzir, avaliar e selecionar variedades de uva sem sementes, adaptadas às condições tropicais semi-áridas e oferecer novas alternativas aos viticultores do Vale do São Francisco, implantou-se, em 1994, uma coleção com dezenove variedades de uvas sem sementes no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro, da Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina - PE. Foram avaliadas treze variedades ao longo dos anos de 1997 e 1998, correspondendo a cinco ciclos de produção. As variedades utilizadas foram Vênus, Arizul, Beauty Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Marroo Seedless, Canner, CG 39915, Pasiga, Saturn, Emperatriz, A1581, Paulistinha e Loose Perlette, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572 ('Campinas'. Foram avaliados aspectos relacionados ao desenvolvimento vegetativo e produtivo das plantas e características e composição química dos frutos. Todas as variedades apresentaram cachos com tamanho pequeno. As variedades Vênus e Marroo Seedless destacaram-se em relação ao diâmetro de bagas, apresentando, respectivamente, 17,83 e 18,26 mm, sem a necessidade de aplicação de reguladores de crescimento. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais foi elevado na maioria das variedades, enquanto a acidez total titulável foi reduzida, resultando em relações SST/ATT satisfatórias. As variedades Vênus e Marroo Seedless foram as mais produtivas, com produtividades anuais de 24 t/ha e 20 t/ha, respectivamente.The present work aimed at evaluating and selecting seeddless grape varieties adapted to the semi-arid tropical conditions of the São Francisco River Valley, Northeastern - Brazil. The experiment was carried out in an experimental vineyard which belongs to Embrapa Semi-Árid, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil during five growing seasons in 1997 and 1998. The varieties tested were: Vênus, Arizul, Beauty Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Marroo Seedless, Canner, CG 39915, Pasiga, Saturn, Emperatriz, A1581, Paulistinha and Loose Perlette, grafted

  4. Aplicação de AG3 e CPPU na qualidade da uva 'Itália' em Porto Feliz-SP GA3 and CPPU application on 'Itália' grapes grown in Porto Feliz-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A videira 'Itália' (Vitis vinifera L. é a cultivar de uva fina para mesa mais consumida no Brasil. A qualidade dos cachos é uma característica fundamental, sendo o tamanho das bagas o componente mais valorizado pelos consumidores. Uma das alternativas para incrementar a qualidade das bagas é o uso de biorreguladores. Avaliaram-se, em três ciclos de produção, os efeitos de doses de ácido giberélico (AG3 isolado e associado com forchlorfenuron (CPPU, na qualidade dos cachos de uva Itália produzida em Porto Feliz-SP. A aplicação dos biorreguladores foi realizada aos 25 dias após o florescimento, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4X4 (zero, 10; 20 e 30 mg L-1 AG3 X zero, 5; 10 e 15 mg L-1 CPPU, com oito repetições para o primeiro ciclo, e fatorial 3X3 (zero, 20 e 30 mg L-1 AG3 X zero, 10 e 20 mg L-1 CPPU com dez repetições para o segundo e terceiro ciclos. A mistura de 20 mg L-1 de AG3 com 10 mg L-1 de CPPU promoveu o incremento do comprimento e do diâmetro das bagas sem prejuízo da massa dos cachos, melhorando sua qualidade, em Porto Feliz-SP. O uso de CPPU isoladamente acarretou em redução do teor de sólidos solúveis das bagas.'Itália' grape (Vitis vinifera L. is one of the main varieties for fresh market in Brazil. Cluster quality is determinant for commercialization and the berry size is highly valued by consumers. An alternative for improving berry size is the use of growth regulators. The effect of increasing concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3 and forchlorfenuron (CPPU applied alone or in mixtures was evaluated during three production cycles. Growth regulators were applied 25 days after flowering in the "pea berry size" phenologic stage. Experimental design was completely randomized 4x4 factorial (zero, 10, 20 and 30 mg L-1 GA3 X zero, 5, 10 and 15 mg L-1 CPPU with eight replications for the first cycle, and 3X3 factorial (zero, 20 and 30 mg L-1 GA3 X zero, 10 and 20 mg L-1 CPPU

  5. Compostos fenólicos e capacidade antioxidante de cultivares de uvas Vitis labrusca L. e Vitis vinifera L. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca and Vitis vinifera cultivars

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    Lucile Tiemi Abe

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O conteúdo de compostos fenólicos, incluindo resveratrol, antocianinas e outros flavonóides, e a capacidade antioxidante de cinco cultivares de uvas produzidas em Minas Gerais foram determinados. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais, determinado através do método de Folin-Ciocalteau variou significativamente, entre 65 ± 1 e 390 ± 30 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico.100 g -1 de amostra base úmida (b.u.. O conteúdo de antocianinas totais quantificado por CLAE variou entre 6,7 ± 0,2 e 154 ± 4 mg equivalentes de cianidina.100 g -1 (b.u.. Outros flavonóides encontrados foram catequina, epicatequina, quercetina, caempferol além dos ácidos hidroxicinâmicos. O resveratrol foi encontrado em três cultivares, variando entre 0,022 ± 0,001 e 0,60 ± 0,03 mg.100 g -1 (b.u.. A capacidade antioxidante foi analisada usando o método de seqüestro de radicais livres do DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila, que variou entre 2,7 ± 0,1 e 19 ± 2 µmoles equivalentes de Trolox.g -1 de amostra (b.u., mostrando boa correlação com o conteúdo de fenólicos totais. As uvas tintas de coloração mais escura apresentaram maior conteúdo de antocianinas, e conseqüentemente maior teor de fenólicos totais e capacidade antioxidante.Phenolic compounds including resveratrol, anthocyanins and other flavonoids and antioxidant capacity were evaluated for five grape cultivars cultivated in Minas Gerais (Brazil. The content of total phenolic determined by the Folin Ciocalteau method varied significantly, from 65 ± 1 to 390 ± 30 mg gallic acid equivalents.100 g -1 of FW (Fresh Weight. The content of total anthocyanins quantified by HPLC varied from 6.7 ± 0.2 to 154 ± 4 mg of cyanidin equivalents.100 g -1 FW. Resveratrol was found in three cultivars, in contents from 0.022 ± 0.001 to 0.60 ± 0.03 mg.100 g¹ of FW. In addition to hydroxicynnamic acids, other flavonoids such as catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and kaempferol were also present. The antioxidant

  6. Characterization of maturity and quality of Brazilian apirenic grapes in the São Francisco river Valley Caracterização da maturidade e qualidade de uvas apirênicas brasileiras no Vale do São Francisco

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    Robson de Jesus Mascarenhas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize and correlate maturity and quality of the first varieties of Brazilian seedless grapes 'BRS Clara', 'BRS Linda', 'BRS Morena', and 'Advanced Selection 8' compared with the American variety 'Crimson Seedless' in compliance with the Brazilian Normative/2002 and export standards Advanced Selection 8' is dark reddish, has large clusters, and is a very large ellipsoid berry; 'BRS Morena' is black with medium sized clusters and large berry shaped as ellipsoid to globoid; 'BRS Linda' is light green and has large sized clusters; 'Crimson' is pink and has small clusters with berries varying from medium to large sizes and ellipsoid shaped; and 'BRS Clara' is green yellowish has medium sized clusters and small berry of elongated ellipsoid shape. All varieties evaluated meet the standard for domestic market established as berry size minimum diameter 12 mm. 'BRS Clara' does not meet the export requirements of diameter. Berries of the red grapes 'BRS Morena' and 'Crimson Seedless' are firmer. The pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids meet the official standards. Larger clusters are less acidic and present higher soluble solids/titratable acidity ratios implying that they are the sweetest type when ripe.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e correlacionar a maturidade e qualidade das primeiras variedades de uvas apirênicas 'BRS Clara', 'BRS Linda', 'BRS Morena', mais a 'Seleção Avançada 8' em fase de lançamento, comparado-as com a variedade norte-americana 'Crimson Seedless', conforme as Normativas Brasileiras/2002 e os padrões para exportação. A Seleção Avançada 8 é avermelhada escura, possui cacho grande, com baga muito grande tipo elipsoide; a 'BRS Morena' é preta com cacho médio, baga grande tipo elipsoide a globosa; a 'BRS Linda' é verde clara, de cacho grande; e a 'Crimson', rósea de cacho pequeno, ambas, com bagas médias a grandes e elipsoides; a 'BRS Clara' éverde amarelada

  7. EVOLUÇÃO DA ACIDEZ DURANTE A VINIFICAÇÃO DE UVAS TINTAS DE TRÊS REGIÕES VITÍCOLAS DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Luiz A. RIZZON

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available A acidez dos vinhos influencia sua estabilidade e coloração, constituindo-se numa das características gustativas mais importantes. Devido à insolubilização do ácido tartárico sob a forma de sais, a acidez total e o pH podem ser alterados durante a vinificação de acordo com o teor de K da uva. Este trabalho avaliou a evolução da acidez durante a vinificação de três variedades tintas (Merlot, Cabernet Franc e Cabernet Sauvignon cultivadas em três regiões vitícolas do Rio Grande do Sul (Bento Gonçalves, Sant'Ana do Livramento e Pinheiro Machado. Os vinhedos utilizados eram uniformes, apresentando os mesmos sistemas de condução (espaldeira e de poda e enxertados sobre o porta-enxerto SO4. Os vinhos foram elaborados por microvinificação na safra de 1995, sendo avaliadas a evolução do pH, acidez total, ácido tartárico e K em cinco fases da vinificação: 1. imediatamente após o esmagamento da uva; 2. na descuba; 3. após a fermentação alcoólica; 4. após a fermentação maloláctica; 5. após a estabilização tartárica. Os resultados mostraram que os vinhos de Sant'Ana do Livramento apresentaram acidez total inferior aos demais vinhos, mostrando durante a vinificação os maiores acréscimos de pH. A evolução da acidez esteve bastante associada aos teores de K e de ácido tartárico encontrados inicialmente no mosto.The acidity influences the wine stability and coloration and it is one of the most important sensory attributes of wines. The total acidity and the pH vary with the salification of tartaric acid and the K content in grapes. This work evaluated the acidity evolution during vinification of three red grape varieties (Merlot, Cabernet Franc and Cabernet Sauvignon from three viticultural regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The vineyards were uniforms and with the same trellising and pruning systems and grafted on the SO4 rootstock. The wines were elaborated by the microvinification process in

  8. Efeitos do thidiazuron e do ácido giberélico nas características dos cachos e bagas de uvas 'niagara rosada' na região de Jundiaí-SP

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    Botelho Renato Vasconcelos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em vinhedo localizado na região de Jundiaí-SP, com o objetivo de estudar-se os efeitos de aplicações de fitorreguladores em uvas 'Niagara Rosada'. No primeiro ensaio, utilizou-se de thidiazuron na concentração de 5 ou 10 mg.L-1, e/ou ácido giberélico na concentração de 100 mg.L-1. No segundo experimento, as doses de thidiazuron foram: 0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5 e 15,0 mg.L-1. Os fitorreguladores foram aplicados mediante única imersão dos cachos em solução, 14 dias após a plena floração. Foram avaliados massa, largura e comprimento dos cachos e bagas; massa dos engaços; número de bagas; número de sementes; teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável do mosto. No primeiro ensaio, os maiores valores de massa, comprimento e largura das bagas foram verificados para os tratamentos com thidiazuron associado a ácido giberélico. O tratamento isolado de ácido giberélico não foi efetivo para aumentar o tamanho das bagas e reduziu o número de bagas por cacho. No segundo experimento, aplicações de thidiazuron aumentaram linearmente a massa de cachos e engaços, e a massa, largura e comprimento das bagas. As variáveis teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, número de sementes e largura de cachos não foram influenciadas pelo TDZ e pelo AG3.

  9. Qualidade, fenóis e enzimas oxidativas de uva 'Itália' sob influência do cálcio, durante a maturação

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    LIMA MARIA AUXILIADORA COÊLHO DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na Empresa Timbaúba Agrícola S.A., em Petrolina, PE, visando avaliar o efeito da aplicação, pré-colheita, de Ca, sobre a qualidade, teores de fenóis e atividade de enzimas oxidativas da uva (Vitis vinifera L. 'Itália', durante a maturação. Utilizaram-se doses de Ca de 0, 0,5, 1,0 e 1,5%, na forma de cloreto de Ca diidratado, via imersão por 10 segundos, na fase de mudança de cor e início de amolecimento das bagas (57 dias após a formação dos frutos, em cachos marcados. Realizaram-se avaliações aos 28, 43, 57, 72 e 92 dias após a formação dos frutos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, num fatorial 4 x 5, com quatro repetições. Analisaram-se as variáveis: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, relação SST/ATT, pH, fenóis totais e atividade das enzimas polifenoloxidase (PPO e peroxidase (PDO. Com o aumento das doses de Ca, o teor de SST e a relação SST/ATT foram reduzidos. Entretanto, os valores de SST verificados atenderam à exigência de mercado. A atividade da PDO foi reduzida em 13,26% pelo Ca na dose de 1,0% e aumentada em 27,15% pelo Ca 1,5%, em comparação com a da testemunha. As demais variáveis não sofreram efeito do Ca exógeno.

  10. Identification of protein phosphatase interacting proteins from normal and UVA-irradiated HaCaT cell lysates by surface plasmon resonance based binding technique using biotin-microcystin-LR as phosphatase capturing molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécsi, Bálint; Dedinszki, Dóra; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Máthé, Csaba; Vasas, Gábor; Lontay, Beáta; Erdődi, Ferenc

    2014-09-05

    Identification of the interacting proteins of protein phosphatases is crucial to understand the cellular roles of these enzymes. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), -2A (PP2A), PP4, PP5 and PP6, was biotinylated, immobilized to streptavidin-coupled sensorchip surface and used in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based binding experiments to isolate phosphatase binding proteins. Biotin-MC-LR captured PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) stably and the biotin-MC-LR-PP1c complex was able to further interact with the regulatory subunit (MYPT1) of myosin phosphatase. Increased biotin-MC-LR coated sensorchip surface in the Surface Prep unit of Biacore 3000 captured PP1c, PP2Ac and their regulatory proteins including MYPT1, MYPT family TIMAP, inhibitor-2 as well as PP2A-A and -Bα-subunits from normal and UVA-irradiated HaCaT cell lysates as revealed by dot blot analysis of the recovered proteins. Biotin-MC-LR was used for the subcellular localization of protein phosphatases in HaCaT cells by identification of phosphatase-bound biotin-MC-LR with fluorescent streptavidin conjugates. Partial colocalization of the biotin-MC-LR signals with those obtained using anti-PP1c and anti-PP2Ac antibodies was apparent as judged by confocal microscopy. Our results imply that biotin-MC-LR is a suitable capture molecule in SPR for isolation of protein phosphatase interacting proteins from cell lysates in sufficient amounts for immunological detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influência de sanificantes nas características físicas e químicas de uva Itália Effect of sanitizers on the physical and chemical characteristics of 'Itália' grapes

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    Silvana Albertini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência dos sanificantes dicloroisocianurato de sódio (NaDCC, álcool etílico e hipoclorito de sódio sobre a qualidade de uva Itália, com base nas características físicas e químicas. Cachos de uva Itália colhidos em São Miguel Arcanjo (SP foram selecionados por tamanho e qualidade, submetidos a tratamentos pós-colheita, por imersão, em solução de álcool etílico (15%, de dicloroisocianurato de sódio (200 ppm e hipoclorito de sódio (200 ppm, por 3 segundos e 10 minutos, respectivamente, e mantidos sob condição ambiente (21,2 °C; 69,8% UR por 9 dias. Avaliou-se a cada três dias, a porcentagem de perda de peso dos cachos, a taxa de degrana, a coloração, a firmeza, os teores de sólidos solúveis (SS e de acidez titulável (AT, o ratio (SS/AT e o pH das bagas. Nas condições do experimento, a maior perda de massa média diária foi encontrada no tratamento com hipoclorito de sódio (0,7333%/dia, seguido da testemunha (0,6163%/dia, do dicloro isocianurato de sódio (0,5837%/dia e do álcool etílico (0,5623%/dia. As bagas sanificadas com dicloroisocianurato de sódio dihidratado mostraram-se mais escurecidas e amareladas. Não foram verificadas diferenças atribuíveis à sanificação em relação à firmeza, ao pH, aos teores de sólidos solúveis e de acidez titulável e ao ratio. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que não há efeito do uso dos sanificantes dicloroisocianurato de sódio, álcool etílico e hipoclorito de sódio sobre as características físico-químicas de uva Itália.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of sodium dichloroisocianurate (NaDCC, ethylic alcohol, and sodium hypochlorite sanitizers, on the quality of 'Itália' grape, based on the physical and chemical characteristics. Clusters of 'Itália' grape harvested in São Miguel Arcanjo (SP were selected by size and quality and submitted the postharvest treatments by immersion

  12. Maturation curves of ‘Tannat’ grape (Vitis vinifera L. for red winemaking/ Curvas de maturação da uva ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera L. para a elaboração de vinho tinto

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    Werner Genta

    2004-05-01

    casualizado com 20 repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por uma planta. As curvas de maturação da uva ‘Tannat’ foram determinadas através da análise das características químicas de suas bagas, como teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT e índice de maturação (SST/AT, as quais foram avaliadas semanalmente a partir do início da maturação dos cachos até 7 dias após a colheita, através da coleta de 300 bagas em cada amostragem. Obteve-se, através de análise de regressão, o comportamento das variáveis analisadas em função do tempo. Pelos resultados obtidos conclui-se que: as curvas de evolução dos teores de SST, AT e SST/AT da uva ‘Tannat’ se ajustam ao modelo cúbico e; os valores médios de SST, AT e SST/AT que a uva ‘Tannat’ atinge durante a colheita são de 21,20 oBrix, 1,04% de ácido tartárico e 20,38, respectivamente, o que indica uma boa adaptação para a elaboração de vinho tinto na região.

  13. Subprodutos da uva como promotores de crescimento em dietas de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.820 Grape by-products as growth promoters for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.820

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    Edílson Gonçalves Campos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento para se avaliar os efeitos da utilização de compostos fenólicos contidos em subprodutos da uva (Vitis vinifera como promotores de crescimento em dietas de frango de corte. Foram utilizados 600 pintos de corte machos Ross, de um a 21 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos, inoculados ou não, com cepas de Escherichia coli, constituindo-se fatorial 6 x 2 com cinco repetições de dez aves cada uma. Foi utilizada uma dieta isonutritiva composta por ração inicial basal, com subproduto de uva ou antibiótico, de acordo com os seguintes tratamentos: T1-controle negativo; T2-0,05% de flavomicina e sulfato de colistina; T3-0,04% extrato de semente de uva desengordurada; T4-0,1% de semente de uva integral (SUI; T5-0,47% de SUI e T6-2,35% de SUI. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso, consumo de ração, ganho de peso médio, peso final, conversão alimentar e índice de eficiência produtiva. A inclusão de subprodutos da uva não influenciou as variáveis zootécnicas nem apresentou atividade promotora de crescimento. A inoculação com E. coli piorou o ganho de peso e o peso final. Os resultados não recomendam a utilização de subprodutos de uvaAn experiment was conducted to determine the effects of phenolic compounds from grape by-products (Vitis vinifera as growth promoters in the diets of broilers between 1 and 21 days of age. Six hundred Ross male chicks were raised from 1 to 21 days of age. The experimental design was completely randomized a 6 x 2 factorial scheme (six diets, inoculated or not inoculated with strains of Escherichia coli, and five repetitions consisting of 10 animals each. Each bird received an isonutritive basal diet consisting of grape by-products or antibiotics as follows: T1-negative control; T2 – positive control-0.05% of flavomycin and colistin sulphate; T3 – 0.04% defatted grape seed extract; T4 – 0.1% grape seed (WGS; T5

  14. Aplicação de nitrogênio em videiras na Campanha Gaúcha: produtividade e características químicas do mosto da uva Application of nitrogen in grapevines in the campaign of the Rio Grande do Sul: productivity and chemical characteristics of the grape must

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    Gustavo Brunetto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de N na videira, em geral, causa grande impacto na produção e nas características químicas da uva e do seu mosto e, conseqüentemente, no vinho. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da aplicação de N na produção de uva e nas características químicas desejáveis do mosto. O experimento foi conduzido na safra 2004/05 em vinhedo comercial de viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon, na Empresa Pernod Ricard Brasil/Almadén, em Santana do Livramento, RS, sobre Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico. Os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 e 85kg ha-1 de N. Na maturação, a uva foi colhida e avaliada a produção por planta, por hectare, o comprimento e a largura de cachos, e o peso de 100 bagas. Foram coletadas bagas de uva, sendo uma parte amassada e, no mosto, foram determinados os sólidos solúveis totais, o pH, a acidez total, o ácido tartárico, o ácido málico, os polifenóis totais, as antocianas e o N amoniacal. As bagas restantes foram trituradas e analisado o total de N, P, K, Ca e Mg. Os resultados mostraram que a aplicação de N em viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon não afetou a produção de uva e os componentes de rendimento. Além disso, a aplicação de doses crescentes de N em viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon, de forma destacada, aumentou, no mosto, os valores de acidez total e N amoniacal e diminuiu os valores de antocianas e, na baga de uva, aumentou a porcentagem do total de N e K.The N fertilization in vines, in general, causes great impact in the yield and in chemistries characteristics of the grape and your must, consequently of the wine. The experiment was carried out in 2004/05, to evaluate the effect of the N fertilization in the grape yield and in chemistries characteristics of the must of Cabernet Sauvignon vines, at Sandy Typic Hapludalf soil in Southern Brazil, Santana do Livramento. The treatments were 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 85kg ha-1 N. In the maturation, the grape was collection

  15. Estudio comparativo de las relaciones hídricas y producción en uva de mesa bajo riego deficitario (RD) y desecación parcial de raíces (DPR). Efecto del déficit continuo y controlado

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Barba, María Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Con el objeto de conocer el efecto del déficit hídrico sobre las relaciones hídricas, producción y calidad de la cosecha, así como comparar los diferentes tipos de regímenes de riego utilizados, se realizó un ensayo durante el año 2014, en una parcela comercial de uva de mesa cv. “Crimson Seedless”. Para ello, se aplicaron cinco tratamientos de riego: (i) control (CTL) regado al 110% de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc), (ii) riego deficitario controlado (RDC) regado al 5...

  16. Evolução da maturação da uva cabernet franc conduzida no sistema lira aberta Ripening evolution of Cabernet Franc grapes conducted in the lyre system

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    Luciano Manfroi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a evolução da maturação da uva ‘Cabernet Franc’ conduzida no sistema lira aberta. O trabalho foi realizado durante o ciclo vegetativo de 1995/96, em oito vinhedos instalados em diferentes regiões vitícolas dos municípios de Bento Gonçalves e Monte Belo do Sul, RS. As amostras, formadas por 200 bagas, foram coletadas semanalmente a partir do início da maturação e esmagadas para a extração do mosto. Determinaram-se as variáveis teor de sólidos solúveis totais (TSS, densidade, pH, acidez total, ácido tartárico e ácido málico. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que houve aumentos lineares significativos do teor de sólidos solúveis totais, da densidade, do pH e das relações TSS/acidez total e ácido tartárico/ácido málico; entretanto, houve diminuição linear e significativa da acidez total, do ácido tartárico e do ácido málico.The objective was to evaluate the ripening evolution of ‘Cabernet Franc’ grapes conducted in the lyre system. The work was carried out during the vegetative cycle of 1995/96, in eight vineyards located in different viticultural regions of the communes of Bento Gonçalves and Monte Belo do Sul, Brazil. Two hundred berries were collected weekly from the beginning of ripening and were crushed for must extraction. The variables evaluated were ºBrix, density, pH, total acidity, tartaric and malic acids. Results show that there were significant linear increases of ºBrix, density, pH, ºBrix/total acidity ratio and the sum of tartaric and malic acids; however, there was a decrease of total acidity, tartaric and malic acids.

  17. Efeitos do CPPU e do ácido giberélico nas características dos cachos da uva de mesa 'Centennial Seedless' Effects of CPPU and gibberellic acid on the clusters characteristics of 'Centennial Seedless' table grape

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    Erasmo José Paioli Pires

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em vinhedo comercial, na região de Jundiaí-SP, com o objetivo de se estudar os efeitos do CPPU e do AG3 nas características dos cachos e dos bagos de uvas 'Centennial Seedless'. No primeiro experimento, utilizou-se de CPPU a 0; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0 e 17,5mg.L-1. No segundo ensaio, empregou-se AG3 nas doses de 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 mg.L-1. Tanto o CPPU como o AG3 aumentaram a massa e largura dos cachos; a massa, comprimento e largura dos bagos, e o diâmetro dos pedicelos. O aumento do comprimento dos cachos só foi significativo pela aplicação de AG3. Ambos os reguladores de crescimento reduziram o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto. Aplicações de CPPU e AG3 a 5 mg.L-1 proporcionaram aumento da massa dos bagos em 59,0 e 78,7%, respectivamente, e formação de cachos soltos, com pedicelos mais flexíveis. Doses superiores levaram à formação de cachos muito grandes, excessivamente compactos, com pedicelos rijos e muito engrossados e, portanto, de valor comercial reduzido.Two trials were conducted in a commercial vineyard, in the region of Jundiaí-SP, with the objective of studying the effects of CPPU and GA3 on the clusters and berries characteristics of 'Centennial Seedless' table grape. In the first experiment, it was used CPPU at 0; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5; 15.0 and 17.5mg.L-1. In a second trial, GA3 was used at the doses of: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30mg.L-1. Both, CPPU and GA3 increased the clusters weight and width; the berries weight, length and width; and the pedicel diameter. The increase in cluster length was significant only for GA3 applications. Both growth regulators decreased the total soluble solids content. Applications of CPPU and GA3 at 5mg.L-1, provided increases in berries weight in 59.0 and 78.7%, respectively, and formation of untied clusters, with flexible pedicels. Higher doses led to formation of clusters too much large, excessively compact, with pedicels very

  18. Ocorrência de patulina em uva fina (Vitis vinifera L. cv. "Rubi" com sinais de podridão ácida Occurrence of patulin in grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Rubi' with indication of the sour rout

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    Glória Maria Menezes Caldas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A podridão ácida é uma patologia das videiras, de alta freqüência nos períodos quentes e chuvosos, em conseqüência do desenvolvimento de fungos e bactérias em seus frutos. Um dos gêneros de fungos responsáveis por esta doença é o Penicillium spp., que poderá levar à produção de micotoxinas, como a patulina. Neste trabalho, foi realizada uma investigação sobre a podridão ácida e a ocorrência de patulina em uvas Itália (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Rubi cultivadas no município de Marialva, Brasil. Foram avaliados os seguintes tratamentos: (I testemunha sem sintomas de podridão ácida; (II amostras com sintomas, sem a remoção das bagas infectadas; (III amostras com sintomas, com a remoção das bagas infectadas, (IV amostras com sintomas da doença, com a remoção das bagas infectadas e desinfecção com hipoclorito. A cromatografia em camada delgada foi utilizada para a determinação de patulina. Nas amostras analisadas, não foi detectada contaminação por esta micotoxina.Sour rout is a pathology of bunch grapes occurring in hot and rainy periods. Several fungi and bacteria are associated with this disease, including Penicilium spp. In the present study it was carried out an investigation to determine the incidence of sour rout and patulin in grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Rubi cultivated in Marialva, Brazil. The treatments studied were the following: (I samples without symptoms of sour rout, (II samples with symptoms and without cleaning stage, (III samples with symptoms and with cleaning stage and (IV samples with symptoms, cleaning stage and washing with hypochlorite. The thin-layer chromatography was utilized to determine the presence and quantification of patulin. Patulin was not detected in any samples.

  19. Crescimento de bagas de cultivares de uvas apirênicas tratadas com CPPU e GA3 Increase of the cultivars berry apirenic growth of seedless grapes treated with CPPU and GA3

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    Valtemir Gonçalves Ribeiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de uvas apirênicas (Vitis vinifera L., via de regra, possuem bagas de tamanhos reduzidos, necessitando de ajustes no manejo para a melhoria da qualidade dos cachos, sendo a aplicação de reguladores de crescimento um dos tratamentos mais eficazes. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar os efeitos do forchlorfenuron (CPPU: 0 e 10 mgL-1 combinado ao ácido giberélico (GA3: 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 mgL-1 durante o primeiro ciclo de produção das cultivares Centennial Seedless, Flame Seedless e Thompson Seedless. As características avaliadas foram o comprimento, diâmetro e peso de bagas. Para a 'Centennial Seedless', maiores comprimentos, diâmetro e peso de bagas foram obtidos com 100 mgL-1 de GA3; e a concentração de 100 mgL-1 de GA3 adicionada a 10 mgL-1 de CPPU foi a mais responsiva para a 'Flame Seedless' e 'Thompson Seedless', observando-se atrasos na maturação, em termos de sólidos solúveis totais, para todas as cultivares.The Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L., have always decrease in berry size, requiring managements to increase cluster quality. The spray with growth regulators is one of most effective the treatment to enlarge berry size. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of Forchlorfenuron (CPPU: 0 e 10mgL-1 associated with Giberelic acid (GA3: 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 mgL-1 during the first cycle of production of the cultivars Centennial Seedless, Flame Seedless and Thompson Seedless. The appraised characteristics were length, diameter and weight of berries. For Centennial Seedless, larger lengths, diameter and weight of berries were obtained with 100 mL-1 of GA3; and the concentration of 100 mL-1 of GA3 added to 10 mL-1 of CPPU was the most responsive for Flame and Thompson Seedless, being observed delays in maturation, in terms of total soluble solids, for all cultivars.

  20. Production Performance of ‘Malvaisa Bianca’ grape (Vitis vinifera L. grown in Subtropical Regions / Comportamento da uva ‘Malvasia Bianca’ (Vitis vinifera L. cultivada em zona subtropical

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    Cristiano Ezequiel dos Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the phenotypic/phenology and production performance of ‘Malvasiva Bianca’ grape used to make white wine at North of Parana State. The experiment was done in one vineyard located in Maringa, PR, conducted pergola system accounting with an space of 4.0 X 1.5 m enxert about IAC 766 Campinas. Twenty plants were used previously identified and market during two consecutive harvest seasons (2004/2005 and 2005/2006. The phenotipic performance of grape vives was assessed considering duration of time in days of their principal phases. The chemical characteristics of the berries were assessed performing weekly analysis of pH measurements, Total Solutable Solid (TSS, titratable Acidity (AT and relationship TSS/TA, starting at the biggining of the maturing process until seven days after harvesting. The production characteristics were assessed considering the average diameter and average mass weight of the berry, number on average of clusters per plant, average mass weight of the cluster and estimates of production and productivity on each plant. The duration of production’s cicle (cutting to harvest in this region was on average 127 days. Due the harvest period, the pH’s average, SST, AT levels and the relationship SST/AT of the berries ranged were 3.6 ; 21.2 °Brix; 0.6% of Tartaric Acid and 36.0 respectively. The berry presented on average 15.5 mm and 2.2g. It was observed on average 62 clusters per plant, with mass weight of 0.3 Kg; production of 20.0 Kg per plant and productivity of 33.3 t/ha. The results showed that the ‘Malvasia Bianca’ grape presents a great potential to be cultivated for further make aromatic white wine at North of Parana State.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento fenológico e produtivo da uva ‘Malvasia Bianca’ destinada à elaboração de vinhos brancos aromáticos no norte do Paraná. O experimento foi realizado em um vinhedo localizado em Maring

  1. Composição físico-química de uvas para vinho fino em ciclos de verão e inverno Physico-chemical composition of wine grapes berries in summer and winter growing seasons

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    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de maturação das cultivares Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay e Sauvignon Blanc submetidas ao regime de dupla poda, em Cordislândia, região cafeeira do sul de Minas Gerais. As plantas foram submetidas a dois ciclos de produção, um de primavera-verão, compreendido entre agosto e janeiro, e outro ciclo de outono-inverno, entre janeiro e julho. Como parâmetros de qualidade, foram avaliados os diâmetros transversal e longitudinal da baga, acidez, ácidos tartárico e málico, pH, sólidos solúveis, antocianinas, fenólicos totais e os teores de glicose, frutose e sacarose. Todas as variedades apresentaram maiores teores de pH, sólidos solúveis, açúcares, antocianinas e fenólicos totais, e redução nos diâmetros transversal e longitudinal na safra de inverno. A cultivar Syrah destacou-se das demais no conteúdo de antocianinas e fenólicos totais tanto no verão quanto no inverno, entretanto apresentou o menor conteúdo de açúcares. A alteração do ciclo de produção da videira através da técnica da dupla poda para colheita, no período de inverno, na região cafeeira de Minas Gerais, favorece a maturação dos frutos e melhora consideravelmente a qualidade das uvas para vinificação.This work aimed to evaluate some ripening parameters of cultivars Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc submitted to the double-pruning management in Cordislândia, in the coffee region of the south of Minas Gerais State. Grapevines were cultivated in two different growing seasons, spring-summer from August to January and autumn-winter from January to July. Quality parameters such as berry transversal and longitudinal diameters, acidity, tartaric and malic acids, pH, soluble solids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, glucose, fructose and sucrose were evaluated. All cultivars showed higher pH, soluble solids

  2. Reguladores vegetais influenciando número e tamanho de células das bagas da uva 'Niagara Rosada' Plant regulators influencing number and size of berry cells of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes

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    Cássia Regina Yuriko Ide Vieira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ácido giberélico, thidiazuron e quinmerac na anatomia das bagas de uvas cultivar 'Niagara Rosada', provenientes de vinhedo localizado em Dourados - MS. Realizaram-se três experimentos. No primeiro ensaio, utilizaram-se soluções aquosas de ácido giberélico (AG3 0; 15; 30; 45; 60; 75 e 90 mg.l-1, aplicadas no florescimento e repetidas aos 14 dias após (E1E2 e, no outro tratamento, o mesmo composto e doses aplicados uma única vez aos 14 dias após o florescimento (E2; no segundo experimento, thidiazuron (TDZ 0; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 e 30 mg.l-1, aplicados quatro dias antes da antese e repetidos aos seis dias após o florescimento (E1E2; e no outro tratamento, o mesmo composto e doses aplicados uma única vez aos seis dias após o florescimento (E2; e, no terceiro, quinmerac 0; 10; 20; 30; 40; 50 e 60 mg.l-1, aplicados no florescimento e repetidos aos 14 dias após (E1E2, e, no outro tratamento, o mesmo composto e doses aplicados uma única vez, 14 dias após o florescimento (E2. As variáveis avaliadas foram: número e dimensões das células das bagas. Pelos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que duas aplicações de ácido giberélico, thidiazuron e quinmerac promoveram a divisão celular, enquanto a expansão celular foi observada com uma única aplicação de thidiazuron e quinmerac.The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of the gibberellic acid, thidiazuron and quinmerac on grape berries anatomy of grapevine 'Niagara Rosada', in a vineyard located in Dourados - MS. Three trials were carried out. In the first trial, it was used gibberellic acid (AG3 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 mg.l-1, applied in the bloom and repeated 14 days later (E1E2 and in the other treatment, the same compound and doses applied only once, 14 days after the bloom (E2; in the second experiment, thidiazuron (TDZ 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg.l-1, applied four days before antesis and repeated six days

  3. Produtividade e composição físico-química de bagas de cultivares de uva em distintos porta-enxertos Productivity and physicochemical composition of berries of grapevine cultivars grafted onto different rootstocks

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    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de nove porta-enxertos na produção e composição química das bagas de uvas de mesa e de processamento durante o período de 2006 a 2008 em Caldas, MG. As cultivares Niágara Rosada e Folha de Figo foram enxertadas sobre 'IAC 572', 'IAC 313', 'IAC 766', '420 A', '1103 Paulsen', 'Traviú', '196-17', 'Gravesac' e 'RR 101-14' e submetidas ao delineamento em blocos ao acaso com dez tratamentos (nove porta-enxertos e o pé-franco e quatro repetições. Ambas cultivares apresentaram maior produção sobre 'IAC 572', porém com prejuízo para a qualidade das bagas que apresentaram menor relação sólidos solúveis/acidez, menor teor de antocianinas e de compostos fenólicos e maior acidez. A absorção de potássio foi mais dependente do porta-enxerto em 'Niágara Rosada'; a maior absorção foi com os porta-enxertos 'IAC 766' e 'Traviú'. Videiras enxertadas sobre '196-17' apresentaram o menor teor de potássio nas bagas. 'Niágara Rosada' apresentou produção de 9 kg por planta e elevada relação sólidos solúveis/acidez sobre 'RR 101-14', '420 A' e 'Gravesac'. Entretanto, 'Gravesac' proporcionou maior concentração de antocianinas. 'Folha de Figo' enxertada em '196-17' apresentou elevado teor de sólidos solúveis, antocianinas e fenólicos nas cascas e menor teor de acidez e fenólicos nas sementes, além de produção de 5 kg por planta, estatisticamente semelhante aos porta-enxertos mais produtivos.This work aimed at evaluating the influence of nine rootstocks on the productivity and chemical composition of table and processing grapes from 2006 to 2008 in Caldas, MG. The cultivars Niagara Rosada and Folha de Figo were grafted onto 'IAC 572', 'IAC 313', 'IAC 766', '420 A', '1103 Paulsen', 'Traviú', '196-17', 'Gravesac' and 'RR 101-14' and submitted to a randomized block design with ten treatments (nine rootstocks and ungrafted plant with four replicates. Both cultivars had higher yields

  4. Atmosfera modificada e refrigeração para conservação pós-colheita de uva 'Niagara Rosada' Modified atmosphere and cold storage for postharvest conservation of 'Niagara Rosada' table grape

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    Patrícia Cia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita da uva 'Niagara Rosada' armazenada sob refrigeração, em dois experimentos. No primeiro experimento avaliou-se o acondicionamento de cachos nas seguintes embalagens: papelão ondulado (testemunha; tereftalato de polietileno (PET; cloreto de polivinila (PVC 17 μm; polietileno linear de baixa densidade (PELBD 25 μm; e PELBD 50 μm. Em outro experimento, avaliaram-se os sistemas de acondicionamento: sacolas de plástico abertas (testemunha; polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD 25 μm; PEBD 25 μm, com injeção de mistura gasosa (21% O2/5% CO2; PEBD 25 μm (21% O2/10% CO2; PEBD 25 μm (21% O2/20% CO2. Os cachos foram armazenados a 1±1°C e 90±5% de umidade relativa (UR por 28 dias, seguido de armazenamento em condições do ambiente (25±2°C e 80±5% UR. Os cachos foram avaliados quanto à perda de massa de matéria fresca, firmeza, cor das bagas, esbagoamento, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT, relação SST/AT e incidência de podridões. O filme PELBD 50 μm, a partir do 14º dia a 1°C, seguido por mais três dias a 25°C, causou a fermentação dos cachos. As embalagens PELBD 25 μm, com ou sem injeção de mistura gasosa, e PVC 17 μm reduzem a perda de massa de matéria fresca dos cachos, mas não reduzem o esbagoamento e a incidência de podridões.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the modified atmosphere, on the storage life of 'Niagara Rosada' Table grape kept under refrigeration in two experiments. In the first one, grape clusters stored in different package materials were evaluated: corrugated cardboard boxes, polyethylene tereftalate (PET; 17-μm polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 25-μm low density linear polyethylene film (PELDB; and 50-μm PELDB. On a second assay, different packaging systems were evaluated: opened plastic bags; 25-μm low density polyethylene film (PEBD; 25-μm PEBD, with

  5. Desfolha parcial em videiras e seus efeitos em uvas e vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon da região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Partial de foliation on vines and its effects on Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from the southwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Gabriela Hermann Pötter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A desfolha no vinhedo tem como principais objetivos aumentar a radiação solar e a aeração na região dos frutos, para melhorar a coloração e a maturação das uvas tintas, além de reduzir a incidência de podridões, visando, com isso, obter vinhos de qualidade superior. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da desfolha nos parâmetros físico-químicos das uvas e dos vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon de Dom Pedrito, região da Campanha, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. As uvas foram colhidas em março de 2008, sendo provenientes de um vinhedo comercial cultivado em espaldeira. A desfolha foi realizada na base dos ramos, somente no lado que recebe o sol da manhã, com intensidade de aproximadamente 20%, no estádio fenológico grão "ervilha". As microvinificações foram feitas com controle de temperatura, em tanques de vidro em triplicata, com oito dias de maceração. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com desfolha apresentou mostos com pH significativamente mais baixo e maior acidez total. As cascas das uvas e os vinhos do tratamento com desfolha apresentaram aumento significativo no teor de polifenóis totais. A desfolha também propiciou vinhos com maior intensidade de cor, antocianinas totais, extrato seco e açúcar redutor, e menor teor de nitrogênio. Nos vinhos, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para acidez total e volátil, pH, álcool, densidade, extrato seco reduzido e teor de potássio. Conclui-se que a prática da desfolha em vinhedos da região da Campanha melhora a qualidade dos vinhos.The practice of partial defoliation in vineyards has as main objectives increase sunlight and ventilation for the fruit, aiming to improve color and maturity in red grapes and helping to reduce fungal diseases, which should result in better wine quality. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of partial defoliation on the quality of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from Dom

  6. Filmes e coberturas comestíveis compostas à base de amidos nativos e gelatina na conservação e aceitação sensorial de uvas Crimson Films and edible coatings based on native starches and gelatin in the conservation and sensory acceptance of Crimson gra

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    Farayde Matta Fakhouri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Filmes compostos de gelatina com amidos nativos de trigo, sorgo, batata e arroz foram produzidos separadamente e caracterizados quanto às propriedades físico-químicas (solubilidade em água e barreira ao vapor de água, físicas (espessura e opacidade e mecânicas (resistência à tração e porcentagem de elongação na ruptura. As mesmas soluções filmogênicas foram preparadas e aplicadas em uvas Crimson para avaliação sensorial e acompanhamento da perda de massa durante 22 dias. As coberturas de sorgo e arroz foram as mais eficientes na extensão da vida útil (aumento de 10 dias. Entretanto, em relação aos atributos sensoriais, as uvas com cobertura de arroz não diferiram estatisticamente do controle, que apresentou as menores notas para os parâmetros de aparência global e intenção de compra. O filme de sorgo apresentou uma permeabilidade ao vapor de água de 5,40 g.mm.m-2.d.kPa, resistência à tração de 85,89 MPa, elongação de 6,61% e opacidade de 40%. Mesmo não apresentando os melhores valores de caracterização, como filme, tornou-se a melhor opção como cobertura. Na avaliação sensorial, as uvas cobertas obtiveram aceitação igual ou maior que o controle quanto à aparência global, brilho, cor e intenção de compra. Na degustação das uvas, nenhuma das coberturas exerceu influência significativa no aroma, sabor e textura, sendo aceitas pelo consumidor em todos os parâmetros.Films based on gelatin and native starches from wheat, sorghum, potato and rice were produced separately and characterized as to their physical-chemical (water solubility and water vapor permeability, physical (thickness and opacity and mechanical (resistance to traction and percentage elongation at rupture properties. The same solutions were prepared and applied to Crimson grapes for sensory evaluation and determination of weight loss over 22 days. The sorghum and rice coatings were the most efficient in their extending shelf life (a ten

  7. Produção de metabólitos no armazenamento de uvas 'Isabel' (Vitis lasbrusca L. e sua relação com temperatura e vácuo Metabolites production during the storage of 'Isabella' grafes (Vitis labrusca L. and its relationship to the temperature and vacuum

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    Gildo Almeida Da Silva

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as transformações fisiológicas que ocorrem na uva 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca L., em diferentes condições de armazenamento. As uvas foram conservadas em temperatura ambiente (25°C e sob refrigeração (4°C e mantidas em dessecadores com aplicação de vácuo (-60kPa, no início do processo de armazenamento, e sem aplicação de vácuo. Os metabólitos produzidos foram analisados por cromatografia gás-líquida. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualidade, com duas repetições. A refrigeração reduziu a produção de etanol e de metanol. A formação de acetato de etila não foi afetada pelo vácuo ou pela temperatura isoladamente, mas depende da interação desses dois falares. A produção de etanol dependeu da interação temperatura-vácuo. A aplicação de vácuo aumentou a produção de etanol em temperatura ambiente. A refrigeração diminuiu a quantidade de bagas danificadas e a aplicação do vácuo teve um efeito oposto. Os resultados obtidos com a cultivar Isabel sugerem que o procedimento de aplicar vácuo m início do processo de armazenamento de uva pode induzir dano físico às bagas até mesmo sob refrigeração e que, pela correlação observada, a deterioração da uva Isabel armazenada pode ser monitorada, analisando a concentração de etanol, metanol e eternal.In this research, the physiological transformations of 'Isabella' (Vitis labrusca L grapes aí different storage conditions were examined. The grapes were stored at 25°C (nonchilled and 4°C (chilled crnd maintained m a desiccator with vacuum (-60kPa appiicatíon at lhe beginning of the storage process and without vacuum appiicatíon. The metabolites produced were quantitativety determined by gas-liquid chromatography and statistically analysed using a completely randomized design with two repetitions. The chilling storage reduced the production of both ethanol and methanol. The ethyl acetato

  8. Maturação da uva niágara rosada cultivada em estufa de plástico e a céu aberto Maturation of red niagara grapes cultivated under plastic greenhouse and in the natural condition

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    Gustavo Schiedeck

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar o efeito da estufa de plástico na evolução da maturação da uva Vitis labrusca L. cv. Niágara Rosada, conduziu-se este experimento de julho de 1994 a janeiro de 1995, em Bento Gonçalves, RS. As plantas foram submetidas a dois sistemas de cultivo (estufa e a céu aberto e a três épocas de poda (21 de julho, 1º e 11 de agosto de 1994. Avaliaram-se a evolução do ºBrix, densidade, pH, acidez total e ºBrix/acidez total do mosto. Videiras cultivadas na estufa propiciaram, em todas as épocas de poda, uma maior precocidade na maturação da uva. Esta precocidade foi de 17 a 25 dias (média de 21 dias quando a uva atingiu 15ºBrix e de 20 a 33 dias (média de 27 dias com 18ºBrix, variando em função da data de poda. Considerando o efeito da estufa na fenologia da videira e a época de poda, verificou-se que a poda mais precoce proporcionou uma antecipação da maturação da uva de 32 dias e preços cinco vezes maiores quando comparada com a época normal da poda da videira na Serra Gaúcha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the plastic greenhouse on the maturation of Red Niagara (Vitis labrusca L. grapevines. The experiment was carried out in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, from July 1994 to January 1995. There were two cultural systems (greenhouse and natural condition and three pruning times for each system (July 21 and August 1st and 11. The variables evaluated in the must were ºBrix, density, pH, total acidity, and ºBrix/total acidity. Grapevines cultivated in the greenhouse accelerated the process of maturation in all pruning times. Grape maturity was anticipated from 17 to 25 days (average of 21 days when reached 15ºBrix and from 20 to 33 days (average of 27 days with 18ºBrix, varying according to the pruning time. However, considering the greenhouse effect on both the grapevine phenology and the pruning time, grapevines early pruned showed an anticipation of harvest of 32 days when

  9. Avaliação sensorial de uvas de mesa produzidas no Vale do São Francisco e comercializadas em João Pessoa - PB Sensorial evatuation of table grapes produced in the São Francisco Valley and traded in João Pessoa - PB

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    Robson de Jesus Mascarenhas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomando-se como base o nível crescente de exigência do consumidor por frutas de mesa, as características de qualidade das uvas 'Itália', 'Festival' ('Superior Seedless', 'Benitaka' e 'Isabel', expostas à venda em três redes de supermercados, na cidade de João Pessoa - Paraíba - Brasil, foram avaliadas em dezembro de 2007. Inicialmente, foram selecionados e treinados julgadores que estabeleceram e definiram os seguintes atributos sensoriais de importância: tonalidade e uniformidade de cor, aroma, firmeza, presença de sementes, suculência, doçura, acidez, sabor e qualidade global. Os diâmetros, comprimentos e pesos das bagas estavam condizentes com os parâmetros comerciais ou varietais. Os conteúdos de sólidos solúveis (SS, com exceção da uva 'Benitaka', apresentaram-se em conformidade com os padrões comerciais. Apenas a cultivar Festival, com a menor acidez titulável (AT, apresentou relação SS/AT aceitável. Foram realizadas três sessões de análises descritivas quantitativas (ADQ, nas quais a uva 'Itália' foi a de melhor sabor e, em conjunto com a apirênica 'Festival', apresentou maiores doçuras e qualidade global. A cultivar Isabel apresentou a cor mais forte , enquanto a Festival foi a melhor no atributo semente. Aplicou-se o Teste de Preferência por Ordenação, no qual as uvas 'Itália' e 'Festival' foram as preferidas.Taking into account the increasing demand by table fruits consumers, the quality characteristics of the grapes 'Italy', 'Festival' ('Superior Seedless', 'Benitaka', and 'Isabel' exposed for sale in three supermarket chains from the city of João Pessoa - Paraíba - Brazil, were evaluated in December, 2007. Initially, it was selected and trained judges that established and defined the following sensorial attributes of importance: tonality and color, uniformity, aroma, firmness, presence of seeds, succulence, sweetness, acidity, flavor, and global quality. Diameters, lengths, and weight of berries

  10. Influência de diferentes embalagens de atmosfera modificada sobre a aceitação de uvas finas de mesa var. Itália mantidas sob refrigeração Influence of different modified atmosphere packaging on overall acceptance of fine table grapes var. Italia stored under refrigeration

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    Fábio YAMASHITA

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo sobre o comportamento de uvas finas de mesa (Vitis vinifera L. var. Itália frente à armazenagem refrigerada e à utilização de embalagem, para aumentar a vida-de-prateleira. Cachos da uva no estádio verde maduro foram embalados individualmente em três diferentes filmes plásticos (Cryovac® PD-900; Cryovac® PD-955 e Cryovac® PD-961EZ de alta permeabilidade ao oxigênio e ao gás carbônico e armazenados a 1ºC (85-95% UR por 63 dias e a 25ºC (80-90% UR por 21 dias; frutas sem embalagem serviram de controle. Ao longo da armazenagem foram realizadas análises sensoriais de aceitação quanto ao sabor e aparência, utilizando escala hedônica não estruturada de 9cm e 30 provadores por sessão. Foram realizadas também análises do teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e vitamina C ao longo da armazenagem. As frutas embaladas apresentaram taxas de perda de massa 28 vezes menores que as controle, mas não foi observada diferença significativa (p>0,05 entre as diferentes embalagens. A combinação de armazenagem a 1°C com o filme PD-955 prolongou a vida de prateleira das uvas por 63 dias contra 11 a 21 dias do controle. Nas uvas embaladas, o fim da vida-de-prateleira foi determinado por deterioração microbiológica e no controle pela perda de massa, que causou o enrugamento, perda de turgidez das bagas e ressecamento dos engaços e pedicelos.Effects of refrigerated storage and packaging on postharvest behaviour of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. var. Italia were investigated with the objective of increasing shelf life. Bunches of grapes at mature green color stage were individually sealed in three different films (Cryovac® PD-900; Cryovac® PD-955 e Cryovac® PD-961EZ with high permeability to oxygen and carbon dioxide. They were stored for 63 days at 1ºC (85-95% RH and for 21 days at 25ºC (80-90% RH; non-sealed fruits served as control. During the storage period, sensory evaluation was carried out using a 9-cm

  11. Composição centesimal do fruto, extrato concentrado e da farinha da uva-do-japão Chemical composition of fruit, concentrated extract and flour from "Japanese grape"

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    Marlene Bampi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A Hovenia dulcis, mais conhecida como uva-do-japão, pertence à família Rhamnaceae, é natural da China, Japão e Coréia, sendo largamente difundida no sul do Brasil. Rica em açúcares e bem aceita para consumo humano, pode ser consumida in natura ou processada. Não há na literatura relatos de seu aproveitamento em produtos alimentícios. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a composição centesimal do fruto, do extrato concentrado e da farinha. Foram obtidos teores em torno de 54,08, 52,44 e 19,08g 100g-1 para umidade; 2,16, 4,09 e 4,48g 100g-1 para cinzas; 3,74, 2,77 e 5,73g 100g-1 para proteína bruta; 1,42, 0,37 e 1,82g 100g-1 para extrato etéreo; 12,56, 3,33 e 25,62g 100g-1 para fibra alimentar; 19,46, 37,34 e 42,53g 100g-1 para açúcares totais, além do valor calórico de 105,56, 165,14 e 216,09kcal 100g-1, respectivamente, em fruto, extrato concentrado e farinha. A quantificação por cromatografia líquida confirmou o conteúdo dos açúcares redutores (frutose, 6,15g 100g-1 e glicose, 6,57g 100g-1 superior ao teor de açúcares não redutores no fruto (sacarose, 3,56g 100g-1. A farinha é rica em açúcares e possui elevado teor de fibra alimentar, podendo ser utilizada como um ingrediente alternativo em produtos de panificação. Em termos sensoriais, o extrato concentrado obteve um índice de aceitabilidade de 82% entre os julgadores, apresentando bom potencial para elaboração de geleias.Hovenia dulcis, whose popular name is Japanese grape, belongs to the family Rhamnaceae, native of China, Japan and Korea, is widely distributed in southern Brazil. Rich in sugar and with good acceptance for human consumption it can be consumed fresh or processed. There are no literature reports of its use in food products. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the Japanese grape fruit, concentrated extract and flour. The contents for moisture (54.08, 52.44 e 19.08g 100g-1, ash (2.16, 4.09 e 4.48g

  12. Efeitos do thidiazuron e do ácido giberélico nas características dos cachos e bagos da uva de mesa 'Vênus' na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo Effects of thidiazuron and gibberellic acid on cluster and berry characteristics of 'Vênus' table grape in the Northwestern São Paulo State

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    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de reguladores de crescimento está amplamente difundido no cultivo da videira para a melhoria da qualidade das uvas (Vitis vinifera L., visando principalmente ao aumento em tamanho e ao pegamento dos bagos, à descompactação dos cachos e à eliminação de sementes. Nesse contexto, um experimento foi conduzido em vinhedo do cultivar Vênus localizado em Urânia-SP, região noroeste de São Paulo, por dois ciclos consecutivos. Para os tratamentos, utilizam-se thidiazuron a 5 ou 10 mg.L-1 e ácido giberélico a 30 mg.L-1, combinados ou não. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: comprimento, largura e massa dos cachos e bagos; massa dos engaços; número de bagos; número de sementes-traço; e teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e relação SST/ATT do mosto. As aplicações de ácido giberélico aumentaram a massa, o comprimento, a largura e o número dos bagos, e reduziram o número de sementes-traço de uvas 'Vênus'. A associação de thidiazuron com ácido giberélico potencializou o efeito desse regulador de crescimento no aumento do pegamento dos frutos e na redução do número de sementes-traço. Aplicações de thidiazuron a 10 mg.L-1, associado ou não ao ácido giberélico, atrasaram a maturação da uva, diminuindo o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e a relação SST/ATT e reduziram a acidez total titulável do mosto. Aplicações de reguladores de crescimento também aumentaram a massa dos cachos e dos engaços.The use of growth regulators is widely diffused in vine crops to improve grapes quality (Vitis vinifera L., aiming mainly the increase of fruit size and set, loosening clusters, and elimination of seeds. In this context, a trial was carried out in a vineyard located at Urânia-SP, Northwestern São Paulo State, during two seasons. It was used thidiazuron at 5 or 10mg.L-1 and gibberellic acid at 30mg.L-1, combined or not. The following variables were evaluated: weight, length and width of

  13. Intralaboratory optimization and validation of a method for patulin determination in grapes by Thin-Layer Chromatography Otimização e validação intralaboratorial de método para a determinação de patulina em uva por Cromatografia em Camada Delgada

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    Renata Cabrera de Oliveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to optimize and validate, by intralaboratorial procedures, a method for the determination of patulin in grapes by thin-layer chromatography. The steps of extraction, cleanup, detection and quantification were optimized. For the validation of the method, recovery assays with standard solutions and artificially contaminated samples were carried out. The mean recovery and the variation coefficient were 65.4% and 7.58%, respectively. The optimized conditions were: 50 mL of grape juice, three extraction stages (with 100 mL of ethyl acetate in the first stage and 50 mL in second and third stages, and 100 µL of ethanol to solubilize the extract. The solvent-system used was toluene - ethyl acetate - formic acid (6:3:1, and 0.5% MBTH in 5% formic acid was sprayed on the plates to intensify the fluorescence. The visual detection and quantification limits were 7.44 ng and 15.87 µg.kg-1, respectively. The optimized and validated method demonstrated sufficient efficiency for adoption in the monitoring of patulin in grape.O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar e validar, por procedimentos intralaboratoriais, um método de determinação de patulina em uva por cromatografia em camada delgada. Foram realizados testes de otimização das etapas de extração, limpeza, detecção e quantificação. Para validação do método foram realizados ensaios de recuperação com soluções padrões e amostras artificialmente contaminadas. A recuperação e o coeficiente de variação foram 65,4% e 7,58%, respectivamente. As condições otimizadas foram: 50 mL do suco da uva; três etapas de extração, 100 mL de acetato de etila na primeira etapa e 50 mL na segunda e terceira etapas; 100 µL de etanol para solubilizar o extrato; a fase móvel tolueno-acetato de etila-ácido fórmico (6:3:1 e o revelador o MBTH 0,5% em ácido fórmico 5%. O limite de detecção visual foi de 7,44 ng e o de quantificação de 15,87 µg/kg. O método otimizado e

  14. Pós-colheita de uva 'Itália' revestida com filmes à base de alginato de sódio e armazenada sob refrigeração Postharvest of grape envolved with films of sodium alginate and cold storage

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    Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de película à base de alginato de sódio em diferentes concentrações na conservação pós-colheita de uva 'Itália' armazenada sob refrigeração. Cachos de uva 'Itália' colhidos em Pirapora (SP foram selecionados, previamente higienizados com solução de álcool etílico a 30%, imersos em solução de cloreto de cálcio a 0,6% por 2 minutos e, em seguida, em emulsão de alginato de sódio a 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00%, antes de serem mantidos sob refrigeração (4 ± 0,7 °C; 49,5% UR por 29 dias. Avaliou-se a cada sete dias a porcentagem de perda de peso dos cachos, a coloração, a textura, os teores de Sólidos Solúveis (SS, de Acidez Titulável (AT e de ácido ascórbico, o ratio (SS/AT, o pH e o teor de umidade das bagas. As bagas também foram avaliadas quanto à aceitação por 30 provadores não treinados. O tratamento com alginato a 1,00% proporcionou melhor eficiência quanto à perda de massa, manutenção da textura, teores de umidade e de sólidos solúveis, além de propiciar menor intensidade no escurecimento das bagas. As bagas tratadas com película de alginato a 0,75% mostraram-se mais verdes, mais ácidas e com menor ratio. Ao longo de todo o período, todas as bagas tratadas com alginato foram bem aceitas pelos provadores. A cobertura com alginato a 1% mostrou-se mais eficiente na conservação da uva 'Itália'.This work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the application of film made of sodium alginate in different concentrations in the postharvest conservation of grape 'Italia' under refrigeration. Clusters of 'Itália' grape, harvested in Pirapora (São Paulo, Brazil were selected, previously sanitized in alcohol solution 30%, immersed in calcium chloride solution 0.6% for 2 minutes and after that, in film of sodium alginate at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00%, before kept under refrigeration (4 ± 0,7 °C; 49.5% UR for 29 days. It was evaluated at

  15. Efeito do ethephon na qualidade da uva 'Niagara Rosada' (Vitis labrusca L., produzida na entressafra, na região de Jales-SP The effect of ethephon in the quality of grapes 'Niagara Rosada' (Vitis labrusca L. produced in the region of Jales-SP

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    Fernando Mendes Pereira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Na região de Jales (SP, a produção de uva 'Niagara Rosada' obtida de videiras podadas em períodos de ocorrência de baixas temperaturas é, em geral, insatisfatória, apresentando pequena produtividade e cachos com qualidade inadequada à comercialização. Essa qualidade da produção está intimamente relacionada à efetiva brotação. Assim, este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a aplicação do ethephon em diferentes doses antes da poda, visando a melhorar a brotação e a qualidade dos cachos, em seis experimentos, durante os anos de 2001 e 2002. Foram testadas as doses de 0; 3; 6 e 9 L.ha-1 de ethephon aplicado via foliar. Concluiu-se que o uso de ethephon, na dose de 9 L.ha-1, proporcionou cachos e bagas maiores e com maiores pesos, comprimento e largura, melhorando o aspecto dos mesmos. A aplicação de ethephon não afetou os teores de sólidos solúveis totais e a acidez total titulável, não alterando o sabor da uva 'Niagara Rosada'.In the region of Jales (SP the 'Niagara Rosada' grape yield obtained of grapevines pruned in periods of occurrence of low temperatures is in general unsatisfactory, presenting small yield and clusters with inadequate quality to commercialization. This quality of the yield is related to effective sprouting. Thus, this work rad the objective to evaluate the application of ethephon in different levels before the pruning, aiming the improvement of sprouting and clusters quality, in six experiments during the years of 2001 and 2002. Levels of 0, 3, 6 and 9 L.ha-1 of ethephon were applied by leaf. It was concluded that the use of ethephon, in level of 9 L.ha-1, provided bigger clusters and berries with greater weight, length and width, improving their aspect. The application of ethephon did not affect the tenor of total soluble solid and the titulabre total acidity, not modifying the flavor of grape 'Niagara Rosada'.

  16. Aquecimento de vinho tinto e suco de uva utilizados em preparações culinárias não afeta a capacidade antioxidante e o teor de fenóis totais Heating of red wine and grape juice in food preparations does not affect their antioxidant capacity and total phenol content

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    Jeanine Schütz Cardoso Teófilo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade antioxidante e a concentração dos compostos fenólicos de vinho tinto e suco de uva utilizados em preparações culinárias, quando submetidos ao processo de fervura. Métodos: A avaliação ocorreu após diferentes períodos de aquecimento (100°C em dois sistemas: i panela de alumínio e chama de fogão e ii balão de vidro e manta térmica. Amostras comerciais de vinho tinto (n=4 e suco de uva integral (n=4 foram submetidas à fervura por 10, 20 e 60 minutos. Antes e após cada período de fervura, a capacidade antioxidante total foi avaliada pela medida do potencial redutor férrico, e o teor de fenóis totais foi quantificado pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau. As diferenças foram comparadas pela análise de variância para medidas repetidas (pObjective: This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity and concentration of phenolic compounds in red wine and grape juice used in culinary preparations subjected to boiling. Methods: The assessments were done after different boiling times (100°C using two systems: i aluminum pot and stove flame and ii volumetric flask and heating mantle. Samples of red wine (n=4 and grape juice (n=4 were subjected to boiling for 10, 20 and 60 minutes. Before and after each boiling period, the total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and the total phenol content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Differences were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA (p<0.05. Results: The different boiling times did not cause significant changes in the total antioxidant capacity or total phenol content of the beverages, regardless of boiling method. Conclusion: The results show that the antioxidant properties of red wine and grape juice did not change significantly after boiling for 60 minutes.

  17. Efeitos do ethephon sobre a produção da uva 'Niagara Rosada' (Vitis labrusca L., produzida na entressafra na região de Jales-SP Effect of ethephon on production of 'Niagara Rosada' (Vitis labrusca L., produced off season in the region of Jales-SP

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    Antonio Augusto Fracaro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A produção de 'Niagara Rosada' na entressafra, embora sendo uma excelente opção para os viticultores de Jales-SP, é problemática devido à dificuldade de emissão e desenvolvimento das brotações após a poda, realizada nos meses de ocorrência de temperaturas inferiores a 10ºC, o que tem causado pequenas produções e desestímulo entre os viticultores. Visando a solucionar este problema, foram conduzidos seis experimentos nos anos de 2001 e 2002, cujo objetivo foi verificar o efeito do ethephon aplicado antes da poda sobre o número de cachos, a produção e a qualidade da uva. Foram testadas as doses 0; 3; 6 e 9L.ha-1 de ethephon aplicado via foliar. Concluiu-se que o uso de ethephon proporcionou aumento do número de cachos e da produtividade de 'Niagara Rosada', especialmente quando da ocorrência de condições climáticas desfavoráveis e com satisfatório grau de enfolhamento. A utilização de ethephon na dose de 9L.ha-1 proporcionou aumento da produtividade da uva 'Niagara Rosada' na entressafra.The production of 'Niagara Rosada' in the off season is an excellent option for the region of Jales, São Paulo State, Brazil, due the difficulty of emission and development of the sprout after the pruning, carried through in the months of occurrence of lower temperatures (< 10ºC, that has caused small productions among the grape growers. So to solve this problem, six experiments in the years of 2001 and 2002 had been conducted with the objective to verify the effect of ethephon applied before the pruning, on the number of clusters and production. Four levels (0; 3; 6 and 9L.ha-1 of ethephon applied by foliar via had been tested. It was concluded that the use of ethephon provided the increasing of the number of clusters and the productivity of 'Niagara Rosada', especially with the occurrence of favorable climatic conditions and with satisfactory degree of foliage. The use of ethephon in the dose of 9L.ha-1 provided to increase the

  18. Avaliação de quitosana, aplicada em pós-colheita, na proteção de uva 'Itália' contra Botrytis cinerea Evaluation of chitosan on postharvest protection of ‘Itália’ grapes against Botrytis cinerea

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    Elisangela Clarete Camili

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Perdas significativas ocorrem durante o armazenamento e a comercialização de uvas de mesa devido, principalmente, à ocorrência do mofo cinzento (Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr. e, para o controle de patógenos emprega-se, geralmente, o dióxido de enxofre (SO2. Diante da restrição crescente ao uso de produtos químicos em pós-colheita, tem ocorrido considerável interesse em métodos alternativos de controle. Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo avaliar os efeitos da quitosana, na proteção pós-colheita de uva 'Itália' contra B. cinerea. In vivo, avaliou-se o efeito direto e indireto da quitosana pelo tratamento dos cachos de uva, antes e após a inoculação com o patógeno. Utilizou-se quitosana nas concentrações de 0,00; 0,25; 0,50; 1,00; 1,50 e 2,00 % (v/v. Para inoculação, em 10 bagas de cada cacho de uva foram feitos ferimentos de ±2 mm de profundidade, procedendo-se em seguida, a aspersão da suspensão de conídios (±10(5 conídios.mL-1 de B. cinerea. Após os tratamentos, os cachos foram mantidos a 25±1 °C / 80-90 % UR e avaliados diariamente quanto à incidência e severidade da podridão. Avaliações in vitro do efeito do produto sobre o patógeno também foram realizadas analisando-se o crescimento micelial e a germinação dos conídios de B. cinerea. A solução de quitosana, nas concentrações de 1,5 e 2,0 % (v/v, quando empregada após a inoculação com B cinerea, reduziu significativamente o índice de doença no entanto, quando os cachos foram tratados antes da inoculação, não houve efeito significativo do tratamento sobre o desenvolvimento da doença. Nos ensaios in vitro, a solução de quitosana, nas maiores concentrações, suprimiu o crescimento micelial do patógeno e retardou a germinação dos conídios.Significant losses of table grapes are seem during storage and marketing due mainly to the occurrence of gray mold (Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr., whick has been frequently controlled by using

  19. Fermentação do mosto de uva: influência do sistema de vinificação sôbre a acidez volátil do vinho Grape juice fermentation: influence of the fermentation procedure on the volatile acidity of the wine

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    Odette Zardetto de Toledo

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram ensaiados três tratamentos na vinificação do mosto de uva, a saber; a fermentação natural: b fermentação com o emprêgo da estirpe de fermento I.A. 78, e c fermentação com associação de leveduras. Os dados obtidos mostraram que a estirpe I.A. 78 apresentou os melhores resultados na redução da acidez volátil dos vinhos obtidos.Three different fermentation techniques were compared to determine their influence on the volatile acidity of the wine. They were as follows; a natural fermentation: b with the selected wine yeast strain I.A.-78, and c with a mixture of yeasts. The results of these experiments, with six replications, pointed out that the fermentation with the wine yeast strain I.A.-78 gave wines with lower volatile acidity, a desirable characteristic of the good wines.

  20. Influência da maceração carbônica e da irradiação ultravioleta nos níveis de trans-resveratrol em vinhos de uva cabernet sauvignon Influence of the carbonic maceration on the levels of trans-resveratrol in cabernet sauvignon wine

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    Silvana Maria Michelin Bertagnolli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O consumo moderado de vinho reduz significativamente os riscos de doenças cardiovasculares. Este efeito é atribuído aos polifenóis presentes no vinho, em especial ao resveratrol (3,5,4'-triidroxiestilbeno, que é uma fitoalexina encontrada em várias partes da videira, principalmente na casca da uva, assim como em outras espécies de plantas. Uvas da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon foram submetidas à irradiação com luz ultravioleta e maceração carbônica e após fermentadas. Procedeu-se à coleta de amostras durante todo o experimento, as quais foram posteriormente analisadas quanto ao teor de trans-resveratrol através da Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Os resultados do trabalho demonstram que a evolução do conteúdo de trans-resveratrol foi ascendente durante as fases da fermentação. Diferenças ocorreram no final da fermentação, em que as amostras de vinhos com maceração carbônica apresentaram leve declínio, possivelmente pela atmosfera de CO2 na qual ficaram armazenadas, inibindo a formação do resveratrol. Ao final da fermentação principal a concentração de trans-resveratrol foi de 15 mg.L-1 em todos os tratamentos, chegando a 1,5 mg.L-1, em média, no final do período de estocagem.The moderate consumption of wine reduces the risks of heart diseases significantly. This effect is attributed to the polyphenols found in the wine, in special to resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihidroxistilbene that it is a phytoalexin found in the various parts of the vine, including in the skin of the grape, as well as in other species of plants. Grapes of cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon had been submitted to the irradiation with ultra-violet light and carbonic maceration and after fermented. It was proceeded all collection from samples during the experiment, which later had been analyzed how much to the concentration of trans-resveratrol using the Liquid Chromatography of High Efficiency. The of the content of trans-resveratrol was ascendent

  1. Organic production of red wine grapes under plastic cover in subtropical region of Brazil Produção orgânica de uvas para vinho tinto sob cobertura plástica em região subtropical do Brasil

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    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out aiming to evaluate the development and yield of red wine grapevines under plastic cover in an organic production system in Guarapuava, the Central-Southern region of Paraná State, Brazil. The experimental design was in a randomized blocks, in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (cultivars x rootstocks, with five red wine vine cultivars (Merlot, Malbec, Carbenet Sauvignon, Ives and Early Isabella and two rootstocks (Paulsen 1103 e VR 043-43. The grafted grapevines were planted in September of 2005 and the evaluations carried out for the three first productive cycles (2006/2007, 2007/2008, 2008/2009. The following variables were evaluated: phenological growth stages, number of clusters, average cluster weight, total yield, total soluble solids content and fresh weight of pruning material. The cultivation of wine grapevines in an organic system under plastic cover demonstrated viability, inhibiting the incidence of diseases and reducing the needs of control. The most limiting factor was the damage caused by wasps and bees that decreased cluster harvest. Despite this problem, between tested grapevine cultivars, the Early Isabella was the most productive in all years, while Malbec was also outstanding in the first cycle. VR 043-43 hybrid could be a suitable rootstock for red wine production in areas infested by 'Perola da Terra' scale insects (Eurhizococcus brasiliensis.Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento e produtividade de uvas para vinho tinto sob cobertura plástica, em sistema orgânico, em Guarapuava, região centro-sul do estado do Paraná, Brasil. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5x2 (cultivares x porta-enxertos, com cinco cultivares de vinho tinto (Merlot, Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon, Bordô e Isabel Precoce e dois porta-enxertos (Paulsen 1103e VR 043-43. As videiras enxertadas foram plantadas em setembro de 2005 e as avaliações foram conduzidas

  2. Efeitos de reguladores vegetais na qualidade de uvas 'Niagara Rosada' na região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo Effects of plant regulators on the quality of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes in the Northwestern of São Paulo State

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    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Na região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, a uva 'Niagara Rosada' é produzida entre junho e novembro, como alternativa ao período de colheita das regiões vitícolas tradicionais. No entanto, devido às condições edafoclimáticas, as bagas e cachos são pequenos, o que é desfavorável à comercialização. Neste contexto, um experimento foi conduzido em vinhedo localizado em Junqueirópolis (SP, na região da Nova Alta Paulista, com o objetivo de se estudar os efeitos de reguladores vegetais nas características dos cachos e bagas de uvas 'Niagara Rosada'. Para os tratamentos, utilizou-se de thidiazuron a 5 ou 10 mg.L-1 e ácido giberélico a 35mg.L-1, associados ou não. Foram realizadas 1; 2 ou 3 aplicações semanais, a partir dos 14 dias após o pleno florescimento, mediante imersão dos cachos em solução contida em recipiente. As variáveis avaliadas foram: massa, comprimento e largura dos cachos e bagas; massa dos engaços, número de bagas; relação comprimento/largura das bagas; número de sementes; teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, pH e relação SST/ATT do mosto. Dentre os diferentes tratamentos testados, 2 aplicações de thidiazuron a 5mg.L-1 foi o mais promissor para utilização comercial, levando a um incremento de 33,7% da massa dos cachos e de 22,4% da massa das bagas, sem alterar o teor de sólidos solúveis totais, a acidez total titulável, o pH e a relação SST/ATT do mosto. Aplicações de reguladores vegetais também aumentaram a massa dos engaços e a largura das bagas.In the northwestern of São Paulo State, 'Niagara Rosada' grapes are harvest off-season in traditional vine-growing areas, between June and November. However, because of soil and climate conditions, clusters and berries are small, what is unfavorable for trading. In this context, a trial was carried out in a vineyard located in Junqueirópolis-SP, Alta Nova Paulista region, with the objective of studying the effects of

  3. Influência do solvente no conteúdo total de polifenóis, antocianinas e atividade antioxidante de extratos de bagaço de uva (Vitis vinifera variedades Tannat e Ancelota Solvent Influence on total polyphenol content, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity of grape (Vitis vinifera bagasse extracts from Tannat and Ancelota - different varieties of Vitis vinifera varieties

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    Ismael Ivan Rockenbach

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes sistemas solventes foram aplicados para determinar a eficiência de extração de compostos com capacidade antioxidante em bagaço de uva, importante subproduto do processo de vinificação. Realizou-se a quantificação de compostos fenólicos totais, antocianinas totais e atividade antioxidante nos extratos de bagaço de uva Vitis vinifera das variedades Tannat e Ancelota, provenientes da região de Videira, Santa Catarina. A atividade antioxidante foi determinada pelos métodos ABTS, FRAP e β-caroteno/ácido linoléico. Conteúdos de compostos fenólicos totais em acetona 50 e 70% foram maiores nas duas variedades, enquanto que os conteúdos de antocianinas totais extraídos em ambas as variedades foram maiores no solvente etanol em concentrações de 50 e 70%. Pelo método ABTS, a atividade antioxidante foi maior nas concentrações de 50 e 70% de acetona para a variedade Tannat e 50 e 70% de acetona e etanol para a variedade Ancelota. Em relação ao poder redutor pelo método FRAP, este foi maior em solvente acetona 70% para as duas variedades. No ensaio do poder de inibição da oxidação, a adição de 100 e 200 µL de extratos etanólicos a 50% das variedades Tannat e Ancelota apresentou maior eficiência, sendo quase duas vezes superior aos extratos acetônicos testados.Different solvent systems were applied in order to determine the extraction efficiency of compounds with antioxidant capacity from grape bagasse, an important by-product from wine production. The quantification of total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity was carried out in grape bagasse extracts of Tannat and Ancelota varieties from the region of Videira, state of Santa Catarina. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS, FRAP, and β-carotene/linoleic acid system methods. Extracts from acidified aqueous solutions of acetone and ethanol in different concentrations (v/v showed higher yield in aqueous solutions of acetone 50 and 70% for

  4. Occurence of thrips on Niagara table grape and its control with the insecticides thiacloprid and methiocarb associated with Metarhizium anisopliae Ocorrência de tripes em uva Niagara e seu controle com os inseticidas thiacloprid e methiocarb associados com Metarhizium anisopliae

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    ROGÉRIO BIAGGIONI LOPES

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Thrips are reported as important pests on table grapes in United States and several countries of Europe. Damage caused by thrips, particulary Frankliniella occidentalis, was observed on niagara table grape crop in Limeira-SP, Brazil. During the blooming period, high thrips densities were observed feeding on pollen and small berries. The symptoms left were more visible after the development of the berries and were characterized by dark scars and suberized surface on berries, sometimes causing the berry to crack, and the seed to prolapse. The effect of insecticides thiacloprid or methiocarb, associated or not with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae were evaluated during the blooming period. For evaluation of thrips damage on fruits, the treatments were applied three additional times, 7, 14 and 21 days after the first application. The treatments were: a M. anisopliae (strain 1037 1x10(7 conidia/mL; b thiacloprid 20mL/100L; c-d methiocarb 100 and 150mL/100L; e methiocarb 100mL/100L + M. anisopliae 1x10(7 conidia/mL. Only methiocarb, associated or not with the fungus, was effective in reducing thrips infestation, and no phytotoxic damage was observed. The efficiency of methiocarb 150mL/100L and the insecticide associated with the fungus for the control of the thrips population was 84.2 and 95.5%, respectively. In both cases, there was a reduction of approximately 70% in the number of berries with scars symptoms. For control of thrips on table grapes, chemical insecticides associated or not with M. anisopliae should be applied during the blooming period of the crop.Os tripes são mencionados como importantes pragas da cultura da uva de mesa em diversos países da Europa e Estados Unidos. Em área de cultivo da uva Niagara localizada na região de Limeira-SP verificou-se a ocorrência de danos provocados por Frankliniella occidentalis. Essa praga foi observada, principalmente, durante a fase de florescimento, alimentando-se de pólen e

  5. Avaliação da produção dos compostos majoritários da fermentação de mosto de uva por leveduras isoladas da região da "Serra Gaúcha" (RS Evaluation of the major compounds formed during grape must fermentation by yeast isolated from "Serra Gaúcha" (RS region

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    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento do crescimento, bem como a produção de compostos voláteis durante a fermentação de mosto de uva pelas leveduras Kloeckera apiculata e Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As concentrações dos compostos voláteis majoritários da fermentação foram dependentes da temperatura de fermentação. Nas fermentações a 20°C, as concentrações da massa celular seca e dos compostos voláteis foram maiores do que na fermentação a 15°C. A Kloeckera apiculata produziu altas concentrações de acetato de etila (197,0mg/L - 310,0mg/L e acetato de isoamila (19,3mg/L - 31,3mg/L, ésteres de grande importância sensorial. No entanto, a concentração de etanol obtida foi baixa, cerca de 6,3g/L - 24,0g/L, em comparação à conseguida utilizando Saccharomyces cerevisiae como agente de fermentação (27,3g/L - 34,0g/L.The objective of this work was to study the growth behavior, as well as, volatile compounds production during grape must fermentation by Kloeckera apiculata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The concentrations of the major volatile compounds during the fermentation were dependent of the temperature of the fermentation. In fermentation at 20°C, the concentration of the dry weight biomass and volatile compounds were greater than that ones at 15°C. The Kloeckera apiculata produced high concentrations of the ethyl acetate (197.0mg/L - 310.0mg/L and isoamyl acetate (19.3mg/L - 31.3mg/L, esters of great sensory importance. However, the ethanol concentration obtained was lower, about 6.3g/L - 24.0g/L, than that one obtained with fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (27.3g/L - 34.0g/L.

  6. Efeitos do thidiazuron e do ácido giberélico nas características dos cachos de uva de mesa cultivar Rubi, na região da Nova Alta Paulista Effects of thidiazuron and gibberellic acid on the cluster characteristics of Rubi table grape cultivar, on the region of Nova Alta Paulista

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    RENATO VASCONCELOS BOTELHO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de thidiazuron e de ácido giberélico nas características dos cachos de uvas 'Rubi', foi conduzido um experimento, utilizando-se de thidiazuron a 5 e 10 mg.L-1 e ácido giberélico a 20mg.L-1, combinados ou não. As aplicações dos produtos foram realizadas aos 14; 21 ou 28 dias após o pleno florescimento, por meio de imersão dos cachos. Todos os tratamentos com reguladores de crescimento aumentaram a massa dos cachos. A massa dos bagos e dos engaços foi identicamente influenciada pela aplicação dos produtos, porém menos evidente, quando as aplicações foram realizadas aos 28 dias após o pleno florescimento. As aplicações de thidiazuron a 5mg.L-1, aos 14 ou 21 dias após o florescimento, não diferiram das aplicações de ácido giberélico para as variáveis estudadas. Não houve diferenças significativas para as variáveis teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, porém os tratamentos com thidiazuron retardaram a maturação em até 7 dias.With the objective of evaluating the effects of thidiazuron and gibberellic acid on the cluster characteristics of 'Rubi' grapes, a trial was conducted where was used thidiazuron at 5 and 10mg.L-1 and gibberellic acid at 20mg.L-1, associated or not . The products were applied in three epochs: 14, 21 or 28 days after full bloom, by dipping the clusters. All treatments with growth regulators increased the cluster weight. The berries and rachis weight were identically influenced, but it was less evident when the applications were done 28 days after full bloom. Applications of thidiazuron at 5mg.L-1, 14 or 21 days after full bloom, didn't differ to the gibberellic acid applications for the variables in studying. There weren't differences in the variables contents of soluble solutes, titrable acidity, although the treatments with thidiazuron delayed cluster ripening until 7 days.

  7. Exploración del efecto protector frente a radicales libres de derivados de la uva (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Tannat en Saccharomyces cerevisiae Analysis of a putative protection against free radicals by grape derivatives (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Tannat in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    N. Bracesco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se exploró un posible efecto protector del genoma por parte de un derivado de la uva (vino Tannat. Se utilizaron poblaciones celulares haploides y diploides de Saccharomyces cerevisiae como modelo eucariota. Muestras celulares se expusieron a H2O2 en medio nutriente. El ADN se analizó por densitometría láser, luego de su aislamiento y separación por electroforesis con campos pulsados. Se aplicó la distribución de Poisson para la determinación de roturas dobles. El número de roturas dobles del ADN y la frecuencia mutagénica aumentaron en función de la dosis de H2O2, disminuyendo la probabilidad de sobrevida. La combinación de H2O2 con vino Tannat aumentó significa-tivamente la probabilidad de sobrevida y disminuyó el número de roturas dobles. No se observó efecto mutagénico por el vino Tannat. Estos efectos pudieron simularse utilizando altas concentraciones de α-tocoferol. Los resultados indican que un derivado de Vitis vinifera puede, en ciertas condiciones, disminuir las dobles roturas de ADN producidas por el H2O2 e incrementar las probabilidades de sobrevida celular. Los blancos involucrados podrían ser, entre otros, componentes intracelulares de las cascadas redox y/o enzimas de reparación del ADN.The aim of this work was to analyse a possible genome protection provided by a grape derivative (Tannat wine in yeast cell populat