Sample records for electrical activity due

  1. Accidental ligature strangulation due to electric grinder. (United States)

    Shetty, Mahabalesh; Shetty, B Suresh


    A young girl was accidentally strangled when her chunni (a piece of cloth worn around the neck by most Indian women) was caught in a moving electrical grinder. She was taken to the nearest hospital where she died within the next 9h, remaining unconscious throughout the hospital stay. Accidental strangulation of this kind due to household devices or machinery is extremely uncommon and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind to be reported. The findings are presented.

  2. Electric field distribution and simulation of avalanche formation due ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric field distributions and their role in the formation of avalanche due to the passage of heavy ions in parallel grid avalanche type wire chamber detectors are evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The relative merits and demerits of parallel and crossed wire grid configurations are studied. It is found that the crossed ...

  3. Unexpected guest: Atrial fibrillation due to electrical shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zihni Bilik


    Full Text Available Cardiac arrhythmias due to electrical injuries are rare among emergency service admittances. A 35 year-old female patient was admitted to emergency service with palpitation after electrical injury as a result of contact with a domestic low-voltage source. Electrocardiography (ECG showed atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. Transthoracic echocardiography findings were normal. Atrial fibrillation spontaneously converted to normal sinus rhythm after rate limiting treatment with beta-blocker. The patient was discharged without any complication on the third day of hospitalization. Although cardiac arrhythmias rarely occur after electrical injury, cardiac monitoring is recommended for all patients with documented rhythm disorder, loss of consciousness, or abnormal ECG at admission.

  4. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator oversensing due to electric shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurčević Ružica


    Full Text Available Introduction. We described the first case of oversensing due to electric shock in Serbia, in a 54-year-old man who had implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD. Case Outline. In July 2002, the patient had acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction and ventricular fibrillation (VF which was terminated with six defibrillation shocks of 360 J. Coronary angiography revealed 30% stenosis of circumflex artery, the left anterior descending coronary artery was recanalized and the right coronary artery was without stenosis. Left ventricular ejection fraction was 20%. In December 2003, an electrophysiology study was performed and ventricular tachycardia (VT was induced and terminated with 200 J defibrillation shock. Single chamber ICD Medtronic Gem III VR was implanted in January 2004 and defibrillation threshold was 12 J. The patient was followed up during three years every three months and there were no VT/VF episodes and VT/VF therapies. In December 2007, the patient experienced electric shock through the fork while he was making barbecue on the electric grill. ICD recognized this event in VF zone (oversensing and delivered defibrillation shock of 18 J. The electrogram of the episode showed ventricular sensing - intrinsic sinus rhythm with electric shock potentials which were misidentified as VF. After charge time of 3.16 seconds, ICD delivered defibrillation shock and sinus rhythm was still present. Conclusion. Oversensing of ICD has different aetiology and the most common cause is supraventricular tachyarrhythmia.

  5. Electrical activity in muscle pain. (United States)

    Cobb, C R; deVries, H A; Urban, R T; Luekens, C A; Bagg, R J


    The concept of muscle pain-spasm-pain vicious cycle has been challenged on the basis of inability to find electrical activity in the presence of palpable changes in fibrositic muscle. We produced muscle pain in the wrist extensor and paravertebral muscle groups of seven healthy subjects by injection of hypertonic saline (0.3 ml of 6% NaCl solution). The time course of the integrated muscle action potentials, roughly paralleled the time course of the developed pain in all but one subject for each muscle group. EMG recordings were made on one subject using both surface electrodes with amplifier sensitivity of 10 muV/cm and needle electrodes with an amplifier sensitivity of 100 muV/cm. Sequential recording showed clear evidence of electrical activity from the surface electrode and high sensitivity whereas the combination of the needle electrode with lower sensitivity showed no electrical activity whatever. We conclude that even mild muscle spasm is accompanied by muscular hyperactivity which can be evaluated by appropriate EMG techniques. There appears to be no reason to challenge the widely accepted concept of pain-spasm-pain as stated by Travell, Rinzler and Herman.

  6. Neurocortical electrical activity tomography in chronic schizophrenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veiga Heloisa


    Full Text Available Functional imaging of brain electrical activity was performed in 25 chronic medicated schizophrenics and 40 controls, analyzing the classical frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, and beta of 19-channel EEG during resting state to identify brain regions with deviant activity of different functional significances, using LORETA (Low Resolution Tomography and SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping. Patients differed from controls due to an excess of slow activity comprising delta + theta frequency bands (inhibitory pattern located at the right middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, and right insula, as well as at the bilateral anterior cingulum with a left preponderance. The high temporal resolution of EEG enables the specification of the deviations not only as an excess or a deficit of brain electrical activity, but also as inhibitory (delta, theta, normal (alpha, and excitatory (beta activities. These deviations point out to an impaired functional brain state consisting of inhibited frontal and prefrontal areas that may result in inadequate treatment of externally or internally generated information.

  7. Experimental Investigation of the Corona Discharge in Electrical Transmission due to AC/DC Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuangpian Phanupong


    Full Text Available Nowadays, using of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC transmission to maximize the transmission efficiency, bulk power transmission, connection of renewable power source from wind farm to the grid is of prime concern for the utility. However, due to the high electric field stress from Direct Current (DC line, the corona discharge can easily be occurred at the conductor surface leading to transmission loss. Therefore, the polarity effect of DC lines on corona inception and breakdown voltage should be investigated. In this work, the effect of DC polarity and Alternating Current (AC field stress on corona inception voltage and corona discharge is investigated on various test objects, such as High Voltage (HV needle, needle at ground plane, internal defect, surface discharge, underground cable without cable termination, cable termination with simulated defect and bare overhead conductor. The corona discharge is measured by partial discharge measurement device with high-frequency current transformer. Finally, the relationship between supply voltage and discharge intensity on each DC polarity and AC field stress can be successfully determined.

  8. 3-D modelling the electric field due to ocean tidal flow and comparison with observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Junge, A.; Utada, H.


    The tidal motion of the ocean water through the ambient magnetic field, generates secondary electric field. This motionally induced electric field can be detected in the sea or inland and has a potential for electrical soundings of the Earth. A first goal of the paper is to gain an understanding...... that in some coastal regions the amplitudes of the electric field can reach 100 mV/km and 10 mV/km for M2 and O1 tides respectively. The changes of lithosphere resistance produce detectable changes in the tidal electric signals. We show that our predictions are in a good agreement with observations....... of the global distribution of the electric signal due to tidal ocean flow. We simulate the electric signals for two tidal constituents - lunar semidiurnal (M2) and diurnal (O1) tides. We assume a realistic Earth's conductivity model with a surface thin shell and 1-D mantle underneath. Simulations demonstrate...

  9. Electrical flash burns due to switchboard explosions in New South Wales--a 9-year experience. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Shagun; Maitz, Peter; Kennedy, Peter


    To document the incidence and outcome of flash burns due to electrical switchboard explosions presenting to Concord Hospital Burns Unit, from January 2000 to December 2008. The Concord Hospital Burns Unit Database was reviewed for admissions due to electrical burns from January 2000 to December 2008. There were 119 electrical burns admitted during the study period, 20 of which were due to high voltage current. Ninety-nine others were low voltage injuries and included 37 cases of electrical burns due to low voltage electrical switchboard explosions. All of the electrical switchboard burns occurred in male electricians. Twenty-one of the 37 low voltage injuries required admission and 7 of them required skin grafting. The mean LOS was 9.95 days. Twenty cases suffered serious complications including major psychological problems and ocular injuries. Flash burns resulting from switchboard explosions account for a significant proportion of all electrical burns presenting to our institution. These burns may highlight deficits in taking safety precautions and the use of personal protection equipment. Despite the small area of injury the long term psychological sequelae were significant resulting in a delayed return to employment, and there was a high incidence of eye injuries. Additional efforts are therefore required towards the prevention of such injuries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Electric Field Activated Shape Memory Polymer Composite (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Penner, Ronald K. (Inventor); Turner, Travis L. (Inventor)


    Provided is an electrically activated shape memory polymer composite capable of thermal shape reformation using electric power to heat the composite through its matrix glass transition temperature. The composite includes an adaptable polymer matrix component using a diglycidyl ether resin, at least one substantially well-dispersed conductive or magnetic nano-filler component, and at least one elastic, laminated layer. Also provided are methods of preparing the composite and methods of activating the composite. A shape reformation of the composite is triggered by applying an electric field at DC and/or at a frequency above about for a sufficient time.

  11. High-voltage electrical burns due to copper theft - Case series. (United States)

    Braga, M J; Oliveira, I; Egipto, P; Silva, A


    Electrical burns are among the most devastating trauma inflicted on the human body. These burns have a higher morbidity, length of stay and a much higher risk of amputation than any other type of burn. Electrical burns affect mostly young, working males because they are more frequently the result of a work accident. However, possibly due to the worldwide economic crisis, we are experiencing a new phenomenon: the theft of high-voltage copper wiring.

  12. High-voltage electrical burns due to copper theft – Case series (United States)

    Braga, M.J.; Oliveira, I.; Egipto, P.; Silva, A.


    Summary Electrical burns are among the most devastating trauma inflicted on the human body. These burns have a higher morbidity, length of stay and a much higher risk of amputation than any other type of burn. Electrical burns affect mostly young, working males because they are more frequently the result of a work accident. However, possibly due to the worldwide economic crisis, we are experiencing a new phenomenon: the theft of high-voltage copper wiring. PMID:27857650

  13. Evaluation of Electric Power Saving Due to Oil Slime Cleaning in Linear Part of Oil Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko


    Full Text Available The paper presents evaluation method of electric power saving due to periodical cleaning of oil pipeline linear part which is intended to increase an equivalent diameter of the pipeline. The proposed method is based on statistical model developed on the basis of 24-hourly statistics reflecting modes of electric power consumption that take place at an enterprise. Electric power saving is evaluated according to changes of an equivalent diameter in the process of oil pipeline cleaning (and after this process with respect to changes of an equivalent diameter without pipeline cleaning.

  14. Active Electrical-Transient Damper (United States)

    Dolland, Carlisle R.


    Active damping circuit functions similarly to passive damping circuit, but volume, weight, and cost do not increase as steeply with rated power as equivalent passive damper. Affords advantages of economy that increases with rated power.

  15. Mimicking muscle activity with electrical stimulation (United States)

    Johnson, Lise A.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.


    Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technology that can restore some degree of motor function in individuals who have sustained a spinal cord injury or stroke. One way to identify the spatio-temporal patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit complex upper limb movements is to use electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from able-bodied subjects as a template for electrical stimulation. However, this requires a transfer function to convert the recorded (or predicted) EMG signals into an appropriate pattern of electrical stimulation. Here we develop a generalized transfer function that maps EMG activity into a stimulation pattern that modulates muscle output by varying both the pulse frequency and the pulse amplitude. We show that the stimulation patterns produced by this transfer function mimic the active state measured by EMG insofar as they reproduce with good fidelity the complex patterns of joint torque and joint displacement.

  16. Risk analysis of the LHC underground area fire risk due to faulty electrical equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, A


    The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, is currently building the latest generation of particle accelerators, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The machine is housed in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference and is situated approximately 100 metres beneath the surface astride the Franco-Swiss border. Electrically induced fires in the LHC are a major concern, since an incident could present a threat to CERN personnel as well as the public. Moreover, the loss of equipment would result in significant costs and downtime. However, the amount of electrical equipment in the underground area required for operation, supervision and control of the machine is essential. Thus the present thesis is assessing the risk of fire due to faulty electrical equipment in both a qualitative as well as quantitative way. The recommendations following the qualitative analysis suggest the introduction of fire protection zones for the areas with the highest risk of fire due to a combination of p...

  17. Electrical Activity in Martian Dust Storms (United States)

    Majid, W.; Arabshahi, S.; Kocz, J.


    Dust storms on Mars are predicted to be capable of producing electrostatic fields and discharges, even larger than those in dust storms on Earth. Such electrical activity poses serious risks to any Human exploration of the planet and the lack of sufficient data to characterize any such activity has been identified by NASA's MEPAG as a key human safety knowledge gap. There are three key elements in the characterization of Martian electrostatic discharges: dependence on Martian environmental conditions, frequency of occurrence, and the strength of the generated electric fields. We will describe a recently deployed detection engine using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to carry out a long term monitoring campaign to search for and characterize the entire Mars hemisphere for powerful discharges during routine tracking of spacecraft at Mars on an entirely non-interfering basis. The resulting knowledge of Mars electrical activity would allow NASA to plan risk mitigation measures to ensure human safety during Mars exploration. In addition, these measurements will also allow us to place limits on presence of oxidants such as H2O2 that may be produced by such discharges, providing another measurement point for models describing Martian atmospheric chemistry and habitability. Because of the continuous Mars telecommunication needs of NASA's Mars-based assets, the DSN is the only instrument in the world that combines long term, high cadence, observing opportunities with large sensitive telescopes, making it a unique asset worldwide in searching for and characterizing electrostatic activity at Mars from the ground.

  18. Theoretical Vibration Analysis Regarding Excitation due to Elliptical Shaft Journals in Sleeve Bearings of Electrical Motors


    Ulrich Werner


    This paper shows a theoretical vibration analysis regarding excitation due to elliptical shaft journals in sleeve bearings of electrical motors, based on a simplified rotordynamic model. It is shown that elliptical shaft journals lead to kinematic constraints regarding the movement of the shaft journals on the oil film of the sleeve bearings and therefore to an excitation of the rotordynamic system. The solution of the linear differential equation system leads to the mathematical description ...

  19. Electrical failure on satellite's power harnesses due to small debris impacts


    Hirai, Takayuki; Higashide, Masumi; Kurosaki, Hirohisa; Kawakita, Shirou; Mando, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Shota; Tanaka, Koji; 平井, 隆之; 東出, 真澄; 黒崎, 裕久; 川北, 史朗; 万戸, 雄輝; 山口, 翔太; 田中, 孝治


    Loss of satellite functions due to space debris collisions includes not only mechanical failures like breakup of satellite main bodies but also electric failures such as decrease in power supply from solar arrays and power harnesses. In particular, the past hypervelocity impact experiments suggest that sustained arcs and resulting ground faults on the power harnesses could be triggered by impacts of tiny space debris particles smaller than 1 mm which constantly impact on satellite surfaces. T...

  20. Physical Activity and School Absenteeism Due to Illness in Adolescents (United States)

    de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul


    Background: Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore, we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether…

  1. Physical activity and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.


    Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in

  2. Dispersive FDTD analysis of induced electric field in human models due to electrostatic discharge. (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Nagai, Toshihiro; Koyama, Teruyoshi; Hattori, Junya; Chan, Kwok Hung; Kavet, Robert


    Contact currents flow from/into a charged human body when touching a grounded conductive object. An electrostatic discharge (ESD) or spark may occur just before contact or upon release. The current may stimulate muscles and peripheral nerves. In order to clarify the difference in the induced electric field between different sized human models, the in-situ electric fields were computed in anatomically based models of adults and a child for a contact current in a human body following ESD. A dispersive finite-difference time-domain method was used, in which biological tissue is assumed to obey a four-pole Debye model. From our computational results, the first peak of the discharge current was almost identical across adult and child models. The decay of the induced current in the child was also faster due mainly to its smaller body capacitance compared to the adult models. The induced electric fields in the forefingers were comparable across different models. However, the electric field induced in the arm of the child model was found to be greater than that in the adult models primarily because of its smaller cross-sectional area. The tendency for greater doses in the child has also been reported for power frequency sinusoidal contact current exposures as reported by other investigators.

  3. Evaluation of ocular hazards due to electric arc flash at an in-line switch. (United States)

    Chou, B R; Cullen, A P


    We investigated the ocular damage resulting from operation of a solid blade pole-mounted in-line electrical switch at between 16 and 17 kV with current loads between 38 A and 340 A. Spectroradiometric data for the electric arcs produced as the switch was opened were obtained over the waveband 200 to 1500 nm. The eyes of adult pigmented rabbits were exposed to the arc flash at a distance of 2 m. The ocular tissues were assessed clinically and histologically up to 48 h postexposure. Threshold damage was clinically detectable only in eyes exposed to a 340 A arc. We conclude that at the normal current loads on a 17-kV electric power transmission line, the principal oculovisual hazards are due to molten metal fulminated from the switch by the arc, and after-images due to the bright visible light flash. At a working distance of 2 m, the ultraviolet ocular hazard is negligible. Adequate eye protection is provided by clear polycarbonate safety lenses.

  4. Quantifying the daily economic impact of extreme space weather due to failure in electricity transmission infrastructure (United States)

    Oughton, Edward J.; Skelton, Andrew; Horne, Richard B.; Thomson, Alan W. P.; Gaunt, Charles T.


    Extreme space weather due to coronal mass ejections has the potential to cause considerable disruption to the global economy by damaging the transformers required to operate electricity transmission infrastructure. However, expert opinion is split between the potential outcome being one of a temporary regional blackout and of a more prolonged event. The temporary blackout scenario proposed by some is expected to last the length of the disturbance, with normal operations resuming after a couple of days. On the other hand, others have predicted widespread equipment damage with blackout scenarios lasting months. In this paper we explore the potential costs associated with failure in the electricity transmission infrastructure in the U.S. due to extreme space weather, focusing on daily economic loss. This provides insight into the direct and indirect economic consequences of how an extreme space weather event may affect domestic production, as well as other nations, via supply chain linkages. By exploring the sensitivity of the blackout zone, we show that on average the direct economic cost incurred from disruption to electricity represents only 49% of the total potential macroeconomic cost. Therefore, if indirect supply chain costs are not considered when undertaking cost-benefit analysis of space weather forecasting and mitigation investment, the total potential macroeconomic cost is not correctly represented. The paper contributes to our understanding of the economic impact of space weather, as well as making a number of key methodological contributions relevant for future work. Further economic impact assessment of this threat must consider multiday, multiregional events.

  5. Theoretical Vibration Analysis Regarding Excitation due to Elliptical Shaft Journals in Sleeve Bearings of Electrical Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Werner


    Full Text Available This paper shows a theoretical vibration analysis regarding excitation due to elliptical shaft journals in sleeve bearings of electrical motors, based on a simplified rotordynamic model. It is shown that elliptical shaft journals lead to kinematic constraints regarding the movement of the shaft journals on the oil film of the sleeve bearings and therefore to an excitation of the rotordynamic system. The solution of the linear differential equation system leads to the mathematical description of the movement of the rotor mass, the shaft journals, and the sleeve bearing housings. Additionally the relative movements between the shaft journals and the bearing housings are deduced, as well as the bearing housing vibration velocities. The presented simplified rotordynamic model can also be applied to rotating machines, other than electrical machines. In this case, only the electromagnetic spring value cm has to be put to zero.

  6. Impact of warmer weather on electricity sector emissions due to building energy use (United States)

    Meier, Paul; Holloway, Tracey; Patz, Jonathan; Harkey, Monica; Ahl, Doug; Abel, David; Schuetter, Scott; Hackel, Scott


    Most US energy consumption occurs in buildings, with cooling demands anticipated to increase net building electricity use under warmer conditions. The electricity generation units that respond to this demand are major contributors to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), both of which have direct impacts on public health, and contribute to the formation of secondary pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter. This study quantifies temperature-driven changes in power plant emissions due to increased use of building air conditioning. We compare an ambient temperature baseline for the Eastern US to a model-calculated mid-century scenario with summer-average temperature increases ranging from 1 C to 5 C across the domain. We find a 7% increase in summer electricity demand and a 32% increase in non-coincident peak demand. Power sector modeling, assuming only limited changes to current generation resources, calculated a 16% increase in emissions of NOx and an 18% increase in emissions of SO2. There is a high level of regional variance in the response of building energy use to climate, and the response of emissions to associated demand. The East North Central census region exhibited the greatest sensitivity of energy demand and associated emissions to climate.

  7. Order/disorder in brain electrical activity (United States)

    Rosso, O. A.; Figliola, Y. A.


    The processing of information by the brain is reflected in dynamical changes of the electrical activity in time, frequency, and space. Therefore, the concomitant studies require methods capable of describing the quantitative variation of the signal in both time and frequency. Here we present a quantitative EEG (qEEG) analysis, based on the Orthogonal Discrete Wavelet Transform (ODWT), of generalized epileptic tonic-clonic EEG signals. Two quantifiers: the Relative Wavelet Energy (RWE) and the Normalized Total Wavelet Entropy (NTWS) have been used. The RWE gives information about the relative energy associated with the different frequency bands present in the EEG and their corresponding degree of importance. The NTWS is a measure of the order/disorder degree in the EEG signal. These two quantifiers were computing in EEG signals as provided by scalp electrodes of epileptic patients. We showed that the epileptic recruitment rhythm observed for generalized epileptic tonic-clonic seizures is accurately described by the RWE quantifier. In addition, a significant decrease in the NTWS was observed in the recruitment epoch, indicating a more rhythmic and ordered behavior in the brain electrical activity.

  8. Effects of BMI on Bone Loading due to Physical Activity. (United States)

    Smith, Tina; Reeves, Sue; Halsey, Lewis; Huber, Jörg; Luo, Jin


    The aim of the current study was to compare bone loading due to physical activity between lean and, overweight and obese individuals. Fifteen participants (lower BMI group: BMIBMI group: 25 kg/m(2) BMI BMI participants at a frequency band of 0.1-2 Hz (P=.039, Cohen's d =1.27) and 2-4 Hz (P=.044, d =1.24). Lower BMI participants also had a significantly greater step count (P=.023, d =1.55). This corroborated with loading intensity (d ≥ 0.93) and questionnaire (d =0.79) effect sizes to indicate higher BMI participants tended to spend more time in very light, and less time in light and moderate activity. Overall participants with a lower BMI exhibited greater bone loading due to physical activity; participants with a higher BMI may benefit from more light and moderate level activity to maintain bone health.

  9. Electromagnons: Electrically active spin excitations in multiferroics (United States)

    Kamba, Stanislav; Goian, Veronica; Kadlec, Filip; Kadlec, Christelle; Vanek, Premysl; Kempa, Martin; Gich, Marti; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic Team; Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona Team


    In some multiferroics spin wave can be excited by electric component of elmg. radiation and such excitations activated by dynamic magnetoelectric coupling are called electromagnons. We will discuss mechanism of electromagnon activation in the THz spectra of three different compounds: In the multiferroic TbMnO3, the ferroelectricity is induced by inverse Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, but two electromagnons are activated by the magnetostriction. Second example is CaMn7O12, whose polarization is the highest among all spin-induced ferroelectrics. In this material we observed three electromagnons, whose frequencies correspond to maxima of magnon density of states, so they should correspond to magnons from Brillouin zone boundary. Finally we will demonstrate that electromagnons are not limited to spin-induced ferroelectrics. We have observed an electromagnon in nanograin ceramics of epsilon-Fe2O3. This material is below 490 K a pyroelectric ferrimagnet and the electromagnon activates in the THz spectra only below 110 K, when the magnetic structure becomes incommensurately modulated. We will show how by combining infrared, THz and inelastic neutron scattering experiments, the electromagnons can be discerned from magnons or phonons. Performed all measurements.

  10. Membrane Permeabilization in Relation to Inactivation Kinetics of Lactobacillus Species due to Pulsed Electric Fields (United States)

    Wouters, Patrick C.; Bos, Ad P.; Ueckert, Joerg


    Membrane permeabilization due to pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of gram-positive Lactobacillus cells was investigated by using propidium iodide uptake and single-cell analysis with flow cytometry. Electric field strength, energy input, treatment time, and growth phase affected membrane permeabilization of Lactobacillus plantarum during PEF treatment. A correlation between PEF inactivation and membrane permeabilization of L. plantarum cells was demonstrated, whereas no relationship was observed between membrane permeabilization and heat inactivation. The same results were obtained with a Lactobacillus fermentum strain, but the latter organism was more PEF resistant and exhibited less membrane permeabilization, indicating that various bacteria have different responses to PEF treatment. While membrane permeabilization was the main factor involved in the mechanism of inactivation, the growth phase and the acidity of the environment also influenced inactivation. By using flow cytometry it was possible to sort cells in the L. plantarum population based on different cell sizes and shapes, and the results were confirmed by image analysis. An apparent effect of morphology on membrane permeabilization was observed, and larger cells were more easily permeabilized than smaller cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that the ability of PEF treatment to cause membrane permeabilization is an important factor in determining inactivation. This finding should have an effect on the final choice of the processing parameters used so that all microorganisms can be inactivated and, consequently, on the use of PEF treatment as an alternative method for preserving food products. PMID:11425727

  11. Broadband active electrically small superconductor antennas (United States)

    Kornev, V. K.; Kolotinskiy, N. V.; Sharafiev, A. V.; Soloviev, I. I.; Mukhanov, O. A.


    A new type of broadband active electrically small antenna (ESA) based on superconducting quantum arrays (SQAs) has been proposed and developed. These antennas are capable of providing both sensing and amplification of broadband electromagnetic signals with a very high spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR)—up to 100 dB (and even more)—with high sensitivity. The frequency band can range up to tens of gigahertz, depending on Josephson junction characteristic frequency, set by fabrication. In this paper we review theoretical and experimental studies of SQAs and SQA-based antenna prototypes of both transformer and transformer-less types. The ESA prototypes evaluated were fabricated using a standard Nb process with critical current density 4.5 kA cm-2. Measured device characteristics, design issues and comparative analysis of various ESA types, as well as requirements for interfaces, are reviewed and discussed.

  12. Complicated Electrical Activities in Cardiac Tissue (United States)

    Shiau, Yuo-Hsien; Hsueh, Ming-Pin; Hseu, Shu-Shya; Yien, Huey-Wen

    It has become widely accepted that ventricular fibrillation, the most dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, is a major cause of death in the industrialized world. Alternans and conduction block have recently been related to the progression from ventricular tachycardia to ventricular fibrillation. From the point of view in cellular electrophysiology, ventricular tachycardia is the formation of reentrant wave in cardiac tissue. And ventricular fibrillation arises from subsequent breakdown of reentrant wave into multiple drifting and meandering spiral waves. In this paper, we numerically study pulse and vortex dynamics in cardiac tissue. Our numerical results include 1:1 normal sinus rhythm, 2:1 conduction block, complete conduction block, spiral wave, and spiral breakup. All of our numerical findings can be corresponding to clinical measurements in electrocardiogram. Various electrical activities in cardiac tissue will be discussed in detail in the present manuscript.

  13. Probabilistic modeling of nodal electric vehicle load due to fast charging stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Difei; Wang, Peng; Wu, Qiuwei


    In order to reduce greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel dependence, Electric Vehicle (EV) has drawn increasing attention due to its zero emission and high efficiency. However, new problems such as range anxiety, long charging duration and high charging power may threaten the safe and efficient...... operation of both traffic and power systems. This paper proposes a probabilistic approach to model the nodal EV load at fast charging stations in integrated power and transport systems. Following the introduction of the spatial-temporal model of moving EV loads, we extended the model by taking fast charging......-temporal varying arrival and service rates. The time-varying nodal EV loads are obtained by the number of operating fast chargers at each node of the power system. System studies demonstrate that the combination of AC normal and DC charging may share the EV charging demand and alleviate the impact to power system...

  14. Magnetism and Electricity Activity "Attracts" Student Interest (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    Electricity and magnetism are intimately linked, this relationship forming the basis of the modern electric utility system and the generation of bulk electrical energy. There is rich literature from which to teach students the basics, but nothing drives the point home like having them learn from firsthand experience--and that is what this…

  15. Low-frequency dielectric dispersion of brain tissue due to electrically long neurites (United States)

    Monai, Hiromu; Inoue, Masashi; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Aonishi, Toru


    The dielectric properties of brain tissue are important for understanding how neural activity is related to local field potentials and electroencephalograms. It is known that the permittivity of brain tissue exhibits strong frequency dependence (dispersion) and that the permittivity is very large in the low-frequency region. However, little is known with regard to the cause of the large permittivity in the low-frequency region. Here, we postulate that the dielectric properties of brain tissue can be partially accounted for by assuming that neurites are of sufficient length to be “electrically long.” To test this idea, we consider a model in which a neurite is treated as a long, narrow body, and it is subjected to a stimulus created by electrodes situated in the region external to it. With regard to this electric stimulus, the neurite can be treated as a passive cable. Assuming adequate symmetry so that the tissue packed with multiple cables is equivalent to an isolated system consisting of a single cable and a surrounding extracellular resistive medium, we analytically calculate the extracellular potential of the tissue in response to such an externally created alternating-current electric field using a Green's function that we obtained previously. Our results show that brain tissue modeled by such a cable existing within a purely resistive extracellular medium exhibits a large effective permittivity in the low-frequency region. Moreover, we obtain results suggesting that an extremely large low-frequency permittivity can coexist with weak low-pass filter characteristics in brain tissue.

  16. Active seat isolation for hybrid electric vehicles (United States)

    Leo, Donald J.; Malowicki, Mark; Buckley, Stephen J.; Naganathan, Ganapathy


    A feasibility study in the use of induced strain actuators for active seal isolation is described. The focus of the work is the isolation of lightweight automotive seats for hybrid-electric vehicles. The feasibility study is based on a numerical analysis of a three-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the seat. Mass and inertia properties are based on measurements from a powered seat that is found in current model year automobiles. Tradeoffs between vertical acceleration of the seat, actuator stroke requirements, and isolation frequency are determined through numerical analysis of the vibration model. Root mean square accelerations and actuator strokes are computed using power spectral densities that model broadband excitation and road excitation that is filtered by the vehicle suspension. Numerical results using the road excitation indicate that factors of two to three reduction in vertical acceleration are achieved when the active isolation frequency is reduced to approximately 1 Hz with damping factors on the order of 10 to 30 percent critical. More significant reductions are achieved in the case of broadband floor excitation. Root mean square actuator strokes for both case are int he range of 0.4 to 50 mm. Root mean square accelerations in the vertical direction are consistent with the levels found in standard comfort curves.

  17. Analysis of the electric field changes due to lightning during Catalonia thunderstorms in Summer 2003


    Montañá Puig, Juan; Bergas Jané, Joan Gabriel; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Bech, Joan; Rigo, Tomeu; Illa Arnau, Àngel; Hermoso Alameda, Blas


    Electric fields related to lightning close to storms were measured in the Catalonian region (NE of Spain) in summer 2003. The aim of this campaign was the data collection to study the total electrical charge involved in each flash.

  18. Electrical Vehicles Activities Around the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauer, Gerd; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo


    which have jointly changed how mobility is viewed in recent years. We describe key points concerning such field testing and the renaissance in electric vehicles that occurred around 2010. We discuss progress in lithium battery technology for high power and high energy density, improvement in integrated...... business models, and the availability of high-performance electric vehicles have become key enablers of this new technology. In this regard, it is promising that electric vehicles will soon be a part of a green transport solution (green mobility) powered by renewable energy and a new smart electricity......To understand the development of electric vehicles it is helpful to recognize constraints that were overcome during its history and the lessons learned from these constraints. In the earliest history of automobiles electrical cars initially dominated, but were pushed aside by cars with a combustion...

  19. Mortality of sarus cranes (Grus antigone) due to electricity wires in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundar, K.S.G. [Wildlife Inst. of India, Uttaranchal (India); International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, WI (United States); Choudhury, B.C. [Wildlife Inst. of India, Uttaranchal (India)


    Although overhead electrical wires are known to have caused severe declines of bird populations, there are no studies in India that address this danger, even for endangered species. Rates of mortality, factors affecting mortality and population effects of electrical wires on the globally endangered sarus crane (Grus antigone) were assessed for breeding and non-breeding cranes in Etawah and Mainpuri districts, Uttar Pradesh, India. Non-breeding cranes were most susceptible to wires and, within territories, mortalities were higher for pre-dispersed young. Similar proportions of non-breeding and breeding cranes were killed, together accounting for nearly 1% of the total sarus crane population annually. Supply wires accounted for the majority of sarus crane deaths, and only non-breeding cranes were killed by both supply and high-tension power lines. Non-breeding crane deaths at roost sites were correlated with numbers of roosting birds and numbers of wires at each site. Over 40% of 251 known sarus crane territories had at least one overhead wire posing a risk to breeding adults and pre-dispersed young. A risk index for wires over territories of cranes was computed; mortality was not affected by increasing the number and therefore risk posed by wires. Most crane deaths in territories occurred as a result of wires at edges of territories. Wires around roosting sites, territoriality and age of sarus cranes appear to be the most important factors affecting their mortality due to wires. Mitigation measures will be most effective around roost sites and for wires that border territories of breeding pairs. (author)

  20. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation (United States)

    Yang, Youngjun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang


    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug.

  1. Computation of induced electric field and temperature elevation in human due to lightning current (United States)

    Nagai, T.; Hirata, A.


    The present study investigated induced electric field and temperature elevation in specific tissues/organs of an anatomically based human body model for the lightning current. The threshold amplitude of the current inducing ventricular fibrillation and skin burning are estimated from computed induced electric field and temperature elevation with formulas for electrical stimulation and thermal damage. The computational results obtained herein were reasonably consistent with clinical observation.

  2. Enhanced O2 Loss at Mars Due to an Ambipolar Electric Field from Electron Heating (United States)

    Ergun, R. E.; Andersson, L. A.; Fowler, C. M.; Woodson, A. K.; Weber, T. D.; Delory, G. T.; Andrews, D. J.; Eriksson, A. I.; Mcenulty, T.; Morooka, M. W.; hide


    Recent results from the MAVEN Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) instrument suggest higher than predicted electron temperatures (T sub e) in Mars dayside ionosphere above approx. 180 km in altitude. Correspondingly, measurements from Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) indicate significant abundances of O2+ up to approx. 500 km in altitude, suggesting that O2+ may be a principal ion loss mechanism of oxygen. In this article, we investigate the effects of the higher T(sub e) (which results from electron heating) and ion heating on ion outflow and loss. Numerical solutions show that plasma processes including ion heating and higher T(sub e) may greatly increase O2+ loss at Mars. In particular, enhanced T(sub e) in Mars ionosphere just above the exobase creates a substantial ambipolar electric field with a potential (e) of several k(sub b)T(sub e), which draws ions out of the region allowing for enhanced escape. With active solar wind, electron and ion heating, direct O2+ loss could match or exceed loss via dissociative recombination of O2+. These results suggest that direct loss of O2+ may have played a significant role in the loss of oxygen at Mars over time.

  3. Decoherence and electric field noise analysis of nitrogen vacancy center diamonds due to the surface charge fluctuations and lattice strain (United States)

    Santamore, Deborah


    We theoretically investigate the decoherence mechanisms due to the electric field noise in nitrogen vacancy (NV) center diamonds. The noise is caused by both the surface charge fluctuations and strain due to surface contaminants and bulk impurities. The system is modeled with nitrogen impurities in diamond and hydrogen surface terminations with water. We obtain the equations of motion, calculate the electric field fluctuations, and analyze noise. We find that the surface effect is greater than lattice distortion by the bulk impurity substitution. We also discuss how to minimize the noise. Finally, we examine lattice distortion and stability of NV centers under high pressure. NSF: DMR-1505641.

  4. Time-lapse electrical resistivity anomalies due to contaminant transport around landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yang


    Full Text Available The extent of landfill leachate can be delineated by geo-electrical imaging as a response to the varying electrical resistivity in the contaminated area. This research was based on a combination of hydrogeological numerical simulation followed by geophysical forward and inversion modeling performed to evaluate the migration of a contaminant plume from a landfill. As a first step, groundwater flow and contaminant transport was simulated using the finite elements numerical modeling software FEFLOW. The extent of the contaminant plume was acquired through a hydrogeological model depicting the distributions of leachate concentration in the system. Next, based on the empirical relationship between the concentration and electrical conductivity of the leachate in the porous media, the corresponding geo-electrical structure was derived from the hydrogeological model. Finally, forward and inversion computations of geo-electrical anomalies were performed using the finite difference numerical modeling software DCIP2D/DCIP3D. The image obtained by geophysical inversion of the electric data was expected to be consistent with the initial hydrogeological model, as described by the distribution of leachate concentration. Numerical case studies were conducted for various geological conditions, hydraulic parameters and electrode arrays, from which conclusions were drawn regarding the suitability of the methodology to assess simple to more complex geo-electrical models. Thus, optimal mapping and monitoring configurations were determined.

  5. Activities, procedures and doses in pediatric patients due to radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Velasques de Oliveira


    Full Text Available An investigation performed between 2003 and 2005 in sixteen selected public and private institutions in Northeast, Southeast and South geographical regions of Brazil evaluated average organ doses and effective doses in 2,411 pediatric patients due to diagnostic procedures with radiopharmaceuticals. For 1 year, effective doses were greater than literature. For 5 years, differences were noticed between present work and literature for bone scintigraphy, thyroid scintigraphy and 67Ga citrate scintigraphy. These differences may be attributed to the uncertainties in internal dose calculations. High absorved doses in bone surfaces of children due to 67Ga citrate and bone scintigraphy should be evaluated accordingly. Current protocols used recommend standardized mean activities per mean weight for all ages. However, it was observed that the activities were not standardized and were higher for children with younger ages. Future studies are needed for optimising activities of radiopharmaceuticals to these patients in the country.Foi realizado no Brasil, no período 2003-2005, um estudo sobre doses absorvidas em órgãos e doses efetivas devido ao uso de radiofármacos em pacientes pediátricos. Foram estudadas 2.411 crianças e adolescentes menores de 18 anos. Foi observado que as atividades usadas não foram padronizadas, sendo maiores para crianças de menor idade, podendo ser otimizadas conforme apropriado. Para 1 ano, as doses efetivas foram maiores do que as publicadas na literatura e para 5 anos, foram observadas diferenças para cintilografias ósseas, cintilografias da tireóide, e pesquisas de corpo inteiro com citrato de 67G. Deve ser avaliado se doses absorvidas em órgãos, especialmente para superfície óssea devido a cintilografias ósseas com 99mTc MDP e pesquisa de corpo inteiro com citrato de 67Ga podem acarretar risco radiológico adicional aos pacientes, considerando-se as peculiaridades de seu estado clínico.

  6. Additional enhancement of electric field in surface-enhanced Raman Scattering due to Fresnel mechanism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayawardhana, Sasani; Rosa, Lorenzo; Juodkazis, Saulius; Stoddart, Paul R


    .... In this paper, finite difference time domain modeling is presented to show that the electric field intensity at the dielectric interface between metal particles is higher for "far-side" excitation than "near-side...

  7. Harvesting vibrational energy due to intermodal systems via nano coated piezo electric devices. (United States)


    Vibrational energy resulting from intermodal transport systems can be recovered through the use of energy harvesting system consisting of PZT piezo electric material as the primary energy harvesting component. The ability of traditional PZT piezo ele...

  8. Time-lapse electrical resistivity anomalies due to contaminant transport around landfills


    M. Radulescu; C. Valerian; Yang, J.


    The extent of landfill leachate can be delineated by geo-electrical imaging as a response to the varying electrical resistivity in the contaminated area. This research was based on a combination of hydrogeological numerical simulation followed by geophysical forward and inversion modeling performed to evaluate the migration of a contaminant plume from a landfill. As a first step, groundwater flow and contaminant transport was simulated using the finite elements numerical modeling ...

  9. Time-lapse electrical resistivity anomalies due to contaminant transport around landfills


    Yang, J.; C. Valerian; M. Radulescu


    The extent of landfill leachate can be delineated by geo-electrical imaging as a response to the varying electrical resistivity in the contaminated area. This research was based on a combination of hydrogeological numerical simulation followed by geophysical forward and inversion modeling performed to evaluate the migration of a contaminant plume from a landfill. As a first step, groundwater flow and contaminant transport was simulated using the finite elements numerical m...

  10. Lisuride and cerebral electrical activity in the rabbit. (United States)

    Bo, P; Maurelli, M; Nappi, G; Savoldi, F


    This study was meant to investigate the action of lisuride hydrogen maleate on somatic and visceral behaviour, and on cerebral electrical activity. With regard to the cortical and deep components of electrical activity, we recorded arousal and, at times, the onset of epileptic activity, mainly from the rhinencephalic area and sometimes spreading to other cerebral structures. We also report the results obtained in rabbits treated acutely and chronically by us with neuroleptics.

  11. Concrete casting robustness improvement due to active rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram


    Full Text Available With ongoing innovation in process technology, the challenges of concrete technology are more and more focused on the rheological optimisation for these processes, since improper mixture stability or poor compaction ability negatively affect the concrete homogeneity and quality. However, along with the increasing complexity of today’s concrete mixture compositions, concrete becomes more prone to failure regarding the casting process. Variable properties of the raw materials typically cause changing workability. The reasons can be found among others in scattering water contents, physical or chemical properties of the cement or varying environmental temperatures. Robustness in the delicately adjusted rheology, however, is of utmost importance for modern and future process technology, from sprayed concrete over pumpable concrete towards 3D-printing, with regard to the long-term strength, the function and the durability. Typically, material induced changes cannot be identified easily due to the complex interactions of concrete constituents. Therefore, a precise and prompt counteraction is impossible. However, it is known that the yield stress can be controlled by addition of supplementary superplasticizer or stabilising agent. In combination with computerized process observation tools that can rapidly interpret and react on changes in the rheology, it is therefore thinkable, that only these two admixture types can adjust the rheology steadily and permanently, regardless of the actual root cause for observed macroscopic rheology change. The presentation will firstly give a comprehensive overview of effects at the interface between pore solution, particles and hydrates, which affect the rheology of fresh concrete. Secondly, ways are recommended how the rheology can be actively manipulated before eventually computerized methods are demonstrated that help to actively and rapidly assess and counteract performance scatter during steady casting processes.

  12. Large apparent electric size of solid-state nanopores due to spatially extended surface conduction. (United States)

    Lee, Choongyeop; Joly, Laurent; Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Fulcrand, Rémy; Bocquet, Lydéric


    Ion transport through nanopores drilled in thin membranes is central to numerous applications, including biosensing and ion selective membranes. This paper reports experiments, numerical calculations, and theoretical predictions demonstrating an unexpectedly large ionic conduction in solid-state nanopores, taking its origin in anomalous entrance effects. In contrast to naive expectations based on analogies with electric circuits, the surface conductance inside the nanopore is shown to perturb the three-dimensional electric current streamlines far outside the nanopore in order to meet charge conservation at the pore entrance. This unexpected contribution to the ionic conductance can be interpreted in terms of an apparent electric size of the solid-state nanopore, which is much larger than its geometric counterpart whenever the number of charges carried by the nanopore surface exceeds its bulk counterpart. This apparent electric size, which can reach hundreds of nanometers, can have a major impact on the electrical detection of translocation events through nanopores, as well as for ionic transport in biological nanopores.

  13. Ventricular oversensing of atrial electrical activity that inhibits VVI pacemaker and causes syncope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elibet Chávez González


    Full Text Available Far-field oversensing of atrial electrical activity caused by a VVI pacemaker is a rare phenomenon; however, it may have serious clinical consequences. It has several causes and its timely identification may avoid a possible ventricular asystole. This article reports the case of a 72-year-old male who had a Biotronik Axios SR pacemaker implanted, in VVIR mode, six years ago, due to blocked atrial fibrillation. He suffered syncope due to pacemaker inhibition caused by ventricular oversensing of atrial electrical activity.

  14. An electrically active microneedle array for electroporation (United States)

    Choi, Seong-O; Kim, Yeu Chun; Park, Jung-Hwan; Hutcheson, Joshua; Gill, Harvinder S.; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Prausnitz, Mark R.; Allen, Mark G.


    We have designed and fabricated a microneedle array with electrical functionality with the final goal of electroporating skin’s epidermal cells to increase their transfection by DNA vaccines. The microneedle array was made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) by micromolding technology from a master PDMS mold, followed by metal deposition, patterning using laser ablation, and electrodeposition. This microneedle array possessed sufficient mechanical strength to penetrate human skin in vivo and was also able to electroporate both red blood cells and human prostate cancer cells as an in vitro model to demonstrate cell membrane permeabilization. A model to predict the effective volume for electroporation with respect to applied voltages was constructed from finite element simulation. This study demonstrates the mechanical and electrical functionalities of the first MEMS-fabricated microneedle array for electroporation, designed for DNA vaccine delivery. PMID:20012696

  15. External cardiac compression may be harmful in some scenarios of pulseless electrical activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, T S


    Pulseless electrical activity occurs when organised or semi-organised electrical activity of the heart persists but the product of systemic vascular resistance and the increase in systemic arterial flow generated by the ejection of the left venticular stroke volume is not sufficient to produce a clinically detectable pulse. Pulseless electrical activity encompasses a very heterogeneous variety of severe circulatory shock states ranging in severity from pseudo-cardiac arrest to effective cardiac arrest. Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity are generally poor. Impairment of cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output in many scenarios of pulseless electrical activity, including extreme vasodilatory shock states. There is no evidence that external cardiac compression can increase cardiac output when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. If impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output and the heart is effectively ejecting all the blood returning to it, then external cardiac compression can only increase cardiac output if it increases venous return and cardiac filling. Repeated cardiac compression asynchronous with the patient\\'s cardiac cycle and raised mean intrathoracic pressure due to chest compression can be expected to reduce rather than to increase cardiac filling and therefore to reduce rather than to increase cardiac output in such circumstances. The hypothesis is proposed that the performance of external cardiac compression will have zero or negative effect on cardiac output in pulseless electrical activity when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. External cardiac compression may be both directly and indirectly harmful to significant sub-groups of patients with pulseless electrical activity. We have neither evidence nor theory to provide comfort that external cardiac compression is not harmful in many scenarios of pulseless

  16. Iron Losses in Electrical Machines Due to Non Sinusoidal Alternating Fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Ewen; Walker, J.A.; Dorrell, D. G.


    This paper shows how the flux waveform in the core of an electrical machine can be vary non- sinusoidally which complicates the calculation of the iron loss in a machine. A set of tests are conducted on a steel sample using an Epstein square where harmonics are injected into the flux waveform which...... of a machine....

  17. Nucleation and evaporation of domains due to electric field at room ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study of nucleation and evaporation of 90° and 180° domains by external direct current (dc) electric field at room temperature in barium titanate single crystals has been carried out using reflecting microscope. It was observed that both the 90° and 180° domains were nucleated at some sites, while evaporated at some ...

  18. Spontaneous Electrical Activity in the Nervous System and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to examine the effects of biogenic amines on the spontaneous electrical activity of the nervous system in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The activity recorded from different segments of the ventral nerve cord differed in the frequency and number of spike categories firing. The activity was highest ...

  19. Institutional adaptability to redress electricity infrastructure vulnerability due to climate change


    John Foster; William Paul Bell; Craig Froome; Phil Wild; Liam Wagner; Deepak Sharma; Suwin Sandu; Suchi Misra; Ravindra Bagia


    The objectives of this project are to examine the adaptive capacity of existing institutional arrangements in the National Electricity Market (NEM) to existing and predicted climate change conditions. Specifically the project aims to: 1. identify climate change adaptation issues in the NEM; 1. analyse climate change impacts on reliability in the NEM under alternative climate change scenarios to 2030, particularly what adaptation strategies the power generation and supply network infrastructur...

  20. Intelligent Electric Power Systems with Active-Adaptive Electric Networks: Challenges for Simulation Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.


    Full Text Available The motivation of the presented research is based on the needs for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of intelligent electric power systems with active-adaptive electric networks (IES including Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS devices. The key requirements for the simulation were formed. The presented analysis of simulation results of IES confirms the need to use a hybrid modelling approach.

  1. Electrically and Hybrid-Induced Muscle Activations: Effects of Muscle Size and Fiber Type. (United States)

    Stratton, Kelly; Faghri, Pouran D


    The effect of three electrical stimulation (ES) frequencies (10, 35, and 50 Hz) on two muscle groups with different proportions of fast and slow twitch fibers (abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and vastus lateralis (VL)) was explored. We evaluated the acute muscles' responses individually and during hybrid activations (ES superimposed by voluntary activations). Surface electromyography (sEMG) and force measurements were evaluated as outcomes. Ten healthy adults (mean age: 24.4 ± 2.5 years) participated after signing an informed consent form approved by the university Institutional Review Board. Protocols were developed to: 1) compare EMG activities during each frequency for each muscle when generating 25% Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC) force, and 2) compare EMG activities during each frequency when additional voluntary activation was superimposed over ES-induced 25% MVC to reach 50% and 75% MVC. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) was utilized to separate ES artifacts from voluntary muscle activation. For both muscles, higher stimulation frequency (35 and 50Hz) induced higher electrical output detected at 25% of MVC, suggesting more recruitment with higher frequencies. Hybrid activation generated proportionally less electrical activity than ES alone. ES and voluntary activations appear to generate two different modes of muscle recruitment. ES may provoke muscle strength by activating more fatiguing fast acting fibers, but voluntary activation elicits more muscle coordination. Therefore, during the hybrid activation, less electrical activity may be detected due to recruitment of more fatigue-resistant deeper muscle fibers, not reachable by surface EMG.

  2. Electrically and hybrid-induced muscle activations: effects of muscle size and fiber type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Stratton


    Full Text Available The effect of three electrical stimulation (ES frequencies (10, 35, and 50 Hz on two muscle groups with different proportions of fast and slow twitch fibers (abductor pollicis brevis (APB and vastus lateralis (VL was explored. We evaluated the acute muscles’ responses individually and during hybrid activations (ES superimposed by voluntary activations. Surface electromyography (sEMG and force measurements were evaluated as outcomes. Ten healthy adults (mean age: 24.4 ± 2.5 years participated after signing an informed consent form approved by the university Institutional Review Board. Protocols were developed to: 1 compare EMG activities during each frequency for each muscle when generating 25% Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC force, and 2 compare EMG activities during each frequency when additional voluntary activation was superimposed over ES-induced 25% MVC to reach 50% and 75% MVC. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD was utilized to separate ES artifacts from voluntary muscle activation. For both muscles, higher stimulation frequency (35 and 50Hz induced higher electrical output detected at 25% of MVC, suggesting more recruitment with higher frequencies. Hybrid activation generated proportionally less electrical activity than ES alone. ES and voluntary activations appear to generate two different modes of muscle recruitment. ES may provoke muscle strength by activating more fatiguing fast acting fibers, but voluntary activation elicits more muscle coordination. Therefore, during the hybrid activation, less electrical activity may be detected due to recruitment of more fatigue-resistant deeper muscle fibers, not reachable by surface EMG.

  3. Parallel acceleration due to the radial electric field in a magnetized plasma with low-frequency turbulence


    Wang, Shaojie


    A new physical mechanism of the parallel acceleration of a turbulent magnetized plasma is discovered by using a Fokker-Planck phase space stochastic transport equation. It is found that the random walk of a charged particle is correlated with the random change of the parallel velocity due to the radial electric field and the magnetic moment conservation. This correlation leads to a parallel acceleration of the plasma with a finite parallel fluid flow.

  4. Electrical quadruple hysteresis in Pd-doped vanadium pentoxide nanowires due to water adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Hoon Kim, Soon-Young Oh, Han Young Yu, Won G Hong, Yong Ju Yun, Yark Yeon Kim and Hae Jin Kim


    Full Text Available Humidity-dependent current–voltage (I–V characteristics of Pd-doped vanadium pentoxide nanowires (Pd-VONs were investigated. Electrical quadruple hysteresis (QH was observed and attributed to the large amount of water molecules adsorbed on the nanowires. Using QH in Pd-VONs, the reaction of water with PdO was interpreted as the water molecules are desorbed and then dissociated with increasing bias voltage. Owing to the dissociated H+ and OH− ions, PdO is reduced and oxidized. As a result, water molecules recombine as the bias voltage is decreased.

  5. High temperature electrical conductivity due to small polaron hopping motion in DNA molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triberis, G P [University of Athens, Physics Department, Solid State Section, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Karavolas, V C [University of Athens, Physics Department, Solid State Section, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Simserides, C D [University of Athens, Physics Department, Solid State Section, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Special Lab for Non-Invasing Brain Imaging, Brenneckestr. 6, D-39118 Magdeburg (Germany)


    We present a small polaron hopping model to interpret the high-temperature electrical conductivity measured along the DNA molecules. The model takes into account the one-dimensional character of the system and the presence of disorder in the DNA double helix. The experimental data for the lambda phage DNA ({lambda}-DNA) and the poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA follow nicely the theoretically predicted behavior leading to realistic values of the maximum hopping distances supporting the idea of multiphonon-assisted hopping of small polarons between next nearest neighbors of the DNA molecular 'wire'.

  6. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny


    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  7. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

    Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  8. Electrical remodelling of the left and right atria due to rheumatic mitral stenosis. (United States)

    John, Bobby; Stiles, Martin K; Kuklik, Pawel; Chandy, Sunil T; Young, Glenn D; Mackenzie, Lorraine; Szumowski, Lukasz; Joseph, George; Jose, Jacob; Worthley, Stephen G; Kalman, Jonathan M; Sanders, Prashanthan


    To characterize the atrial remodelling in mitral stenosis (MS). Twenty-four patients with severe MS undergoing commissurotomy and 24 controls were studied. Electrophysiological evaluation was performed in 12 patients in each group by positioning multi-electrode catheters in both atria to determine the following: effective refractory period (ERP) at 10 sites at 600 and 450 ms; conduction time; conduction delay at the crista terminalis (CT); and vulnerability for atrial fibrillation (AF). P-wave duration (PWD) was determined on the surface ECG. In the remaining 12 patients in each group, electroanatomic maps of both atria were created to determine conduction velocity and identify regions of low voltage and electrical silence. Patients with MS had larger left atria (LA) (P electrical scar (P = 0.001) compared with controls. Five of twelve with MS and none of the controls developed AF with extra-stimulus (P = 0.02). Atrial remodelling in MS is characterized by LA enlargement, loss of myocardium, and scarring associated with widespread and site-specific conduction abnormalities and no change or an increase in ERP. These abnormalities were associated with a heightened inducibility of AF.

  9. Heat transfer due to electroconvulsive therapy: Influence of anisotropic thermal and electrical skull conductivity. (United States)

    Menezes de Oliveira, Marilia; Wen, Peng; Ahfock, Tony


    This paper focuses on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and head models to investigate temperature profiles arising when anisotropic thermal and electrical conductivities are considered in the skull layer. The aim was to numerically investigate the threshold for which this therapy operates safely to the brain, from the thermal point of view. A six-layer spherical head model consisting of scalp, fat, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid, grey matter and white matter was developed. Later on, a realistic human head model was also implemented. These models were built up using the packages from COMSOL Inc. and Simpleware Ltd. In these models, three of the most common electrode montages used in ECT were applied. Anisotropic conductivities were derived using volume constraint and included in both spherical and realistic head models. The bio-heat transferring problem governed by Laplace equation was solved numerically. The results show that both the tensor eigenvalues of electrical conductivity and the electrode montage affect the maximum temperature, but thermal anisotropy does not have a significant influence. Temperature increases occur mainly in the scalp and fat, and no harm is caused to the brain by the current applied during ECT. The work assures the thermal safety of ECT and also provides a numerical method to investigate other non-invasive therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased MIBG activity in the uterine cervix due to menstruation. (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Yang, Hua; Codreanu, Ion; Zhuang, Hongming


    A 21-year-old woman with history of presacral ganglioneuroblastoma underwent I-MIBG scan for restaging. Planar images revealed increased MIBG activity in the upper pelvis, suggestive of disease recurrence. Complementary SPECT/CT images, however, localized the activity to the uterine cervix. Upon further questioning, it has been established that the patient was menstruating. Subsequent follow-up scans proved normal, confirming the benign etiology of these findings. The case shows that radioactive blood accumulation in the uterine cervix can interfere with MIBG scan interpretation in menstruating patients.

  11. Electrical conductivity of Ni–YSZ composites: Degradation due to Ni particle growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Kaiser, Andreas; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    The short-term changes in the electrical conductivity of Ni–YSZ composites (cermets) suitable for use in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) were measured by an in-situ 4-point DC technique. The isothermal reduction was carried out in dry, humidified or wet hydrogen at temperatures from 600 to 1000°C....... While the cermets reduced at 600°C showed a stable conductivity of 1000–1200S/cm, rapid initial conductivity loss was observed at elevated temperatures. At 1000°C the conductivity degraded nearly instantaneously to about 800S/cm, and continued to decline fast to about 400S/cm. At 850°C, the presence...... of steam did have an accelerating effect on the conductivity loss. Scanning Electron Microscopy of cermets reduced in different conditions showed increasing particle size and loss of metal-to-metal percolation in the samples reduced at higher temperatures. The short-term changes in conductivity were...

  12. Effects of activity interference on annoyance due to aircraft noise (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.; Powell, C. A.


    The effects of aircraft flyover noise on annoyance were compared for face to face conversation, reverie, and television viewing. Eighteen 5 minute sessions, each composed of three flyovers, were presented on each of 2 days to subjects in a simulated living room. Twelve pairs of females and 12 pairs of males were tested, once before and once after work. Flyovers varied in peak noise level from 53 to 83 dB, A weighted. On each day, subjects engaged in 18 sessions, six of conversation, six of television viewing, and six of reverie. The subjects completed subjective ratings of annoyance and acceptability following every session. Annoyance and unacceptability rating scores were significantly higher for the activity of television viewing compared to conversation or reverie. There was no difference between judgments during the latter two activities. No differences were found in the judgments when compared on the basis of "fatigue" (before/after work) or sex of the subject.

  13. Improvement of photodynamic activity of aluminium sulphophthalocyanine due to biotinylation (United States)

    Meerovich, Irina G.; Jerdeva, Victoria V.; Derkacheva, Valentina M.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.; Kogan, Eugenia A.; Savitsky, Alexander P.


    The photodynamic activity of dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine in vitro and in vivo were studied. It was obtained that in vitro dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine provides the effective damage of small cell lung carcinoma OAT-75. In vivo dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine causes destruction of tumor (Erlich carcinoma), results in total necrosis of tumor tissue and expresses vascular damage (trombosis and destruction of vascular walls) even in concentration 0.25 mg/kg of a body weight.

  14. Numerical Calculation of Electric Fields in Housing Spaces Due to Electromagnetic Radiation from Antennas for Mobile Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Geromiller


    Full Text Available The influence of electromagnetic radiation from mobile antennas on humans is under discussion in va'rious groups ofscientists, This paper deals with the impact ofelectromagnetic radiation in a housing space. The space is assumedto be bordered by 5 walls of ferroconcrete and a door-window combination on the 6th side, the latter to be electromagnetically transparent. The transparent side of the housing is exposed to an electromagnetic wave. As the source ofradiation is considered to be far away from the housing, the radiation is regarded to be from a plane wave. Due to the high signal frequency and ferroconcrete walls, 5 sides ofthe housing space are considered to be perfect conductors. The electric field inside the housing is calculated numerically by the method of finite differences for different angles of incidence of the radiated electromagnetic wave. The maximum value of the calculated electric field is outlined in a diagram.

  15. Numerical Calculation of Electric Fields in Housing Spaces due to Electromagnetic Radiation from Antennas for Mobile Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Geromiller


    Full Text Available The influence of electromagnetic radiation from mobile antennas on humans is under discussion in various group of scientists. This paper deals with the impact of electromagnetic radiation in housing spaces. The space is assumed to be bordered by 5 walls of ferroconcrete and a door-window combination on the 6th side, the latter to be electromagnetic transparent. The transparent side of the housing is exposed to an electromagnetic wave. As the source of radiation is considered to be far away from the housing, the radiation is regarded as a plane wave. Due to the high signal frequency and the ferroconcrete walls, 5 sides of the housing space are considered to be perfect conductors. The electric field inside the housing is calculated numerically by the method of finite differences for different angles of incidence of the radiated electromagnetic wave. The maximum value of the calculated electric field is outlined in a diagram.

  16. Electrical Activity in a Time-Delay Four-Variable Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Tang


    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of electromagnetic induction on the electrical activity of neuron, the variable for magnetic flow is used to improve Hindmarsh–Rose neuron model. Simultaneously, due to the existence of time-delay when signals are propagated between neurons or even in one neuron, it is important to study the role of time-delay in regulating the electrical activity of the neuron. For this end, a four-variable neuron model is proposed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic induction and time-delay. Simulation results suggest that the proposed neuron model can show multiple modes of electrical activity, which is dependent on the time-delay and external forcing current. It means that suitable discharge mode can be obtained by selecting the time-delay or external forcing current, which could be helpful for further investigation of electromagnetic radiation on biological neuronal system.

  17. Doses due to extra-vehicular activity on space stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Akatov, Y.; Arkhanguelski, V. [Institute of Biomedical Problems, State Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Reitz, G. [DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Linder Hohe (Germany)


    One of the many risks of long duration space flight is the dose from cosmic radiation, especially during periods of intensive solar activity. At such times, particularly during extra-vehicular activity (E.V.A.), when the astronauts are not protected by the wall of the spacecraft, cosmic radiation is a potentially serious health threat. Accurate dose measurement becomes increasingly important during the assembly of large space objects. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetric mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosimeter systems, called Pille, for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 3 {mu}Gy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy bulb dosimeters and a small, compact, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosimeters. Such a system offers a solution for E.V.A. dosimetry as well. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations, on the Space Shuttle, and most recently on several segments of the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille system was used to make the first measurements of the radiation exposure of cosmonauts during E.V.A.. Such E.V.A. measurements were carried out twice (on June 12 and 16, 1987) by Y. Romanenko, the commander of the second crew of Mir. During the E.V.A. one of the dosimeters was fixed in a pocket on the outer surface of the left leg of his space-suit; a second dosimeter was located inside the station for reference measurements. The advanced TLD system Pille 96 was used during the Nasa-4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the exposure of two of the astronauts during their E.V.A. activities. The extra doses of two E.V.A. during the Euromir 95 and one E.V.A. during the Nasa4 experiment

  18. Propagation of electrical activity in uterine muscle during pregnancy: a review. (United States)

    Rabotti, C; Mischi, M


    The uterine muscle (the myometrium) plays its most evident role during pregnancy, when quiescence is required for adequate nourishment and development of the foetus, and during labour, when forceful contractions are needed to expel the foetus and the other products of conception. The myometrium is composed of smooth muscle cells. Contraction is initiated by the spontaneous generation of electrical activity at the cell level in the form of action potentials. The mechanisms underlying uterine quiescence during pregnancy and electrical activation during labour remain largely unknown; as a consequence, the clinical management of preterm contractions during pregnancy and inefficient uterine contractility during labour remains suboptimal. In an effort to improve clinical management of uterine contractions, research has focused on understanding the propagation properties of the electrical activity of the uterus. Different perspectives have been undertaken, from animal and in vitro experiments up to clinical studies and dedicated methods for non-invasive parameter estimation. A comparison of the results is not straightforward due to the wide range of different approaches reported in the literature. However, previous studies unanimously reveal a unique complexity as compared to other organs in the pattern of uterine electrical activity propagation, which necessarily needs to be taken into consideration for future studies to be conclusive. The aim of this review is to structure current variegated knowledge on the properties of the uterus in terms of pacemaker position, pattern, direction and speed of the electrical activity during pregnancy and labour. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Study on dewatering of activated sludge under applied electric field]. (United States)

    Ji, Xue-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Li; Feng, Jing


    For an electro-dewatering process of activated sludge (AS), the effect of pH and conductivity of AS, flocculation conditioning and operation factors of horizontal electric field (voltage magnitude, method of applying electric field and distance between plates) were investigated, and the corresponding optimum electro-dewatering conditions were also obtained. The results showed that the best electro-dewatering effect was achieved for AS without change of its pH value (6.93) and conductivity (1.46 mS x cm(-1)). CPAM conditioning could lead to the increase of 30%-40% in the dewatering rate and accelerate the dewatering process, whereas a slight increase in the electro-dewatering rate. The electro-dewatering rate for conditioned AS reached 83.12% during an electric field applied period of 60 minutes, while this rate for original AS could be 75.31% even the electric field applied period extended to 120 minutes. The delay of applying the electric field had an inhibition effect on the AS electro-dewatering rate. Moreover, the optimum conditions for AS electro-dewatering were followed: CPAM dose of 9 g x kg(-1), electric field strength of 600 V x m(-1), distance between the two plates of 40 mm, dehydration time of 60 minutes. Under above optimum conditions the AS electro-dewatering rate could approach to 85.33% and the moisture content in AS decreased from 99.30% to 95.15% accordingly.

  20. Modification of pharmacological activity of nebivolol due to Maillard reaction. (United States)

    Patil, Dipak D; Patil, Chandragouda R


    Lactose is used as an excipient in solid dosage forms of nebivolol. Ultraviolet spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were used to study the interaction between nebivolol and lactose. The formation of a Maillard product was noted in aqueous mixtures of nebivolol and lactose heated at 60°C at unbuffered and buffered alkaline pH. A similar Maillard adduct formation was evident within 15 days in a dry physical mixture of nebivolol and lactose maintained at 40°C and 75% relative humidity in the dark. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the reaction mixtures confirmed the formation of a nebivolol-lactose adduct. The effects of intravenously administered nebivolol and the nebivolol-lactose adduct on the blood pressure and heart rate of anesthetized normotensive rats were investigated. The bradycardic effect of the adduct was significantly less than that of nebivolol. The present investigation reveals an incompatibility between nebivolol and lactose, leading to the loss of the pharmacological activity of nebivolol. Hence, the use of lactose as an excipient in dosage forms of nebivolol, a secondary amine, needs reconsideration.

  1. Extracellular electrical activity from the photoreceptors of midge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ontogeny of photosensitivity has been studied in a holometabolous insect, the midge Chironomus ramosus. The life cycle of midges shifts from an aquatic environment to a non-aquatic environment. Extracellular electrical activity of photoreceptor organs was recorded at larval and adult stages. We found an increase in ...

  2. Electrically active sodium-related defect centres in silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Espen; Madsbøll, J.; Søiland, A.-K.


    Electrically active defect centres related to sodium in silicon have been examined with deep level transient spectroscopy, and their recombination potential analysed with the microwave photoconductive decay technique. In order to investigate the entire silicon band gap for defect centres, both p-...

  3. The electrical activity of stacking faults in Czochralski silicon (United States)

    Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Poggi, A.; Susi, E.


    A spectroscopic analysis by the light-beam-induced-current technique has been carried out to study the electrical properties of stacking faults in Czochralski silicon subjected to internal gettering treatments. By changing the wavelength of the light beam probing the sample, we have obtained the depth profiling of the stacking fault electrical activity. Occurrence of minority carrier recombination and generation processes at some stacking faults, corresponding, respectively, to dark and bright levels in a grey-shade imaging, has been observed. The presence of fixed charges at the defect-silicon matrix interface is hypothesized as a possible cause of the observed images.

  4. On the possibilities of electric power quality control via electric loads with active rectifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Володимирович Бурлака


    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for controlling the electric power quality parameters in a distribution network by modifying the control algorithms for electric loads equipped with active rectifiers fed from this network. Thus, by controlling the reactive component of the input current of such rectifiers, it is possible to reduce the voltage fluctuations at the point of common connection (PCC, the efficiency of such a method being higher the higher the X/R ratio of the network is. It is also possible to reduce the voltage harmonics in the PCC by integrating the functions of parallel active filters into active rectifiers. The proposed method allows for limited control over the flow of inactive power in the distribution network, which makes it possible to improve the electric power quality and reduce the required power of the filter compensating devices. The proposed algorithm for controlling the active rectifier is tested on the mathematical model of group loads. A group of high power resistance welding machines (RWMs operating randomly with a normal probability distribution connected to 0,4 kV grid as a non-stationary load is used. The application of the proposed reactive current control method in the RWM power supplies made it possible to reduce the voltage fluctuations in 0,4 kV grid from 12% to 5%.

  5. Activity Dependent Synaptic Plasticity Mimicked on Indium-Tin-Oxide Electric-Double-Layer Transistor. (United States)

    Wen, Juan; Zhu, Li Qiang; Fu, Yang Ming; Xiao, Hui; Guo, Li Qiang; Wan, Qing


    Ion coupling has provided an additional method to modulate electric properties for solid-state materials. Here, phosphorosilicate glass (PSG)-based electrolyte gated protonic/electronic coupled indium-tin-oxide electric-double-layer (EDL) transistors are fabricated. The oxide transistor exhibits good electrical performances due to an extremely strong proton gating behavior for the electrolyte. With interfacial electrochemical doping, channel conductances of the oxide EDL transistor can be regulated to different levels, corresponding to different initial synaptic weights. Thus, activity dependent synaptic responses such as excitatory postsynaptic current, paired-pulse facilitation, and high-pass filtering are discussed in detail. The proposed proton conductor gated oxide EDL synaptic transistors with activity dependent synaptic plasticities may act as fundamental building blocks for neuromorphic system applications.

  6. Todd, Faraday, and the electrical basis of brain activity. (United States)

    Reynolds, Edward H


    Robert Bentley Todd (1809-60) was the UK's first eminent neurologist and neuroscientist. An anatomist, physiologist, and clinical scientist with an interest in the nervous system, he was the first to confirm the electrical basis of brain activity in the 1840s. He was influenced by his contemporary, Michael Faraday at the Royal Institution, and by two colleagues at King's College, John Daniell and Charles Wheatstone, who were also working at the cutting edge of electrical science. Todd conceived of nervous polarity (force) generated in nervous centres and compared this with the polar force of voltaic electricity developed in the galvanic battery. He brilliantly foresaw each nerve vesicle (cell) and its related fibres (ie, neuron) as a distinct apparatus for the development and transmission of nervous polarity. Epilepsy was the result of periodic unnatural development of nervous force leading to the "disruptive discharge" described by Faraday. Faraday, who studied animal electricity in the Gymnotus (electric eel), and Todd saw nervous polarity as a higher form of interchangeable energy.

  7. Evaluation of the Electrical Resistance and Capacitance of a Di-Electric Electro-Active Polymer (United States)

    Ng, Boon Chai; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Magbanua, James

    Dielectric Electro Active Polymers (DEAP) have the potential of converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. DEAP consists of a silicone dielectric film material with a special corrugated surface and a very thin layer of metallic electrodes on both sides of the surface allowing for large mechanical deformations with low operating forces. This work examined how the DEAP capacitance and the electrode resistance were affected by repeated stress relaxation cycles.

  8. Subthalamic nucleus electrical stimulation modulates calcium activity of nigral astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Barat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, delivering inhibitory efferents to the relay nuclei of the thalamus. Pathological hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders e.g. in Parkinson's disease. One way to restore this pathological activity is to electrically stimulate one of the SNr input, the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN, which has emerged as an effective treatment for parkinsonian patients. The neuronal network and signal processing of the basal ganglia are well known but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous and induced excitability of afferent nuclei on SNr astrocytes calcium activity. Astrocytes represent the main cellular population in the SNr and display spontaneous calcium activities in basal conditions. Half of this activity is autonomous (i.e. independent of synaptic activity while the other half is dependent on spontaneous glutamate and GABA release, probably controlled by the pace-maker activity of the pallido-nigral and subthalamo-nigral loops. Modification of the activity of the loops by STN electrical stimulation disrupted this astrocytic calcium excitability through an increase of glutamate and GABA releases. Astrocytic AMPA, mGlu and GABA(A receptors were involved in this effect. SIGNIFICANCE: Astrocytes are now viewed as active components of neural networks but their role depends on the brain structure concerned. In the SNr, evoked activity prevails and autonomous calcium activity is lower than in the cortex or hippocampus. Our data therefore reflect a specific role of SNr astrocytes in sensing the STN-GPe-SNr loops activity and suggest that SNr astrocytes could potentially feedback on SNr neuronal activity. These findings have major implications given the

  9. The active electric sense of weakly electric fish: from electric organ discharge to sensory processing and behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krahe Rüdiger


    Full Text Available Sensory systems have been shaped by evolution to extract information that is relevant for decision making. In order to understand the mechanisms used by sensory systems for filtering the incoming stream of sensory input, it is important to have a quantitative understanding of the natural sensory scenes that are to be processed. Weakly electric fish lead a rather cryptic nocturnal life in often turbid tropical rainforest streams. They produce electric discharges and sense perturbations of their selfgenerated electric field for prey detection and navigation, and also use their active sense for communication in the context of courtship and aggression. The fact that they produce their electric signals throughout day and night permits the use of electrode arrays to track the movements of multiple individual fish and monitor their communication interactions, thus offering a window into their electrosensory world. This approach yields unprecedented access to information on the biology of these fishes and also on the statistical properties of the sensory scenes that are to be processed by their electrosensory system. The electrosensory system shares many organizational features with other sensory systems, in particular, the use of multiple topographic maps. In fact, the sensory surface (the skin is represented in three parallel maps in the hindbrain, with each map covering the receptor organ array with six different cell types that project to the next higher level of processing. Thus, the electroreceptive body surface is represented a total of 18 times in the hindbrain, with each representation having its specific filter properties and degree of response plasticity. Thus, the access to the sensory world of these fish as well as the manifold filtering of the sensory input makes these fish an excellent model system for exploring the cell-intrinsic and network characteristics underlying the extraction of behaviourally relevant sensory information.

  10. Model of electrical activity in cardiac tissue under electromagnetic induction. (United States)

    Wu, Fuqiang; Wang, Chunni; Xu, Ying; Ma, Jun


    Complex electrical activities in cardiac tissue can set up time-varying electromagnetic field. Magnetic flux is introduced into the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model to describe the effect of electromagnetic induction, and then memristor is used to realize the feedback of magnetic flux on the membrane potential in cardiac tissue. It is found that a spiral wave can be triggered and developed by setting specific initials in the media, that is to say, the media still support the survival of standing spiral waves under electromagnetic induction. Furthermore, electromagnetic radiation is considered on this model as external stimuli, it is found that spiral waves encounter breakup and turbulent electrical activities are observed, and it can give guidance to understand the occurrence of sudden heart disorder subjected to heavily electromagnetic radiation.

  11. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost... (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for...

  12. Analysis of temperature profile and electric field in natural rubber glove due to microwave heating: effects of waveguide position (United States)

    Keangin, P.; Narumitbowonkul, U.; Rattanadecho, P.


    Natural rubber (NR) is the key raw material used in the manufacture of other products such as rubber band, tire and shoes. Recently, the NR is used in natural rubber glove ( NRG) manufacturing in the industrial and medical fields. This research aims to investigate the electromagnetic wave propagation and heat transfer in NRG due to heating with microwave energy within the microwave oven at a microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz. Three-dimensional model of NRG and microwave oven are considered in this work. The comparative effects of waveguide position on the electric field and temperature profile in NRG when subjected to microwave energy are discussed. The finite element method (FEM) is used to solve the transient Maxwell’s equation coupled with the transient heat transfer equation. The simulation results with computer programs are validated with experimental results. The placement of waveguides in three cases are left hand side of microwave oven, right hand side of microwave oven and left and right hand sides of microwave oven are investigated. The findings revealed that the placing the waveguide on the right side of the microwave oven gives the highest electric field and temperature profile. The values obtained provide an indication toward understanding the study of heat transfer in NRG during microwave heating in the industry.

  13. The effect of electrically activated sodium bicarbonate solution on tomatoes.



    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is an important commercial crop. High quality tomatoes for the local and export markets are grown hydroponically. In this study, the effect of electrically activated sodium bicarbonate and non-ionized sodium bicarbonate solutions on productivity and postharvest quality of hydroponically grown tomatoes was tested. Sodium bicarbonate is a ready source of bicarbonate. By using a novel technique obtained from Radical Waters (Pty) Ltd., ionized bicarbonate (a...

  14. Fast regulation of axonal growth cone motility by electrical activity. (United States)

    Ibarretxe, Gaskon; Perrais, David; Jaskolski, Frédéric; Vimeney, Alice; Mulle, Christophe


    Axonal growth cones are responsible for the correct guidance of developing axons and the establishment of functional neural networks. They are highly motile because of fast and continuous rearrangements of their actin-rich cytoskeleton. Here we have used live imaging of axonal growth cones of hippocampal neurons in culture and quantified their motility with a temporal resolution of 2 s. Using novel methods of analysis of growth cone dynamics, we show that transient activation of kainate receptors by bath-applied kainate induced a fast and reversible growth cone stalling. This effect depends on electrical activity and can be mimicked by the transient discharge of action potentials elicited in the neuron by intracellular current injections at the somatic level through a patch pipette. Growth cone stalling induced by electrical stimulation is mediated by calcium entry from the extracellular medium as well as by calcium release from intracellular stores that define spatially restricted microdomains directly affecting cytoskeletal dynamics. We propose that growth cone motility is dynamically controlled by transient bursts of spontaneous electrical activity, which constitutes a prominent feature of developing neural networks in vivo.

  15. Active Removal of Large Debris: Electrical Propulsion Capabilities (United States)

    Billot Soccodato, Carole; Lorand, Anthony; Perrin, Veronique; Couzin, Patrice; FontdecabaBaig, Jordi


    The risk for current operational spacecraft or future market induced by large space debris, dead satellites or rocket bodies, in Low Earth Orbit has been identified several years ago. Many potential solutions and architectures are traded with a main objective of reducing cost per debris. Based on cost consideration, specially driven by launch cost, solutions constructed on multi debris capture capacities seem to be much affordable The recent technologic evolutions in electric propulsion and solar power generation can be used to combine high potential vehicles for debris removal. The present paper reports the first results of a study funded by CNES that addresses full electric solutions for large debris removal. Some analysis are currently in progress as the study will end in August. It compares the efficiency of in-orbit Active Removal of typical debris using electric propulsion The electric engine performances used in this analysis are demonstrated through a 2012/2013 PPS 5000 on-ground tests campaign. The traded missions are based on a launch in LEO, the possible vehicle architectures with capture means or contact less, the selection of deorbiting or reorbiting strategy. For contact less strategy, the ion-beam shepherd effect towards the debris problematic will be addressed. Vehicle architecture and performance of the overall system will be stated, showing the adequacy and the limits of each solution.

  16. The Role of Cellular Coupling in the Spontaneous Generation of Electrical Activity in Uterine Tissue (United States)

    Xu, Jinshan; Menon, Shakti N.; Singh, Rajeev; Garnier, Nicolas B.; Sinha, Sitabhra; Pumir, Alain


    The spontaneous emergence of contraction-inducing electrical activity in the uterus at the beginning of labor remains poorly understood, partly due to the seemingly contradictory observation that isolated uterine cells are not spontaneously active. It is known, however, that the expression of gap junctions increases dramatically in the approach to parturition, by more than one order of magnitude, which results in a significant increase in inter-cellular electrical coupling. In this paper, we build upon previous studies of the activity of electrically excitable smooth muscle cells (myocytes) and investigate the mechanism through which the coupling of these cells to electrically passive cells results in the generation of spontaneous activity in the uterus. Using a recently developed, realistic model of uterine muscle cell dynamics, we investigate a system consisting of a myocyte coupled to passive cells. We then extend our analysis to a simple two-dimensional lattice model of the tissue, with each myocyte being coupled to its neighbors, as well as to a random number of passive cells. We observe that different dynamical regimes can be observed over a range of gap junction conductances: at low coupling strength, corresponding to values measured long before delivery, the activity is confined to cell clusters, while the activity for high coupling, compatible with values measured shortly before delivery, may spread across the entire tissue. Additionally, we find that the system supports the spontaneous generation of spiral wave activity. Our results are both qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with observations from in vitro experiments. In particular, we demonstrate that the increase in inter-cellular electrical coupling observed experimentally strongly facilitates the appearance of spontaneous action potentials that may eventually lead to parturition. PMID:25793276

  17. Electrical and structural R&D activities on high voltage dc solid insulator in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilan, N., E-mail: [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Marcuzzi, D.; Rizzolo, A.; Grando, L.; Gambetta, G. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Rosa, S. Dalla [Umicore – Italbras S.p.A., Strada del Balsego, n.6, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Kraemer, V.; Quirmbach, T. [FRIATEC Ceramics Division, Steinzeugstrasse 50, 68229 Mannheim (Germany); Chitarin, G. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Gobbo, R.; Pesavento, G. [DII, Università di Padova, v. Gradenigo 6/A, I-35131 Padova (Italy); De Lorenzi, A.; Lotto, L.; Rizzieri, R.; Fincato, M.; Romanato, L.; Trevisan, L.; Cervaro, V.; Franchin, L. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)


    Highlights: • A thorough R&D activity on the MITICA post insulator prototypes is being carried out. • The design has been numerically verified considering both mechanical and electrical aspects. • Experimental validation has been started, with positive results in both involved fields. • Alternative design solutions thickness have been proposed and successfully tested. - Abstract: This paper describes the R&D work performed in support of the design of the alumina insulators for the MITICA Neutral Beam Injector. The ceramic insulators are critical elements, both from the structural and electrical point of view, of the 1 MV electrostatic accelerator of the MITICA injector, as they are required to sustain both the mechanical loads due to the cantilevered weight of the ion source and the high electric field between the accelerator grids. This paper presents the results of numerical simulations and experimental tests on prototypes that have been carried out to validate the insulator design under realistic operating conditions.

  18. [Mechanical and electrical uterine activity. Part II. Contractions parameters]. (United States)

    Zietek, Jerzy; Sikora, Jerzy; Horoba, Krzysztof; Matonia, Adam; Jezewski, Janusz; Magnucki, Jacek; Kobielska, Lucyna


    Frequency and strength of the uterine contractions monitoring enables to control the labour progress and also, although in a restricted way, to determine the beginning of labour, as long as it is not preterm. Mechanical approach provides only the low frequency signal, which describes the contractions more or less accurately, depending on whether an intrauterine pressure measurement is used in the former case or whether an external stress measurement is applied in the latter case. This signal does not comprise information on contractions characteristics and enables only to estimate their basic timing parameters. Description of the electrophysiological properties may be obtained only by means of the uterine electrical signals measurement. In the following paper, the classical interpretation of the uterine contraction activity which relies upon its mechanical and electrical activity was presented. Additionally, the frequency parameters provided exclusively by the electrical signal were proposed. The possibility of the electrohysterogram analysis may provide more complete information on uterine muscle functioning. Results of the research studies show that further development of electrohysterography will enable its wider application in pregnancy and labour diagnostics.

  19. Electrically active defects in solar grade multicrystalline silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Espen


    Shortage in high purity silicon feedstock, as a result of the formidable increased demand for solar cell devices during the last two decades, can be mitigated by the introduction of cheaper feedstock of solar grade (So-G) quality. Silicon produced through the metallurgical process route has shown......: defect centre characterisation with Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), determination of the electrical performance with Microwave Photoconductive Decay (µ-PCD), chemical analysis with Secondary Ion-Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and different types of electron microscopy imaging (TEM, SEM, tabletop......-SEM) for structural analysis. Some additional techniques have been implemented in order to fill in missing information. In addition, a part of the study aimed at improving the electrical performance of the material, by removing metallic impurities from active phases, with different gettering techniques. It was found...

  20. Apparent ionospheric total electron content variations prior to major earthquakes due to electric fields created by tectonic stresses (United States)

    Kelley, Michael C.; Swartz, Wesley E.; Heki, Kosuke


    Growing evidence for ionospheric signatures of impending earthquakes comes from electron content measurements along slanted paths from GPS satellites to multiple ground stations located up to 500 km away from the epicenters. These slant total electron content (STEC) measurements deviate from the classic U-shape pattern, starting about 40 min to over an hour before major earthquakes. Unlike other naturally occurring STEC fluctuations at midlatitudes, we show here that these earthquake-induced deviations are simultaneous over a wide geographical area and do not propagate, thereby indicating a ground-based origin. Prior to the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.0), the deviations were as much as 10% of the undisturbed STEC. We argue that such deviations must be due to an electric field-forced rise or fall of the main ionosphere with little change in the vertical electron density profile. Hence, "apparent" is used in the title. We show how stress-related underground electric fields penetrate to 80 km altitude (above which penetration to the main ionosphere easily occurs) with magnitudes high enough to create STEC variations comparable to those observed. Since many thousands of GPS receivers exist worldwide, our theory suggests the possibility of early warning systems that could provide 10 to 20 min notice prior to large earthquakes, after allowing time for signal processing. This theory for prequake-induced STEC fluctuations also explains the ground-based ULF magnetic field data acquired by Fraser-Smith et al. 40 min prior to the Loma Prieta earthquake.

  1. AC Electric Field Activated Shape Memory Polymer Composite (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Siochi, Emilie J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Turner, Travis L.


    Shape memory materials have drawn interest for applications like intelligent medical devices, deployable space structures and morphing structures. Compared to other shape memory materials like shape memory alloys (SMAs) or shape memory ceramics (SMCs), shape memory polymers (SMPs) have high elastic deformation that is amenable to tailored of mechanical properties, have lower density, and are easily processed. However, SMPs have low recovery stress and long response times. A new shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive fillers to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. A new composition of shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. The elastic modulus of LaRC-SMPC is approximately 2.7 GPa at room temperature and 4.3 MPa above its glass transition temperature. Conductive FGSs-doped LaRC-SMPC exhibited higher conductivity compared to pristine LaRC SMP. Applying an electric field at between 0.1 Hz and 1 kHz induced faster heating to activate the LaRC-SMPC s shape memory effect relative to applying DC electric field or AC electric field at frequencies exceeding1 kHz.

  2. Evaluation of stress distribution due to shearing in non-oriented electrical steel by using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaizen, Yoshiaki, E-mail:; Omura, Takeshi; Senda, Kunihiro [Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Kawasakidori 1,Mizushima, Kurashiki,712-8511 (Japan); Fukumura, Masaru [Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-0855 (Japan); Toda, Hiroaki [Steel Business Planning Dept, JFE Steel Corporation, Tokyo 100-0011 (Japan)


    The influence of the shearing process on the iron loss of non-oriented electrical steels with grain sizes of 10 μm-150 μm was investigated. The deterioration ratio of iron loss was clearly smaller in sample with small grain sizes. The droop height, reflecting the amount of plastic deformation, displayed a good relationship with the deterioration of iron loss under the effect of the material grain size. To clarify the strain distribution around the sheared edge, the elastic strain in a sheet sample with the thickness of 0.30 mm and grain size of 10 μm was evaluated by using synchrotron radiation. The width of the region of elastic strain due to shearing was two or three times of the material thickness. The results of the plastic strain distribution obtained by the measurements were then used to estimate the iron loss deterioration rate in 5 mm width sheared samples. The estimated loss deteriotation coincided with the actual measured iron loss.

  3. Study the Effect of Value-Added of Services Sector on Forecasting of Electricity Demand in Services Sector due to Price Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mahdi Mostafavi


    Full Text Available Electrical energy is as one of the important effective factors on economic growth and development. In recent decades, numerous studies in different countries to estimate and forecast electricity demand in different parts of the economy have been made. In this paper, using the method ARDL, estimation and forecasting of electricity demand in the services sector of Iran are determined for the time period from 1983 to 2012. Estimated equations show that the added value of the services sector and a significant positive impact on the demand for electricity in this sector. The price elasticity for services sector is smaller than 1 due to low electricity prices and subsidized electricity. Hence, electricity prices have little impact on the demand for electricity. The results of the estimate represents a long-term relationship between the variables in the services sector. In this paper, based on amendments to the law on subsidies and estimated values, anticipated electricity demand until the end of the fifth development plan was carried out. The results indicate an increase in power consumption in the services sector.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Getman


    Full Text Available Purpose. In general the well known methods for determination of energy saving due to the partial traction engines cut-off based on their comparison to efficiency coefficient or to the power of energy losses do not allow objective estimation of efficiency of these measures and in a number of cases result in erroneous results and errors. The search for new more advanced methods for determination of energy saving at the partial cut-off of the traction engines is needed. Methodology. The method of calculation determination of energy saving when partial cutting-off of the traction engines is offered. It is based on the use of rationality coefficient as the loading mode of the electric power consumption for the measuring instrument of transportation activity. Findings. Using the given mathematical expressions it is possible to determine the energy saving in both the relative and absolute values and set the terms (motion speed and route gradient, under which the energy saving will take place. Originality. The method of the task solving, which is based on the evaluation of energy consumption differences for the compared variants (not on the comparison of efficiency coefficient or differences of power of energy losses is offered. Practical value. The given methodology allows obtaining more exact conclusions in relation to the electric power consumption, as the comparison of energy losses power or the efficiency coefficient does not determine precisely the electric power consumption for traction. Therefore the conclusions based on the comparison of power of energy losses or efficiency coefficient can appear inexact.

  5. Aberrant activity in degenerated retinas revealed by electrical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther eZeck


    Full Text Available In this review I present and discuss the current understanding of aberrant electrical activity found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL of rod-degenerated (rd mouse retinas. The reported electrophysiological properties revealed by electrical imaging using high-density microelectrode arrays can be subdivided between spiking activity originating from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and local field potentials reflecting strong trans-membrane currents within the GCL. RGCs in rod-degenerated retinas show increased and rhythmic spiking compared to age-matched wild-type retinas. Fundamental spiking frequencies range from 5 to 15 Hz in various mouse models. The rhythmic RGC spiking is driven by a presynaptic network comprising AII amacrine and bipolar cells. In the healthy retina this rhythm-generating circuit is inhibited by photoreceptor input. A unique physiological feature of rd retinas is rhythmic local field potentials (LFP manifested as spatially-restricted low-frequency (5–15 Hz voltage changes. Their spatiotemporal characterization revealed propagation and correlation with RGC spiking. LFPs rely on gap-junctional coupling and are shaped by glycinergic and by GABAergic transmission. The aberrant RGC spiking and LFPs provide a simple readout of the functionality of the remaining retinal circuitry which can be used in the development of improved vision restoration strategies.

  6. Recent Electric Propulsion Development Activities for NASA Science Missions (United States)

    Pencil, Eric J.


    valve concept, as well as a pressure control module, which will regulate pressure from the propellant tank. Cross-platform component standardization and simplification are being investigated through the Standard Architecture task to reduce first user costs for implementing electric propulsion systems. Progress on current hardware development, recent test activities and future plans are discussed.

  7. Acquisitions in the Electricity Sector: Active vs. Passive Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nese, Gjermund


    The starting point of this paper is a mixed oligopoly market consisting of n privately owned profit maximizing firms and 1 state-owned welfare maximizing firm. Motivated by the trend of mergers and acquisitions in the liberalized electricity markets, and by the debate about public or private ownership, the paper looks at two cases. In Case 1, the state-owned company acquires an ownership share in one of the private companies. In Case 2, the state-owned company is partially privatised. The paper focuses on differences in generated quantities and social surplus, depending on whether the investors behind the acquisitions are behaving as active or passive owners. One result shows that in the case of partial privatization, passive ownership provides the highest total industry generation, while active ownership induces maximum social surplus. (author)

  8. Can Neural Activity Propagate by Endogenous Electrical Field? (United States)

    Qiu, Chen; Shivacharan, Rajat S.; Zhang, Mingming


    It is widely accepted that synaptic transmissions and gap junctions are the major governing mechanisms for signal traveling in the neural system. Yet, a group of neural waves, either physiological or pathological, share the same speed of ∼0.1 m/s without synaptic transmission or gap junctions, and this speed is not consistent with axonal conduction or ionic diffusion. The only explanation left is an electrical field effect. We tested the hypothesis that endogenous electric fields are sufficient to explain the propagation with in silico and in vitro experiments. Simulation results show that field effects alone can indeed mediate propagation across layers of neurons with speeds of 0.12 ± 0.09 m/s with pathological kinetics, and 0.11 ± 0.03 m/s with physiologic kinetics, both generating weak field amplitudes of ∼2–6 mV/mm. Further, the model predicted that propagation speed values are inversely proportional to the cell-to-cell distances, but do not significantly change with extracellular resistivity, membrane capacitance, or membrane resistance. In vitro recordings in mice hippocampi produced similar speeds (0.10 ± 0.03 m/s) and field amplitudes (2.5–5 mV/mm), and by applying a blocking field, the propagation speed was greatly reduced. Finally, osmolarity experiments confirmed the model's prediction that cell-to-cell distance inversely affects propagation speed. Together, these results show that despite their weak amplitude, electric fields can be solely responsible for spike propagation at ∼0.1 m/s. This phenomenon could be important to explain the slow propagation of epileptic activity and other normal propagations at similar speeds. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural activity (waves or spikes) can propagate using well documented mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, gap junctions, or diffusion. However, the purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation for experimental data showing that neural signals can propagate by means other than synaptic

  9. Endurance training improves skeletal muscle electrical activity in active COPD patients. (United States)

    Gosselin, Nadège; Lambert, Karen; Poulain, Magali; Martin, Anne; Préfaut, Christian; Varray, Alain


    The effect of endurance training on muscle electrical activity during general exercise testing was investigated in physically active patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Before and after rehabilitation, patients performed identical incremental exercise tests. Pulmonary gas exchange, venous lactate and pyruvate concentrations, and the quadriceps electromyographic signal were sampled every minute throughout exercise testing. Three weeks of rehabilitation increased exercise capacity without modifying pulmonary function. M-wave amplitude, root mean square (RMS) of electromyographic activity, and RMS/oxygen uptake were increased significantly during post-rehabilitation testing at the same exercise intensity compared to pre-rehabilitation. Median frequency was significantly lower after training. These modifications reflect greater muscle excitability, greater muscle activation for the same level of exercise, and higher recruitment of slow-twitch fibers. Pulmonary rehabilitation in active COPD patients may normalize the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during incremental dynamic exercise. The electromyographic signal confirms neuromuscular changes after endurance training.

  10. Noninvasive method to assess the electrical brain activity from rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ferrari


    Full Text Available This research presents a noninvasive method for the acquisition of brain electrical signal in rat. Was used an electroencephalography (EEG system developed for bovine and adapted to rats. The bipolar electrode system (needle electrodes was glued on the surface of the head of the animal without surgical procedures and the other electrode was glued to the tail, as ground. The EEG activity was sampled at 120Hz for an hour. The accuracy and precision of the EEG measurement was performed using Fourier analysis and signal energy. For this, the digital signal was divided into sections successive of 3 seconds and was decomposed into four frequency bands: delta (0.3 to 4Hz, theta (4-8Hz, alpha (8-12Hz and beta (12-30Hz and energy (µV² of the series of time filtered were calculated. The method allowed the acquisition of non-invasive electrical brain signals in conscious rats and their frequency patterns were in agreement with previous studies that used surgical procedures to acquire EEG in rats. This system showed accuracy and precision and will allow further studies on behavior and to investigate the action of drugs on the central nervous system in rats without surgical procedures.

  11. Convolutional virtual electric field for image segmentation using active contours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanquan Wang

    Full Text Available Gradient vector flow (GVF is an effective external force for active contours; however, it suffers from heavy computation load. The virtual electric field (VEF model, which can be implemented in real time using fast Fourier transform (FFT, has been proposed later as a remedy for the GVF model. In this work, we present an extension of the VEF model, which is referred to as CONvolutional Virtual Electric Field, CONVEF for short. This proposed CONVEF model takes the VEF model as a convolution operation and employs a modified distance in the convolution kernel. The CONVEF model is also closely related to the vector field convolution (VFC model. Compared with the GVF, VEF and VFC models, the CONVEF model possesses not only some desirable properties of these models, such as enlarged capture range, u-shape concavity convergence, subject contour convergence and initialization insensitivity, but also some other interesting properties such as G-shape concavity convergence, neighboring objects separation, and noise suppression and simultaneously weak edge preserving. Meanwhile, the CONVEF model can also be implemented in real-time by using FFT. Experimental results illustrate these advantages of the CONVEF model on both synthetic and natural images.

  12. Metrology in electricity and magnetism: EURAMET activities today and tomorrow (United States)

    Piquemal, F.; Jeckelmann, B.; Callegaro, L.; Hällström, J.; Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Melcher, J.; Rietveld, G.; Siegner, U.; Wright, P.; Zeier, M.


    Metrology dedicated to electricity and magnetism has changed considerably in recent years. It encompasses almost all modern scientific, industrial, and societal challenges, e.g. the revision of the International System of Units, the profound transformation of industry, changes in energy use and generation, health, and environment, as well as nanotechnologies (including graphene and 2D materials) and quantum engineering. Over the same period, driven by the globalization of worldwide trade, the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (referred to as the CIPM MRA) was set up. As a result, the regional metrology organizations (RMOs) of national metrology institutes have grown in significance. EURAMET is the European RMO and has been very prominent in developing a strategic research agenda (SRA) and has established a comprehensive research programme. This paper reviews the highlights of EURAMET in electrical metrology within the European Metrology Research Programme and its main contributions to the CIPM MRA. In 2012 EURAMET undertook an extensive roadmapping exercise for proposed activities for the next decade which will also be discussed in this paper. This work has resulted in a new SRA of the second largest European funding programme: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research.

  13. Electrical conductivity retention and electrochemical activity of CSA doped graphene/gold nanoparticle@ polyaniline composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akherul Islam


    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis of CTAB mediated CSA doped PANI and GN/GNP@ PANI composite nanofibers. The as synthesized composite nanofibers were examined by TEM, SEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy; UV–visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy and TGA. The CTAB mediated CSA doped composite nanofibers showed 59% higher DC electrical conductivity at ambient temperature than that of PANI, which might be due to the enhancement in the mobility of the charge carriers and reduction in hopping distance in the composite system. The CTAB mediated CSA doped composite nanofibers compared to PANI was observed to be showing enhanced DC electrical conductivity retention after various cycles of heating, suggesting an enhancement in thermal stability of the composite structure, which could be attributed to the synergistic effect of GN, GNP and PANI. Additionally, the composite nanofibers showed greater electrochemical activity and better capacitive performance and reduced optical bandgap than that of PANI.

  14. Influence of the Ambient Electric Field on Measurements of the Actively Controlled Spacecraft Potential by MMS (United States)

    Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Andriopoulou, M.; Giles, B. L.; Jeszenszky, H.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Torbert, R. B.


    Space missions with sophisticated plasma instrumentation such as Magnetospheric Multiscale, which employs four satellites to explore near-Earth space benefit from a low electric potential of the spacecraft, to improve the plasma measurements and therefore carry instruments to actively control the potential by means of ion beams. Without control, the potential varies in anticorrelation with plasma density and temperature to maintain an equilibrium between the plasma current and the one of photoelectrons produced at the surface and overcoming the potential barrier. A drawback of the controlled, almost constant potential is the difficulty to use it as convenient estimator for plasma density. This paper identifies a correlation between the spacecraft potential and the ambient electric field, both measured by double probes mounted at the end of wire booms, as the main responsible for artifacts in the potential data besides the known effect of the variable photoelectron production due to changing illumination of the surface. It is shown that the effect of density variations is too weak to explain the observed correlation with the electric field and that a correction of the artifacts can be achieved to enable the reconstruction of the uncontrolled potential and plasma density in turn. Two possible mechanisms are discussed: the asymmetry of the current-voltage characteristic determining the probe to plasma potential and the fact that a large equipotential structure embedded in an electric field results in asymmetries of both the emission and spatial distribution of photoelectrons, which results in an increase of the spacecraft potential.

  15. Promoting Active Learning in Electrical Engineering Basic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Lehtovuori


    Full Text Available Active learning, project-based teaching, and student collaboration are current trends in engineering education. Incorporating these have also been the goal of the basic studies development project EPOP started at the Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering in 2011. In the project, two obligatory basic courses in circuit analysis and electromagnetic field theory have been taught using interactive engagement during the spring of 2012. This paper presents the implementation of the teaching, including methods and evaluation with several concrete examples. As a result of the novel teaching, motivation and the engagement of students were at a high level during the whole course and learning results were better than those of the students participating the traditional lecture course.

  16. Double Fano resonances due to interplay of electric and magnetic plasmon modes in planar plasmonic structure with high sensing sensitivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Junqiao; Fan, Chunzhen; He, Jinna; Ding, Pei; Liang, Erjun; Xue, Qianzhong


    ... between a broad bright mode and narrow dark modes. The bright mode is resulted from the nanorod electric dipole resonance while the dark modes originate from the magnetic dipole induced by LC resonances...

  17. Biomimetic Sonar for Electrical Activation of the Auditory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Menniti


    Full Text Available Relying on the mechanism of bat’s echolocation system, a bioinspired electronic device has been developed to investigate the cortical activity of mammals in response to auditory sensorial stimuli. By means of implanted electrodes, acoustical information about the external environment generated by a biomimetic system and converted in electrical signals was delivered to anatomically selected structures of the auditory pathway. Electrocorticographic recordings showed that cerebral activity response is highly dependent on the information carried out by ultrasounds and is frequency-locked with the signal repetition rate. Frequency analysis reveals that delta and beta rhythm content increases, suggesting that sensorial information is successfully transferred and integrated. In addition, principal component analysis highlights how all the stimuli generate patterns of neural activity which can be clearly classified. The results show that brain response is modulated by echo signal features suggesting that spatial information sent by biomimetic sonar is efficiently interpreted and encoded by the auditory system. Consequently, these results give new perspective in artificial environmental perception, which could be used for developing new techniques useful in treating pathological conditions or influencing our perception of the surroundings.

  18. Patterned electrical activity modulates sodium channel expression in sensory neurons. (United States)

    Klein, Joshua P; Tendi, Elisabetta A; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Fields, R Douglas; Waxman, Stephen G


    Peripheral nerve injury induces changes in the level of gene expression for sodium channels Nav1.3, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 within dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which may contribute to the development of hyperexcitability, ectopic neuronal discharge, and neuropathic pain. The mechanism of this change in sodium channel expression is unclear. Decreased availability of neurotrophic factors following axotomy contributes to these changes in gene transcription, but the question of whether changes in intrinsic neuronal activity levels alone can trigger changes in the expression of these sodium channels has not been addressed. We examined the effect of electrical stimulation on the expression of Nav1.3, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 by using cultured embryonic mouse sensory neurons under conditions in which nerve growth factor (NGF) was not limiting. Expression of Nav1.3 was not significantly changed following stimulation. In contrast, we observed activity-dependent down-regulation of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA and protein levels after stimulation, as demonstrated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. These results show that a change in neuronal activity can alter the expression of sodium channel genes in a subtype-specific manner, via a mechanism independent of NGF withdrawal. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. On the Modeling of Electrical Effects Experienced by Space Explorers During Extra Vehicular Activities: Intracorporal Currents, Resistances, and Electric Fields (United States)

    Cela, Carlos J.; Loizos, Kyle; Lazzi, Gianluca; Hamilton, Douglas; Lee, Raphael C.


    Recent research has shown that space explorers engaged in Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) may be exposed, under certain conditions, to undesired electrical currents. This work focuses on determining whether these undesired induced electrical currents could be responsible for involuntary neuromuscular activity in the subjects, possibly caused by either large diameter peripheral nerve activation or reflex activity from cutaneous afferent stimulation. An efficient multiresolution variant of the admittance method along with a millimeter-resolution model of a male human body were used to calculate induced electric fields, resistance between contact electrodes used to simulate the potential exposure condition, and currents induced in the human body model. Results show that, under realistic exposure conditions using a 15V source, current density magnitudes and total current injected are well above previously reported startle reaction thresholds. This indicates that, under the considered conditions, the subjects could experience involuntary motor response.

  20. Active control for performance enhancement of electrically controlled rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang


    Full Text Available Electrically controlled rotor (ECR system has the potential to enhance the rotor performance by applying higher harmonic flap inputs. In order to explore the feasibility and effectiveness for ECR performance enhancement using closed-loop control method, firstly, an ECR rotor performance analysis model based on helicopter flight dynamic model is established, which can reflect the performance characteristics of ECR helicopter at high advance ratio. Based on the simulation platform, an active control method named adaptive T-matrix algorithm is adopted to explore the feasibility and effectiveness for ECR performance enhancement. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of this closed-loop control method. For the sample ECR helicopter, about 3% rotor power reduction is obtained with the optimum 2/rev flap inputs at the advance ratio of 0.34. And through analyzing the distributions of attack of angle and drag in rotor disk, the underlying physical essence of ECR power reduction is cleared. Furthermore, the influence of the key control parameters, including convergence factor and weighting matrix, on the effectiveness of closed-loop control for ECR performance enhancement is explored. Some useful results are summarized, which can be used to direct the future active control law design of ECR performance enhancement.

  1. Non-contact measurement of electrical activity in neurons using magnified image spatial spectrum (MISS) microscopy (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Lee, Young J.; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Popescu, Gabriel; Jang, Sung-Soo; Chung, Hee Jung


    Traditionally the measurement of electrical activity in neurons has been carried out using microelectrode arrays that require the conducting elements to be in contact with the neuronal network. This method, also referred to as "electrophysiology", while being excellent in terms of temporal resolution is limited in spatial resolution and is invasive. An optical microscopy method for measuring electrical activity is thus highly desired. Common-path quantitative phase imaging (QPI) systems are good candidates for such investigations as they provide high sensitivity (on the order of nanometers) to the plasma membrane fluctuations that can be linked to electrical activity in a neuronal circuit. In this work we measured electrical activity in a culture of rat cortical neurons using MISS microscopy, a high-speed common-path QPI technique having an axial resolution of around 1 nm in optical path-length, which we introduced at PW BIOS 2016. Specifically, we measured the vesicular cycling (endocytosis and exocytosis) occurring at axon terminals of the neurons due to electrical activity caused by adding a high K+ solution to the cell culture. The axon terminals were localized using a micro-fluidic device that separated them from the rest of the culture. Stacks of images of these terminals were acquired at 826 fps both before and after K+ excitation and the temporal standard deviation maps for the two cases were compared to measure the membrane fluctuations. Concurrently, the existence of vesicular cycling was confirmed through fluorescent tagging and imaging of the vesicles at and around the axon terminals.

  2. Evaluation of cerebral electrical activity and cardiac output after patent ductus arteriosus ligation in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leslie, A T F S


    To characterize and investigate the relationship between systemic blood flow and pre- and postoperative cerebral electrical activity in preterm neonates undergoing patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation.

  3. Correlation between dielectric property by dielectrophoretic levitation and growth activity of cells exposed to electric field. (United States)

    Hakoda, Masaru; Hirota, Yusuke


    The purpose of this study is to develop a system analyzing cell activity by the dielectrophoresis method. Our previous studies revealed a correlation between the growth activity and dielectric property (Re[K(ω)]) of mouse hybridoma 3-2H3 cells using dielectrophoretic levitation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the differentiation activity of many stem cells could be evaluated by the Re[K(ω)] without differentiation induction. In this paper, 3-2H3 cells exposed to an alternating current (AC) electric field or a direct current (DC) electric field were cultivated, and the influence of damage by the electric field on the growth activity of the cells was examined. To evaluate the activity of the cells by measuring the Re[K(ω)], the correlation between the growth activity and the Re[K(ω)] of the cells exposed to the electric field was examined. The relations between the cell viability, growth activity, and Re[K(ω)] in the cells exposed to the AC electric field were obtained. The growth activity of the cells exposed to the AC electric field could be evaluated by the Re[K(ω)]. Furthermore, it was found that the adverse effects of the electric field on the cell viability and the growth activity were smaller in the AC electric field than the DC electric field.

  4. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation (United States)


    Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activity at myofascial trigger point originates from the extrafusal motor endplate. The spontaneous electrical activity represents focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials depending on trigger point sensitivity. Local pain and tenderness at myofascial trigger points are largely due to nociceptor sensitization with a lesser contribution from non-nociceptor sensitization. Nociceptor and non-nociceptor sensitization at myofascial trigger points may be part of the process of muscle ischemia associated with sustained focal muscle contraction and/or muscle cramps. Referred pain is dependent on the sensitivity of myofascial trigger points. Active myofascial trigger points may play an important role in the transition from localized pain to generalized pain conditions via the enhanced central sensitization, decreased descending inhibition and dysfunctional motor control strategy. PMID:21439050

  5. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas César


    Full Text Available Abstract Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activity at myofascial trigger point originates from the extrafusal motor endplate. The spontaneous electrical activity represents focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials depending on trigger point sensitivity. Local pain and tenderness at myofascial trigger points are largely due to nociceptor sensitization with a lesser contribution from non-nociceptor sensitization. Nociceptor and non-nociceptor sensitization at myofascial trigger points may be part of the process of muscle ischemia associated with sustained focal muscle contraction and/or muscle cramps. Referred pain is dependent on the sensitivity of myofascial trigger points. Active myofascial trigger points may play an important role in the transition from localized pain to generalized pain conditions via the enhanced central sensitization, decreased descending inhibition and dysfunctional motor control strategy.

  6. Increased electric sail thrust through removal of trapped shielding electrons by orbit chaotisation due to spacecraft body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen


    Full Text Available An electric solar wind sail is a recently introduced propellantless space propulsion method whose technical development has also started. The electric sail consists of a set of long, thin, centrifugally stretched and conducting tethers which are charged positively and kept in a high positive potential of order 20 kV by an onboard electron gun. The positively charged tethers deflect solar wind protons, thus tapping momentum from the solar wind stream and producing thrust. The amount of obtained propulsive thrust depends on how many electrons are trapped by the potential structures of the tethers, because the trapped electrons tend to shield the charged tether and reduce its effect on the solar wind. Here we present physical arguments and test particle calculations indicating that in a realistic three-dimensional electric sail spacecraft there exist a natural mechanism which tends to remove the trapped electrons by chaotising their orbits and causing them to eventually collide with the conducting tethers. We present calculations which indicate that if these mechanisms were able to remove trapped electrons nearly completely, the electric sail performance could be about five times higher than previously estimated, about 500 nN/m, corresponding to 1 N thrust for a baseline construction with 2000 km total tether length.

  7. Cross-border electricity market effects due to price caps in an emission trading system : An agent-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Chappin, E.J.L.; De Vries, L.J.


    The recent low CO2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) have triggered a discussion whether the EU ETS needs to be adjusted. We study the effects of CO2 price floors and a price ceiling on the dynamic investment pathway of two interlinked electricity markets (loosely based

  8. Hollow Palladium Nanoparticles Facilitated Biodegradation of an Azo Dye by Electrically Active Biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Kalathil, Shafeer


    Dye wastewater severely threatens the environment due to its hazardous and toxic effects. Although many methods are available to degrade dyes, most of them are far from satisfactory. The proposed research provides a green and sustainable approach to degrade an azo dye, methyl orange, by electrically active biofilms (EABs) in the presence of solid and hollow palladium (Pd) nanoparticles. The EABs acted as the electron generator while nanoparticles functioned as the electron carrier agents to enhance degradation rate of the dye by breaking the kinetic barrier. The hollow Pd nanoparticles showed better performance than the solid Pd nanoparticles on the dye degradation, possibly due to high specific surface area and cage effect. The hollow cavities provided by the nanoparticles acted as the reaction centers for the dye degradation.

  9. An improved ivermectin-activated chloride channel receptor for inhibiting electrical activity in defined neuronal populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy Peter; Lynch, Joseph W


    The ability to silence the electrical activity of defined neuronal populations in vivo is dramatically advancing our understanding of brain function. This technology may eventually be useful clinically for treating a variety of neuropathological disorders caused by excessive neuronal activity...... for surgically implanted stimulus delivery methods and their use of nonhuman receptors. A third silencing method, an invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channel receptor (GluClR) activated by ivermectin, solves the stimulus delivery problem as ivermectin is a safe, well tolerated drug that reaches the brain...

  10. Changes in intestinal electrical activity during ischaemia correlate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastrointestinal tract possesses an omnipresent electrical slow wave called the basic electrical rhythm (BER). It has been shown that the frequency of the BER falls during intestinal ischaemia. The correlation between changes in the BER and pathology that occur during acute ischaemia are not completely understood.

  11. Ground electrical conductivity for medium wave activities over Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ground electrical properties remain a useful tool for most applications in engineering and communication, therefore, reliability and precision is highly required in their determination. Ground electrical conductivity as a function of signal frequency has been determined at Ilorin during the dry and the wet seasons. The study ...

  12. Urban exposure to ELF magnetic field due to high-, medium- and low-voltage electricity supply networks. (United States)

    Bottura, V; Cappio Borlino, M; Carta, N; Cerise, L; Imperial, E


    The regional environment protection agency (ARPA) of the Aosta Valley region in north Italy performed a survey of magnetic field triggered by the power supply network in high, medium and low voltages on the entire area of Aosta town. The electrical distribution system for houses was not however taken into account. The aim of the survey was to evaluate the global population exposure and not simply the assessment of the legal exposure limit compliance.

  13. Institutional adaptability to redress electricity infrastructure vulnerability due to climate change: A non-technical summary for policy makers


    John Foster; William Paul Bell; Craig Froome; Phil Wild; Liam Wagner; Deepak Sharma; Suwin Sandu; Suchi Misra; Ravindra Bagia


    The objectives of this project are to examine the adaptive capacity of existing institutional arrangements in the National Electricity Market (NEM) to existing and predicted climate change conditions. Specifically the project aims to: 1. identify climate change adaptation issues in the NEM; 1. analyse climate change impacts on reliability in the NEM under alternative climate change scenarios to 2030, particularly what adaptation strategies the power generation and supply network infrastructur...

  14. Cytotoxicity, Bactericidal, and Antioxidant Activity of Sodium Alginate Hydrosols Treated with Direct Electric Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaneta Król


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of using direct electric current (DC of 0, 200, and 400 mA for five minutes on the physiochemical properties, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of sodium alginate hydrosols with different sodium chloride concentrations. The pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP, electrical conductivity (EC, and available chlorine concentration (ACC were measured. The effect of sodium alginate hydrosols treated with DC on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas fluorescence, and RAW 264.7 and L929 cells was investigated. Subsequently, the antioxidant properties of hydrosols were evaluated by determining the scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The results have shown that after applying 400 mA in hydrosol samples with 0.1% and 0.2% NaCl all tested bacteria were inactivated. The ACC concentration of C400 samples with NaCl was equal to 13.95 and 19.71 mg/L, respectively. The cytotoxicity analysis revealed that optimized electric field conditions and the addition of sodium chloride allow for the avoidance of toxicity effects on normal cells without disturbing the antibacterial effects. Due to the presence of oxidizing substances, the DPPH of variants treated with DC was lower than the DPPH of control samples.

  15. Single InGaAs quantum dots embedded in electrically active photonic crystal nanocavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, Felix; Kaniber, Michael; Bichler, Max; Boehm, Gerhard; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Finley, Jonathan [Walter Schottky Institut, Am Coulombwall 3, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    We present investigations of the coupling of single InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) to both extended and strongly localised optical modes in electrical contacted 2D photonic crystal (PC) nanostructures. The samples investigated consist of an 180 nm thick, free-standing GaAs membrane into which a PC is formed by etching a triangular lattice of air holes. Low mode-volume (V (<{lambda}/n){sup 3}) and high-Q ({proportional_to}2000) cavities are introduced by single missing hole defects. Embedding the QDs into the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode enables us to apply static electric fields to QDs in the cavity and control the energy detuning between the dot and cavity using the quantum confined Stark effect. The active PC nanocavities were studied using spatially resolved luminescence and photocurrent absorption spectroscopy. Quenching of the PL is observed for fields>50 kV/cm due to carrier tunneling escape from the dots that occurs over timescales faster than the radiative lifetime. By measuring the PL quenching as a function of position on the PC and nanocavity we electrically probe the local density of photonic states via a shift of the threshold voltage. Also investigations of the exciton lifetime and PL intensity of single QDs as a function of spectral detuning from the cavity mode are made.

  16. Inhibition and recovery of continuous electric field application on the activity of anammox biomass. (United States)

    Qiao, Sen; Yin, Xin; Zhou, Jiti; Furukawa, Kenji


    In this study, the effects of electric field on the activity of anammox biomass were investigated. In batch mode, experimental results demonstrated that the nitrogen removal rate enhanced by 25.6 % compared with the control experiment at the electric field of 2 V/cm with application time of 20 min. However, continuous application (24 h) of electric field impacted a mal-effect on anammox biomass during the intensity between 1 and 4 V/cm. After the electric field was removed, the activity of anammox biomass could recover within 2 weeks. This implied that the mal-effect of electric field on anammox biomass was reversible. The decrease of heme c contents and crude enzyme activity demonstrated to be the main reason for the depress of the anammox biomass activity. Transmission electron microscope observation also proved the morphological change of anammox biomass under electric field.

  17. Absence of in vitro Procoagulant Activity in Immunoglobulin Preparations due to Activated Coagulation Factors (United States)

    Oviedo, Adriana E.; Bernardi, María E.; Guglielmone, Hugo A.; Vitali, María S.


    Summary Background Immunoglobulin (IG) products, including intravenous (IVIG) or subcutaneous (SCIG) immunoglobulins are considered safe and effective for medical therapy; however, a sudden and unexpected increase in thromboembolic events (TE) after administration of certain batches of IVIG products has been attributed to the presence of activated coagulation factors, mainly factor XIa. Our aims were to examine the presence of enduring procoagulant activity during the manufacturing process of IGs, with special focus on monitoring factor XIa, and to evaluate the presence of in vitro procoagulant activity attributed to coagulation factors in different lots of IVIG and SCIG. Methods Samples of different steps of IG purification, 19 lots of IVIG and 9 of SCIG were analyzed and compared with 1 commercial preparation of IVIG and 2 of SCIG, respectively. Factors II, VII, IX, XI and XIa and non-activated partial thromboplastin time (NAPTT) were assayed. Results The levels of factors II, VII, IX, X and XI were non-quantifiable once fraction II had been re-dissolved and in all analyzed lots of IVIG and SCIG. The level of factor XIa at that point was under the detection limits of the assay, and NAPTT yielded values greater than the control during the purification process. In SCIG, we detected higher concentrations of factor XIa in the commercial products, which reached values up to 5 times higher than the average amounts found in the 9 batches produced by UNC-Hemoderivados. Factor XIa in commercial IVIG reached levels slightly higher than those of the 19 batches produced by UNC-Hemoderivados. Conclusion IVIG and SCIG manufactured by UNC-Hemoderivados showed a lack of thrombogenic potential, as demonstrated not only by the laboratory data obtained in this study but also by the absence of any reports of TE registered by the post marketing pharmacovigilance department. PMID:26733772

  18. Commutation effect of Adjustable Speed Drives due to installation of active harmonic filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Kalaschnikow, Sergej; Hansen, Steffan


    The success of designing an industrial installation with Active Filters depends on how precise the load profile of the application is known, because this determines the amount of harmonic currents to be compensated. However, once the Active Filter is added to the installation, the harmonic currents...... may increase due to changes in the commutation behavior of diode rectifier converters. The change of natural commutation determines higher harmonics currents of the diode rectifiers and therefore higher harmonic loading of the Active Filter in the installation. This paper presents a method to estimate...

  19. Methodical Principles for Determination of Optimum Breaking Places of Distributive Electrical Networks with Due Account of Supply Network of 110 kV and Higher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov


    Full Text Available A specified model and algorithm for optimization of slit points in a distributive 10 (6 kV electrical network with due account of supply network of 110 kV and higher have been developed in the paper. In order to determine loss values in supply network a special mathematical model of the closed network has been constructed and the model permits to execute the given operation with minimum computing expenses. The paper proposes and analyzes methods for registration of task limitations: damage due to insufficient supply of electric power, possible network overloads for permissible currents, power supply provision for the 1st category consumers, prohibition against switching in public network and switching-on of sectional apparatus being switched-off according to normal scheme.

  20. End-to-end testing. [to verify electrical equipment failure due to carbon fibers released in aircraft-fuel fires (United States)

    Pride, R. A.


    The principle objective of the kinds of demonstration tests that are discussed is to try to verify whether or not carbon fibers that are released by burning composite parts in an aircraft-fuel fires can produce failures in electrical equipment. A secondary objective discussed is to experimentally validate the analytical models for some of the key elements in the risk analysis. The approach to this demonstration testing is twofold: limited end-to-end test are to be conducted in a shock tube; and planning for some large outdoor burn tests is being done.

  1. A Computational Model for Real-Time Calculation of Electric Field due to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Paffi


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach for an accurate and fast (real-time computation of the electric field induced inside the whole brain volume during a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS procedure. The numerical solution implements the admittance method for a discretized realistic brain model derived from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Results are in a good agreement with those obtained using commercial codes and require much less computational time. An integration of the developed code with neuronavigation tools will permit real-time evaluation of the stimulated brain regions during the TMS delivery, thus improving the efficacy of clinical applications.

  2. Effect of acute hyperoxia during exercise on quadriceps electrical activity in active COPD patients. (United States)

    Gosselin, N; Durand, F; Poulain, M; Lambert, K; Ceugniet, F; Préfaut, C; Varray, A


    This study investigated whether acute hyperoxia improves electrical muscle activity in active chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with mild hypoxemia (rest PaO(2) = 9.1 +/- 0.4 kPa). Two identical incremental exercise tests were performed by nine patients while breathing either air or 30% oxygen. Pulmonary gas exchanges, venous concentrations of lactate and pyruvate, and the electromyographic signal of the quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis and vastus medialis) were sampled each minute. Peak working capacity increased significantly in hyperoxia (94.4 +/- 5.2W) compared with normoxia (85.4 +/- 5.8W, P exercise and for a given work load, oxygen uptake was increased (P exercise compared with room air. Although median frequency values did not differ between conditions, the median frequency was significantly decreased for higher exercise intensity in hyperoxic condition. These modifications reflected better aerobic metabolism, later emergence of muscle fatigue, and greater muscle excitability and activation for the same level of exercise under hyperoxic condition. These data suggest that the acute addition of oxygen in active COPD patients improves their muscle electrical activity during dynamic exercise. Hypoxemia-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction most probably acts through mechanisms based on oxygen availability.

  3. Building an index of activity of inhabitants from their activity on the residential electrical power line. (United States)

    Noury, Norbert; Berenguer, Marc; Teyssier, Henri; Bouzid, Marie-Jeanne; Giordani, Michel


    In the framework of context awareness within the home, our team is currently assessing the unobtrusive detection of inhabitants' activity through the monitoring of their use and consumption of electricity. The objective is to develop a system for the remote monitoring of large populations of elderly people living independently at home. To be readily deployable on the field, such a system must be minimally intrusive both for the home environment and for the field professionals (paramedics and social workers) visiting the patients at home. We carried out two successive field experiments to evaluate and to improve our system designed to deliver a single index of daily activity. The first experiment involved 13 elderly persons over a nine-month period (84,240 h data recorded) and the second one 12 elderly over six months (51,840 h). We evaluated both the relevance of the index and the acceptability of the system as a whole. We discovered that electrical activity is a kind of unique "signature" of each person's activity. Moreover, this profile provides unexpected information on the health status of the subject. We confirmed that the system was unobtrusive and well accepted both by the subjects and by the professionals involved. Our unique index of activity, and its trend over time, can provide timely information to the professionals on the patient.

  4. The impacts of electricity dispatch protocols on the emission reductions due to wind power and carbon tax. (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Rajagopal, Ram


    Two dispatch protocols have been adopted by electricity markets to deal with the uncertainty of wind power but the effects of the selection between the dispatch protocols have not been comprehensively analyzed. We establish a framework to compare the impacts of adopting different dispatch protocols on the efficacy of using wind power and implementing a carbon tax to reduce emissions. We suggest that a market has high potential to achieve greater emission reduction by adopting the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the static protocol when the wind energy in the market is highly uncertain or the market has enough adjustable generators, such as gas-fired combustion generators. Furthermore, the carbon-tax policy is more cost-efficient for reducing CO2 emission when the market operates according to the stochastic protocol rather than the static protocol. An empirical study, which is calibrated according to the data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas market, confirms that using wind energy in the Texas market results in a 12% CO2 emission reduction when the market uses the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the 8% emission reduction associated with the static protocol. In addition, if a 6$/ton carbon tax is implemented in the Texas market operated according to the stochastic protocol, the CO2 emission is similar to the emission level from the same market with a 16$/ton carbon tax operated according to the static protocol. Correspondingly, the 16$/ton carbon tax associated with the static protocol costs 42.6% more than the 6$/ton carbon tax associated with the stochastic protocol.

  5. Electric Field-aided Selective Activation for Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin Film Transistors. (United States)

    Lee, Heesoo; Chang, Ki Soo; Tak, Young Jun; Jung, Tae Soo; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, Won-Gi; Chung, Jusung; Jeong, Chan Bae; Kim, Hyun Jae


    A new technique is proposed for the activation of low temperature amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) backplanes through application of a bias voltage and annealing at 130 °C simultaneously. In this 'electrical activation', the effects of annealing under bias are selectively focused in the channel region. Therefore, electrical activation can be an effective method for lower backplane processing temperatures from 280 °C to 130 °C. Devices fabricated with this method exhibit equivalent electrical properties to those of conventionally-fabricated samples. These results are analyzed electrically and thermodynamically using infrared microthermography. Various bias voltages are applied to the gate, source, and drain electrodes while samples are annealed at 130 °C for 1 hour. Without conventional high temperature annealing or electrical activation, current-voltage curves do not show transfer characteristics. However, electrically activated a-IGZO TFTs show superior electrical characteristics, comparable to the reference TFTs annealed at 280 °C for 1 hour. This effect is a result of the lower activation energy, and efficient transfer of electrical and thermal energy to a-IGZO TFTs. With this approach, superior low-temperature a-IGZO TFTs are fabricated successfully.

  6. Application of subharmonics for active sound design of electric vehicles. (United States)

    Gwak, Doo Young; Yoon, Kiseop; Seong, Yeolwan; Lee, Soogab


    The powertrain of electric vehicles generates an unfamiliar acoustical environment for customers. This paper seeks optimal interior sound for electric vehicles based on psychoacoustic knowledge and musical harmonic theory. The concept of inserting a virtual sound, which consists of the subharmonics of an existing high-frequency component, is suggested to improve sound quality. Subjective evaluation results indicate that the impression of interior sound can be enhanced in this manner. Increased appeal is achieved through two designed stimuli, which proves the effectiveness of the method proposed.

  7. Biophysical Model of Cortical Network Activity and the Influence of Electrical Stimulation (United States)


    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We examined the effects of subdural electrical stimulation on a high-density network consisting of several populations of...multicompartment cell types. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) Electrical stimulation mainly affects and activates axon initial and the most...of Electrical Stimulation . The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an

  8. Regulatory barriers for activating flexibility in the Nordic-Baltic electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergaentzlé, Claire; Skytte, Klaus; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund


    The rapid growth of variable renewable energy (VRE) and the expected decrease of conventional generation capacities will generate more flexibility needs in power systems and require flexibility resources to be activated. Flexibility potentials do exist, whether they refer to installed generation,...... to a lack of coherent instruments intended to both the demand and supply-side to effectively act flexibly......., load adjustment or to a greater coupling to other energy sectors. In this paper, we identify the framework conditions that influence the provision of VRE-friendly flexibility in the Nordic and Baltic electricity sector, i.e., the market and regulatory settings that act as drivers or barriers...... to flexibility. We find that the most restrictive barriers against flexibility are emitted by public authorities as part of broader policy strategies. Overall, we find that current regulatory and market framework conditions do not hinder flexibility. However, despite that, flexibility remains limited due...

  9. Study on Active Suppression Control of Drivetrain Oscillations in an Electric Vehicle (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Cui, Ying


    Due to the low damping in a central driven electric vehicle and lack of passive damping mechanisms as compared with a conventional vehicle, the vehicle may endure torsional vibrations which may deteriorates the vehicle’s drivability. Thus active damping control strategy is required to reduce the undesirable oscillations in an EV. In this paper, the origin of the vibration and the design of a damping control method to suppress such oscillations to improve the drivability of an EV are studied. The traction motor torque that is given by the vehicle controller is adjusted according to the acceleration rate of the motor speed to attenuate the resonant frequency. Simulations and experiments are performed to validate the system. The results show that the proposed control system can effectively suppress oscillations and hence improve drivability.

  10. Effect of Amniotomy on Uterine Muscle Electrical Activity During Labor Induction with Oxytocin and Prostaglandins


    Toth, Tibor


    The aim of the study was to find out whether noninvasive recording of uterine muscle electrical activity could help monitor the development of mechanical myometrial activity during induced labor. Myometrium electrical activity during labor induction was analyzed in 110 gravidas hospitalized at Maternity Ward, Bjelovar General Hospital in Bjelovar. The means used for labor induction was oxytocin infusion in 54, intracervical prostaglandin (dinoprostone 0.5 mg) in 20, intravaginal prostaglandin...

  11. Anisotropy of electrical conductivity in dc due to intrinsic defect formation in α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal implanted with Mg ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardío, M., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganés (Madrid) (Spain); Egaña, A.; Ramírez, R.; Muñoz-Santiuste, J.E. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganés (Madrid) (Spain); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 2695-066 Bobadela (Portugal)


    The electrical conductivity in α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals implanted with Mg ions in two different crystalline orientations, parallel and perpendicular to c axis, was investigated. The samples were implanted at room temperature with energies of 50 and 100 keV and fluences of 1 × 10{sup 15}, 5 × 10{sup 15} and 5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. Optical characterization reveals slight differences in the absorption bands at 6.0 and 4.2 eV, attributed to F type centers and Mie scattering from Mg precipitates, respectively. DC electrical measurements using the four and two-point probe methods, between 295 and 490 K, were used to characterize the electrical conductivity of the implanted area (Meshakim and Tanabe, 2001). Measurements in this temperature range indicate that: (1) the electrical conductivity is thermally activated independently of crystallographic orientation, (2) resistance values in the implanted region decrease with fluence levels, and (3) the I–V characteristic of electrical contacts in samples with perpendicular c axis orientation is clearly ohmic, whereas contacts are blocking in samples with parallel c axis. When thin layers are sequentially removed from the implanted region by immersing the sample in a hot solution of nitric and fluorhydric acids the electrical resistance increases until reaching the values of non-implanted crystal (Jheeta et al., 2006). We conclude that the enhancement in conductivity observed in the implanted regions is related to the intrinsic defects created by the implantation rather than to the implanted Mg ions (da Silva et al., 2002; Tardío et al., 2001; Tardío et al., 2008).

  12. Relativistic coupled cluster (RCC) computation of the electric dipole moment enhancement factor of francium due to the violation of time reversal symmetry. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Debashis; Sahoo, B K; Nataraj, H S; Das, B P


    A relativistic many-body theory for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms arising from the electric dipole moment of the electron is presented and implemented. The relativistic coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations (RCCSD) using the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian and a weak parity and time reversal violating interaction to the first-order of perturbation has been employed to obtain the EDM enhancement factor for the ground state of the Fr atom due to the intrinsic EDM of the electron. The trends of different correlation effects and the leading contributions from different physical states are discussed. Our results in combination with that of the Fr EDM experiment that is currently in progress possess the potential to probe the validity of the standard model (SM) of elementary particle physics.

  13. Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Iben; Hagstrøm, Søren; Siggaard, Charlotte

    Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study......Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study...

  14. Todd, Faraday and the electrical basis of brain activity. (United States)

    Reynolds, Edward


    The origins of our understanding of brain electricity and electrical discharges in epilepsy can be traced to Robert Bentley Todd (1809-60). Todd was influenced by his contemporary in London, Michael Faraday (1791-1867), who in the 1830 s and 1840 s was laying the foundations of our modern understanding of electromagnetism. Todd's concept of nervous polarity, generated in nerve vesicles and transmitted in nerve fibres (neurons in later terminology), was confirmed a century later by the Nobel Prize-winning work of Hodgkin and Huxley, who demonstrated the ionic basis of neuro-transmission, involving the same ions which had had been discovered by Faraday's mentor, Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829).

  15. An Energy Efficient Technique Using Electric Active Shielding for Capacitive Coupling Intra-Body Communication. (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Huang, Zhonghua; Wang, Zhiqi; Zhou, Linxuan; Li, Yinlin


    Capacitive coupling intra-body communication (CC-IBC) has become one of the candidates for healthcare sensor networks due to its positive prevailing features of energy efficiency, transmission rate and security. Under the CC-IBC scheme, some of the electric field emitted from signal (SIG) electrode of the transmitter will couple directly to the ground (GND) electrode, acting equivalently as an internal impedance of the signal source and inducing considerable energy losses. However, none of the previous works have fully studied the problem. In this paper, the underlying theory of such energy loss is investigated and quantitatively evaluated using conventional parameters. Accordingly, a method of electric active shielding is proposed to reduce the displacement current across the SIG-GND electrodes, leading to less power loss. In addition, the variation of such loss in regard to frequency range and positions on human body was also considered. The theory was validated by finite element method simulation and experimental measurement. The prototype result shows that the receiving power has been improved by approximate 5.5 dBm while the total power consumption is maximally 9 mW less using the proposed technique, providing an energy efficient option in physical layer for wearable and implantable healthcare sensor networks.

  16. Fatty Acid Accumulation and Resulting PPARα Activation in Fibroblasts due to Trifunctional Protein Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Wakabayashi


    Full Text Available To examine fatty acid accumulation and its toxic effects in cells, we analyzed skin fibroblasts from six patients with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, who had abnormalities in the second through fourth reactions in fatty acid β-oxidation system. We found free fatty acid accumulation, enhanced three acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, catalyzing the first reaction in the β-oxidation system and being assumed to have normal activities in these patients, and PPARα activation that was confirmed in the experiments using MK886, a PPARα specific antagonist and fenofibrate, a PPARα specific agonist. These novel findings suggest that the fatty acid accumulation and the resulting PPARα activation are major causes of the increase in the β-oxidation ability as probable compensation for fatty acid metabolism in the patients’ fibroblasts, and that enhanced cell proliferation and increased oxidative stress due to the PPARα activation relate to the development of specific clinical features such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, slight hepatomegaly, and skeletal myopathy. Additionally, significant suppression of the PPARα activation by means of MK886 treatment is assumed to provide a new method of treating this deficiency.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Mullite composites have been synthesized at 400°C, 800°C, 1000°C and 1300°C via the sol-gel technique in the presence of cobalt. The electrical resistivity and activation energy of the composites have been measured and their variation with concentration of the metal ion doping has been investigated. The resistivity of doped mullite decreases rapidly from 400°C-800°C more gently from 1000°C-1300°C. The lowering of resistivity is due to the 3d orbital electrons and the concentration of cobalt ions. X-ray analysis confirms the presence of Co2+ ions in mullite, which entered the octahedral site. The Co2+ ion which substituted Al3+ ion in the octahedral site of mullite structure appeared to be efficient in reducing the resistivity. This has been confirmed due to the results of activation energy of resistivity/band gap energy, the Eg which was lowest for concentration 0.15 M. As the concentration increases, these ions lower the resistivity of mullite to a minimum.

  18. Electric-current Neutralization, Magnetic Shear, and Eruptive Activity in Solar Active Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xudong [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Török, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S. [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Leake, James E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    The physical conditions that determine whether or not solar active regions (ARs) produce strong flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are not yet well understood. Here, we investigate the association between electric-current neutralization, magnetic shear along polarity inversion lines (PILs), and eruptive activity in four ARs: two emerging and two well-developed ones. We find that the CME-producing ARs are characterized by a strongly non-neutralized total current, while the total current in the ARs that did not produce CMEs is almost perfectly neutralized. The difference in the PIL shear between these two groups is much less pronounced, which suggests that the degree of current neutralization may serve as a better proxy for assessing the ability of ARs to produce CMEs.

  19. Refraction of $e^-$ beams due to plasma lensing at a plasma-vacuum interface -- applied to beam deflection in a Copper cell with electrical RF-breakdown plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Aakash A


    We formulate a possible description of the deflection of a relativistic $e^-$ beam in an inhomogeneous copper plasma, encountered by the beam when propagating through a accelerating cell that has undergone a high electric-field RF-breakdown. It is well known that an inhomogeneous plasma forms and may last for up to a few micro-seconds, until recombination in an accelerating structure where a field-emission triggers melting and ionization of RF-cell wall deformity. We present a preliminary model for the beam deflection due to collective plasma response based upon the beam density, plasma density and interaction length.

  20. Electron density increases due to Lightning activity as deduced from LWPC code and VLF signal perturbations. (United States)

    Samir, Nait Amor; Bouderba, Yasmina

    VLF signal perturbations in association with thunderstorm activity appear as changes in the signal amplitude and phase. Several papers reported on the characteristics of thus perturbations and their connection to the lightning strokes amplitude and polarity. In this contribution, we quantified the electrons density increases due to lightning activity by the use of the LWPC code and VLF signal perturbations parameters. The method is similar to what people did in studying the solar eruptions effect. the results showed that the reference height (h') decreased to lower altitudes (between 70 and 80 km). From the LWPC code results the maximum of the electron density was then deduced. Therefore, a numerical simulation of the atmospheric species times dependences was performed to study the recovery times of the electrons density at different heights. The results showed that the recovery time last for several minutes and explain the observation of long recovery Early signal perturbations.

  1. The use of dendrograms to describe the electrical activity of motoneurons underlying behaviors in leeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Jacobo Juárez-Hernández


    Full Text Available The present manuscript aims at identifying patterns of electrical activity recorded from neurons of the leech nervous system, characterizing specific behaviors. When leeches are at rest, the electrical activity of neurons and motoneurons is poorly correlated. When leeches move their head and/or tail, in contrast, action potential (AP firing becomes highly correlated. When the head or tail suckers detach, specific patterns of electrical activity are detected. During elongation and contraction the electrical activity of motoneurons in the Medial Anterior and Dorsal Posterior nerves increase respectively and several motoneurons are activated both during elongation and contraction. During crawling, swimming and pseudo-swimming patterns of electrical activity are better described by the dendrograms of cross-correlations of motoneurons pairs. Dendrograms obtained from different animals exhibiting the same behavior are similar and by averaging these dendrograms we obtained a template underlying a given behavior. By using this template, the corresponding behavior is reliably identified from the recorded electrical activity. The analysis of dendrograms during different leech behavior reveals the fine orchestration of motoneurons firing specific to each stereotyped behavior. Therefore, dendrograms capture the subtle changes in the correlation pattern of neuronal networks when they become involved in different tasks or functions.

  2. [The utilization of brain plasticity by cochlear implants : Molecular and cellular changes due to electrical intracochlear stimulation]. (United States)

    Rosskothen-Kuhl, N; Illing, R-B


    During pre- and postnatal development, a high level of growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43) is expressed in the brain. This neuron-specific protein is expressed in somata, axons, and growth cones and plays a key role in neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis. With maturation of the brain, Gap43 is down-regulated by most neurons, except in brain areas such as the hippocampal CA3 region or the binaural auditory regions lateral superior olive (LSO) and central inferior colliculus (CIC). This study investigated how changes in sensory activity levels and patterns can modulate the adult plasticity response. To study the effect of sensory activity on adult Gap43 expression, mRNA and protein levels were determined in LSO and CIC of hearing-experienced rats, unilaterally and bilaterally deafened rats, or rats unilaterally stimulated by a cochlear implant (CI). Unilateral hearing loss of an adult auditory system causes asymmetrical expression of Gap43 mRNA between ipsi- and contralateral LSOs or CICs of the brain stem. While the mRNA level rose on the contralateral side of the LSO, CIC neurons increased their gap43 transcription ipsilaterally compared to the control level (pstimulation resulted in a bilaterally symmetric but increased gap43 transcription. Our data indicate that Gap43 is not only a marker for neuronal growth and synaptogenesis, but also reflects modified patterns of synaptic activities on auditory neurons. Thus, unilateral deafness directly results in an asymmetrical adaptation of the gap43 transcription between both sides of the auditory brain stem. This can be prevented by simple-patterned stimulation of the auditory nerve via a CI.

  3. Continuous oxidative stress due to activation of polyamine catabolism accelerates aging and protects against hepatotoxic insults. (United States)

    Cerrada-Gimenez, Marc; Pietilä, Marko; Loimas, Suvikki; Pirinen, Eija; Hyvönen, Mervi T; Keinänen, Tuomo A; Jänne, Juhani; Alhonen, Leena


    Enhanced polyamine catabolism via polyamine acetylation-oxidation elevates the oxidative stress in an organism due to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We studied a transgenic mouse line overexpressing the rate limiting enzyme in the polyamine catabolism, spermidine/spermine N (1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) that is characterized by increased putrescine and decreased spermidine and spermine pools. In order to protect the mice from the chronic oxidative stress produced by the activation of polyamine catabolism, the hepatic expression of the transcription factor p53 was found threefold elevated in the transgenic mice. In addition, the prolonged activation of p53 accelerated the aging of transgenic mice and reduced their lifespan (50%). Aging was associated with decreased antioxidant enzyme activities. In the transgenic mice the activities of catalase and Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) were 42 and 23% reduced respectively, while the expression of CYP450 2E1 was 60% decreased and oxidative stress measured as protein carbonyl content was tenfold elevated. In the transgenic mice, the age-related repression of the different antioxidant enzymes served as a protection against the hepatotoxic effects of carbon tetrachloride and thioacetamide.

  4. Cytotoxic activity of tivantinib (ARQ 197) is not due solely to c-MET inhibition. (United States)

    Katayama, Ryohei; Aoyama, Aki; Yamori, Takao; Qi, Jie; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Song, Youngchul; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Fujita, Naoya


    The receptor tyrosine kinase c-MET is the high-affinity receptor for the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The HGF/c-MET axis is often dysregulated in tumors. c-MET activation can be caused by MET gene amplification, activating mutations, and auto- or paracrine mechanisms. Thus, c-MET inhibitors are under development as anticancer drugs. Tivantinib (ARQ 197) was reported as a small-molecule c-MET inhibitor and early clinical studies suggest antitumor activity. To assess whether the antitumor activity of tivantinib was due to inhibition of c-MET, we compared the activity of tivantinib with other c-MET inhibitors in both c-MET-addicted and nonaddicted cancer cells. As expected, other c-MET inhibitors, crizotinib and PHA-665752, suppressed the growth of c-MET-addicted cancers, but not the growth of cancers that are not addicted to c-MET. In contrast, tivantinib inhibited cell viability with similar potency in both c-MET-addicted and nonaddicted cells. These results suggest that tivantinib exhibits its antitumor activity in a manner independent of c-MET status. Tivantinib treatment induced a G(2)-M cell-cycle arrest in EBC1 cells similarly to vincristine treatment, whereas PHA-665752 or crizotinib treatment markedly induced G(0)-G(1) cell-cycle arrest. To identify the additional molecular target of tivantinib, we conducted COMPARE analysis, an in silico screening of a database of drug sensitivities across 39 cancer cell lines (JFCR39), and identified microtubule as a target of tivantinib. Tivantinib-treated cells showed typical microtubule disruption similar to vincristine and inhibited microtubule assembly in vitro. These results suggest that tivantinib inhibits microtubule polymerization in addition to inhibiting c-MET. ©2013 AACR.

  5. Cytotoxic activity of Tivantinib (ARQ 197) is not due solely to MET inhibition (United States)

    Katayama, Ryohei; Aoyama, Aki; Yamori, Takao; Qi, Jie; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Song, Youngchul; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Fujita, Naoya


    The receptor tyrosine kinase c-MET is the high-affinity receptor for the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The HGF/c-MET axis is often dysregulated in tumors. c-MET activation can be caused by MET gene amplification, activating mutations, and auto- or paracrine mechanisms. Thus, c-MET inhibitors are under development as anti-cancer drugs. Tivantinib (ARQ 197) was reported as a small molecule c-MET inhibitor and early clinical studies suggest anti-tumor activity. To assess if the anti-tumor activity of tivantinib was due to inhibition of c-MET, we compared the activity of tivantinib to other c-MET inhibitors in both c-MET addicted and non-addicted cancer cells. As expected, other c-MET inhibitors, crizotinib and PHA-665752, suppressed the growth of c-MET addicted cancers, but not the growth of cancers that are not addicted to c-MET. In contrast, tivantinib inhibited cell viability with similar potency in both c-MET addicted and non-addicted cells. These results suggest that tivantinib exhibits its antitumor activity in a manner independent of c-MET status. Tivantinib treatment induced a G2/M cell cycle arrest in EBC1 cells similarly to vincristine treatment, whereas PHA-665752 or crizotinib treatment markedly induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. To identify the additional molecular target of tivantinib, we performed COMPARE analysis, an in silico screening of a database of drug sensitivities across 39 cancer cell lines (JFCR39), and identified microtubule as a target of tivantinib. Tivantinib treated cells demonstrated typical microtubule disruption similar to vincristine and inhibited microtubule assembly in vitro. These results suggest that tivantinib inhibits microtubule polymerization in addition to inhibiting c-MET. PMID:23598276

  6. The Electrical Activity of He II with Relative Motion of Normal and Superfluid Components (United States)

    Adamenko, I. N.; Nemchenko, E. K.


    It is shown that in the relative motion of the normal and superfluid components of He II with velocity w, an electric potential difference arises. The causes of this phenomenon are electrical properties of quantum vortex rings (QVR) and the anisotropic QVR energy dependence on its momentum due to w. Explicit analytical expressions for the potentials arising from the second sound wave in an external electric field are derived. The comparison of calculated values with observed ones is made, and new experiments are proposed.

  7. Natural optical activity and its control by electric field in electrotoroidic systems (United States)

    Prosandeev, Sergey; Malashevich, Andrei; Gui, Zhigang; Louis, Lydie; Walter, Raymond; Souza, Ivo; Bellaiche, L.


    We propose the existence, via analytical derivations, novel phenomenologies, and first-principles-based simulations, of a class of materials that are not only spontaneously optically active, but also for which the sense of rotation can be switched by an electric field applied to them via an induced transition between the dextrorotatory and laevorotatory forms. Such systems possess electric vortices that are coupled to a spontaneous electrical polarization. Furthermore, our atomistic simulations provide a deep microscopic insight into, and understanding of, this class of naturally optically active materials.

  8. In vivo modulation of hippocampal epileptiform activity with radial electric fields. (United States)

    Richardson, Kristen A; Gluckman, Bruce J; Weinstein, Steven L; Glosch, Caryn E; Moon, Jessica B; Gwinn, Ryder P; Gale, Karen; Schiff, Steven J


    Electric field stimulation can interact with brain activity in a subthreshold manner. Electric fields have been previously adaptively applied to control seizures in vitro. We report the first results from establishing suitable electrode geometries and trajectories, as well as stimulation and recording electronics, to apply this technology in vivo. Electric field stimulation was performed in a rat kainic acid injection seizure model. Radial electric fields were generated unilaterally in hippocampus from an axial depth electrode. Both sinusoidal and multiphasic stimuli were applied. Hippocampal activity was recorded bilaterally from tungsten microelectrode pairs. Histologic examination was performed to establish electrode trajectory and characterize lesioning. Electric field modulation of epileptiform neural activity in phase with the stimulus was observed in five of six sinusoidal and six of six multiphasic waveform experiments. Both excitatory and suppressive modulation were observed in the two experiments with stimulation electrodes most centrally placed within the hippocampus. Distinctive modulation was observed in the period preceding seizure-onset detection in two of six experiments. Short-term histologic tissue damage was observed in one of six experiments associated with high unbalanced charge delivery. We demonstrated in vivo electric field modulation of epileptiform hippocampal activity, suggesting that electric field control of in vivo seizures may be technically feasible. The response to stimulation before seizure could be useful for triggering control systems, and may be a novel approach to define a preseizure state.

  9. Activation of electrical machinery. Supplement 1. [Preliminary evaluation; not applicable to ground tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolen, J.R.


    The following analysis of the induced radioactivity in SNAP-50/SPUR electrical machinery having a high cobalt content is submitted. Induced radioactivity in the flight vehicle will contribute negligibly to allowable radiation levels. This is especially so due to the low neutron to gamma ratio of assumed radiation damage tolerances to semiconductors. A calculation to estimate the order of magnitude of induced radioactivity in cobalt is attached. The calculation is based on a best guess of the neutron spectrum directly behind a lithium hydride shield. The resulting low cobalt activity and associated dose rate of about 1 mr/hr at 10 ft from a generator or a motor is insignificant. Although the evaluation indicates insignificant levels of induced radioactivity, this conclusion is not applicable to a ground test. Neutron moderation and scattering from a containment vessel and biological shield would greatly perturb the neutron environment behind the flight shield. Posttest handling of all components within the vacuum test chamber will undoubtedly be a problem. Notwithstanding the importance of limiting induced radioactivity, other considerations such as economy, cooling and vacuum requirements will largely dictate the final facility design. In summary, an activation analysis involves the overall facility design and will not be readily resolved. For a 10,000 hr. test the Co/sup 60/ activity may range from 100 curies per lb of cobalt where no shielding is provided to 10/sup -3/ curies per lb of cobalt where the equivalent of a flight shield is provided.

  10. Feasibility assessment for battery electric vehicles based on multi-day activity-travel patterns. (United States)


    A Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) feasibility considering State Of Charge (SOC) level is : assessed using multiday activity-travel patterns to overcome the limitations of using one-day : activity-travel patterns. Since multi-day activity-travel patter...

  11. The Electrical Activity of Neurons Subject to Electromagnetic Induction and Gaussian White Noise (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Ma, Jun; Xu, Ying; Wu, Fuqiang; Zhou, Ping

    Neurons can give appropriate response to external electrical stimuli and the modes in electrical activities can be carefully selected. Most of the neuron models mainly emphasize on the ion channel currents embedded into the membrane and the properties in electrical activities can be produced in the theoretical models. Indeed, some physical effect should be considered during the model setting for neuronal activities. In fact, induced current and the electrical field will cause the membrane potential to change and an exchange of charged ions during the fluctuation of ion concentration in cell. As a result, the effect of electromagnetic induction should be seriously considered. In this paper, magnetic flux is proposed to describe the effect of electromagnetic field, and the memristor is used to realize coupling on membrane by inputting induced current based on consensus of physical unit. Noise is also considered to detect the dynamical response in electrical activities and stochastic resonance, it is found that multiple modes can be selected in the electrical activities and it could be associated with memory effect and self-adaption in neurons.

  12. [Mechanical and electrical uterine activity. Part I. Contractions monitoring]. (United States)

    Zietek, Jerzy; Sikora, Jerzy; Horoba, Krzysztof; Matonia, Adam; Jezewski, Janusz; Magnucki, Jacek; Kobielska, Lucyna


    Correct uterine contraction activity during labour determines physiological fetal delivery and ensures its satisfactory outcome. Contraction activity monitoring may be accomplished by either recording of the mechanical properties of the uterine muscle and/or by measurement of the action potentials produced by the uterus during contraction. In the following paper, the current state of knowledge concerning the methods for assessment and monitoring of the uterine contraction activity was evaluated. The electrophysiological properties of the uterus were given. The mechanical methods of uterine activity monitoring: internal and external tocography were described. The development of the electrohysterography as the method providing the signal comprising complete information on bioelectrical properties of the uterine muscle was presented. The conclusion was that the analysis of the electrohysterogram enables a description of the source of the uterine contraction activity, whereas currently applied mechanical methods merely record the results of this activity.

  13. Anomalous lightning activity over the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo due to urban effects (United States)

    Farias, W. R. G.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Naccarato, K. P.; Pinto, I. R. C. A.


    A significant enhancement in the number of negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning and a decrease in the percentage of positive CG flashes are observed over the city of São Paulo, similar to observations in other large urban areas. Strong evidence indicates that this anomalous behavior results from several mechanisms related to the urban effect. In this paper, we investigated the importance of the air pollution using CG lightning data provided by the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) for a 6-year period (1999-2004). Due to the large variations in the CG lightning activity in response to different meteorological processes, it is not an easy task to infer the contribution of air pollution to the enhancement in the lightning activity. In order to overcome such difficulty, two approaches were considered: (1) the weekly variation of the number of days with lightning in comparison to the mean concentration of particulate matter (PM 10), as well as other thermodynamical parameters; (2) the variation of the number of CG flashes and the maximum storm flash rate per individual thunderstorm for different levels of pollution. The results of both analyses suggest that: first, the enhancement in the CG lightning activity during the week days over São Paulo metropolitan region is related to the PM 10 concentration (pollution); second, the PM 10 concentration tends to increase the lifetime of the storms and, in consequence, the number of flashes per storm, and not the flash rate of the thunderstorm; and third, the effect of the pollution in the enhancement of the CG lightning activity is probably less significant compared to the effect of the urban heat island.

  14. Persistent hydrocephalus due to postural activation of a ventricular shunt anti-gravity device. (United States)

    Craven, Claudia L; Toma, Ahmed K; Watkins, Laurence D


    The ever present need to balance over drainage with under drainage in hydrocephalus has required innovations including adjustable valves with antigravity devices. These are activated in the vertical position to prevent siphoning. We describe a group of bedridden patients who presented with unexplained under drainage caused by activation of antigravity shunt components produced by peculiar head/body position. Retrospective single centre case series of hydrocephalus patients, treated with ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt insertion between April 2014 - February 2016. These patients presented with clinical and radiological under drainage syndrome. Medical notes were reviewed for clinical picture and outcome. Radiological studies were reviewed assessing shunt placement and ventricular size. Seven patients presented with clinical and radiological under drainage syndrome. A consistent posturing of long term hyper-flexion of the neck whilst lying supine was observed. All patients had similar shunt construct (adjustable Miethke ProGAV valve and shunt assistant anti-gravity component). In each of those patients a hypothesis was formulated that neck flexion was activating the shunt assistance anti-gravity component in supine position. Five patients underwent shunt revision surgery removing the shunt assistant device from the cranium and adding an anti-gravity component to the shunt system at the chest. One had the shunt assistant completely removed and one patient was managed conservatively with mobilisation. All patients had clinical and radiological improvement. Antigravity shunt components implanted cranially in bedridden hydrocephalus patients will produce underdrainage due to head flexion induced anti-gravity device activation. In these patients, anti-gravity devices should be placed at the chest. Alternatively, special nursing attention should be paid to head-trunk angle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Decreased lipid absorption due to reduced pancreatic lipase activity in aging male mice. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazushi; Kitano, Yasuna; Shuang, E; Hatakeyama, Yu; Sakamoto, Yu; Honma, Taro; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi


    Malnutrition due to aging is partly caused by decreased absorption of nutrients by the gastrointestinal tract. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear and changes in lipid absorption with aging are poorly understood. In this study, changes in lipid absorption with aging were examined in mice aged 3 and 25 months. After overnight fasting, blood samples were collected from snipped tails and then soybean oil was administered orally. Three hours later, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and the liver, pancreas, small intestine and blood were collected. The increase in serum triacylglycerol after soybean oil administration was significantly lower in the older mice, indicating a decrease in lipid absorption with aging. Measurement of mRNA levels for triacylglycerol absorption-related genes showed that mRNA for pancreatic lipase tended to decrease in 25-month-old mice. There was no significant difference in the protein level of pancreatic lipase, but the enzyme activity showed a significant decrease in the older mice. To examine this mechanism, expression levels of mRNA for protein turnover-related genes in the pancreas were measured. The level of a proteasomal mRNA showed a significant decrease in 25-month-old mice. This suggests that the ability to degrade unfolded protein decreases in the aging pancreas, and that this leads to reduction of pancreatic lipase activity and a decrease in lipid absorption.

  16. Platelet activation using electric pulse stimulation: growth factor profile and clinical implications. (United States)

    Torres, Andrew S; Caiafa, Antonio; Garner, Allen L; Klopman, Steve; LaPlante, Nicole; Morton, Christine; Conway, Kenneth; Michelson, Alan D; Frelinger, Andrew L; Neculaes, V Bogdan


    Autologous platelet gel therapy using platelet-rich plasma has emerged as a promising alternative for chronic wound healing, hemostasis, and wound infection control. A critical step for this therapeutic approach is platelet activation, typically performed using bovine thrombin (BT) and calcium chloride. However, exposure of humans to BT can stimulate antibody formation, potentially resulting in severe hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications. Electric pulse stimulation using nanosecond PEFs (pulse electric fields) is an alternative, nonbiochemical platelet activation method, thereby avoiding exposure to xenogeneic thrombin and associated risks. In this study, we identified specific requirements for a clinically relevant activator instrument by dynamically measuring current, voltage, and electric impedance for platelet-rich plasma samples. From these samples, we investigated the profile of growth factors released from human platelets with electric pulse stimulation versus BT, specifically platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor β, and epidermal growth factor, using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Electric pulse stimulation triggers growth factor release from platelet α-granules at the same or higher level compared with BT. Electric pulse stimulation is a fast, inexpensive, easy-to-use platelet activation method for autologous platelet gel therapy.

  17. Electrical conductivity images of active and fossil fault zones


    Oliver Ritter; A. Hoffmann-Rothe; P. A. Bedrosian; Ute Weckmann; V. Haak;  ;  


    We compare recent magnetotelluric investigations of four large fault systems: (i) the actively deforming, ocean-continent interplate San Andreas Fault (SAF), (ii) the actively deforming, continent-continent interplate Dead Sea Transform (DST), (iii) the currently inactive, trench-linked intraplate West Fault (WF) in northern Chile, and (iv) the Waterberg Fault/Omaruru Lineament (WF/OL) in Namibia, a fossilized intraplate shear zone formed during early Proterozoic continental collision. These ...

  18. Equatorial E region electric fields at the dip equator: 2. Seasonal variabilities and effects over Brazil due to the secular variation of the magnetic equator (United States)

    Moro, J.; Denardini, C. M.; Resende, L. C. A.; Chen, S. S.; Schuch, N. J.


    In this work, the seasonal dependency of the E region electric field (EEF) at the dip equator is examined. The eastward zonal (Ey) and the daytime vertical (Ez) electric fields are responsible for the overall phenomenology of the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere, including the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and its plasma instability. The electric field components are studied based on long-term backscatter radars soundings (348 days for both systems) collected during geomagnetic quiet days (Kp ≤ 3+), from 2001 to 2010, at the São Luís Space Observatory (SLZ), Brazil (2.33°S, 44.20°W), and at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO), Peru (11.95°S, 76.87°W). Among the results, we observe, for the first time, a seasonal difference between the EEF in these two sectors in South America based on coherent radar measurements. The EEF is more intense in summer at SLZ, in equinox at JRO, and has been highly variable with season in the Brazilian sector compared to the Peruvian sector. In addition, the secular variation on the geomagnetic field and its effect on the EEJ over Brazil resulted that as much farther away is the magnetic equator from SLZ, later more the EEJ is observed (10 h LT) and sooner it ends (16 h LT). Moreover, the time interval of type II occurrence decreased significantly after the year 2004, which is a clear indication that SLZ is no longer an equatorial station due to the secular variation of the geomagnetic field.

  19. Ionospheric quasi-static electric field anomalies during seismic activity in August–September 1981


    Gousheva, M.; Danov, D.; Hristov, P.; Matova, M.


    The paper proposes new results, analyses and information for the plate tectonic situation in the processing of INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite data about anomalies of the quasi-static electric field in the upper ionosphere over activated earthquake source regions at different latitudes. The earthquake catalogue is made on the basis of information from the United State Geological Survey (USGS) website. The disturbances in ionospheric quasi-static electric fields are recorded by IESP-1 inst...

  20. An experimental investigation of composite floor vibration due to human activities. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser G. Mohamed Fahmy


    Full Text Available Composite steel floor decks are used in a large variety of constructions with long spans, such as administration and commercial buildings, hotels and bridges. Due to decreased floor mass and longer span lengths, floor vibrations have become an area of concern. Floor decks with low frequencies may be in resonance with the vibrations due to human activities and the resulting acceleration may exceed human comfort levels. The design of slender floor structures, with steel or composite cross sections, is often limited by the serviceability criteria such as deflection limits and vibration behavior, rather than the strength criteria. Control of deflections under AISC specifications requirement is not enough to satisfy the serviceability requirements of the floor systems for vibration. In addition, vibration analysis procedures introduced by AISC design Guide No. 11 are based on regularly-shaped structures and simple boundary conditions. In this paper, a case study for full scale testing of a composite floor system proposed for a tower at Kuwait state that was tested prior to construction. The heel-drop and walking tests are performed on floor systems with and without raised floor respectively. Since heel-drop and walking test results would vary in light of person performance, both tests are carried out three or four times to reduce uncertainty. The fundamental frequencies and damping ratio of the floor system are measured. Comparison of the experimental results with results based on the AISC hand calculations shows that there is no significant difference; therefore the results based on AISC are generally acceptable.

  1. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation (United States)

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi


    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  2. Patterns of Brain-Electrical Activity during Declarative Memory Performance in 10-Month-Old Infants (United States)

    Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann


    This study of infant declarative memory concurrently examined brain-electrical activity and deferred imitation performance in 10-month-old infants. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were collected throughout the activity-matched baseline, encoding (modeling) and retrieval (delayed test) phases of a within-subjects deferred imitation…

  3. Electrically assisted cycling: A new mode for meeting physical activity guidelines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Es, E. van; Hendriksen, I.


    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of the electrically assisted bicycle (EAB) as a novel tool for meeting the physical activity guidelines in terms of intensity. METHODS: Twelve habitually active adult subjects were requested to cycle a track of 4.3 km at an intensity

  4. An active learning organisation: teaching projects in electrical engineering education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, H.-P.; Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.; Lemoult, B.


    The introduction of active learning in engineering education is often started by enthusiastic teachers or change agents. They usually encounter resistance from stakeholders such as colleagues, department boards or students. For a successful introduction these stakeholders all have to learn what

  5. Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) inhibits jack bean urease activity due to methylglyoxal and dihydroxyacetone. (United States)

    Rückriemen, Jana; Klemm, Oliver; Henle, Thomas


    Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) exerts a strong antibacterial effect. Bacterial enzymes are an important target for antibacterial compounds. The enzyme urease produces ammonia and enables bacteria to adapt to an acidic environment. A new enzymatic assay, based on photometric detection of ammonia with ninhydrin, was developed to study urease activity. Methylglyoxal (MGO) and its precursor dihydroxyacetone (DHA), which are naturally present in manuka honey, were identified as jack bean urease inhibitors with IC 50 values of 2.8 and 5.0mM, respectively. Urease inhibition of manuka honey correlates with its MGO and DHA content. Non-manuka honeys, which lack MGO and DHA, showed significantly less urease inhibition. MGO depletion from manuka honey with glyoxalase reduced urease inhibition. Therefore, urease inhibition by manuka honey is mainly due to MGO and DHA. The results obtained with jack bean urease as a model urease, may contribute to the understanding of bacterial inhibition by manuka honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of an oxytocin receptor antagonist (atosiban) on uterine electrical activity. (United States)

    Hadar, Eran; Melamed, Nir; Aviram, Amir; Raban, Oded; Saltzer, Liat; Hiersch, Liran; Yogev, Yariv


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of atosiban (Tractocile; Ferring, Limhamn, Sweden), an oxytocin receptor antagonist, on uterine electrical activity in women with preterm labor and to determine whether this information can assist in the prediction of preterm delivery. Uterine electrical activity was recorded prospectively in 21 women with preterm labor before and during treatment with Tractocile and, for purpose of comparison, in 4 pregnant women without uterine contractions to set the baseline of uterine electrical activity in a quiescent uterus. Uterine activity was recorded with a noninvasive, 9-channel recorder with an electromyography amplifier and a 3-dimensional position sensor with an automatic data analyzer. Uterine electrical activity was quantified by an electrical uterine monitor (EUM) and measured in microwatts per second (μW/s). The overall pre-Tractocile EUM index was 3.43 ± 0.58 μW/s, which was significantly higher than baseline uterine activity in women without preterm contractions (2.3 ± 0.11 μW/s; P = .001). During the administration of Tractocile, the EUM index gradually decreased in a relatively constant rate from 3.43 ± 0.58 μW/s to 2.56 ± 0.88 μW/s after 330 minutes of continuous therapy (P uterine electrical activity in women with preterm labor. This information can provide more insight into the effects of tocolytic agents and to aid in the risk stratification of preterm delivery in women with preterm contractions. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Patterns recognition of electric brain activity using artificial neural networks (United States)

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Pchelintseva, S. V.; Runnova, A. E.; Hramov, A. E.


    An approach for the recognition of various cognitive processes in the brain activity in the perception of ambiguous images. On the basis of developed theoretical background and the experimental data, we propose a new classification of oscillating patterns in the human EEG by using an artificial neural network approach. After learning of the artificial neural network reliably identified cube recognition processes, for example, left-handed or right-oriented Necker cube with different intensity of their edges, construct an artificial neural network based on Perceptron architecture and demonstrate its effectiveness in the pattern recognition of the EEG in the experimental.

  8. Neutralization of Electric Current, Magnetic Shear, and Eruptive Activity in Solar Active Regions (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xudong; Torok, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav; Leake, James E.


    There has been an ongoing debate on whether or not the electric currents in solar active regions (ARs) are neutralized. Current-neutralization means that the direct coronal currents that connect the AR polarity centers are surrounded by return currents of equal total strength and opposite direction, i.e. the net current is zero. Using data from SDO/HMI, we analyze the direct and return currents in four ARs; two eruptive ones and two non-eruptive ones. The eruptive ARs produced strong flares and CMEs (successful eruptions), while the non-eruptive ARs include one quiet AR that produced no strong eruptions and one that produced a series of failed eruptions. It is found that the eruptive ARs have strong net currents and large shear of the magnetic field near their polarity inversion lines (PILs). In contrast, the currents in the non-eruptive ARs are well neutralized, and the PIL-shear is rather small. This agrees with MHD simulations that demonstrate a relationship between the level of current neutralization and the amount of magnetic shear near the PIL. We discuss the implications of these results for the capability of ARs to produce strong eruptions.

  9. [Activities of the Department of Electrical Engineering, Howard University (United States)

    Yalamanchili, Raj C.


    Theoretical derivations, computer analysis and test data are provided to demonstrate that the cavity model is a feasible one to analyze thin-substrate, rectangular-patch microstrip antennas. Seven separate antennas were tested. Most of the antennas were designed to resonate at L-band frequencies (1-2 GHz). One antenna was designed to resonate at an S-band (2-4 GHz) frequency of 2.025 GHz. All dielectric substrates were made of Duroid, and were of varying thicknesses and relative dielectric constant values. Theoretical derivations to calculate radiated free space electromagnetic fields and antenna input impedance were performed. MATHEMATICA 2.2 software was used to generate Smith Chart input impedance plots, normalized relative power radiation plots and to perform other numerical manipulations. Network Analyzer tests were used to verify the data from the computer programming (such as input impedance and VSWR). Finally, tests were performed in an anechoic chamber to measure receive-mode polar power patterns in the E and H planes. Agreement between computer analysis and test data is presented. The antenna with the thickest substrate (e(sub r) = 2.33,62 mils thick) showed the worst match to theoretical impedance data. This is anticipated due to the fact that the cavity model generally loses accuracy when the dielectric substrate thickness exceeds 5% of the antenna's free space wavelength. A method of reducing computer execution time for impedance calculations is also presented.

  10. The Challenge Posed by Geomagnetic Activity to Electric Power Reliability: Evidence From England and Wales (United States)

    Forbes, Kevin F.; St. Cyr, O. C.


    This paper addresses whether geomagnetic activity challenged the reliability of the electric power system during part of the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Operations by National Grid in England and Wales are examined over the period of 11 March 2003 through 31 March 2005. This paper examines the relationship between measures of geomagnetic activity and a metric of challenged electric power reliability known as the net imbalance volume (NIV). Measured in megawatt hours, NIV represents the sum of all energy deployments initiated by the system operator to balance the electric power system. The relationship between geomagnetic activity and NIV is assessed using a multivariate econometric model. The model was estimated using half-hour settlement data over the period of 11 March 2003 through 31 December 2004. The results indicate that geomagnetic activity had a demonstrable effect on NIV over the sample period. Based on the parameter estimates, out-of-sample predictions of NIV were generated for each half hour over the period of 1 January to 31 March 2005. Consistent with the existence of a causal relationship between geomagnetic activity and the electricity market imbalance, the root-mean-square error of the out-of-sample predictions of NIV is smaller; that is, the predictions are more accurate, when the statistically significant estimated effects of geomagnetic activity are included as drivers in the predictions.

  11. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL


    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low

  12. Metals in the circumgalactic medium are out of ionization equilibrium due to fluctuating active galactic nuclei (United States)

    Segers, Marijke C.; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Schaye, Joop; Richings, Alexander J.


    We study the effect of a fluctuating active galactic nucleus (AGN) on the abundance of circumgalactic O VI in galaxies selected from the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments simulations. We follow the time-variable O VI abundance in post-processing around four galaxies - two at z = 0.1 with stellar masses of M* ˜ 1010 M⊙ and M* ˜ 1011 M⊙, and two at z = 3 with similar stellar masses - out to impact parameters of twice their virial radii, implementing a fluctuating central source of ionizing radiation. Due to delayed recombination, the AGN leave significant 'AGN proximity zone fossils' around all four galaxies, where O VI and other metal ions are out of ionization equilibrium for several megayears after the AGN fade. The column density of O VI is typically enhanced by ≈0.3-1.0 dex at impact parameters within 0.3Rvir, and by ≈0.06-0.2 dex at 2Rvir, thereby also enhancing the covering fraction of O VI above a given column density threshold. The fossil effect tends to increase with increasing AGN luminosity, and towards shorter AGN lifetimes and larger AGN duty cycle fractions. In the limit of short AGN lifetimes, the effect converges to that of a continuous AGN with a luminosity of (fduty/100 per cent) times the AGN luminosity. We also find significant fossil effects for other metal ions, where low-ionization state ions are decreased (Si IV, C IV at z = 3) and high-ionization state ions are increased (C IV at z = 0.1, Ne viii, Mg x). Using observationally motivated AGN parameters, we predict AGN proximity zone fossils to be ubiquitous around M* ˜ 1010-11 M⊙ galaxies, and to affect observations of metals in the circumgalactic medium at both low and high redshifts.

  13. Tissue plasminogen activator-assisted vitrectomy for submacular hemorrhage due to age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gok


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment efficacy of vitrectomy combined with subretinal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA and factors affecting visual improvement in patients with submacular hemorrhage (SMH due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 17 consecutive patients diagnosed with SMH secondary to nAMD were retrospectively reviewed. The initial surgical procedure involved a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy, subretinal r-tPA application through a self-sealing inferior retinotomy, and sulfur hexafluoride gas for tamponade in all patients. The duration, size, and thickness of the hemorrhage and the pre- and post-operative visual acuity (VA using a Snellen chart were recorded. VA was converted to logMAR for statistical analysis. Results: The average duration and size of the SMH were 12.8 ± 18.2 days and 8.6 ± 5.3 disc areas, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 16.9 ± 4.7 months. A statistically significant visual improvement was found when comparing initial VA with postoperative best-corrected VA (BCVA and final BCVA (Wilcoxon rank test, P ≤ 0.01. There was no significant correlation between the size of the hemorrhage and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. There was no statistically significant correlation between the initial VA and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. There was no significant correlation between the duration of hemorrhage and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. The preoperative thickness of hemorrhage (747.5 ± 30 μm was not correlated with postoperative BCVA or final BCVA (Pearson's test. Conclusions: Vitrectomy combined with subretinal r-tPA injection and gas tamponade is an effective surgical intervention to preserve VA in selected patients with apparent SMH.

  14. Cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone against human breast and cervical cancers are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor {gamma} activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Soyoung; Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, So Jung; Kim, Jinkyoung; Yoon, Doyoung; Kim, Yangmee [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eunrhan [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Human peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR{gamma}) has been implicated in numerous pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Previously, we verified that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPAR{gamma} and probed the molecular basis of its action. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of amentoflavone in cancer cells and demonstrated that amentoflavone showed strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines. We showed that hPPAR{gamma} expression in MCF-7 and HeLa cells is specifically stimulated by amentoflavone, and suggested that amentoflavone-induced cytotoxic activities are mediated by activation of hPPAR{gamma} in these two cancer cell lines. Moreover, amentoflavone increased PTEN levels in these two cancer cell lines, indicating that the cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to hPPAR{gamma} activation.

  15. The Evaluation of Removal Efficiency of COD Due to Water Contaminated by Gasoline by Granular Active Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salmani


    Conclusion: We can conclude from this study that the activated carbon is an appropriate adsorbent for decreasing of COD due to gasoline contamination in water. The use of this adsorbent can well decrease COD of water contamination due to gasoline at times of 30 min.

  16. Modelling the Effects of Electrical Coupling between Unmyelinated Axons of Brainstem Neurons Controlling Rhythmic Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Hull


    Full Text Available Gap junctions between fine unmyelinated axons can electrically couple groups of brain neurons to synchronise firing and contribute to rhythmic activity. To explore the distribution and significance of electrical coupling, we modelled a well analysed, small population of brainstem neurons which drive swimming in young frog tadpoles. A passive network of 30 multicompartmental neurons with unmyelinated axons was used to infer that: axon-axon gap junctions close to the soma gave the best match to experimentally measured coupling coefficients; axon diameter had a strong influence on coupling; most neurons were coupled indirectly via the axons of other neurons. When active channels were added, gap junctions could make action potential propagation along the thin axons unreliable. Increased sodium and decreased potassium channel densities in the initial axon segment improved action potential propagation. Modelling suggested that the single spike firing to step current injection observed in whole-cell recordings is not a cellular property but a dynamic consequence of shunting resulting from electrical coupling. Without electrical coupling, firing of the population during depolarising current was unsynchronised; with coupling, the population showed synchronous recruitment and rhythmic firing. When activated instead by increasing levels of modelled sensory pathway input, the population without electrical coupling was recruited incrementally to unpatterned activity. However, when coupled, the population was recruited all-or-none at threshold into a rhythmic swimming pattern: the tadpole "decided" to swim. Modelling emphasises uncertainties about fine unmyelinated axon physiology but, when informed by biological data, makes general predictions about gap junctions: locations close to the soma; relatively small numbers; many indirect connections between neurons; cause of action potential propagation failure in fine axons; misleading alteration of intrinsic

  17. Physical activity when riding an electric assisted bicycle. (United States)

    Berntsen, Sveinung; Malnes, Lena; Langåker, Aleksander; Bere, Elling


    The objectives of the present study were to compare time spent cycling, exercise intensity, and time spent in moderate- (MPA) and vigorous intensity physical activity (VPA) when cycling on an E-bike and a conventional bicycle on two "cycling-to-work" routes with differences in topography, defined as a hilly and a flat route. Eight adults (23-54 years, two women) cycled outdoors on a conventional bicycle and an E-bike, on a flat (8.2 km) and a hilly (7.1 km) route, resulting in 32 journeys. Duration, elevation, and oxygen consumption were recorded using a portable oxygen analyser with GPS. A maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test was performed on a cycle ergometer. Resting metabolic rate was obtained by indirect calorimetry with a canopy hood. The participants spent less time (median (IQR)) cycling on the E-bike compared with the conventional bicycle, on both the hilly (18.8 (4.9) vs. 26.3 (6.4) minutes) and the flat (20.0 (2.9) vs. 23.8 (1.8) minutes) routes. Lower exercise intensity was observed with the E-bike compared with the conventional bicycle, both on the hilly (50 (18) vs. 60 (22) % of maximal oxygen uptake) and the flat (52 (19) vs. 55 (12) % of maximal oxygen uptake) routes. In both cycling modes, most time was spent in MVPA (92-99%). However, fewer minutes were spent in MVPA with the E-bike than the conventional bicycle, for both the hilly (26% lower) and the flat (17% lower) routes. Cycling on the E-bike also resulted in 35 and 15% fewer minutes in vigorous intensity, respectively on the hilly and flat routes. Cycling on the E-bike resulted in lower trip duration and exercise intensity, compared with the conventional bicycle. However, most of the time was spent in MVPA. This suggests that changing the commuting mode from car to E-bike will significantly increase levels of physical activity while commuting.

  18. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss


    Ulf Elbelt; Tatjana Schuetz; Nina Knoll; Silke Burkert


    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable ...

  19. Pulsed Electric Processing of the Seismic-Active Fault for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation (United States)

    Novikov, V. A.; Zeigarnik, V. A.; Konev, Yu. B.; Klyuchkin, V. N.


    Previous field and laboratory investigations performed in Russia (1999-2008) showed a possibility of application of high-power electric current pulses generated by pulsed MHD power system for triggering the weak seismicity and release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust for earthquake hazard mitigation. The mechanism of the influence of man-made electromagnetic field on the regional seismicity is not clear yet. One of possible cause of the phenomenon may be formation of cracks in the rocks under fluid pressure increase due to Joule heat generation by electric current injected into the Earth crust. Detailed 3D-calculaton of electric current density in the Earth crust of Northern Tien Shan provided by pulsed MHD power system connected to grounded electric dipole showed that at the depth of earthquake epicenters (> 5km) the electric current density is lower than 10-7 A/m2 that is not sufficient for increase of pressure in the fluid-saturated porous geological medium due to Joule heat generation, which may provide formation of cracks resulting in the fault propagation and release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust. Nevertheless, under certain conditions, when electric current will be injected into the fault through the casing pipes of deep wells with preliminary injection of conductive fluid into the fault, the current density may be high enough for significant increase of mechanic pressure in the porous two-phase geological medium. Numerical analysis of a crack formation triggered by high-power electric pulses based on generation of mechanical pressure in the geological medium was carried out. It was shown that calculation of mechanical pressure impulse due to high-power electrical current in the porous two-phase medium may be performed neglecting thermal conductance by solving the non-stationary equation of piezo-conductivity with Joule heat generation. For calculation of heat generation the known solution of the task of current spreading from spherical or

  20. A novel application of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for improving glutathione (GSH) antioxidant activity. (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wang, Ke; Wang, Ying; Lin, Songyi; Zhao, Ping; Jones, Gregory


    Glutathione (GSH) was treated by pulsed electric field (PEF) processing to investigate its effect on antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of GSH was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical inhibition. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables, which were concentration, electric field intensity and pulse frequency was used to establish the regression equation of second-order response surface. Optimal conditions were as follows: GSH concentration 8.86mg/mL, electric field intensity 9.74kV/cm and pulse frequency 2549.08Hz. The DPPH radical inhibition increased from 81.83% to 97.40%. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) were used to analyse the change of structure and functional groups of GSH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Imbalance of Nature due to Anthropogenic Activities in the Bay of Bacorehuis, Sinaloa, Mexico (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Cárdenas Cota, H.


    Pollution is further enhancing water scarcity by reducing water usability downstream, globally the most prevalent water quality problem is eutrophication, a result of high-nutrient loads, which substantially impairs beneficial uses of water. Projected food production needs and increasing wastewater effluents associated with an increasing population over the next three decades suggest a 10%-15% increase in the river input of nitrogen loads into coastal ecosystems (UNO, 2009). Our study in the Bay of Bacorehuis in the State of Sinaloa, which was carried out due to a request from local fishermen who wanted to find out the reason for fishing stocks depletion, confirmed this trend with the consequent imbalance of nature. Sinaloa depends heavily on intensive agricultural production to support its economy which in turn relies on water irrigation and the application of agro-chemicals. The research project included a desk top study of geophysical and environmental factors as well as sampling and testing of the water. In addition we carried out socio-economic research to find out the impact on the local community of the imbalance caused by anthropogenic activities in the watershed upstream from the Bay. Our research established that the Bay of Bacorehuis is contaminated by organic matter, bacteria coliforms, pesticides and mercury due to the discharge of surplus runoff generated by irrigation of farmlands into drainage networks as well as the discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater form more than 24,000 inhabitants. The main contaminants detected in the water bodies were organic matter, faecal coliforms, mercury, dimethoate, endosulfan, heptachlor, DDE, DDT, organonitrogen, synthetic pyrethroid, chlorothalonil, ethion, endosulfan, diazinon, malathion and chlorpyrifos. Contaminants in sediments included the pesticides endosulfan, heptachlor, DDE, DDT, organophosphates, organonitrogen and synthetic pyrethroids. Natural water courses have been highly modified

  2. Micromachining on and of Transparent Polymers for Patterning Electrodes and Growing Electrically Active Cells for Biosensor Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandana Karnati; Ricardo Aguilar; Colin Arrowood; James Ross; Swaminathan Rajaraman


    We report on microfabrication and assembly process development on transparent, biocompatible polymers for patterning electrodes and growing electrically active cells for in vitro cell-based biosensor applications...

  3. Environmental changes in the central Po Plain (northern Italy) due to fluvial modifications and anthropogenic activities (United States)

    Marchetti, Mauro


    The fluvial environment of the central Po Plain, the largest plain in Italy, is discussed in this paper. Bounded by the mountain chains of the Alps and the Apennines, this plain is a link between the Mediterranean environment and the cultural and continental influences of both western and eastern Europe. In the past decades, economic development has been responsible for many changes in the fluvial environment of the area. This paper discusses the changes in fluvial dynamics that started from Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene due to distinct climatic changes. The discussion is based on geomorphological, pedological, and archaeological evidences and radiocarbon dating. In the northern foothills, Late Pleistocene palaeochannels indicate several cases of underfit streams among the northern tributaries of the River Po. On the other hand, on the southern side of the Po Plain, no geomorphological evidence of similar discharge reduction has been found. Here, stratigraphic sections, together with archaeological remains buried under the fluvial deposits, show a reduction in the size of fluvial sediments after the 10th millennium BC. During the Holocene, fluvial sedimentation became finer, and was characterised by minor fluctuations in the rate of deposition, probably related to short and less intense climatic fluctuations. Given the high rate of population growth and the development of human activities since the Neolithic Age, human influence on fluvial dynamics, especially since the Roman Age, prevailed over other factors (i.e., climate, tectonics, vegetation, etc.). During the Holocene, the most important changes in the Po Plain were not modifications in water discharge but in sediment. From the 1st to 3rd Century AD, land grants to war veterans caused almost complete deforestation, generalised soil erosion, and maximum progradation of the River Po delta. At present, land abandonment in the mountainous region has led to reafforestation. Artificial channel control in the

  4. Characterizing and Quantifying Emissions and Transport of Fugitive Dust Emissions Due to Department of Defense Activities (United States)


    wind friction velocity due to soil moisture for arid and semi - arid areas, Annales Geophysicae, 17(1), 149-157. Gillette, D.A. (1978), A wind tunnel...Bergametti. 1999. “Parameterization of the Increase of the Aeolian Erosion Threshold Wind Friction Velocity Due to Soil Moisture for Arid and Semi - arid ...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Resource Conservation and Climate Change SERDP Climate Change SERDP/ESTCP 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 17D03

  5. Magnetic and electric field variations during geomagnetically active days over Turkey (United States)

    Kalafatoğlu Eyigüler, Emine Ceren; Kaymaz, Zerefşan


    Currents in the magnetosphere flow into the ionosphere during geomagnetic disturbances and are detected at the ground magnetic stations as Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs). In this paper, magnetic and electric field characteristics of the GICs at midlatitudes were studied using electric field and magnetic field observations in Turkey during the geomagnetically active intervals. A magnetotelluric station consisting of an electrometer and a magnetometer were set up in Bozcaada, Çanakkale (37.5°N, 106°E). Several cases that showed large electric and magnetic field fluctuations during geomagnetic disturbances were selected and the effects of geomagnetic activity were studied using the time derivatives of horizontal component of the magnetic field and the deviations in the magnetic and electric field components from the quiet background. In magnetic field data, quiet day Sq variations were removed using cubic spline fits. Similarly, the magnitude of the deviations in the electric field were determined by subtracting the background electric field determined by using cubic spline. Corresponding to the strong geomagnetic activity identified using Kp and Dst indices, high frequency, strong fluctuations in the magnetic field, its derivatives, and electric field were observed. These fluctuations in horizontal magnetic and electric field were compared with those seen during a magnetically quiet day. The close association between the fluctuations of the time derivatives of the horizontal magnetic field and electric field components were demonstrated. Two types of variations in the electric and magnetic fields corresponding to the different phases of the geomagnetic activity were identified: those corresponding to the initial phase including the sudden commencement and those to the main phase of the geomagnetic storm. The fluctuations in both magnetic field and electric field corresponding to the sudden commencement and the initial phase indicate the effects of

  6. Combining fluidized activated carbon with weak alternating electric fields for disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Sharabati, J.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, A.H.; Yntema, D.R.; Mayer, M.J.J.; Bruning, H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.


    This study presents fluidized bed electrodes as a new device for disinfection. In the fluidized bed electrodes system, granular activated carbon particles were suspended, and an alternating radio frequency electric field was applied over the suspended bed. Proof-of-principle studies with the

  7. Spherical active coated nano-particles – impact of the electric Hertzian dipole orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Mostafavi, M.; Malureanu, Radu


    Spherical active coated nano-particles comprised of a silica nano-cylinder core covered with a plasmonic nano-shell are investigated with regard to their near- and far-field properties. The source of excitation is taken to be that of a tangential or a radial electric Hertizan dipole while three...

  8. Dynamic Variation in Pleasure in Children Predicts Nonlinear Change in Lateral Frontal Brain Electrical Activity (United States)

    Light, Sharee N.; Coan, James A.; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Davidson, Richard J.


    Individual variation in the experience and expression of pleasure may relate to differential patterns of lateral frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral frontal cortex in positive emotion, but the excellent time resolution of these measures has not been used to capture…

  9. Engineering support activities for the Apollo 17 Surface Electrical Properties Experiment. (United States)

    Cubley, H. D.


    Description of the engineering support activities which were required to ensure fulfillment of objectives specified for the Apollo 17 SEP (Surface Electrical Properties) Experiment. Attention is given to procedural steps involving verification of hardware acceptability to the astronauts, computer simulation of the experiment hardware, field trials, receiver antenna pattern measurements, and the qualification test program.

  10. Active and Collaborative Learning in an Introductory Electrical and Computer Engineering Course (United States)

    Kotru, Sushma; Burkett, Susan L.; Jackson, David Jeff


    Active and collaborative learning instruments were introduced into an introductory electrical and computer engineering course. These instruments were designed to assess specific learning objectives and program outcomes. Results show that students developed an understanding comparable to that of more advanced students assessed later in the…

  11. Evaluation of Atmospheric Electric Field as Increasing Seismic Activity Indicator on the example of Caucasus Region (United States)

    Kachakhidze, M. K.; Kereselidze, Z. A.; Kachakhidze, N. K.


    The present paper deals with reliability of a gradient of atmospheric electric field potential as an indicator of seismic activity increase. With this in view, records of atmospheric electric field potential gradients of Caucasus region for 1953-1992 with respect to periods before average and large earthquakes, which took place in the same time interval, were considered. It is worth to pay attention to the fact that the avalanche-like unstable model of fault formation based on theoretical model of self-generated seismo-electromagnetic oscillations of LAI system explains convincingly spectral succession of electromagnetic emission frequency of the periods preceding earthquakes.

  12. Endogenous and exogenous electric fields as modifiers of brain activity: rational design of noninvasive brain stimulation with transcranial alternating current stimulation. (United States)

    Fröhlich, Flavio


    Synchronized neuronal activity in the cortex generates weak electric fields that are routinely measured in humans and animal models by electroencephalography and local field potential recordings. Traditionally, these endogenous electric fields have been considered to be an epiphenomenon of brain activity. Recent work has demonstrated that active cortical networks are surprisingly susceptible to weak perturbations of the membrane voltage of a large number of neurons by electric fields. Simultaneously, noninvasive brain stimulation with weak, exogenous electric fields (transcranial current stimulation, TCS) has undergone a renaissance due to the broad scope of its possible applications in modulating brain activity for cognitive enhancement and treatment of brain disorders. This review aims to interface the recent developments in the study of both endogenous and exogenous electric fields, with a particular focus on rhythmic stimulation for the modulation of cortical oscillations. The main goal is to provide a starting point for the use of rational design for the development of novel mechanism-based TCS therapeutics based on transcranial alternating current stimulation, for the treatment of psychiatric illnesses.

  13. The Central Italy Electromagnetic Network and the 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake: Observed Electric Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fidani


    Full Text Available A network of low frequency electromagnetic detectors has been operating in Central Italy for more than three years, consisting of identical instruments that continuously record the electrical components of the electromagnetic field, ranging from a few Hz to tens of kHz. These signals are analyzed in real time and their power spectrum contents and time/frequency data are available online. To date, specific interest has been devoted to searching for any possible electromagnetic features which correlate with seismic activity in the same region. In this study, spectral analysis has evidenced very distinct power spectrum signatures that increased in intensity when strong seismic activity occurred near the stations of the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. These signatures have revealed horizontally oriented electric fields, between 20 Hz to 400 Hz, lasting from several minutes to up to two hours. Their power intensities have been found to be about 1 μV/m. Moreover, a large number of man-made signals and meteorologic electric perturbations were recorded. Anthropogenic signatures have come from power line disturbances at 50 Hz and higher harmonics up to several kHz, while radio transmissions have influenced the higher kHz spectrum. Reception from low frequency transmitters is also provided in relation to seismic activity. Meteorologic signatures cover the lower frequency band through phenomena such as spherics, Schumann resonances and rain electrical perturbations. All of these phenomena are useful teaching tools for introducing students to this invisible electromagnetic world.

  14. Lévy noise improves the electrical activity in a neuron under electromagnetic radiation. (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Xu, Yong; Ma, Jun


    As the fluctuations of the internal bioelectricity of nervous system is various and complex, the external electromagnetic radiation induced by magnet flux on membrane can be described by the non-Gaussian type distribution of Lévy noise. Thus, the electrical activities in an improved Hindmarsh-Rose model excited by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise are investigated and some interesting modes of the electrical activities are exhibited. The external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise leads to the mode transition of the electrical activities and spatial phase, such as from the rest state to the firing state, from the spiking state to the spiking state with more spikes, and from the spiking state to the bursting state. Then the time points of the firing state versus Lévy noise intensity are depicted. The increasing of Lévy noise intensity heightens the neuron firing. Also the stationary probability distribution functions of the membrane potential of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise with different intensity, stability index and skewness papremeters are analyzed. Moreover, through the positive largest Lyapunov exponent, the parameter regions of chaotic electrical mode of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise distribution are detected.

  15. Lévy noise improves the electrical activity in a neuron under electromagnetic radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    Full Text Available As the fluctuations of the internal bioelectricity of nervous system is various and complex, the external electromagnetic radiation induced by magnet flux on membrane can be described by the non-Gaussian type distribution of Lévy noise. Thus, the electrical activities in an improved Hindmarsh-Rose model excited by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise are investigated and some interesting modes of the electrical activities are exhibited. The external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise leads to the mode transition of the electrical activities and spatial phase, such as from the rest state to the firing state, from the spiking state to the spiking state with more spikes, and from the spiking state to the bursting state. Then the time points of the firing state versus Lévy noise intensity are depicted. The increasing of Lévy noise intensity heightens the neuron firing. Also the stationary probability distribution functions of the membrane potential of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise with different intensity, stability index and skewness papremeters are analyzed. Moreover, through the positive largest Lyapunov exponent, the parameter regions of chaotic electrical mode of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise distribution are detected.

  16. Chemical stability and electrical performance of dual-active-layered zinc-tin-oxide/indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using a solution process. (United States)

    Kim, Chul Ho; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae


    We investigated the chemical stability and electrical properties of dual-active-layered zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO)/indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) structures (DALZI) with the durability of the chemical damage. The IGZO film was easily corroded or removed by an etchant, but the DALZI film was effectively protected by the high chemical stability of ZTO. Furthermore, the electrical performance of the DALZI thin-film transistor (TFT) was improved by densification compared to the IGZO TFT owing to the passivation of the pin holes or pore sites and the increase in the carrier concentration due to the effect of Sn(4+) doping.

  17. Electro-Active Device Using Radial Electric Field Piezo-Diaphragm for Control of Fluid Movement (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor)


    A fluid-control electro-active device includes a piezo-diaphragm made from a ferroelectric material sandwiched by first and second electrode patterns configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when voltage is applied thereto. The electric field originates at a region of the ferroelectric material between the first and second electrode patterns, and extends radially outward from this region of the ferroelectric material and substantially parallel to the plane of the ferroelectric material. The piezo-diaphragm deflects symmetrically about this region in a direction substantially perpendicular to the electric field. An annular region coupled to and extending radially outward from the piezo-diaphragm perimetrically borders the piezo-diaphragm, A housing is connected to the region and at least one fluid flow path with piezo-diaphragm disposed therein.

  18. Unloaded shortening velocity of voluntarily and electrically activated human dorsiflexor muscles in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Sasaki

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that unloaded shortening velocity (V(0 of human plantar flexors can be determined in vivo, by applying the "slack test" to submaximal voluntary contractions (J Physiol 567:1047-1056, 2005. In the present study, to investigate the effect of motor unit recruitment pattern on V(0 of human muscle, we modified the slack test and applied this method to both voluntary and electrically elicited contractions of dorsiflexors. A series of quick releases (i.e., rapid ankle joint rotation driven by an electrical dynamometer was applied to voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles at three different contraction intensities (15, 50, and 85% of maximal voluntary contraction; MVC. The quick-release trials were also performed on electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles, in which three stimulus conditions were used: submaximal (equal to 15%MVC 50-Hz stimulation, supramaximal 50-Hz stimulation, and supramaximal 20-Hz stimulation. Modification of the slack test in vivo resulted in good reproducibility of V(0, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.95. Regression analysis showed that V(0 of voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles significantly increased with increasing contraction intensity (R(2 = 0.52, P<0.001. By contrast, V(0 of electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles remained unchanged (R(2<0.001, P = 0.98 among three different stimulus conditions showing a large variation of tetanic torque. These results suggest that the recruitment pattern of motor units, which is quite different between voluntary and electrically elicited contractions, plays an important role in determining shortening velocity of human skeletal muscle in vivo.

  19. Possibilities for Estimating Horizontal Electrical Currents in Active Regions on the Sun (United States)

    Fursyak, Yu. A.; Abramenko, V. I.


    Part of the "free" magnetic energy associated with electrical current systems in the active region (AR) is released during solar flares. This proposition is widely accepted and it has stimulated interest in detecting electrical currents in active regions. The vertical component of an electric current in the photosphere can be found by observing the transverse magnetic field. At present, however, there are no direct methods for calculating transverse electric currents based on these observations. These calculations require information on the field vector measured simultaneously at several levels in the photosphere, which has not yet been done with solar instrumentation. In this paper we examine an approach to calculating the structure of the square of the density of a transverse electrical current based on a magnetogram of the vertical component of the magnetic field in the AR. Data obtained with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) for the AR of NOAA AR 11283 are used. It is shown that (1) the observed variations in the magnetic field of a sunspot and the proposed estimate of the density of an annular horizontal current around the spot are consistent with Faraday's law and (2) the resulting estimates of the magnitude of the square of the density of the horizontal current {j}_{\\perp}^2 = (0.002- 0.004) A2/m4 are consistent with previously obtained values of the density of a vertical current in the photosphere. Thus, the proposed estimate is physically significant and this method can be used to estimate the density and structure of transverse electrical currents in the photosphere.

  20. Value of Serum Cholinesterase Activity in the Diagnosis of Septic Shock Due to Bacterial Infections. (United States)

    Bahloul, Mabrouk; Baccouch, Najeh; Chtara, Kamilia; Turki, Mouna; Turki, Olfa; Hamida, Chokri Ben; Chelly, Hedi; Ayedi, Fatma; Chaari, Anis; Bouaziz, Mounir


    We aimed to investigate whether serum cholinesterase (SChE) activity can be helpful for the diagnosis of septic shock and to evaluate its usefulness in comparison with procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A prospective single-blinded study conducted in an intensive care unit of university hospital. Patients were classified as having cardiogenic shock, septic shock, or hemorrhagic shock. We also included a control group without neither hemodynamic instability nor sepsis. For all included patients, SChE, PCT, and CRP were simultaneously sampled. The comparison of sepsis markers between all groups showed that the mean values of PCT and CRP were significantly higher in patients with septic shock. However, SChE activity was significantly lower in this group. The SChE activity was found to be more accurate than PCT and CRP for the diagnosis of septic shock. In fact, an SChE activity ≤ 4000 UI/L predicted the diagnosis of septic shock with a sensitivity of 78%, a specificity of 89%, a predictive negative value of 97%, and a predictive positive value of 65%. However, the prognostic value of SChE activity was poor in multivariate analysis. The SChE activity level was significantly decreased in patients with septic shock. However, its prognostic value is poor. Our results suggest that SChE activity is useful for the diagnosis of septic shock. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  1. Electrical properties of montmorillonite studied together with the processes occurring under thermal activation (United States)

    Guseinov, A. A.


    The results of laboratory experiments on studying the electrical conductivity σ of a clay mineral montmorillonite from different sedimentary mineral deposits of Dagestan in the temperature interval from 100 to 1000°C are presented. The general regularities in the dependence of the electrical conductivity σ of the studied samples on the absolute temperature T are accounted for by the existence of the associated complexes of elementary defects of the crystal lattice. These complexes play important role in a variety of kinetic processes under the conditions of the Earth's interior, and their existence is demonstrated by the experiments. The activation energy of the electrical conductivity and the preexponential factors are determined for all the temperature zones. The relationship between the pattern of temperature variations in electrical conductivity and the processes of releasing interlayer water and hydroxyls from different energy sites is established. It is concluded that the anomalous change in electrical conductivity in some samples reflects the postsedimentation changes of montmorillonite manifesting themselves by the emergence of a hydromuscovite component.

  2. Active sensing associated with spatial learning reveals memory-based attention in an electric fish. (United States)

    Jun, James J; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard


    Active sensing behaviors reveal what an animal is attending to and how it changes with learning. Gymnotus sp, a gymnotiform weakly electric fish, generates an electric organ discharge (EOD) as discrete pulses to actively sense its surroundings. We monitored freely behaving gymnotid fish in a large dark "maze" and extracted their trajectories and EOD pulse pattern and rate while they learned to find food with electrically detectable landmarks as cues. After training, they more rapidly found food using shorter, more stereotyped trajectories and spent more time near the food location. We observed three forms of active sensing: sustained high EOD rates per unit distance (sampling density), transient large increases in EOD rate (E-scans) and stereotyped scanning movements (B-scans) were initially strong at landmarks and food, but, after learning, intensified only at the food location. During probe (no food) trials, after learning, the fish's search area and intense active sampling was still centered on the missing food location, but now also increased near landmarks. We hypothesize that active sensing is a behavioral manifestation of attention and essential for spatial learning; the fish use spatial memory of landmarks and path integration to reach the expected food location and confine their attention to this region. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Exploring how extracellular electric field modulates neuron activity through dynamical analysis of a two-compartment neuron model. (United States)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Wei, Xi-Le; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Chan, Wai-Lok; Deng, Bin; Han, Chun-Xiao


    To investigate how extracellular electric field modulates neuron activity, a reduced two-compartment neuron model in the presence of electric field is introduced in this study. Depending on neuronal geometric and internal coupling parameters, the behaviors of the model have been studied extensively. The neuron model can exist in quiescent state or repetitive spiking state in response to electric field stimulus. Negative electric field mainly acts as inhibitory stimulus to the neuron, positive weak electric field could modulate spiking frequency and spike timing when the neuron is already active, and positive electric fields with sufficient intensity could directly trigger neuronal spiking in the absence of other stimulations. By bifurcation analysis, it is observed that there is saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation, supercritical Hopf bifurcation and subcritical Hopf bifurcation appearing in the obtained two parameter bifurcation diagrams. The bifurcation structures and electric field thresholds for triggering neuron firing are determined by neuronal geometric and coupling parameters. The model predicts that the neurons with a nonsymmetric morphology between soma and dendrite, are more sensitive to electric field stimulus than those with the spherical structure. These findings suggest that neuronal geometric features play a crucial role in electric field effects on the polarization of neuronal compartments. Moreover, by determining the electric field threshold of our biophysical model, we could accurately distinguish between suprathreshold and subthreshold electric fields. Our study highlights the effects of extracellular electric field on neuronal activity from the biophysical modeling point of view. These insights into the dynamical mechanism of electric field may contribute to the investigation and development of electromagnetic therapies, and the model in our study could be further extended to a neuronal network in which the effects of electric fields on

  4. Modelling Feedback Excitation, Pacemaker Properties and Sensory Switching of Electrically Coupled Brainstem Neurons Controlling Rhythmic Activity. (United States)

    Hull, Michael J; Soffe, Stephen R; Willshaw, David J; Roberts, Alan


    What cellular and network properties allow reliable neuronal rhythm generation or firing that can be started and stopped by brief synaptic inputs? We investigate rhythmic activity in an electrically-coupled population of brainstem neurons driving swimming locomotion in young frog tadpoles, and how activity is switched on and off by brief sensory stimulation. We build a computational model of 30 electrically-coupled conditional pacemaker neurons on one side of the tadpole hindbrain and spinal cord. Based on experimental estimates for neuron properties, population sizes, synapse strengths and connections, we show that: long-lasting, mutual, glutamatergic excitation between the neurons allows the network to sustain rhythmic pacemaker firing at swimming frequencies following brief synaptic excitation; activity persists but rhythm breaks down without electrical coupling; NMDA voltage-dependency doubles the range of synaptic feedback strengths generating sustained rhythm. The network can be switched on and off at short latency by brief synaptic excitation and inhibition. We demonstrate that a population of generic Hodgkin-Huxley type neurons coupled by glutamatergic excitatory feedback can generate sustained asynchronous firing switched on and off synaptically. We conclude that networks of neurons with NMDAR mediated feedback excitation can generate self-sustained activity following brief synaptic excitation. The frequency of activity is limited by the kinetics of the neuron membrane channels and can be stopped by brief inhibitory input. Network activity can be rhythmic at lower frequencies if the neurons are electrically coupled. Our key finding is that excitatory synaptic feedback within a population of neurons can produce switchable, stable, sustained firing without synaptic inhibition.

  5. Delayed culture conversion due to cigarette smoking in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenbandring de Boer, Renee; Oliveira e Souza Filho, João Baptista de; Cobelens, Frank; Ramalho, Daniela de Paula; Campino Miranda, Pryscilla Fernandes; Logo, Karina de; Oliveira, Hedi; Mesquita, Eliene; Oliveira, Martha Maria; Kritski, Afrânio


    Although many studies have assessed factors affecting culture conversion during tuberculosis treatment, few have looked into the effect of tobacco smoking. This study included 89 active pulmonary tuberculosis patients with positive sputum culture upon presentation and collected information regarding

  6. Relativistic Coupled Cluster (RCC) Computation of the Electric Dipole Moment Enhancement Factor of Francium Due to the Violation of Time Reversal Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, Debashis; Sahoo, B. K.; Nataraj, H. S.; Das, B. P.


    A relativistic many-body theory for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms arising from the electric dipole moment of the electron is presented and implemented. The relativistic coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations (RCCSD) using the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian and

  7. Defects in T-tubular electrical activity underlie local alterations of calcium release in heart failure. (United States)

    Crocini, Claudia; Coppini, Raffaele; Ferrantini, Cecilia; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M; Tesi, Chiara; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Poggesi, Corrado; Pavone, Francesco S; Sacconi, Leonardo


    Action potentials (APs), via the transverse axial tubular system (TATS), synchronously trigger uniform Ca(2+) release throughout the cardiomyocyte. In heart failure (HF), TATS structural remodeling occurs, leading to asynchronous Ca(2+) release across the myocyte and contributing to contractile dysfunction. In cardiomyocytes from failing rat hearts, we previously documented the presence of TATS elements which failed to propagate AP and displayed spontaneous electrical activity; the consequence for Ca(2+) release remained, however, unsolved. Here, we develop an imaging method to simultaneously assess TATS electrical activity and local Ca(2+) release. In HF cardiomyocytes, sites where T-tubules fail to conduct AP show a slower and reduced local Ca(2+) transient compared with regions with electrically coupled elements. It is concluded that TATS electrical remodeling is a major determinant of altered kinetics, amplitude, and homogeneity of Ca(2+) release in HF. Moreover, spontaneous depolarization events occurring in failing T-tubules can trigger local Ca(2+) release, resulting in Ca(2+) sparks. The occurrence of tubule-driven depolarizations and Ca(2+) sparks may contribute to the arrhythmic burden in heart failure.

  8. Ionospheric quasi-static electric field anomalies during seismic activity in August–September 1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gousheva


    Full Text Available The paper proposes new results, analyses and information for the plate tectonic situation in the processing of INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite data about anomalies of the quasi-static electric field in the upper ionosphere over activated earthquake source regions at different latitudes. The earthquake catalogue is made on the basis of information from the United State Geological Survey (USGS website. The disturbances in ionospheric quasi-static electric fields are recorded by IESP-1 instrument aboard the INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite and they are compared with significant seismic events from the period 14 August–20 September 1981 in magnetically very quiet, quiet and medium quiet days. The main tectonic characteristics of the seismically activated territories are also taken in account. The main goal of the above research work is to enlarge the research of possible connections between anomalous vertical electric field penetrations into the ionosphere and the earthquake manifestations, also to propose tectonic arguments for the observed phenomena. The studies are represented in four main blocks: (i previous studies of similar problems, (ii selection of satellite, seismic and plate tectonic data, (iii data processing with new specialized software and observations of the quasi-static electric field and (iiii summary, comparison of new with previous results in our studies and conclusion. We establish the high informativity of the vertical component Ez of the quasi-static electric field in the upper ionosphere according observations by INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 that are placed above considerably activated earthquake sources. This component shows an increase of about 2–10 mV/m above sources, situated on mobile structures of the plates. The paper discusses the observed effects. It is represented also a statistical study of ionospheric effects 5–15 days before and 5–15 days after the earthquakes with magnitude M 4.8–7.9.

  9. Ionospheric quasi-static electric field anomalies during seismic activity in August-September 1981 (United States)

    Gousheva, M.; Danov, D.; Hristov, P.; Matova, M.


    The paper proposes new results, analyses and information for the plate tectonic situation in the processing of INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite data about anomalies of the quasi-static electric field in the upper ionosphere over activated earthquake source regions at different latitudes. The earthquake catalogue is made on the basis of information from the United State Geological Survey (USGS) website. The disturbances in ionospheric quasi-static electric fields are recorded by IESP-1 instrument aboard the INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite and they are compared with significant seismic events from the period 14 August-20 September 1981 in magnetically very quiet, quiet and medium quiet days. The main tectonic characteristics of the seismically activated territories are also taken in account. The main goal of the above research work is to enlarge the research of possible connections between anomalous vertical electric field penetrations into the ionosphere and the earthquake manifestations, also to propose tectonic arguments for the observed phenomena. The studies are represented in four main blocks: (i) previous studies of similar problems, (ii) selection of satellite, seismic and plate tectonic data, (iii) data processing with new specialized software and observations of the quasi-static electric field and (iiii) summary, comparison of new with previous results in our studies and conclusion. We establish the high informativity of the vertical component Ez of the quasi-static electric field in the upper ionosphere according observations by INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 that are placed above considerably activated earthquake sources. This component shows an increase of about 2-10 mV/m above sources, situated on mobile structures of the plates. The paper discusses the observed effects. It is represented also a statistical study of ionospheric effects 5-15 days before and 5-15 days after the earthquakes with magnitude M 4.8-7.9.

  10. Phosphate Uptake from Phytate Due to Hyphae-Mediated Phytase Activity by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Feng


    Full Text Available Phytate is the most abundant form of soil organic phosphorus (P. Increased P nutrition of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants derived from phytate has been repeatedly reported. Earlier studies assessed acid phosphatase rather than phytase as an indication of mycorrhizal fungi-mediated phytate use. We investigated the effect of mycorrhizal hyphae-mediated phytase activity on P uptake by maize. Two maize (Zea mays L. cultivars, non-inoculated or inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis mosseae or Claroideoglomus etunicatum, were grown for 45 days in two-compartment rhizoboxes, containing a root compartment and a hyphal compartment. The soil in the hyphal compartment was supplemented with 20, 100, and 200 mg P kg-1 soil as calcium phytate. We measured activity of phytase and acid phosphatase in the hyphal compartment, hyphal length density, P uptake, and plant biomass. Our results showed: (1 phytate addition increased phytase and acid phosphatase activity, and resulted in larger P uptake and plant biomass; (2 increases in P uptake and biomass were correlated with phytase activity but not with acid phosphatase activity; (3 lower phytate addition rate increased, but higher addition rate decreased hyphal length density. We conclude that P from phytate can be taken up by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants and that phytase plays a more important role in mineralizing phytate than acid phosphatase.

  11. Coagulant Activity of Water-Soluble Moringa oleifera Lectin Is Linked to Lowering of Electrical Resistance and Inhibited by Monosaccharides and Magnesium Ions. (United States)

    de Moura, Kézia Santana; da Silva, Hugo Rafael Chaves; Dornelles, Leonardo Prezzi; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; de Oliveira, Maria Danielly Lima; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes


    Moringa oleifera seeds contain a water-soluble lectin [water-soluble M. oleifera lectin (WSMoL)] that has shown coagulant activity. Magnesium ions are able to interfere with the ability of this lectin to bind carbohydrates. In this study, we performed structural characterization of WSMoL and analyzed its effect on the electrical resistance of a kaolin clay suspension in both presence and absence of monosaccharides (N-acetylglucosamine, glucose, or fructose) and magnesium ions. The coagulant activity of WSMoL was monitored by measuring optical density and electrical resistance over a period of 60 min. Native WSMoL had a molecular mass of 60 kDa and exhibited anionic nature (pI 5.5). In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), it appeared as three polypeptide bands of 30, 20, and 10 kDa. WSMoL reduced the optical density and electrical resistance of the kaolin suspension, which suggests that suspended particles are destabilized and that this is followed by formation of complexes. The coagulant activity of lectin decreased in the presence of Mg2+ ions and carbohydrates at concentrations that also inhibited hemagglutinating activity. This was most likely due to conformational changes in lectin structure. Our findings suggest that the coagulant activity of WSMoL is enhanced by lowering of electrical resistance of the medium and is impaired by lectin-carbohydrate and lectin-Mg2+ interactions.

  12. Photoimmune protective effect of the phytoestrogenic isoflavonoid equol is partially due to its antioxidant activities. (United States)

    Widyarini, Sitarina; Domanski, Diane; Painter, Nicole; Reeve, Vivienne E


    Topical application of lotions containing the phytoestrogenic isoflavonoid equol have been reported to protect mice against UV radiation-induced inflammation, immune suppression and photocarcinogenesis. The photoimmune protective property was shown to depend on equol's activation of oestrogen receptor signalling in the skin. However, isoflavones are also recognised for their antioxidant properties in biological systems. As endogenous cutaneous antioxidant enzymes including the inducible stress protein haem oxygenase (HO)-1, have photoprotective efficacy, this study in the Skh:hr-1 hairless mouse seeks evidence for an antioxidant role for equol in contributing to its photoimmune protection. Oxidative stress has been measured as UVA-induced lipid peroxidation in the mouse skin, and was dose-dependently inhibited by topical equol. Inhibition of the UVA (320-400 nm)-inducible HO activity significantly reduced the level of equol protection against lipid peroxidation, thereby attributing a component of equol's lipid protection capacity to this stress enzyme. It was consistent that topical equol enhanced the level of HO induction by UVA irradiation in both skin and liver. Subsequently, the dose-dependent protection by topical equol lotions against solar simulated UV radiation induced immunosuppression, measured by the contact hypersensitivity reaction, was found also to be partially reduced by the inhibition of HO activity. Therefore, in addition to the activation by equol of oestrogenic signalling pathways for photoprotection, this isoflavonoid also provides UV-protective antioxidant effects that depend partially on HO-1 induction.

  13. Is Conflict Adaptation Due to Active Regulation or Passive Carry-Over? Evidence from Eye Movements (United States)

    Hubbard, Jason; Kuhns, David; Schäfer, Theo A. J.; Mayr, Ulrich


    Conflict-adaptation effects (i.e., reduced response-time costs on high-conflict trials following high-conflict trials) supposedly represent our cognitive system's ability to regulate itself according to current processing demands. However, currently it is not clear whether these effects reflect conflict-triggered, active regulation, or passive…

  14. Is the effect of a countermovement on jump height due to active state development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.; Casius, L.J.R.


    Purpose: To investigate whether the difference in jump height between countermovement jumps (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ) could be explained by a difference in active state during propulsion. Methods: Simulations were performed with a model of the human musculoskeletal system comprising four body

  15. Thermo-Magneto-Electric Generator Arrays for Active Heat Recovery System (United States)

    Chun, Jinsung; Song, Hyun-Cheol; Kang, Min-Gyu; Kang, Han Byul; Kishore, Ravi Anant; Priya, Shashank


    Continued emphasis on development of thermal cooling systems is being placed that can cycle low grade heat. Examples include solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and data storage servers. The power efficiency of solar module degrades at elevated temperature, thereby, necessitating the need for heat extraction system. Similarly, data centres in wireless computing system are facing increasing efficiency challenges due to high power consumption associated with managing the waste heat. We provide breakthrough in addressing these problems by developing thermo-magneto-electric generator (TMEG) arrays, composed of soft magnet and piezoelectric polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) cantilever. TMEG can serve dual role of extracting the waste heat and converting it into useable electricity. Near room temperature second-order magnetic phase transition in soft magnetic material, gadolinium, was employed to obtain mechanical vibrations on the PVDF cantilever under small thermal gradient. TMEGs were shown to achieve high vibration frequency at small temperature gradients, thereby, demonstrating effective heat transfer.

  16. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal


    Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.

  17. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device. (United States)

    Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J


    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale.

  18. Electrical activation and spin coherence of ultra low doseantimony implants in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, T.; Tyryshkin, A.M.; de Sousa, R.; Whaley, K.B.; Bokor,J.; Liddle, J.A.; Persaud, A.; Shangkuan, J.; Chakarov, I.; Lyon, S.A.


    We implanted ultra low doses (0.2 to 2 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}) of Sb ions into isotopically enriched {sup 28}Si, and probed electrical activation and electron spin relaxation after rapid thermal annealing. Strong segregation of dopants towards both Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiO{sub 2} interfaces limits electrical activation. Pulsed Electron Spin Resonance shows that spin echo decay is sensitive to the dopant profiles, and the interface quality. A spin decoherence time, T{sub 2}, of 1.5 ms is found for profiles peaking 25 nm below a Si/SiO{sub 2} interface, increasing to 2.1 ms when the surface is passivated with hydrogen. These measurements provide benchmark data for the development of devices in which quantum information is encoded in donor electron spins.

  19. Passivation of electrically active centers by Hydrogen and Lithium in Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia


    The hyperfine technique of Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy (PAC) has proven to be excellently suited for the microscopic investigation of impurity complexes in semiconductors. But this method is seriously limited by the small number of chemically different isotopes which are suitable for PAC measurements and represent electrically active centers in semiconductors. This bottleneck can be widely overcome by the ISOLDE facility which provides a great variety of shortliving PAC isotopes. The probe atom $^{111m}$Cd, provided by ISOLDE opened the first successful access to PAC investigations of III-V compounds and enabled also the first PAC experiments on double acceptors in silicon and germamum. \\\\ \\\\ At the new ISOLDE facility our experiments were concentrated on the passivation of electrically active centres by hydrogen and lithium in Si, Ge and III-V compounds. Experiments on $^{111m}$Cd in Ge revealed the formation of two different acceptor hydrogen and two different acceptor lithium complexes respe...

  20. BIOPHYSICS. Comment on "Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase". (United States)

    Natarajan, Aditya; Yabukarski, Filip; Lamba, Vandana; Schwans, Jason P; Sunden, Fanny; Herschlag, Daniel


    Fried et al. (Reports, 19 December 2014, p. 1510) demonstrated a strong correlation between reaction rate and the carbonyl stretching frequency of a product analog bound to ketosteroid isomerase oxyanion hole mutants and concluded that the active-site electric field provides 70% of catalysis. Alternative comparisons suggest a smaller contribution, relative to the corresponding solution reaction, and highlight the importance of atomic-level descriptions. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Regional synchrony in full-scale activated sludge bioreactors due to deterministic microbial community assembly. (United States)

    Griffin, James S; Wells, George F


    Seasonal community structure and regionally synchronous population dynamics have been observed in natural microbial ecosystems, but have not been well documented in wastewater treatment bioreactors. Few studies of community dynamics in full-scale activated sludge systems facing similar meteorological conditions have been done to compare the importance of deterministic and neutral community assembly mechanisms. We subjected weekly activated sludge samples from six regional full-scale bioreactors at four wastewater treatment plants obtained over 1 year to Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes, resulting in a library of over 17 million sequences. All samples derived from reactors treating primarily municipal wastewater. Despite variation in operational characteristics and location, communities displayed temporal synchrony at the individual operational taxonomic unit (OTU), broad phylogenetic affiliation and community-wide scale. Bioreactor communities were dominated by 134 abundant and highly regionally synchronized OTU populations that accounted for over 50% of the total reads. Non-core OTUs displayed abundance-dependent population synchrony. Alpha diversity varied by reactor, but showed a highly reproducible and synchronous seasonal fluctuation. Community similarity was dominated by seasonal changes, but individual reactors maintained minor stable differences after 1 year. Finally, the impacts of mass migration driven by direct biomass transfers between reactors was investigated, but had no significant effect on community similarity or diversity in the sink community. Our results show that population dynamics in activated sludge bioreactors are consistent with niche-driven assembly guided by seasonal temperature fluctuations.

  2. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise. (United States)

    Zhan, Feibiao; Liu, Shenquan


    Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L) model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons.

  3. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise (United States)

    Zhan, Feibiao; Liu, Shenquan


    Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L) model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons. PMID:29209192

  4. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feibiao Zhan


    Full Text Available Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons.

  5. Activated carbon fiber composite as a new material for electrical and electrochemical applications (United States)

    Nasr, Mohamed Fathy

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) is a microporous material consisting of three-dimensional network of micrographitic layers. The micrographitic edges have a considerable amount of active functional groups (such as -COOH, -OH, -CO-, -O-) and dangling bonds. The huge specific surface area (up to 3000 m2/g) is another important property of ACF. Exploitation of the high surface area and the reactivity of the functional groups of ACF, through incorporating or doping ACF with transition metal salts (M) and/or binder (B), was used to enhance the electrical properties of ACF. Such treatments created new interfaces such as (ACF/M, ACF/M/B, and ACF/B/M) through which an extra charge can be localized, transferred, or stored. This process can be of great benefit in energy storage devices such as supercapacitors for computer memory backup. In this work, activated carbon fiber nonwoven fabrics have been impregnated with different concentrations of organometallic Cu and Zn salts, a carbonaceous sot binder, or mixtures of both, followed by thermal treatment over a temperature range 300°C--900°C under an inert atmosphere. The use of carbonaceous sot as a binder has used in the study, is novel. Electrical measurements, current-voltage characterization, current-time relationship, as well as the relative permittivity and impedance of ACF composites, have been conducted. The electric double-layer capacitance of the as-received and the ACF composites were also evaluated.

  6. The very high premature mortality rate among active professional wrestlers is primarily due to cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Herman

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recently, much media attention has been given to the premature deaths in professional wrestlers. Since no formal studies exist that have statistically examined the probability of premature mortality in professional wrestlers, we determined survival estimates for active wresters over the past quarter century to establish the factors contributing to the premature mortality of these individuals. METHODS: Data including cause of death was obtained from public records and wrestling publications in wrestlers who were active between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 2011. 557 males were considered consistently active wrestlers during this time period. 2007 published mortality rates from the Center for Disease Control were used to compare the general population to the wrestlers by age, BMI, time period, and cause of death. Survival estimates and Cox hazard regression models were fit to determine incident premature deaths and factors associated with lower survival. Cumulative incidence function (CIF estimates given years wrestled was obtained using a competing risks model for cause of death. RESULTS: The mortality for all wrestlers over the 26-year study period was.007 deaths/total person-years or 708 per 100,000 per year, and 16% of deaths occurred below age 50 years. Among wrestlers, the leading cause of deaths based on CIF was cardiovascular-related (38%. For cardiovascular-related deaths, drug overdose-related deaths and cancer deaths, wrestler mortality rates were respectively 15.1, 122.7 and 6.4 times greater than those of males in the general population. Survival estimates from hazard models indicated that BMI is significantly associated with the hazard of death from total time wrestling (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Professional wrestlers are more likely to die prematurely from cardiovascular disease compared to the general population and morbidly obese wrestlers are especially at risk. Results from this study may be useful for professional

  7. Increases in Use and Activity Due to Urban Renewal: Effect of a Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Klinker, Charlotte Demant


    spending a minimum of 10 minutes daily within a 400-m buffer of the renewal district were included in the analyses, resulting in 354 adolescents at baseline and 319 post-renewal. Intervention A multicomponent urban renewal project of approximately 35 million euros in a disadvantaged neighborhood...... than 2010 with an additional 24.6 minutes per day (p=0.017). Of this time, 7.8 minutes were spent in light and 4.5 minutes in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Conclusions The present study indicates that a multicomponent urban renewal strategy in a disadvantaged district has the potential...

  8. System and method for coproduction of activated carbon and steam/electricity (United States)

    Srinivasachar, Srivats [Sturbridge, MA; Benson, Steven [Grand Forks, ND; Crocker, Charlene [Newfolden, MN; Mackenzie, Jill [Carmel, IN


    A system and method for producing activated carbon comprising carbonizing a solid carbonaceous material in a carbonization zone of an activated carbon production apparatus (ACPA) to yield a carbonized product and carbonization product gases, the carbonization zone comprising carbonaceous material inlet, char outlet and carbonization gas outlet; activating the carbonized product via activation with steam in an activation zone of the ACPA to yield activated carbon and activation product gases, the activation zone comprising activated carbon outlet, activation gas outlet, and activation steam inlet; and utilizing process gas comprising at least a portion of the carbonization product gases or a combustion product thereof; at least a portion of the activation product gases or a combustion product thereof; or a combination thereof in a solid fuel boiler system that burns a solid fuel boiler feed with air to produce boiler-produced steam and flue gas, the boiler upstream of an air heater within a steam/electricity generation plant, said boiler comprising a combustion zone, a boiler-produced steam outlet and at least one flue gas outlet.

  9. S. cerevisiae fermentation activity after moderate pulsed electric field pre-treatments. (United States)

    Mattar, Jessy R; Turk, Mohammad F; Nonus, Maurice; Lebovka, Nikolai I; El Zakhem, Henri; Vorobiev, Eugene


    The batch fermentation process, inoculated by Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treated wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Actiflore F33), was studied. PEF treatment was applied to the aqueous yeast suspensions ([Y] = 0.012 g/L) at the electric field strengths of E = 100 and 6000 V/cm using the same treatment protocol (number of pulses n = 1000, pulse duration ti = 100 μs, and pulse repetition time Δt = 100 ms). Electrical conductivity was increasing during and after the PEF treatment, which reflected cell electroporation. Then, fermentation was run for 150 h in an incubator (30 °C) with synchronic agitation. Electro-stimulation was revealing itself by the improvement of fermentation characteristics, and thus increased yeast metabolism. At the end of the lag phase (t = 40 h), fructose consumption in samples with electrically activated inoculum exceeded that of the control samples by ≈ 2.33 times for E = 100 V/cm and by ≈ 3.98 for E = 6000 V/cm. At the end of the log phase (120 h of fermentation), ≈ 30% mass reduction was reached in samples with PEF-treated inocula (E = 6000 V/cm), whereas the same mass reduction of the control sample required approximately 20 extra hours of fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electro-active device using radial electric field piezo-diaphragm for sonic applications (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)


    An electro-active transducer for sonic applications includes a ferroelectric material sandwiched by first and second electrode patterns to form a piezo-diaphragm coupled to a mounting frame. When the device is used as a sonic actuator, the first and second electrode patterns are configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when voltage is applied to the electrode patterns. When the device is used as a sonic sensor, the first and second electrode patterns are configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when the ferroelectric material experiences deflection in a direction substantially perpendicular thereto. In each case, the electrode patterns are designed to cause the electric field to: i) originate at a region of the ferroelectric material between the first and second electrode patterns, and ii) extend radially outward from the region of the ferroelectric material (at which the electric field originates) and substantially parallel to the plane of the ferroelectric material. The mounting frame perimetrically surrounds the peizo-diaphragm and enables attachment of the piezo-diaphragm to a housing.

  11. Biological Activities of Uric Acid in Infection Due to Enteropathogenic and Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli (United States)

    Broome, Jacqueline E.; Lis, Agnieszka


    In previous work, we identified xanthine oxidase (XO) as an important enzyme in the interaction between the host and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC). Many of the biological effects of XO were due to the hydrogen peroxide produced by the enzyme. We wondered, however, if uric acid generated by XO also had biological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Uric acid triggered inflammatory responses in the gut, including increased submucosal edema and release of extracellular DNA from host cells. While uric acid alone was unable to trigger a chloride secretory response in intestinal monolayers, it did potentiate the secretory response to cyclic AMP agonists. Uric acid crystals were formed in vivo in the lumen of the gut in response to EPEC and STEC infections. While trying to visualize uric acid crystals formed during EPEC and STEC infections, we noticed that uric acid crystals became enmeshed in the neutrophilic extracellular traps (NETs) produced from host cells in response to bacteria in cultured cell systems and in the intestine in vivo. Uric acid levels in the gut lumen increased in response to exogenous DNA, and these increases were enhanced by the actions of DNase I. Interestingly, addition of DNase I reduced the numbers of EPEC bacteria recovered after a 20-h infection and protected against EPEC-induced histologic damage. PMID:26787720

  12. Honey as a bioindicator of arsenic contamination due to volcanic and mining activities in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Bastías


    Full Text Available The content of heavy metals in honey is indicative of natural or anthropogenic pollution and has therefore been proposed as a feasible bioindicator for arsenic contamination in different regions of Chile. Total arsenic (t-As and inorganic As (i-As concentrations were determined in 227 samples of honey harvested during the years 2007, 2008, and 2009 in the areas of San Pedro de Atacama, Atacama, Chiloé, and Futaleufú, with the last town located 156 km from the Chaitén Volcano (latest eruption in 2008. These analyses were conducted using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled with a hydride generator. In the honey samples, the concentrations of t-As ranged from 2.2 to 171.9 μg kg-1, and the i-As concentrations ranged from none detected (ND to 24.6 μg kg-1, with the area of San Pedro de Atacama having the highest As concentrations. The samples of honey from Futaleufú showed higher As concentrations after the eruption of the Chaitén Volcano in 2008. This study demonstrates that As pollution in honey may originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. The results indicate that it is appropriate to use honey as a bioindicator of environmental pollution. In addition, the consumption of the honey studied herein does not pose any health hazards to the consumer due to its As content.

  13. Active Mycobacterium Infection Due to Intramuscular BCG Administration Following Multi-Steps Medication Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza Rafati


    Full Text Available Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG is indicated for treatment of primary or relapsing flat urothelial cell carcinoma in situ (CIS of the urinary bladder. Disseminated infectious complications occasionally occur due to BCG as a vaccine and intravesical therapy.  Intramuscular (IM or Intravenous (IV administrations of BCG are rare medication errors which are more probable to produce systemic infections. This report presents 13 years old case that several steps medication errors occurred consequently from physician handwriting, pharmacy dispensing, nursing administration and patient family. The physician wrote βHCG instead of HCG in the prescription. βHCG was read as BCG by the pharmacy staff and 6 vials of intravesical BCG were administered IM twice a week for 3 consecutive weeks. The patient experienced fever and chills after each injection, but he was admitted 2 months after first IM administration of BCG with fever and pancytopenia. Unfortunately four month after using drug, during second admission duo to cellulitis at the sites of BCG injection the physicians diagnosed the medication error. Using handwritten prescription and inappropriate abbreviations, spending inadequate time for taking a brief medical history in pharmacy, lack of verifying name, dose and wrote before medication administration and lack of considering medication error as an important differential diagnosis had roles to occur this multi-steps medication error.

  14. Coal mining activities change plant community structure due to air pollution and soil degradation. (United States)

    Pandey, Bhanu; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Singh, Siddharth


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coal mining activities on the community structures of woody and herbaceous plants. The response of individual plants of community to defilement caused by coal mining was also assessed. Air monitoring, soil physico-chemical and phytosociological analyses were carried around Jharia coalfield (JCF) and Raniganj coalfield. The importance value index of sensitive species minified and those of tolerant species enhanced with increasing pollution load and altered soil quality around coal mining areas. Although the species richness of woody and herbaceous plants decreased with higher pollution load, a large number of species acclimatized to the stress caused by the coal mining activities. Woody plant community at JCF was more affected by coal mining than herbaceous community. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that structure of herbaceous community was mainly driven by soil total organic carbon, soil nitrogen, whereas woody layer community was influenced by sulphur dioxide in ambient air, soil sulphate and soil phosphorus. The changes in species diversity observed at mining areas indicated an increase in the proportion of resistant herbs and grasses showing a tendency towards a definite selection strategy of ecosystem in response to air pollution and altered soil characteristics.

  15. Rate-dependent activation failure in isolated cardiac cells and tissue due to Na+ channel block (United States)

    Spindler, Anthony J.; Paterson, David; Noble, Denis


    While it is well established that class-I antiarrhythmics block cardiac sodium channels, the mechanism of action of therapeutic levels of these drugs is not well understood. Using a combination of mathematical modeling and in vitro experiments, we studied the failure of activation of action potentials in single ventricular cells and in tissue caused by Na+ channel block. Our computations of block and unblock of sodium channels by a theoretical class-Ib antiarrhythmic agent predict differences in the concentrations required to cause activation failure in single cells as opposed to multicellular preparations. We tested and confirmed these in silico predictions with in vitro experiments on isolated guinea-pig ventricular cells and papillary muscles stimulated at various rates (2–6.67 Hz) and exposed to various concentrations (5 × 10−6 to 500 × 10−6 mol/l) of lidocaine. The most salient result was that whereas large doses (5 × 10−4 mol/l or higher) of lidocaine were required to inhibit action potentials temporarily in single cells, much lower doses (5 × 10−6 mol/l), i.e., therapeutic levels, were sufficient to have the same effect in papillary muscles: a hundredfold difference. Our experimental results and mathematical analysis indicate that the syncytial nature of cardiac tissue explains the effects of clinically relevant doses of Na+ channel blockers. PMID:26342072

  16. Are the changes in the peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels due to platelet activation? (United States)

    Serra-Millàs, Montserrat


    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in central nervous system development, neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity. BDNF is also expressed in several non-neuronal tissues, and it could play an important role in other processes, such as cancer, angiogenesis, etc. Platelets are the major source of peripheral BDNF. However, platelets also contain high amounts of serotonin; they express specific surface receptors during activation, and a multitude of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory bioactive compounds are secreted from the granules. Until recently, there was insufficient knowledge regarding the relationship between BDNF and platelets. Recent studies showed that BDNF is present in two distinct pools in platelets, in α-granules and in the cytoplasm, and only the BDNF in the granules is secreted following stimulation, representing 30% of the total BDNF in platelets. BDNF has an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. Low levels of serum BDNF have been described in patients with major depressive disorder, and BDNF levels increased with chronic antidepressant treatment. Interestingly, there is an association between depression and platelet function. This review analyzed studies that evaluated the relationship between BDNF and platelet activation and the effect of treatments on both parameters. Only a few studies consider this possible confounding factor, and it could be very important in diseases such as depression, which show changes in both parameters. PMID:27014600

  17. Asymmetric activation spreading in the multiplication associative network due to asymmetric overlap between numerosities semantic representations? (United States)

    Didino, Daniele; Knops, André; Vespignani, Francesco; Kornpetpanee, Suchada


    Simple multiplication facts are thought to be organised in a network structure in which problems and solutions are associated. Converging evidence suggests that the ability for solving symbolic arithmetic problems is based on an approximate number system (ANS). Most theoretical stances concerning the metric underlying the ANS converge on the assumption that the representational overlap between two adjacent numbers increases as the numerical magnitude of the numbers increases. Given a number N, the overlap between N and N+1 is larger than the overlap between N and N-1. Here, we test whether this asymmetric overlap influences the activation spreading within the multiplication associative network (MAN). When verifying simple multiplication problems such as 8×4 participants were slower in rejecting false but related outcomes that were larger than the actual outcome (e.g., 8×4=36) than rejecting smaller related outcomes (e.g., 8×4=28), despite comparable numerical distance from the correct result (here: 4). This effect was absent for outcomes which are not part of either operands table (e.g., 8×4=35). These results suggest that the metric of the ANS influences the activation spreading within the MAN, further substantiating the notion that symbolic arithmetic is grounded in the ANS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Is physical activity a risk factor for primary knee or hip replacement due to osteoarthritis? A prospective cohort study. (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Wluka, Anita E; Teichtahl, Andrew J; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; Graves, Stephen; Cicuttini, Flavia M


    To estimate prospectively any association between measures of physical activity and the risk of either primary knee or hip replacement due to osteoarthritis (OA). Eligible subjects (n = 39,023) were selected from participants in a prospective cohort study recruited 1990-1994. Primary knee and hip replacement for OA during 2001-2005 was determined by linking the cohort records to the National Joint Replacement Registry. A total physical activity level was computed, incorporating both intensity and frequency for different forms of physical activity obtained by questionnaire at baseline attendance. There was a dose-response relationship between total physical activity level and the risk of primary knee replacement [hazards ratio (HR) 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07 for an increase of 1 level in total physical activity]. Although vigorous activity frequency was associated with an increased risk of primary knee replacement (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.08-1.86) for 1-2 times/week and HR 1.24 (95% CI 0.90-1.71) for ≥ 3 times/week), the p for trend was marginal (continuous HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.16, p = 0.05). The frequency of less vigorous activity or walking was not associated with the risk of primary knee replacement, nor was any measure of physical activity associated with the risk of primary hip replacement. Increasing levels of total physical activity are positively associated with the risk of primary knee but not hip replacement due to OA. Physical activity might affect the knee and hip joints differently depending on the preexisting health status and anatomy of the joint, as well as the sort of physical activity performed.

  19. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang [State Grid Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zheng [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States)


    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  20. Experimental investigation on the effect of surface electric field in the growth of tungsten nano-tendril morphology due to low energy helium irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woller, K.B., E-mail:; Whyte, D.G.; Wright, G.M.; Brunner, D.


    The mechanisms responsible for and controlling the growth of tungsten nano-tendrils (or “fuzz”) under low-energy helium plasma exposure remain unclear. For the first time in nano-tendril experiments, the plasma sheath-produced electric field and the helium (He) ion energy have been decoupled, showing that the sheath electric field has little impact on nano-tendril growth, eliminating a possible cause for tendril growth. The well-established necessary growth conditions for W fuzz were maintained with He ion flux density Γ{sub He} > 10{sup 21} He m{sup −2} s{sup −1}, surface temperature T{sub s} = 1273 K, He ion energy E{sub He} = 64 eV, and He ion fluence Φ{sub He} > 10{sup 24} He m{sup −2}. A grid is situated between the tungsten sample and plasma, with the grid and sample potentials independently controlled in order to control the electric field at the surface of the sample while maintaining the same incident He ion energy to the surface. A calculation of the potential profile in the drift space between the grid and sample was used to account for space charge and calculate the electric field at the surface of the sample. Tungsten fuzz formed at all electric fields tested, even near zero electric field. Also, the depth of the resulting W fuzz layer was unaltered by the electric field when compared to the calculated depth determined from an empirical growth model. The conclusion is that the sheath electric field is not necessary to cause the changes in surface morphology. - Highlights: • Surface electric field is proposed as a possible driver of tungsten fuzz growth. • A method that decouples plasma sheath electric field and ion energy is described. • Tungsten fuzz is shown to grow even without direct exposure to plasma. • Tungsten fuzz grows to the same depth with and without the plasma sheath.

  1. Ionic contrast terahertz time resolved imaging of frog auricular heart muscle electrical activity (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Gallot, Guilhem


    The authors demonstrate the direct, noninvasive and time resolved imaging of functional frog auricular fibers by ionic contrast terahertz (ICT) near field microscopy. This technique provides quantitative, time-dependent measurement of ionic flow during auricular muscle electrical activity, and opens the way of direct noninvasive imaging of cardiac activity under stimulation. ICT microscopy technique was associated with full three-dimensional simulation enabling to measure precisely the fiber sizes. This technique coupled to waveguide technology should provide the grounds to development of advanced in vivo ion flux measurement in mammalian hearts, allowing the prediction of heart attack from change in K+ fluxes.

  2. Redox Active Metal- and Covalent Organic Frameworks for Energy Storage: Balancing Porosity and Electrical Conductivity. (United States)

    Zhang, Yugen; Riduan, Siti Nurhanna; Wang, Jinquan


    Porous redox-active metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have emerged as electrode materials for energy storage devices. These porous frameworks have different levels of intrinsic properties such as low solubility, high ionic conductivity (porosity) and low electrical conductivity, all of which are critical parameters when utilised as electrode materials. This Minireview focuses on recent developments of using porous MOFs/COFs as redox active electrode materials for energy storage and strategies to improve their electrochemical performance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Phenolic Lipids Affect the Activity and Conformation of Acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel) (United States)

    Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz


    Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein. PMID:24787269

  4. Recrystallization inhibition in ice due to ice binding protein activity detected by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Brown


    Full Text Available Liquid water present in polycrystalline ice at the interstices between ice crystals results in a network of liquid-filled veins and nodes within a solid ice matrix, making ice a low porosity porous media. Here we used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxation and time dependent self-diffusion measurements developed for porous media applications to monitor three dimensional changes to the vein network in ices with and without a bacterial ice binding protein (IBP. Shorter effective diffusion distances were detected as a function of increased irreversible ice binding activity, indicating inhibition of ice recrystallization and persistent small crystal structure. The modification of ice structure by the IBP demonstrates a potential mechanism for the microorganism to enhance survivability in ice. These results highlight the potential of NMR techniques in evaluation of the impact of IBPs on vein network structure and recrystallization processes; information useful for continued development of ice-interacting proteins for biotechnology applications.

  5. Force depression following muscle shortening of voluntarily activated and electrically stimulated human adductor pollicis. (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Dong; Herzog, Walter


    The purpose of this study was to investigate steady-state force depression following active muscle shortening in human adductor pollicis during voluntary and electrically induced contractions. Subjects (n = 12; age 28 +/- 5 years; 7 males and 5 females) performed isometric reference contractions and isometric-shortening-isometric contractions, using maximal voluntary effort and near-maximal electrical stimulation. Force depression was assessed by comparing the steady-state isometric forces produced following active muscle shortening with the purely isometric reference forces obtained at the corresponding muscle length. In order to test for effects of the shortening conditions on the steady-state force depression, the amplitude and speed of shortening were changed systematically in a random order but balanced design. Thumb adduction force and carpometacarpal joint angle were continuously measured using a custom-designed dynamometer. During voluntary contractions, muscle activation was recorded using electromyography and the superimposed twitch technique. During electrically induced contractions, muscle stiffness was assessed using a quick-stretch method. Force depression during voluntary contractions, with a constant level of muscle activation, was similar to that obtained during electrically induced contractions. Force depression increased with increasing amplitudes of shortening (9.9 +/- 1.6%, 15.6 +/- 2.4% and 22.4 +/- 2.4% for 10, 20 and 30 deg of shortening, respectively) and decreased with increasing speeds of shortening (27.1 +/- 2.5%, 19.3 +/- 1.6% and 15.6 +/- 1.8% for 20, 60 and 300 deg s(-1) of shortening, respectively), regardless of the activation method. Muscle stiffness was significantly lower in the force-depressed state (5.9 +/- 0.2 N deg(-1)) compared with that of the isometric reference contractions (7.2 +/- 0.3 N deg(-1)), and decreased with increasing force depression (6.6 +/- 0.5, 6.0 +/- 0.5 and 5.3 +/- 0.4 N deg(-1) for the 10, 20 and 30 deg

  6. Effects of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Treatment on Enhancing Activity and Conformation of α-Amylase. (United States)

    Tian, Mei-ling; Fang, Ting; Du, Mu-ying; Zhang, Fu-sheng


    To explore an efficient, safe, and speedy application of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology for enzymatic modification, effects of PEF treatment on the enzymatic activity, property and kinetic parameters of α-amylase were investigated. Conformational transitions were also studied with the aid of circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectra. The maximum enzymatic activity of α-amylase was obtained under 15 kV/cm electric field intensity and 100 mL/min flow velocity PEF treatment, in which the enzymatic activity increased by 22.13 ± 1.14% compared with control. The activation effect could last for 18 h at 4 °C. PEF treatment could widen the range of optimum temperature for α-amylase, however, it barely exerted any effect on the optimum pH. On the other hand, α-amylase treated by PEF showed an increase of Vmax, t1/2 and ΔG, whereas a decrease of Km and k were observed. Furthermore, it can be observed from fluorescence and CD spectra that PEF treatment had increased the number of amino acid residues, especially that of tryptophan, on α-amylase surface with enhanced α-helices by 34.76% and decreased random coil by 12.04% on α-amylase when compared with that of untreated. These changes in structure had positive effect on enhancing α-amylase activity and property.

  7. Apparent temperature anisotropies due to wave activity in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Verscharen


    Full Text Available The fast solar wind is a collisionless plasma permeated by plasma waves on many different scales. A plasma wave represents the natural interplay between the periodic changes of the electromagnetic field and the associated coherent motions of the plasma particles. In this paper, a model velocity distribution function is derived for a plasma in a single, coherent, large-amplitude wave. This model allows one to study the kinetic effects of wave motions on particle distributions. They are by in-situ spacecraft measured by counting, over a certain sampling time, the particles coming from various directions and having different energies. We compare our results with the measurements by the Helios spacecraft, and thus find that by assuming high wave activity we are able to explain key observed features of the measured distributions within the framework of our model. We also address the recent discussions on nonresonant wave–particle interactions and apparent heating. The applied time-averaging procedure leads to an apparent ion temperature anisotropy which is connected but not identical to the intrinsic temperature of the underlying distribution function.

  8. Tingenone, a pentacyclic triterpene, induces peripheral antinociception due to opioidergic activation. (United States)

    Veloso, Clarice de Carvalho; Rodrigues, Vanessa Gregório; Ferreira, Renata Cristina Mendes; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Klein, Andre; Duarte, Igor Dimitri; Romero, Thiago Roberto Lima; Perez, Andrea de Castro


    Plants belonging to the genus Maytenus are routinely used in folk medicine for the treatment of pain diseases. Our previous phytochemical study of the roots of Maytenus imbricata resulted in the isolation and characterization of tingenone, a pentacyclic triterpene. Natural triterpenoids are of growing interest because they have several biological activities, including analgesic properties. The present study assessed the involvement of the opiodergic pathway in the tingenone-induced antinociceptive effect against hyperalgesia induced by prostaglandin E2 (2 µg) in the peripheral pathway. We evaluated the effect of several antagonists to opioid receptors using the mouse paw pressure test. Tingenone administered into the right hind paw induced a local antinociceptive effect that was antagonized by naloxone, a nonselective antagonist to opioid receptors. Clocinnamox, naltrindole, and nor-binaltorphimine are selective antagonists to µ, δ, and κ receptors, respectively, which reverted the peripheral antinociception induced by tingenone. Bestatine acts as an inhibitor of aminopeptidase, an enzyme that degrades endogenous opioid peptides, and was shown to intensify the antinociceptive effect of tingenone. The results suggest that the opioidergic system participates in the peripheral antinociception induced by tingenone. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Dust emission and soil loss due to anthropogenic activities by wind erosion simulations (United States)

    Katra, Itzhak; Swet, Nitzan; Tanner, Smadar


    Wind erosion is major process of soil loss and air pollution by dust emission of clays, nutrients, and microorganisms. Many soils throughout the world are currently or potentially associated with dust emissions, especially in dryland zones. The research focuses on wind erosion in semi-arid soils (Northern Negev, Israel) that are subjected to increased human activities of urban development and agriculture. A boundary-layer wind tunnel has been used to study dust emission and soil loss by simulation and quantification of high-resolution wind processes. Field experiments were conducted in various surface types of dry loess soils. The experimental plots represent soils with long-term and short term influences of land uses such as agriculture (conventional and organic practices), grazing, and natural preserves. The wind tunnel was operated under various wind velocities that are above the threshold velocity of aeolian erosion. Total soil sediment and particulate matter (PM) fluxes were calculated. Topsoil samples from the experimental plots were analysed in the laboratory for physical and chemical characteristics including aggregation, organic matter, and high-resolution particle size distribution. The results showed variations in dust emission in response to surface types and winds to provide quantitative estimates of soil loss over time. Substantial loss of particulate matter that is nutrients, was recorded in most experimental conditions. Integrative analyses of the topsoil properties and dust experiment highlight the significant implications for soil nutrient resources and management strategies as well as for PM loading to the atmosphere and air pollution.

  10. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats due to age-related arginase activation in intermittent hypoxia. (United States)

    Nara, Akina; Nagai, Hisashi; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Ogura, Sayoko; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Kuwahira, Ichiro; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi


    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is prevalent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Aging induces arginase activation and reduces nitric oxide (NO) production in the arteries. Intermittent hypoxia (IH), conferred by cycles of brief hypoxia and normoxia, contributes to OSAS pathogenesis. Here, we studied the role of arginase and aging in the pathogenesis of PAH in adult (9-mo-old) and young (2-mo-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to IH or normoxia for 4 weeks and analyzed them with a pressure-volume catheter inserted into the right ventricle (RV) and by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Western blot analysis was conducted on arginase, NO synthase isoforms, and nitrotyrosine. IH induced PAH, as shown by increased RV systolic pressure and RV hypertrophy, in adult rats but not in young rats. IH increased expression levels of arginase I and II proteins in the adult rats. IH also increased arginase I expression in the pulmonary artery endothelium and arginase II in the pulmonary artery adventitia. Furthermore, IH reduced pulmonary levels of nitrate and nitrite but increased nitrotyrosine levels in adult rats. An arginase inhibitor (N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-1-arginine) prevented IH-induced PAH and normalized nitrite and nitrate levels in adult rats. IH induced arginase up-regulation and PAH in adult rats, but not in young rats, through reduced NO production. Our findings suggest that arginase inhibition prevents or reverses PAH.

  11. Changes in EMG activity in the upper trapezius muscle due to local vibration exposure. (United States)

    Aström, Charlotte; Lindkvist, Markus; Burström, Lage; Sundelin, Gunnevi; Karlsson, J Stefan


    Exposure to vibration is suggested as a risk factor for developing neck and shoulder disorders in working life. Mechanical vibration applied to a muscle belly or a tendon can elicit a reflex muscle contraction, also called tonic vibration reflex, but the mechanisms behind how vibration could cause musculoskeletal disorders has not yet been described. One suggestion has been that the vibration causes muscular fatigue. This study investigates whether vibration exposure changes the development of muscular fatigue in the trapezius muscle. Thirty-seven volunteers (men and women) performed a sub-maximal isometric shoulder elevation for 3 min. This was repeated four times, two times with induced vibration and two times without. Muscle activity was measured before and after each 3-min period to look at changes in the electromyography parameters. The result showed a significantly smaller mean frequency decrease when performing the shoulder elevation with vibration (-2.51 Hz) compared to without vibration (-4.04 Hz). There was also a slightly higher increase in the root mean square when exposed to vibration (5.7% of maximal voluntary contraction) compared to without (3.8% of maximal voluntary contraction); however, this was not statistically significant. The results of the present study indicate that short-time exposure to vibration has no negative acute effects on the fatiguing of upper trapezius muscle.

  12. Off-Line Optimization Based Active Control of Torsional Oscillation for Electric Vehicle Drivetrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lin


    Full Text Available As there is no clutch or hydraulic torque converter in electric vehicles to buffer and absorb torsional vibrations. Oscillation will occur in electric vehicle drivetrains when drivers tip in/out or are shifting. In order to improve vehicle response to transients, reduce vehicle jerk and reduce wear of drivetrain parts, torque step changes should be avoided. This article mainly focuses on drivetrain oscillations caused by torque interruption for shifting in a Motor-Transmission Integrated System. It takes advantage of the motor responsiveness, an optimal active control method is presented to reduce oscillations by adjusting motor torque output dynamically. A rear-wheel-drive electric vehicle with a two gear automated manual transmission is considered to set up dynamic differential equations based on Newton’s law of motion. By linearization of the affine system, a joint genetic algorithm and linear quadratic regulator method is applied to calculate the real optimal motor torque. In order to improve immediacy of the control system, time consuming optimization process of parameters is completed off-line. The active control system is tested in AMEsim® and limitation of motor external characteristics are considered. The results demonstrate that, compared with the open-loop system, the proposed algorithm can reduce motion oscillation to a satisfied extent when unloading torque for shifting.

  13. Brain electrical activities of dancers and fast ball sports athletes are different. (United States)

    Ermutlu, Numan; Yücesir, Ilker; Eskikurt, Gökçer; Temel, Tan; İşoğlu-Alkaç, Ümmühan


    Exercise training has been shown not only to influence physical fitness positively but also cognition in healthy and impaired populations. However, some particular exercise types, even though comparable based on physical efforts, have distinct cognitive and sensorimotor features. In this study, the effects of different types of exercise, such as fast ball sports and dance training, on brain electrical activity were investigated. Electroencephalography (EEG) scans were recorded in professional dancer, professional fast ball sports athlete (FBSA) and healthy control volunteer groups consisting of twelve subjects each. In FBSA, power of delta and theta frequency activities of EEG was significantly higher than those of the dancers and the controls. Conversely, dancers had significantly higher amplitudes in alpha and beta bands compared to FBSA and significantly higher amplitudes in the alpha band in comparison with controls. The results suggest that cognitive features of physical training can be reflected in resting brain electrical oscillations. The differences in resting brain electrical oscillations between the dancers and the FBSA can be the result of innate network differences determining the talents and/or plastic changes induced by physical training.

  14. Activated T lymphocytes migrate toward the cathode of DC electric fields in microfluidic devices. (United States)

    Li, Jing; Nandagopal, Saravanan; Wu, Dan; Romanuik, Sean F; Paul, Kausik; Thomson, Douglas J; Lin, Francis


    Immune cell migration is a fundamental process that enables immunosurveillance and immune responses. Understanding the mechanism of immune cell migration is not only of importance to the biology of cells, but also has high relevance to cell trafficking mediated physiological processes and diseases such as embryogenesis, wound healing, autoimmune diseases and cancers. In addition to the well-known chemical concentration gradient based guiding mechanism (i.e. chemotaxis), recent studies have shown that lymphocytes can respond to applied physiologically relevant direct current (DC) electric fields by migrating toward the cathode of the fields (i.e. electrotaxis) in both in vitro and in vivo settings. In the present study, we employed two microfluidic devices allowing controlled application of electric fields inside the microfluidic channel for quantitative studies of lymphocyte electrotaxis in vitro at the single cell level. The first device is fabricated by soft-lithography and the second device is made in glass with integrated on-chip electrodes. Using both devices, we for the first time showed that anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies activated human blood T cells migrate to the cathode of the applied DC electric field. This finding is consistent with previous electrotaxis studies on other lymphocyte subsets suggesting electrotaxis is a novel guiding mechanism for immune cell migration. Furthermore, the characteristics of electrotaxis and chemotaxis of activated T cells in PDMS microfluidic devices are compared.

  15. Disparity in Crohn's disease activity between home and clinics is associated with unscheduled hospital visits due to disease flares. (United States)

    Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Yoo Jin; Jang, Byung Ik; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Hyun Seok; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kwak, Sang Gyu


    E-health technologies have been implemented for the management of Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to identify differences between patient activities at home and at routine clinic visits using a web-based self-reporting CD symptom diary (CDSD) and to determine the impact of this disparity on clinical outcomes. Patients with CD from three tertiary hospitals were invited to assess their symptoms at least once a week using CDSD. We identified patients who showed disparities in disease activity (high activity at home but normal at the next hospital visit) and evaluated clinical outcomes of these patients such as unscheduled visits due to flares using Kaplan-Meier analyses. One hundred and forty-three patients recorded their symptoms weekly for at least 3 consecutive months and were included. Forty-eight patients (33.6%) showed disparate disease activities between at home and at the next outpatient clinic visit. The cumulative risk of unscheduled visits was significantly higher in this disparity group than in the concordant group (p = 0.001). Disparity in activity (p = 0.003), and anti-tumor necrosis factor use (p = 0.002) were independent risk factors of unscheduled visits due to disease flares. Disparity in disease activity is considerable in CD patients and is related to the risk of unscheduled hospital visit.

  16. Effects of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on slow electric activity and spike activity of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiation. (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu


    In chronic experiments on rabbits, the effect of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on myoelectric activity of the fundal and antral parts of the stomach was studied under conditions of hunger and satiation in the absence of food. Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation and in previously fed rabbits produced incessant seeking behavior, which was followed by reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of muscles of the stomach body and antrum specific for hungry and satiated animals. Increased hunger motivation during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation in the replacement of bimodal distribution of slow wave periods to a trimodal type typical of 2-day deprivation, while transition from satiation to hunger caused by electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was associated with a shift from monomodal distributions of slow wave periods to a bimodal type typical of 24-h deprivation. Reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was determined by descending inhibitory influences of food motivational excitation on activity of the myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature of the stomach.

  17. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying


    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms was conducted, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetQ and tetZ) and integrase genes (i.e., intI1 and intI2). We observed that the abundances of tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in the soils increased at least 6-fold after manure application, and their abundances remained elevated above the background for up to 16 months. Q-PCR further determined total abundances of up to 5.88 × 109 copies/ng DNA for tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in some of the groundwater wells that were situated next to the manure lagoon and in the facility well used to supply water for one of the farms. We further utilized 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to assess the microbial communities, and our comparative analyses suggest that most of the soil samples collected before and after manure application did not change significantly, sharing a high Bray-Curtis similarity of 78.5%. In contrast, an increase in Bacteroidetes and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations was observed in the groundwaters collected from lagoon-associated groundwater wells. Genera associated with opportunistic human and animal pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Yersinia, and Coxiella, were detected in some of the manure-treated soils and affected groundwater wells. Feces-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix, and Bacteroides were detected in the manure, soil, and groundwater ecosystems, suggesting a perturbation of the soil and groundwater environments by invader species from pig production activities.

  18. Obesity-exposed oocytes accumulate and transmit damaged mitochondria due to an inability to activate mitophagy. (United States)

    Boudoures, Anna L; Saben, Jessica; Drury, Andrea; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Modi, Zeel; Zhang, Wendy; Moley, Kelle H


    Mitochondria are the most prominent organelle in the oocyte. Somatic cells maintain a healthy population of mitochondria by degrading damaged mitochondria via mitophagy, a specialized autophagy pathway. However, evidence from previous work investigating the more general macroautophagy pathway in oocytes suggests that mitophagy may not be active in the oocyte. This would leave the vast numbers of mitochondria - poised to be inherited by the offspring - vulnerable to damage. Here we test the hypothesis that inactive mitophagy in the oocyte underlies maternal transmission of dysfunctional mitochondria. To determine whether oocytes can complete mitophagy, we used either CCCP or AntimycinA to depolarize mitochondria and trigger mitophagy. After depolarization, we did not detect co-localization of mitochondria with autophagosomes and mitochondrial DNA copy number remained unchanged, indicating the non-functional mitochondrial population was not removed. To investigate the impact of an absence of mitophagy in oocytes with damaged mitochondria on offspring mitochondrial function, we utilized in vitro fertilization of high fat high sugar (HF/HS)-exposed oocytes, which have lower mitochondrial membrane potential and damaged mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate that blastocysts generated from HF/HS oocytes have decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, lower metabolites involved in ATP generation, and accumulation of PINK1, a mitophagy marker protein. This mitochondrial phenotype in the blastocyst mirrors the phenotype we show in HF/HS exposed oocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that the mechanisms governing oocyte mitophagy are fundamentally distinct from those governing somatic cell mitophagy and that the absence of mitophagy in the setting of HF/HS exposure contributes to the oocyte-to-blastocyst transmission of dysfunctional mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does physical activity buffer insomnia due to back and neck pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iben Axén

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent and a burden to society, recurrent and persistent low back pain (LBP and neck pain (NP being the most common conditions. They are associated with other poor health outcomes such as sleep problems. Physical activity (PA prevents LBP and NP, but the direct effect on sleep is unclear. This study explored the effect of pain on insomnia, and examined if adherence to moderate-to-high intensity levels of PA influenced this relationship.In this prospective observational study, 1821 workers were followed over 3 years. Data included self-rated measures of LBP and NP, insomnia and level and amount of PA. Pain variables were used in a "risk profile" for future sick-listing, insomnia was categorized into those with and without such problems, and adherence to PA was defined as reporting moderate-to-high levels in two consecutive years. In Poisson regression models, individuals with pain risk profiles were analysed according to PA adherence for the outcome insomnia. Repeated measurements allowed control for prior pain.In this mainly male working population, individuals with a risk profile for LBP and NP had a significant increased risk (RR = 1.5 of developing insomnia one year later when not adhering to moderate-to-high levels of PA. Among those not reporting prior pain, the risk was even larger (RR = 2.5. Generalizability may be restricted to relatively healthy males. The individuals who reported a pain risk profile two consecutive years did not get the buffer effect from adhering to moderate-to-high levels of PA in terms of developing insomnia.

  20. Enhancing the smoothness of joint motion induced by functional electrical stimulation using co-activation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruppel Mirjana


    Full Text Available The motor precision of today’s neuroprosthetic devices that use artificial generation of limb motion using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES is generally low. We investigate the adoption of natural co-activation strategies as present in antagonistic muscle pairs aiming to improve motor precision produced by FES. In a test in which artificial knee-joint movements were generated, we could improve the smoothness of FES-induced motion by 513% when applying co-activation during the phases in which torque production is switched between muscles – compared to no co-activation. We further demonstrated how the co-activation level influences the joint stiffness in a pendulum test.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Radkevich


    Full Text Available The paper considers evaluation procedure for the degree of active power losses reduction in the power transmission lines under 1 kV and 6–10 kV of the systems of electric power supply of industrial enterprises with compensating installations mounted at the side of the customer. The capacitor installations conform to the applied voltage level and factor in dielectric losses in the capacitors. The voltage at the compensating device terminal changes from 0.95 to 1.05 of the capacitors nominal voltage. The study did not account for reactive power losses in the line, nor did it for its charge capacity, conditioned by relative shortness of the cable lines generally operating in the mains of industrial enterprises. For this reason, the quantities of reactive power being consumed and generated by the transmission line are negligible and do not significantly affect the reactive power flux. The researchers obtain functional relations that allow estimating the degree of power loss reduction in the transmission line factoring in its explicit initial data. They perform mathematical analysis of the obtained functional relations and study the function by means of derivatives. The function extremum points are found as well as the intervals of its increment and decrement. A graphical research of the obtained functional relation is performed. It is ascertained that reduction of the active power losses is contingent on the line and the capacitor-installation engineering factors, the electrical energy consumer reactive load value as well as the voltage applied to the capacitor installation. The functional relations presented in the article can be employed in scoping calculation necessary for decision making on the reactive power compensation in systems of the industrial facilities electric power supply. Their account will allow a more accurate estimate of technical and economic effect of the capacitor bank installation in the electrical mains under 1 kV and 6

  2. Mechanisms of electrical activation and conduction in the gastrointestinal system: lessons from cardiac electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eTse


    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract is an electrically excitable organ system containing multiple cell types, which coordinate electrical activity propagating through this tract. Disruption in its normal electrophysiology is observed in a number of GI motility disorders. However, this is not well characterized and the field of GI electrophysiology is much less developed compared to the cardiac field. The aim of this article is to use the established knowledge of cardiac electrophysiology to shed light on the mechanisms of electrical activation and propagation along the GI tract, and how abnormalities in these processes lead to motility disorders and suggest better treatment options based on this improved understanding. In the first part of the article, the ionic contributions to the generation of GI slow wave and the cardiac action potential (AP are reviewed. Propagation of these electrical signals can be described by the core conductor theory in both systems. However, specifically for the GI tract, the following unique properties are observed: changes in slow wave frequency along its length, periods of quiescence, synchronization in short distances and desynchronization over long distances. These are best described by a coupled oscillator theory. Other differences include the diminished role of gap junctions in mediating this conduction in the GI tract compared to the heart. The electrophysiology of conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and gastroparesis, and functional problems such as irritable bowel syndrome are discussed in detail, with reference to ion channel abnormalities and potential therapeutic targets. A deeper understanding of the molecular basis and physiological mechanisms underlying GI motility disorders will enable the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic tools and the advancement of this field.

  3. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry (United States)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  4. Leptin regulation of inward membrane currents, electrical activity and LH release in isolated bovine gonadotropes. (United States)

    Domínguez-Mancera, Belisario; Barrientos-Morales, Manuel; Cervantes-Acosta, Patricia; Hernández-Beltrán, Antonio; Rodríguez-Andrade, Araceli; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Monjaraz, Eduardo; Felix, Ricardo


    Leptin, a peptide hormone produced by adipocytes, is recognized as one of the signals involved in the onset of reproductive activity. The leptin receptor has been found in hypothalamic neurons and pituitary gonadotropes, suggesting that the hormone may act at both sites to stimulate the secretion of GnRH and consequently, FSH and LH. In response to a stimulus such as a hypothalamic secretagogue, gonadotropes respond with changes in electrical activity, intracellular Ca(2+) and hormone release. The main aim of this report was to investigate whether leptin promotes a change in the electrical and secretory activities of bovine gonadotropes. After 48 h of treatment with leptin (10 nM) significant changes in the action potential properties were observed in gonadotropes, which included an increase in amplitude, time-to-pike and post-hyperpolarization, as well as a decrease in firing threshold. Likewise, leptin induced a significant (∼1.3-fold) up-regulation of voltage-gated Na(+) channel current density, and a selective increase (∼2.1-fold) in Ca(2+) current density through high voltage-activated channels. Consistent with this, leptin enhanced GnRH-induced secretion of LH measured by ELISA. We suggest that leptin enhances membrane expression of voltage-gated Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, which results in a modulation of the action potential properties and an increase in hormone release from gonadotropes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preterm labour detection by use of a biophysical marker: the uterine electrical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germain Guy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The electrical activity of the uterine muscle is representative of uterine contractility. Its characterization may be used to detect a potential risk of preterm delivery in women, even at an early gestational stage. Methods We have investigated the effect of the recording electrode position on the spectral content of the signal by using a mathematical model of the women's abdomen. We have then compared the simulated results to actual recordings. On signals with noise reduced with a dedicated algorithm, we have characterized the main frequency components of the signal spectrum in order to compute parameters indicative of different situations: preterm contractions resulting nonetheless in term delivery (i.e. normal contractions and preterm contractions leading to preterm delivery (i.e. high-risk contractions. A diagnosis system permitted us to discriminate between these different categories of contractions. As the position of the placenta seems to affect the frequency content of electrical activity, we have also investigated in monkeys, with internal electrodes attached on the uterus, the effect of the placenta on the spectral content of the electrical signals. Results In women, the best electrode position was the median vertical axis of the abdomen. The discrimination between high risk and normal contractions showed that it was possible to detect a risk of preterm labour as early as at the 27th week of pregnancy (Misclassification Rate range: 11–19.5%. Placental influence on electrical signals was evidenced in animal recordings, with higher energy content in high frequency bands, for signals recorded away from the placenta when compared to signals recorded above the placental insertion. However, we noticed, from pregnancy to labour, a similar evolution of the frequency content of the signal towards high frequencies, whatever the relative position of electrodes and placenta. Conclusion On human recordings, this study has

  6. Twelve years of continuous measurements of atmospheric electrical activity in Mexico's Tropical highland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troncoso Lozada, O. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    Atmospheric electric activity measurements have been recorded continuously by a punctual lightning system at a tropical highland observatory from 1988 onwards, and were analyzed to obtain lightning statistical confident results for thunderstorms occurrence on the leeward side of the southern mountain ridge of Mexico's Valley. Shown, as examples, are individual profiles of the atmospheric electrical activity, associated with severe storms. The results make clear that the fastest possible sequence of electrical measurements is required to obtain significant and applications oriented data in connection with a whole series of thunderstorms taking into account the mean time variation of the atmospheric electricity measurements at an altitude of 2270 m a.s.l. The seasonal variation indicates that the lightning flash peak currents were found to be larger in summer with less than 10% occurring in the autumn and winter. With rainfall data from a network of 66 stations, we obtained a significant correlation with the lightning frequency. Special attention was undertaken concerning the question of the atmospheric electrical activity and climate at Valley of Mexico. [Spanish] Se midieron ininterrumpidamente las variaciones de la actividad electrica en la atmosfera, de enero de 1988 a diciembre de 1999, en un observatorio de altura (2,250 m s.n.m.), y se analizaron para obtener resultados estadisticos confiables con relacion a la ocurrencia de tormentas en la region sur del Valle de Mexico. Como ejemplos, se muestran los perfiles individuales de la actividad electrica atmosferica asociada con tormentas severas. Los resultados dejan claro que se requiere de la secuencia de medidas electricas lo mas rapida posible para obtener datos significativos y aplicables en relacion con una serie completa de tormentas, considerando la media del tiempo de variacion de las mediciones de la actividad electrica atmosferica a una altitud de 2,270 m s.n.m. La validacion estacional indica que

  7. Sensory renal innervation: a kidney-specific firing activity due to a unique expression pattern of voltage-gated sodium channels? (United States)

    Freisinger, Wolfgang; Schatz, Johannes; Ditting, Tilmann; Lampert, Angelika; Heinlein, Sonja; Lale, Nena; Schmieder, Roland; Veelken, Roland


    Sensory neurons with afferent axons from the kidney are extraordinary in their response to electrical stimulation. More than 50% exhibit a tonic firing pattern, i.e., sustained action potential firing throughout depolarizing, pointing to an increased excitability, whereas nonrenal neurons show mainly a phasic response, i.e., less than five action potentials. Here we investigated whether these peculiar firing characteristics of renal afferent neurons are due to differences in the expression of voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs). Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from rats (Th11-L2) were recorded by the current-clamp technique and distinguished as "tonic" or "phasic." In voltage-clamp recordings, Navs were characterized by their tetrodotoxoxin (TTX) sensitivity, and their molecular identity was revealed by RT-PCR. The firing pattern of 66 DRG neurons (41 renal and 25 nonrenal) was investigated. Renal neurons exhibited more often a tonic firing pattern (56.1 vs. 12%). Tonic neurons showed a more positive threshold (-21.75 ± 1.43 vs.-29.33 ± 1.63 mV; P sodium currents. Interestingly, mRNA expression of TTX-resistant sodium channels was significantly increased in renal, predominantly tonic, DRG neurons. Hence, under physiological conditions, renal sensory neurons exhibit predominantly a firing pattern associated with higher excitability. Our findings support that this is due to an increased expression and activation of TTX-resistant Navs.

  8. Electric power saving potential due to domestic refrigerators replacement; Potencial de ahorro de energia electrica por el reemplazo de refrigeradores domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    In Mexico the second most used electrical appliance is: refrigerator. Owing to its use, it would be a promising option for electric power saving. In Guadalajara, Reynosa and Tampico it was performed a study with the aim of launching a project to replace the old refrigerators with new ones which are more effective and less expensive. Since the refrigerators cost and the electrical invoicing saving, the electric appliance change is profitable. To expect with this replacement more than eight million of refrigerators manufactured before 1997 will be changed. [Spanish] El refrigerador es el segundo electrodomestico mas utilizado a nivel nacional, esto permite que debido a su uso sea una opcion prometedora para el ahorro de energia electrica. Se hizo un estudio en Guadalajara, Reynosa y Tampico con el fin de lanzar un proyecto para sustituir los refrigeradores viejos por unos nuevos que sean mas eficaces y menos costosos. Por el costo de los refrigeradores y el ahorro en la facturacion electrica, el cambio de electrodomestico es rentable, de esta manera se espera que los mas de ocho millones de refrigeradores fabricados antes de 1997 que existen en el pais sean cambiados.

  9. Changes of the Electrical and Optical Character of Polyimide Films (and the Chemistry that Drives Them) Due to Exposure to High Energy GEO-like Electrons (United States)


    electrical conduction of aluminized polyimide film after simulated aging in a GEO-like electron environment. We correlate these data with the chemical...and D. Yang, "Damage effect of keV proton irradiation on aluminized Kapton film," Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 77, pp. 482-489, 2008. [21] T

  10. Evolution of plasma rotation, radial electric field, MHD activity and plasma confinement in the STOR M tokamak (United States)

    Trembach, Dallas; Dreval, Mykola


    Experimental results from the STOR-M tokamak detailing simultaneous behavior of plasma SOL rotation, radial electric field, main plasma column parameters, and MHD activity are presented. In the STOR-M tokamak, fast (˜ 1 ms), well correlated changes in the radial electric field, plasma rotation, and floating potential fluctuations in the periphery are observed. During the correlated phase, the radial electric field changes its sign from positive to negative, the Mach number of toroidal plasma rotation, which is co-current, decreases from M||= 0.4 to nearly 0. MHD activity in STOR-M tends to be suppressed if the radial electric field is negative. When the electric field is negative, MHD frequency decreases and increases in the average electron density and poloidal beta are observed.

  11. Timing of intervention affects brain electrical activity in children exposed to severe psychosocial neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E Vanderwert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early psychosocial deprivation has profound effects on brain activity in the young child. Previous reports have shown increased power in slow frequencies of the electroencephalogram (EEG, primarily in the theta band, and decreased power in higher alpha and beta band frequencies in infants and children who have experienced institutional care. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the consequences of removing infants from institutions and placing them into a foster care intervention on brain electrical activity when children were 8 years of age. We found the intervention was successful for increasing high frequency EEG alpha power, with effects being most pronounced for children placed into foster care before 24 months of age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The dependence on age of placement for the effects observed on high frequency EEG alpha power suggests a sensitive period after which brain activity in the face of severe psychosocial deprivation is less amenable to recovery.

  12. Electrical properties of alkali-activated slag composite with combined graphite/CNT filler (United States)

    Rovnaník, P.; Míková, M.; Kusák, I.


    Alkali-activated industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag are known to possess properties which are comparable to or even better than those observed for ordinary Portland cement. The combination of alkali-activated slag matrix with conductive filler introduces new functionalities which are commonly known for self-sensing or self-heating concrete. The present paper discusses the effect of the mixture of two different conductive fillers, graphite powder and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), on the electrical properties of alkali-activated slag mortars. Prepared samples were also tested for their mechanical properties and microstructure was investigated by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The percolation threshold for the resistance was reached for the mixture containing 0.1% CNTs and 8% graphite powder.

  13. Premature birth and low birth weight associated with nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism due to an activating thyrotropin receptor gene mutation. (United States)

    Vaidya, Bijay; Campbell, Viv; Tripp, John H; Spyer, Gill; Hattersley, Andrew T; Ellard, Sian


    Nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism (NAH), a rare autosomal dominantly inherited condition characterized by nonremitting thyrotoxicosis and the absence of features of autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, can result from activating germline mutations in the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene. We report clinical and genetic features of a new family with NAH, and highlight that premature delivery and low birth weight are important characteristics of this condition. Thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed in two children at the ages 20 months and 4 years and in their father at the age of 9 years. Both children were born prematurely by Caesarian section at 33 and 30 weeks following early rupture of the membranes. Their birth weights were 1750 g (27th centile) and 790 g (review of all previously reported cases of NAH due to an activating TSHR germline mutation showed that the mean duration of gestation in these patients was significantly lower than in patients with inactivating TSHR mutations causing congenital hypothyroidism (35.8 weeks vs. 39.4 weeks, P = 0.003). In addition, the mean birth weight in patients with activating TSHR mutations was lower than in patients with inactivating TSHR mutations (2338 g vs. 3470 g, P = 0.004). Premature delivery and low birth weight are consistent features of NAH due to activating TSHR germline mutations. This suggests a possible role for the fetal thyroid axis in the regulation of the timing of delivery and possibly fetal growth.

  14. Simplified 2D Bidomain Model of Whole Heart Electrical Activity and ECG Generation (United States)

    Sovilj, Siniša; Magjarević, Ratko; Abed, Amr Al; Lovell, Nigel H.; Dokos, Socrates


    The aim of this study was the development of a geometrically simple and highly computationally-efficient two dimensional (2D) biophysical model of whole heart electrical activity, incorporating spontaneous activation of the sinoatrial node (SAN), the specialized conduction system, and realistic surface ECG morphology computed on the torso. The FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) equations were incorporated into a bidomain finite element model of cardiac electrical activity, which was comprised of a simplified geometry of the whole heart with the blood cavities, the lungs and the torso as an extracellular volume conductor. To model the ECG, we placed four electrodes on the surface of the torso to simulate three Einthoven leads VI, VII and VIII from the standard 12-lead system. The 2D model was able to reconstruct ECG morphology on the torso from action potentials generated at various regions of the heart, including the sinoatrial node, atria, atrioventricular node, His bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers, and ventricles. Our 2D cardiac model offers a good compromise between computational load and model complexity, and can be used as a first step towards three dimensional (3D) ECG models with more complex, precise and accurate geometry of anatomical structures, to investigate the effect of various cardiac electrophysiological parameters on ECG morphology.

  15. Simplified 2D Bidomain Model of Whole Heart Electrical Activity and ECG Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Siniša


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the development of a geometrically simple and highly computationally-efficient two dimensional (2D biophysical model of whole heart electrical activity, incorporating spontaneous activation of the sinoatrial node (SAN, the specialized conduction system, and realistic surface ECG morphology computed on the torso. The FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN equations were incorporated into a bidomain finite element model of cardiac electrical activity, which was comprised of a simplified geometry of the whole heart with the blood cavities, the lungs and the torso as an extracellular volume conductor. To model the ECG, we placed four electrodes on the surface of the torso to simulate three Einthoven leads VI, VII and VIII from the standard 12-lead system. The 2D model was able to reconstruct ECG morphology on the torso from action potentials generated at various regions of the heart, including the sinoatrial node, atria, atrioventricular node, His bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers, and ventricles. Our 2D cardiac model offers a good compromise between computational load and model complexity, and can be used as a first step towards three dimensional (3D ECG models with more complex, precise and accurate geometry of anatomical structures, to investigate the effect of various cardiac electrophysiological parameters on ECG morphology.

  16. Study on Electrical conductivity and Activation Energy of doped Ceria nanostructures (United States)

    Priya, N. S. Chitra; Sandhya, K.; Rajendran, Deepthi N.


    Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-δ (GDC) and Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ (SDC) nanocrystalline materials are prepared by a solid state reaction method. The synthesized nano crystalline solid solutions have cubic fluorite structure as evident from XRD patterns. The materials are qualitatively analyzed by FTIR. The morphology, size and shape of grains etc. are identified from the SEM images. The grain size of GDC is smaller than that of SDC. The better morphology is obtained for GDC. Hence, this is electrically characterized. The activation energy is calculated from the slope of Arrhenius plot (showing variation of conductivity with temperature).

  17. Active power filters for harmonic cancellation in conventional and advanced aircraft electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eid, A.; El-Mohandes, T. [South Valley University (Egypt); Abdel-Salam, M. [Electrical Engineering Department, Assiut University, Al-Gamaa street, Assiut 71518 (Egypt); El-Kishky, H. [University of Texas at Tyler (United States)


    Conventional and advanced civil aircraft electric power systems are simulated and controlled to be within standards regarding the voltage magnitude and frequency everywhere in the system at different loading scenarios. Harmonics in conventional and advanced aircraft power systems are calculated and reduced using a well-designed active power filter. The control circuit of the filter is based on the perfect harmonic cancellation method. The designed filter results in bringing the harmonics in both aircraft systems down to be within the standard limits of IEEE-519 and MIL-STD-704E. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubinka Radosavljević


    Full Text Available The machine - EKA 350 is designed for the activation of the serial or mixed connected electric detonating caps EK - 40 - 69 in explosive fillings at mining and demolition. For the analyzes of reliability it is important that the machine works in the three regimes of function: LOAD, FIRE and EMPTY. Modeling of reliability was executed for each of the mentioned regimes of the EKA 350 machine. In the machine are incorporated the components dedicated to the professional usage and satisfaction of the MIL standards. The machine is treated as it works in a single - stage mission which lasts 20 seconds.

  19. Spatio-temporal analysis of brain electrical activity in epilepsy based on cellular nonlinear networks (United States)

    Gollas, Frank; Tetzlaff, Ronald


    Epilepsy is the most common chronic disorder of the nervous system. Generally, epileptic seizures appear without foregoing sign or warning. The problem of detecting a possible pre-seizure state in epilepsy from EEG signals has been addressed by many authors over the past decades. Different approaches of time series analysis of brain electrical activity already are providing valuable insights into the underlying complex dynamics. But the main goal the identification of an impending epileptic seizure with a sufficient specificity and reliability, has not been achieved up to now. An algorithm for a reliable, automated prediction of epileptic seizures would enable the realization of implantable seizure warning devices, which could provide valuable information to the patient and time/event specific drug delivery or possibly a direct electrical nerve stimulation. Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) are promising candidates for future seizure warning devices. CNN are characterized by local couplings of comparatively simple dynamical systems. With this property these networks are well suited to be realized as highly parallel, analog computer chips. Today available CNN hardware realizations exhibit a processing speed in the range of TeraOps combined with low power consumption. In this contribution new algorithms based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of CNN are considered in order to analyze intracranial EEG signals and thus taking into account mutual dependencies between neighboring regions of the brain. In an identification procedure Reaction-Diffusion CNN (RD-CNN) are determined for short segments of brain electrical activity, by means of a supervised parameter optimization. RD-CNN are deduced from Reaction-Diffusion Systems, which usually are applied to investigate complex phenomena like nonlinear wave propagation or pattern formation. The Local Activity Theory provides a necessary condition for emergent behavior in RD-CNN. In comparison linear spatio

  20. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation and meat tenderization in beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, C.B.; Li, J.; Zhou, G.H.


    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine longissimus muscle to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES, 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted......, as well as pH decline and more preferred pH/temperature decline mode. Finally, ES accelerated meat tenderization with lower (P ... tenderization of beef. Our results suggested the possible importance of activation of µ-calpain, phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins and release of lysosomal enzymes for ES-induced tenderization of beef muscle....

  1. The electrical activity of GaN doped with transition metal impurities (United States)

    Chisholm, J. A.; Bristowe, P. D.


    The electronic properties of GaN doped with three transition metal impurities (titanium, nickel and gold) have been calculated using a density functional approach. Both substitutional and interstitial mechanisms for dopant incorporation have been considered, together with the effect of varying the charge state of the impurity. The electrical activity of the metal impurities is characterized by considering the defect levels in the band gap, the Mulliken charges on the atoms and the local distribution of valence charge density. The calculated formation energies indicate that a substitutional mechanism is preferred and that all three metals act as donor dopants.

  2. Electrical activity and migration of 90 degrees partial dislocations in SiC


    Savini, G.; Heggie, M I; Öberg, S.; Briddon, P. R.; ,


    SiC p-i-n diodes exhibit an increase in the voltage drop under forward bias which has been linked with the increased mobility of partial dislocations. Through first-principles calculations, we investigated the Si(g) and C(g) core 90° partials in 4H-SiC. We showed that both dislocations can sustain the asymmetric and symmetric reconstructions along the dislocation line. The latter reconstructions are always electrically active with a half-filled metallic band and are always more likely to migr...

  3. Changes in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolates due to germination and enzymatic digestion. (United States)

    López-Barrios, Lidia; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A


    Germination is an inexpensive process to improve the nutritional properties of legumes. The effect of germinating black bean seeds on the production of cotyledon protein hydrolysates (CPH) with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities was analyzed in this research. After simulated enzymatic digestion, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of CPH obtained from germinated black beans was lower than that observed for raw cotyledons. There were no significant differences among CPH cellular antioxidant activities (CAA), except for the high CAA of the 120 min hydrolysate obtained from one day germinated black bean cotyledons. The most significant changes due to germination and enzymatic hydrolysis were observed for the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. The NO synthesis inhibition observed for raw CPH was reduced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion but for germinated samples the inhibition was doubled. Peptides derived from cell wall proteins produced during germination could be responsible of antiinflammatory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved structural and electrical properties in native Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices due to intermixing mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cecchi


    Full Text Available Superlattices made of Sb2Te3/GeTe phase change materials have demonstrated outstanding performance with respect to GeSbTe alloys in memory applications. Recently, epitaxial Sb2Te3/GeTe superlattices were found to feature GexSb2Te3+x blocks as a result of intermixing between constituting layers. Here we present the epitaxy and characterization of Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices, where GexSb2Te3+x was intentionally fabricated. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and lateral electrical transport data are reported. The intrinsic 2D nature of both sublayers is found to mitigate the intermixing in the structures, significantly improving the interface sharpness and ultimately the superlattice structural and electrical properties.

  5. Electrokinetic Enhanced Delivery and Electrical Resistance Heating Activation of Persulfate for Low Permeability Soil Remediation (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. I.; Gerhard, J.; Reynolds, D. A.; OCarroll, D.


    Remediation of low permeability soils is challenging because delivering remediants into these formations is difficult. Electrokinetics (EK) has been proposed as a new approach to overcome this difficulty, for example, to deliver oxidants such as persulfate into silts and clays. However, activation of the persulfate in such scenarios remains a challenge. The current study proposes a novel approach of combining (i) EK-assisted persulfate delivery with (ii) low temperature electrical resistance heating (ERH) to activate the persulfate. The advantage of this new approach that a single set of electrodes can be used for both oxidant delivery and oxidant activation in low permeability, contaminated soil. Proof-of-concept experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional sandbox packed with silt exhibiting high concentrations of aqueous phase tetrachloroethene (PCE). Results showed that (1) EK delivered the non-activated persulfate throughout the silt, (2) ERH was able to achieve and sustain the targeted temperatures to activate the persulfate, and (3) these resulted in complete PCE degradation at all locations. Activating persulfate at a temperature around 36 °C was better than at 42 °C (or higher), because the former more slowly generated the reactive SO4ˉ● radical which ensured more complete reaction with the contaminant. This study proved the concept of this novel, coupled approach for delivering and activating persulfate for remediating chlorinated solvents in low permeability soils.

  6. Reduction of ion thermal transport due to non-uniformity effects of the radial electric field at the edge of the JT-60U tokamak (United States)

    Kamiya, K.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.


    Non-uniformity effects of the edge radial electric field, E r, on edge transport barrier (ETB) formation have been identified with high-spatiotemporal resolution spectroscopic measurement. We identified the decisive importance of E r-curvature (i.e. 2nd derivative of E r) on ETB formation corresponding to a local peak value in the pedestal region of the normalized ion temperature gradient, L{{Ti}}-1\\equiv -\

  7. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss. (United States)

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke


    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was -1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: -0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: -0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): -0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: -2 min/day; steps/day: -156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  8. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt


    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  9. Crossover from band-like to thermally activated charge transport in organic transistors due to strain-induced traps

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Yaochuan


    The temperature dependence of the charge-carrier mobility provides essential insight into the charge transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors. Such knowledge imparts critical understanding of the electrical properties of these materials, leading to better design of high-performance materials for consumer applications. Here, we present experimental results that suggest that the inhomogeneous strain induced in organic semiconductor layers by the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of the consecutive device layers of field-effect transistors generates trapping states that localize charge carriers. We observe a universal scaling between the activation energy of the transistors and the interfacial thermal expansion mismatch, in which band-like transport is observed for similar CTEs, and activated transport otherwise. Our results provide evidence that a high-quality semiconductor layer is necessary, but not sufficient, to obtain efficient charge-carrier transport in devices, and underline the importance of holistic device design to achieve the intrinsic performance limits of a given organic semiconductor. We go on to show that insertion of an ultrathin CTE buffer layer mitigates this problem and can help achieve band-like transport on a wide range of substrate platforms.

  10. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2006 Annual Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    2006 was another recordbreaking year in the electricity and gas utilities sector. Total deal values shot through the record level set in 2005 to reach a dizzying USD 298.8bn. This is nearly seven times the USD 43bn level of transactions recorded in the sector only three years earlier in 2003. The rise is all the more astonishing as it comes in a year when deal activity from corporate US utility players plummeted. The sharp downturn in North America came as companies took stock of aggressive regulatory stances from some state regulators during a US midterm election year that coincided with the ending of rate freezes and reaction to the repeal of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act. North American electricity deal values by bidder fell 64% to USD 20.7bn, not far above the USD 16.7bn level of 2003. The picture in Europe and the Asia Pacific region was very different. Both regions recorded record levels of power deal activities as utility companies continued to strive for super regional'' scale. Deal activity in Europe was given extra momentum by the countdown to the July 2007 implementation of full retail market liberalisation. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key power and gas markets. Looking to the future, the regulatory environment will play a key role in determining the course of deal activity. Companies entering into big deals need to be ready more than ever for the long haul. However, the underpinning momentum in the sector remains strong and this is likely to create continued buoyancy in the period ahead.

  11. Influence of Different Geometric Representations of the Volume Conductor on Nerve Activation during Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gómez-Tames


    Full Text Available Volume conductor models with different geometric representations, such as the parallel layer model (PM, the cylindrical layer model (CM, or the anatomically based model (AM, have been employed during the implementation of bioelectrical models for electrical stimulation (FES. Evaluating their strengths and limitations to predict nerve activation is fundamental to achieve a good trade-off between accuracy and computation time. However, there are no studies aimed at clarifying the following questions. (1 Does the nerve activation differ between CM and PM? (2 How well do CM and PM approximate an AM? (3 What is the effect of the presence of blood vessels and nerve trunk on nerve activation prediction? Therefore, in this study, we addressed these questions by comparing nerve activation between CM, PM, and AM models by FES. The activation threshold was used to evaluate the models under different configurations of superficial electrodes (size and distance, nerve depths, and stimulation sites. Additionally, the influences of the sciatic nerve, femoral artery, and femoral vein were inspected for a human thigh. The results showed that the CM and PM had a high error rate, but the variation of the activation threshold followed the same tendency for electrode size and interelectrode distance variation as AM.

  12. Invariability of relationship between the polar cap magnetic activity and geoeffective interplanetary electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Troshichev


    Full Text Available The PC (polar cap index characterizing the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere is calculated with use of parameters α, β, and φ, determining the relationship between the interplanetary electric field (EKL and the value of magnetic activity δF in the polar caps. These parameters were noted as valid for large and small EKL values, and as a result the suggestion was made (Troshichev et al., 2006 that the parameters should remain invariant irrespective of solar activity. To verify this suggestion, the independent sets of calibration parameters α, β, and φ were derived separately for the solar maximum (1998–2001 and solar minimum (1997, 2007–2009 epochs, with a proper choice of a quiet daily variation (QDC as a level of reference for the polar cap magnetic activity value. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that parameters α, β, and φ, derived under conditions of solar maximum and solar minimum, are indeed in general conformity and provide consistent (within 10 % uncertainty estimations of the PC index. It means that relationship between the geoeffective solar wind variations and the polar cap magnetic activity responding to these variations remains invariant irrespective of solar activity. The conclusion is made that parameters α, β, and φ derived in AARI#3 version for complete cycle of solar activity (1995–2005 can be regarded as forever valid.

  13. Advanced electric-field scanning probe lithography on molecular resist using active cantilever (United States)

    Kaestner, Marcus; Aydogan, Cemal; Ivanov, Tzvetan; Ahmad, Ahmad; Angelov, Tihomir; Reum, Alexander; Ishchuk, Valentyn; Krivoshapkina, Yana; Hofer, Manuel; Lenk, Steve; Atanasov, Ivaylo; Holz, Mathias; Rangelow, Ivo W.


    The routine "on demand" fabrication of features smaller than 10 nm opens up new possibilities for the realization of many devices. Driven by the thermally actuated piezoresistive cantilever technology, we have developed a prototype of a scanning probe lithography (SPL) platform which is able to image, inspect, align, and pattern features down to the single digit nanoregime. Here, we present examples of practical applications of the previously published electric-field based current-controlled scanning probe lithography. In particular, individual patterning tests are carried out on calixarene by using our developed table-top SPL system. We have demonstrated the application of a step-and-repeat SPL method including optical as well as atomic force microscopy-based navigation and alignment. The closed-loop lithography scheme was applied to sequentially write positive and negative tone features. Due to the integrated unique combination of read-write cycling, each single feature is aligned separately with the highest precision and inspected after patterning. This routine was applied to create a pattern step by step. Finally, we have demonstrated the patterning over larger areas, over existing topography, and the practical applicability of the SPL processes for lithography down to 13-nm pitch patterns. To enhance the throughput capability variable beam diameter electric field, current-controlled SPL is briefly discussed.

  14. Multi-objective decoupling algorithm for active distance control of intelligent hybrid electric vehicle (United States)

    Luo, Yugong; Chen, Tao; Li, Keqiang


    The paper presents a novel active distance control strategy for intelligent hybrid electric vehicles (IHEV) with the purpose of guaranteeing an optimal performance in view of the driving functions, optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort. Considering the complexity of driving situations, the objects of safety and ride comfort are decoupled from that of fuel economy, and a hierarchical control architecture is adopted to improve the real-time performance and the adaptability. The hierarchical control structure consists of four layers: active distance control object determination, comprehensive driving and braking torque calculation, comprehensive torque distribution and torque coordination. The safety distance control and the emergency stop algorithms are designed to achieve the safety and ride comfort goals. The optimal rule-based energy management algorithm of the hybrid electric system is developed to improve the fuel economy. The torque coordination control strategy is proposed to regulate engine torque, motor torque and hydraulic braking torque to improve the ride comfort. This strategy is verified by simulation and experiment using a forward simulation platform and a prototype vehicle. The results show that the novel control strategy can achieve the integrated and coordinated control of its multiple subsystems, which guarantees top performance of the driving functions and optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort.

  15. A comparison study of different semi-active hybrid energy storage system topologies for electric vehicles (United States)

    Song, Ziyou; Hofmann, Heath; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Zhang, Xiaowu; Ouyang, Minggao


    In this paper, four different semi-active hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs), which use both supercapacitors (SCs) and batteries, are compared based on an electric city bus running the China Bus Driving Cycle (CBDC). The SC sizes of the different HESS topologies are optimized by using the dynamic programming (DP) approach, based on a dynamic degradation model of the LiFePO4 battery. The operation costs of different HESSs, including the electricity and the battery degradation costs over a whole CBDC, are minimized in the optimization process. Based on the DP results, near-optimal control strategies of different HESSs for on-line uses are proposed. Finally, the four HESS topologies are comprehensively compared from different aspects, including operation cost, initial cost, and DC bus voltage variation. Simulation results show that all HESS topologies have their merits and drawbacks, and can be used in different applications with different requirements. In addition, about 50% of the operation cost of the energy storage system is reduced by the semi-active HESSs when compared to the battery-only topology. Thus the effectiveness of adopting the SC in the HESS is verified.

  16. Electricity forecasting on the individual household level enhanced based on activity patterns. (United States)

    Gajowniczek, Krzysztof; Ząbkowski, Tomasz


    Leveraging smart metering solutions to support energy efficiency on the individual household level poses novel research challenges in monitoring usage and providing accurate load forecasting. Forecasting electricity usage is an especially important component that can provide intelligence to smart meters. In this paper, we propose an enhanced approach for load forecasting at the household level. The impacts of residents' daily activities and appliance usages on the power consumption of the entire household are incorporated to improve the accuracy of the forecasting model. The contributions of this paper are threefold: (1) we addressed short-term electricity load forecasting for 24 hours ahead, not on the aggregate but on the individual household level, which fits into the Residential Power Load Forecasting (RPLF) methods; (2) for the forecasting, we utilized a household specific dataset of behaviors that influence power consumption, which was derived using segmentation and sequence mining algorithms; and (3) an extensive load forecasting study using different forecasting algorithms enhanced by the household activity patterns was undertaken.

  17. The number of supports does not modify the electrical cortical activity during balance tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo


    Full Text Available Aims: The objective was to evaluate the electrical cortical activity during two static and two dynamic tasks, comparing between tasks with single support tasks and tasks with two feet on the platform. Settings and Design: Sixteen young males participated in this cross-sectional study. Methods and Material: Electrical cortical activity was assessed using the Enobio device. Two static and two dynamic tasks were performed, all of them on the Biodex Balance System device. Statistical analysis used: Mean power spectrum for the Alpha band was analyzed. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare tasks with one single support and tasks with the two feet on the platform. Results: No significant difference was observed when comparing the balance tasks. Conclusions: The number of supports did not significantly modify the EEG signal in the alpha band. However, cognitive demands in the single support dynamic task seemed to be somewhat higher compared with the rest of the tasks. These results may be relevant to design future programs based on dual task.

  18. Improving the Performance of Electrically Activated NiTi Shape Memory Actuators by Pre-Aging (United States)

    Rathmann1, Christian; Fleczok1, Benjamin; Otibar1, Dennis; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd


    Shape memory alloys possess an array of unique functional properties which are influenced by a complex interaction of different factors. Due to thermal sensitivity, slight changes in temperature may cause the properties to change significantly. This poses a huge challenge especially for the use of shape memory alloys as actuators. The displacement is the key performance indicator, which has to be of equal or better quality compared to conventional actuators. One problem of shape memory alloys is the change in functional fatigue in the first cycles, which makes it rather difficult to design the actuator. Therefore, the reduction of this shakedown effect is crucial. For this reason, this paper investigates the effect of electrical heat treatment as a method for pre-aging. This topic has so far been little investigated so that the investigations focus on identifying important factors and effects by using the design of experiments.

  19. Atmospheric-pressure electric discharge as an instrument of chemical activation of water solutions (United States)

    Rybkin, V. V.; Shutov, D. A.


    Results of experimental studies and numerical simulations of physicochemical characteristics of plasmas generated in different types of atmospheric-pressure discharges (pulsed streamer corona, gliding electric arc, dielectric barrier discharge, glow-discharge electrolysis, diaphragmatic discharge, and dc glow discharge) used to initiate various chemical processes in water solutions are analyzed. Typical reactor designs are considered. Data on the power supply characteristics, plasma electron parameters, gas temperatures, and densities of active particles in different types of discharges excited in different gases and their dependences on the external parameters of discharges are presented. The chemical composition of active particles formed in water is described. Possible mechanisms of production and loss of plasma particles are discussed.

  20. Effects of intermittent 60-Hz high voltage electric fields on metabolism, activity, and temperature in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbergy, R.S; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.


    Transient effects of 100-kV/m extremely low frequency electric fields were studied in the white footed deermouse, Peromyscus leucopus. Gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption, and core body temperature were monitored before, during, and after intermittent field exposures (four hour-long exposures, at one-hour intervals). Thirty-four mice were exposed in cages with plastic floors floating above ground potential, and 21 mice were exposed in cages with grounded metal floor plates. The first field exposure produced an immediate, transient increase of activity and gas measures during the inactive phase of the circadian cycle. All measures returned to baseline levels before the second exposure and were not significantly changed throughout the remainder of the exposures. The rapid habituation of field-induced arousal suggests that significant metabolic changes will not be measured in experiments in which the interval between exposure and measurement is greater than two hours.

  1. Persistent alterations in active and passive electrical membrane properties of regenerated nerve fibers of man and mice. (United States)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Alvarez, Susana; Rosberg, Mette R; Krarup, Christian


    Excitability of regenerated fibers remains impaired due to changes in both passive cable properties and alterations in the voltage-dependent membrane function. These abnormalities were studied by mathematical modeling in human regenerated nerves and experimental studies in mice. In three adult male patients with surgically repaired complete injuries of peripheral nerves of the arm 22 months-26 years prior to investigation, deviation of excitability measures was explained by a hyperpolarizing shift in the resting membrane potential and an increase in the passive 'Barrett and Barrett' conductance (GBB) bridging the nodal and internodal compartments. These changes were associated with an increase in the 'fast' K(+) conductance and the inward rectifier conductance (GH). Similar changes were found in regenerated mouse tibial motor axons at 1 month after a sciatic crush lesion. During the first 5 months of regeneration, GH showed partial recovery, which paralleled that in GBB. The internodal length remained one-third of normal. Excitability abnormalities could be reversed by the energy-dependent Na(+)/K(+) pump blocker ouabain resulting in membrane depolarization. Stressing the Na(+) pumping system during a strenuous activity protocol triggered partial Wallerian degeneration in regenerated nerves but not in control nerves from age-matched mice. The current data suggest that the nodal voltage-gated ion channel machinery is restored in regenerated axons, although the electrical separation from the internodal compartment remains compromised. Due to the persistent increase in number of nodes, the increased activity-dependent Na(+) influx could lead to hyperactivity of the Na(+)/K(+) pump resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and neurotoxic energy insufficiency during strenuous activity. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Electrically assisted cycling: a new mode for meeting physical activity guidelines? (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Van Es, Eline; Hendriksen, Ingrid


    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of the electrically assisted bicycle (EAB) as a novel tool for meeting the physical activity guidelines in terms of intensity. Twelve habitually active adult subjects were requested to cycle a track of 4.3 km at an intensity they would normally choose for commuter cycling, using three different support settings: no support (NO), eco support (ECO), and power support (POW). For estimating the intensity, the oxygen consumption was measured by using a portable gas-analyzing system, and HR was simultaneously measured. The bicycle was equipped with the SRM Training System to measure subjects' power output, pedaling rate, and the cycle velocity. Mean intensity was 6.1 MET for NO, 5.7 MET for ECO, and 5.2 MET for POW. Intensity was significantly lower in POW compared with that in NO. No differences were found between NO and ECO and between ECO and POW. Mean HR was significantly higher in NO compared with that in ECO and POW. The cycling speed with electrical support settings was significantly higher than cycling in the NO condition. Mean power output during cycling was significantly different among all three conditions. Most power outputs were supplied in the NO condition, and the lowest power output was supplied in the POW condition. Intensity during cycling on an EAB, in all three measured conditions, is sufficiently high to contribute to the physical activity guidelines for moderate-intensity health-enhancing physical activity for adults (cutoff, 3 MET). Further study is needed to conclude whether these results still hold when using the EAB in regular daily life and in subjects with other fitness level.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Traina


    Full Text Available Was previously discovered that in the leech Hirudo medicinalis, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC affects forms of non-associative learning, such as sensitization and dishabituation, due to nociceptive stimulation of the dorsal skin in the swim induction behavioural paradigm, likely through modulating the activity of the mechanosensory tactile (T neurons, which initiate swimming. Since was found that ALC impaired sensitization and dishabituation, both of which are mediated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, the present study analyzed how ALC may interfere with the sensitizing response. Was already found that ALC reduced the activity of nociceptive (N neurons, which modulate T cell activity through serotonergic mediation.

  4. Gliadin-mediated proliferation and innate immune activation in celiac disease are due to alterations in vesicular trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vittoria Barone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Damage to intestinal mucosa in celiac disease (CD is mediated both by inflammation due to adaptive and innate immune responses, with IL-15 as a major mediator of the innate immune response, and by proliferation of crypt enterocytes as an early alteration of CD mucosa causing crypts hyperplasia. We have previously shown that gliadin peptide P31-43 induces proliferation of cell lines and celiac enterocytes by delaying degradation of the active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR due to delayed maturation of endocytic vesicles. IL-15 is increased in the intestine of patients affected by CD and has pleiotropic activity that ultimately results in immunoregulatory cross-talk between cells belonging to the innate and adaptive branches of the immune response. Aims of this study were to investigate the role of P31-43 in the induction of cellular proliferation and innate immune activation. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cell proliferation was evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation both in CaCo-2 cells and in biopsies from active CD cases and controls. We used real-time PCR to evaluate IL-15 mRNA levels and FACS as well as ELISA and Western Blot (WB analysis to measure protein levels and distribution in CaCo-2 cells. Gliadin and P31-43 induce a proliferation of both CaCo-2 cells and CD crypt enterocytes that is dependent on both EGFR and IL-15 activity. In CaCo-2 cells, P31-43 increased IL-15 levels on the cell surface by altering intracellular trafficking. The increased IL-15 protein was bound to IL15 receptor (IL-15R alpha, did not require new protein synthesis and functioned as a growth factor. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have shown that P31-43 induces both increase of the trans-presented IL-15/IL5R alpha complex on cell surfaces by altering the trafficking of the vesicular compartments as well as proliferation of crypt enterocytes with consequent remodelling of CD mucosa due to a cooperation of IL-15 and EGFR.

  5. Estriol-induced fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin by nitric oxide synthesis in platelets. (United States)

    Jana, Pradipta; Maiti, Smarajit; Kahn, Nighat N; Sinha, Asru K


    Estriol, an oestrogen, at 0.6 nmol/l was reported to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation through nitric oxide synthesis. As nitric oxide has been reported to cause fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, the role of estriol as a fibrinolytic agent was investigated. Also, the mechanism of estriol-induced nitric oxide synthesis in anucleated platelets was investigated. The estriol-induced lysis of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clot was determined by photography of the clot lysis and by the assay of fibrin degradation products in the lysate and was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Nitric oxide was determined by methemoglobin method. The platelet membrane protein was isolated from the platelets by using Triton X-100 (0.05% v/v). The binding of estriol to the protein was determined by Scatchard plot by using an ELISA for estriol. Estriol at 0.6 nmol/l was found to lyse the clotted PRP due to fibrinolysis that produced fibrin degradation products in the lysate. The amino acid analysis of the platelet membrane protein, which resembles with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, was activated nearly 10-fold over the control in the presence of estriol and was identified to be a human serum albumin precursor (Mr. 69 kDa) that binds to estriol with Kd1 of 6.0 × 10 mol/l and 39 ± 2 molecules of estriol bound the NOS molecule. The estriol-induced nitric oxide is capable of inducing fibrinolysis of the clotted PRP. The binding of estriol to platelet membrane NOS activated the enzyme in the absence of DNA in the platelet.

  6. Physical work load and psychological stress of daily activities as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders. (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko


    Physical work loading and psychological stress commonly co-occur in working life, hence potentially having an interrelationship that may affect work incapacity. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of stability and change in physical work loading and stress on the risk of disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD), while accounting for familial confounding in these associations. Data on 12,455 twins born before 1958 were surveyed of their physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data was collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the follow up, 893 participants were granted DP due to MSD. Stable high (hazard ratio, HR, 2.21), but also increased physical work loading (HR 2.05) and high psychological stress (HR 2.22) were associated with increased risk for DP, and had significant interaction (p=0.032). The associations were confirmed when accounting for several confounding factors. Stable high but also increased physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities between two timepoints with 6 years apart confirms their predictive role for an increased risk of DP. Both physical work loading and psychological stress seem to be independent from various confounding factors hence suggesting direct effect on risk for DP providing potential for occupational health care to early identification of persons at risk. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  7. Improved electrical performance and bias stability of solution-processed active bilayer structure of indium zinc oxide based TFT. (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Suk; Bae, Byeong-Soo


    We fabricated active single- and bilayer structure thin film transistors (TFTs) with aluminum or gallium doped (IZO:Al or IZO:Ga) and undoped indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin film layers using an aqueous solution process. The electrical performance and bias stability of these active single- and bilayer structure TFTs were investigated and compared to reveal the effects of Al/Gal doping and bilayer structure. The single-layer structure IZO TFT shows a high mobility of 19 cm(2)/V · s with a poor positive bias stability (PBS) of ΔVT + 3.4 V. However, Al/Ga doped in IZO TFT reduced mobility to 8.5-9.9 cm(2)/V · s but improved PBS to ΔVT + 1.6-1.7 V due to the reduction of oxygen vacancy. Thus, it is found the bilayer structure TFTs with a combination of bottom- and top-layer compositions modify both the mobility and bias stability of the TFTs to be optimized. The bilayer structure TFT with an IZO:X bottom layer possess high mobility and an IZO bottom layer improves the PBS.

  8. Indices to Study the Electrical Power Signals in Active and Passive Distribution Lines: A Combined Analysis with Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Vergura


    Full Text Available The broad diffusion of renewable energy-based technologies has introduced several open issues in the design and operation of smart grids (SGs when distributed generators (DGs inject a large amount of power into the grid. In this paper, a theoretical investigation on active and reactive power data is performed for one active line characterized by several photovoltaic (PV plants with a great amount of injectable power and two passive lines, one of them having a small peak power PV plant and the other one having no PV power. The frequencies calculated via the empirical mode decomposition (EMD method based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT are compared to the ones obtained via the fast Fourier transform (FFT and the wavelet transform (WT, showing a wider spectrum of significant modes mainly due to the non-periodical behavior of the power signals. The results obtained according to the HHT-EMD analysis are corroborated by the calculation of three new indices that are computed starting from the electrical signal itself and not from the Hilbert spectrum. These indices give the quantitative deviation from the periodicity and the coherence degree of the power signals, which typically deviate from the stationary regime and have a nonlinear behavior in terms of amplitude and phase. This information allows to extract intrinsic features of power lines belonging to SGs and this is useful for their optimal operation and planning.

  9. Design Considerations for the Electrical Power Supply of Future Civil Aircraft with Active High-Lift Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-K. Mueller


    Full Text Available Active high-lift systems of future civil aircraft allow noise reduction and the use of shorter runways. Powering high-lift systems electrically have a strong impact on the design requirements for the electrical power supply of the aircraft. The active high-lift system of the reference aircraft design considered in this paper consists of a flexible leading-edge device together with a combination of boundary-layer suction and Coanda-jet blowing. Electrically driven compressors distributed along the aircraft wings provide the required mass flow of pressurized air. Their additional loads significantly increase the electric power demand during take-off and landing, which is commonly provided by electric generators attached to the aircraft engines. The focus of the present study is a feasibility assessment of alternative electric power supply concepts to unburden or eliminate the generator coupled to the aircraft engine. For this purpose, two different concepts using either fuel cells or batteries are outlined and evaluated in terms of weight, efficiency, and technology availability. The most promising, but least developed alternative to the engine-powered electric generator is the usage of fuel cells. The advantages are high power density and short refueling time, compared to the battery storage concept.

  10. The effect of hyperbaric air on the electric activity of neuronal in vitro networks. (United States)

    Stubbe, Marco; Nissen, Matthias; Schroeder, Jessica; Gimsa, Jan


    Breathing hyperbaric air or gas mixtures, for example during diving or when working underwater is known to alter the electrophysiological behavior of neuronal cells, which may lead to restricted cognition. During the last few decades, only very few studies into hyperbaric effects have been published, especially for the most relevant pressure range of up to 10 bar. We designed a pressurized measuring chamber to record pressure effects on the electrical activity of neuronal networks formed by primary cells of the frontal cortex of NMRI mice. Electrical activity was recorded with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) of glass neuro chips while subjected to a step-by-step pressure increase from atmospheric pressure (1 bar) to 2 and 4 bar, followed by a decompression to 1 bar, in order to record recovery effects. The effects of pressure on the total spike rates (TSRs), which were averaged from at least 45 chips, were detected in two cell culture media with different compositions. In a DMEM medium with 6% horse serum, the TSR was increased by 19% after a pressure increase to 2 bar and remained stable at 4 bar. In NMEM medium with 2% B27, the TSR was not altered by a pressure increase to 2 bar but increased by 9% at 4 bar. After decompression to 1 bar, the activities decreased to 76% and 101% of their respective control levels in the two media. MEA recordings from neuronal networks in miniaturized hyperbaric measuring chambers provide new access for exploring the neuronal effects of hyperbaric breathing gases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative Brain Electrical Activity in the Initial Screening of Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Chabot


    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of emergency department (ED visits for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBIin the United States exceeds 1,000,000 cases/year with the vast majority classified as mild (mTBI.Using existing computed tomography (CT decision rules for selecting patients to be referred for CT,such as the New Orleans Criteria (NOC, approximately 70% of those scanned are found to havea negative CT. This study investigates the use of quantified brain electrical activity to assess itspossible role in the initial screening of ED mTBI patients as compared to NOC.Methods: We studied 119 patients who reported to the ED with mTBI and received a CT. Using ahand-held electroencephalogram (EEG acquisition device, we collected data from frontal leadsto determine the likelihood of a positive CT. The brain electrical activity was processed off-line togenerate an index (TBI-Index, biomarker. This index was previously derived using an independentpopulation, and the value found to be sensitive for significant brain dysfunction in TBI patients. Wecompared this performance of the TBI-Index to the NOC for accuracy in prediction of positive CTfindings.Results: Both the brain electrical activity TBI-Index and the NOC had sensitivities, at 94.7% and92.1% respectively. The specificity of the TBI-Index was more than twice that of NOC, 49.4%and 23.5% respectively. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the positivelikelihood ratio were better with the TBI-Index. When either the TBI-Index or the NOC are positive(combining both indices the sensitivity to detect a positive CT increases to 97%.Conclusion: The hand-held EEG device with a limited frontal montage is applicable to the EDenvironment and its performance was superior to that obtained using the New Orleans criteria.This study suggests a possible role for an index of brain function based on EEG to aid in the acuteassessment of mTBI patients.

  12. Feasibility of using RH795 dye for photoacoustic imaging of neuro-electrical activity (United States)

    Rasheed, Nashaat; Cressman, John R.; Chitnis, Parag V.


    Currently, the most researched noninvasive approach for monitoring neuro-electrical activity involves opticalfluorescence imaging, which suffers from limited imaging penetration. We propose an alternative approach, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) of biopotentials, that relies on transient absorption of light by voltage-sensitive probes and subsequent generation/detection of ultrasound. PAI-based voltage imaging approach can offer the same advantages as the fluorescence imaging in terms of sensitivity and molecular specificity, but it also can significantly extend the imaging depth. In this pilot study we are investigating the feasibility of photoacoustically visualizing biopotentials in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells tagged with voltage-sensitive styrylpyridinium dye, RH795. A change in the intramembrane potential was induced in PC12 cells by adding tetraphenylborate (TPB) to the cell culture. A custommade absorption spectrophotometer was used to verify the change in optical absorption of RH795 dye as a result of TPBinduced electrical fields. Absorption spectra recorded before and after the addition of 100 μM TPB exhibited a wavelength shift of the absorption peak (approximately 510 nm to 550 nm) as well as an increase in the overall magnitude of absorption in the wavelength range of 500-1000 nm. The absorption spectral measurements indicated that RH795 is a good candidate as a voltage-sensitive dye for photoacoustically tracking changes in cell-membrane potential.

  13. Late Quaternary activity along the Scorciabuoi Fault (Southern Italy as inferred from electrical resistivity tomographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loperte


    Full Text Available The Scorciabuoi Fault is one of the major tectonic structures affecting the Southern Apennines, Italy. Across its central sector, we performed several electrical resistivity tomographies with different electrode spacing (5 and 10 m and using a multielectrode system with 32 electrodes. All tomographies were acquired with two different arrays, the dipole-dipole and the Wenner-Schlumberger. We also tested the different sensitivity of the two arrays with respect to the specific geological conditions and research goals. Detailed geological mapping and two boreholes were used to calibrate the electrical stratigraphy. In all but one tomography (purposely performed off the fault trace, we could recognise an abrupt subvertical lateral variation of the main sedimentary bodies showing the displacement and sharp thickening of the two youngest alluvial bodies in the hanging-wall block. These features are interpreted as evidence of synsedimentary activity of the Scorciabuoi Fault during Late Pleistocene and possibly as recently as Holocene and allow accurate location of the fault trace within the Sauro alluvial plain.

  14. Electrical Conductivity of Rocks and Dominant Charge Carriers. Part 1; Thermally Activated Positive Holes (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann T.; Freund, Minoru M.


    The prevailing view in the geophysics community is that the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth's continental crust over the 5-35 km depth range can best be understood by assuming the presence of intergranular fluids and/or of intragranular carbon films. Based on single crystal studies of melt-grown MgO, magma-derived sanidine and anorthosite feldspars and upper mantle olivine, we present evidence for the presence of electronic charge carriers, which derive from peroxy defects that are introduced during cooling, under non-equilibrium conditions, through a redox conversion of pairs of solute hydroxyl arising from dissolution of H2O.The peroxy defects become thermally activated in a 2-step process, leading to the release of defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice. Known as positive holes and symbolized by h(dot), these electronic charge carriers are highly mobile. Chemically equivalent to O(-) in a matrix of O(2-) they are highly oxidizing. Being metastable they can exist in the matrix of minerals, which crystallized in highly reduced environments. The h(dot) are highly mobile. They appear to control the electrical conductivity of crustal rocks in much of the 5-35 km depth range.

  15. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2007 Annual Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The year 2007 saw a continued remarkable expansion in the total number and value of deals in the power utilities sector (electricity and gas) worldwide. A 25% increase put the total power deal value of USD 372.5bn nearly nine times above the US$43bn recorded just four years earlier in 2003. Records continue to be set in the sector for the total number and value of deals and for the size of individual deals. There was little sign of the sector pausing for breath in 2007. There were fewer mega-deals, reflecting the complexity of getting really huge deals over the political and regulatory hurdles, but this was more than compensated by a rise in mid-size deal numbers. There was no clear evidence of a fall-off in deal activity in the second half of the year as the credit crisis broke. Indeed, 57% of all power sector deals, 441 of the total 768 deals, came in the second half. Strong deal momentum characterised all the major markets and, with the restructuring of the Russian electricity sector, 2007 marked the year when deals in the Russian Federation made a significant impact on the worldwide totals. Thus, for the first time, Power Deals 2007 includes a specific section on the Russian deals and we separate them out from the wider Asia Pacific totals where they featured in previous editions.

  16. Solar activity and transformer failures in the Greek national electric grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zois Ioannis Panayiotis


    Full Text Available Aims: We study both the short term and long term effects of solar activity on the large transformers (150 kV and 400 kV of the Greek national electric grid. Methods: We use data analysis and various statistical methods and models. Results: Contrary to common belief in PPC Greece, we see that there are considerable both short term (immediate and long term effects of solar activity onto large transformers in a mid-latitude country like Greece. Our results can be summarised as follows: For the short term effects: During 1989–2010 there were 43 “stormy days” (namely days with for example Ap ≥ 100 and we had 19 failures occurring during a stormy day plus or minus 3 days and 51 failures occurring during a stormy day plus or minus 7 days. All these failures can be directly related to Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs. Explicit cases are briefly presented. For the long term effects, again for the same period 1989–2010, we have two main results: The annual number of transformer failures seems to follow the solar activity pattern. Yet the maximum number of transformer failures occurs about half a solar cycle after the maximum of solar activity. There is statistical correlation between solar activity expressed using various newly defined long term solar activity indices and the annual number of transformer failures. These new long term solar activity indices were defined using both local (from the geomagnetic station in Greece and global (planetary averages geomagnetic data. Applying both linear and non-linear statistical regression we compute the regression equations and the corresponding coefficients of determination.

  17. Muscle electrical activity during exercises with and without load executed on dry land and in an aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Nayra Paz Santos

    Full Text Available Introduction Muscle activity in the aquatic environment was investigated using electromyographic analyses. The physical properties of water and the resistance used may influence the response of the muscle during exercise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the electrical activity in water and on the floor during flexion and knee extension exercises with and without load and aimed at understanding the muscular response while performing resistance exercises in water. Methods The sample consisted of 14 volunteers between 18 and 35 years old who were subjected to active exercises involving knee flexion and extension with and without load on the floor and in water. Electromyography was performed during the movement. Results A significant increase was found in the electrical activity of the rectus femoris muscle during exercises on the floor. The biceps femoris muscle showed increased electromyographic activity when resistance was used. A significant increase was found in the electrical activity of the rectus femoris muscle compared with exercises with and without load and the moment of rest in immersion. The electrical activity of the rectus and biceps femoris muscles was reduced in exercises with load and without load in a therapy pool compared with on the floor. Conclusion There was a reduction of the electromyographic activity in the aquatic environment compared with that on the ground, which could be attributed to the effects from hot water. Therefore, it is believed that resistance exercises can be performed early in a therapy pool, which will facilitate the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.

  18. Infants of Depressed and Nondepressed Mothers Exhibit Differences in Frontal Brain Electrical Activity during the Expression of Negative Emotions. (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; And Others


    Examined electrical brain activity during negative and positive emotion expression in infants of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Found that, compared with infants of nondepressed mothers, infants of depressed mothers exhibited increased EEG activation in the frontal but not parietal region when expressing negative emotions. There were no…

  19. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling


    Grahn, Pia


    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  20. Taurine Supplementation Improves Functional Capacity, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, and Electrical Activity in Heart Failure. (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Ashourpore, Eadeh


    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in the heart in very high concentrations. It is assumed that taurine contributes to several physiological functions of mammalian cells, such as osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, membrane stabilization, ion transport modulation, and regulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of taurine supplementation on functional capacity, myocardial oxygen consumption, and electrical activity in patients with heart failure. In a double-blind and randomly designed study, 16 patients with heart failure were assigned to two groups: taurine (TG, n = 8) and placebo (PG, n = 8). TG received 500-mg taurine supplementation three times per day for two weeks. Significant decrease in the values of Q-T segments (p heart failure patients. Together, these findings support the view that taurine improves cardiac function and functional capacity in patients with heart failure. This idea warrants further study.

  1. Activations of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles by transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation of lumbar paraspinal regions. (United States)

    Baek, Seung Ok; Ahn, Sang Ho; Jones, Rodney; Cho, Hee Kyung; Jung, Gil Su; Cho, Yun Woo; Tak, Hyeong Jun


    To investigate changes in lumbar multifidus (LM) and deep lumbar stabilizing abdominal muscles (transverse abdominis [TrA] and obliquus internus [OI]) during transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of lumbar paraspinal L4-L5 regions using real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI). Lumbar paraspinal regions of 20 healthy physically active male volunteers were stimulated at 20, 50, and 80 Hz. Ultrasound images of the LM, TrA, OI, and obliquus externus (OE) were captured during stimulation at each frequency. The thicknesses of superficial LM and deep LM as measured by RUSI were greater during NMES than at rest for all three frequencies (pRUSI. The findings of this study suggested that transcutaneous NMES might be useful for improving spinal stability and strength in patients having difficulty initiating contraction of these muscles.

  2. Composition Related Electrical Active Defect States of InGaAs and GaAsN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Kosa


    Full Text Available This paper discusses results of electrically active defect states - deep energy level analysis in InGaAs and GaAsN undoped semiconductor structures grown for solar cell applications. Main attention is focused on composition and growth condition dependent impurities and the investigation of their possible origins. For this purpose a widely utilized spectroscopy method, Deep Level Transient Fourier Spectroscopy, was utilized. The most significant responses of each sample labelled as InG2, InG3 and NG1, NG2 were discussed in detail and confirmed by simulations and literature data. The presence of a possible dual conduction type and dual state defect complex, dependent on the In/N composition, is reported. Beneficial characteristics of specific indium and nitrogen concentrations capable of eliminating or reducing certain point defects and dislocations are stated.

  3. Brain electric activity during the preattentive perception of speech sounds in tonal languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiphinich Kotchabhakdi


    Full Text Available The present study was intended to make electrophysiological investigations into the preattentive perception of native and non-native speech sounds. We recorded the mismatch negativity, elicited by single syllable change of both native and non-native speech-sound contrasts in tonal languages. EEGs were recorded and low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA was utilized to explore the neural electrical activity. Our results suggested that the left hemisphere was predominant in the perception of native speech sounds, whereas the non-native speech sound was perceived predominantly by the right hemisphere, which may be explained by the specialization in processing the prosodic and emotional components of speech formed in this hemisphere.

  4. The characterization of the antibacterial efficacy of an electrically activated silver ion-based surface system (United States)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A.

    There have been growing concerns in the global healthcare system about the eradication of pathogens in hospitals and other health-critical environments. The problem has been aggravated by the overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) which are difficult to kill. Lower immunity of sick patients coupled with the escalating concurrent problem of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has resulted in increasing incidences of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. There is an immediate need to control the transmission of such infections, primarily in healthcare environments, by creating touch-contact and work surfaces (e.g., door knobs, push plates, countertops) that utilize alternative antibacterial materials like the heavy metal, silver. Recent research has shown that it is silver in its ionic (Ag+ ) and not elemental form that is antibacterial. Thus, silver-based antibacterial surfaces have to release silver ions directly into the pathogenic environment (generally, an aqueous media) in order to be effective. This dissertation presents the study and analysis of a new silver-based surface system that utilizes low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) for generation of silver ions to primarily inhibit indirect contact transmission of infections. The broader objective of this research is to understand the design, and characterization of the electrically activated silver ion-based antibacterial surface system. The specific objectives of this dissertation include: (1) Developing a comprehensive system design, and identifying and studying its critical design parameters and functional mechanisms. (2) Evaluating effects of the critical design parameters on the antibacterial efficacy of the proposed surface system. (3) Developing a response surface model for the surface system performance. These objectives are

  5. 78 FR 7394 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters... (United States)


    ..., including dishwashers, refrigerator- freezers, freezers, apparel washing machines and dryers, electric... (Electric Water Heaters), Louisville, KY GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C, submitted a notification of... involves the production of electric water heaters. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b) of the regulations, FTZ...

  6. Association between loss of bone mass due to short sleep and leptin-sympathetic nervous system activity. (United States)

    Kuriyama, Nagato; Inaba, Masaaki; Ozaki, Etsuko; Yoneda, Yutaro; Matsui, Daisuke; Hashiguchi, Kanae; Koyama, Teruhide; Iwai, Komei; Watanabe, Isao; Tanaka, Rika; Omichi, Chie; Mizuno, Shigeto; Kurokawa, Masao; Horii, Motoyuki; Niwa, Fumitoshi; Iwasa, Koichi; Yamada, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki

    Sleep has been reported to be an important factor in bone metabolism, and sympathetic nervous system activity has been reported to regulate bone metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the association between sleep, sympathetic nervous system activity, and bone mass. The study subjects were 221 individuals (108 males; 113 females; mean age: 55.1±7.0years) divided into two groups: those who slept for less than 6h a day (short sleep [SS] group), and those who slept 6h or longer (normal sleep [NS] group). The groups were compared with regard to lifestyle, cortical bone thickness, cancellous bone density, bone metabolism markers, blood leptin levels, and sympathetic nervous system activity as evaluated by heart rate variability analysis. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in cortical bone thickness, blood TRACP-5b, and leptin levels. The L/H ratio (an index of sympathetic nervous system activity) was higher in the SS group than in the NS group. Significant negative correlations were observed between cortical bone thickness and both the L/H ratio and leptin levels, and a significant positive correlation was observed between the L/H ratio and leptin levels. Short sleep was associated with a decline in cortical bone thickness due to the promotion of bone resorption and sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity in the middle-aged group. Leptin levels and cortical bone thickness were found to be closely related, suggesting that cortical bone mass may be regulated via interaction with the leptin-sympathetic nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Swimming and bone: Is low bone mass due to hypogravity alone or does other physical activity influence it? (United States)

    Gómez-Bruton, A; González-Agüero, A; Gómez-Cabello, A; Matute-Llorente, A; Casajús, J A; Vicente-Rodríguez, G


    Swimming during adolescence has shown neutral or even negative effects on bone mass. Nevertheless, it is still unknown if these effects are due to swimming or to other factors, such as sedentary behaviors. Three objectives were described (1) to measure objective physical activity (PA) additional to swimming performed by adolescent swimmers (SWI) and compare it to that performed by normo-active controls (CG), (2) to describe the relationship between objectively measured PA and bone mass, and (3) to compare bone mass of swimmers that meet the World Health Organization PA guidelines (active) WHO and those that do not (inactive). A total of 71 SWI (33 females) and 41 CG (17 females) wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days. PA was expressed as the amount of time (minutes/day) in each intensity [sedentary/light/moderate or vigorous (VPA), and the sum of moderate and vigorous (MVPA)]. Using the cutoff points proposed by Vanhelst et al. SWI were classified as active or inactive according to whether they reached 60 min of weight-bearing MVPA per day or not. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and bone strength values were calculated with peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Differences in PA intensities were calculated between SWI and CG. The relation of VPA to bone mass was studied in the SWI. Male-SWI spend less time in VPA and MVPA than male-GC, which partly explains the lower BMD values in SWI than CG. Swimming may displace weight-bearing VPA with serious implications on bone health.

  8. Plant for the production of activated carbon and electric power from the gases originated in gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan, J.; Turegano, J.P.; Calama, G. [Area de Engenharia. Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao. Instituto Politecnico de Portalegre, Lugar da Abadesa, Apartado 148, 7301 Portalegre Codex (Portugal); Roman, S.; Al-Kassir, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, 06071 (Spain)


    The development of the countries involves a high energy demand; however, the energetic resources used by the moment are not renewable. Events like the energetic crisis of 1973, the continuous geopolitic clashes in energetic resource-rich areas, and the global environmental deterioration as a consequence of the industrial activity taking place in last century, make obvious the need of searching new sources of energy [1]. One of these sources is the obtainment of energy from biomass exploitation. The use of this raw material involves advantages in the emission of low quantities of contaminants to the atmosphere and its renewable character. Until now, the main drawback of this source is its lack of viability when trying to obtain electric power from biomass, due to the use of systems composed of a boiler and a steam turbine (which offer low operative flexibility), which are not rentable in such a competitive market as it is, currently, the energetic one. Nowadays, the use of internal combustion engines, combined with biomass gasifiers, allows rapid connection-disconnection of the plant (aproximately of five minutes), which confers a big flexibility to the system and, as a consequence, a better exploitation of the plant in maximum energetic consumption hours. It also has the advantage of establishing a co-generation system since the gases are generated at a high temperature, 800 {sup o}C [2]. With this view, the aim of this work has focused in the re-design of a gasification plant for the production of activated carbons, from biomassic residues, for the energetic exploitation of the combustible gases produced during the pyrolytic process (H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), since these gases are currently burnt in a torch in the plant. The idea of designing the activated carbon production plant arose from the need of managing the biomass residues (olive wastes) generated by the firm Euroliva-Azeites e Oleos Alimentares SA

  9. On the effect of addition of carbon nanotubes on the electric conductivity of alkali-activated slag mortars (United States)

    Kusak, I.; Lunak, M.


    This paper presents basic electric properties of laboratory prepared alkali-activated composite materials on the basis of finely ground granular high furnace slag to which various quantities of carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been added. Impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range from 40 Hz to 1 MHz was used to measure the specimens. Electric resistivity ρ versus frequency and electric resistivity ρ versus CNT content relationships were examined on our specimens R&S ZNC vector analyser with DAK-12 coaxial probe (made by Speag) was used to carry out the measurements at higher frequencies (from 100 MHz to 3 GHz). Electric conductivity σ as a function of the frequency and as a function of the specimen CNT content was studied in this frequency range. Up-to-date instruments and a unique approach have evidently been employed to carry out non-destructive measurement of mortar materials.

  10. Electric vehicles in urban areas: test cases using a scenario simulator


    Soares, João; Lobo, Cristina; Morais, H.; Vale, Zita


    Electric vehicles introduction will affect cities environment and urban mobility policies. Network system operators will have to consider the electric vehicles in planning and operation activities due to electric vehicles’ dependency on the electricity grid. The present paper presents test cases using an Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator (EVeSSi) being developed by the authors. The test cases include two scenarios considering a 33 bus network with up to 2000 electric vehicles in the urba...

  11. Computational investigation of the flow field contribution to improve electricity generation in granular activated carbon-assisted microbial fuel cells (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Jian; Battaglia, Francine; He, Zhen


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) offer an alternative approach to treat wastewater with less energy input and direct electricity generation. To optimize MFC anodic performance, adding granular activated carbon (GAC) has been proved to be an effective way, most likely due to the enlarged electrode surface for biomass attachment and improved mixing of the flow field. The impact of a flow field on the current enhancement within a porous anode medium (e.g., GAC) has not been well understood before, and thus is investigated in this study by using mathematical modeling of the multi-order Butler-Volmer equation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. By comparing three different CFD cases (without GAC, with GAC as a nonreactive porous medium, and with GAC as a reactive porous medium), it is demonstrated that adding GAC contributes to a uniform flow field and a total current enhancement of 17%, a factor that cannot be neglected in MFC design. However, in an actual MFC operation, this percentage could be even higher because of the microbial competition and energy loss issues within a porous medium. The results of the present study are expected to help with formulating strategies to optimize MFC with a better flow pattern design.

  12. Survival advantage from ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity in women compared to men: the Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study. (United States)

    Teodorescu, Carmen; Reinier, Kyndaron; Uy-Evanado, Audrey; Ayala, Jo; Mariani, Ronald; Wittwer, Lynn; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan; Chugh, Sumeet S


    Studies evaluating a possible survival advantage from sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in women have produced mixed results possibly due to a lack of comprehensive analyses. We hypothesized that race, socioeconomic status (SES), and elements of the lifetime clinical history influence gender effects and need to be incorporated within analyses of survival. Cases of SCA were identified from the ongoing, prospective, multiple-source Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study (population approximately one million). Subjects included were age ≥18 years who underwent attempted resuscitation by EMS providers. Pearson's chi-square tests and independent samples t tests or analysis of variance were used for univariate comparisons. We evaluated gender and race differences in survival adjusted for age, circumstances of arrest, disease burden, and socioeconomic status using a logistic regression model predicting survival. A total of 1,296 cases had resuscitation attempted (2002-2007; mean age 65 years, male 67%). Women were older than men (68 vs. 63 years, p ratio 1.85; 95% confidence interval (1.12-3.04)]. Despite older age, higher prevalence of SCA in the home, and higher rates of PEA, women had a survival advantage from ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity.

  13. Fermi-Pasta-Ulam auto recurrence in the description of the electrical activity of the heart. (United States)

    Novopashin, M A; Shmid, A V; Berezin, A A


    The authors proposed and mathematically described model of a new type of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence (the FPU auto recurrence) and hypothesized an adequate description of the heart's electrical dynamics within the observed phenomenon. The dynamics of the FPU auto recurrence making appropriate electrical dynamics of the normal functioning of the heart in the form of an electrocardiogram (ECG) was obtained by a computer model study. The model solutions in the form of the FPU auto recurrence - ECG Fourier spectrum were evaluated for resistance to external disturbances in the form of random effects, as well as periodic perturbation at a frequency close to the heart beating rate of about 1Hz. In addition, in order to simulate the dynamics of myocardial infarction model, studied the effect of the surface area of the myocardium on the stability and shape of the auto recurrence - ECG spectrum. It has been found that the intense external disturbing periodic impacts at a frequency of about 1Hz lead to a sharp disturbance spectrum shape FPU auto recurrence - ECG structure. In addition, the decrease in the surface of the myocardium by 50% in the model led to the destruction of structures of the auto recurrence - ECG, which corresponds to the state of atrial myocardium. Research models have revealed a hypothetical basis of coronary heart disease in the form of increasing the energy of high-frequency harmonics spectrum of the auto recurrence by reducing the energy of low-frequency harmonic spectrum of the auto recurrence, which ultimately leads to a sharp decrease in myocardial contractility. In order to test the hypothesis has been studied more than 20,000 ECGs both healthy people and patients with cardiovascular disease. As a result of these studies, it was found that the dynamics of the electrical activity of normal functioning of the heart can be interpreted by the display of the detected by authors the FPU auto recurrence, and coronary heart disease is a violation of

  14. Crop drying by indirect active hybrid solar - Electrical dryer in the eastern Algerian Septentrional Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughali, S.; Bouchekima, B.; Mennouche, D.; Bouguettaia, H.; Bechki, D. [Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy in Aride Zones, University Kasdi Merbah, BP511 Ouargla (Algeria); Benmoussa, H. [Faculty of Science, Department of Mechanics, University Hadj Lakhdar, Batna (Algeria)


    In the present work, a new specific prototype of an indirect active hybrid solar-electrical dryer for agricultural products was constructed and investigated at LENREZA Laboratory, University of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara). In the new configuration of air drying passage; the study was done in a somewhat high range of mass flow rate between 0.04 and 0.08 kg/m{sup 2} s a range not properly investigated by most researchers. Experimental tests with and without load were performed in winter season in order to study the thermal behavior of the dryer and the effect of high air masse flow on the collector and system drying efficiency. The fraction of electrical and solar energy contribution versus air mass flow rate was investigated. Slice tomato was studied with different temperatures and velocities of drying air in order to study the influence of these parameters on the removal moisture content from the product and on the kinetics drying and also to determine their suitable values. Many different thin layer mathematical drying models were compared according to their coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) and reduced chi square ({chi}{sup 2}) to estimate experimental drying curves. The Middli model in this condition proved to be the best for predicting drying behavior of tomato slice with (R{sup 2} = 0.9995, {chi}{sup 2} = 0.0001). Finally an economic evaluation was calculated using the criterion of payback period which is found very small 1.27 years compared to the life of the dryer 15 years. (author)

  15. Optical and electrical recording of neural activity evoked by graded contrast visual stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulf Luca


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain activity has been investigated by several methods with different principles, notably optical ones. Each method may offer information on distinct physiological or pathological aspects of brain function. The ideal instrument to measure brain activity should include complementary techniques and integrate the resultant information. As a "low cost" approach towards this objective, we combined the well-grounded electroencephalography technique with the newer near infrared spectroscopy methods to investigate human visual function. Methods The article describes an embedded instrumentation combining a continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy system and an electroencephalography system to simultaneously monitor functional hemodynamics and electrical activity. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS signal depends on the light absorption spectra of haemoglobin and measures the blood volume and blood oxygenation regulation supporting the neural activity. The NIRS and visual evoked potential (VEP are concurrently acquired during steady state visual stimulation, at 8 Hz, with a b/w "windmill" pattern, in nine human subjects. The pattern contrast is varied (1%, 10%, 100% according to a stimulation protocol. Results In this study, we present the measuring system; the results consist in concurrent recordings of hemodynamic changes and evoked potential responses emerging from different contrast levels of a patterned stimulus. The concentration of [HbO2] increases and [HHb] decreases after the onset of the stimulus. Their variation shows a clear relationship with the contrast value: large contrast produce huge difference in concentration, while low contrast provokes small concentration difference. This behaviour is similar to the already known relationship between VEP response amplitude and contrast. Conclusion The simultaneous recording and analysis of NIRS and VEP signals in humans during visual stimulation with a b/w pattern at variable

  16. Closed-Loop Characterization of Neuronal Activation Using Electrical Stimulation and Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Kuykendal


    Full Text Available We have developed a closed-loop, high-throughput system that applies electrical stimulation and optical recording to facilitate the rapid characterization of extracellular, stimulus-evoked neuronal activity. In our system, a microelectrode array delivers current pulses to a dissociated neuronal culture treated with a calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye; automated real-time image processing of high-speed digital video identifies the neuronal response; and an optimized search routine alters the applied stimulus to achieve a targeted response. Action potentials are detected by measuring the post-stimulus, calcium-sensitive fluorescence at the neuronal somata. The system controller performs directed searches within the strength–duration (SD stimulus-parameter space to build probabilistic neuronal activation curves. This closed-loop system reduces the number of stimuli needed to estimate the activation curves when compared to the more commonly used open-loop approach. This reduction allows the closed-loop system to probe the stimulus regions of interest in the multi-parameter waveform space with increased resolution. A sigmoid model was fit to the stimulus-evoked activation data in both current (strength and pulse width (duration parameter slices through the waveform space. The two-dimensional analysis results in a set of probability isoclines corresponding to each neuron–electrode pair. An SD threshold model was then fit to the isocline data. We demonstrate that a closed-loop methodology applied to our imaging and micro-stimulation system enables the study of neuronal excitation across a large parameter space.

  17. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2008 Annual Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    2008 was the year in which power deal values came down from their record-breaking highs of the two preceding years as the financial crisis and a number of market uncertainties had a negative impact on deal activity. Nonetheless, total deal numbers leapt by 24% as companies concentrated on smaller deals and took advantage of new opportunities that arose in the changed market conditions. Europe was least affected by the downturn in deal values and accounted for over half of all bidder and target power deal value. In contrast, power deals in Australia, which had previously been a main motor of growing M and A activity in the Asia Pacific region, virtually stalled as uncertainty over new carbon emission policies combined with the financial crisis to deter deal flow. In North America, like Europe, big deals were fewer but underlying deal activity was comparable with previous years. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector, drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key electricity and gas utilities markets. Looking to the future, the easing of the financial crisis will be key to deal flow but the near-term outlook looks less robust than the recent past, especially as debt markets will be further constrained by calls from the public financing required to support government bail-out programmes. Set against this, the underlying imperatives of consolidation, supply security and capitalisation remain in place and will create increasing pent-up deal demand. A lower energy price environment will change the metrics for more expensive cleaner power assets, placing an even higher importance on the outcome of global climate talks and the run-up to the December 2009 UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen.

  18. The monitoring of transient regimes on machine tools based on speed, acceleration and active electric power absorbed by motors (United States)

    Horodinca, M.


    This paper intend to propose some new results related with computer aided monitoring of transient regimes on machine-tools based on the evolution of active electrical power absorbed by the electric motor used to drive the main kinematic chains and the evolution of rotational speed and acceleration of the main shaft. The active power is calculated in numerical format using the evolution of instantaneous voltage and current delivered by electrical power system to the electric motor. The rotational speed and acceleration of the main shaft are calculated based on the signal delivered by a sensor. Three real-time analogic signals are acquired with a very simple computer assisted setup which contains a voltage transformer, a current transformer, an AC generator as rotational speed sensor, a data acquisition system and a personal computer. The data processing and analysis was done using Matlab software. Some different transient regimes were investigated; several important conclusions related with the advantages of this monitoring technique were formulated. Many others features of the experimental setup are also available: to supervise the mechanical loading of machine-tools during cutting processes or for diagnosis of machine-tools condition by active electrical power signal analysis in frequency domain.

  19. Increased determinism in brain electrical activity occurs in association with multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Carrubba, Simona; Minagar, Alireza; Chesson, Andrew L; Frilot, Clifton; Marino, Andrew A


    Increased determinism (decreased complexity) of brain electrical activity has been associated with some brain diseases. Our objective was to determine whether a similar association occurred for multiple sclerosis (MS). Ten subjects with a relapsing-remitting course of MS who were in remission were studied; the controls were age- and gender-matched clinically normal subjects. Recurrence plots were calculated using representative electroencephalogram (EEG) epochs (1-7 seconds) from six derivations; the plots were quantified using the nonlinear variables percent recurrence (%R) and percent determinism (%D). The results were averaged over all derivations for each participant, and the means were compared between the groups. As a linear control procedure the groups were also compared using spectral analysis. The mean±SD of %R for the MS subjects was 6·6±1·3%, compared with 5·1±1·3% in the normal group (P = 0·017), indicating that brain activity in the subjects with MS was less complex, as hypothesized. The groups were not distinguishable using %D or spectral analysis. Taken together with our earlier report that %R could be used to discriminate between MS and normal subjects based on the ability to exhibit evoked potentials, the evidence suggests that complexity analysis of the EEG has potential for development as a diagnostic test for MS.

  20. [Effect of prokinetic agents on the electrical activity of stomach and duodenum in rats]. (United States)

    Li, Fujun; Zou, Yiyou; Huang, Tianhui


    To determine the effect of prokinetic agents such as domperidone, mosapride, clarithromycin, and itopride on the electrical activity of the stomach and duodenum in SD rats,and also to explore the mechanism. The organism functional experiment system BL-420E was used to record the myoelectrical activity in the stomach and duodenum of SD rats in all groups using domperidone, mosapride, itopride, clarithromycin, and physiological saline on the interdigestive phase. The effect of the prokinetic agents on the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal electromyogram in the SD rats was compared. The antagonists such as atropine, phentolamine, and propranolol were added to investigate the mechanism of action with all prokinetic agents. All prokinetic agents increased the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal fast waves in the SD rats(Pitopride was the most obvious among the 3 groups (Pitopride, and physiological saline were inhibited by atropine(PItopride, mosapride, domperidone, and clarithromycin can increase the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal fast waves in the SD rats. The mechanism may be related to cholinergic receptors, but not adrenergic receptors.

  1. Pulseless electrical activity in acute massive pulmonary embolism during thrombolytic therapy (United States)

    Yu, Han-Hua; Jeng, Jing-Ren


    We report a case of acute pulmonary embolism with hemodynamic instability diagnosed by a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram. The patient developed pulseless electrical activity during systemic thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Successful return of spontaneous circulation was achieved after immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation with chest compressions for 6 min. His electrocardiogram (ECG) on arrival in the emergency department displayed sinus tachycardia, an S wave in lead I, a Q wave in lead III, incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB), T-wave inversion (TWI) in leads V1–V3, ST elevation in leads aVR and V1, and ST depression in leads I, II, III, aVF, and V4–V6. These characteristic ECG changes might have prognostic value for clinical deterioration. He recovered after treatment. After discharge, the ECG showed resolution of TWI in leads V1–V3 and incomplete RBBB, suggesting recovery from right ventricular dysfunction, which was confirmed by an echocardiogram on follow in the outpatient department. PMID:28757765

  2. High-resolution measurement of electrically-evoked vagus nerve activity in the anesthetized dog (United States)

    Yoo, Paul B.; Lubock, Nathan B.; Hincapie, Juan G.; Ruble, Stephen B.; Hamann, Jason J.; Grill, Warren M.


    Objective. Not fully understanding the type of axons activated during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is one of several factors that limit the clinical efficacy of VNS therapies. The main goal of this study was to characterize the electrical recruitment of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers within the cervical vagus nerve. Approach. In anesthetized dogs, recording nerve cuff electrodes were implanted on the vagus nerve following surgical excision of the epineurium. Both the vagal electroneurogram (ENG) and laryngeal muscle activity were recorded in response to stimulation of the right vagus nerve. Main results. Desheathing the nerve significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio of the ENG by 1.2 to 9.9 dB, depending on the nerve fiber type. Repeated VNS following nerve transection or neuromuscular block (1) enabled the characterization of A-fibers, two sub-types of B-fibers, and unmyelinated C-fibers, (2) confirmed the absence of stimulation-evoked reflex compound nerve action potentials in both the ipsilateral and contralateral vagus nerves, and (3) provided evidence of stimulus spillover into muscle tissue surrounding the stimulating electrode. Significance. Given the anatomical similarities between the canine and human vagus nerves, the results of this study provide a template for better understanding the nerve fiber recruitment patterns associated with VNS therapies.

  3. A Simplified 3D Model of Whole Heart Electrical Activity and 12-Lead ECG Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Sovilj


    Full Text Available We present a computationally efficient three-dimensional bidomain model of torso-embedded whole heart electrical activity, with spontaneous initiation of activation in the sinoatrial node, incorporating a specialized conduction system with heterogeneous action potential morphologies throughout the heart. The simplified geometry incorporates the whole heart as a volume source, with heart cavities, lungs, and torso as passive volume conductors. We placed four surface electrodes at the limbs of the torso: , , and and six electrodes on the chest to simulate the Einthoven, Goldberger-augmented and precordial leads of a standard 12-lead system. By placing additional seven electrodes at the appropriate torso positions, we were also able to calculate the vectorcardiogram of the Frank lead system. Themodel was able to simulate realistic electrocardiogram (ECG morphologies for the 12 standard leads, orthogonal , , and leads, as well as the vectorcardiogram under normal and pathological heart states. Thus, simplified and easy replicable 3D cardiac bidomain model offers a compromise between computational load and model complexity and can be used as an investigative tool to adjust cell, tissue, and whole heart properties, such as setting ischemic lesions or regions of myocardial infarction, to readily investigate their effects on whole ECG morphology.

  4. Avian mortalities due to transmission line collisions: a review of current estimates and field methods with an emphasis on applications to the Canadian electric network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Rioux


    Full Text Available Birds are vulnerable to collisions with human-made fixed structures. Despite ongoing development and increases in infrastructure, we have few estimates of the magnitude of collision mortality. We reviewed the existing literature on avian mortality associated with transmission lines and derived an initial estimate for Canada. Estimating mortality from collisions with power lines is challenging due to the lack of studies, especially from sites within Canada, and due to uncertainty about the magnitude of detection biases. Detection of bird collisions with transmission lines varies due to habitat type, species size, and scavenging rates. In addition, birds can be crippled by the impact and subsequently die, although crippling rates are poorly known and rarely incorporated into estimates. We used existing data to derive a range of estimates of avian mortality associated with collisions with transmission lines in Canada by incorporating detection, scavenging, and crippling biases. There are 231,966 km of transmission lines across Canada, mostly in the boreal forest. Mortality estimates ranged from 1 million to 229.5 million birds per year, depending on the bias corrections applied. We consider our most realistic estimate, taking into account variation in risk across Canada, to range from 2.5 million to 25.6 million birds killed per year. Data from multiple studies across Canada and the northern U.S. indicate that the most vulnerable bird groups are (1 waterfowl, (2 grebes, (3 shorebirds, and (4 cranes, which is consistent with other studies. Populations of several groups that are vulnerable to collisions are increasing across Canada (e.g., waterfowl, raptors, which suggests that collision mortality, at current levels, is not limiting population growth. However, there may be impacts on other declining species, such as shorebirds and some species at risk, including Alberta's Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator and western Canada's endangered Whooping

  5. Cardiac arrest with pulseless electrical activity associated with methylphenidate in an adolescent with a normal baseline echocardiogram. (United States)

    Daly, Michael W; Custer, Geoffrey; McLeay, Peter D


    Recent concerns of adverse cardiac events associated with drugs used to treat attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have prompted debate over whether these drugs are truly safe. We describe a 17-year-old boy with a normal baseline echocardiogram who had been taking methylphenidate for ADHD for 18 months and experienced cardiac arrest. Emergency personnel attempted to resuscitate him, performing defibrillation twice for ventricular fibrillation, with subsequent pulseless electrical activity. The patient was immediately taken to the hospital where he received continued resuscitation, intravenous boluses of cardiac drugs, and additional defibrillation. A persistent pulsatile rhythm returned about 2 minutes after arrival. Overall, the patient was pulseless for 22 minutes. Emergency cardiac catheterization revealed wall motion abnormalities without coronary lesions. He was mechanically ventilated and was transferred to the intensive care unit, where he remained comatose. Neurologic studies performed the next day revealed diffuse encephalopathy due to anoxic brain injury. An echocardiogram on day 3 showed slightly improved left ventricular systolic function, which improved further by day 15. As the patient did not regain purposeful movement, he was discharged to a rehabilitation facility on day 33. The patient's methylphenidate therapy had been started at an appropriate dose of 18 mg/day and titrated over a period of 3 months up to 36 mg/day, which he continued until the event. The drug had been discontinued on admission, was not restarted, and for the next 2 years, the patient experienced no further cardiac events, although his severe mental deficiencies persisted. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 6) between the patient's adverse cardiac event and methylphenidate. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with documentation of a normal baseline echocardiogram who

  6. Impact on fetal growth of prenatal exposure to pesticides due to agricultural activities: a prospective cohort study in Brittany, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouget Florence


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide use is widespread in agriculture. Several studies have shown that pesticides used in agricultural fields can contaminate the domestic environment and thus be an important source of pesticide exposure of populations residing nearby. Epidemiological studies that have examined the health effects of in utero pesticide exposure from residence near agricultural activities suggest adverse effects, but the results are inconsistent. Our purpose was to investigate the effect on intrauterine growth of such exposure due to agricultural activities in the residential municipality. Methods A prospective birth cohort recruited 3421 pregnant women in a French agricultural region (Brittany, 2002-2006 through gynecologists, ultrasonographers, and maternity hospitals during routine prenatal care visits before 19 weeks of gestation. The national agricultural census in 2000 provided the percentages of the municipality area devoted to cultivation of corn, wheat, colza, peas, potatoes, and fresh vegetables. Results Birth weight and the risk of fetal growth restriction were not associated with agricultural activities in the municipality of residence in early pregnancy. Children whose mother lived in a municipality where peas were grown had a smaller head circumference at birth than those in municipalities not growing peas (-0.2 cm, p = 0.0002. Head circumference also tended to be lower when wheat was grown, but not to a statistically significant degree (p-trend = 0.10. Risk of an infant with a small head circumference was higher for mothers living in a municipality where peas (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2-3.6 or potatoes (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9-2.4 were grown. Conclusions Agricultural activities in the municipality of residence may have negative effects on cranial growth. Cultivation of pea crops and, to a lesser degree, potato and wheat crops, may negatively affect head circumference. Insecticides, including organophosphate insecticides, were

  7. Application and optimization of electric field-assisted ultrasonication for disintegration of waste activated sludge using response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design. (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Hwang, Min-Jin; Cha, Min-Jung; Ahn, Kyu-Hong


    In the present study, an electric field is applied in order to disintegrate waste activated sludge (WAS). As a preliminary step, feasibility tests are investigated using different applied voltages of 10-100V for 60min. As the applied voltage increases, the disintegration degrees (DD) are gradually enhanced, and thereby the soluble N, P, and carbohydrate concentrations increase simultaneously due to the WAS decomposition. Subsequently, an optimization process is conducted using a response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The total solid concentration, applied voltage, and reaction time are selected as independent variables, while the DD is selected as the response variable. The overall results demonstrate that the BBD with an experimental design can be used effectively in the optimization of the electric field treatment of WAS. In the confirmation test, a DD of 10.26±0.14% is recorded, which corresponds to 99.1% of the predicted response value under the statistically optimized conditions. Finally, the statistic optimization of the combined treatment (electric field+ultrasonication) demonstrated that even though this method is limited to highly disintegrated WAS when it is applied individually, a high DD of 47.28±0.20% was recorded where the TS concentration was 6780mg/l, the strength of ultrasonication was 8.0W, the applied voltage was 68.4V, and the reaction time was 44min. E-SEM images clearly revealed that the application of the electric field is a significant alternative method for the combined treatment of WAS. This study was the first attempt to increase disintegration using the electric field for a combined treatment with ultrasonication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The association between ambulatory activity, body composition and hip or knee joint replacement due to osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study. (United States)

    Munugoda, I P; Wills, K; Cicuttini, F; Graves, S E; Lorimer, M; Jones, G; Callisaya, M L; Aitken, D


    To examine the association between ambulatory activity (AA), body composition measures and hip or knee joint replacement (JR) due to osteoarthritis. At baseline, 1082 community-dwelling older-adults aged 50 - 80 years were studied. AA was measured objectively using pedometer and body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The incidence of primary (first-time) JR was determined by data linkage to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Log binomial regression with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the risk of JR associated with baseline AA and body composition measures, adjusting for age, sex, x-ray disease severity, and pain. Over 13 years of follow-up, 74 (6.8%) participants had a knee replacement (KR) and 50 (4.7%) a hip replacement (HR). AA was associated with a higher risk of KR (RR 1.09/1000 steps/day, 95% CI 1.01, 1.16) and a lower risk of HR (RR 0.90/1000 steps/day, 95% CI 0.81, 0.99). BMI (RR 1.07/kg/m 2 , 95% CI 1.03, 1.12), total fat mass (RR 1.04/kg, 95% CI 1.02, 1.07), trunk fat mass (RR 1.04/kg, 95% CI 1.02, 1.07), and waist circumference (RR 1.03/cm, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05) were associated with a higher risk of KR. Body composition measures were not associated with HR. An objective measure of AA was associated with a small increased risk of KR and a small reduced risk of HR. Worse body composition profiles were associated with knee, but not hip replacement. Altogether this may suggest different causal pathways for each site with regard to habitual activity and obesity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Response of the turbidity maximum zone in the Yangtze River Estuary due to human activities during the dry season. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Shen, Zhenyao; Yang, Ye


    The interaction between a river and the sea results in a turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) within the estuary, which has a great impact on the local ecosystem. In the Yangtze River Estuary, the magnitude and extent of the TMZ vary with water discharge. In this study, the cumulative human activity altered the water discharge regime from the river to the estuary. In the post-Three Gorges Dam (TGD) period, water discharge increased by 35.10 % at Datong in February compared with that in the pre-TGD period. The effects of water discharge variation on the characteristics of the TMZ were analyzed during spring and neap tidal periods using the three-dimensional environmental fluid dynamic code (EFDC) model. The area of the TMZ decreased by 3.11 and 17.39 % during neap and spring tides, respectively. In addition, the upper limit of the TMZ moved 11.68 km seaward during neap tide, whereas the upper limit of the TMZ in the upstream and downstream areas moved seaward 9.65 and 2.34 km, respectively, during spring tide. These findings suggest that the area and location of the TMZ are more sensitive to upstream runoff during spring tide than during neap tide. These changes in the TMZ will impact the biochemical processes in the Yangtze River Estuary. In the foreseeable future, the distribution characteristic of TMZ will inevitably change due to variations in the Yangtze River discharge resulting from new human activities (i.e., new dams), which are being constructed upstream in the Yangtze River system.

  10. The Electric Car Challenge. (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.


    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  11. Investigating the Effectiveness of an Active Learning Based-Interactive Conceptual Instruction (ALBICI) on Electric Field Concept (United States)

    Samsudin, Achmad; Suhandi, Andi; Rusdiana, Dadi; Kaniawati, Ida; Costu, Bayram


    The aim of this study was to develop an Active Learning Based-Interactive Conceptual Instruction (ALBICI) model through PDEODE*E tasks (stands for Predict, Discuss, Explain, Observe, Discuss, Explore, and Explain) for promoting conceptual change and investigating its effectiveness of pre-service physics teachers' understanding on electric field…

  12. Voltage- and current-activated metal–insulator transition in VO2-based electrical switches: a lifetime operation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Crunteanu, Julien Givernaud, Jonathan Leroy, David Mardivirin, Corinne Champeaux, Jean-Christophe Orlianges, Alain Catherinot and Pierre Blondy


    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide is an intensively studied material that undergoes a temperature-induced metal–insulator phase transition accompanied by a large change in electrical resistivity. Electrical switches based on this material show promising properties in terms of speed and broadband operation. The exploration of the failure behavior and reliability of such devices is very important in view of their integration in practical electronic circuits. We performed systematic lifetime investigations of two-terminal switches based on the electrical activation of the metal–insulator transition in VO2 thin films. The devices were integrated in coplanar microwave waveguides (CPWs in series configuration. We detected the evolution of a 10 GHz microwave signal transmitted through the CPW, modulated by the activation of the VO2 switches in both voltage- and current-controlled modes. We demonstrated enhanced lifetime operation of current-controlled VO2-based switching (more than 260 million cycles without failure compared with the voltage-activated mode (breakdown at around 16 million activation cycles. The evolution of the electrical self-oscillations of a VO2-based switch induced in the current-operated mode is a subtle indicator of the material properties modification and can be used to monitor its behavior under various external stresses in sensor applications.

  13. Simultaneous evolution of plasma rotation, radial electric field, MHD activity and plasma confinement in the STOR-M tokamak (United States)

    Dreval, M.; Xiao, C.; Trembach, D.; Hirose, A.; Elgriw, S.; Pant, A.; Rohraff, D.; Niu, T.


    Radial electric field shear and poloidal plasma rotation are important factors affecting transport and confinement in tokamaks. Alteration of the electric field and plasma rotation in the vicinity of magnetic islands is also an important factor in tokamak plasma confinement. In the STOR-M tokamak, fast (~1 ms) simultaneous alterations of the radial electric field, plasma rotation (M|| = 0-0.4 in the plasma current direction), floating potential fluctuations in the periphery and MHD activity generated by rotating islands have been observed experimentally during normal ohmic discharges. The observed time and magnitude of the changes depend on the average electron density and poloidal beta at the beginning of the discharge. In discharges with high initial poloidal beta these changes are accompanied by a reduction in Hα emission and an increase in the line averaged density. Drastic decreases in Hα and increases in line averaged electron density and estimation of poloidal beta suggest that STOR-M confinement is significantly affected in ohmic discharges without an external additional energy input or biasing. MHD activity in STOR-M is damped when a negative electric field is observed at the limiter region of the plasma edge. MHD frequency is observed to decrease with the negative electric field.

  14. Sympathetic modulation of electrical activation in normal and infarcted myocardium: implications for arrhythmogenesis. (United States)

    Ajijola, Olujimi A; Lux, Robert L; Khahera, Anadjeet; Kwon, OhJin; Aliotta, Eric; Ennis, Daniel B; Fishbein, Michael C; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Shivkumar, Kalyanam


    The influence of cardiac sympathetic innervation on electrical activation in normal and chronically infarcted ventricular myocardium is not understood. Yorkshire pigs with normal hearts (NL, n = 12) or anterior myocardial infarction (MI, n = 9) underwent high-resolution mapping of the anteroapical left ventricle at baseline and during left and right stellate ganglion stimulation (LSGS and RSGS, respectively). Conduction velocity (CV), activation times (ATs), and directionality of propagation were measured. Myocardial fiber orientation was determined using diffusion tensor imaging and histology. Longitudinal CV (CVL) was increased by RSGS (0.98 ± 0.11 vs. 1.2 ± 0.14m/s, P < 0.001) but not transverse CV (CVT). This increase was abrogated by β-adrenergic receptor and gap junction (GJ) blockade. Neither CVL nor CVT was increased by LSGS. In the peri-infarct region, both RSGS and LSGS shortened ARIs in sinus rhythm (423 ± 37 vs. 322 ± 30 ms, P < 0.001, and 423 ± 36 vs. 398 ± 36 ms, P = 0.035, respectively) and altered activation patterns in all animals. CV, as estimated by mean ATs, increased in a directionally dependent manner by RSGS (14.6 ± 1.2 vs. 17.3 ± 1.6 ms, P = 0.015), associated with GJ lateralization. RSGS and LSGS inhomogeneously modulated AT and induced relative or absolute functional activation delay in parts of the mapped regions in 75 and 67%, respectively, in MI animals, and in 0 and 15%, respectively, in control animals (P < 0.001 for both). In conclusion, sympathoexcitation increases CV in normal myocardium and modulates activation propagation in peri-infarcted ventricular myocardium. These data demonstrate functional control of arrhythmogenic peri-infarct substrates by sympathetic nerves and in part explain the temporal nature of arrhythmogenesis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates regional control of conduction velocity in normal hearts by sympathetic nerves. In infarcted hearts, however, not only is modulation of propagation

  15. Investigation of seismicity after the initiation of a Seismic Electric Signal activity until the main shock. (United States)

    Sarlis, N V; Skordas, E S; Lazaridou, M S; Varotsos, P A


    The behavior of seismicity in the area candidate to suffer a main shock is investigated after the observation of the Seismic Electric Signal activity until the impending main shock. This is based on the view that the occurrence of earthquakes is a critical phenomenon to which statistical dynamics may be applied. In the present work, analysing the time series of small earthquakes, the concept of natural time chi was used and the results revealed that the approach to criticality itself can be manifested by the probability density function (PDF) of kappa(1) calculated over an appropriate statistical ensemble. Here, kappa(1) is the variance kappa(1)(=-(2)) resulting from the power spectrum of a function defined as Phi(omega)= summation operator(k=1)(N) p(k) exp(iomegachi(k)), where p(k) is the normalized energy of the k-th small earthquake and omega the natural frequency. This PDF exhibits a maximum at kappa(1) asymptotically equal to 0.070 a few days before the main shock. Examples are presented, referring to the magnitude 6 approximately 7 class earthquakes that occurred in Greece.

  16. Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS: a review of patents 1906–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Grasso, Yoshio Sakka and Giovanni Maizza


    Full Text Available The electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECASed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020 who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents, the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents. A subset of 119 (out of 642 ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals. The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time (fast and ultrafast ECAS. The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature.

  17. Characteristics and Antitumor Activity of Morchella esculenta Polysaccharide Extracted by Pulsed Electric Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu


    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta have been proven to be functional and helpful for humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical structure and anti-proliferating and antitumor activities of a Morchella esculenta polysaccharide (MEP extracted by pulsed electric field (PEF in submerged fermentation. The endo-polysaccharide was separated and purified by column chromatography and Gel permeation chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The MEP with an average molecular weight of 81,835 Da consisted of xylose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose and galactose at the ratio of 5.4:5.0:6.5:7.8:72.3. Structure of MEP was further analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H and 13C liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apoptosis tests proved that MEP could inhibit the proliferation and growth of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner within 48 h. This study provides more information on chemical structure of anti-proliferating polysaccharides isolated from Morchella esculenta.

  18. [The changes in the brain's electrical activity in children with cerebral palsy during the complex rehabilitation]. (United States)

    Ukhanova, T A; Gorbunov, F E; Dement'eva, E V; Volkova, E A; Novikova, E E


    One hundred and five children, aged from 3 to 7 years, with the diagnosis "spastic diplegia cerebral palsy" were treated. Patients were stratified into three groups: group I (n=36) received three courses of microcurrent therapy (MENS) in addition to standard treatment; group II (n=38) received three courses of MENS in the combination with two treatment courses with the nootropic drug cortexin; children of group III (n=31) received standard therapy using massage and gymnastics. MENS was carried out in courses, including 15 sessions each, using the apparatus "MEKS". Cortexin was introduced intramuscular in dosage 10 mg, the treatment course consisted of 10 injections. To the end of the rehabilitation program, positive changes were found: 50% patients of group I, 66% patients of group II and 16% patients of group III could perform complex instructions and acquired skills in modeling and recognition of geometric forms. Positive changes in the brain's electrical activity were found in 75% of children in group I, in 82% of children in group II and in 64% of children in group III.

  19. Emulating the electrical activity of the neuron using a silicon oxide RRAM cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan eMehonic


    Full Text Available In recent years, formidable effort has been devoted to exploring the potential of Resistive RAM (RRAM devices to model key features of biological synapses. This is done to strengthen the link between neuro-computing architectures and neuroscience, bearing in mind the extremely low power consumption and immense parallelism of biological systems. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using the RRAM cell to go further and to model aspects of the electrical activity of the neuron. We focus on the specific operational procedures required for the generation of controlled voltage transients, which resemble spike-like responses. Further, we demonstrate that RRAM devices are capable of integrating input current pulses over time to produce thresholded voltage transients. We show that the frequency of the output transients can be controlled by the input signal, and we relate recent models of the redox-based nanoionic resistive memory cell to two common neuronal models, the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH conductance model and the leaky integrate-and-fire model. We employ a simplified circuit model to phenomenologically describe voltage transient generation.

  20. A promising active anode material of Li-ion battery for hybrid electric vehicle use (United States)

    Sato, Youh; Nagayama, Katsuhiro; Sato, Yuichi; Takamura, Tsutomu

    In an attempt to respond to the requirement to provide promising anode material of Li-ion battery for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) we examined mesophase-pitch-based cokes. The coke was heat treated at several temperatures where turbostratic structure is formed. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) were measured in 1:2 (v/v) mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) containing 1 M LiClO 4 for all the samples, and the peak height was plotted against the square root of the potential scanning rate. The slopes of the plotting differed depending on the heating temperature and 1800 °C heated sample gave the steepest slope implying the diffusion coefficient of Li is the highest. For activating the electrochemical reaction site of the prepared electrode we adopted a novel method to expose the coated electrode in the glow discharge field in the presence of small amount of oxygen. As the result the CV peak height was increased by about two times as compared with that before the treatment.

  1. Cardiac electrical activity imaging of patients with CRBBB or CLBBB in magnetocardiography (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Shi-Qin; Wang, Wei-Yuan; Zhao, Chen; Wu, Yan-Hua; Luo, Ming; Quan, Wei-Wei


    A new method for the imaging of cardiac electrical activity in patients with complete right bundle branch block (CRBBB) or complete left bundle branch block (CLBBB) is investigated using magnetocardiographic recordings of the surface of the body. This is based on the assumption that an equivalent single-current dipole moves along the unblocked bundle branch, whose position in the measurement plane is expressed in terms of the maximum and minimum, as well as the maximum gradient value of the measured magnetic field. The trajectory of the moving dipole on the measurement plane is indicative of the excitation conduction of the CRBBB or CLBBB subject during ventricular depolarization and repolarization, which is deduced by comparing each change between the dipole moment and the maximum current density in a corresponding pseudo-current density map. In summary, this method can distinguish CRBBB from CLBBB subjects by means of the dipole depth and two dipole moment components. The possibility of visualizing the excitation conduction in a CRBBB or CLBBB subject during ventricular depolarization and repolarization is then discussed.

  2. Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS): a review of patents 1906-2008. (United States)

    Grasso, Salvatore; Sakka, Yoshio; Maizza, Giovanni


    The electric current activated/assisted sintering ( ECAS ) is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECAS ed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020) who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents), the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents). A subset of 119 (out of 642) ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals . The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time ( fast and ultrafast ECAS ). The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature.

  3. Performance Evaluation and Design Considerations of Electrically Activated Drain Extension Tunneling GNRFET: A Quantum Simulation Study (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Saleh; Yousefi, Reza; Taghavi, Neda


    In this paper, a tunneling graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor with electrically activated drain extension, namely, EA-T-GNRFET, is proposed. The proposed structure includes a side gate at the drain side with a constant voltage and length of 0.4 V and 15 nm, respectively. Simulations are performed based on the non-equilibrium Green's function method coupled with the Poisson equation in the mode space representation. This side gate creates an additional step in potential profile at the drain side, which increases and decreases the width of tunneling barrier and leakage current, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed structure has lower drain induced barrier thinning, lower sub-threshold swing (SS) and higher I ON/ I OFF ratio than the conventional structure. Also, other characteristics of the device such as switching delay ( τ ), power delay product (PDP) and unity-gain frequency ( f t) are improved in the proposed device. These advantages make EA-T-GNRFET more suitable for digital and analog applications.

  4. Bactericidal Activity of Copper Oxide Nanocomposite/Bioglass for in Vitro Clindamycin Release in Implant Infections Due to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background In recent years, bioactive bioceramics such as bioglass and hydroxyapatite (HA have been introduced as a remarkable development in the field of medicine due to their bio-adaptability, non-toxicity, and persistence, in vivo. They have many potential applications in the repair of bone defects and hence they have attracted significant interest from scholars. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize inorganic matrix CuO-based bioglasses and evaluate their antibacterial activity against aerobic bacterial infections in bone implants. Methods Nano-composite samples of silica-based bioactive glass, 60S BG with nano-powder CuO, were synthesized using the sol-gel method and then assessed with regard to their antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus using well diffusion agar. The samples included BG58S (58%SiO2, 36%CaO, 6%P2O5, BG/10CuO (58%SiO2, 26%CaO, 6%P2O5, 10%CuO, and BG/20CuO (48%SiO2, 26%CaO, 6%P2O5, 20%CuO. To evaluate their bioactivity, the prepared samples of BG/20CuO, BG/10CuO, and BG58S were immersed in simulated body fluids (SBF. The surface morphology and structure of the samples before and after immersion in the SBF were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, respectively. Then, the BG/20CuO and BG/10CuO samples were loaded in clindamycin, an antibiotic widely used in the treatment of osteomyelitis, and their release profiles were studied in phosphate buffer solution. Results It was observed that the growth inhibition zone increased through clindamycin release due to the increasing CuO percentage in the nanocomposite of bioactive glass. The bioactivity of the nanocomposite/bioglass with CuO was superior to that of bioglass alone. In this study, the BG/20CuO sample showed a sustained release of clindamycin, which is sufficient for a drug delivery system. Conclusions Increasing the Cu nanoparticles in bioactive glass samples leads to the release of Cu2

  5. Utilizing an Extraterrestrial Analogue to Predict Sediment Migration on Frenchman Flat due to Convective Vortex (Dust Devil) Activity (United States)

    McGee, B. W.


    data from the NTS, and combining them with measurements of sediment loading and erosive strength in terrestrial dust devils, it is possible to both illustrate the potential significance of dust devils to currently-accepted radionuclide residence time on Frenchman Flat playa, as well as predict areas of unexpected radionuclide migration and/or attenuation due to dust devil activity.

  6. A comparative study of electrode effects on the electrical and luminescent characteristics of Alq{sub 3}/TPD OLED: Improvements due to conductive polymer (PEDOT) anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030 (United States); Li, W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030 (United States); Jones, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030 (United States); Steckl, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030 (United States); Klotzkin, D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030 (United States)]. E-mail:


    The performance of organic light emitting device (OLED) structures, based on identically fabricated Alq{sub 3}/TPD active regions, with various anode and cathode electrode structures are compared, and performance differences related to the different anode structure. The best performance was achieved with a conductive polymer, 3,4-polyethylenedioxythiopene-polystyrenesultonate (PEDOT), used as an anode layer, yielding a brightness of 1720 cd/m{sup 2} at 25 V, a turn-on voltage of 3 V, and electroluminescence (EL) efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 8.2 cd/A and 2%, respectively, at a brightness of 100 cd/m{sup 2} and 5 V. Compared to a baseline device (TPD/Alq{sub 3}/Al), PEDOT anodes substantially reduce the turn-on voltage and made current injection almost linear after turn-on, whiles devices incorporating a LiF and CuPc layers significantly improved device efficiency while slightly improving turn-on voltage and maintaining superlinear I-V injection. This is attributed to the reduced barrier at the organic-organic interface in PEDOT, the 'ladder' effect of stepping the band offset over several interfaces, and the favorable PEDOT film morphology. The benefit of the PEDOT anode is clearly seen in the improvement in device brightness and the high external quantum efficiency obtained.

  7. Multiple mechanisms of spiral wave breakup in a model of cardiac electrical activity (United States)

    Fenton, Flavio H.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Hastings, Harold M.; Evans, Steven J.


    It has become widely accepted that the most dangerous cardiac arrhythmias are due to reentrant waves, i.e., electrical wave(s) that recirculate repeatedly throughout the tissue at a higher frequency than the waves produced by the heart's natural pacemaker (sinoatrial node). However, the complicated structure of cardiac tissue, as well as the complex ionic currents in the cell, have made it extremely difficult to pinpoint the detailed dynamics of these life-threatening reentrant arrhythmias. A simplified ionic model of the cardiac action potential (AP), which can be fitted to a wide variety of experimentally and numerically obtained mesoscopic characteristics of cardiac tissue such as AP shape and restitution of AP duration and conduction velocity, is used to explain many different mechanisms of spiral wave breakup which in principle can occur in cardiac tissue. Some, but not all, of these mechanisms have been observed before using other models; therefore, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate them using just one framework model and to explain the different parameter regimes or physiological properties necessary for each mechanism (such as high or low excitability, corresponding to normal or ischemic tissue, spiral tip trajectory types, and tissue structures such as rotational anisotropy and periodic boundary conditions). Each mechanism is compared with data from other ionic models or experiments to illustrate that they are not model-specific phenomena. Movies showing all the breakup mechanisms are available at and at INDEX.html. The fact that many different breakup mechanisms exist has important implications for antiarrhythmic drug design and for comparisons of fibrillation experiments using different species, electromechanical uncoupling drugs, and initiation protocols.

  8. Effect of the both texture and electrical properties of activated carbon on the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djeridi, W. [Research Laboratory: Engineering Process and Industrial Systems, National school of Engineers of Gabes, University of Gabes, St Omar Ibn Elkhattab, 6029 Gabes (Tunisia); Chimistry laboratory of Provence, University Aix-Marseille I, II, III- CNRS, UMR 6264, Centre de Saint Jerome, 13397 Marseille (France); Ouederni, A. [Research Laboratory: Engineering Process and Industrial Systems, National school of Engineers of Gabes, University of Gabes, St Omar Ibn Elkhattab, 6029 Gabes (Tunisia); Mansour, N.Ben [National Nanotechnology Research Centre, KACST, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Llewellyn, P.L. [Chimistry laboratory of Provence, University Aix-Marseille I, II, III- CNRS, UMR 6264, Centre de Saint Jerome, 13397 Marseille (France); Alyamani, A. [National Nanotechnology Research Centre, KACST, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); El Mir, L., E-mail: [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Gabes University, Faculty of Sciences in Gabes, Gabes (Tunisia); Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), College of Sciences, Department of Physics, 11623 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)


    Highlights: • A series of activated carbon pellet without binder was prepared by chemical activation. • Carbon dioxide storage isotherm at 30 °C and up to 25 bars was measured for the microporous carbon. • Adsorption enthalpies have been correlated with the carbon dioxide uptake. • Pyrolysis temperature effect on the electrical conductivity of the samples. • Impact of the both texture and electrical properties on CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity have been deducted - Abstract: A series of activated carbon pellets (ACP) based on olive stones were studied for CO{sub 2} storage application. The surface area, pore volume, and pore diameter were evaluated from the analysis of N{sub 2} adsorption isotherm data. The characterization of carbon materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The adsorption enthalpies were obtained by microcalorimetry. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on textural, electrical conductivity and gas adsorption capacities of the ACP were investigated by adsorbing CO{sub 2} at 303 K in the pressure range of 0–2.3 MPa. In fact the electrical conductivity is strongly affected by the microporosity of the samples and the size of the micropore. It increases when the pore size decreases which affect the CO{sub 2} adsorption. Also with increases temperature the free electrons concentration on the surface increases which affect the interaction of the adsorbed gas molecules.

  9. A hybrid approach for probabilistic forecasting of electricity price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Wang, Yelei


    The electricity market plays a key role in realizing the economic prophecy of smart grids. Accurate and reliable electricity market price forecasting is essential to facilitate various decision making activities of market participants in the future smart grid environment. However, due...... electricity price forecasting is proposed in this paper. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid method has been validated through comprehensive tests using real price data from Australian electricity market....

  10. Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health Effects from Lead Due to Renovation Repair and Painting Activities in Public and Commercial Buildings (United States)

    Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health Effects from Lead Due to Renovation Repair and Painting Activities in Public and Commercial Buildings: links to documents at, links to PDFs related to Approach document

  11. Active control of massively separated high-speed/base flows with electric arc plasma actuators (United States)

    DeBlauw, Bradley G.

    The current project was undertaken to evaluate the effects of electric arc plasma actuators on high-speed separated flows. Two underlying goals motivated these experiments. The first goal was to provide a flow control technique that will result in enhanced flight performance for supersonic vehicles by altering the near-wake characteristics. The second goal was to gain a broader and more sophisticated understanding of these complex, supersonic, massively-separated, compressible, and turbulent flow fields. The attainment of the proposed objectives was facilitated through energy deposition from multiple electric-arc plasma discharges near the base corner separation point. The control authority of electric arc plasma actuators on a supersonic axisymmetric base flow was evaluated for several actuator geometries, frequencies, forcing modes, duty cycles/on-times, and currents. Initially, an electric arc plasma actuator power supply and control system were constructed to generate the arcs. Experiments were performed to evaluate the operational characteristics, electromagnetic emission, and fluidic effect of the actuators in quiescent ambient air. The maximum velocity induced by the arc when formed in a 5 mm x 1.6 mm x 2 mm deep cavity was about 40 m/s. During breakdown, the electromagnetic emission exhibited a rise and fall in intensity over a period of about 340 ns. After breakdown, the emission stabilized to a near-constant distribution. It was also observed that the plasma formed into two different modes: "high-voltage" and "low-voltage". It is believed that the plasma may be switching between an arc discharge and a glow discharge for these different modes. The two types of plasma do not appear to cause substantial differences on the induced fluidic effects of the actuator. In general, the characterization study provided a greater fundamental understanding of the operation of the actuators, as well as data for computational model comparison. Preliminary investigations

  12. Comparison Study of Two Semi-Active Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications and Their Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Min


    Full Text Available Both the battery/supercapacitor (SC and SC/battery are two common semi-active configurations of hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs in hybrid electric vehicles, which can take advantage of the battery’s and supercapacitor’s respective characteristics, including the energy ability, power ability and the long lifetime. To explore in depth the characteristics and applicability of the two kinds of HESS, an analysis and comparison study is proposed in this paper. Based on the data collected from public transit hybrid electric bus (PTHEB with battery-only on-board energy storage, the range and distribution probability of electric power/energy demand is comprehensively statistically analyzed with the decomposing and normalizing methods. Accordingly, the performance of each topology under different parameter matching conditions but same mass, volume and cost values with battery-only energy storage, are presented and compared quantitatively. The results show that both HESS configurations can meet the electric power demand of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV through reasonable design. In particular, the SC/battery can make better use of the SC features resulting in high efficiency and long life cycles compared with the battery/SC. Equally, it proves that the SC/battery topology is a better choice for the HEV. Finally, an experimental validation of a real HEV is carried out, which indicated that a 7% fuel economy improvement can be achieved by a SC/battery system compared with battery-only topology.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of suspensions and nanoemulsions of citral in combination with heat or pulsed electric fields. (United States)

    Pagán, E; Berdejo, D; Espina, L; García-Gonzalo, D; Pagán, R


    The application of essential oils in form of nanoemulsions has been proposed as a method to improve their solubility in aqueous solutions, and hence their antimicrobial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of citral, applied directly or in combined treatments with heat or pulsed electric fields (PEF), as a function of the inoculation procedure assayed: (i) a simple, vigorous shaking method by vortex agitation (suspension of citral; s-citral) or (ii) the previous preparation of nanoemulsions by the emulsion phase inversion (EPI) method (nanoemulsion of citral; n-citral). n-Citral was more effective in either inhibiting or inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai than s-citral. However, when combined with heat, a greater synergistic effect was observed with s-citral rather than with n-citral, either in lab media (pH 7·0 and 4·0) or apple juice. For instance, while almost 5 log10 cell cycles were inactivated in apple juice after 15 min at 53°C in the presence of 0·1 μl ml-1 of s-citral, the use of n-citral required 30 min. The use of nanoemulsions did not modify the slight synergism observed when citral and mild PEF were combined (150 μs, 30 kV cm-1 ). The exploration of different delivery systems of antimicrobial compounds such as citral in aqueous food products aids in the establishment of successful combined treatments for food preservation. While at room temperature, citral in form of a nanoemulsion shows a higher antimicrobial activity; its combination with heat would imply a partial loss of the outstanding synergistic lethal effect achieved when added in suspension form. Therefore, the most suitable procedure to magnify the synergism between heat and citral when processing juices would merely require an intense homogenization step prior to the combined treatment. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Effect of Combination of Non-Invasive Spinal Cord Electrical Stimulation and Serotonin Receptor Activation in Patients with Chronic Spinal Cord Lesion. (United States)

    Moshonkina, T R; Shapkova, E Yu; Sukhotina, I A; Emeljannikov, D V; Gerasimenko, Yu P


    We analyzed the efficiency of percutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord and serotonin receptor activation in rehabilitation of paralyzed patients. Four-week course of spinal cord electrical stimulation combined with mechanotherapy produced positive shifts in the status of chronically paralyzed patients. Serotonin receptor activation potentiated the effect of spinal cord stimulation and can be regarded as an additional neurorehabilitation option.

  15. Electrical Conductivity of Rocks and Dominant Charge Carriers: The Paradox of Thermally Activated Positive Holes (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper we have focused on fundamental processes that are important for understanding the electrical properties of materials, both single crystal minerals and...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopanov Aleksandr Nikolaevich


    effect on the magnitude of the threshold concentration. The increase in activation time of silica sand leads to the increased resistance of the prototypes and to the reduction of specific electrical conductivity of graphite dispersions in the system under study from 9.8 Om-1·m-1to 0.018 Om-1·m-1. The optimum grind time is 2...5 minutes. Further grinding is impractical due to the deterioration of the electrical characteristics of the samples.

  17. Cytokine Effects on Mechano-Induced Electrical Activity in Atrial Myocardium. (United States)

    Kazanski, V; Mitrokhin, V M; Mladenov, M I; Kamkin, A G


    The role of cytokines as regulators of stretch-related mechanisms is of special importance since mechano-sensitivity plays an important role in a wide variety of biological processes. Here, we elucidate the influence of cytokine application on mechano-sensitivity and mechano-transduction. The atrial myocardial stretch induces production of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-13, IL-17A, and IL-18 with exception of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-1β, and vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B). Positive ionotropic effect was specific for VEGF-B, negative ionotropic effects were specific for TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-13, IL-17A and IL-18, while IL-1α doesn't show direct ionotropic effect. The IL-2, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-18, and VEGF-B cause elongation of the APD, in comparison with the reduced APD caused by the IL-13. The TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-18 influences L-type Ca(2+) channels, IL-2 has an inhibitory effect on the fast Na(+) channels while IL-17A and VEGF-B were specific for Kir channels. With exception of the IL-1α, IL-2, and VEGF-B, all analyzed cytokines include nitric oxide dependent signaling with resultant combined effects on mechano-gated and Ca(2+) channels. The relationships between these pathways and the time-dependence of their activation are of important considerations in the evaluation of cytokine-induced electrical abnormality, specific for cardiac dysfunctions. In general, the discussion presented in this review covers research devoted to counterbalance between different cytokines in the regulation of stretch-induced effects in rat atrial myocardium. APs: action potentials; APD25: action potential durations to 25% of re-polarization; APD50: action potential durations to 50% of repolarization; APD90: action potential durations to 90% of repolarization; MGCs: mechanically gated channels.

  18. Language selection in bilinguals: a spatio-temporal analysis of electric brain activity. (United States)

    Khateb, Asaid; Abutalebi, Jubin; Michel, Christoph M; Pegna, Alan J; Lee-Jahnke, Hannelore; Annoni, Jean-Marie


    Language selection refers to the cognitive mechanism that allows bilinguals to communicate in one language or the other and to switch between languages depending on the listener. Previous studies suggested that various brain areas might be involved in this process. However, the question remains whether language selection is achieved through a language-specific mechanism or through a general cognitive control process. To address this question, we compared event-related potentials (ERPs) induced by language selection and task selection processes during image naming. ERPs were collected from bilingual subjects while tested in two different contexts: a monolingual task selection context (TSc) where a post-stimulus cue instructed subjects either to name the image or generate a corresponding verb in their first language (L1), and a bilingual language selection context (LSc) where the cue indicated to name the image either in the first or the second language. By comparing the ERPs induced by the same L1 naming as a function of context, we assumed that if the selection processes varied across contexts, then electric brain responses should differ rapidly after the cue presentation. Our analysis indicated that the first ERP differences accounting for the diverging processes involved appeared between approximately 220 and 300 ms after the cue. The estimation by source localisation of brain regions accounting for these differences pointed to an increased activation during LSc in the left middle frontal-precentral gyri, supramarginal and angular gyri. Our results suggest that language selection is achieved through a neural network involving areas implicated in both general cognitive processes and language processing.

  19. Effects of auditory stimuli on electrical activity in the brain during cycle ergometry. (United States)

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; Karageorghis, Costas I; Wright, Michael J; Orgs, Guido; Nowicky, Alexander V


    The present study sought to further understanding of the brain mechanisms that underlie the effects of music on perceptual, affective, and visceral responses during whole-body modes of exercise. Eighteen participants were administered light-to-moderate intensity bouts of cycle ergometer exercise. Each exercise bout was of 12-min duration (warm-up [3min], exercise [6min], and warm-down [3min]). Portable techniques were used to monitor the electrical activity in the brain, heart, and muscle during the administration of three conditions: music, audiobook, and control. Conditions were randomized and counterbalanced to prevent any influence of systematic order on the dependent variables. Oscillatory potentials at the Cz electrode site were used to further understanding of time-frequency changes influenced by voluntary control of movements. Spectral coherence analysis between Cz and frontal, frontal-central, central, central-parietal, and parietal electrode sites was also calculated. Perceptual and affective measures were taken at five timepoints during the exercise bout. Results indicated that music reallocated participants' attentional focus toward auditory pathways and reduced perceived exertion. The music also inhibited alpha resynchronization at the Cz electrode site and reduced the spectral coherence values at Cz-C4 and Cz-Fz. The reduced focal awareness induced by music led to a more autonomous control of cycle movements performed at light-to-moderate-intensities. Processing of interoceptive sensory cues appears to upmodulate fatigue-related sensations, increase the connectivity in the frontal and central regions of the brain, and is associated with neural resynchronization to sustain the imposed exercise intensity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The characteristics of postcountershock pulseless electrical activity may indicate the outcome of CPR. (United States)

    Fang, Xiangshao; Tang, Wanchun; Sun, Shijie; Wang, Jinglan; Huang, Lei; Weil, Max Harry


    When ventricular fibrillation is cardioverted to pulseless electrical activity (PEA), PEA has been regarded as a non-resuscitatable rhythm. Yet, recent reports and our earlier observations suggested otherwise. We therefore investigated outcomes after postcountershock PEA, and aimed to develop a scoring system for outcome classification at the onset of initial postcountershock PEA. Data from 215 domestic pigs were retrospectively reviewed. VF was induced and untreated for 7 min. Defibrillation was attempted with up to three 150 J biphasic shocks. Failing to restore spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 1 min of CPR preceded subsequent sequences of shocks until animals were resuscitated or for a total of 15 min. Fifty-nine instances of PEA followed defibrillation, including 29 animals that attained ROSC. ROSC animals required a shorter interval between the first shock and the initial postcountershock PEA, fewer shocks prior to onset of initial postcountershock PEA, demonstrated a greater VF wavelet amplitude prior to onset of initial PEA, smaller QRS intervals, and higher heart rates. Using Fisher's linear discriminant analysis, 79.3% of the ROSC and 63.3% of non-ROSC cases were predicted correctly. A total of 71.2% of all cases were classified correctly. Animals in which postcountershock PEA was converted to ROSC required shorter intervals from first shock to initial postcountershock PEA, fewer shocks prior to onset of initial postcountershock PEA, had greater VF wavelet amplitude prior to initial postcountershock PEA, small QRS intervals, and higher heart rates. Fisher's discriminant analysis is helpful in predicting the likelihood of ROSC for an individual animal presenting with postcountershock PEA.

  1. DC electric stimulation upregulates angiogenic factors in endothelial cells through activation of VEGF receptors. (United States)

    Bai, Huai; Forrester, John V; Zhao, Min


    Small direct current (DC) electric fields direct some important angiogenic responses of vascular endothelial cells. Those responses indicate promising use of electric fields to modulate angiogenesis. We sought to determine the regulation of electric fields on transcription and expression of a serial of import angiogenic factors by endothelial cells themselves. Using semi-quantitative PCR and ELISA we found that electric stimulation upregulates the levels of mRNAs and proteins of a number of angiogenic proteins, most importantly VEGF165, VEGF121 and IL-8 in human endothelial cells. The up-regulation of mRNA levels might be specific, as the mRNA encoding bFGF, TGF-beta and eNOS are not affected by DC electric stimulation at 24h time-point. Inhibition of VEGF receptor (VEGFR1 or VEGFR2) signaling significantly decreased VEGF production and completely abolished IL-8 production. DC electric stimulation selectively regulates production of some growth factors and cytokines important for angiogenesis through a feed-back loop mediated by VEGF receptors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of electric energy in aviculture related activities; Uso de energia eletrica em atividades ligadas a avicultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogi, Rita de Cassia


    In the present research work, the use of electric energy was studied in two activities connected to aviculture, ration factory and hatchery, located in the surroundings of Tiete, in the State of Sao Paulo. The data obtained by the factory refer to the monthly kilos of ration produced between 1986 and 1988; for the hatchery the period studied was 1987-1989 and the monthly data of production refer to one-day chicks. Based on these data it was possible to analyse the behaviour of the two activities as regard as the use of electric energy, through the examining of the electric powers, consumption and production unit, figured average time of electric installations use, kWh cost, functional dependency between the load factor and consumption. Through these evaluations one concludes that in the ration factory the relation (Wh) consumption per kilo varied from 10,30 to 11,05, in the hatchery the relation (Wh) consumption per chick showed a variation from 50,32 to 77,27 and the confronting of the energy use shows that in the hatchery it was more efficient, being connect up to 68,49% of the monthly hours available while in the ration factory this value falls down to 39,59%. (author). 34 refs, 23 figs, 34 tabs

  3. Mussel-Inspired Anisotropic Nanocellulose and Silver Nanoparticle Composite with Improved Mechanical Properties, Electrical Conductivity and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Linh Nguyen


    Full Text Available Materials for wearable devices, tissue engineering and bio-sensing applications require both antibacterial activity to prevent bacterial infection and biofilm formation, and electrical conductivity to electric signals inside and outside of the human body. Recently, cellulose nanofibers have been utilized for various applications but cellulose itself has neither antibacterial activity nor conductivity. Here, an antibacterial and electrically conductive composite was formed by generating catechol mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the surface of cellulose nanofibers. The chemically immobilized catechol moiety on the nanofibrous cellulose network reduced Ag+ to form AgNPs on the cellulose nanofiber. The AgNPs cellulose composite showed excellent antibacterial efficacy against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the catechol conjugation and the addition of AgNP induced anisotropic self-alignment of the cellulose nanofibers which enhances electrical and mechanical properties of the composite. Therefore, the composite containing AgNPs and anisotropic aligned the cellulose nanofiber may be useful for biomedical applications.

  4. Unmasking local activity within local field potentials (LFPs) by removing distal electrical signals using independent component analysis. (United States)

    Whitmore, Nathan W; Lin, Shih-Chieh


    Local field potentials (LFPs) are commonly thought to reflect the aggregate dynamics in local neural circuits around recording electrodes. However, we show that when LFPs are recorded in awake behaving animals against a distal reference on the skull as commonly practiced, LFPs are significantly contaminated by non-local and non-neural sources arising from the reference electrode and from movement-related noise. In a data set with simultaneously recorded LFPs and electroencephalograms (EEGs) across multiple brain regions while rats perform an auditory oddball task, we used independent component analysis (ICA) to identify signals arising from electrical reference and from volume-conducted noise based on their distributed spatial pattern across multiple electrodes and distinct power spectral features. These sources of distal electrical signals collectively accounted for 23-77% of total variance in unprocessed LFPs, as well as most of the gamma oscillation responses to the target stimulus in EEGs. Gamma oscillation power was concentrated in volume-conducted noise and was tightly coupled with the onset of licking behavior, suggesting a likely origin of muscle activity associated with body movement or orofacial movement. The removal of distal signal contamination also selectively reduced correlations of LFP/EEG signals between distant brain regions but not within the same region. Finally, the removal of contamination from distal electrical signals preserved an event-related potential (ERP) response to auditory stimuli in the frontal cortex and also increased the coupling between the frontal ERP amplitude and neuronal activity in the basal forebrain, supporting the conclusion that removing distal electrical signals unmasked local activity within LFPs. Together, these results highlight the significant contamination of LFPs by distal electrical signals and caution against the straightforward interpretation of unprocessed LFPs. Our results provide a principled approach to

  5. Deep electrical resistivity tomography along the tectonically active Middle Aterno Valley (2009 L'Aquila earthquake area, central Italy) (United States)

    Pucci, Stefano; Civico, Riccardo; Villani, Fabio; Ricci, Tullio; Delcher, Eric; Finizola, Anthony; Sapia, Vincenzo; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Brothelande, Elodie; Gusset, Rachel; Mezon, Cécile; Orefice, Simone; Peltier, Aline; Poret, Matthieu; Torres, Liliana; Suski, Barbara


    Three 2-D Deep Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) transects, up to 6.36 km long, were obtained across the Paganica-San Demetrio Basin, bounded by the 2009 L'Aquila Mw 6.1 normal-faulting earthquake causative fault (central Italy). The investigations allowed defining for the first time the shallow subsurface basin structure. The resistivity images, and their geological interpretation, show a dissected Mesozoic-Tertiary substratum buried under continental infill of mainly Quaternary age due to the long-term activity of the Paganica-San Demetrio normal faults system (PSDFS), ruling the most recent deformational phase. Our results indicate that the basin bottom deepens up to 600 m moving to the south, with the continental infill largely exceeding the known thickness of the Quaternary sequence. The causes of this increasing thickness can be: (1) the onset of the continental deposition in the southern sector took place before the Quaternary, (2) there was an early stage of the basin development driven by different fault systems that produced a depocentre in the southern sector not related to the present-day basin shape, or (3) the fault system slip rate in the southern sector was faster than in the northern sector. We were able to gain sights into the long-term PSDFS behaviour and evolution, by comparing throw rates at different timescales and discriminating the splays that lead deformation. Some fault splays exhibit large cumulative throws (>300 m) in coincidence with large displacement of the continental deposits sequence (>100 m), thus testifying a general persistence in time of their activity as leading splays of the fault system. We evaluate the long-term (3-2.5 Myr) cumulative and Quaternary throw rates of most of the leading splays to be 0.08-0.17 mm yr-1, indicating a substantial stability of the faults activity. Among them, an individual leading fault splay extends from Paganica to San Demetrio ne' Vestini as a result of a post-Early Pleistocene linkage of

  6. Effect of diet with omega-3 in basal brain electrical activity and during status epilepticus in rats. (United States)

    Pessoa, Daniella Tavares; da Silva, Eva Luana Almeida; Costa, Edbhergue Ventura Lola; Nogueira, Romildo Albuquerque


    Western diets are high in saturated fat and low in omega-3. Certain animals cannot produce omega-3 from their own lipids, making it necessary for it to be acquired from the diet. However, omega-3s are important components of the plasma membrane, and altering their proportions can promote physical and chemical alterations in the membranes, which may modify neuronal excitability. These alterations occur in healthy individuals, as well as in patients with epilepsy who are more sensitive to changes in brain electrical activity. This study evaluated the effect of a diet supplemented with omega-3 on the basal brain electrical activity both before and during status epilepticus in rats. To evaluate the brain electrical activity, we recorded electrocorticograms (ECoG) of animals both with and without omega-3 supplementation before and during status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. Calculation of the average brain wave power by a power spectrum revealed that omega-3 supplementation reduced the average power of the delta wave by 20% and increased the average power of the beta wave by 45%. These effects were exacerbated when status epilepticus was induced in the animals supplemented with omega-3. The animals with and without omega-3 supplementation exhibited increases in basal brain electrical activities during status epilepticus. The two groups showed hyperactivity, but no significant difference between them was noted. Even though the brain activity levels observed during status epilepticus were similar between the two groups, neuron damage to the animals supplemented with omega-3 was more slight, revealing the neuroprotective effect of the omega-3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrical activation of nitrogen heavily implanted 3C-SiC(1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fan, E-mail: [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Sharma, Yogesh; Shah, Vishal; Jennings, Mike [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Pérez-Tomás, Amador [ICN2 – Institut Catala de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Myronov, Maksym [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Fisher, Craig [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Leadley, David [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mawby, Phil [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Nitrogen is fully activated by 1175 °C annealing for 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} doped 3C-SiC. • Free donor concentration is found to readily saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. • 3C-SiC is found to have complete donor thermal ionization above 150 K. • Donor in 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} nitrogen implanted 3C-SiC has an energy level ∼15 meV. • The SiO{sub 2} cap is found to have a bigger influence on low and medium doped samples. - Abstract: A degenerated wide bandgap semiconductor is a rare system. In general, implant levels lie deeper in the band-gap and carrier freeze-out usually takes place at room temperature. Nevertheless, we have observed that heavily doped n-type degenerated 3C-SiC films are achieved by nitrogen implantation level of ∼6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} at 20 K. According to temperature dependent Hall measurements, nitrogen activation rates decrease with the doping level from almost 100% (1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, donor level 15 meV) to ∼12% for 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Free donors are found to saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The implanted film electrical performances are characterized as a function of the dopant doses and post implantation annealing (PIA) conditions by fabricating Van der Pauw structures. A deposited SiO{sub 2} layer was used as the surface capping layer during the PIA process to study its effect on the resultant film properties. From the device design point of view, the lowest sheet resistivity (∼1.4 mΩ cm) has been observed for medium doped (4 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) sample with PIA 1375 °C 2 h without a SiO{sub 2} cap.

  8. Statistical study of quasi-static electric field anomalies in the upper ionosphere related to seismic activity (United States)

    Gousheva, M.; Danov, D.; Hristov, P.; Matova, M.


    The paper proposes a statistical study of possible connections between numerous anomalous vertical quasi-static electric field penetrations into the ionosphere and more than 100 moderate or strong earthquakes. The quasi-static electric fields are recorded by IESP-1 instrument on the INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite. Forty eight orbits are chosen for analyses above sources of 114 earthquakes during 17 August-8 December 1981. The dates of seismic events, their origin time, locations of epicentre, magnitude and depth in the observed period are obtained from United State Geological Survey (USGS) website. The main goal of the above research work is to give some important characteristics of the quasi-static electric field disturbances such as their time of appearance before or after the main shock, their sensitivity, amplitude, sign and time duration. Present research focuses on four main areas: (i) relations among the satellite information, the seismic data and the plate tectonic position of the earthquake sources, (ii) satellite observations about the quasi-static electric field in satellite's orbits over sources of earthquakes with magnitude M 4.8-7.9 respectively 5-15 days before and 5-15 days after the seismic manifestations, (iii) summary of the statistical study and (iv) conclusion. In case of small values of Kp index several observation results were used for a correlation research between the quasi-static electric field anomalies and the seismic activity. An exciting process of increase of about 2-10 mV/m in the vertical component of quasi-static electric field is noted above sources, situated on mobile structures of the plates. The observed effects represent subjects of discussions in the paper. We propose arguments that the noted anomalies could be correlated with seismic manifestations.

  9. Active surveillance of visual impairment due to adverse drug reactions: findings from a national study in the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Cumberland, Phillippa M; Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle; Rahi, Jugnoo S


    As visual impairment (VI) due to adverse drug reactions (ADR) is rare in adults and children, there is an incomplete evidence base to inform guidance for screening and for counseling patients on the potential risks of medications. We report on suspected drugs and the eye conditions found in a national study of incidence of diagnosis of visual impairment due to suspected ADR. Case ascertainment was via the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit (BOSU), between March 2010 and February 2012, with follow-up after 6 months. any child or adult with bilateral or unilateral visual impairment due to a suspected ADR, using distance acuity worse than Snellen 6/18 (logMAR 0.48) in the better eye (bilateral) or affected eye (unilateral). Anonymized patient information on potential cases was provided by managing ophthalmologists, comprising visual status before and after suspected ADR, ophthalmic condition attributable to the ADR, preexisting eye disease and prescribed medications at the time of the ADR. Permanency and causality of the visual impairment were confirmed by the managing clinician, after 6 months, using the WHO Uppsala Monitoring Committee criteria. Over 2 years, 36 eligible cases were reported of whom 23 had permanent VI. While most cases were due to drugs known to have adverse side-effects, some were unanticipated sporadic cases. Visual impairment due to ADRs is rare. However, with for example, increasing polypharmacy in the elderly, monitoring of ocular ADRs, although challenging, is necessary.

  10. Role of spiral wave pinning in inhomogeneous active media in the termination of atrial fibrillation by electrical cardioversion. (United States)

    Kuklik, Pawel; Wong, Christopher X; Brooks, Anthony G; Zebrowski, Jan Jacek; Sanders, Prashanthan


    Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of arrhythmia to affect humans. One of the treatment modalities for atrial fibrillation is an electrical cardioversion. Electrical cardioversion can result in one of three outcomes: an immediate termination of arrhythmic activity, a delayed termination or unsuccessful termination. The mechanism of delayed termination is unknown. Here we present a model of an atrial fibrillation as a coexistence of several spiral waves pinned to the inhomogeneities in active media. We show that in inhomogeneous system delayed termination can be explained as the unpinning of a spiral wave from inhomogeneities and its termination after collision with the edge of the system. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Formation of radical and active chemical species in electrical discharge plasma in the presence of liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, B.R.; Shih, K.Y.; Burlica, R. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering


    This study investigated the interactions of plasma with liquid water using a combination of emission spectroscopy of radical and atomic species and direct measurements of more stable chemical compounds. The study focused on electrical discharge plasma formed directly in liquid water and on discharges formed in the gas phase above liquid water, in bubbles in liquid water, and in the gas phase with water droplet spray that result in a variety of active chemical species that can be used for pollution control as well as other applications in biomedical and materials engineering. The purpose was to improve the design and operation of plasma reactors for a variety of applications. This presentation also reviewed the mechanisms for the formation of active chemical species such as hydroxyl and other radicals, hydrogen peroxide and molecular hydrogen, in electrical discharge plasma formed in the presence of water.

  12. A due

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to acknowledge the excellence of these two scholars by a double Festschrift, "A due". Both have been working at the Music Department of the University of Copenhagen and have collaborated with The Royal Library on various projects. This publication contains contributions from 44 colleagues, who thus - in topics...

  13. Load kick-back effects due to activation of demand response in view of distribution grid operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.


    . The paper has shown how aggregated consumption dynamics introduce new peaks in the system due to the synchronous behaviors of a portfolio of homogeneous DSRs, which is instructed by the flexibility management system. This dynamic effect is recognized as load kick-back effect. The impact of load kick...

  14. Electric vehicle battery charging algorithm using PMSM windings and an inverter as an active rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaja, Mario; Oprea, Matei-lon; Suárez, Carlos Gómez


    A major setback for large scale electric vehicle market expansion compared to their internal combustion competitors consists in their high price and low driving range. One way of reducing the cost, dimensions and mass of electric vehicles is to eliminate the dedicated AC/DC converter used...... the battery gets discharged below the peak of the grid voltage, typically if the vehicle has not been used for a longer period of time. To avoid high currents that could damage the battery, a voltage suppression mode is introduced for safe depleted battery charging. This paper proposes and analyzes...

  15. Memory-driven attentional capture reveals the waxing and waning of working memory activation due to dual-task interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasin, Edyta; Nieuwenstein, Mark


    Previous studies have shown that information held in working memory (WM) actively or as a residue of previous processing can lead to attentional capture by corresponding stimuli in the environment. Here, we compared attentional capture by goal-driven and residual WM activation and exam- ined how

  16. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.


    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  17. A minimal dose of electrically induced muscle activity regulates distinct gene signaling pathways in humans with spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Petrie

    Full Text Available Paralysis after a spinal cord injury (SCI induces physiological adaptations that compromise the musculoskeletal and metabolic systems. Unlike non-SCI individuals, people with spinal cord injury experience minimal muscle activity which compromises optimal glucose utilization and metabolic control. Acute or chronic muscle activity, induced through electrical stimulation, may regulate key genes that enhance oxidative metabolism in paralyzed muscle. We investigated the short and long term effects of electrically induced exercise on mRNA expression of human paralyzed muscle. We developed an exercise dose that activated the muscle for only 0.6% of the day. The short term effects were assessed 3 hours after a single dose of exercise, while the long term effects were assessed after training 5 days per week for at least one year (adherence 81%. We found a single dose of exercise regulated 117 biological pathways as compared to 35 pathways after one year of training. A single dose of electrical stimulation increased the mRNA expression of transcriptional, translational, and enzyme regulators of metabolism important to shift muscle toward an oxidative phenotype (PGC-1α, NR4A3, IFRD1, ABRA, PDK4. However, chronic training increased the mRNA expression of specific metabolic pathway genes (BRP44, BRP44L, SDHB, ACADVL, mitochondrial fission and fusion genes (MFF, MFN1, MFN2, and slow muscle fiber genes (MYH6, MYH7, MYL3, MYL2. These findings support that a dose of electrical stimulation (∼10 minutes/day regulates metabolic gene signaling pathways in human paralyzed muscle. Regulating these pathways early after SCI may contribute to reducing diabetes in people with longstanding paralysis from SCI.

  18. Gis-approach for variability assessment of soil electric conductivity under pedoturbation activity of mole rat (Spalax microphthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. М. Konovalova


    Full Text Available The results of the investigation of the impact of the mole rat’s activity on soil electric conductivity have been presented. GIS-technology have been shown to be effective for assessment of the pedoturbation activity effect on the soil surface heterogeneity formation. Method of the one-dimension spatial coordinated array transformation into matrix form has been proposed for following multidimension statistic analysis application. The quantity estimation of the mole rats role in formation of the habitat nanorelief-level diversity has been obtained by means of indexes of the landscape complexity and diversity.

  19. Electricity research programme - Overview report on activities in 2005; Programm Elektrizitaet. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueniger, R.


    This overview-report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work done in 2005 in the various research areas covered by the Swiss Electricity Research programme. Work done in the programme's two main areas - technologies and efficient applications - is reviewed. In the technologies area, high-temperature superconductivity - and especially its use in power-generation facilities - is looked at, as are the topics of energy conversion and thermo-electric power generation. Further, energy storage using compressed-air is discussed. Power distribution and the use of controllable storage in the low-voltage mains is briefly commented on, as is distributed power generation. Information and communications technologies are reviewed, as is work done in the electrical drives area. Work in other areas summarised includes lighting and uninterruptible power-supplies. Co-operation with Swiss institutions and international organisations such as the IEA is reviewed. Implementation work in the pilot and demonstration area is commented on. This includes work in various areas ranging from set-top boxes through to the optimisation of compressed-air systems and electrical drives as well as codes of conduct and agreements for water-dispensers and cooling systems in retail applications and the optimisation of wastewater treatment plant. The report is completed with a list of current research and development projects.

  20. Application of the Monte Carlo method to estimate doses due to neutron activation of different materials in a nuclear reactor (United States)

    Ródenas, José


    All materials exposed to some neutron flux can be activated independently of the kind of the neutron source. In this study, a nuclear reactor has been considered as neutron source. In particular, the activation of control rods in a BWR is studied to obtain the doses produced around the storage pool for irradiated fuel of the plant when control rods are withdrawn from the reactor and installed into this pool. It is very important to calculate these doses because they can affect to plant workers in the area. The MCNP code based on the Monte Carlo method has been applied to simulate activation reactions produced in the control rods inserted into the reactor. Obtained activities are introduced as input into another MC model to estimate doses produced by them. The comparison of simulation results with experimental measurements allows the validation of developed models. The developed MC models have been also applied to simulate the activation of other materials, such as components of a stainless steel sample introduced into a training reactors. These models, once validated, can be applied to other situations and materials where a neutron flux can be found, not only nuclear reactors. For instance, activation analysis with an Am-Be source, neutrography techniques in both medical applications and non-destructive analysis of materials, civil engineering applications using a Troxler, analysis of materials in decommissioning of nuclear power plants, etc.

  1. Topological entropy and the controlled effect of glucose in the electrical activity of pancreatic β-cells (United States)

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno


    Insulin secretion from electrically coupled β-cells is governed by bursting electrical activity. In response to stimulatory concentrations of glucose, the membrane potential of pancreatic β-cells may experience a transition from bursting-spiking oscillations to continuous spiking oscillations. This transition can be chaotic but becomes more and more regular with an increase in glucose. In the presence of chaos, the inhability to predict the behavior of dynamical systems suggests the application of chaos control methods, when we are more interested in obtaining attracting time periodic motion. In this article, we focus our attention on a specific mathematical model from the literature that mimics the glucose-induced electrical activity of pancreatic β-cells (Deng, 1993 [7]). Firstly, using results of symbolic dynamics, we characterize the topological entropy and the parameter space ordering of the kneading sequences, associated with one-dimensional maps that reproduce significant aspects of the model dynamics. The analysis of the variation of this numerical invariant allows us to quantify and to distinguish different chaotic regimes. Finally, we show that chaotic orbits of the system can be controlled, without changing their orbital properties, and be turned into desired limit cycles. The control is illustrated by an application of a feedback control technique developed by Romeiras, Grebogi, Ott and Dayawansa (1992) [13]. This work provides an illustration of how our understanding of biophysically motivated models can be directly enhanced by the theory of dynamical systems.

  2. Optical electric fields as wavelength function within active layer of graphene/Si heterojunction solar cell – An analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad, E-mail:; Winata, Toto, E-mail: [Department of Physics, physics of electronic materials research division, PECVD Lab Institut Teknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha no. 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)


    The optical electric field characteristics of graphene/Si heterojunction thin film solar cell as the function of wavelength photons incident have modeled and calculated. There is ITO/TiO{sub 2}/C-Si/TiO{sub 2} device configuration in which p-n junction represented by C-Si and viewed as active layer for excited electrons production. The dependent of such electric field on wavelength can be understood by solving scattering matrix obtained from the interface matrix and layer matrix operation, in this report we have calculated the electric field distribution for several active layer thickness (d{sub AL}) conditions and each of them examined in the cases of x position are equal to zero, half and full of d{sub AL} while for the entire taking into account we used 250 – 840 nm wavelength range. However, this calculation is restricted by idealization assumption such as the complex refraction index is doesn’t change significantly by the thickness in hundred nanometer range, linear optical response described by scalar refraction complex index and the interface are parallel and flat compared to the wavelength of the light.

  3. Correlation of Conformational Changes and Protein Degradation with Loss of Lysozyme Activity Due to Chlorine Dioxide Treatment. (United States)

    Ooi, Beng Guat; Branning, Sharon Alyssa


    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a potent oxidizing agent used for the treatment of drinking water and decontamination of facilities and equipment. The purpose of this research is to elucidate the manner in which ClO2 destroys proteins by studying the effects of ClO2 on lysozyme. The degree of enzyme activity lost can be correlated to the treatment time and levels of the ClO2 used. Lysozyme activity was drastically reduced to 45.3% of original enzyme activity when exposed to 4.3 mM ClO2 in the sample after 3 h. Almost all activities were lost in 3 h after exposure to higher ClO2 concentrations of up to 16.8 and 21.9 mM. Changes in protein conformation and amount as a result of ClO2 treatment were determined using the Raman spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis. Raman shifts and the alteration of spectral features observed in the ClO2-treated lysozyme samples are associated with loss of the α-helix secondary structure, tertiary structure, and disulfide bond. Progressive degradation of the denatured lysozyme by increasing levels of chlorine dioxide was also observed in gel electrophoresis. Hence, ClO2 can effectively cause protein denaturation and degradation resulting in loss of enzyme activity.

  4. Trend study electricity 2022. Meta studies analysis and activity recommendations. dena report; Trendstudie Strom 2022. Metastudienanalyse und Handlungsempfehlungen. dena-Berichtsteil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Sebastian; Teichmann, Mario; Voelker, Jakob; Weber, Andreas


    The dena report concerning the trend study electricity 2022 covers the following issues: (I) aim of the project - methodology; (II) qualitative analysis of studies on the development of the energy system in Germany (meta analysis); (III) comparison of results and activity recommendations: energy demand and energy efficiency, renewable energies, conventional energies, grids, energy storage, electricity market design, European aspects; roadmap.

  5. Alternating electric fields combined with activated carbon for disinfection of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in fluidized bed electrode system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Bernard, S.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, A.H.; Yntema, D.R.; Bruning, H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.


    Strong electric fields for disinfection of wastewaters have been employed already for several decades. An innovative approach combining low strength (7 V/cm) alternating electric fields with a granular activated carbon fluidized bed electrode (FBE) for disinfection was presented recently. For

  6. A theoretical study of molecular structure, optical properties and bond activation of energetic compound FOX-7 under intense electric fields (United States)

    Tao, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xin; Wei, Yuan; Lv, Li; Wu, Deyin; Yang, Mingli


    Molecular structure, vibrational and electronic absorption spectra, chemical reactivity of energetic compound FOX-7, one of the most widely used explosives, were studied computationally in presence of an electrostatic field of 0.01-0.05 a.u. The Csbnd N bond, which usually triggers the decomposition of FOX-7, is shortened/elongated under a parallel/antiparallel field. The Csbnd N bond activation energy varies with the external electric field, decreasing remarkably with the field strength in regardless of the field direction. This is attributed to two aspects: the bond weakening by the field parallel to the Csbnd N bond and the stabilization effect on the transition-state structure by the field antiparallel to the bond. The variations in the structure and property of FOX-7 under the electric fields were further analyzed with its distributional polarizability, which is dependent on the charge transfer characteristics through the Csbnd N bond.

  7. Assessment of Pozzolanic Activity Using Methods Based on the Measurement of Electrical Conductivity of Suspensions of Portland Cement and Pozzolan. (United States)

    Velázquez, Sergio; Monzó, José M; Borrachero, María V; Payá, Jordi


    The use of methods based on measuring electrical conductivity to assess pozzolanic activity has recently been used primarily in aqueous suspensions of pozzolan: calcium hydroxide. However, the use of similar methods in suspensions of cement with pozzolans has not been widely studied. This paper proposes a new method for rapid assessment of the pozzolanic activity of mineral admixtures in aqueous cement suspensions. In this study, the conditions for the application of the method were optimized, such as time, temperature, w/c ratio and dosage procedure. Finally, results are presented from the application of this method for characterizing the pozzolanic activity of the spent catalytic cracking catalyst. These results corroborate as previously reported, namely the high reactivity of this pozzolan obtained by other methods, such as thermogravimetry or evolution of the mechanical strength. In addition, the pozzolanic activity of the catalyst was compared with other pozzolans such as metakaolin and silica fume.

  8. Assessment of Pozzolanic Activity Using Methods Based on the Measurement of Electrical Conductivity of Suspensions of Portland Cement and Pozzolan (United States)

    Velázquez, Sergio; Monzó, José M.; Borrachero, María V.; Payá, Jordi


    The use of methods based on measuring electrical conductivity to assess pozzolanic activity has recently been used primarily in aqueous suspensions of pozzolan: calcium hydroxide. However, the use of similar methods in suspensions of cement with pozzolans has not been widely studied. This paper proposes a new method for rapid assessment of the pozzolanic activity of mineral admixtures in aqueous cement suspensions. In this study, the conditions for the application of the method were optimized, such as time, temperature, w/c ratio and dosage procedure. Finally, results are presented from the application of this method for characterizing the pozzolanic activity of the spent catalytic cracking catalyst. These results corroborate as previously reported, namely the high reactivity of this pozzolan obtained by other methods, such as thermogravimetry or evolution of the mechanical strength. In addition, the pozzolanic activity of the catalyst was compared with other pozzolans such as metakaolin and silica fume. PMID:28788261

  9. Effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) on structures and antioxidant activity of soybean source peptides-SHCMN. (United States)

    Lin, Songyi; Liang, Rong; Li, Xingfang; Xing, Jie; Yuan, Yuan


    Recently, high-intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) has successfully used in improvement of antioxidant activity. Ser-His-Cys-Met-Asn (SHCMN) obtained from soybean protein was chosen to investigate the phenomenon of antioxidant activity improvement. Effects of PEF treatment on antioxidant activity of SHCMN were evaluated by DPPH radical inhibition. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mid-infrared (MIR), circular dichroism (CD) were used to analyze structures of SHCMN. Two-factor-at-a-time results show that DPPH radical inhibition of SHCMN is significantly (PPEF treatment. But the secondary structures (α-helix, β-turn, and random coil) can be affected and zeta potential of PEF-treated SHCNM was reduced to 0.59±0.03mV. The antioxidant activity improvement of SHCMN might result from the changes of secondary structures and zeta potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Pozzolanic Activity Using Methods Based on the Measurement of Electrical Conductivity of Suspensions of Portland Cement and Pozzolan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Velázquez


    Full Text Available The use of methods based on measuring electrical conductivity to assess pozzolanic activity has recently been used primarily in aqueous suspensions of pozzolan: calcium hydroxide. However, the use of similar methods in suspensions of cement with pozzolans has not been widely studied. This paper proposes a new method for rapid assessment of the pozzolanic activity of mineral admixtures in aqueous cement suspensions. In this study, the conditions for the application of the method were optimized, such as time, temperature, w/c ratio and dosage procedure. Finally, results are presented from the application of this method for characterizing the pozzolanic activity of the spent catalytic cracking catalyst. These results corroborate as previously reported, namely the high reactivity of this pozzolan obtained by other methods, such as thermogravimetry or evolution of the mechanical strength. In addition, the pozzolanic activity of the catalyst was compared with other pozzolans such as metakaolin and silica fume.

  11. Plasma activity of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with biventricular heart failure versus those with right heart failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (United States)

    Flessas, Nikolaos; Alexanian, Ioannis; Parissis, John; Kremastinos, Dimitrios; Lekakis, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos


    Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is an established prognostic indicator in patients with left ventricular systolic heart failure (LHF). However, no efficient data exist regarding the differences in plasma BNP activity between patients with biventricular heart failure and those with right heart failure (RHF) due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study investigates BNP in RHF due to COPD in comparison to RHF due to LHF, and estimates the relation of BNP levels with clinical and echocardiographic parameters. We evaluated plasma BNP in 88 patients admitted to hospital with acutely decompensated chronic heart failure (31 with RHF due to LHF, 30 with RHF due to COPD without left heart disease, and 27 with LHF without right ventricular involvement). All patients underwent echocardiography examination and blood samples were collected to determine BNP and routine blood chemistry measurements. Plasma BNP levels were significantly higher in RHF due to LHF compared with RHF due to COPD (P RHF due to LHF and LHF alone (P = 0.802). In multiple linear regression analysis, tissue Doppler imaging e(LV) (B: -0.053, P = 0.002) and e(RV) (B: -0.079, P = 0.007) had an independent negative association with BNP, whereas logUrea (B: 0.635, P RHF due to COPD. BNP levels were significantly lower in RHF due to COPD compared with RHF due to LHF and were independently predicted by indices of left ventricular and right ventricular diastolic function, renal function, and anemia.

  12. Seasonal and magnetic activity variations of ionospheric electric fields above the southern mid-latitude station, Bundoora, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    Full Text Available We investigate the seasonal, local solar time, and geomagnetic activity variations of the average Doppler velocity measured by an HF digital ionosonde deployed at Bundoora, Australia (145.1° E, 37.7° S, geographic; 49° S magnetic. The Doppler velocities were heavily averaged to suppress the short-term effects (<3 hours of atmospheric gravity waves, and thereby obtain the diurnal variations attributed to the tidally-driven ionospheric dynamo and electric fields generated by magnetic disturbances. The observed seasonal variations in Doppler velocity were probably controlled by variations in the lower thermospheric winds and ionospheric conductivity above Bundoora and in the magnetically conjugate location. The diurnal variations of the meridional (field-perpendicular drifts and their perturbations exhibited a complex structure, and were generally smaller than the variations in the zonal drifts. The latter were basically strongly west-ward during the evening to early morning, and weakly east-ward during the late morning to just past noon. The zonal perturbations were strongly enhanced by increasing geomagnetic activity, and closely resembled the perturbation drifts measured by the incoherent scatter radar (ISR at Millstone Hill (71.5° W, 42.6° N; 57° N. There was also some resemblance between the diurnal variations in the meridional drifts. Overall, the comparisons suggest that with sufficient averaging, Doppler velocities measured with digital ionosondes at mid-latitudes correspond to true ion motions driven by ionospheric electric fields. This is a useful result because apart from the ISRs located in the American-European sector, there are no ground-based instruments capable of measuring electric fields in the mid-latitude ionosphere.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ionosphere atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  13. The changes of the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L. due to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hrabovská


    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Cultivar is one of the most important internal factors affecting polyphenol concentration in the plants. However, influence of the grown locality, climate conditions and way of cultivation belong to important external factors. In our experiment the influence of different nitrogen doses (0 - 40 - 80 - 120 - 160 - 240 kg N.ha-1 applied in the form of Vermikompost on the total polyphenol content and derived total antioxidant activity in cv. Sorento were investigated. While in the 1st - 5th variants the determined polyphenol content in dry mater of potato tubers decreased from 399.2 to 70.40, in the 6th variant that was twice higher in comparison to the 5th variants (135.6 The statistically significant differences in values of total polyphenol content between variants (polynomial function of 2nd degree were confirmed. The study also confirmed a strong statistical correlation between the content of polyphenols and the content of antioxidant activity has been confirmed (sign. F: 3.24E-10. The highest value of antioxidant activity was observed in the first variant. From the first to the fifth variant (7.62 - 4.84%, the value of antioxidant activity was decreasing and in the sixth variant this value increased to 6.31%.

  14. Alterations in soil microbial activity and N-transformation processes due to sulfadiazine loads in pig-manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotzerke, Anja [Berlin University of Technology, Institute of Ecology, Franklinstrasse 29, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail:; Sharma, Shilpi [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail:; Schauss, Kristina [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail:; Heuer, Holger [Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry (BBA), Messeweg 11-12, 38104 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail:; Thiele-Bruhn, Soeren [Trier University, Soil Science, Behringstrasse 21, 54286 Trier (Germany)], E-mail:; Smalla, Kornelia [Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry (BBA), Messeweg 11-12, 38104 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail:; Wilke, Berndt-Michael [Berlin University of Technology, Institute of Ecology, Franklinstrasse 29, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail:; Schloter, Michael [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail:


    Most veterinary drugs enter the environment via manure application. However, it is unclear how these substances interact with soil biota. Therefore, it was the aim of the present study to investigate the effects of manure containing different concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) on the soil microbial communities. It was shown that manure alone has a stimulating effect on microbial activity. Only potential nitrification was negatively influenced by manure application. The addition of SDZ to the manure reduced microbial activity. Depending on the SDZ concentration, levels of activity were in the range of the control soil without manure application. Also, selected processes in nitrogen turnover were negatively influenced by the addition of SDZ to the manure, with nitrification being the only exception. The effects were visible for up to 4 days after application of the manure with or without SDZ and were correlated with the bioavailability of the antibiotic. - This study gives first insights into the effects of manure containing the antibiotic sulfadiazine on microbial activity and nitrogen transformation potentials in soil.

  15. Antichagasic Activity of Komaroviquinone Is Due to Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Catalyzed by Trypanosoma cruzi Old Yellow Enzyme


    Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kabututu, Zakayi; Kubata, Bruno K.; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Ito, Michiho; Nakajima-Shimada, Junko; Aoki, Takashi; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Martin, Samuel K.; Honda, Gisho; Urade, Yoshihiro


    A novel potent trypanocidal diterpene, komaroviquinone, was reduced by Trypanosoma cruzi old yellow enzyme (TcOYE) to its semiquinone radical. The reductase activity in trypanosome lysates was completely immunoabsorbed by anti-TcOYE antibody. Since TcOYE is expressed throughout the T. cruzi life cycle, komaroviquinone is an interesting candidate for developing new antichagasic drugs.

  16. Changes in Upper Extremity Range of Motion and Efficiency in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Due to Water Activity. (United States)

    Duthie, Pamela Rae

    To determine the effects of water exercise on the movements of multiple sclerosis patients, this study utilized tests to determine changes in the linear range of motion of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist after a 45-minute period of water activities and to determine if the movement became more effective. The test used was an overhead throw with a…

  17. Impact of the feedback provided by a gastric electrical stimulation system on eating behavior and physical activity levels. (United States)

    Busetto, Luca; Torres, Antonio J; Morales-Conde, Salvador; Alarcón Del Agua, Isaias; Moretto, Carlo; Fierabracci, Paola; Rovera, Giuseppe; Segato, Gianni; Rubio, Miguel A; Favretti, Franco


    The closed-loop gastric electrical stimulation (CLGES) abiliti(®) system provides tailored gastric electrical stimulation activated by food entry into the stomach and sensor-based data to medical professionals. The aim of this study was to analyze behavior changes using sensor-based food intake and activity data in participants treated with the CLGES system. Food intake and activity data (3D accelerometer) were downloaded at baseline and monthly/bimonthly for 12 months in a subset of patients with obesity (N = 45) participating in a multicenter trial with CLGES. Measured food intake parameters included the number of intakes during allowed and disallowed periods, nighttime intakes, and between-meal snacks (average/d). Activity parameters included time in different levels of physical activity (min/d), sleep/sedentary (h/d), and estimated energy expenditure (EE). Weight loss at 12 months averaged 15.7 ± 7.7% of the baseline body weight. Stable reduction in the number of disallowed meals and between-meal snacks (P < 0.05), an increase in all levels of physical activity (P < 0.001), and an increase in activity-based EE (303 ± 53 kcal/d on average, P < 0.001) were seen. Significant improvement in eating and activity was seen in participants. It is hypothesized that feedback of the sensor-based data induced behavioral changes and contributed to weight loss in patients treated with CLGES. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  18. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Pourmousavi, Seyyed Ali; Savaghebi, Mehdi


    A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs) in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow ...... demonstrate the capability of the algorithm in increasing solar power penetration in the grid up to 50%, depending on the PEV penetration level and the freedom of the system operator in managing the available PEV storage....

  19. Laser Droplet Brazing for the Electrical Contacting of Composite Materials with Integrated Active Elements (United States)

    Held, Carolin; Quentin, Ulf; Heberle, Johannes; Gürtler, Franz-Josef; Weigl, Markus; Schmidt, Michael

    This paper describes a laser droplet brazing method for electrical contacting of sensitive piezoceramic actuator modules. In order to increase the reproducibility of the contacting process, the mass, the energy and the flight path of the braze droplets have to be controlled. For this reason, braze preforms are used which are molten by a single laser pulse. The system technology and first results will be presented, as well as a mechanical and metallurgical analysis of the brazed connections.

  20. Direct electrical control of IgG conformation and functional activity at surfaces (United States)

    Ghisellini, Paola; Caiazzo, Marialuisa; Alessandrini, Andrea; Eggenhöffner, Roberto; Vassalli, Massimo; Facci, Paolo


    We have devised a supramolecular edifice involving His-tagged protein A and antibodies to yield surface immobilized, uniformly oriented, IgG-type, antibody layers with Fab fragments exposed off an electrode surface. We demonstrate here that we can affect the conformation of IgGs, likely pushing/pulling electrostatically Fab fragments towards/from the electrode surface. A potential difference between electrode and solution acts on IgGs’ charged aminoacids modulating the accessibility of the specific recognition regions of Fab fragments by antigens in solution. Consequently, antibody-antigen affinity is affected by the sign of the applied potential: a positive potential enables an effective capture of antigens; a negative one pulls the fragments towards the electrode, where steric hindrance caused by neighboring molecules largely hampers the capture of antigens. Different experimental techniques (electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, fluorescence confocal microscopy and electrochemical atomic force spectroscopy) were used to evaluate binding kinetics, surface coverage, effect of the applied electric field on IgGs, and role of charged residues on the phenomenon described. These findings expand the concept of electrical control of biological reactions and can be used to gate electrically specific recognition reactions with impact in biosensors, bioactuators, smart biodevices, nanomedicine, and fundamental studies related to chemical reaction kinetics.

  1. Study of the function of sarcoplasmic reticulum of vascular smooth muscle during activation due to depolarization-induced calcium influx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, K.S.


    The role of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in vascular smooth muscle was evaluated with respect to regulation of myoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} during the Ca{sup 2+} entry induced by depolarization. Calcium agonist, Bay K8644, stimulated Ca{sup 2+} influx as well as tension in physiological salt solution, (PSS) in contrast to the priming effects due to the depolarization originally reported. Disparity, however, was found between the Ca{sup 2+} entered and tension developed. Correlation between the tension and {sup 45}Ca influx showed a typical threshold phenomenon; the basal Ca{sup 2+} influx can be raised to a certain level (25%) without tension induction, after which a minor increase in Ca{sup 2+} influx produced significant tension. This subthreshold Ca{sup 2+} influx was found accumulated in the caffeine-sensitive Ca stores, the SR. This confirmed the dependency of tension on the rate of Ca{sup 2+} entry demonstrated by a previous report.

  2. Evidence of 131I and (134,137)Cs activities in Bordeaux, France due to the Fukushima nuclear accident. (United States)

    Perrot, F; Hubert, Ph; Marquet, Ch; Pravikoff, M S; Bourquin, P; Chiron, H; Guernion, P-Y; Nachab, A


    Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, low-background gamma spectrometry measurements were performed with HPGe detectors at the PRISNA platform located at the CENBG laboratory in Bordeaux, France. Different kinds of samples were collected and measured between March 26 and May 14, 2011. The first fission product observed was (131)I with maximum activity values of 2.4 mBq/m(3) in atmospheric dusts in air, 3.5 Bq/L in rain water, 15 Bq/kg in grass and 0.9 Bq/L in cow milk. The (134,137)Cs isotopes were also detected in air and in grass at a maximum level of 0.2 mBq/m(3) and 0.7 Bq/kg respectively, around one order of magnitude less than (131)I activity, but they were below detection limits in the other samples. All these activity values were consistent with others measured in France by IRSN and were well below those reported in May 1986 after the Chernobyl accident. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chromosomal instability by inefficient Mps1 auto-activation due to a weakened mitotic checkpoint and lagging chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannette Jelluma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chromosomal instability (CIN, a feature widely shared by cells from solid tumors, is caused by occasional chromosome missegregations during cell division. Two of the causes of CIN are weakened mitotic checkpoint signaling and persistent merotelic attachments that result in lagging chromosomes during anaphase. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we identify an autophosphorylation event on Mps1 that is required to prevent these two causes of CIN. Mps1 is phosphorylated in mitotic cells on at least 7 residues, 4 of which by autophosphorylation. One of these, T676, resides in the activation loop of the kinase domain and a mutant that cannot be phosphorylated on T676 is less active than wild-type Mps1 but is not kinase-dead. Strikingly, cells in which endogenous Mps1 was replaced with this mutant are viable but missegregate chromosomes frequently. Anaphase is initiated in the presence of misaligned and lagging chromosomes, indicative of a weakened checkpoint and persistent merotelic attachments, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that full activity of Mps1 is essential for maintaining chromosomal stability by allowing resolution of merotelic attachments and to ensure that single kinetochores achieve the strength of checkpoint signaling sufficient to prevent premature anaphase onset and chromosomal instability. To our knowledge, phosphorylation of T676 on Mps1 is the first post-translational modification in human cells of which the absence causes checkpoint weakening and CIN without affecting cell viability.

  4. The effect of electrical stimulation on leg muscle pump activity in spinal cord-injured and able-bodied individuals. (United States)

    van Beekvelt, M C; van Asten, W N; Hopman, M T


    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in: (1) effective muscle pump activity (MPA) between voluntary and electrically (ES) induced contractions in able-bodied subjects (ABS); and (2) ES-induced MPA between spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals and ABS. MPA was measured as relative volume changes in the calf using strain-gauge plethysmography during repeated muscle contractions in the supine position while venous outflow was impeded by a thigh cuff inflated to a range of pressures. Ten SCI individuals and ten ABS participated in this study. ABS showed no significant difference between voluntary and electrically induced MPA [58.1 (18.4)% versus 67.7 (8.7)%, respectively]. SCI individuals showed a significantly lower ES-induced MPA than ABS [21.5 (15.9)% versus 67.7 (8.7)%, respectively]. The low MPA in SCI individuals may be explained by: (1) extensive leg muscle atrophy and/or (2) an "atrophic" vascular system in the legs. The electrical current level seemed to influence MPA (43 mA, 21.5% versus 60 mA, 30.8%) for SCI individuals, whereas no influence of muscle contraction rate on MPA was observed in ABS. The results of this study demonstrate that although ES-induced leg muscle contractions result in adequate MPA in ABS, it leads to significantly less effective MPA in SCI individuals.

  5. Automated analysis of seizure semiology and brain electrical activity in presurgery evaluation of epilepsy: A focused survey. (United States)

    Ahmedt-Aristizabal, David; Fookes, Clinton; Dionisio, Sasha; Nguyen, Kien; Cunha, João Paulo S; Sridharan, Sridha


    Epilepsy being one of the most prevalent neurological disorders, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide, and with almost 30-40% of patients experiencing partial epilepsy being nonresponsive to medication, epilepsy surgery is widely accepted as an effective therapeutic option. Presurgical evaluation has advanced significantly using noninvasive techniques based on video monitoring, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological and neuropsychological tests; however, certain clinical settings call for invasive intracranial recordings such as stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG), aiming to accurately map the eloquent brain networks involved during a seizure. Most of the current presurgical evaluation procedures focus on semiautomatic techniques, where surgery diagnosis relies immensely on neurologists' experience and their time-consuming subjective interpretation of semiology or the manifestations of epilepsy and their correlation with the brain's electrical activity. Because surgery misdiagnosis reaches a rate of 30%, and more than one-third of all epilepsies are poorly understood, there is an evident keen interest in improving diagnostic precision using computer-based methodologies that in the past few years have shown near-human performance. Among them, deep learning has excelled in many biological and medical applications, but has advanced insufficiently in epilepsy evaluation and automated understanding of neural bases of semiology. In this paper, we systematically review the automatic applications in epilepsy for human motion analysis, brain electrical activity, and the anatomoelectroclinical correlation to attribute anatomical localization of the epileptogenic network to distinctive epilepsy patterns. Notably, recent advances in deep learning techniques will be investigated in the contexts of epilepsy to address the challenges exhibited by traditional machine learning techniques. Finally, we discuss and propose future research on epilepsy surgery assessment

  6. In the Early Stages of Diabetes, Rat Retinal Mitochondria Undergo Mild Uncoupling due to UCP2 Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixchel Osorio-Paz

    Full Text Available In order to maintain high transmembrane ionic gradients, retinal tissues require a large amount of energy probably provided by a high rate of both, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. However, little information exists on retinal mitochondrial efficiency. We analyzed the retinal mitochondrial activity in ex vivo retinas and in isolated mitochondria from normal rat retina and from short-term streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In normal ex vivo retinas, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO2 production. Retina from diabetic rats accumulated similar amounts of glucose. However, CO2 production was not as high. Isolated mitochondria from normal rat retina exhibited a resting rate of oxygen consumption of 14.6 ± 1.1 natgO ( prot(-1 and a respiratory control of 4.0. Mitochondria from 7, 20 and 45 days diabetic rats increased the resting rate of oxygen consumption and the activity of the electron transport complexes; under these conditions the mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreased. In spite of this, the ATP synthesis was not modified. GDP, an UCP2 inhibitor, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and superoxide production in controls and at 45 days of diabetes. The role of UCP2 is discussed. The results suggest that at the early stage of diabetes we studied, retinal mitochondria undergo adaptations leading to maintain energetic requirements and prevent oxidative stress.

  7. 210Po and 210Pb Activity Concentrations in Cigarettes Produced in Vietnam and Their Estimated Dose Contribution Due to Smoking (United States)

    Tran, Thuy-Ngan N.; Le, Cong-Hao; Chau, Van-Tao

    Smoking cigarettes contributes significantly to the increase of radiation in human body because 210Po and 210Pb exist relatively high in tobacco leaves. Therefore, these two radioisotopes in eighteen of the most frequently sold cigarette brands produced in Vietnam were examined in this study. 210Po was determined by alpha spectroscopy using a passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector after a procedure including radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of polonium on a copper disc (the deposition efficiency of 210Po on a copper disc was approximately 94%). Sequentially, 210Pb was determined through the ingrowth of 210Po after storing the sample solutions for approximately six months. The activity concentrations of 210Po in cigarettes ranged from 13.8 to 82.6 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 26.4 mBq/cigarette) and the activity concentrations of 210Pb in cigarettes ranged from 13.9 to 78.8 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 25.8 mBq/cigarette). The annual committed effective dose for smokers who smoke one pack per day was also estimated to be 295.4 µSv/year (223.0 µSv/year and 72.4 µSv/year from 210Po and 210Pb, respectively). These indicated that smoking increased the risk of developing lung cancer was approximately 60 times greater for smokers than for non-smokers.

  8. Is dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to social exclusion due to expectancy violation? An fMRI study. (United States)

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Onoda, Keiichi; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro


    People are typically quite sensitive about being accepted or excluded by others. Previous studies have suggested that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a key brain region involved in the detection of social exclusion. However, this region has also been shown to be sensitive to non-social expectancy violations. We often expect other people to follow an unwritten rule in which they include us as they would expect to be included, such that social exclusion likely involves some degree of expectancy violation. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study sought to separate the effects of expectancy violation from those of social exclusion, such that we employed an "overinclusion" condition in which a player was unexpectedly overincluded in the game by the other players. With this modification, we found that the dACC and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) were activated by exclusion, relative to overinclusion. In addition, we identified a negative correlation between exclusion-evoked brain activity and self-rated social pain in the rVLPFC, but not in the dACC. These findings suggest that the rVLPFC is critical for regulating social pain, whereas the dACC plays an important role in the detection of exclusion. The neurobiological basis of social exclusion is different from that of mere expectancy violation.

  9. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis for refractory skin diseases due to activated neutrophils, psoriasis, and associated arthropathy. (United States)

    Sakanoue, Masanao; Takeda, Koichiro; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Kanekura, Takuro


    Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA), an extracorporeal apheresis instrument whose column contains cellulose acetate (CA) beads, is designed to remove activated granulocytes and monocytes. We previously demonstrated that GMA was useful for treating neutrophilic dermatoses and associated arthropathy as it adsorbs Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18)-expressing neutrophils to the CA beads by the binding of complement component (iC3b) and CD11b expressed on activated neutrophils. The objective of this study is to further assess the clinical effectiveness of GMA in the treatment of neutrophilic dermatoses and associated arthropathy. The effect of GMA for skin lesions and joint lesions was assessed in 44 and 23 patients, respectively. Mac-1 expression on peripheral neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry. Skin lesions and arthropathy improved in 39 of 44 patients (88.6%) and 22 of 23 (95.6%), respectively. Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) expression on the peripheral neutrophils, 27.1 ± 6.66 MFI (mean fluorescence intensity) before treatment, was reduced to 17.9 ± 3.02 MFI by GMA (P < 0.05). Clinical effectiveness of GMA for the treatment of intractable neutrophilic dermatoses and associated arthropathy was further confirmed. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  10. Reduced striatal activation during reward anticipation due to appetite-provoking cues in chronic schizophrenia: a fMRI study. (United States)

    Grimm, O; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Krebs, L; Zink, M; Smolka, M N


    The occurrence of weight gain in schizophrenia (SZ) has profound clinical impact and interacts with antipsychotic medication, life style and disease severity. The functional neuroanatomy underlying altered nutritional behavior is unraveled, but dysregulated reward anticipation might be one of the involved neuronal mechanisms. The striatum, a core region of the reward network and salience attribution, was previously shown to regulate appetite perception and eating behavior. We studied patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia with a stable medication in comparison to age and gender matched healthy adults. Every subject had to undergo a 6h fasting period before a newly developed, appetite-provoking fMRI task was applied. Subjects saw visual stimuli of appetitive food items in a 3Tesla scanner. In healthy controls food images elicited stronger activation in the striatum compared to SZ patients. When adjusting a ROI-based striatal activation for medication and weight, the group difference remained still significant. This points an effect of illness independent of antipsychotic medication. These data underscore the involvement of the striatum into salience attribution, reward anticipation and the neuronal pathways leading to altered eating behavior and weight gain in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arachidonic acid containing phosphatidylcholine increases due to microglial activation in ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn following spared sciatic nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Banno

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury induces substantial molecular changes in the somatosensory system that leads to maladaptive plasticity and cause neuropathic pain. Understanding the molecular pathways responsible for the development of neuropathic pain is essential to the development of novel rationally designed therapeutics. Although lipids make up to half of the dry weight of the spinal cord, their relation with the development of neuropathic pain is poorly understood. We aimed to elucidate the regulation of spinal lipids in response to neuropathic peripheral nerve injury in mice by utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry, which allows visualization of lipid distribution within the cord. We found that arachidonic acid (AA containing [PC(diacyl-16:0/20:4+K]+ was increased temporarily at superficial ipsilateral dorsal horn seven days after spared nerve injury (SNI. The spatiotemporal changes in lipid concentration resembled microglia activation as defined by ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1 immunohistochemistry. Suppression of microglial function through minocycline administration resulted in attenuation of hypersensitivity and reduces [PC(diacyl-16:0/20:4+K]+ elevation in the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggested that AA containing [PC(diacyl-16:0/20:4+K]+ is related to hypersensitivity evoked by SNI and implicate microglial cell activation in this lipid production.

  12. Active coated nano-particle excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole — resonance and transparency effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.


    The present work investigates the optical properties of active coated spherical nano-particles excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole. The nano-particles are made of specific dielectric and plasmonic materials. The spatial near-field distribution as well as the normalized...... radiation resistance is examined. Both enhanced as well as reduced radiation effects are demonstrated. In particular, it is shown that specific active coated nano-particles can be designed to be resonant, leading to much larger values of the normalized radiation resistance than is the case...... with the corresponding passive coated nano-particles, thereby overcoming the intrinsic losses present in the plasmonic materials. Moreover, it is shown that other active coated nano-particle designs can significantly reduce the normalized radiation resistance; thus both the resonant as well as non...

  13. Opposing HDAC4 nuclear fluxes due to phosphorylation by β-adrenergic activated protein kinase A or by activity or Epac activated CaMKII in skeletal muscle fibres (United States)

    Liu, Yewei; Schneider, Martin F


    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) move between skeletal muscle fibre cytoplasm and nuclei in response to various stimuli, suppressing activity of the exclusively nuclear transcription factor Mef2. Protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates class IIa HDACs in cardiac muscle, resulting in HDAC nuclear accumulation, but this has not been examined in skeletal muscle. Using HDAC4–green fluorescent protein (HDAC4-GFP) expressed in isolated skeletal muscle fibres, we now show that activation of PKA by the beta-receptor agonist isoproterenol or dibutyryl (Db) cAMP causes a steady HDAC4-GFP nuclear influx. The beta-receptor blocker propranolol or PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMPS blocks the effects of isoproterenol on the nuclear influx of HDAC4-GFP, and Rp-cAMPS blocks the effects of Db cAMP. The HDAC4-GFP construct having serines 265 and 266 replaced with alanines, HDAC4 (S265/266A)-GFP, did not respond to beta-receptor or PKA activation. Immunoprecipitation results show that HDAC4-GFP is a substrate of PKA, but HDAC4 (S265/266A)-GFP is not, implicating HDAC4 serines 265/266 as the site(s) phosphorylated by PKA. During 10 Hz trains of muscle fibre electrical stimulation, the nuclear efflux rate of HDAC4-GFP, but not of HDAC4 (S265/266)-GFP, was decreased by PKA activation, directly demonstrating antagonism between the effects of fibre stimulation and beta-adrenergic activation of PKA on HDAC4 nuclear fluxes. 8-CPT, a specific activator of Epac, caused nuclear efflux of HDAC4-GFP, opposite to the effect of PKA. Db cAMP increased both phosphorylated PKA and GTP-bound Rap1. Our results demonstrate that the PKA and CaMKII pathways play important opposing roles in skeletal muscle gene expression by oppositely affecting the subcellular localization of HDAC4. PMID:23652597

  14. Mach-Zehnder interference microscopy optically records electrically stimulated cellular activity in unstained nerve cells. (United States)

    Kaul, R A; Mahlmann, D M; Loosen, P


    Dual-beam white light interference microscopy monitors changes in the optical density of the investigated object with high sensitivity. We report on the recording of dynamic changes in a neuron's optical density evoked by extracellular electrical stimulation. These recorded changes were analysed and unambiguously connected to the investigated object, an invertebrate neuron of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The results provide evidence for the method's applicability in visualizing cellular dynamics purely by evaluating changes in a cell's optical properties. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. State-of-Charge Estimation and Active Cell Pack Balancing Design of Lithium Battery Power System for Smart Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. C. Gao


    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated state-of-charge (SOC estimation model and active cell balancing of a 12-cell lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 battery power system. The strong tracking cubature extended Kalman filter (STCEKF gave an accurate SOC prediction compared to other Kalman-based filter algorithms. The proposed groupwise balancing of the multiple SOC exhibited a higher balancing speed and lower balancing loss than other cell balancing designs. The experimental results demonstrated the robustness and performance of the battery when subjected to current load profile of an electric vehicle under varying ambient temperature.

  16. Simulation suggests that rapid activation of social distancing can arrest epidemic development due to a novel strain of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Heath


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social distancing interventions such as school closure and prohibition of public gatherings are present in pandemic influenza preparedness plans. Predicting the effectiveness of intervention strategies in a pandemic is difficult. In the absence of other evidence, computer simulation can be used to help policy makers plan for a potential future influenza pandemic. We conducted simulations of a small community to determine the magnitude and timing of activation that would be necessary for social distancing interventions to arrest a future pandemic. Methods We used a detailed, individual-based model of a real community with a population of approximately 30,000. We simulated the effect of four social distancing interventions: school closure, increased isolation of symptomatic individuals in their household, workplace nonattendance, and reduction of contact in the wider community. We simulated each of the intervention measures in isolation and in several combinations; and examined the effect of delays in the activation of interventions on the final and daily attack rates. Results For an epidemic with an R0 value of 1.5, a combination of all four social distancing measures could reduce the final attack rate from 33% to below 10% if introduced within 6 weeks from the introduction of the first case. In contrast, for an R0 of 2.5 these measures must be introduced within 2 weeks of the first case to achieve a similar reduction; delays of 2, 3 and 4 weeks resulted in final attack rates of 7%, 21% and 45% respectively. For an R0 of 3.5 the combination of all four measures could reduce the final attack rate from 73% to 16%, but only if introduced without delay; delays of 1, 2 or 3 weeks resulted in final attack rates of 19%, 35% or 63% respectively. For the higher R0 values no single measure has a significant impact on attack rates. Conclusion Our results suggest a critical role of social distancing in the potential control of a future

  17. Electromyographic Activities of Trunk Muscles Due to Different Exercise Intensities during Pulley-based Shoulder Exercises on an Unstable Surface. (United States)

    Cha, Jae Yun; Shin, Doo Chul; Shin, Seung Ho; Lee, Myung Mo; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Song, Chang Ho


    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between core stability and exercise intensity during a pulley-based shoulder exercise (PBSE) on an unstable support surface. [Subjects] Twenty healthy college students enrolled in this study. [Methods] Surface EMG was carried out in twenty healthy adult men. The electromyographic activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES), exercises with 14 kg or 26 kg of resistance and external oblique (EO) muscles during pulley-based shoulder on an unstable support surface (USS) were compared. [Results] The EMG signals of the RA, ES, and EO did not increase with increasing exercise resistance. [Conclusion] Increasing the exercise intensity to increase the core stability during PBSE on a USS may be ineffective.

  18. Mercury pollution on district of Dimembe river system North Sulawesi, Indonesia, due to traditional gold mining activities (United States)

    Ayhuan, D.; Atteng, O.; Dondokambey, A.; Randuk, M.


    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small scale gold mining is a environmental problem. Small-scale gold mining (SSGM) is common in mineral endowed developing countries. It offers an important means of livehood and has served as a safety net in times of natural calamities or economic distress. In north Sulawesi Province alone, approximately 22,000 small-scale gold miners were active in 1998, and produced an estimated 10 tonnes of gold bullion. Activities of traditional / illegal gold mining (PETI) in Dimembe of district, which is located in Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi Province. The major environmental concern associated with PETI in mercury pollution from processing of gold-bearing ore. In both the inorganic and organic forms, mercury is one of the most toxic substances to humans. One of the environmental pollution is water pollution on district of Dimembe river system that is probably caused by the use of mercury (Hg) in processing mine ore. This mercury is used in an iron rolling vessel, wllich is called tromol. Mercury concentration at employed in this operation reaches 1 kg out of 30 kg ore. Sampling stage was conducted at Warat river, downstream Taiawaan river, Merut river and Kadumut river on late April 2002 by BAPEDALDA team together with Health Laboratory staff. Material which were sampled was water. Sampling methods carried out were bottle sample immersed about 10 cm below the water surface. The analysis method used was mercury analyzer. The analysis result show that total concentration of mercury range from 1. 69 to 25. 54 ppb. This concentration is closed to Water Quality Standard IV Class that is 0.005 mg/L (Regulation Government No. 82/2001). The result of this research indicate that the district of Dimembe river system in the gold mining area have been contaminated by mercury.

  19. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ahmadi Kordkheili


    Full Text Available A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow (PF from the distribution network to the upstream electrical system. Furthermore, a charging algorithm is proposed within the proposed optimization in order to assure PEV owner’s quality of service (QoS. The method uses genetic algorithm (GA to increase photovoltaic (PV penetration without jeopardizing PEV owners’ (QoS and grid operating limits, such as voltage level of the grid buses. The method is applied to a part of the Danish low voltage (LV grid to evaluate its effectiveness and capabilities. Different scenarios have been defined and tested using the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the capability of the algorithm in increasing solar power penetration in the grid up to 50%, depending on the PEV penetration level and the freedom of the system operator in managing the available PEV storage.

  20. Effect of Paired-Pulse Electrical Stimulation on the Activity of Cortical Circuits (United States)

    Saito, Kei; Onishi, Hideaki; Miyaguchi, Shota; Kotan, Shinichi; Fujimoto, Shuhei


    Objective: We investigated the transient effect of short-duration paired-pulse electrical stimulation (ppES) on corticospinal excitability and the after-effect of long-duration ppES on excitability, short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), and afferent facilitation (AF). Methods: A total of 28 healthy subjects participated in two different experiments. In Experiment 1, motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured in the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles before and immediately after short-duration ppES (5 s) at various inter-pulse intervals (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 30 ms). In Experiment 2, MEPs, SAI, and AF were measured before, immediately, and 20 and 40 min after long-duration ppES (20 min, inter-pulse interval of 5 and 15 ms) and peripheral electrical stimulation (20 min, 10 and 20 Hz). Results: Short-duration ppES with inter-pulse intervals of 5 and 20 ms significantly increased MEP measured in APB but not in ADM. Long-duration ppES with an inter-pulse interval of 5 ms significantly decreased SAI but not MEPs in APB. In contrast, long-duration ppES did not affect ADM. Conclusion: The afferent inputs induced by ppES-5 ms were effective for transiently increasing MEP and sustaining SAI reduction. PMID:26733847

  1. Urticaria due to antihistamines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sánchez Morillas, L; Rojas Pérez-Ezquerra, P; Reaño Martos, M; Sanz, M L; Laguna Martínez, J J


    .... We report a patient with urticaria due to ingestion of ebastine and fexofenadine. Skin prick tests, patch tests, and basophil activation tests with the implicated drugs and antihistamines from other families were negative...

  2. Extra Dose Due to Extravehicular Activity During the NASA4 Mission, Measured by an On-Board TLD System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I. [Budapest (Hungary)


    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO{sub 4}:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO{sub 4}:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 {mu}Gy.h{sup -1} at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET. (author)

  3. [Daptomycin: revitalizing a former drug due to the need of new active agents against grampositive multiresistant bacterias]. (United States)

    Hernández Martí, V; Romá Sánchez, E; Salavert Lletí, M; Bosó Ribelles, V; Poveda Andrés, J L


    The development of mechanisms of resistance of many Gram-positive bacterial strains that cause complicated skin and soft tissue infections, as well as sepsis and bacteremia, has necessitated the search for new drugs that will improve treatment strategies. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibacterial that was launched for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by Gram-positive organisms. The drug's mechanism of action is different from that of any other antibiotic. It binds to bacterial membranes and causes a rapid depolarization of membrane potential. This loss of membrane potential causes inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis, which results in bacterial cell death. The in vitro spectrum of activity of daptomycin encompasses most clinically relevant aerobic Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Compared to other antibiotics with a similar antibacterial spectrum, daptomycin does not cause nephrotoxicity. Taking these and other characteristics into consideration, daptomycin appears to be a good alternative to other drugs used in the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections and in Gram-positive bacteremial infections.

  4. Immediate effect of selective neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilson Simões Brasileiro


    Full Text Available The Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is described as an anterior or retropatellar knee pain in the absence of other associated diseases, and has often been associated with dysfunction of the vastus medialis oblique muscle (VMO. However, several studies have demonstrated the impossibility of selectively activating this muscle with exercises. The aim of the present study was to analyze the immediate effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of VMO muscle by means of monitoring the electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO and vastus lateralis (VL muscles. Eighteen healthy women with a mean age of 23.2 years and mean BMI of 20 Kg/m2 were evaluated. The study protocol included electromyographic analysis of VMO and VL muscles, before and immediately after neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the VMO muscle. During the electromyographic analysis, the volunteers performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction in a 60° knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. “Russian current” apparatus was used for electrical stimulation. Results: The data analysis demonstrated a signifi cant increase in VMO activation intensity immediately after it had been electrically stimulated (p=0.0125, whereas VL activation intensity exhibited no signifi cant increase (p=0.924. Moreover, a significant increase in the VMO/VL ratio was also detected (p=0.048. In this study it was observed that electrical stimulation modifiedthe VMO/VL ratio, which suggests electrical stimulation has a benefi cial effect on VMO muscle strength. Resumo A Síndrome da dor patelofemoral (SDPF é descrita como dor anterior ou retro-patelar do joelho na ausência de outras patologias associadas, sendo freqüentemente associada à disfunção do Vasto Medial Oblíquo (VMO. Entretanto, diversos estudos têm demonstrado a impossibilidade de ativar seletivamente este músculo através de exercícios. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar o efeito imediato da

  5. Electrically-assisted delivery of an anionic protein across intact skin: cathodal iontophoresis of biologically active ribonuclease T1. (United States)

    Dubey, S; Kalia, Y N


    Cathodal iontophoresis of anionic macromolecules has been considered a major challenge owing to (i) the presence of a negative charge on the skin under physiological conditions and (ii) the electroosmotic solvent flow in the (opposite) anode-to-cathode direction. Moreover, electroosmosis, and not electromigration, was considered as the likely electrotransport mechanism for high molecular weight cations. However, it was recently shown that electromigration governed anodal iontophoretic transport of Cytochrome c (12.4 kDa) and Ribonuclease A (RNAse A; 13.6 kDa). Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of iontophoresing a negatively charged protein, the enzyme Ribonuclease T1 (RNAse T1, 11.1 kDa), from the cathode across intact skin. Cumulative permeation and skin deposition of RNAse T1 were investigated as a function of current density (0.15, 0.3 and 0.5 mA/cm(2) applied for 8h) using porcine ear skin and quantified by an enzymatic activity assay. Although RNAse T1 permeation was dependent upon current density (22.41 ± 8.10, 76.41 ± 56.98 and 142.19 ± 62.23μg/cm(2), respectively), no such relationship was observed with respect to skin deposition (9.78 ± 2.39, 7.76 ± 4.34 and 8.70 ± 2.94 μg/cm(2), respectively). MALDI-TOF spectra and the activity assay confirmed that RNAse T1 retained structural integrity and enzymatic function post-iontophoresis. Acetaminophen iontophoresis demonstrated the anode-to-cathode directionality of electroosmotic solvent flow confirming that RNAse T1 electrotransport was due entirely to electromigration. Interestingly, despite its lower net charge and higher molecular weight, electromigration of cationic Ribonuclease A was superior to that of RNAse T1 after iontophoresis at 0.5 mA/cm(2) for 8h. These results provide further evidence that charge to mass ratio and hence electric mobility might not alone be sufficient to predict protein electrotransport across the skin; three dimensional structures and the

  6. Reflections of hunger and satiation in the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical and spike activities of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits. (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu


    Manifestations of hunger and satiation in myoelectric activity patterns in different portions of the stomach were studied in chronic experiments. The state of hunger manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow electric activity of muscles in the stomach body and antrum in the form of bimodal distributions of slow electric wave periods, while satiation as unimodal distribution. In hunger-specific bimodal distribution of slow electric wave periods generated by muscles of the stomach body and antrum, the position of the first maximum carries the information about oncoming food reinforcement, since this particular range of slow wave fluctuations determines temporal parameters of slow electric activity of muscles in all stomach regions in the course of subsequent successive food-procuring behavior. Under conditions of hunger, the pacemaker features of muscles in the lesser curvature are realized incompletely. Complete realization is achieved in the course of food intake and at the state of satiation.

  7. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency (United States)

    Barber, T. A.


    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  8. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System


    Keshri, Ritesh Kumar


    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  9. Electromechanical feedback with reduced cellular connectivity alters electrical activity in an infarct injured left ventricle: a finite element model study. (United States)

    Wall, Samuel T; Guccione, Julius M; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Sundnes, Joakim S


    Myocardial infarction (MI) significantly alters the structure and function of the heart. As abnormal strain may drive heart failure and the generation of arrhythmias, we used computational methods to simulate a left ventricle with an MI over the course of a heartbeat to investigate strains and their potential implications to electrophysiology. We created a fully coupled finite element model of myocardial electromechanics consisting of a cellular physiological model, a bidomain electrical diffusion solver, and a nonlinear mechanics solver. A geometric mesh built from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of an ovine left ventricle suffering from a surgically induced anteroapical infarct was used in the model, cycled through the cardiac loop of inflation, isovolumic contraction, ejection, and isovolumic relaxation. Stretch-activated currents were added as a mechanism of mechanoelectric feedback. Elevated fiber and cross fiber strains were observed in the area immediately adjacent to the aneurysm throughout the cardiac cycle, with a more dramatic increase in cross fiber strain than fiber strain. Stretch-activated channels decreased action potential (AP) dispersion in the remote myocardium while increasing it in the border zone. Decreases in electrical connectivity dramatically increased the changes in AP dispersion. The role of cross fiber strain in MI-injured hearts should be investigated more closely, since results indicate that these are more highly elevated than fiber strain in the border of the infarct. Decreases in connectivity may play an important role in the development of altered electrophysiology in the high-stretch regions of the heart.

  10. [Effect of erythromycin on electrical activity and gastric emptying of the intrathoracic stomach after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer]. (United States)

    Liu, Jun-feng; Liu, Cheng-jun; Shi, Zhi-hua; Liu, Xin-bo; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Fu-shun; Cao, Fu-min; Li, Bao-qing


    To investigate the effect of erythromycin on electrical activity and emptying of the intrathoracic stomach after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Thirty patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer and esophagogastrostomy above the aortic arch were divided into the study group (n=15) and the control group (n=15). Electrogastrography and radionuclide gastric emptying were examined for these patients before and 1, 3, 6, 12 months after surgery. Patients in the study group received erythromycin (0.25 g tid po) for 1 week before examination. The wave amplitude (Uv), dominant frequency (CPM) and percentage of normal slow wave (%) of electrogastrogram decreased after surgery and returned to normal at the first postoperative month in the study group and the 12th postoperative month in the control group (P>0.05). Gastric emptying was significantly delayed after esophagectomy, and returned to normal one year after operation in the study group (P>0.05). However, gastric emptying remained abnormal in the control group (Pcancer. Gastric emptying recovery later than the recovery of electrical activity, which may be related to gastric ischemia and edema.

  11. Reliable fuzzy H∞ control for active suspension of in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles with dynamic damping (United States)

    Shao, Xinxin; Naghdy, Fazel; Du, Haiping


    A fault-tolerant fuzzy H∞ control design approach for active suspension of in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles in the presence of sprung mass variation, actuator faults and control input constraints is proposed. The controller is designed based on the quarter-car active suspension model with a dynamic-damping-in-wheel-motor-driven-system, in which the suspended motor is operated as a dynamic absorber. The Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is used to model this suspension with possible sprung mass variation. The parallel-distributed compensation (PDC) scheme is deployed to derive a fault-tolerant fuzzy controller for the T-S fuzzy suspension model. In order to reduce the motor wear caused by the dynamic force transmitted to the in-wheel motor, the dynamic force is taken as an additional controlled output besides the traditional optimization objectives such as sprung mass acceleration, suspension deflection and actuator saturation. The H∞ performance of the proposed controller is derived as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) comprising three equality constraints which are solved efficiently by means of MATLAB LMI Toolbox. The proposed controller is applied to an electric vehicle suspension and its effectiveness is demonstrated through computer simulation.

  12. Transport in organic semiconductors in large electric fields: From thermal activation to field emission (United States)

    Worne, J. H.; Anthony, J. E.; Natelson, D.


    Understanding charge transport in organic semiconductors in large electric fields is relevant to many applications. We present transport measurements in organic field-effect transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 6,13-bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene with short channels, from room temperature down to 4.2 K. Near 300 K transport in both systems is well described by thermally assisted hopping with Poole-Frenkel-type enhancement of the mobility. At low temperatures and large gate voltages, transport in both materials becomes nearly temperature independent, crossing over into field-driven tunneling. These data, particularly in TIPS-pentacene, show that great caution must be exercised when considering more exotic (e.g., Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid) interpretations of transport.

  13. Optimisation of a Generic Ionic Model of Cardiac Myocyte Electrical Activity (United States)

    Guo, Tianruo; Al Abed, Amr; Lovell, Nigel H.; Dokos, Socrates


    A generic cardiomyocyte ionic model, whose complexity lies between a simple phenomenological formulation and a biophysically detailed ionic membrane current description, is presented. The model provides a user-defined number of ionic currents, employing two-gate Hodgkin-Huxley type kinetics. Its generic nature allows accurate reconstruction of action potential waveforms recorded experimentally from a range of cardiac myocytes. Using a multiobjective optimisation approach, the generic ionic model was optimised to accurately reproduce multiple action potential waveforms recorded from central and peripheral sinoatrial nodes and right atrial and left atrial myocytes from rabbit cardiac tissue preparations, under different electrical stimulus protocols and pharmacological conditions. When fitted simultaneously to multiple datasets, the time course of several physiologically realistic ionic currents could be reconstructed. Model behaviours tend to be well identified when extra experimental information is incorporated into the optimisation. PMID:23710254

  14. Neural network based forward prediction of bladder pressure using pudendal nerve electrical activity. (United States)

    Geramipour, A; Makki, S; Erfanian, A


    Individuals with spinal cord injury or neurological disorders have problems in urinary bladder storage and in voiding function. In these people, the detrusor of bladder contracts at low volume and this causes incontinence. The goal of bladder control is to increase the bladder capacity by electrical stimulation of relative nerves such as pelvic nerves, sacral nerve roots or pudendal nerves. For this purpose, the bladder pressure has to be monitored continuously. In this paper, we propose a method for real-time estimating the bladder pressure using artificial neural network. The method is based upon measurements of electroneurogram (ENG) signal of pudendal nerve. This approach yields synthetic bladder pressure estimates during bladder contraction. The experiments were conducted on three rats. The results show that neural predictor can provide accurate estimation and prediction of bladder pressure with good generalization ability. The average error of 1-second and 5-second ahead prediction of bladder pressure are 9.62% and 10.54%, respectively.

  15. Pollution Status of Trace Metals in Groundwater Due to Industrail Activities in and Around Dhaka Export Processing Zone, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Effluents from multiindustrail activities influence inland water system directly, which subsiquently affect groundwater quality and human health. Some previous reports indicated that inadequate treatment process of discharged effluent of Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ increased the concentrations of pollutants in surface water system and deteriorated total fishing and agricultural system around DEPZ and its connected area. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate wether the concentration of selective metals viz. Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and U in two types of groundwater sources were either with in the permissible guidlines or influenced by DEPZ multi industrail on their levels of contamination. The concentrations of metals were determined using inductively Couples Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The mean concentrations of the elements in both types of groundwater were in the levels of their permissible guidlines, except for Ni (12.91 µg/L, Ga (0.48µg/L, Sr (90.26 µg/L and Cs (0.07µg//Lin groundwater inside DEPZ, which were 1.30, 5.00, 1.50 and 1.40 times higher than the maximum permissible limit (MPL of 10 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L, and 0.05µg/L, respectively. The mean concentrations of Li (6.85 µg/L, Zn(268 µg/L, Ga (0.12 µg/L, Sr (131 µg/L and Cs (0.07 µg/L were 3.43, 1.34, 1.33, 2.18, 1.40 times higher then the MPL of 2 µg/L, 200 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L and 0.05 µg/L, respectively, in groundwater around DEPZ. Comparatively Zn and Sr possessed higher concentrations, and Cs and U possessed lower concentration in both types of groundwater sources. The elements were distributed in homogeneous and hetrogeneous manner among the source points for deep-tubewell (DTWS and shallow tubewell (STWs, respectively. The significant positive correlations were found between the elements viz., Co-V (0.85, Ni-Sr ((0.70, Co-Cd (0.86, As-Se (0.99, Cs-Zn (0.95, Li-U (0.,71, Zn-U (0

  16. Multichannel time domain fNIRS mapping of cortical activation and superficial systemic responses during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (United States)

    Re, R.; Muthalib, M.; Zucchelli, L.; Perrey, S.; Contini, D.; Caffini, M.; Spinelli, L.; Kerr, G.; Torricelli, A.


    We recorded maps of cortical and systemic hemodynamic responses (oxy-hemoglobin, O2Hb and deoxy-hemoglobin, HHb) during incremental neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the right forearm in nine subjects by a 32- channel time domain fNIRS (TD-fNIRS) instrument. Statistical parametric maps (SPM) relative to the different current stimulations (under and over the maximal tolerated intensity-MTI) versus the 10%MTI were generated. Exploiting the temporal information contained in the TD-fNIRS signal it was possible to create different maps referring to the deeper (cortical activations) and the more superficial (systemic changes) head layers. The increasing of the stimulation current on the right forearm muscle produced a significantly larger bilateral sensorimotor and prefrontal cortical activations (i.e. increase in the O2Hb and decrease in HHb) than the systemic changes. Physiological parameters (heart rate, breathing rate and skin conductance) were also monitored.

  17. Integrative assessment of kick boxers’ brain blood circulation and bio-electrical activity in conditions of correction technologies’ application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov Y.N.


    Full Text Available Purpose: to scientifically substantiate the role of para-vertebral impacts on blood circulation and bio-electrical activity of kick boxers’ cortex. Material: in the research participated kick boxers (main group, n=62 and university students (control group, n=25 of 18-23 years’ age. Assessment of para-vertebral impacts with device Armos and classic massage was fulfilled with the help of the following methodic: trans-cranial dopplerography of head main arteries and cortex EEG of the tested. Results: it was found that with the help of para-vertebral impacts by device Armos linear velocity of cerebral blood flow reduces to normal limits and in- and inter-hemispheres’ interaction strength increases. Conclusions: para-vertebral impacts by device Armos activate integrative processes and inter-hemispheres’ interactions of different cortex areas of kick boxers. It can witness about better formation of functional systems, ensuring sports efficiency.

  18. Effects of trihexyphenydil, the structural analog of phencyclidine, on neocortical and hippocampal electrical activity in sleep-waking cycle. (United States)

    Nachkebia, N; Mchedlidze, O; Chkhartishvili, E; Dzadzamia, Sh; Oniani, T


    Finding about structural and functional relation between NMDA receptors specific binding and phencyclidine sites was very important for a possible modulation of NMDA receptors' function. We have therefore got interested what would happen with EEG and vegetative patterns of PS in the case when NMDA receptors function is modulated by blocking of phencyclidines' site. Consequently, we studied the effects of Trihexyphenydil, the structural analog of phencyclidine, on neocortical and hippocampal electrical activity in SWC. On cats (n=5) metallic electrodes were implanted under Nembutal anesthesia. EEG registration lasting 12 hr daily started after animals' recovery. Trihexyphenydil was administered intraperitoneally (0.5 mg/kg - 1 mg/kg). Statistical processing was made by Students' t-test. Trihexyphenydil resulted in dissociated triggering of PS. Rapid eye movements and PGO waves appeared on the face of active waking state. Therefore on the background of behavioral active waking according to electrical activity of the visual cortex and rapid eye movements, electrographic patterns of paradoxical sleep were recorded. Thus in our experiments it was shown firstly that the mechanism of hallucinogenic action of Trihexyphenydil is closely related to the disturbance of paradoxical sleep integrity. Blocking of NMDA receptors phencyclidines site and therefore functional modulation of these receptors produce the splitting of PS patterns and their intrusion in waking state. Such an effect never takes place in normal conditions since the waking system has the powerful inhibitory influence on the PS triggering system. Suggestion is make that NMDA glutamate receptors must be involved in mechanisms providing structural and functional integrity of PS and that fulfillment of such function is possible in the case when the NMDA receptors phencyclidine site isn't in blocked state. Normal functioning of NMDA receptors phencyclidine site represents the mechanism which inhibits and/or hampers

  19. Electric field-induced suppression of PTEN drives epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via mTORC1 activation. (United States)

    Yan, Tiantian; Jiang, Xupin; Guo, Xiaowei; Chen, Wen; Tang, Di; Zhang, Junhui; Zhang, Xingyue; Zhang, Dongxia; Zhang, Qiong; Jia, Jiezhi; Huang, Yuesheng


    Naturally occurring electric fields (EFs) are an intrinsic property of wounds. Endogenous EFs in skin wounds play critical roles in the dynamic and well-ordered biological process of wound healing. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows keratinocytes to transition from sedentary cells to motile cells, facilitating wound healing. However, EMT-related studies have been performed without considering endogenous EFs. Thus, the relationship between electrical signals and the EMT remain elusive. Phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) are key molecules in sensing electrical cues, and they play significant roles in cellular responses to EFs. In addition, these molecules are closely related to the occurrence of the EMT in other cells. We used primary human keratinocytes to investigate the influence of EFs on the EMT as well as the roles of PTEN and mTORC1 in this process. The effects of EFs on the EMT were investigated by analyzing the levels of specific proteins and transcription factors. The roles of mTORC1 and PTEN and their relationship with each other were studied via pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockdown. A Zeiss imaging system and scratch assays were used to study single-cell motility and monolayer cell migration. EFs induced a range of both biochemical changes (e.g., increased Snail, Slug, vimentin, and N-cadherin expression, decreased E-cadherin expression) and functional changes (e.g., enhanced migratory capacity) that are characteristic of the EMT. EF-stimulated cells exhibited suppressed PTEN expression, and further PTEN downregulation led to the acquisition of more mesenchymal features and the loss of epithelial characteristics, which was accompanied by increased migratory capacity. PTEN overexpression reversed the EF-induced EMT and inhibited the migratory capacity of keratinocytes. EF-induced mTORC1 activation was a required component of the causal relationship between PTEN

  20. Activated carbon derived from marine Posidonia Oceanica for electric energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Boukmouche


    Full Text Available In this paper, the synthesis and characterization of activated carbon from marine Posidonia Oceanica were studied. The activated carbon was prepared by a simple process namely pyrolysis under inert atmosphere. The activated carbon can be used as electrodes for supercapacitor devices. X-ray diffraction result revealed a polycrystalline graphitic structure. While scanning electron microscope investigation showed a layered structure with micropores. The EDS analysis showed that the activated carbon contains the carbon element in high atomic percentage. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed a capacitive behavior (electrostatic phenomena. The specific capacity per unit area of the electrochemical double layer of activated carbon electrode in sulfuric acid electrolyte was 3.16 F cm−2. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic chronopotentiometry demonstrated that the electrode has excellent electrochemical reversibility. It has been found that the surface capacitance was strongly related to the specific surface area and pore size.

  1. Slow oscillation electrical brain stimulation during waking promotes EEG theta activity and memory encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirov, Roumen; Weiss, Carsten; Siebner, Hartwig R


    The application of transcranial slow oscillation stimulation (tSOS; 0.75 Hz) was previously shown to enhance widespread endogenous EEG slow oscillatory activity when applied during a sleep period characterized by emerging endogenous slow oscillatory activity. Processes of memory consolidation...... in a marked and widespread increase in EEG theta (4-8 Hz) activity. During wake, tSOS did not enhance consolidation of memories when applied after learning, but improved encoding of hippocampus-dependent memories when applied during learning. We conclude that the EEG frequency and related memory processes...

  2. Did Geomagnetic Activity Challenge Electric Power Reliability During Solar Cycle 23? Evidence from the PJM Regional Transmission Organization in North America (United States)

    Forbes, Kevin F.; Cyr, Chris St


    During solar cycle 22, a very intense geomagnetic storm on 13 March 1989 contributed to the collapse of the Hydro-Quebec power system in Canada. This event clearly demonstrated that geomagnetic storms have the potential to lead to blackouts. This paper addresses whether geomagnetic activity challenged power system reliability during solar cycle 23. Operations by PJM Interconnection, LLC (hereafter PJM), a regional transmission organization in North America, are examined over the period 1 April 2002 through 30 April 2004. During this time PJM coordinated the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia in the United States. We examine the relationship between a proxy of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) and a metric of challenged reliability. In this study, GICs are proxied using magnetometer data from a geomagnetic observatory located just outside the PJM control area. The metric of challenged reliability is the incidence of out-of-economic-merit order dispatching due to adverse reactive power conditions. The statistical methods employed make it possible to disentangle the effects of GICs on power system operations from purely terrestrial factors. The results of the analysis indicate that geomagnetic activity can significantly increase the likelihood that the system operator will dispatch generating units based on system stability considerations rather than economic merit.

  3. Significance probability mapping: an aid in the topographic analysis of brain electrical activity. (United States)

    Duffy, F H; Bartels, P H; Burchfiel, J L


    We illustrate the application of significance probability mapping (SPM) to the analysis of topographic maps of spectral analyzed EEG and visual evoked potential (VEP) activity from patients with brain tumors, boys with dyslexia, and control subjects. When the VEP topographic plots of tumor patients were displayed as number of standard deviations from a reference mean, more subjects were correctly identified than by inspection of the underlying raw data. When topographic plots of EEG alpha activity obtained while listening to speech or music were compared by t statistic to plots of resting alpha activity, regions of cortex presumably activated by speech or music were delineated. DIfferent regions were defined in dyslexic boys and controls. We propose that SPM will prove valuable in the regional localization of normal and abnormal functions in other clinical situations.

  4. Intensification of the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pulsed electric field technology


    Appels, Lise; Houtmeyers, Sofie; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf


    Huge amounts of excess sludge are generated during biological wastewater treatment. This sludge must undergo further treatment steps prior to disposal, resulting in treatment costs up to 50 % of the total wastewater treatment costs. Anaerobic digestion as a sludge treatment step is widely applied due to the increasing trend towards energy recovery of this waste stream. Its main advantage is the production of an energy-rich biogas (55-70 % methane), which can be valorized energetically in a CH...

  5. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2010 Annual Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The global power deal market is finally seeing an upward trend in momentum from the lows reached in 2009, with the total deal value in the non-renewable electricity and gas sectors up 19% year on year from USD 97.6bn to USD 116bn in 2010 - a year which also saw an end to the deal stalemate in the US with a renewed deal flow that looks set to continue this year. Compared to the heady mountain of power deals transacted between 2005-2008, deal values remain low but conditions are in place for a return at least to the foothills of these peaks, according to PwC's annual Power Deals review. Globalisation of the power sector is moving forward on a number of fronts with, for example, companies looking at gaining a larger presence in growth markets, acquisitions of global network asset portfolios with strong international interest in infrastructure assets and signs of greater Chinese involvement, not just from grid companies but also independent power producers.

  6. Improved efficiency with a wheelchair propelled by the legs using voluntary activity or electric stimulation. (United States)

    Stein, R B; Chong, S L; James, K B; Bell, G J


    To determine whether a new leg-propelled wheelchair provides enhanced efficiency and mobility to wheelchair users. Observational; subjects were tested while wheeling with the arms and legs and while walking (where possible) for 4-minute periods in random order with approximately 10-minute rest periods between exercise sets. Tests were done on an indoor 200-meter track. Group 1, 13 controls; group 2, 9 persons with complete spinal cord injury (SCI); group 3, 13 persons with other motor disorders (retaining some voluntary control of the legs). Not applicable. Physiological Cost Index (PCI), (computed as change in heart rate divided by velocity of movement) and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) Arm wheeling took significantly more effort (mean PCI =.52 beats/m) than walking (.33 beats/m) in control subjects. Leg wheeling was most efficient (.23), requiring less than half the effort of arm wheeling and 30% less effort than walking. For SCI subjects, leg wheeling with functional electric stimulation (FES) required less than half the effort (.18) of arm wheeling (.40). The FES group could not walk. Subjects in group 3 could walk, but with substantial effort (1.81) compared with arm (.76) or leg wheeling (.64). Results for VO(2) were similar. Better wheelchair efficiency can be obtained for many disabled individuals, by moving the leg muscles voluntarily or with FES.

  7. A Metabolic Biofuel Cell: Conversion of Human Leukocyte Metabolic Activity to Electrical Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui X Tracy


    Full Text Available Abstract An investigation of the electrochemical activity of human white blood cells (WBC for biofuel cell (BFC applications is described. WBCs isolated from whole human blood were suspended in PBS and introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell. The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 μA cm-2 and open circuit potentials (Voc between 83 and 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical activity of the activated WBCs in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer between the cells and electrode. Voltammograms were obtained for the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on a Ficoll gradient, a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL, and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and Jurkat. An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA (phorbol ester activated primary cells, with a notable absence of a reduction peak was observed. Oxidation peaks were not observed for the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT from the PMA activated primary cells. It is believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to the observed BFC currents.

  8. A metabolic biofuel cell: conversion of human leukocyte metabolic activity to electrical currents. (United States)

    Justin, Gusphyl A; Zhang, Yingze; Cui, X Tracy; Bradberry, Charles W; Sun, Mingui; Sclabassi, Robert J


    An investigation of the electrochemical activity of human white blood cells (WBC) for biofuel cell (BFC) applications is described. WBCs isolated from whole human blood were suspended in PBS and introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 μA cm-2 and open circuit potentials (Voc) between 83 and 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical activity of the activated WBCs in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer between the cells and electrode. Voltammograms were obtained for the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on a Ficoll gradient), a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL), and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and Jurkat. An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA (phorbol ester) activated primary cells, with a notable absence of a reduction peak was observed. Oxidation peaks were not observed for the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT) from the PMA activated primary cells. It is believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to the observed BFC currents.

  9. Nanomolar Oxytocin Synergizes with Weak Electrical Afferent Stimulation to Activate the Locomotor CPG of the Rat Spinal Cord In Vitro (United States)

    Dose, Francesco; Zanon, Patrizia; Coslovich, Tamara; Taccola, Giuliano


    Synergizing the effect of afferent fibre stimulation with pharmacological interventions is a desirable goal to trigger spinal locomotor activity, especially after injury. Thus, to better understand the mechanisms to optimize this process, we studied the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (previously shown to stimulate locomotor networks) on network and motoneuron properties using the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord. On motoneurons oxytocin (1 nM–1 μM) generated sporadic bursts with superimposed firing and dose-dependent depolarization. No desensitization was observed despite repeated applications. Tetrodotoxin completely blocked the effects of oxytocin, demonstrating the network origin of the responses. Recording motoneuron pool activity from lumbar ventral roots showed oxytocin mediated depolarization with synchronous bursts, and depression of reflex responses in a stimulus and peptide-concentration dependent fashion. Disinhibited bursting caused by strychnine and bicuculline was accelerated by oxytocin whose action was blocked by the oxytocin antagonist atosiban. Fictive locomotion appeared when subthreshold concentrations of NMDA plus 5HT were coapplied with oxytocin, an effect prevented after 24 h incubation with the inhibitor of 5HT synthesis, PCPA. When fictive locomotion was fully manifested, oxytocin did not change periodicity, although cycle amplitude became smaller. A novel protocol of electrical stimulation based on noisy waveforms and applied to one dorsal root evoked stereotypic fictive locomotion. Whenever the stimulus intensity was subthreshold, low doses of oxytocin triggered fictive locomotion although oxytocin per se did not affect primary afferent depolarization evoked by dorsal root pulses. Among the several functional targets for the action of oxytocin at lumbar spinal cord level, the present results highlight how small concentrations of this peptide could bring spinal networks to threshold for fictive locomotion in combination with other

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Interacting Glucose-Sensing Mechanisms and Electrical Activity Underlying Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Riz


    Full Text Available Intestinal L-cells sense glucose and other nutrients, and in response release glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, peptide YY and other hormones with anti-diabetic and weight-reducing effects. The stimulus-secretion pathway in L-cells is still poorly understood, although it is known that GLP-1 secreting cells use sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT and ATP-sensitive K+-channels (K(ATP-channels to sense intestinal glucose levels. Electrical activity then transduces glucose sensing to Ca2+-stimulated exocytosis. This particular glucose-sensing arrangement with glucose triggering both a depolarizing SGLT current as well as leading to closure of the hyperpolarizing K(ATP current is of more general interest for our understanding of glucose-sensing cells. To dissect the interactions of these two glucose-sensing mechanisms, we build a mathematical model of electrical activity underlying GLP-1 secretion. Two sets of model parameters are presented: one set represents primary mouse colonic L-cells; the other set is based on data from the GLP-1 secreting GLUTag cell line. The model is then used to obtain insight into the differences in glucose-sensing between primary L-cells and GLUTag cells. Our results illuminate how the two glucose-sensing mechanisms interact, and suggest that the depolarizing effect of SGLT currents is modulated by K(ATP-channel activity. Based on our simulations, we propose that primary L-cells encode the glucose signal as changes in action potential amplitude, whereas GLUTag cells rely mainly on frequency modulation. The model should be useful for further basic, pharmacological and theoretical investigations of the cellular signals underlying endogenous GLP-1 and peptide YY release.

  11. Optimal Topology and Experimental Evaluation of Piezoelectric Materials for Actively Shunted General Electric Polymer Matrix Fiber Composite Blades (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Duffy, Kirsten; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.; Kray, Nicholas


    NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with GE Aviation, has begun the development of a smart adaptive structure system with piezoelectric (PE) transducers to improve composite fan blade damping at resonances. Traditional resonant damping approaches may not be realistic for rotating frame applications such as engine blades. The limited space in which the blades reside in the engine makes it impossible to accommodate the circuit size required to implement passive resonant damping. Thus, a novel digital shunt scheme has been developed to replace the conventional electric passive shunt circuits. The digital shunt dissipates strain energy through the load resistor on a power amplifier. General Electric (GE) designed and fabricated a variety of polymer matrix fiber composite (PMFC) test specimens. Investigating the optimal topology of PE sensors and actuators for each test specimen has revealed the best PE transducer location for each target mode. Also a variety of flexible patches, which can conform to the blade surface, have been tested to identify the best performing PE patch. The active damping control achieved significant performance at target modes. This work has been highlighted by successful spin testing up to 5000 rpm of subscale GEnx composite blades in Glenn s Dynamic Spin Rig.

  12. Possible role of electric forces in bromine activation during polar boundary layer ozone depletion and aerosol formation events (United States)

    Tkachenko, Ekaterina


    This work presents a hypothesis about the mechanism of bromine activation during polar boundary layer ozone depletion events (ODEs) as well as the mechanism of aerosol formation from the frost flowers. The author suggests that ODEs may be initiated by the electric-field gradients created at the sharp tips of ice formations as a result of the combined effect of various environmental conditions. According to the author's estimates, these electric-field gradients may be sufficient for the onset of point or corona discharges followed by generation of high local concentrations of the reactive oxygen species and initiation of free-radical and redox reactions. This process may be responsible for the formation of seed bromine which then undergoes further amplification by HOBr-driven bromine explosion. The proposed hypothesis may explain a variety of environmental conditions and substrates as well as poor reproducibility of ODE initiation observed by researchers in the field. According to the author's estimates, high wind can generate sufficient conditions for overcoming the Rayleigh limit and thus can initiate ;spraying; of charged aerosol nanoparticles. These charged aerosol nanoparticles can provoke formation of free radicals, turning the ODE on. One can also envision a possible emission of halogen ion as a result of the ;electrospray; process analogous to that of electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry.

  13. Electric field induced salt precipitation into activated carbon air-cathode causes power decay in microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    An, Jingkun; Li, Nan; Wan, Lili; Zhou, Lean; Du, Qing; Li, Tian; Wang, Xin


    As a promising design for the real application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in wastewater treatment, activated carbon (AC) air-cathode is suffering from a serious power decay after long-term operation. However, the decay mechanism is still not clear because of the complex nature of contaminations. Different from previous reports, we found that local alkalinization and natural evaporation had an ignorable effect on cathode performance (∼2% decay on current densities), while electric field induced salt precipitation (∼53%) and biofouling (∼37%) were dominant according to the charge transfer resistance, which decreased power desities by 36% from 1286 ± 30 to 822 ± 23 mW m -2 in 6 months. Biofouling can be removed by scrapping, however, electric field induced salt precipitation under biofilm still clogged 37% of specific area in catalyst layer, which was even seen to penetrate through the gas diffusion layer. Our findings provided a new insight of AC air-cathode performance decay, providing important information for the improvement of cathodic longevity in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Platelet-rich plasma stimulated by pulse electric fields: Platelet activation, procoagulant markers, growth factor release and cell proliferation. (United States)

    Frelinger, A L; Torres, A S; Caiafa, A; Morton, C A; Berny-Lang, M A; Gerrits, A J; Carmichael, S L; Neculaes, V B; Michelson, A D


    Therapeutic use of activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been explored for wound healing, hemostasis and antimicrobial wound applications. Pulse electric field (PEF) stimulation may provide more consistent platelet activation and avoid complications associated with the addition of bovine thrombin, the current state of the art ex vivo activator of therapeutic PRP. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of PEF, bovine thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) to activate human PRP, release growth factors and induce cell proliferation in vitro. Human PRP was prepared in the Harvest SmartPreP2 System and treated with vehicle, PEF, bovine thrombin, TRAP or Triton X-100. Platelet activation and procoagulant markers and microparticle generation were measured by flow cytometry. Released growth factors were measured by ELISA. The releasates were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture. PEF produced more platelet-derived microparticles, P-selectin-positive particles and procoagulant annexin V-positive particles than bovine thrombin or TRAP. These differences were associated with higher levels of released epidermal growth factor after PEF than after bovine thrombin or TRAP but similar levels of platelet-derived, vascular-endothelial, and basic fibroblast growth factors, and platelet factor 4. Supernatant from PEF-treated platelets significantly increased cell proliferation compared to plasma. In conclusion, PEF treatment of fresh PRP results in generation of microparticles, exposure of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, differential release of growth factors compared to bovine thrombin and TRAP and significant cell proliferation. These results, together with PEF's inherent advantages, suggest that PEF may be a superior alternative to bovine thrombin activation of PRP for therapeutic applications.

  15. Low Permeability Zone Remediation via Oxidant Delivered by Electrokinetics and Activated by Electrical Resistance Heating: Proof of Concept. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ahmed I A; Gerhard, Jason I; Reynolds, David; O'Carroll, Denis M


    This study proposes and proves (in concept) a novel approach of combining electrokinetic (EK)-assisted delivery of an oxidant, persulfate (PS), and low temperature electrical resistivity heating (ERH), to activate PS, to achieve remediation of contaminated, low permeability soil. This unique combination is able to overcome existing challenges in remediating low permeability materials, particularly associated with delivering remediants. A further benefit of the approach is the use of the same electrodes for both EK and ERH phases. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale sand tank packed with silt and aqueous tetrachloroethene (PCE) and bracketed on each side by an electrode. EK first delivered unactivated PS throughout the silt. ERH then generated and sustained the target temperature to activate the PS. As a result, PCE concentrations decreased to below detection limit in the silt in a few weeks. Moreover, it was found that activating PS at ∼36 °C eliminated more PCE than activating it at >41 °C. It is expected this results from the reactive SO4(•-) radical being generated more slowly, which ensures more complete reaction with the contaminant. The novel application of EK-assisted PS delivery followed by low temperature ERH appears to be a viable strategy for low permeability contaminated soil remediation.

  16. Land Use Change and Agricultural Land Fragmentation due to Anthropogenic Activities in an Hot Spot Area: A Case Study for Thrace Region of Turkey (United States)

    Altürk, Bahadır; Konukcu, Fatih


    Agricultural lands that supply food, energy and ecosystem services for human life have been lost due to anthropogenic activities such as construction of roads, urban and industry areas. The significant reasons for the increase of artificial surfaces were poorly planned economic decisions by the government and internal migration due to this poorly planning. Unplanned urban sprawl also give rise to land fragmentation. Fragmentation of agricultural land affects both the agricultural production capacity and rural sustainable employment. In this study: i) Land use changes between 1990-2014 period were assessed using remotely sensed data and ii) Spatial and temporal agricultural land fragmentation were investigated using landscape pattern indice (effective mesh size), Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA) and Entropy method for 25 years period. The selected"hot spot" study area is located on east Thrace region of Turkey, being the service and industrial development zone where agricultural activities, water resources and natural habitat have been damaged due to rapid urban and industrial development for about 25 years. The results showed that agricultural lands decreased 6.44%, urban areas increased 111.68% and industry areas increased 251.19% during this 25 years period. Additionally, fragmentation analyses demonstrated that core agricultural areas sharply decreased and relative fragmentation (effective mesh size) increased from 50.68% to 56.77% during 1990 and 2014.

  17. Effect of B+ Flux on the electrical activation of ultra-shallow B+ implants in Ge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, B.R.; Darby, B.L.; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth


    The residual implanted dose of ultra-shallow B+ implants in Ge was characterized using elastic recoil detection and was determined to correlate well with simulations with a dose loss of 23% due to ion backscattering for 2 keV implants in Ge. The electrical characterization of ultra-shallow B+ imp...

  18. Temperature dependence of spectroscopic and electrical properties of Cr(Fe):ZnSe laser active materials (United States)

    Gafarov, Ozarfar; Watkins, Rick; Bernard, Chandler; Fedorov, Vladimir; Mirov, Sergey


    Temperature influence on spectroscopic characteristics is crucial for many aspects of laser engineering including output noise, single frequency oscillation, and thermal bistability. We report on the spectroscopic characterization of chromium and iron doped ZnSe gain element media at temperatures ranging from 77K to 389K. Heating of Cr:ZnSe resulted in the absorption peak shifting to a shorter wavelength from 1.806 μm at 77K to 1.753 μm at 389K. It also resulted in broadening of the absorption band from Δλ=260 cm-1nm to Δλ=373 cm-1nm and decreasing of the absorption cross section by 69%. Similar characterization was done for Fe:ZnSe laser material. The cooling of the Fe:ZnSe crystal from room temperature to 77K resulted in a 32% increase of the absorption coefficient at 2.94 μm which is usually used as a pump source. We also studied the absorption of the electrical free-carriers in n-type Al:ZnSe crystals in visible and mid- IR absorption spectral ranges. Diffusion of Al into ZnSe samples was achieved by annealing at 1000°C during 4 days in Al vapors. It was demonstrated that free-carriers absorption of Al:ZnSe samples with resistivity σ=100-150 Ω×cm resulted in an increase of the absorption coefficient at 2.4 μm up to 2.5 cm-1.

  19. Electric space heating scheduling for real-time explicit power control in active distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Bernstein, Andrey; Chamorro, Lorenzo Reyes</