WorldWideScience

Sample records for electrical activity due

  1. Electrical injuries due to theft of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curinga, Giuseppe; Pietramaggiori, Giorgio; Scherer, Sandra Saja; Masellis, Alessandro; Gherardini, Giulio; Brancato, Renato; Conte, Francesco; Bistoni, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the theft of copper, mainly from electrical wires, is becoming a more frequent crime as the value of this metal rises. We have collected all the data from the Burn Centre of the Hospital of Palermo, Italy, from 1992 to 2007. Over the last two decades, we assisted to a dramatic increase of patients admitted to our hospital, reporting burn injuries while attempting to steal it in dangerous conditions. The circumstances of the injury, the clinical management of the case, and the long-term consequences are presented and discussed. We found that the electrical burn related to the theft of copper is often a life-threatening event because of the high-voltage electrical current passing through the patients. Patients, due to the type of activity, often requiring physical effort, were generally young and healthy. From a review of the literature on the subject, we have noticed that theft of copper is not reported as an important risk factor for electrical burns. Our report clearly shows that theft of copper-related electrical injury is becoming more frequent in the community and should be added as a "new" risk factor. The already high incidence reported here may actually be lower than the actual incidence because many patients tend not to come to the hospital because of the risk of being prosecuted by the police.

  2. Numerical study of the enhancement of combustion performance in a scramjet combustor due to injection of electric-discharge-activated oxygen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starik, A M; Bezgin, L V; Kopchenov, V I; Loukhovitski, B I; Sharipov, A S; Titova, N S

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the efficiency of an approach based on the injection of a thin oxygen stream, subjected to a tailored electric discharge, into a supersonic H 2 –air flow to enhance the combustion performance in the mixing layer and in the scramjet combustor is conducted. It is shown that for such an approach there exist optimal values of reduced electric field E/N and transversal dimension d of the injected oxygen stream, which provide the minimal length of induction zone in the mixing layer. The optimal values of E/N and d depend on air flow parameters and the specific energy put into the oxygen. The injection of a thin oxygen stream (d = 1 mm) subjected to an electric discharge with E/N = 50–100 Td, which produces mostly singlet oxygen O 2 (a  1 Δ g ) and O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ) molecules and atomic oxygen, allows one to arrange stable combustion in a scramjet duct at an extremely low air temperature T air  = 900 K and pressure P air  = 0.3 bar even at a small specific energy put into the oxygen E s  = 0.2 J ncm −3 , and to provide rather high combustion completeness η = 0.73. The advance in the energy released during combustion is much higher (hundred times), in this case, than the energy supplied to the oxygen stream in the electric discharge. This approach also makes it possible to ensure the rather high combustion completeness in the scramjet combustor with reduced length. The main reason for the combustion enhancement of the H 2 –air mixture in the scramjet duct is the intensification of chain-branching reactions due to the injection of a small amount of cold non-equilibrium oxygen plasma comprising highly reactive species, O 2 (a  1 Δ g ) and O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ) molecules and O atoms, into the H 2 –air supersonic flow. (paper)

  3. Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6

  4. Electric field distribution and simulation of avalanche formation due ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric field distributions and their role in the formation of avalanche due to the passage of heavy ions in parallel grid avalanche type wire chamber detectors are evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The relative merits and demerits of parallel and crossed wire grid configurations are studied. It is found that the crossed ...

  5. Unexpected guest: Atrial fibrillation due to electrical shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zihni Bilik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrhythmias due to electrical injuries are rare among emergency service admittances. A 35 year-old female patient was admitted to emergency service with palpitation after electrical injury as a result of contact with a domestic low-voltage source. Electrocardiography (ECG showed atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. Transthoracic echocardiography findings were normal. Atrial fibrillation spontaneously converted to normal sinus rhythm after rate limiting treatment with beta-blocker. The patient was discharged without any complication on the third day of hospitalization. Although cardiac arrhythmias rarely occur after electrical injury, cardiac monitoring is recommended for all patients with documented rhythm disorder, loss of consciousness, or abnormal ECG at admission.

  6. Research activities of Sumitomo Electric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-07-01

    Research activities of Sumitomo Electric Co. are described and illustrated with numerous photographs. The ehv laboratory is provided with high voltage and heavy current testing facilities such as 1000 kV direct current testing equipment, and a 3000-kV impulse voltage generator.

  7. Modeling electrically active viscoelastic membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitikantha Roy

    Full Text Available The membrane protein prestin is native to the cochlear outer hair cell that is crucial to the ear's amplification and frequency selectivity throughout the whole acoustic frequency range. The outer hair cell exhibits interrelated dimensional changes, force generation, and electric charge transfer. Cells transfected with prestin acquire unique active properties similar to those in the native cell that have also been useful in understanding the process. Here we propose a model describing the major electromechanical features of such active membranes. The model derived from thermodynamic principles is in the form of integral relationships between the history of voltage and membrane resultants as independent variables and the charge density and strains as dependent variables. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of an active force produced by the outer hair cell in response to a harmonic electric field. Our analysis reveals the mechanism of the outer hair cell active (isometric force having an almost constant amplitude and phase up to 80 kHz. We found that the frequency-invariance of the force is a result of interplay between the electrical filtering associated with prestin and power law viscoelasticity of the surrounding membrane. Paradoxically, the membrane viscoelasticity boosts the force balancing the electrical filtering effect. We also consider various modes of electromechanical coupling in membrane with prestin associated with mechanical perturbations in the cell. We consider pressure or strains applied step-wise or at a constant rate and compute the time course of the resulting electric charge. The results obtained here are important for the analysis of electromechanical properties of membranes, cells, and biological materials as well as for a better understanding of the mechanism of hearing and the role of the protein prestin in this mechanism.

  8. Lightning generation in Titan due to the electrical self-polarization properties of Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A.; Falcón, N.

    2009-05-01

    We describe an electrical charge process in Titan's thunderclouds, due to the self-polarization properties or pyroelectricity of methane, which increases the internal electric field in thunderclouds and facilitates the charge generation and separation processes. Microphysics that generates lightning flashes is associated with the physical and chemical properties of the local atmosphere, so methane could be the principal agent of the electrical activity because of its great concentration in Titan's atmosphere. Besides, Titan's electrical activity should not be very influenced by Saturn's magnetosphere because lightning occurs at very low altitude above Titan's surface, compared with the greater distance of Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's troposphere. Using an electrostatic treatment, we calculate the internal electric field of Titan's thunderclouds due to methane's pyroelectrical properties, 7.05×10^11 Vm^-1; and using the telluric capacitor approximation for thunderclouds, we calculate the total charge obtained for a typical Titan thundercloud, 2.67×10^9 C. However, it is not right to use an electrostatic treatment because charge times are very fast due to the large methane concentration in Titan's clouds and the life time of thunderclouds is very low (around 2 hours). We consider a time dependent mechanism, employing common Earth atmospheric approaches, because of the similitude in chemical composition of both atmospheres (mainly nitrogen), so the typical charge of a thundercloud in Titan should reach between 20 C to 40 C, like on Earth. We obtain that lightning occurs with a frequency between 2 and 6 KHz. In Titan's atmosphere, methane concentration is higher than on Earth, and atmospheric electrical activity is stronger, so this model could be consistent with the observed phenomenology.

  9. Performance degradation of integrated optical modulators due to electrical crosstalk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Gilardi, G.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate electrical crosstalk in integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator arrays based on n-doped InP substrate and show that it can be the cause for transmitter performance degradations. In particular, a common ground return path between adjacent modulators can cause high coupling

  10. Electric shock and elevated EMF levels due to triplen harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, T.Q.; Conrad, L.E.; Stallman, B.K.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing use of single phase rectifiers for electric power conversion in residential applications increases harmonic load on utility systems. Many papers have analyzed the effect of these loads on power quality and equipment loadability. However, there are two more critical concerns for harmonic loads served phase to neutral on multi-grounded wye systems. Triplen harmonics, particularly the third, add in the neutral and have little diversity between loads. The higher neutral currents may cause significant problems. Neutral to earth voltages will increase near the substations which could increase stray voltage complaints. The additional neutral current on three phase lines will elevate EMF levels especially in the fringe areas. This paper provides fundamental understanding of triplen harmonic influence on stray voltage and EMF related to multi-grounded wye electric distribution systems

  11. Injury due to uncontrolled acceleration of an electric wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D G; Washington, B V; Devlin, P M; Zook, J E; Edlich, R F

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 750,000 disabled individuals use electrical platform mobility aids (wheelchairs) for adaptive transportation. Because there are no mandatory standards for platform mobility aids and wheelchairs, these adaptive transportation aids are prone to potential design and maintenance problems. An injury caused by uncontrolled acceleration of a platform mobility aid is reported. Examination of the platform mobility aid identified a defect in its speed control regulator that has been subsequently corrected by the manufacturer.

  12. [Extensive injuries due to high-tension electrical current].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomásek, D; Königová, R; Snupárek, Z

    1989-03-01

    The authors submit a case of severe injury with high tension electric current. They emphasize the necessity of prevention of this injury which occurs most frequently when transformer stations are not adequately safeguarded, in case of inadequate protection when approaching trolley wires on the railway track, and when safety principles are not respected during work on the railway. The authors draw attention to the importance of immediate resuscitation and multidisciplinary comprehensive care.

  13. Electrical injuries due to railway high tension cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, M; Kay, S

    1985-08-01

    We have noted a large number of young boys being admitted to our Unit with burns due to railway high tension cables. On review of these cases we have noted: most of the burns were due to arcing, there is a high level of ignorance among the population at risk. We propose some ways of preventing these injuries.

  14. Electrical resistivity response due to elastic-plastic deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of many materials is sensitive to changes in the electronic band configurations surrounding the atoms, changes in the electron-phonon interaction cross-sections, and changes in the density of intrinsic defect structures. These changes are most directly dependent on interatomic measures of relative deformation. For this reason, a model for resistivity response is developed in terms of interatomic measures of relative deformation. The relative deformation consists of two terms, a continuous function to describe the recoverable displacement between two atoms in the atomic lattice structure and a functional to describe the nonrecoverable displacement between two atoms as a result of interatomic discontinuities from dislocation kinetics. This model for resistivity extends the classical piezoresistance representation and relates electric resistance change directly to physical mechanisms. An analysis for the resistivity change of a thin foil ideally embedded in a material that undergoes elastic-plastic deformation is presented. For the case of elastic deformations, stress information in the material surrounding the thin foil is inferred for the cases of pure strain coupling boundary conditions, pure stress coupling boundary conditions, and a combination of stress-strain coupling boundary conditions. 42 refs., 4 figs

  15. Neurocortical electrical activity tomography in chronic schizophrenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veiga Heloisa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging of brain electrical activity was performed in 25 chronic medicated schizophrenics and 40 controls, analyzing the classical frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, and beta of 19-channel EEG during resting state to identify brain regions with deviant activity of different functional significances, using LORETA (Low Resolution Tomography and SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping. Patients differed from controls due to an excess of slow activity comprising delta + theta frequency bands (inhibitory pattern located at the right middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, and right insula, as well as at the bilateral anterior cingulum with a left preponderance. The high temporal resolution of EEG enables the specification of the deviations not only as an excess or a deficit of brain electrical activity, but also as inhibitory (delta, theta, normal (alpha, and excitatory (beta activities. These deviations point out to an impaired functional brain state consisting of inhibited frontal and prefrontal areas that may result in inadequate treatment of externally or internally generated information.

  16. More efficiency due to the liberalization of the market for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, R.; Huurman, C.I.

    2004-01-01

    The market for electricity in the Netherlands has become more efficient due to the liberalization. This can be deducted from the fact that prices at the so-called imbalance market have risen. Producers of electricity are stimulated to better estimate the demand for electricity [nl

  17. Neural electrical activity and neural network growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafarov, F M

    2018-05-01

    The development of central and peripheral neural system depends in part on the emergence of the correct functional connectivity in its input and output pathways. Now it is generally accepted that molecular factors guide neurons to establish a primary scaffold that undergoes activity-dependent refinement for building a fully functional circuit. However, a number of experimental results obtained recently shows that the neuronal electrical activity plays an important role in the establishing of initial interneuronal connections. Nevertheless, these processes are rather difficult to study experimentally, due to the absence of theoretical description and quantitative parameters for estimation of the neuronal activity influence on growth in neural networks. In this work we propose a general framework for a theoretical description of the activity-dependent neural network growth. The theoretical description incorporates a closed-loop growth model in which the neural activity can affect neurite outgrowth, which in turn can affect neural activity. We carried out the detailed quantitative analysis of spatiotemporal activity patterns and studied the relationship between individual cells and the network as a whole to explore the relationship between developing connectivity and activity patterns. The model, developed in this work will allow us to develop new experimental techniques for studying and quantifying the influence of the neuronal activity on growth processes in neural networks and may lead to a novel techniques for constructing large-scale neural networks by self-organization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Corona Discharge in Electrical Transmission due to AC/DC Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuangpian Phanupong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, using of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC transmission to maximize the transmission efficiency, bulk power transmission, connection of renewable power source from wind farm to the grid is of prime concern for the utility. However, due to the high electric field stress from Direct Current (DC line, the corona discharge can easily be occurred at the conductor surface leading to transmission loss. Therefore, the polarity effect of DC lines on corona inception and breakdown voltage should be investigated. In this work, the effect of DC polarity and Alternating Current (AC field stress on corona inception voltage and corona discharge is investigated on various test objects, such as High Voltage (HV needle, needle at ground plane, internal defect, surface discharge, underground cable without cable termination, cable termination with simulated defect and bare overhead conductor. The corona discharge is measured by partial discharge measurement device with high-frequency current transformer. Finally, the relationship between supply voltage and discharge intensity on each DC polarity and AC field stress can be successfully determined.

  19. 3-D modelling the electric field due to ocean tidal flow and comparison with observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Junge, A.; Utada, H.

    2006-01-01

    The tidal motion of the ocean water through the ambient magnetic field, generates secondary electric field. This motionally induced electric field can be detected in the sea or inland and has a potential for electrical soundings of the Earth. A first goal of the paper is to gain an understanding...... that in some coastal regions the amplitudes of the electric field can reach 100 mV/km and 10 mV/km for M2 and O1 tides respectively. The changes of lithosphere resistance produce detectable changes in the tidal electric signals. We show that our predictions are in a good agreement with observations....... of the global distribution of the electric signal due to tidal ocean flow. We simulate the electric signals for two tidal constituents - lunar semidiurnal (M2) and diurnal (O1) tides. We assume a realistic Earth's conductivity model with a surface thin shell and 1-D mantle underneath. Simulations demonstrate...

  20. Inappropriate shock delivery by implantable cardioverter defibrillator due to electrical interference with washing machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongtham, Dhanaraj Singh; Bahl, Ajay; Kumar, Rohit Manoj; Talwar, K K

    2007-05-31

    We report a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who received an inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock due to electrical interference from a washing machine. This electrical interference was detected as an episode of ventricular fibrillation with delivery of shock without warning symptoms.

  1. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  2. Electrical measurement of sweat activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronstad, Christian; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Gjein, Gaute E; Fosse, Erik; Krogstad, Anne-Lene

    2008-01-01

    A multichannel logger for long-term measurements of sweat activity is presented. The logger uses skin surface electrodes for unipolar admittance measurements in the stratum corneum. The logger is developed with emphasis on clinical use. The portability of the logger enables recording of sweat activity under circumstances such as daily errands, exercise and sleep. Measurements have been done on 24 healthy volunteers during relaxation and exercise with heart rate monitoring. Recordings of sweat activity during sleep have been done on two healthy subjects. Early results show good agreement with the literature on sweating physiology and electrodermal activity. Results are presented showing measurements related to physical exercise, dermatomes, distribution of sweat glands and sympathetic activity. This study examines the normal sweating patterns for the healthy population, and we present results with the first 24 healthy volunteers. Comparing these results with similar measurements on hyperhidrosis patients will make it possible to find the most useful parameters for diagnosis and treatment evaluation

  3. High-voltage electrical burns due to copper theft - Case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M J; Oliveira, I; Egipto, P; Silva, A

    2016-03-31

    Electrical burns are among the most devastating trauma inflicted on the human body. These burns have a higher morbidity, length of stay and a much higher risk of amputation than any other type of burn. Electrical burns affect mostly young, working males because they are more frequently the result of a work accident. However, possibly due to the worldwide economic crisis, we are experiencing a new phenomenon: the theft of high-voltage copper wiring.

  4. High-voltage electrical burns due to copper theft – Case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M.J.; Oliveira, I.; Egipto, P.; Silva, A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Electrical burns are among the most devastating trauma inflicted on the human body. These burns have a higher morbidity, length of stay and a much higher risk of amputation than any other type of burn. Electrical burns affect mostly young, working males because they are more frequently the result of a work accident. However, possibly due to the worldwide economic crisis, we are experiencing a new phenomenon: the theft of high-voltage copper wiring. PMID:27857650

  5. Mimicking muscle activity with electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lise A.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

    2011-02-01

    Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technology that can restore some degree of motor function in individuals who have sustained a spinal cord injury or stroke. One way to identify the spatio-temporal patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit complex upper limb movements is to use electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from able-bodied subjects as a template for electrical stimulation. However, this requires a transfer function to convert the recorded (or predicted) EMG signals into an appropriate pattern of electrical stimulation. Here we develop a generalized transfer function that maps EMG activity into a stimulation pattern that modulates muscle output by varying both the pulse frequency and the pulse amplitude. We show that the stimulation patterns produced by this transfer function mimic the active state measured by EMG insofar as they reproduce with good fidelity the complex patterns of joint torque and joint displacement.

  6. Risk analysis of the LHC underground area fire risk due to faulty electrical equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, A

    2007-01-01

    The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, is currently building the latest generation of particle accelerators, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The machine is housed in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference and is situated approximately 100 metres beneath the surface astride the Franco-Swiss border. Electrically induced fires in the LHC are a major concern, since an incident could present a threat to CERN personnel as well as the public. Moreover, the loss of equipment would result in significant costs and downtime. However, the amount of electrical equipment in the underground area required for operation, supervision and control of the machine is essential. Thus the present thesis is assessing the risk of fire due to faulty electrical equipment in both a qualitative as well as quantitative way. The recommendations following the qualitative analysis suggest the introduction of fire protection zones for the areas with the highest risk of fire due to a combination of p...

  7. Electrical resistivity due to electron-phonon scattering in thin gadolinium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbaniak-Kucharczyk, A.

    1988-01-01

    The contribution to the electrical resistivity due to the electron-phonon scattering for the special case of h.c.p. structure is derived. The numerical results obtained for the case of polycrystalline gadolinum films show the resistivity dependence on the film thickness and the surface properties. (author)

  8. An accidental death due to electric grinder: Dupatta as a strangulation hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Herald D′Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidents could occur at home in any age group. Accidental ligature strangulation in adults could be prevented. We are reporting a case of a woman who died in her kitchen due to accidental strangulation by her dupatta while working with the electric grinder. This case highlights the need to educate the people about the safety and potential hazards of these machines.

  9. An accidental death due to electric grinder: Dupatta as a strangulation hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Herald D′Souza; Vina R Vaswani; Kishor Kumar Badiadka; Venkat Krishna Shenoy; Boban Babu

    2013-01-01

    Accidents could occur at home in any age group. Accidental ligature strangulation in adults could be prevented. We are reporting a case of a woman who died in her kitchen due to accidental strangulation by her dupatta while working with the electric grinder. This case highlights the need to educate the people about the safety and potential hazards of these machines.

  10. Physical activity and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in

  11. Physical Activity and School Absenteeism Due to Illness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore, we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether…

  12. Electrical Activity in Martian Dust Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, W.; Arabshahi, S.; Kocz, J.

    2016-12-01

    Dust storms on Mars are predicted to be capable of producing electrostatic fields and discharges, even larger than those in dust storms on Earth. Such electrical activity poses serious risks to any Human exploration of the planet and the lack of sufficient data to characterize any such activity has been identified by NASA's MEPAG as a key human safety knowledge gap. There are three key elements in the characterization of Martian electrostatic discharges: dependence on Martian environmental conditions, frequency of occurrence, and the strength of the generated electric fields. We will describe a recently deployed detection engine using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to carry out a long term monitoring campaign to search for and characterize the entire Mars hemisphere for powerful discharges during routine tracking of spacecraft at Mars on an entirely non-interfering basis. The resulting knowledge of Mars electrical activity would allow NASA to plan risk mitigation measures to ensure human safety during Mars exploration. In addition, these measurements will also allow us to place limits on presence of oxidants such as H2O2 that may be produced by such discharges, providing another measurement point for models describing Martian atmospheric chemistry and habitability. Because of the continuous Mars telecommunication needs of NASA's Mars-based assets, the DSN is the only instrument in the world that combines long term, high cadence, observing opportunities with large sensitive telescopes, making it a unique asset worldwide in searching for and characterizing electrostatic activity at Mars from the ground.

  13. Resonance localization and poloidal electric field due to cyclo- tron wave heating in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.Y.; Chan, V.S.; Harvey, R.W.; Prater, R.; Wong, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The perpendicular heating in cyclotron waves tends to pile up the resonant particles toward the low magnetic field side with their banana tips localized to the resonant surface. A poloidal electric field with an E x B drift comparable to the ion vertical drift in a toroidal magnetic field may result. With the assumption of anomalous electron and neoclassical ion transport, density variations due to wave heating are discussed

  14. Evaluation of the electric power production cost growth due to decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, G.

    1982-01-01

    The increase of production cost for electric power generated by nuclear plants, due to their decommissioning and the end of operating life, is analysed in respect to (a) waiting time from indefinite shut-down date to the start of dismantlement, (b) financing method, (c) interest and inflation rates. The analysis shows that the additional cost is always small for those solutions which have higher probability to be adopted

  15. Heat dissipation due to ferromagnetic resonance in a ferromagnetic metal monitored by electrical resistance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanoi, Kazuto; Yokotani, Yuki; Kimura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The heat dissipation due to the resonant precessional motion of the magnetization in a ferromagnetic metal has been investigated. We demonstrated that the temperature during the ferromagnetic resonance can be simply detected by the electrical resistance measurement of the Cu strip line in contact with the ferromagnetic metal. The temperature change of the Cu strip due to the ferromagnetic resonance was found to exceed 10 K, which significantly affects the spin-current transport. The influence of the thermal conductivity of the substrate on the heating was also investigated

  16. Probabilistic modeling of nodal electric vehicle load due to fast charging stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Difei; Wang, Peng; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel dependence, Electric Vehicle (EV) has drawn increasing attention due to its zero emission and high efficiency. However, new problems such as range anxiety, long charging duration and high charging power may threaten the safe and efficient...... station into consideration. Fuzzy logic inference system is applied to simulate the charging decision of EV drivers at fast charging station. Due to increasing EV loads in power system, the potential traffic congestion in fast charging stations is modeled and evaluated by queuing theory with spatial...

  17. The atmospheric electric global circuit. [thunderstorm activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemir, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The hypothesis that world thunderstorm activity represents the generator for the atmospheric electric current flow in the earth atmosphere between ground and the ionosphere is based on a close correlation between the magnitude and the diurnal variation of the supply current (thunderstorm generator current) and the load current (fair weather air-earth current density integrated over the earth surface). The advantages of using lightning survey satellites to furnish a base for accepting or rejecting the thunderstorm generator hypothesis are discussed.

  18. Physical Activity and School Absenteeism Due to Illness in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether mental health and cardiovascular fitness mediated this association. 328 Students in grades 7 and 9 (mean age 13.8 years; 49% boys) were included. PA was measured o...

  19. Dispersive FDTD analysis of induced electric field in human models due to electrostatic discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Nagai, Toshihiro; Koyama, Teruyoshi; Hattori, Junya; Chan, Kwok Hung; Kavet, Robert

    2012-07-07

    Contact currents flow from/into a charged human body when touching a grounded conductive object. An electrostatic discharge (ESD) or spark may occur just before contact or upon release. The current may stimulate muscles and peripheral nerves. In order to clarify the difference in the induced electric field between different sized human models, the in-situ electric fields were computed in anatomically based models of adults and a child for a contact current in a human body following ESD. A dispersive finite-difference time-domain method was used, in which biological tissue is assumed to obey a four-pole Debye model. From our computational results, the first peak of the discharge current was almost identical across adult and child models. The decay of the induced current in the child was also faster due mainly to its smaller body capacitance compared to the adult models. The induced electric fields in the forefingers were comparable across different models. However, the electric field induced in the arm of the child model was found to be greater than that in the adult models primarily because of its smaller cross-sectional area. The tendency for greater doses in the child has also been reported for power frequency sinusoidal contact current exposures as reported by other investigators.

  20. Dispersive FDTD analysis of induced electric field in human models due to electrostatic discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Nagai, Toshihiro; Koyama, Teruyoshi; Hattori, Junya; Chan, Kwok Hung; Kavet, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Contact currents flow from/into a charged human body when touching a grounded conductive object. An electrostatic discharge (ESD) or spark may occur just before contact or upon release. The current may stimulate muscles and peripheral nerves. In order to clarify the difference in the induced electric field between different sized human models, the in-situ electric fields were computed in anatomically based models of adults and a child for a contact current in a human body following ESD. A dispersive finite-difference time-domain method was used, in which biological tissue is assumed to obey a four-pole Debye model. From our computational results, the first peak of the discharge current was almost identical across adult and child models. The decay of the induced current in the child was also faster due mainly to its smaller body capacitance compared to the adult models. The induced electric fields in the forefingers were comparable across different models. However, the electric field induced in the arm of the child model was found to be greater than that in the adult models primarily because of its smaller cross-sectional area. The tendency for greater doses in the child has also been reported for power frequency sinusoidal contact current exposures as reported by other investigators. (paper)

  1. Quantifying the daily economic impact of extreme space weather due to failure in electricity transmission infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Edward J.; Skelton, Andrew; Horne, Richard B.; Thomson, Alan W. P.; Gaunt, Charles T.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme space weather due to coronal mass ejections has the potential to cause considerable disruption to the global economy by damaging the transformers required to operate electricity transmission infrastructure. However, expert opinion is split between the potential outcome being one of a temporary regional blackout and of a more prolonged event. The temporary blackout scenario proposed by some is expected to last the length of the disturbance, with normal operations resuming after a couple of days. On the other hand, others have predicted widespread equipment damage with blackout scenarios lasting months. In this paper we explore the potential costs associated with failure in the electricity transmission infrastructure in the U.S. due to extreme space weather, focusing on daily economic loss. This provides insight into the direct and indirect economic consequences of how an extreme space weather event may affect domestic production, as well as other nations, via supply chain linkages. By exploring the sensitivity of the blackout zone, we show that on average the direct economic cost incurred from disruption to electricity represents only 49% of the total potential macroeconomic cost. Therefore, if indirect supply chain costs are not considered when undertaking cost-benefit analysis of space weather forecasting and mitigation investment, the total potential macroeconomic cost is not correctly represented. The paper contributes to our understanding of the economic impact of space weather, as well as making a number of key methodological contributions relevant for future work. Further economic impact assessment of this threat must consider multiday, multiregional events.

  2. [Preclinical treatment of severe burn trauma due to an electric arc on an overhead railway cable].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A; Hinkelbein, J

    2013-09-01

    Severe burns due to electrical accidents occur rarely in Germany but represent a challenge for emergency physicians and their team. Apart from extensive burns cardiac arrhythmia, neurological damage caused by electric current and osseous injury corresponding to the trauma mechanism are also common. It is important to perform a survey of the pattern of injuries and treat acute life-threatening conditions immediately in the field. Furthermore, specific conditions related to burns must be considered, e.g. fluid resuscitation, thermal management and analgesia. In addition, a correct strategy for further medical care in an appropriate hospital is essential. Exemplified by this case guidelines for the treatment of severe burns and typical pitfalls are presented.

  3. Electrical conductivity of Ni–YSZ composites: Degradation due to Ni particle growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Kaiser, Andreas; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    The short-term changes in the electrical conductivity of Ni–YSZ composites (cermets) suitable for use in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) were measured by an in-situ 4-point DC technique. The isothermal reduction was carried out in dry, humidified or wet hydrogen at temperatures from 600 to 1000°C...... modelled using two different semi-empirical approaches. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the vaporisation of Ni in the conditions tested. The rate and mechanisms of conductivity degradation due to Ni particle growth are discussed in light of the measurements, modelling and literature...

  4. Mineral water 222 Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da

    2001-01-01

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant 222 Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata (∼ 1000 Bql -1 ); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde (∼ 400 Brq -1 ) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas (∼ 290 Bql -1 ). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of 222 Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on 222 Rn activity on site. (author)

  5. Membrane permeabilization in relation to inactivation kinetics of Lactobacillus species due to pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, P C; Bos, A P; Ueckert, J

    2001-07-01

    Membrane permeabilization due to pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of gram-positive Lactobacillus cells was investigated by using propidium iodide uptake and single-cell analysis with flow cytometry. Electric field strength, energy input, treatment time, and growth phase affected membrane permeabilization of Lactobacillus plantarum during PEF treatment. A correlation between PEF inactivation and membrane permeabilization of L. plantarum cells was demonstrated, whereas no relationship was observed between membrane permeabilization and heat inactivation. The same results were obtained with a Lactobacillus fermentum strain, but the latter organism was more PEF resistant and exhibited less membrane permeabilization, indicating that various bacteria have different responses to PEF treatment. While membrane permeabilization was the main factor involved in the mechanism of inactivation, the growth phase and the acidity of the environment also influenced inactivation. By using flow cytometry it was possible to sort cells in the L. plantarum population based on different cell sizes and shapes, and the results were confirmed by image analysis. An apparent effect of morphology on membrane permeabilization was observed, and larger cells were more easily permeabilized than smaller cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that the ability of PEF treatment to cause membrane permeabilization is an important factor in determining inactivation. This finding should have an effect on the final choice of the processing parameters used so that all microorganisms can be inactivated and, consequently, on the use of PEF treatment as an alternative method for preserving food products.

  6. Characterizing Uncertainty In Electrical Resistivity Tomography Images Due To Subzero Temperature Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, T.; Cey, E. E.; Pidlisecky, A.

    2017-12-01

    Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is used to image changes in subsurface electrical conductivity (EC), e.g. due to a saline contaminant plume. Temperature variation also produces an EC response, which interferes with the signal of interest. Temperature compensation requires the temperature distribution and the relationship between EC and temperature, but this relationship at subzero temperatures is not well defined. The goal of this study is to examine how uncertainty in the subzero EC/temperature relationship manifests in temperature corrected ERT images, especially with respect to relevant plume parameters (location, contaminant mass, etc.). First, a lab experiment was performed to determine the EC of fine-grained glass beads over a range of temperatures (-20° to 20° C) and saturations. The measured EC/temperature relationship was then used to add temperature effects to a hypothetical EC model of a conductive plume. Forward simulations yielded synthetic field data to which temperature corrections were applied. Varying the temperature/EC relationship used in the temperature correction and comparing the temperature corrected ERT results to the synthetic model enabled a quantitative analysis of the error of plume parameters associated with temperature variability. Modeling possible scenarios in this way helps to establish the feasibility of different time-lapse ERT applications by quantifying the uncertainty associated with parameter(s) of interest.

  7. Membrane Permeabilization in Relation to Inactivation Kinetics of Lactobacillus Species due to Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Patrick C.; Bos, Ad P.; Ueckert, Joerg

    2001-01-01

    Membrane permeabilization due to pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of gram-positive Lactobacillus cells was investigated by using propidium iodide uptake and single-cell analysis with flow cytometry. Electric field strength, energy input, treatment time, and growth phase affected membrane permeabilization of Lactobacillus plantarum during PEF treatment. A correlation between PEF inactivation and membrane permeabilization of L. plantarum cells was demonstrated, whereas no relationship was observed between membrane permeabilization and heat inactivation. The same results were obtained with a Lactobacillus fermentum strain, but the latter organism was more PEF resistant and exhibited less membrane permeabilization, indicating that various bacteria have different responses to PEF treatment. While membrane permeabilization was the main factor involved in the mechanism of inactivation, the growth phase and the acidity of the environment also influenced inactivation. By using flow cytometry it was possible to sort cells in the L. plantarum population based on different cell sizes and shapes, and the results were confirmed by image analysis. An apparent effect of morphology on membrane permeabilization was observed, and larger cells were more easily permeabilized than smaller cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that the ability of PEF treatment to cause membrane permeabilization is an important factor in determining inactivation. This finding should have an effect on the final choice of the processing parameters used so that all microorganisms can be inactivated and, consequently, on the use of PEF treatment as an alternative method for preserving food products. PMID:11425727

  8. Electrical activation of phosphorus in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, K.E.J.; Oberbeck, L.; Simmons, M.Y.; Clark, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We present studies of phosphorus δ-doping in silicon with a view to determining the degree of electrical activation of the dopants. These results have a direct consequence for the use of phosphorus as a qubit in a silicon-based quantum computer such as that proposed by Kane. Room temperature and 4 K Hall effect measurements are presented for phosphorus δ-doped layers grown in n-type silicon using two different methods. In the first method, the δ-layer was deposited by a phosphorus effusion cell in an MBE chamber. In the second method, the Si surface was dosed with phosphine gas and then annealed to 550 deg C to incorporate P into the substrate. In both methods, the P δ-doped layer was subsequently encapsulated by ∼25 nm of Si grown epitaxially. We discuss the implications of our results on the fabrication of the Kane quantum computer

  9. Electrical Dynamic Simulation Activities in Forsmark NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamell, Per

    2015-01-01

    The original power system analysis was done in the seventies in former ASEA AB software. For approximate twenty years no major new studies was done because of limited numbers of renewal projects. In the end of the nineties the plant started to update the selectivity planning and study of the loading of the safety bus-bars. The simulation and start of the development of simulation models was done in a tool named Simpow. Simpow was also an ASEA/ABB AB software developed from the program used in the seventies. To continue to work with Simpow was a decision made after doing an extensive review of on the marked available commercially software. Also at that time we start to do our first attempt building electrical simulation models of unit 1 and 2 according to the original documentation. The development of models for the unit 1, 2 and 3 became more intensive some years after the millennium. Partly because of event July 25, 2006 and also because of the renewal of unit 1 and 2 and had subsequently been initiated for unit 3 also. Today we have initiated a conversion of our models to a new program called PowerFactory. That due to the withdrawal of support and development on SIMPOW a couple of years ago. To development relevance, accuracy and detail, models are an important issue for FKA (Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB). The model is initially created according to the plant documentation and also including requested information from the original supplier. Continued development and updates of the model is done according to the data received from the contractors via the demands according to requirements in our technical documents on different electrical components in renewal projects. The development of the model is driven by known weaknesses, depending of the type of studies and necessary data related to events. An important part that will be described is to have a verified simulation tool and validated models. An example is that the models have been validated by making start and

  10. Magnetism and Electricity Activity "Attracts" Student Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity and magnetism are intimately linked, this relationship forming the basis of the modern electric utility system and the generation of bulk electrical energy. There is rich literature from which to teach students the basics, but nothing drives the point home like having them learn from firsthand experience--and that is what this…

  11. Nationwide impact and vehicle to grid application of electric vehicles mobility using an activity based model

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro, Roberto; González, Jairo; Fraile Ardanuy, José Jesús; Knapen, Luk; Janssens, Davy

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of electric mobility on the transmission grid in Flanders region (Belgium), using a micro-simulation activity based models. These models are used to provide temporal and spatial estimation of energy and power demanded by electric vehicles (EVs) in different mobility zones. The increment in the load demand due to electric mobility is added to the background load demand in these mobility areas and the effects over the transmission substations are analyzed. From t...

  12. Complex analysis of hazards to the man and natural environment due to electricity production in nuclear and coal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents a complex analysis of hazards connected with electrical energy production in nuclear power plants and coal power plants, starting with fuel mining, through power plant construction, operation, possible accidents and decommissioning to long term global effects. The comparison is based on contemporary, proven technologies of coal fired power plants and nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. The hazards to environment and man due to nuclear power are shown to be much smaller than those due to coal power cycle. The health benefits due to electrical power availability are shown to be much larger than the health losses due to its production. (author). 71 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  13. Using Brain Electrical Activity Mapping to Diagnose Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torello, Michael, W.; Duffy, Frank H.

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience assumes that measurement of brain electrical activity should relate to cognition. Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM), a non-invasive technique, is used to record changes in activity from one brain area to another and is 80 to 90 percent successful in classifying subjects as dyslexic or normal. (MT)

  14. Electrical Vehicles Activities Around the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauer, Gerd; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    engine. In the 1990s research and demonstrations intensified and built a good basis for actual development of electrical vehicles. Discussion of the results achieved and lessons learned from millions of kilometers of road testing is worthwhile but in addition to technological developments such as light...... which have jointly changed how mobility is viewed in recent years. We describe key points concerning such field testing and the renaissance in electric vehicles that occurred around 2010. We discuss progress in lithium battery technology for high power and high energy density, improvement in integrated...... business models, and the availability of high-performance electric vehicles have become key enablers of this new technology. In this regard, it is promising that electric vehicles will soon be a part of a green transport solution (green mobility) powered by renewable energy and a new smart electricity...

  15. Unexpected ICD pulse generator failure due to electronic circuit damage caused by electrical overstress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, R G; Hayes, D L; Almquist, A K; Epstein, A E; Parsonnet, V; Tyers, G F; Vlay, S C; Schoenfeld, M H

    2001-07-01

    Because it is a lifesaving device, the unexpected failure of an ICD can be catastrophic. We report ICD electronic circuit failure due to electrical overstress damage (EOS) to the high voltage hybird circuit and other electronic components in a series of ICD pulse generator models. Data were obtained from the Multicenter Registry of Pacemaker and ICD Pacemaker and Lead Failures, and from the manufactures' adverse event reports, that were in the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. Of 16 nonbattery Guidant/CPI ICD pulse generator failures reported to the registry, 6 (38%) have been confirmed by the manufacturer to be EOS related, and Guidant/CPI has reported 273 such failures to the FDA as of 12/29/00. The signs of failure included loss of telemetry and inability to deliver therapy, and some patients have experienced serious adverse events. Hybrid circuit damage may have occurred during capacitor charging or reform, and the majority appears to have happened during normal ICD function. While the incidence of this problem is unknown, a management strategy should be adopted that includes routine follow-up every 3 months and device evaluation after a shock or exposure to external defibrillation or electrosurgical devices. This study suggests that additional data are needed to determine the incidence of this problem, and that our present methods for monitoring the performance of ICD's following market release are inadequate.

  16. Dielectric polarization and electric field distortion due to heavy ions impinging on silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlog, M.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Parlog, M.; Hamrita, H.; Borderie, B.; Lavergne, L.; Rivet, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    The polarization of the electron-hole pairs induced by 80 MeV 12 C in a silicon detector was considered and connected to the relative dielectric permittivity, locally increased. The exact coordinate dependence of the modified electric field - inside and outside the ion range - was found as the solution of the one dimension Poisson's equation for the electric potential in this inhomogeneous medium. The improvement of the signal simulation is encouraging, as compared to an undisturbed electric field case. (authors)

  17. Increase of the electrical resistance of thin aluminium film due to 14 MeV neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, S K; Kumar, U; Singh, S P; Bhattacharya, S; Nigam, A K [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1978-01-01

    The effect of 14 MeV neutron bombardment on the electrical resistance of 500 A thick vacuum-coated Al film is investigated. In the beginning, a slow, then sharp and finally again slow increase is observed in the electrical resistance of the film. Transmission electron micrographs of the film after the same dose of neutron irradiation show a large number of defects produced in the film due to neutron irradiation, which seems to be the cause of this increase.

  18. Enhanced O2 Loss at Mars Due to an Ambipolar Electric Field from Electron Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R. E.; Andersson, L. A.; Fowler, C. M.; Woodson, A. K.; Weber, T. D.; Delory, G. T.; Andrews, D. J.; Eriksson, A. I.; Mcenulty, T.; Morooka, M. W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Recent results from the MAVEN Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) instrument suggest higher than predicted electron temperatures (T sub e) in Mars dayside ionosphere above approx. 180 km in altitude. Correspondingly, measurements from Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) indicate significant abundances of O2+ up to approx. 500 km in altitude, suggesting that O2+ may be a principal ion loss mechanism of oxygen. In this article, we investigate the effects of the higher T(sub e) (which results from electron heating) and ion heating on ion outflow and loss. Numerical solutions show that plasma processes including ion heating and higher T(sub e) may greatly increase O2+ loss at Mars. In particular, enhanced T(sub e) in Mars ionosphere just above the exobase creates a substantial ambipolar electric field with a potential (e) of several k(sub b)T(sub e), which draws ions out of the region allowing for enhanced escape. With active solar wind, electron and ion heating, direct O2+ loss could match or exceed loss via dissociative recombination of O2+. These results suggest that direct loss of O2+ may have played a significant role in the loss of oxygen at Mars over time.

  19. Increases in Use and Activity Due to Urban Renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Klinker, Charlotte Demant

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Urban green space and other recreational facilities are associated with physical activity. For adolescents living in multistory housing, public outdoor spaces that support physical activity may play an important role in activity promotion strategies. However, stronger evidence for a ...

  20. Time-lapse electrical resistivity anomalies due to contaminant transport around landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent of landfill leachate can be delineated by geo-electrical imaging as a response to the varying electrical resistivity in the contaminated area. This research was based on a combination of hydrogeological numerical simulation followed by geophysical forward and inversion modeling performed to evaluate the migration of a contaminant plume from a landfill. As a first step, groundwater flow and contaminant transport was simulated using the finite elements numerical modeling software FEFLOW. The extent of the contaminant plume was acquired through a hydrogeological model depicting the distributions of leachate concentration in the system. Next, based on the empirical relationship between the concentration and electrical conductivity of the leachate in the porous media, the corresponding geo-electrical structure was derived from the hydrogeological model. Finally, forward and inversion computations of geo-electrical anomalies were performed using the finite difference numerical modeling software DCIP2D/DCIP3D. The image obtained by geophysical inversion of the electric data was expected to be consistent with the initial hydrogeological model, as described by the distribution of leachate concentration. Numerical case studies were conducted for various geological conditions, hydraulic parameters and electrode arrays, from which conclusions were drawn regarding the suitability of the methodology to assess simple to more complex geo-electrical models. Thus, optimal mapping and monitoring configurations were determined.

  1. Technical challenges for electric power industries due to grid-integrated electric vehicles in low voltage distributions: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, Ahmed M.A.; Muttaqi, Kashem M.; Sutanto, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIVs) as mobile storage systems are briefly discussed. • Comparative analysis on electric vehicles (EVs) and charging systems are provided. • It is necessary to coordinate the GIVs to minimize its impacts on power grid. • A proper load model of EVs that predicts the realistic system behavior is required. • Offering a dual tariff by grid utilities is needed as a way to reduce peak load. - Abstract: Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIVs) are promising technologies for future Smart Grid (SG) and offer the potential to reduce the environmental impact of vehicles. The large scale deployment of GIVs without proper control of the time to charge the vehicles can result in unexpected challenges. This can lead to a disruptive impact on the current power distribution systems and in particular its substantial impacts in building power energy systems. Therefore, a proper model that predicts the realistic system behavior is required to analysis the true effects of introducing GIVs in the power grid. This paper presents a review of existing studies on GIV systems, their modeling techniques and their effects on power grids. Following a brief overview of the common types of electric vehicles (EVs) with their charging systems, a review of their impact on the low voltage distribution systems will be analyzed. The comprehensive review presented in this paper reveals that the impact of GIVs on power distribution systems can be quantified using the aspects of EVs, such as vehicle penetration, charging time, charging characteristics, driving patterns, transportation network. GIV studies are expected to be more popular in future years with the development of EV technologies and the government support to electricity utilities. Thereby, these factors will reduce the cost of energy to charge EV and enhance the practical implications of GIVs

  2. Harvesting vibrational energy due to intermodal systems via nano coated piezo electric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Vibrational energy resulting from intermodal transport systems can be recovered through the use of energy harvesting system consisting of PZT piezo electric material as the primary energy harvesting component. The ability of traditional PZT piezo ele...

  3. Toe Tissue Transfer for Reconstruction of Damaged Digits due to Electrical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Do Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Electrical burns are one of the most devastating types of injuries, and can becharacterized by the conduction of electric current through the deeper soft tissue such asvessels, nerves, muscles, and bones. For that reason, the extent of an electric burn is veryfrequently underestimated on initial impression.Methods From July 1999 to June 2006, we performed 15 cases of toe tissue transfer for thereconstruction of finger defects caused by electrical burns. We performed preoperative rangeof motion exercise, early excision, and coverage of the digital defect with toe tissue transfer.Results We obtained satisfactory results in both functional and aesthetic aspects in all 15cases without specific complications. Static two-point discrimination results in the transferredtoe cases ranged from 8 to 11 mm, with an average of 9.5 mm. The mean range of motionof the transferred toe was 20° to 36° in the distal interphalangeal joint, 16° to 45° in theproximal interphalangeal joint, and 15° to 35° in the metacarpophalangeal joint. All of thepatients were relatively satisfied with the function and appearance of their new digits.Conclusions The strategic management of electrical injury to the hands can be both challengingand complex. Because the optimal surgical method is free tissue transfer, maintenance ofvascular integrity among various physiological changes works as a determining factor for thepostoperative outcome following the reconstruction.

  4. Neoclassical Drift of Circulating Orbits Due toToroidal Electric Field in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Hong; Guan, Xiaoyin; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    In tokamaks, Ware pinch is a well known neoclassical effect for trapped particles in response to a toroidal electric field. It is generally believed that there exists no similar neoclassical effect for circulating particles without collisions. However, this belief is erroneous, and misses an important effect. We show both analytically and numerically that under the influence of a toroidal electric field parallel to the current, the circulating orbits drift outward toward the outer wall with a characteristic velocity O ((var e psilon) -1 ) larger than the E x B velocity, where (var e psilon) is the inverse aspect-ratio of a tokamak. During a RF overdrive, the toroidal electric field is anti-parallel to the current. As a consequence, all charged particles, including backward runaway electrons, will drift inward towards the inner wall.

  5. Electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Bowen, W.R.; Bridger, N.J.; Junkinson, A.R.; Cox, D.R.

    1985-07-01

    Cross-flow electrokinetic dewatering has been developed on a lab-scale into an effective process for the treatment of such wastes as gravity-settled flocs, or sludges arising from fuel storage. The product may be concentrated to 25-42% solids while still remaining fluid, prior to immobilization - e.g. by addition of cement powder. Complete retention of activity in the concentrate was observed during the treatment of Harwell low-level waste sludges due to the high solids separation factor ( > 10 4 ). It is a low pressure, low temperature process - consuming only 0.03-0.13 kWh/L at permeation rates of 0.3-1.5 m/h (depending on the stream), corresponding to 1 /67 - 1 /15 that needed for evaporation. An advanced electrochemical ion-exchange system has been developed in which ionic material can be electrically adsorbed and eluted by polarity reversal > 1000 times, without any change in performance. Decontamination factors of about 2000 were achieved for Cs removal, up to 75% loading of the exchanger at flow rates of 8 bed volumes/h. Elution into water can give concentrates of >= 0.25 M - with consequent high volume reduction factors. Inorganic ion-exchangers have also demonstrated system selectivity for the removal of specific cations. Overall energy consumption is 3 ( 1 /400 evaporation). Significant cost savings over conventional ion-exchange may accrue from the improved performance under electrical control, and the reduced volumes of waste requiring disposal. (author)

  6. Lower electricity prices and greenhouse gas emissions due to rooftop solar: empirical results for Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Vaid, Devina

    2016-01-01

    Monthly and hourly correlations among photovoltaic (PV) capacity utilization, electricity prices, electricity consumption, and the thermal efficiency of power plants in Massachusetts reduce electricity prices and carbon emissions beyond average calculations. PV utilization rates are highest when the thermal efficiencies of natural gas fired power plants are lowest, which reduces emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 by 0.3% relative to the annual average emission rate. There is a positive correlation between PV utilization rates and electricity prices, which raises the implied price of PV electricity by up to 10% relative to the annual average price, such that the average MWh reduces electricity prices by $0.26–$1.86 per MWh. These price reductions save Massachusetts rate-payers $184 million between 2010 and 2012. The current and net present values of these savings are greater than the cost of solar renewable energy credits which is the policy instrument that is used to accelerate the installation of PV capacity. Together, these results suggest that rooftop PV is an economically viable source of power in Massachusetts even though it has not reached socket parity. - Highlights: •Implied price of PV up to 10% greater than the annual average price. •PV saves Massachusetts rate-payers $184 million in 2010–2012. •Annual savings are greater than the cost of solar renewable energy credits. •Savings rise longer lifetime of PV systems and pay period for SREC's shortened. •PV reduces emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 by 0.3% relative to the annual average.

  7. External cardiac compression may be harmful in some scenarios of pulseless electrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, T S

    2012-10-01

    Pulseless electrical activity occurs when organised or semi-organised electrical activity of the heart persists but the product of systemic vascular resistance and the increase in systemic arterial flow generated by the ejection of the left venticular stroke volume is not sufficient to produce a clinically detectable pulse. Pulseless electrical activity encompasses a very heterogeneous variety of severe circulatory shock states ranging in severity from pseudo-cardiac arrest to effective cardiac arrest. Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity are generally poor. Impairment of cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output in many scenarios of pulseless electrical activity, including extreme vasodilatory shock states. There is no evidence that external cardiac compression can increase cardiac output when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. If impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output and the heart is effectively ejecting all the blood returning to it, then external cardiac compression can only increase cardiac output if it increases venous return and cardiac filling. Repeated cardiac compression asynchronous with the patient's cardiac cycle and raised mean intrathoracic pressure due to chest compression can be expected to reduce rather than to increase cardiac filling and therefore to reduce rather than to increase cardiac output in such circumstances. The hypothesis is proposed that the performance of external cardiac compression will have zero or negative effect on cardiac output in pulseless electrical activity when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. External cardiac compression may be both directly and indirectly harmful to significant sub-groups of patients with pulseless electrical activity. We have neither evidence nor theory to provide comfort that external cardiac compression is not harmful in many scenarios of pulseless

  8. External cardiac compression may be harmful in some scenarios of pulseless electrical activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, T S

    2012-10-01

    Pulseless electrical activity occurs when organised or semi-organised electrical activity of the heart persists but the product of systemic vascular resistance and the increase in systemic arterial flow generated by the ejection of the left venticular stroke volume is not sufficient to produce a clinically detectable pulse. Pulseless electrical activity encompasses a very heterogeneous variety of severe circulatory shock states ranging in severity from pseudo-cardiac arrest to effective cardiac arrest. Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity are generally poor. Impairment of cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output in many scenarios of pulseless electrical activity, including extreme vasodilatory shock states. There is no evidence that external cardiac compression can increase cardiac output when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. If impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output and the heart is effectively ejecting all the blood returning to it, then external cardiac compression can only increase cardiac output if it increases venous return and cardiac filling. Repeated cardiac compression asynchronous with the patient\\'s cardiac cycle and raised mean intrathoracic pressure due to chest compression can be expected to reduce rather than to increase cardiac filling and therefore to reduce rather than to increase cardiac output in such circumstances. The hypothesis is proposed that the performance of external cardiac compression will have zero or negative effect on cardiac output in pulseless electrical activity when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. External cardiac compression may be both directly and indirectly harmful to significant sub-groups of patients with pulseless electrical activity. We have neither evidence nor theory to provide comfort that external cardiac compression is not harmful in many scenarios of pulseless

  9. Nucleation and evaporation of domains due to electric field at room ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    by methanol, since methanol acts as a cleaning agent and removes impurity clusters from the surfaces.21. This suggests that these areas marked by N and P correspond to the 180° domains. Photomicrograph shown in figure 7b is again of the same surface as referred in figure 7a but now with the electric field of about 7 kV ...

  10. Iron Losses in Electrical Machines Due to Non Sinusoidal Alternating Fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Ewen; Walker, J.A.; Dorrell, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows how the flux waveform in the core of an electrical machine can be vary non- sinusoidally which complicates the calculation of the iron loss in a machine. A set of tests are conducted on a steel sample using an Epstein square where harmonics are injected into the flux waveform which...... of a machine....

  11. Frequency hopping due to acousto-electric interaction in ZnO based surface acoustic wave oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Daipayan; Sreenivas, K.

    2011-08-01

    A 36 MHz surface acoustic wave delay line based oscillator has been used to study the effect of acousto-electric interaction due to photo generated charge carriers in rf sputtered ZnO film under UV illumination (λ = 365 nm, 20-100 μW/cm2). Design aspects for developing a delay line based SAW oscillator are specified. The observed linear downshift in frequency (2.2 to 19.0 kHz) with varying UV intensity (20-100 μW/cm2) is related to the fractional velocity change due to acousto-electric interaction. UV illumination level of 100 μW/cm2 leads to a characteristic frequency hopping behavior arising due to a change in the oscillation criteria, and is attributed to the complex interplay between the increased attenuation and velocity shift.

  12. Advanced Electric Propulsion NextSTEP BAA Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the AES Advanced Electric Propulsion Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) activity is to...

  13. Spontaneous Electrical Activity in the Nervous System and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to examine the effects of biogenic amines on the spontaneous electrical activity of the nervous system in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The activity recorded from different segments of the ventral nerve cord differed in the frequency and number of spike categories firing. The activity was highest ...

  14. Bifurcation of radial electric field in tokamak edge plasmas due to ion orbit loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G.J.; Zhang, X.D.

    2015-01-01

    The ion orbit loss and the formation of radial electric field Er in tokamak edge region are calculated. The ion orbit loss generates a negative Er, which in turn affects the ion loss. As a result, Er can saturates at either a low or a high value, depending on the plasma parameters. When the ion temperature in the plasma edge is higher than a threshold a self-sustaining growth in both the ion loss and Er is found, leading to a high saturation value of Er in the milliseconds time. This mechanism provides a possible explanation for the formation of the edge radial electric field during the L to H-mode transition observed in tokamak experiments. (author)

  15. Dephasing due to Nuclear Spins in Large-Amplitude Electric Dipole Spin Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Stefano; Yang, Li-Ping; Loss, Daniel

    2016-02-12

    We analyze effects of the hyperfine interaction on electric dipole spin resonance when the amplitude of the quantum-dot motion becomes comparable or larger than the quantum dot's size. Away from the well-known small-drive regime, the important role played by transverse nuclear fluctuations leads to a Gaussian decay with characteristic dependence on drive strength and detuning. A characterization of spin-flip gate fidelity, in the presence of such additional drive-dependent dephasing, shows that vanishingly small errors can still be achieved at sufficiently large amplitudes. Based on our theory, we analyze recent electric dipole spin resonance experiments relying on spin-orbit interactions or the slanting field of a micromagnet. We find that such experiments are already in a regime with significant effects of transverse nuclear fluctuations and the form of decay of the Rabi oscillations can be reproduced well by our theory.

  16. Diffuse electric double layer in planar nanostructures due to Fermi-Dirac statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drab, Mitja; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    A double nanocapacitor modelled by two equally charged planar surfaces that confine oppositely charged quanta subjected to Fermi-Dirac statistics is considered theoretically. A global thermodynamic equilibrium was found by minimization of the Helmholtz free energy satisfying constraints that require electroneutrality and fixed total number of confined quanta. The solution obtained by using the Euler–Lagrange method yields self–consistent quantities: distribution of quanta within the pore, electric potential, equilibrium free energy and differential capacitance. Within real values, a rigorous numerical solution and an approximate analytical solution for electrons in the low temperature limit was found. The Fermi–Dirac constraints on the wave functions in the nanopore induced an effect of a diffuse electrical double layer near both charged surfaces. This effect is comparable to the corresponding effect of entropy at finite temperatures and for classical particles, as described by the acknowledged Poisson–Boltzmann theory. At small distances and small surface charges, the electrons are almost evenly distributed within the pore, while at larger distances they condense to the charged surfaces, shielding the electric field. The force between the charged surfaces is repulsive and monotonously decreases with increasing distance between surfaces. The energies stored in the nanocapacitor are up to ≃ 50 eV/nm"2.

  17. Underwater sound and vibrations due to oil & gas activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Binnerts, B.; Nennie, E.D.; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von

    2014-01-01

    In the oil & gas industry there is a trend towards more subsea activities. To improve gas recovery from existing and new fields at greater depths, the produced gas will be compressed, processed and transported via subsea templates and underwater networks (pipelines, flexible risers, etc.). Besides

  18. Electrically and hybrid-induced muscle activations: effects of muscle size and fiber type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Stratton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three electrical stimulation (ES frequencies (10, 35, and 50 Hz on two muscle groups with different proportions of fast and slow twitch fibers (abductor pollicis brevis (APB and vastus lateralis (VL was explored. We evaluated the acute muscles’ responses individually and during hybrid activations (ES superimposed by voluntary activations. Surface electromyography (sEMG and force measurements were evaluated as outcomes. Ten healthy adults (mean age: 24.4 ± 2.5 years participated after signing an informed consent form approved by the university Institutional Review Board. Protocols were developed to: 1 compare EMG activities during each frequency for each muscle when generating 25% Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC force, and 2 compare EMG activities during each frequency when additional voluntary activation was superimposed over ES-induced 25% MVC to reach 50% and 75% MVC. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD was utilized to separate ES artifacts from voluntary muscle activation. For both muscles, higher stimulation frequency (35 and 50Hz induced higher electrical output detected at 25% of MVC, suggesting more recruitment with higher frequencies. Hybrid activation generated proportionally less electrical activity than ES alone. ES and voluntary activations appear to generate two different modes of muscle recruitment. ES may provoke muscle strength by activating more fatiguing fast acting fibers, but voluntary activation elicits more muscle coordination. Therefore, during the hybrid activation, less electrical activity may be detected due to recruitment of more fatigue-resistant deeper muscle fibers, not reachable by surface EMG.

  19. Electrical and mechanical characterization of nanoscale-layered cellulose-based electro-active paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gyu-Young; Yun, Ki-Ju; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the electro-mechanical behavior of piezoelectric electro active paper (EAPap), the converse and direct piezoelectric characterization of cellulose EAPap was studied and compared. A delay between the electrical field and the induced strain of EAPap was observed due to the inner nano-voids or the localized amorphous regions in layer-by-layered structure to capture or hold the electrical charges and remnant ions. The linear relation between electric field and induced strain is also observed. The electro-mechanical performance of EAPap is discussed in detail in this paper.

  20. Improvement of photodynamic activity of aluminium sulphophthalocyanine due to biotinylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerovich, Irina G.; Jerdeva, Victoria V.; Derkacheva, Valentina M.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.; Kogan, Eugenia A.; Savitsky, Alexander P.

    2003-09-01

    The photodynamic activity of dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine in vitro and in vivo were studied. It was obtained that in vitro dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine provides the effective damage of small cell lung carcinoma OAT-75. In vivo dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine causes destruction of tumor (Erlich carcinoma), results in total necrosis of tumor tissue and expresses vascular damage (trombosis and destruction of vascular walls) even in concentration 0.25 mg/kg of a body weight.

  1. Intelligent Electric Power Systems with Active-Adaptive Electric Networks: Challenges for Simulation Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the presented research is based on the needs for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of intelligent electric power systems with active-adaptive electric networks (IES including Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS devices. The key requirements for the simulation were formed. The presented analysis of simulation results of IES confirms the need to use a hybrid modelling approach.

  2. Electric field encephalography for brain activity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versek, Craig William; Frasca, Tyler; Zhou, Jianlin; Chowdhury, Kaushik; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2018-05-11

    Objective - We describe an early-stage prototype of a new wireless electrophysiological sensor system, called NeuroDot, which can measure neuroelectric potentials and fields at the scalp in a new modality called Electric Field Encephalography (EFEG). We aim to establish the physical validity of the EFEG modality, and examine some of its properties and relative merits compared to EEG. Approach - We designed a wireless neuroelectric measurement device based on the Texas Instrument ADS1299 Analog Front End platform and a sensor montage, using custom electrodes, to simultaneously measure EFEG and spatially averaged EEG over a localized patch of the scalp (2cm x 2cm). The signal properties of each modality were compared across tests of noise floor, Berger effect, steady-state Visually Evoked Potential (ssVEP), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and others. In order to compare EFEG to EEG modalities in the frequency domain, we use a novel technique to compute spectral power densities and derive narrow-band SNR estimates for ssVEP signals. A simple binary choice brain-computer-interface (BCI) concept based on ssVEP is evaluated. Also, we present examples of high quality recording of transient Visually Evoked Potentials and Fields (tVEPF) that could be used for neurological studies. Main results - We demonstrate the capability of the NeuroDot system to record high quality EEG signals comparable to some recent clinical and research grade systems on the market. We show that the locally-referenced EFEG metric is resistant to certain types of movement artifacts. In some ssVEP based measurements, the EFEG modality shows promising results, demonstrating superior signal to noise ratios than the same recording processed as an analogous EEG signal. We show that by using EFEG based ssVEP SNR estimates to perform a binary classification in a model BCI, the optimal information transfer rate (ITR) can be raised from 15 to 30 bits per minute - though these preliminary results are likely

  3. Doses due to extra-vehicular activity on space stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Akatov, Y.; Arkhanguelski, V. [Institute of Biomedical Problems, State Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Reitz, G. [DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Linder Hohe (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    One of the many risks of long duration space flight is the dose from cosmic radiation, especially during periods of intensive solar activity. At such times, particularly during extra-vehicular activity (E.V.A.), when the astronauts are not protected by the wall of the spacecraft, cosmic radiation is a potentially serious health threat. Accurate dose measurement becomes increasingly important during the assembly of large space objects. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetric mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosimeter systems, called Pille, for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 3 {mu}Gy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy bulb dosimeters and a small, compact, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosimeters. Such a system offers a solution for E.V.A. dosimetry as well. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations, on the Space Shuttle, and most recently on several segments of the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille system was used to make the first measurements of the radiation exposure of cosmonauts during E.V.A.. Such E.V.A. measurements were carried out twice (on June 12 and 16, 1987) by Y. Romanenko, the commander of the second crew of Mir. During the E.V.A. one of the dosimeters was fixed in a pocket on the outer surface of the left leg of his space-suit; a second dosimeter was located inside the station for reference measurements. The advanced TLD system Pille 96 was used during the Nasa-4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the exposure of two of the astronauts during their E.V.A. activities. The extra doses of two E.V.A. during the Euromir 95 and one E.V.A. during the Nasa4 experiment

  4. Doses due to extra-vehicular activity on space stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I.; Akatov, Y.; Arkhanguelski, V.; Reitz, G.

    2006-01-01

    One of the many risks of long duration space flight is the dose from cosmic radiation, especially during periods of intensive solar activity. At such times, particularly during extra-vehicular activity (E.V.A.), when the astronauts are not protected by the wall of the spacecraft, cosmic radiation is a potentially serious health threat. Accurate dose measurement becomes increasingly important during the assembly of large space objects. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetric mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosimeter systems, called Pille, for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 3 μGy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of CaSO 4 :Dy bulb dosimeters and a small, compact, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosimeters. Such a system offers a solution for E.V.A. dosimetry as well. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations, on the Space Shuttle, and most recently on several segments of the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille system was used to make the first measurements of the radiation exposure of cosmonauts during E.V.A.. Such E.V.A. measurements were carried out twice (on June 12 and 16, 1987) by Y. Romanenko, the commander of the second crew of Mir. During the E.V.A. one of the dosimeters was fixed in a pocket on the outer surface of the left leg of his space-suit; a second dosimeter was located inside the station for reference measurements. The advanced TLD system Pille 96 was used during the Nasa-4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the exposure of two of the astronauts during their E.V.A. activities. The extra doses of two E.V.A. during the Euromir 95 and one E.V.A. during the Nasa4 experiment were

  5. Heat transfer due to electroconvulsive therapy: Influence of anisotropic thermal and electrical skull conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes de Oliveira, Marilia; Wen, Peng; Ahfock, Tony

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and head models to investigate temperature profiles arising when anisotropic thermal and electrical conductivities are considered in the skull layer. The aim was to numerically investigate the threshold for which this therapy operates safely to the brain, from the thermal point of view. A six-layer spherical head model consisting of scalp, fat, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid, grey matter and white matter was developed. Later on, a realistic human head model was also implemented. These models were built up using the packages from COMSOL Inc. and Simpleware Ltd. In these models, three of the most common electrode montages used in ECT were applied. Anisotropic conductivities were derived using volume constraint and included in both spherical and realistic head models. The bio-heat transferring problem governed by Laplace equation was solved numerically. The results show that both the tensor eigenvalues of electrical conductivity and the electrode montage affect the maximum temperature, but thermal anisotropy does not have a significant influence. Temperature increases occur mainly in the scalp and fat, and no harm is caused to the brain by the current applied during ECT. The work assures the thermal safety of ECT and also provides a numerical method to investigate other non-invasive therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial generalized linear mixed models of electric power outages due to hurricanes and ice storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haibin; Davidson, Rachel A.; Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents new statistical models that predict the number of hurricane- and ice storm-related electric power outages likely to occur in each 3 kmx3 km grid cell in a region. The models are based on a large database of recent outages experienced by three major East Coast power companies in six hurricanes and eight ice storms. A spatial generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) approach was used in which spatial correlation is incorporated through random effects. Models were fitted using a composite likelihood approach and the covariance matrix was estimated empirically. A simulation study was conducted to test the model estimation procedure, and model training, validation, and testing were done to select the best models and assess their predictive power. The final hurricane model includes number of protective devices, maximum gust wind speed, hurricane indicator, and company indicator covariates. The final ice storm model includes number of protective devices, ice thickness, and ice storm indicator covariates. The models should be useful for power companies as they plan for future storms. The statistical modeling approach offers a new way to assess the reliability of electric power and other infrastructure systems in extreme events

  7. Assessing radiologic risk for population due to human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Al.; Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.; Hirica, O.

    2002-01-01

    The most important factor in assessing radiologic risk is ensuring scientific means for evaluation of the radioactive release impact upon humans and organisms. To evaluate quantitatively this impact not only knowledge of radioactivity distribution in these dynamical systems is necessary but also understanding the transfer mechanisms between ecosystem components is needed. Thus a complete radioecologic study appear to be very complex and needs defining the source term, dynamic description of radionuclides behavior in the ecosystem, estimation of radiation doses in the major components of the ecosystem and finally the effects of radiation doses upon different parts of the systems. A diagram of the steps implied in evaluation of the effects due to radioactive effluent release in the environment is presented and discussed. The following steps are described: - identification of radioactive sources, as well as their input rate. Presence of noxious materials such as heavy metals or some organic compounds should be taken into account to assess the synergetic or antagonistic interactions; - determination of space-time distribution of release radionuclides; - estimation of dose rates and radiation exposure of population; - estimation of radiation dose effects upon individuals, population and ecosystems. This fourth step implies: experimental field or laboratory studies to determine the somatic/genetic response to radiation as a function of the exposure dose; following-up and interpretation of the organism response to dose or dose rates in terms of radiation-induce changes in the population life cycles; forecasting the irradiation effects upon population or communities within environment. Finally, this evaluation is completed by the decision making process implying a society acceptance of the forecast and/or observed effects

  8. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves the rest-activity rhythm in midstage Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E. J.; van Someren, E. J.; Swaab, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    Nightly restlessness in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is probably due to a disorder of circadian rhythms. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was previously reported to increase the strength of coupling of the circadian rest activity rhythm to Zeitgebers in early stage

  9. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

    Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  10. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  11. The impact on electricity demand and emissions due to the introduction of electric cars in the São Paulo Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Marcos Vinícius Xavier; Haddad, Jamil; Horta Nogueira, Luiz; Costa Bortoni, Edson da; Passos da Cruz, Ricardo Alexandre; Akira Yamachita, Roberto; Goncalves, Jose Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Over the past years, the pursuit of using less polluting energy sources throughout society has been on the increase. In general, the transportation sector is responsible for most of the emissions of greenhouse gases. Therefore, in this article a methodological approach is applied in such a way that it is possible to quantify the impact of the penetration of electric vehicles vis-à-vis others that use different types of fuel (flexible fuel, for example). The study is conducted for a road modal in São Paulo, the main state in Brazil in terms of economy, energy and environment, taking into account only automobiles. A comparative analysis of forecasting scenarios until 2035 for various inputs of electric cars in the whole state fleet is presented, aiming to verify the susceptibility of the model suggested, upon the introduction of electric vehicles, taking into account also the electrical and environmental impacts related to it. The analysis was possible due to the use of a simulation tool, Long range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP), which is an energy environmental model based on scenarios, allowing an integrated and reliable support to develop studies on integrated energy planning. - Highlights: • Overview of the transportation sector • Forecasting methodology • Additional energy demand results

  12. Internal electric fields due to piezoelectric and spontaneous polarizations in CdZnO/MgZnO quantum well with various applied electric field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, H.C.; Lee, S.J.; Kang, T.W.; Park, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The strain-induced piezoelectric polarization and the spontaneous polarization can be reduced effectively using the applied electric field in the CdZnO/ZnMgO quantum well (QW) structure with high Cd composition. That is, optical properties as a function of internal and external fields in the CdZnO/ZnMgO QW with various applied electric field result in the increased optical gain due to the fact that the QW potential profile is flattened as a result of the compensation of the internal field by the reverse field as confirmed. These results demonstrate that a high-performance optical device operation can be realized in CdZnO/MgZnO QW structures by reducing the droop phenomenon.

  13. Internal electric fields due to piezoelectric and spontaneous polarizations in CdZnO/MgZnO quantum well with various applied electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, H.C. [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.J., E-mail: leesj@dongguk.edu [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, T.W. [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.H. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Kyeongbuk 712-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The strain-induced piezoelectric polarization and the spontaneous polarization can be reduced effectively using the applied electric field in the CdZnO/ZnMgO quantum well (QW) structure with high Cd composition. That is, optical properties as a function of internal and external fields in the CdZnO/ZnMgO QW with various applied electric field result in the increased optical gain due to the fact that the QW potential profile is flattened as a result of the compensation of the internal field by the reverse field as confirmed. These results demonstrate that a high-performance optical device operation can be realized in CdZnO/MgZnO QW structures by reducing the droop phenomenon.

  14. Mathematical modeling of electrical activity of uterine muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihana, Sandy; Terrien, Jeremy; Germain, Guy; Marque, Catherine

    2009-06-01

    The uterine electrical activity is an efficient parameter to study the uterine contractility. In order to understand the ionic mechanisms responsible for its generation, we aimed at building a mathematical model of the uterine cell electrical activity based upon the physiological mechanisms. First, based on the voltage clamp experiments found in the literature, we focus on the principal ionic channels and their cognate currents involved in the generation of this electrical activity. Second, we provide the methodology of formulations of uterine ionic currents derived from a wide range of electrophysiological data. The model is validated step by step by comparing simulated voltage-clamp results with the experimental ones. The model reproduces successfully the generation of single spikes or trains of action potentials that fit with the experimental data. It allows analyzing ionic channels implications. Likewise, the calcium-dependent conductance influences significantly the cellular oscillatory behavior.

  15. Assessing the market power due to the network constraints in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y.C.; Napoli, R.; Jiang, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The physical and operational constraints of the network pose very specific problems to market power analysis in the oligopolistic electricity markets. This paper presents a direct analytical approach to find the market equilibrium based on a supply function game model. The model is exploited to undertake a sensitivity analysis of the producer surplus with reference to the line flow limits under a DC power flow model for network representation. Two different kinds of indices, that can capture the market power arising under network constraints, are proposed. The first set of indices is the location privilege (LP), that measure the effect of the generators positioning in the grid on their surplus under perfect competition. The second set is for the network market power (NMP) indices that take into account the strategic behaviors of the producers that may take advantage of the congestion of the transmission lines. The indices allow for a ranking of the lines in terms of the market power they can induce and, in this respect, they may help the market regulator to focus on the network weakness in terms of the possible market outcomes under the market power behaviors from the supply side. The application of the proposed indices is illustrated with reference to the IEEE 30-bus test system. (author)

  16. Microstructural changes in a cementitious membrane due to the application of a DC electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelo, Alba; Diaz, Belen; Freire, Lorena; Novoa, X Ramon; Perez, M Consuelo

    2008-07-01

    The use of electromigration techniques to accelerate chloride ions motion is commonly employed to characterise the permeability of cementitious samples to chlorides, a relevant parameter in reinforced concrete corrosion. This paper is devoted to the study of microstructure's changes occurring in mortar samples when submitted to natural diffusion and migration experiments. The application of an electric field reduces testing time in about one order of magnitude with respect to natural diffusion experiments. Nevertheless, the final sample's microstructure differs in both tests. Impedance Spectroscopy is employed for real time monitoring of microstructural changes. During migration experiments the global impedance undergoes important increase in shorter period of time compared to natural diffusion tests. So, the forced motion of ions through the concrete membrane induces significant variations in the porous structure, as confirmed by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry. After migration experiments, an important increase in the capillary pore size (10-100 nm) was detected. Conversely, no relevant variations are found after natural diffusion tests. Results presented in this work cast doubt on the significance of diffusion coefficient values obtained under accelerated conditions.

  17. Appliances facilitating everyday life - electricity use derived from daily activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegaard, Kajsa (Dept of Thematic Studies, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)), e-mail: kajsa.ellegard@liu.se; Widen, Joakim (Dept of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)); Vrotsou, Katerina (Dept of Science and Technology, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present how, using a visualization method, electricity use can be derived from the everyday activity patterns of household members. Target groups are, on the one hand, professionals in the energy sector and energy advisors who need more knowledge about household energy use, and, on the other hand, household members wanting to reduce the energy use by revealing their own habits and thereby finding out how changed activity performance may influence electricity use. The focus is on the relation between utilizing electric appliances to perform everyday life activities and the use of electricity. The visualization method is based on the time-geographic approach developed by Haegerstrand and includes a model that estimates appliance electricity use from household members' activities. Focus, in this paper, is put on some basic activities performed to satisfy daily life needs: cooking and use of information, communication and entertainment devices. These activities appear frequently in the everyday life of households, even though not all household members perform them all. The method is applied on a data material comprising time-diaries written by 463 individuals (aged 10 to 85+) in 179 households in different parts of Sweden. The visualization method reveals when and for how long activities that claim electric appliances are performed by which individual(s). It also shows electricity load curves generated from the use of appliances at different levels, such as individual, household and group or population levels. At household level the method can reveal which household members are the main users of electricity, i.e. the division of labour between household members. Thereby it also informs about whom could be approached by energy companies and energy advisors in information campaigns. The main result of the study is that systematic differences in activity patterns in subgroups of a population can be identified (e.g. men and women) but

  18. Electrical Activity in a Time-Delay Four-Variable Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of electromagnetic induction on the electrical activity of neuron, the variable for magnetic flow is used to improve Hindmarsh–Rose neuron model. Simultaneously, due to the existence of time-delay when signals are propagated between neurons or even in one neuron, it is important to study the role of time-delay in regulating the electrical activity of the neuron. For this end, a four-variable neuron model is proposed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic induction and time-delay. Simulation results suggest that the proposed neuron model can show multiple modes of electrical activity, which is dependent on the time-delay and external forcing current. It means that suitable discharge mode can be obtained by selecting the time-delay or external forcing current, which could be helpful for further investigation of electromagnetic radiation on biological neuronal system.

  19. Changes in intestinal electrical activity during ischaemia correlate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study this, the electrical activity of the ileum in 14 adult male rabbits was recorded during ischaemia. At baseline, 60, 120 and 210 minutes of ischaemia, segments of bowel were resected for histopathologic evaluation. The BER frequency was determined using the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) spectral analysis.

  20. Electrically active sodium-related defect centres in silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Espen; Madsbøll, J.; Søiland, A.-K.

    2013-01-01

    Electrically active defect centres related to sodium in silicon have been examined with deep level transient spectroscopy, and their recombination potential analysed with the microwave photoconductive decay technique. In order to investigate the entire silicon band gap for defect centres, both p-...

  1. PERSPECTIVE: Electrical activity enhances neuronal survival and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Raul G.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.

    2009-10-01

    The failure of regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) remains an enormous scientific and clinical challenge. After injury or in degenerative diseases, neurons in the adult mammalian CNS fail to regrow their axons and reconnect with their normal targets, and furthermore the neurons frequently die and are not normally replaced. While significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis for this lack of regenerative ability, a second approach has gained momentum: replacing lost neurons or lost connections with artificial electrical circuits that interface with the nervous system. In the visual system, gene therapy-based 'optogenetics' prostheses represent a competing technology. Now, the two approaches are converging, as recent data suggest that electrical activity itself, via the molecular signaling pathways such activity stimulates, is sufficient to induce neuronal survival and regeneration, particularly in retinal ganglion cells. Here, we review these data, discuss the effects of electrical activity on neurons' molecular signaling pathways and propose specific mechanisms by which exogenous electrical activity may be acting to enhance survival and regeneration.

  2. Modelling of electric tree progression due to space charge modified fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seralathan, K E; Mahajan, A; Gupta, Nandini

    2008-01-01

    Tree initiation and growth require localized field enhancement that results in material erosion and formation of tree channels. Tree progression is linked to partial discharges within the tree tubules, characterized by recurrent periods of activity followed by quiescent states. Charge builds up across the non-conducting tree channels during the inactive regime, and discharge follows. In this work, the role of the space charge modified field during the non-discharging regime in deciding the site of subsequent discharges and thereby shaping tree structures is studied. A simple stochastic model was developed, in order to understand the respective effects of charges trapped on the walls of tree tubules, at channel tips, or in the volume of the dielectric. While some charge distributions are seen to arrest tree growth, others encourage axial growth towards the other electrode, and some aid in producing bushy trees clustered around the needle tip. The effect of carbon deposition within tree channels, making them effectively conducting, was also investigated. The insights gained from the simulations were successfully used to explain tree growth in the laboratory under high- and low-field conditions

  3. Subthalamic nucleus electrical stimulation modulates calcium activity of nigral astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Barat

    Full Text Available The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, delivering inhibitory efferents to the relay nuclei of the thalamus. Pathological hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders e.g. in Parkinson's disease. One way to restore this pathological activity is to electrically stimulate one of the SNr input, the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN, which has emerged as an effective treatment for parkinsonian patients. The neuronal network and signal processing of the basal ganglia are well known but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied.In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous and induced excitability of afferent nuclei on SNr astrocytes calcium activity. Astrocytes represent the main cellular population in the SNr and display spontaneous calcium activities in basal conditions. Half of this activity is autonomous (i.e. independent of synaptic activity while the other half is dependent on spontaneous glutamate and GABA release, probably controlled by the pace-maker activity of the pallido-nigral and subthalamo-nigral loops. Modification of the activity of the loops by STN electrical stimulation disrupted this astrocytic calcium excitability through an increase of glutamate and GABA releases. Astrocytic AMPA, mGlu and GABA(A receptors were involved in this effect.Astrocytes are now viewed as active components of neural networks but their role depends on the brain structure concerned. In the SNr, evoked activity prevails and autonomous calcium activity is lower than in the cortex or hippocampus. Our data therefore reflect a specific role of SNr astrocytes in sensing the STN-GPe-SNr loops activity and suggest that SNr astrocytes could potentially feedback on SNr neuronal activity. These findings have major implications given the position of SNr in the basal ganglia network.

  4. Subthalamic nucleus electrical stimulation modulates calcium activity of nigral astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Elodie; Boisseau, Sylvie; Bouyssières, Céline; Appaix, Florence; Savasta, Marc; Albrieux, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, delivering inhibitory efferents to the relay nuclei of the thalamus. Pathological hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders e.g. in Parkinson's disease. One way to restore this pathological activity is to electrically stimulate one of the SNr input, the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN), which has emerged as an effective treatment for parkinsonian patients. The neuronal network and signal processing of the basal ganglia are well known but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied. In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous and induced excitability of afferent nuclei on SNr astrocytes calcium activity. Astrocytes represent the main cellular population in the SNr and display spontaneous calcium activities in basal conditions. Half of this activity is autonomous (i.e. independent of synaptic activity) while the other half is dependent on spontaneous glutamate and GABA release, probably controlled by the pace-maker activity of the pallido-nigral and subthalamo-nigral loops. Modification of the activity of the loops by STN electrical stimulation disrupted this astrocytic calcium excitability through an increase of glutamate and GABA releases. Astrocytic AMPA, mGlu and GABA(A) receptors were involved in this effect. Astrocytes are now viewed as active components of neural networks but their role depends on the brain structure concerned. In the SNr, evoked activity prevails and autonomous calcium activity is lower than in the cortex or hippocampus. Our data therefore reflect a specific role of SNr astrocytes in sensing the STN-GPe-SNr loops activity and suggest that SNr astrocytes could potentially feedback on SNr neuronal activity. These findings have major implications given the position of SNr in the basal ganglia network.

  5. Probabilistic electricity price forecasting with variational heteroscedastic Gaussian process and active learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, Peng; Liang, Deliang; Gao, Lin; Lou, Jianyong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel active learning model for the probabilistic electricity price forecasting. • Heteroscedastic Gaussian process that captures the local volatility of the electricity price. • Variational Bayesian learning that avoids over-fitting. • Active learning algorithm that reduces the computational efforts. - Abstract: Electricity price forecasting is essential for the market participants in their decision making. Nevertheless, the accuracy of such forecasting cannot be guaranteed due to the high variability of the price data. For this reason, in many cases, rather than merely point forecasting results, market participants are more interested in the probabilistic price forecasting results, i.e., the prediction intervals of the electricity price. Focusing on this issue, this paper proposes a new model for the probabilistic electricity price forecasting. This model is based on the active learning technique and the variational heteroscedastic Gaussian process (VHGP). It provides the heteroscedastic Gaussian prediction intervals, which effectively quantify the heteroscedastic uncertainties associated with the price data. Because the high computational effort of VHGP hinders its application to the large-scale electricity price forecasting tasks, we design an active learning algorithm to select a most informative training subset from the whole available training set. By constructing the forecasting model on this smaller subset, the computational efforts can be significantly reduced. In this way, the practical applicability of the proposed model is enhanced. The forecasting performance and the computational time of the proposed model are evaluated using the real-world electricity price data, which is obtained from the ANEM, PJM, and New England ISO

  6. Active RF Pulse Compression Using An Electrically Controlled Semiconductor Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiquan; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    First we review the theory of active pulse compression systems using resonant delay lines. Then we describe the design of an electrically controlled semiconductor active switch. The switch comprises an active window and an overmoded waveguide three-port network. The active window is based on a four-inch silicon wafer which has 960 PIN diodes. These are spatially combined in an overmoded waveguide. We describe the philosophy and design methodology for the three-port network and the active window. We then present the results of using this device to compress 11.4 GHz RF signals with high compression ratios. We show how the system can be used with amplifier like sources, in which one can change the phase of the source by manipulating the input to the source. We also show how the active switch can be used to compress a pulse from an oscillator like sources, which is not possible with passive pulse compression systems.

  7. Dispersion of pollutants, environmental externalities due to a pulverized coal power plant and their effect on the cost of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnowska, Lucyna; Frangopoulos, Christos A.

    2012-01-01

    Energy conversion systems generate pollution that causes damages to the environment and the society. The objective of this work is to study the dispersion of pollutants and assess the environmental and social cost due to pollution from such a system. For this purpose, a pulverized coal power plant is selected. Using thermodynamic principles combined with empirical techniques, the quantities of pollutants emitted by the plant are estimated. Then, using the EcoSenseWeb software, which is based on the results of the ExternE project, the external environmental cost (externalities) of pollution is assessed. The plant is considered as located in four different cities in Poland and the externalities are calculated for each city separately. It is shown that the external environmental cost has a strong influence on the unit cost of electricity. In addition, the dispersion of pollutants is presented for the plant located in Olsztyn city. Furthermore, the plant is considered as located near the capitals of European countries and the environmental externalities are calculated for each city. The neighboring countries that are strongly affected by the plant in each particular city are identified. The sensitivity of the unit cost of electricity to certain important parameters is investigated. -- Highlights: ► The external cost of pollution has a significant impact on the cost of electricity. ► The results depend on the particular plant, location and level (local-global). ► Externalities make the installation of abatement equipment economical. ► The source location of emissions has a significant effect on the external cost. ► The transboundary pollution has a strong effect on the environmental cost.

  8. Electrical activity during the 2006 Mount St. Augustine volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Edens, H. E.; Aulich, G. D.; McNutt, S.R.; Tytgat, Guy; Clark, E.

    2007-01-01

    By using a combination of radio frequency time-of-arrival and interferometer measurements, we observed a sequence of lightning and electrical activity during one of Mount St. Augustine's eruptions. The observations indicate that the electrical activity had two modes or phases. First, there was an explosive phase in which the ejecta from the explosion appeared to be highly charged upon exiting the volcano, resulting in numerous apparently disorganized discharges and some simple lightning. The net charge exiting the volcano appears to have been positive. The second phase, which followed the most energetic explosion, produced conventional-type discharges that occurred within plume. Although the plume cloud was undoubtedly charged as a result of the explosion itself, the fact that the lightning onset was delayed and continued after and well downwind of the eruption indicates that in situ charging of some kind was occurring, presumably similar in some respects to that which occurs in normal thunderstorms.

  9. Dynamical analysis of uterine cell electrical activity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihana, S; Santos, J; Mondie, S; Marque, C

    2006-01-01

    The uterus is a physiological system consisting of a large number of interacting smooth muscle cells. The uterine excitability changes remarkably with time, generally quiescent during pregnancy, the uterus exhibits forceful synchronized contractions at term leading to fetus expulsion. These changes characterize thus a dynamical system susceptible of being studied through formal mathematical tools. Multiple physiological factors are involved in the regulation process of this complex system. Our aim is to relate the physiological factors to the uterine cell dynamic behaviors. Taking into account a previous work presented, in which the electrical activity of a uterine cell is described by a set of ordinary differential equations, we analyze the impact of physiological parameters on the response of the model, and identify the main subsystems generating the complex uterine electrical activity, with respect to physiological data.

  10. Identifying the changes of geo-engineering properties of dunites due to weathering utilizing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ündül, Ömer; Tuğrul, Atiye; Zarif, İ Halil; Özyalın, Şenol

    2015-01-01

    Weathering phenomena have an important role in many construction facilities with varying depths and grades. Due to the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of weathering profiles of some rocks, uncertainities exist in determining the geo-engineering properties. Geo-electrical studies have been utilized to overcome such uncertainities for various subsurface conditions including the determination of boundaries between weathered and unweathered parts of different rock types.In this study, the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) results were correlated with conventional methods in determining the effects of weathering on the geo-engineering properties of dunites. During the research, weathering grades were determined by field studies including discontinuity spacings, aperture and properties of fill materials. The detailed petrographical studies, determination of petrophysical properties (e.g. water absorption and effective porosity) and mechanical properties (e.g. unconfined compressive strength (UCS)) constitute the laboratory studies. ERT studies were carried out in a row of sixty electrodes with electrode spacings of 0.5 m utilizing a Wenner–Schlumberger configuration. According to the comparison of the inversion model sections with the weathering profiles obtained by field and laboratory studies it is concluded that the use of ERT with a Wenner–Schlumberger configuration supplies comparable data for wider subsurface areas from the view of weathering and its effect on geo-engineering properties of dunites. In addition, ERT techniques are very useful where conventional techniques are inadequate in determining the full weathering profile. (paper)

  11. Analysis of temperature profile and electric field in natural rubber glove due to microwave heating: effects of waveguide position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keangin, P.; Narumitbowonkul, U.; Rattanadecho, P.

    2018-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) is the key raw material used in the manufacture of other products such as rubber band, tire and shoes. Recently, the NR is used in natural rubber glove ( NRG) manufacturing in the industrial and medical fields. This research aims to investigate the electromagnetic wave propagation and heat transfer in NRG due to heating with microwave energy within the microwave oven at a microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz. Three-dimensional model of NRG and microwave oven are considered in this work. The comparative effects of waveguide position on the electric field and temperature profile in NRG when subjected to microwave energy are discussed. The finite element method (FEM) is used to solve the transient Maxwell’s equation coupled with the transient heat transfer equation. The simulation results with computer programs are validated with experimental results. The placement of waveguides in three cases are left hand side of microwave oven, right hand side of microwave oven and left and right hand sides of microwave oven are investigated. The findings revealed that the placing the waveguide on the right side of the microwave oven gives the highest electric field and temperature profile. The values obtained provide an indication toward understanding the study of heat transfer in NRG during microwave heating in the industry.

  12. The active electric sense of weakly electric fish: from electric organ discharge to sensory processing and behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krahe Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory systems have been shaped by evolution to extract information that is relevant for decision making. In order to understand the mechanisms used by sensory systems for filtering the incoming stream of sensory input, it is important to have a quantitative understanding of the natural sensory scenes that are to be processed. Weakly electric fish lead a rather cryptic nocturnal life in often turbid tropical rainforest streams. They produce electric discharges and sense perturbations of their selfgenerated electric field for prey detection and navigation, and also use their active sense for communication in the context of courtship and aggression. The fact that they produce their electric signals throughout day and night permits the use of electrode arrays to track the movements of multiple individual fish and monitor their communication interactions, thus offering a window into their electrosensory world. This approach yields unprecedented access to information on the biology of these fishes and also on the statistical properties of the sensory scenes that are to be processed by their electrosensory system. The electrosensory system shares many organizational features with other sensory systems, in particular, the use of multiple topographic maps. In fact, the sensory surface (the skin is represented in three parallel maps in the hindbrain, with each map covering the receptor organ array with six different cell types that project to the next higher level of processing. Thus, the electroreceptive body surface is represented a total of 18 times in the hindbrain, with each representation having its specific filter properties and degree of response plasticity. Thus, the access to the sensory world of these fish as well as the manifold filtering of the sensory input makes these fish an excellent model system for exploring the cell-intrinsic and network characteristics underlying the extraction of behaviourally relevant sensory information.

  13. Search for electric dipole moment in 129Xe atom using active nuclear spin maser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichikawa Y.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental search for an electric dipole moment in the diamagnetic atom 129Xe is in progress through the precision measurement of spin precession frequency using an active nuclear spin maser. A 3He comagnetometer has been incorporated into the active spin maser system in order to cancel out the long-term drifts in the external magnetic field. Also, a double-cell geometry has been adopted in order to suppress the frequency shifts due to interaction with polarized Rb atoms. The first EDM measurement with the 129Xe active spin maser and the 3He comagnetometer has been conducted.

  14. Selective interference with pacemaker activity by electrical dental devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C S; Leonelli, F M; Latham, E

    1998-01-01

    We sought to determine whether electromagnetic interference with cardiac pacemakers occurs during the operation of contemporary electrical dental equipment. Fourteen electrical dental devices were tested in vitro for their ability to interfere with the function of two Medtronics cardiac pacemakers (one a dual-chamber, bipolar Thera 7942 pacemaker, the other a single-chamber, unipolar Minix 8340 pacemaker). Atrial and ventricular pacemaker output and electrocardiographic activity were monitored by means of telemetry with the use of a Medtronics 9760/90 programmer. Atrial and ventricular pacing were inhibited by electromagnetic interference produced by the electrosurgical unit up to a distance of 10 cm, by the ultrasonic bath cleaner up to 30 cm, and by the magnetorestrictive ultrasonic scalers up to 37.5 cm. In contrast, operation of the amalgamator, electric pulp tester, composite curing light, dental handpieces, electric toothbrush, microwave oven, dental chair and light, ENAC ultrasonic instrument, radiography unit, and sonic scaler did not alter pacing rate or rhythm. These results suggest that certain electrosurgical and ultrasonic instruments may produce deleterious effects in medically fragile patients with cardiac pacemakers.

  15. Electrically active defects in solar grade multicrystalline silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Espen

    2013-01-01

    Shortage in high purity silicon feedstock, as a result of the formidable increased demand for solar cell devices during the last two decades, can be mitigated by the introduction of cheaper feedstock of solar grade (So-G) quality. Silicon produced through the metallurgical process route has shown...... the potential to be such a feedstock. However, this feedstock has only few years of active commercial history and the detailed understanding of the nature of structural defects in this material still has fundamental shortcomings. In this thesis the electrical activity of structural defects, commonly associated...

  16. Magnetogastrographic detection of gastric electrical response activity in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irimia, Andrei; Richards, William O; Bradshaw, L Alan

    2006-01-01

    The detection and characterization of gastric electrical activity has important clinical applications, including the early diagnosis of gastric diseases in humans. In mammals, this phenomenon has two important features: an electrical control activity (ECA) that manifests itself as an electric slow wave (with a frequency of 3 cycles per minute in humans) and an electrical response activity (ERA) that is characterized by spiking potentials during the plateau phase of the ECA. Whereas the ECA has been recorded in humans both invasively and non-invasively (magnetogastrography-MGG), the ERA has never been detected non-invasively in humans before. In this paper, we report on our progress towards the non-invasive detection of ERA from the human stomach using a procedure that involves the application of principal component analysis to MGG recordings, which were acquired in our case from ten normal human patients using a Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer. Both pre- and post-prandial recordings were acquired for each patient and 20 min of recordings (10 min of pre-prandial and 10 min of post-prandial data) were analysed for each patient. The mean percentage of ECA slow waves that were found to exhibit spikes of suspected ERA origin was 41% and 61% for pre- and post-prandial recordings, respectively, implying a 47% ERA increase post-prandially (P < 0.0001 at a 95% confidence level). The detection of ERA in humans is highly encouraging and points to the possible use of non-invasive ERA recordings as a valuable tool for the study of human gastric disorders

  17. Spatial variability of soil electrical conductivity under the mole rats (Spalax microphthalmus digging activity at the different scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhukov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The soil mounds emerged owing to the mole rats’ digging activity have been shown to be characterised by less electrical conductivity than surrounded soil. This effect is due to the changes of the mounds bulk’s density and moisture. The effect of the mole rats’ digging activity on the soil electrical conductivity has been found not to be restricted by the geometrical border of the mounds. The mounds are surrounded by 1–1.5 m halo of increased soil electrical conductivity. The halo size is increased with the aging of the mound and with the compacting of their aggregation.

  18. Electrical and structural R&D activities on high voltage dc solid insulator in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilan, N., E-mail: nicola.pilan@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Marcuzzi, D.; Rizzolo, A.; Grando, L.; Gambetta, G. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Rosa, S. Dalla [Umicore – Italbras S.p.A., Strada del Balsego, n.6, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Kraemer, V.; Quirmbach, T. [FRIATEC Ceramics Division, Steinzeugstrasse 50, 68229 Mannheim (Germany); Chitarin, G. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Gobbo, R.; Pesavento, G. [DII, Università di Padova, v. Gradenigo 6/A, I-35131 Padova (Italy); De Lorenzi, A.; Lotto, L.; Rizzieri, R.; Fincato, M.; Romanato, L.; Trevisan, L.; Cervaro, V.; Franchin, L. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A thorough R&D activity on the MITICA post insulator prototypes is being carried out. • The design has been numerically verified considering both mechanical and electrical aspects. • Experimental validation has been started, with positive results in both involved fields. • Alternative design solutions thickness have been proposed and successfully tested. - Abstract: This paper describes the R&D work performed in support of the design of the alumina insulators for the MITICA Neutral Beam Injector. The ceramic insulators are critical elements, both from the structural and electrical point of view, of the 1 MV electrostatic accelerator of the MITICA injector, as they are required to sustain both the mechanical loads due to the cantilevered weight of the ion source and the high electric field between the accelerator grids. This paper presents the results of numerical simulations and experimental tests on prototypes that have been carried out to validate the insulator design under realistic operating conditions.

  19. Electrical and structural R&D activities on high voltage dc solid insulator in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilan, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Rizzolo, A.; Grando, L.; Gambetta, G.; Rosa, S. Dalla; Kraemer, V.; Quirmbach, T.; Chitarin, G.; Gobbo, R.; Pesavento, G.; De Lorenzi, A.; Lotto, L.; Rizzieri, R.; Fincato, M.; Romanato, L.; Trevisan, L.; Cervaro, V.; Franchin, L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A thorough R&D activity on the MITICA post insulator prototypes is being carried out. • The design has been numerically verified considering both mechanical and electrical aspects. • Experimental validation has been started, with positive results in both involved fields. • Alternative design solutions thickness have been proposed and successfully tested. - Abstract: This paper describes the R&D work performed in support of the design of the alumina insulators for the MITICA Neutral Beam Injector. The ceramic insulators are critical elements, both from the structural and electrical point of view, of the 1 MV electrostatic accelerator of the MITICA injector, as they are required to sustain both the mechanical loads due to the cantilevered weight of the ion source and the high electric field between the accelerator grids. This paper presents the results of numerical simulations and experimental tests on prototypes that have been carried out to validate the insulator design under realistic operating conditions.

  20. Radio Emissions from Electrical Activity in Martian Dust Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, W.; Arabshahi, S.; Kocz, J.; Schulter, T.; White, L.

    2017-12-01

    Dust storms on Mars are predicted to be capable of producing electrostatic fields and discharges, even larger than those in dust storms on Earth. There are three key elements in the characterization of Martian electrostatic discharges: dependence on Martian environmental conditions, event rate, and the strength of the generated electric fields. The detection and characterization of electric activity in Martian dust storms has important implications for habitability, and preparations for human exploration of the red planet. Furthermore, electrostatic discharges may be linked to local chemistry and plays an important role in the predicted global electrical circuit. Because of the continuous Mars telecommunication needs of NASA's Mars-based assets, the Deep Space Network (DSN) is the only facility in the world that combines long term, high cadence, observing opportunities with large sensitive telescopes, making it a unique asset worldwide in searching for and characterizing electrostatic activity from large scale convective dust storms at Mars. We will describe a newly inaugurated program at NASA's Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex to carry out a long-term monitoring campaign to search for and characterize the entire Mars hemisphere for powerful discharges during routine tracking of spacecraft at Mars on an entirely non-interfering basis. The ground-based detections will also have important implications for the design of a future instrument that could make similar in-situ measurements from orbit or from the surface of Mars, with far greater sensitivity and duty cycle, opening up a new window in our understanding of the Martian environment.

  1. Electricity generation from wetlands with activated carbon bioanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudirjo, E.; Buisman, C. J. N.; Strik, D. P. B. T. B.

    2018-03-01

    Paddy fields are potential non-tidal wetlands to apply Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (PMFC) technology. World widely they cover about 160 million ha of which 13.3 million ha is located in Indonesia. With the PMFC, in-situ electricity is generated by a bioanode with electrochemically active bacteria which use primary the organic matter supplied by the plant (e.g. as rhizodeposits and plant residues). One of limitations when installing a PMFC in a non-tidal wetland is the usage of “expensive” large amounts of electrodes to overcome the poor conductivity of wet soils. However, in a cultivated wetland such as rice paddy field, it is possible to alter soil composition. Adding a conductive carbon material such as activated carbon is believed to improve soil conductivity with minimum impact on plant vitality. The objective of this research was to study the effect of activated carbon as an alternative bioanode material on the electricity output and plants vitality. Lab result shows that activated carbon can be a potential alternative for bioanode material. It can continuously deliver current on average 1.54 A/m3 anode (0.26 A/m2 PGA or 66 mW/m2 PGA) for 98 days. Based on this result the next step is to do a test of this technology in the real paddy fields.

  2. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and electrical activity influence neuronal survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenneman, D.E.; Eiden, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Blockage of electrical activity in dissociated spinal cord cultures results in a significant loss of neurons during a critical period in development. Decreases in neuronal cell numbers and 125 I-labeled tetanus toxin fixation produced by electrical blockage with tetrodotoxin (TTX) were prevented by addition of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) to the nutrient medium. The most effective concentration of VIP was 0.1 nM. At higher concentrations, the survival-enhancing effect of VIP on TTX-treated cultures was attenuated. Addition of the peptide alone had no significant effect on neuronal cell counts or tetanus toxin fixation. With the same experimental conditions, two closely related peptides, PHI-27 (peptide, histidyl-isoleucine amide) and secretin, were found not to increase the number of neurons in TTX-treated cultures. Interference with VIP action by VIP antiserum resulted in neuronal losses that were not significantly different from those observed after TTX treatment. These data indicate that under conditions of electrical blockade a neurotrophic action of VIP on neuronal survival can be demonstrated

  3. AC Electric Field Activated Shape Memory Polymer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Siochi, Emilie J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory materials have drawn interest for applications like intelligent medical devices, deployable space structures and morphing structures. Compared to other shape memory materials like shape memory alloys (SMAs) or shape memory ceramics (SMCs), shape memory polymers (SMPs) have high elastic deformation that is amenable to tailored of mechanical properties, have lower density, and are easily processed. However, SMPs have low recovery stress and long response times. A new shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive fillers to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. A new composition of shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. The elastic modulus of LaRC-SMPC is approximately 2.7 GPa at room temperature and 4.3 MPa above its glass transition temperature. Conductive FGSs-doped LaRC-SMPC exhibited higher conductivity compared to pristine LaRC SMP. Applying an electric field at between 0.1 Hz and 1 kHz induced faster heating to activate the LaRC-SMPC s shape memory effect relative to applying DC electric field or AC electric field at frequencies exceeding1 kHz.

  4. Pulseless electrical activity during electroconvulsive therapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalava Arun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arrhythmias resulting in cardiac arrest during electroconvulsive therapy have been reported. Most reported cases of cardiac arrest had asystole as the initial rhythm. Pulseless electrical activity as an initial rhythm of cardiac arrest during electroconvulsive therapy has never been reported. Also, thromboembolism after inflation of pneumatic tourniquet during lower limb surgery has been reported but never following tourniquet inflation during an electroconvulsive therapy. Case presentation We report a case involving an 81- year- old female who presented to us for an electroconvulsive therapy for severe depression and developed pulseless electrical activity immediately after electroconvulsive therapy. She was successfully resuscitated and was later found to have bilateral pulmonary emboli with a complete occlusion of the right lower lobe pulmonary artery. The source of embolus was from her left lower extremity deep venous thrombus, which we believe, got dislodged intraoperatively after inflation of pneumatic tourniquet. Our patient not only survived the massive pulmonary embolus, but also showed significant improvement in her mental status compared to her pre-admission level at the time of discharge to a sub-acute rehabilitation centre. Conclusion We recommend that patients who are elderly and at high risk of thromboembolism should selectively undergo a preoperative doppler ultrasound for deep venous thrombosis. Also, selective application of tourniquet in the upper limb, to monitor for seizure activity, would reduce the incidence of pulmonary thrombo-embolism as embolic events are significantly less from deep venous thromboses of upper extremities when compared to lower extremities.

  5. Evaluation of stress distribution due to shearing in non-oriented electrical steel by using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Zaizen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the shearing process on the iron loss of non-oriented electrical steels with grain sizes of 10 μm-150 μm was investigated. The deterioration ratio of iron loss was clearly smaller in sample with small grain sizes. The droop height, reflecting the amount of plastic deformation, displayed a good relationship with the deterioration of iron loss under the effect of the material grain size. To clarify the strain distribution around the sheared edge, the elastic strain in a sheet sample with the thickness of 0.30 mm and grain size of 10 μm was evaluated by using synchrotron radiation. The width of the region of elastic strain due to shearing was two or three times of the material thickness. The results of the plastic strain distribution obtained by the measurements were then used to estimate the iron loss deterioration rate in 5 mm width sheared samples. The estimated loss deteriotation coincided with the actual measured iron loss.

  6. Evaluation of stress distribution due to shearing in non-oriented electrical steel by using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaizen, Yoshiaki, E-mail: y-zaizen@jfe-steel.co.jp; Omura, Takeshi; Senda, Kunihiro [Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Kawasakidori 1,Mizushima, Kurashiki,712-8511 (Japan); Fukumura, Masaru [Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-0855 (Japan); Toda, Hiroaki [Steel Business Planning Dept, JFE Steel Corporation, Tokyo 100-0011 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The influence of the shearing process on the iron loss of non-oriented electrical steels with grain sizes of 10 μm-150 μm was investigated. The deterioration ratio of iron loss was clearly smaller in sample with small grain sizes. The droop height, reflecting the amount of plastic deformation, displayed a good relationship with the deterioration of iron loss under the effect of the material grain size. To clarify the strain distribution around the sheared edge, the elastic strain in a sheet sample with the thickness of 0.30 mm and grain size of 10 μm was evaluated by using synchrotron radiation. The width of the region of elastic strain due to shearing was two or three times of the material thickness. The results of the plastic strain distribution obtained by the measurements were then used to estimate the iron loss deterioration rate in 5 mm width sheared samples. The estimated loss deteriotation coincided with the actual measured iron loss.

  7. Misclassification of Physical Activity Level Due to Exclusion of Workplace Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslaugh, Sarah E.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Weaver, Nancy L.; Naleid, Kimberly S.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including workplace physical activity in calculating the proportion of adults meeting Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for physical activity. Data on leisure-time and workplace activity were collected from 1,090 Black and White adults in St. Louis, MO. A series of assumptions were used to equate…

  8. ONCE AGAIN ABOUT DETERMINATION OF SAVING OF ENERGY FOR TRACTION DUE TO PARTIAL CUT–OFF OF TRACTION ENGINES OF ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Getman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In general the well known methods for determination of energy saving due to the partial traction engines cut-off based on their comparison to efficiency coefficient or to the power of energy losses do not allow objective estimation of efficiency of these measures and in a number of cases result in erroneous results and errors. The search for new more advanced methods for determination of energy saving at the partial cut-off of the traction engines is needed. Methodology. The method of calculation determination of energy saving when partial cutting-off of the traction engines is offered. It is based on the use of rationality coefficient as the loading mode of the electric power consumption for the measuring instrument of transportation activity. Findings. Using the given mathematical expressions it is possible to determine the energy saving in both the relative and absolute values and set the terms (motion speed and route gradient, under which the energy saving will take place. Originality. The method of the task solving, which is based on the evaluation of energy consumption differences for the compared variants (not on the comparison of efficiency coefficient or differences of power of energy losses is offered. Practical value. The given methodology allows obtaining more exact conclusions in relation to the electric power consumption, as the comparison of energy losses power or the efficiency coefficient does not determine precisely the electric power consumption for traction. Therefore the conclusions based on the comparison of power of energy losses or efficiency coefficient can appear inexact.

  9. Study the Effect of Value-Added of Services Sector on Forecasting of Electricity Demand in Services Sector due to Price Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mahdi Mostafavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy is as one of the important effective factors on economic growth and development. In recent decades, numerous studies in different countries to estimate and forecast electricity demand in different parts of the economy have been made. In this paper, using the method ARDL, estimation and forecasting of electricity demand in the services sector of Iran are determined for the time period from 1983 to 2012. Estimated equations show that the added value of the services sector and a significant positive impact on the demand for electricity in this sector. The price elasticity for services sector is smaller than 1 due to low electricity prices and subsidized electricity. Hence, electricity prices have little impact on the demand for electricity. The results of the estimate represents a long-term relationship between the variables in the services sector. In this paper, based on amendments to the law on subsidies and estimated values, anticipated electricity demand until the end of the fifth development plan was carried out. The results indicate an increase in power consumption in the services sector.

  10. Theory and experimental verifications of the resonator Q and equivalent electrical parameters due to viscoelastic and mounting supports losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yook-Kong; Patel, Mihir S; Tanaka, Masako

    2010-08-01

    A novel analytical/numerical method for calculating the resonator Q and its equivalent electrical parameters due to viscoelastic, conductivity, and mounting supports losses is presented. The method presented will be quite useful for designing new resonators and reducing the time and costs of prototyping. There was also a necessity for better and more realistic modeling of the resonators because of miniaturization and the rapid advances in the frequency ranges of telecommunication. We present new 3-D finite elements models of quartz resonators with viscoelasticity, conductivity, and mounting support losses. The losses at the mounting supports were modeled by perfectly matched layers (PMLs). A previously published theory for dissipative anisotropic piezoelectric solids was formulated in a weak form for finite element (FE) applications. PMLs were placed at the base of the mounting supports to simulate the energy losses to a semi-infinite base substrate. FE simulations were carried out for free vibrations and forced vibrations of quartz tuning fork and AT-cut resonators. Results for quartz tuning fork and thickness shear AT-cut resonators were presented and compared with experimental data. Results for the resonator Q and the equivalent electrical parameters were compared with their measured values. Good equivalences were found. Results for both low- and high-Q AT-cut quartz resonators compared well with their experimental values. A method for estimating the Q directly from the frequency spectrum obtained for free vibrations was also presented. An important determinant of the quality factor Q of a quartz resonator is the loss of energy from the electrode area to the base via the mountings. The acoustical characteristics of the plate resonator are changed when the plate is mounted onto a base substrate. The base affects the frequency spectra of the plate resonator. A resonator with a high Q may not have a similarly high Q when mounted on a base. Hence, the base is an

  11. Acquisitions in the Electricity Sector: Active vs. Passive Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2002-07-01

    The starting point of this paper is a mixed oligopoly market consisting of n privately owned profit maximizing firms and 1 state-owned welfare maximizing firm. Motivated by the trend of mergers and acquisitions in the liberalized electricity markets, and by the debate about public or private ownership, the paper looks at two cases. In Case 1, the state-owned company acquires an ownership share in one of the private companies. In Case 2, the state-owned company is partially privatised. The paper focuses on differences in generated quantities and social surplus, depending on whether the investors behind the acquisitions are behaving as active or passive owners. One result shows that in the case of partial privatization, passive ownership provides the highest total industry generation, while active ownership induces maximum social surplus. (author)

  12. Acquisitions in the Electricity Sector: Active vs. Passive Owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2002-01-01

    The starting point of this paper is a mixed oligopoly market consisting of n privately owned profit maximizing firms and 1 state-owned welfare maximizing firm. Motivated by the trend of mergers and acquisitions in the liberalized electricity markets, and by the debate about public or private ownership, the paper looks at two cases. In Case 1, the state-owned company acquires an ownership share in one of the private companies. In Case 2, the state-owned company is partially privatised. The paper focuses on differences in generated quantities and social surplus, depending on whether the investors behind the acquisitions are behaving as active or passive owners. One result shows that in the case of partial privatization, passive ownership provides the highest total industry generation, while active ownership induces maximum social surplus. (author)

  13. Recent Electric Propulsion Development Activities for NASA Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencil, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    valve concept, as well as a pressure control module, which will regulate pressure from the propellant tank. Cross-platform component standardization and simplification are being investigated through the Standard Architecture task to reduce first user costs for implementing electric propulsion systems. Progress on current hardware development, recent test activities and future plans are discussed.

  14. Can Neural Activity Propagate by Endogenous Electrical Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chen; Shivacharan, Rajat S.; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that synaptic transmissions and gap junctions are the major governing mechanisms for signal traveling in the neural system. Yet, a group of neural waves, either physiological or pathological, share the same speed of ∼0.1 m/s without synaptic transmission or gap junctions, and this speed is not consistent with axonal conduction or ionic diffusion. The only explanation left is an electrical field effect. We tested the hypothesis that endogenous electric fields are sufficient to explain the propagation with in silico and in vitro experiments. Simulation results show that field effects alone can indeed mediate propagation across layers of neurons with speeds of 0.12 ± 0.09 m/s with pathological kinetics, and 0.11 ± 0.03 m/s with physiologic kinetics, both generating weak field amplitudes of ∼2–6 mV/mm. Further, the model predicted that propagation speed values are inversely proportional to the cell-to-cell distances, but do not significantly change with extracellular resistivity, membrane capacitance, or membrane resistance. In vitro recordings in mice hippocampi produced similar speeds (0.10 ± 0.03 m/s) and field amplitudes (2.5–5 mV/mm), and by applying a blocking field, the propagation speed was greatly reduced. Finally, osmolarity experiments confirmed the model's prediction that cell-to-cell distance inversely affects propagation speed. Together, these results show that despite their weak amplitude, electric fields can be solely responsible for spike propagation at ∼0.1 m/s. This phenomenon could be important to explain the slow propagation of epileptic activity and other normal propagations at similar speeds. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural activity (waves or spikes) can propagate using well documented mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, gap junctions, or diffusion. However, the purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation for experimental data showing that neural signals can propagate by means other than synaptic

  15. Patient protection in nuclear medicine due to optimization of the administered activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Diaz, M.; Diaz Rizo, O.; Khouri, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of a radiological risk reduction in Nuclear Medicine patients is studied through the reduced absorbed doses in organs and tissues, and whole-body effective dose due to optimization of the administered radionuclide activities. Activity values, optimized for equipments and radiopharmaceuticals available in Cuba, are compared with the IAEA recommended values and with the routinary activities in medical practice. All doses were calculated using MIRDOSE 3.0 code for each activity and medical assay. The activity optimization permits to reduce in a 50% the doses administered to patients of the major part of studied medical assays. (Author)

  16. Neuron matters: electric activation of neuronal tissue is dependent on the interaction between the neuron and the electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Steiger, Amanda

    2015-08-12

    In laboratory research and clinical practice, externally-applied electric fields have been widely used to control neuronal activity. It is generally accepted that neuronal excitability is controlled by electric current that depolarizes or hyperpolarizes the excitable cell membrane. What determines the amount of polarization? Research on the mechanisms of electric stimulation focus on the optimal control of the field properties (frequency, amplitude, and direction of the electric currents) to improve stimulation outcomes. Emerging evidence from modeling and experimental studies support the existence of interactions between the targeted neurons and the externally-applied electric fields. With cell-field interaction, we suggest a two-way process. When a neuron is positioned inside an electric field, the electric field will induce a change in the resting membrane potential by superimposing an electrically-induced transmembrane potential (ITP). At the same time, the electric field can be perturbed and re-distributed by the cell. This cell-field interaction may play a significant role in the overall effects of stimulation. The redistributed field can cause secondary effects to neighboring cells by altering their geometrical pattern and amount of membrane polarization. Neurons excited by the externally-applied electric field can also affect neighboring cells by ephaptic interaction. Both aspects of the cell-field interaction depend on the biophysical properties of the neuronal tissue, including geometric (i.e., size, shape, orientation to the field) and electric (i.e., conductivity and dielectricity) attributes of the cells. The biophysical basis of the cell-field interaction can be explained by the electromagnetism theory. Further experimental and simulation studies on electric stimulation of neuronal tissue should consider the prospect of a cell-field interaction, and a better understanding of tissue inhomogeneity and anisotropy is needed to fully appreciate the neural

  17. Visual Stimuli Induce Waves of Electrical Activity in Turtle Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechtl, J. C.; Cohen, L. B.; Pesaran, B.; Mitra, P. P.; Kleinfeld, D.

    1997-07-01

    The computations involved in the processing of a visual scene invariably involve the interactions among neurons throughout all of visual cortex. One hypothesis is that the timing of neuronal activity, as well as the amplitude of activity, provides a means to encode features of objects. The experimental data from studies on cat [Gray, C. M., Konig, P., Engel, A. K. & Singer, W. (1989) Nature (London) 338, 334-337] support a view in which only synchronous (no phase lags) activity carries information about the visual scene. In contrast, theoretical studies suggest, on the one hand, the utility of multiple phases within a population of neurons as a means to encode independent visual features and, on the other hand, the likely existence of timing differences solely on the basis of network dynamics. Here we use widefield imaging in conjunction with voltage-sensitive dyes to record electrical activity from the virtually intact, unanesthetized turtle brain. Our data consist of single-trial measurements. We analyze our data in the frequency domain to isolate coherent events that lie in different frequency bands. Low frequency oscillations (scale differences in neuronal timing are present and persistent during visual processing.

  18. Metrology in electricity and magnetism: EURAMET activities today and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquemal, F.; Jeckelmann, B.; Callegaro, L.; Hällström, J.; Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Melcher, J.; Rietveld, G.; Siegner, U.; Wright, P.; Zeier, M.

    2017-10-01

    Metrology dedicated to electricity and magnetism has changed considerably in recent years. It encompasses almost all modern scientific, industrial, and societal challenges, e.g. the revision of the International System of Units, the profound transformation of industry, changes in energy use and generation, health, and environment, as well as nanotechnologies (including graphene and 2D materials) and quantum engineering. Over the same period, driven by the globalization of worldwide trade, the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (referred to as the CIPM MRA) was set up. As a result, the regional metrology organizations (RMOs) of national metrology institutes have grown in significance. EURAMET is the European RMO and has been very prominent in developing a strategic research agenda (SRA) and has established a comprehensive research programme. This paper reviews the highlights of EURAMET in electrical metrology within the European Metrology Research Programme and its main contributions to the CIPM MRA. In 2012 EURAMET undertook an extensive roadmapping exercise for proposed activities for the next decade which will also be discussed in this paper. This work has resulted in a new SRA of the second largest European funding programme: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research.

  19. Effect of B+ Flux on the electrical activation of ultra-shallow B+ implants in Ge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, B.R.; Darby, B.L.; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2012-01-01

    + implants at 2 keV to a dose of 5.0×1014 cm-2 at beam currents ranging from 0.4 to 6.4 mA has been studied using micro Hall effect measurements after annealing at 400°C for 60 s. It has been shown that the sheet number increases with beam current across the investigated range with electrical activation......The residual implanted dose of ultra-shallow B+ implants in Ge was characterized using elastic recoil detection and was determined to correlate well with simulations with a dose loss of 23% due to ion backscattering for 2 keV implants in Ge. The electrical characterization of ultra-shallow B...... being 76% higher at 6.4 mA as compared to 0.4mA. However, at 6.4 mA, the electrically active fraction remained low at 11.4%. Structural characterization revealed that the implanted region remained crystalline and amorphization is not able to explain the increased activation. The results suggest...

  20. Electrical conductivity retention and electrochemical activity of CSA doped graphene/gold nanoparticle@ polyaniline composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akherul Islam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis of CTAB mediated CSA doped PANI and GN/GNP@ PANI composite nanofibers. The as synthesized composite nanofibers were examined by TEM, SEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy; UV–visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy and TGA. The CTAB mediated CSA doped composite nanofibers showed 59% higher DC electrical conductivity at ambient temperature than that of PANI, which might be due to the enhancement in the mobility of the charge carriers and reduction in hopping distance in the composite system. The CTAB mediated CSA doped composite nanofibers compared to PANI was observed to be showing enhanced DC electrical conductivity retention after various cycles of heating, suggesting an enhancement in thermal stability of the composite structure, which could be attributed to the synergistic effect of GN, GNP and PANI. Additionally, the composite nanofibers showed greater electrochemical activity and better capacitive performance and reduced optical bandgap than that of PANI.

  1. Years of life gained due to leisure-time physical activity in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Carson, Valerie; Lee, I-Min; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Blair, Steven N

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for noncommunicable disease. The degree to which physical activity affects the life expectancy of Americans is unknown. This study estimated the potential years of life gained due to leisure-time physical activity in the U.S. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2010); National Health Interview Study mortality linkage (1990-2006); and U.S. Life Tables (2006) were used to estimate and compare life expectancy at each age of adult life for inactive (no moderate to vigorous physical activity); somewhat-active (some moderate to vigorous activity but active (≥ 500 MET minutes/week of moderate to vigorous activity) adults. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Somewhat-active and active non-Hispanic white men had a life expectancy at age 20 years that was ~2.4 years longer than that for the inactive men; this life expectancy advantage was 1.2 years at age 80 years. Similar observations were made in non-Hispanic white women, with a higher life expectancy within the active category of 3.0 years at age 20 years and 1.6 years at age 80 years. In non-Hispanic black women, as many as 5.5 potential years of life were gained due to physical activity. Significant increases in longevity were also observed within somewhat-active and active non-Hispanic black men; however, among Hispanics the years-of-life-gained estimates were not significantly different from 0 years gained. Leisure-time physical activity is associated with increases in longevity. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Years of Life Gained Due to Leisure-Time Physical Activity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Carson, Valerie; Lee, I-Min; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for non-communicable disease. The degree to which physical activity affects the life expectancy of Americans is unknown. This study estimated the potential years of life gained due to leisure-time physical activity across the adult lifespan in the United States. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2010), National Health Interview Study mortality linkage (1990–2006), and US Life Tables (2006) were used to estimate and compare life expectancy at each age of adult life for inactive (no moderate-to-vigorous physical activity), somewhat active (some moderate-to-vigorous activity but active (≥500 metabolic equivalent min/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity) adults. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results Somewhat active and active non-Hispanic white men had a life expectancy at age 20 that was around 2.4 years longer than the inactive men; this life expectancy advantage was 1.2 years at age 80. Similar observations were made in non-Hispanic white women, with a higher life expectancy within the active category of 3.0 years at age 20 and 1.6 years at age 80. In non-Hispanic black women, as many as 5.5 potential years of life were gained due to physical activity. Significant increases in longevity were also observed within somewhat active and active non-Hispanic black men; however, among Hispanics the years of life gained estimates were more variable and not significantly different from 0 years gained. Conclusions Leisure-time physical activity is associated with increases in longevity in the United States. PMID:23253646

  3. Biomimetic Sonar for Electrical Activation of the Auditory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Menniti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Relying on the mechanism of bat’s echolocation system, a bioinspired electronic device has been developed to investigate the cortical activity of mammals in response to auditory sensorial stimuli. By means of implanted electrodes, acoustical information about the external environment generated by a biomimetic system and converted in electrical signals was delivered to anatomically selected structures of the auditory pathway. Electrocorticographic recordings showed that cerebral activity response is highly dependent on the information carried out by ultrasounds and is frequency-locked with the signal repetition rate. Frequency analysis reveals that delta and beta rhythm content increases, suggesting that sensorial information is successfully transferred and integrated. In addition, principal component analysis highlights how all the stimuli generate patterns of neural activity which can be clearly classified. The results show that brain response is modulated by echo signal features suggesting that spatial information sent by biomimetic sonar is efficiently interpreted and encoded by the auditory system. Consequently, these results give new perspective in artificial environmental perception, which could be used for developing new techniques useful in treating pathological conditions or influencing our perception of the surroundings.

  4. Influence of the Ambient Electric Field on Measurements of the Actively Controlled Spacecraft Potential by MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Andriopoulou, M.; Giles, B. L.; Jeszenszky, H.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Space missions with sophisticated plasma instrumentation such as Magnetospheric Multiscale, which employs four satellites to explore near-Earth space benefit from a low electric potential of the spacecraft, to improve the plasma measurements and therefore carry instruments to actively control the potential by means of ion beams. Without control, the potential varies in anticorrelation with plasma density and temperature to maintain an equilibrium between the plasma current and the one of photoelectrons produced at the surface and overcoming the potential barrier. A drawback of the controlled, almost constant potential is the difficulty to use it as convenient estimator for plasma density. This paper identifies a correlation between the spacecraft potential and the ambient electric field, both measured by double probes mounted at the end of wire booms, as the main responsible for artifacts in the potential data besides the known effect of the variable photoelectron production due to changing illumination of the surface. It is shown that the effect of density variations is too weak to explain the observed correlation with the electric field and that a correction of the artifacts can be achieved to enable the reconstruction of the uncontrolled potential and plasma density in turn. Two possible mechanisms are discussed: the asymmetry of the current-voltage characteristic determining the probe to plasma potential and the fact that a large equipotential structure embedded in an electric field results in asymmetries of both the emission and spatial distribution of photoelectrons, which results in an increase of the spacecraft potential.

  5. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  6. Electric quadrupole interactions on /sup 12/B and /sup 12/N implanted in Mg studied by nuclear depolarization due to level mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanihata, I; Kogo, S; Sugimoto, K [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Studies

    1977-04-25

    Electric quadrupole interactions on polarized /sup 12/B and /sup 12/N implanted in a Mg single crystal have been studied by a new method in which the nuclear depolarization due to level mixing caused by an external magnetic field is detected.

  7. Influence of patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation on quadriceps activation in individuals with knee joint injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaviano, Neal R; Langston, William T; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation is a common intervention to address muscle weakness, however presents with many limitations such as fatigue, muscle damage, and patient discomfort that may influence its effectiveness. One novel form of electrical stimulation purported to improve neuromuscular re-education is Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation (PENS), which is proposed to mimic muscle-firing patterns of healthy individuals. PENS provides patterned stimulating to the agonist muscle, antagonist muscle and then agonist muscle again in an effort to replicate firing patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a single PENS treatment on knee extension torque and quadriceps activation in individuals with quadriceps inhibition. 18 subjects (10 males and 8 females: 24.2±3.4 years, 175.3±11.8cm, 81.8±12.4kg) with a history of knee injury/pain participated in this double-blinded randomized controlled laboratory trial. Participants demonstrated quadriceps inhibition with a central activation ratio of ≤90%. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps and central activation ratio were measured before and after treatment. The treatment intervention was a 15-minute patterned electrical stimulation applied to the quadriceps and hamstring muscles with a strong motor contraction or a sham group, who received an identical set up as the PENS group, but received a 1mA subsensory stimulation. A 2×2 (group × time) ANCOVA was used to determine differences in maximal voluntary isometric contraction and central activation ratio between groups. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction was selected as a covariate due to baseline differences. There were no differences in change scores between pre- and post-intervention for maximal voluntary isometric contraction: (PENS: 0.09±0.32Nm/kg and Sham 0.15±0.18Nm/kg, p=0.713), or central activation ratio:(PENS: -1.22±6.06 and Sham: 1.48±3.7, p=0.270). A single Patterned Electrical

  8. Increased electric sail thrust through removal of trapped shielding electrons by orbit chaotisation due to spacecraft body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An electric solar wind sail is a recently introduced propellantless space propulsion method whose technical development has also started. The electric sail consists of a set of long, thin, centrifugally stretched and conducting tethers which are charged positively and kept in a high positive potential of order 20 kV by an onboard electron gun. The positively charged tethers deflect solar wind protons, thus tapping momentum from the solar wind stream and producing thrust. The amount of obtained propulsive thrust depends on how many electrons are trapped by the potential structures of the tethers, because the trapped electrons tend to shield the charged tether and reduce its effect on the solar wind. Here we present physical arguments and test particle calculations indicating that in a realistic three-dimensional electric sail spacecraft there exist a natural mechanism which tends to remove the trapped electrons by chaotising their orbits and causing them to eventually collide with the conducting tethers. We present calculations which indicate that if these mechanisms were able to remove trapped electrons nearly completely, the electric sail performance could be about five times higher than previously estimated, about 500 nN/m, corresponding to 1 N thrust for a baseline construction with 2000 km total tether length.

  9. Cross-border electricity market effects due to price caps in an emission trading system : An agent-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Chappin, E.J.L.; De Vries, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The recent low CO2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) have triggered a discussion whether the EU ETS needs to be adjusted. We study the effects of CO2 price floors and a price ceiling on the dynamic investment pathway of two interlinked electricity markets (loosely based

  10. Increase of the electrical resistance of thin copper film due to 14 MeV neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, S.K.; Kumar, U.; Nigam, A.K.; Singh, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    The variation in the electrical resistance of thin copper film (500 A 0 thick), grown on the glass slide has been measured with increasing 14 MeV neutron irradiation time. The electrical resistance vs irradiation time curve shows an interesting behaviour after an irradiation of 40 minutes. However, there is a net increase in the electrical resistance with increasing neutron dose. The maximum increase in the observed electrical resistance after an irradiation of 115 mins, is 4.45%. The microstructural studies of irradiated film were made using TEM and TED techniques. The TEM patterns up to an irradiation time of 1.00 hr do not show any appreciable change in the microstructure. The TED patterns also do not show any appreciable change in the diffraction pattern up to an irradiation time of 1.0 hr. But after an irradiation time of 1.5 hrs, two extra rings appear in the TED pattern which disappear with increasing neutron irradiation time

  11. T & I--Electric Motors. Kit No. 621. Instructor's Manual and Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomar, William

    This instructor's manual and student learning activity guide comprise a kit for trade and industrial education (T & I) activities on electric motors. Purpose stated for the activities is to teach the student the four basic types of electric motors, the advantages and disadvantages of each, the types of jobs each can perform, and how to disassemble…

  12. Evaluation of cerebral electrical activity and cardiac output after patent ductus arteriosus ligation in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leslie, A T F S

    2013-11-01

    To characterize and investigate the relationship between systemic blood flow and pre- and postoperative cerebral electrical activity in preterm neonates undergoing patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation.

  13. Electrical conductivity of activated carbon-metal oxide nanocomposites under compression: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Bogeat, A; Alexandre-Franco, M; Fernández-González, C; Macías-García, A; Gómez-Serrano, V

    2014-12-07

    From a granular commercial activated carbon (AC) and six metal oxide (Al2O3, Fe2O3, SnO2, TiO2, WO3 and ZnO) precursors, two series of AC-metal oxide nanocomposites were prepared by wet impregnation, oven-drying at 120 °C, and subsequent heat treatment at 200 or 850 °C in an inert atmosphere. Here, the electrical conductivity of the resulting products was studied under moderate compression. The influence of the applied pressure, sample volume, mechanical work, and density of the hybrid materials was thoroughly investigated. The DC electrical conductivity of the compressed samples was measured at room temperature by the four-probe method. Compaction assays suggest that the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites are largely determined by the carbon matrix. Both the decrease in volume and the increase in density were relatively small and only significant at pressures lower than 100 kPa for AC and most nanocomposites. In contrast, the bulk electrical conductivity of the hybrid materials was strongly influenced by the intrinsic conductivity, mean crystallite size, content and chemical nature of the supported phases, which ultimately depend on the metal oxide precursor and heat treatment temperature. The supported nanoparticles may be considered to act as electrical switches either hindering or favouring the effective electron transport between the AC cores of neighbouring composite particles in contact under compression. Conductivity values as a rule were lower for the nanocomposites than for the raw AC, all of them falling in the range of semiconductor materials. With the increase in heat treatment temperature, the trend is toward the improvement of conductivity due to the increase in the crystallite size and, in some cases, to the formation of metals in the elemental state and even metal carbides. The patterns of variation of the electrical conductivity with pressure and mechanical work were slightly similar, thus suggesting the predominance of the pressure

  14. Hollow Palladium Nanoparticles Facilitated Biodegradation of an Azo Dye by Electrically Active Biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Chaudhuri, Rajib Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Dye wastewater severely threatens the environment due to its hazardous and toxic effects. Although many methods are available to degrade dyes, most of them are far from satisfactory. The proposed research provides a green and sustainable approach to degrade an azo dye, methyl orange, by electrically active biofilms (EABs) in the presence of solid and hollow palladium (Pd) nanoparticles. The EABs acted as the electron generator while nanoparticles functioned as the electron carrier agents to enhance degradation rate of the dye by breaking the kinetic barrier. The hollow Pd nanoparticles showed better performance than the solid Pd nanoparticles on the dye degradation, possibly due to high specific surface area and cage effect. The hollow cavities provided by the nanoparticles acted as the reaction centers for the dye degradation.

  15. Hollow Palladium Nanoparticles Facilitated Biodegradation of an Azo Dye by Electrically Active Biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Kalathil, Shafeer

    2016-08-04

    Dye wastewater severely threatens the environment due to its hazardous and toxic effects. Although many methods are available to degrade dyes, most of them are far from satisfactory. The proposed research provides a green and sustainable approach to degrade an azo dye, methyl orange, by electrically active biofilms (EABs) in the presence of solid and hollow palladium (Pd) nanoparticles. The EABs acted as the electron generator while nanoparticles functioned as the electron carrier agents to enhance degradation rate of the dye by breaking the kinetic barrier. The hollow Pd nanoparticles showed better performance than the solid Pd nanoparticles on the dye degradation, possibly due to high specific surface area and cage effect. The hollow cavities provided by the nanoparticles acted as the reaction centers for the dye degradation.

  16. Hollow Palladium Nanoparticles Facilitated Biodegradation of an Azo Dye by Electrically Active Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafeer Kalathil

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dye wastewater severely threatens the environment due to its hazardous and toxic effects. Although many methods are available to degrade dyes, most of them are far from satisfactory. The proposed research provides a green and sustainable approach to degrade an azo dye, methyl orange, by electrically active biofilms (EABs in the presence of solid and hollow palladium (Pd nanoparticles. The EABs acted as the electron generator while nanoparticles functioned as the electron carrier agents to enhance degradation rate of the dye by breaking the kinetic barrier. The hollow Pd nanoparticles showed better performance than the solid Pd nanoparticles on the dye degradation, possibly due to high specific surface area and cage effect. The hollow cavities provided by the nanoparticles acted as the reaction centers for the dye degradation.

  17. Deployment of business development activities of Tohoku electric power Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi

    1988-11-01

    In order to cope with the transition period which accompanies big structural changes of society and economy of Japan in facing closely the forthcoming 21st century, Tohoku Electric Power Co. determined in June 1987 the basic concept for achieving operational prosperity towards the 21st century, and defined itself as a consolidated energy industry which contributes to the establishment of prosperous Tohoku Region. In order to realize the above, the company selected three strategic issues, namely business development, technology development and talent development. For the purpose of realization of the above, the Business Development Headquarters was created and under it, (1) Public Relation and Service Division, (2) Business Development Division and (3) Business Division were established. This article introduces an outline of business development activities of these three divisions. (1) above deals with illumination demands and household demands (hot water supply and utilization of 200V), (2) deals with particular demands for industry and business (air conditioning of buildings, kitchen for business use, area heat supply, and demands for industry, agriculture and fishery) and (3) deals with exact handling of such daily services as contracting, inspection and rate calculation, etc. as well as consulting. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Ground electrical conductivity for medium wave activities over Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ground electrical properties remain a useful tool for most applications in engineering and communication, therefore, reliability and precision is highly required in their determination. Ground electrical conductivity as a function of signal frequency has been determined at Ilorin during the dry and the wet seasons. The study ...

  19. Urban exposure to ELF magnetic field due to high-, medium- and low-voltage electricity supply networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottura, V.; Cappio Borlino, M.; Carta, N.; Cerise, L.; Imperial, E.

    2009-01-01

    The regional environment protection agency (ARPA) of the Aosta Valley region in north Italy performed a survey of magnetic field triggered by the power supply network in high, medium and low voltages on the entire area of Aosta town. The electrical distribution system for houses was not however taken into account. The aim of the survey was to evaluate the global population exposure and not simply the assessment of the legal exposure limit compliance. (authors)

  20. Cytotoxicity, Bactericidal, and Antioxidant Activity of Sodium Alginate Hydrosols Treated with Direct Electric Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaneta Król

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of using direct electric current (DC of 0, 200, and 400 mA for five minutes on the physiochemical properties, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of sodium alginate hydrosols with different sodium chloride concentrations. The pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP, electrical conductivity (EC, and available chlorine concentration (ACC were measured. The effect of sodium alginate hydrosols treated with DC on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas fluorescence, and RAW 264.7 and L929 cells was investigated. Subsequently, the antioxidant properties of hydrosols were evaluated by determining the scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The results have shown that after applying 400 mA in hydrosol samples with 0.1% and 0.2% NaCl all tested bacteria were inactivated. The ACC concentration of C400 samples with NaCl was equal to 13.95 and 19.71 mg/L, respectively. The cytotoxicity analysis revealed that optimized electric field conditions and the addition of sodium chloride allow for the avoidance of toxicity effects on normal cells without disturbing the antibacterial effects. Due to the presence of oxidizing substances, the DPPH of variants treated with DC was lower than the DPPH of control samples.

  1. An improved ivermectin-activated chloride channel receptor for inhibiting electrical activity in defined neuronal populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy Peter; Lynch, Joseph W

    2010-01-01

    The ability to silence the electrical activity of defined neuronal populations in vivo is dramatically advancing our understanding of brain function. This technology may eventually be useful clinically for treating a variety of neuropathological disorders caused by excessive neuronal activity...... conductance, homomeric expression, and human origin may render the F207A/A288G alpha1 glycine receptor an improved silencing receptor for neuroscientific and clinical purposes. As all known highly ivermectin-sensitive GluClRs contain an endogenous glycine residue at the corresponding location, this residue...

  2. Divertor experiments in a toroidal plasma, with E x B drift due to an applied radial electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.

    1979-09-01

    It is proposed that the E x B drift arising from an externally applied electric field could be used in a tokamak or other toroidal magnetic plasma confinement device to remove plasma and impurities from the region near the wall and reduce the amount of plasma striking the wall. This could either augment or replace a conventional magnetic field divertor. Among the possible advantages of this scheme are easy external control over the rate of removal of plasma, more rapid removal than the naturally occurring rate in a magnetic divertor, and simplification of construction if the magnetic divertor is eliminated. Results of several related experiments performed in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole are presented

  3. A Computational Model for Real-Time Calculation of Electric Field due to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Paffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach for an accurate and fast (real-time computation of the electric field induced inside the whole brain volume during a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS procedure. The numerical solution implements the admittance method for a discretized realistic brain model derived from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Results are in a good agreement with those obtained using commercial codes and require much less computational time. An integration of the developed code with neuronavigation tools will permit real-time evaluation of the stimulated brain regions during the TMS delivery, thus improving the efficacy of clinical applications.

  4. Electric passenger and goods vehicles: A review of UK activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escombe, F.; Rawnsley, A.

    1993-01-01

    The production of electric-powered vehicles has been reduced to only a few hundred, after several thousand had been produced in Great Britain during the past five years. In the framework of this article, the different components of electric-powered vehicles are being examined regarding the economical situation: such as the vehicle itself, the batteries, the motor and the vehicle control. (BWI) [de

  5. Activities of electric utilities in alternative energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.B. da; Reis Neto, J.L. dos

    1990-01-01

    Since oil crisis, in 1973 and 1979, some electrical utilities in Brazil begun investments in alternative projects for example production of electrolytic hydrogen, peats with energetics goals, steam from electric boiler, and methanol from wood gasification. With oil substitution goals, these projects have not success actually, after attenuated the crisis. However, the results acquired is experience for the development of the brazilian energy patterns. (author)

  6. Measurements of fusion neutron yields by neutron activation technique: Uncertainty due to the uncertainty on activation cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunas, Gediminas, E-mail: gediminas.stankunas@lei.lt [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Batistoni, Paola [ENEA, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sjöstrand, Henrik; Conroy, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-11

    The neutron activation technique is routinely used in fusion experiments to measure the neutron yields. This paper investigates the uncertainty on these measurements as due to the uncertainties on dosimetry and activation reactions. For this purpose, activation cross-sections were taken from the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF-v1.05) in 640 groups ENDF-6 format for several reactions of interest for both 2.5 and 14 MeV neutrons. Activation coefficients (reaction rates) have been calculated using the neutron flux spectra at JET vacuum vessel, both for DD and DT plasmas, calculated by MCNP in the required 640-energy group format. The related uncertainties for the JET neutron spectra are evaluated as well using the covariance data available in the library. These uncertainties are in general small, but not negligible when high accuracy is required in the determination of the fusion neutron yields.

  7. Hippocampal electrical activity of adult rabbits during moderate passive hyperventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchard, Francoise

    1982-01-01

    The effects of a moderate passive hyperventilation (HV) were studied in immobilized un-anesthetized rabbits. Hypocapnia (PCO 2 = 23.3 ± 2.8 mm Hg) and alkalosis (pH = 7.54 ± 0.07) were measured on arterial samples. PO 2 remained stable. The following results were obtained. From the onset of HV, the mean discharge rate (F) of the pyramidal cells (CA 1 ) was modified. Several types of cellular behaviours were defined according to whether F decreased (51 pc of the neurons), increased (39 pc) or remained stable (6 pc). The most marked effect was observed 15 min after HV onset when 87 pc of cells showed a discharge rate lower than in controls. Whatever F variations, the temporal organization of the action potentials remained unchanged in 71 pc of cases. The evoked response resulting from the stimulation of the commissural inputs corresponded with the activity of GABA inhibitory neurons (basket cells). The response threshold, amplitude and latency were not modified by HV. Only the facilitation process resulting from paired pulses was modified in its late stage. These results as well as those concerning unit activity do not support various assumption such as trouble of the neuronal energetic metabolism due to hypoxia, modification of ionic exchanges (Na + , K + , Ca ++ ), or variations of neurotransmitter concentrations (especially GABA). The effects observed could be ascribed to modifications of neuronal membrane resting potential resulting from direct action of CO 2 and alkalosis. (author) [fr

  8. Use of the piezoelectric film for the determination of cracks and defects - the passive and active electric potential CT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Sakagami, T; Suzuki, T; Maeda, T; Nakatani, K

    2008-01-01

    The passive and active electric potential CT method was proposed by using piezoelectric film for identification of cracks and defects. This method is based on the principle of mutual conversion between mechanical strains and electric potential of piezoelectric material. A smart-layer was constructed using the piezoelectric film, and attached on a structure with a defect. When the structure was subjected to a mechanical load, the electric potential distribution appeared passively on the piezoelectric film due to the direct piezoelectric effect. The defect can be identified from the distribution with the help of inverse analysis. It was found that the crack could be identified reasonably, although the defect depth was not well estimated for the defects located far from the layer. When the electric signal was input to the smart-layer, acoustic wave was actively emitted from the layer due to the inverse piezoelectric effect, and a reflected wave was received on the layer. It was found that the depth of the defect could be estimated well. The simultaneous use of the passive method and the active method is promising for the identification of the defect.

  9. The electrical conductivity of the upper mantle and lithosphere from satellite magnetic signal due to ocean tidal flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, N. R.; Kuvshinov, A. V.; Grayver, A.; Sabaka, T. J.; Olsen, N.

    2015-12-01

    Global electromagnetic (EM) studies provide information on mantle electrical conductivity with the ultimate aim of understanding the composition, structure, and dynamics of Earth's interior. There is great much interest in mapping the global conductivity of the lithosphere and upper mantle (i.e., depths of 10-400 km) because recent laboratory experiments demonstrate that the electrical conductivity of minerals in these regions are greatly affected by small amounts of water or by partial melt. For decades, studies of lithospheric/mantle conductivity were based on interpretation of magnetic data from a global network of observatories. The recent expansion in magnetic data from low-Earth orbiting satellite missions (Ørsted, CHAMP, SAC-C, and Swarm) has led to a rising interest in probing Earth from space. The largest benefit of using satellite data is much improved spatial coverage. Additionally, and in contrast to ground-based data, satellite data are overall uniform and very high quality. Probing the conductivity of the lithosphere and upper mantle requires EM variations with periods of a few hours. This is a challenging period range for global EM studies since the ionospheric (Sq) source dominates these periods and has a much more complex spatial structure compared to the magnetospheric ring current. Moreover, satellite-based EM induction studies in principle cannot use Sq data since the satellites fly above the Sq source causing the signals to be seen by the satellite as a purely internal source, thus precluding the separation of satellite Sq signals into internal and external parts. Lastly, magnetospheric and ionospheric sources interact inductively with Earth's conducting interior. Fortunately, there exists an alternative EM source in the Sq period range: electric currents generated by oceanic tides. Tides instead interact galvanically with the lithosphere (i.e. by direct coupling of the source currents in the ocean with the underlying substrate), enabling

  10. EVALUATION OF WATER POLLUTION STATUS IN SIRET HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN (SUCEAVA REGION DUE TO AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Zaharia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data concerning the water pollution status of Siret hydrographical basin (i.e. surface and ground waters, lakes in Suceava County area (different controlling/monitoring sections due to agricultural productive activities, especially regarding some quality indicators (nitrogen-based nutrient concentrations evaluated for 2008. These data are recommending the necessity of continuous monitoring of water quality in the Siret River hydrographical basin, in all existing control sections, for identification of any pollution episodes, non-reported by polluters to the local environmental regulators.

  11. The impacts of electricity dispatch protocols on the emission reductions due to wind power and carbon tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Rajagopal, Ram

    2015-02-17

    Two dispatch protocols have been adopted by electricity markets to deal with the uncertainty of wind power but the effects of the selection between the dispatch protocols have not been comprehensively analyzed. We establish a framework to compare the impacts of adopting different dispatch protocols on the efficacy of using wind power and implementing a carbon tax to reduce emissions. We suggest that a market has high potential to achieve greater emission reduction by adopting the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the static protocol when the wind energy in the market is highly uncertain or the market has enough adjustable generators, such as gas-fired combustion generators. Furthermore, the carbon-tax policy is more cost-efficient for reducing CO2 emission when the market operates according to the stochastic protocol rather than the static protocol. An empirical study, which is calibrated according to the data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas market, confirms that using wind energy in the Texas market results in a 12% CO2 emission reduction when the market uses the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the 8% emission reduction associated with the static protocol. In addition, if a 6$/ton carbon tax is implemented in the Texas market operated according to the stochastic protocol, the CO2 emission is similar to the emission level from the same market with a 16$/ton carbon tax operated according to the static protocol. Correspondingly, the 16$/ton carbon tax associated with the static protocol costs 42.6% more than the 6$/ton carbon tax associated with the stochastic protocol.

  12. Cross-border electricity market effects due to price caps in an emission trading system: An agent-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richstein, Jörn C.; Chappin, Emile J.L.; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2014-01-01

    The recent low CO 2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) have triggered a discussion whether the EU ETS needs to be adjusted. We study the effects of CO 2 price floors and a price ceiling on the dynamic investment pathway of two interlinked electricity markets (loosely based on Great Britain, which already has introduced a price floor, and on Central Western Europe). Using an agent-based electricity market simulation with endogenous investment and a CO 2 market (including banking), we analyse the cross-border effects of national policies as well as system-wide policy options. A common, moderate CO 2 auction reserve price results in a more continuous decarbonisation pathway. This reduces CO 2 price volatility and the occurrence of carbon shortage price periods, as well as the average cost to consumers. A price ceiling can shield consumers from extreme price shocks. These price restrictions do not cause a large risk of an overall emissions overshoot in the long run. A national price floor lowers the cost to consumers in the other zone; the larger the zone with the price floor, the stronger the effect. Price floors that are too high lead to inefficiencies in investment choices and to higher consumer costs. - Highlights: • Cross-border effects of CO 2 policies were investigated with an agent-based model. • The current EU ETS might cause CO 2 price shocks and CO 2 price volatility. • A CO 2 auction reserve price does not lower welfare, but lowers CO 2 price volatility. • A national CO 2 price floor lowers consumer cost in the other countries. • A CO 2 price ceiling does not lead to an overshoot of emissions

  13. Antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations: An empirical study based on norm activation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yixiang; Wang, Zhaohua; Zhou, Guanghui

    2013-01-01

    China is one of the major energy-consuming countries, and is under great pressure to promote energy saving and reduce domestic energy consumption. Employees constitute an important target group for energy saving. However, only a few research efforts have been paid to study what drives employee energy saving behavior in organizations. To fill this gap, drawing on norm activation model (NAM), we built a research model to study antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations. The model was empirically tested using survey data collected from office workers in Beijing, China. Results show that personal norm positively influences employee electricity saving behavior. Organizational electricity saving climate negatively moderates the effect of personal norm on electricity saving behavior. Awareness of consequences, ascription of responsibility, and organizational electricity saving climate positively influence personal norm. Furthermore, awareness of consequences positively influences ascription of responsibility. This paper contributes to the energy saving behavior literature by building a theoretical model of employee electricity saving behavior which is understudied in the current literature. Based on the empirical results, implications on how to promote employee electricity saving are discussed. - Highlights: • We studied employee electricity saving behavior based on norm activation model. • The model was tested using survey data collected from office workers in China. • Personal norm positively influences employee′s electricity saving behavior. • Electricity saving climate negatively moderates personal norm′s effect. • This research enhances our understanding of employee electricity saving behavior

  14. Active acoustic leak detection for LMFBR steam generator. Sound attenuation due to bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Sakuma, Toshio

    1995-01-01

    In the steam generators (SG) of LMFBR, it is necessary to detect the leakage of water from tubes of heat exchangers as soon as it occurs. The active acoustic detection method has drawn general interest owing to its short response time and reduction of the influence of background noise. In this paper, the application of the active acoustic detection method for SG is proposed, and sound attenuation by bubbles is investigated experimentally. Furthermore, using the SG sector model, sound field characteristics and sound attenuation characteristics due to injection of bubbles are studied. It is clarified that the sound attenuation depends upon bubble size as well as void fraction, that the distance attenuation of sound in the SG model containing heat transfer tubes is 6dB for each two-fold increase of distance, and that emitted sound attenuates immediately upon injection of bubbles. (author)

  15. Multimode Preemptive Resource Investment Problem Subject to Due Dates for Activities: Formulation and Solution Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The preemptive Multimode resource investment problem is investigated. The Objective is to minimize the total renewable/nonrenewable resource costs and earliness-tardiness costs by a given project deadline and due dates for activities. In this problem setting preemption is allowed with no setup cost or time. The project contains activities interrelated by finish-start type precedence relations with a time lag of zero, which require a set of renewable and nonrenewable resources. The problem formed in this way is an NP-hard. A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for the problem and parameters tuned genetic algorithm (GA is proposed to solve it. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, 120 test problems are used. Comparative statistical results reveal that the proposed GA is efficient and effective in terms of the objective function and computational times.

  16. Energy dependence on the electric activities of a neuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xin-Lin; Ma Jun; Jin Wu-Yin

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear circuit can be designed by using inductor, resistor, capacitor and other electric devices, and the electromagnetic field energy can be released from the circuit in the oscillating state. The generation of spikes or bursting states in neurons could be energetically a costly process. Based on the Helmholtz’s theorem, a Hamilton energy function is defined to detect the energy shift induced by transition of electric modes in a Hindmarsh–Rose neuron. It is found that the energy storage is dependent on the external forcing, and energy release is associated with the electric mode. As a result, the bursting state and chaotic state could be helpful to release the energy in the neuron quickly. (paper)

  17. CALCULATING ENERGY STORAGE DUE TO TOPOLOGICAL CHANGES IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGION NOAA AR 11112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The minimum current corona model provides a way to estimate stored coronal energy using the number of field lines connecting regions of positive and negative photospheric flux. This information is quantified by the net flux connecting pairs of opposing regions in a connectivity matrix. Changes in the coronal magnetic field, due to processes such as magnetic reconnection, manifest themselves as changes in the connectivity matrix. However, the connectivity matrix will also change when flux sources emerge or submerge through the photosphere, as often happens in active regions. We have developed an algorithm to estimate the changes in flux due to emergence and submergence of magnetic flux sources. These estimated changes must be accounted for in order to quantify storage and release of magnetic energy in the corona. To perform this calculation over extended periods of time, we must additionally have a consistently labeled connectivity matrix over the entire observational time span. We have therefore developed an automated tracking algorithm to generate a consistent connectivity matrix as the photospheric source regions evolve over time. We have applied this method to NOAA Active Region 11112, which underwent a GOES M2.9 class flare around 19:00 on 2010 October 16th, and calculated a lower bound on the free magnetic energy buildup of ∼8.25 × 10 30 erg over 3 days.

  18. Application of subharmonics for active sound design of electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Doo Young; Yoon, Kiseop; Seong, Yeolwan; Lee, Soogab

    2014-12-01

    The powertrain of electric vehicles generates an unfamiliar acoustical environment for customers. This paper seeks optimal interior sound for electric vehicles based on psychoacoustic knowledge and musical harmonic theory. The concept of inserting a virtual sound, which consists of the subharmonics of an existing high-frequency component, is suggested to improve sound quality. Subjective evaluation results indicate that the impression of interior sound can be enhanced in this manner. Increased appeal is achieved through two designed stimuli, which proves the effectiveness of the method proposed.

  19. Activation of generalised inflammatory reaction following electrical cardioversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Mysiak, Andrzej; Mazurek, Walentyna

    2004-09-01

    Restoration of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of thrombo-embolic complications due to delayed return of the left atrial and left atrial appendage systolic function. Direct current cardioversion (DC), used for AF termination, may cause myocardial injury and subsequent activation of inflammatory response. A C-reactive protein (CRP) is a non-specific marker of inflammation. To examine the effects of external DC of AF or atrial flutter (AFlut) on inflammatory processes. The study group consisted of 35 patients (20 females and 15 males, mean age 67.9+/-9.7 years, range 46-83 years) with paroxysmal or persistent AF/AFlut who underwent elective DC. CRP plasma concentration was measured before and 24 hours after DC. The mean total DC energy was 431.2 J. CRP plasma concentration increased significantly following DC - from 3.9+/-3.4 ng/ml before DC to 7.2+/-6.7 ng/ml after DC (p<0.0001). CRP level correlated with body mass index (r=0.34, p<0.05), however, this correlation became non-significant after inclusion of the presence of diabetes into the statistical model. There was also a positive correlation between CRP values before and after DC (r=0.72, p<0.0001). No correlation between CRP and gender, total power of DC nor the number of DC shocks was detected. External DC of AF/Aflut causes activation of inflammatory processes measured as a significant increase in the CRP plasma concentration.

  20. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  1. Investigating structural and perfusion deficits due to repeated head trauma in active professional fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Virendra; Sreenivasan, Karthik; Banks, Sarah J; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Yang, Zhengshi; Cordes, Dietmar; Bernick, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Repeated head trauma experienced by active professional fighters results in various structural, functional and perfusion damage. However, whether there are common regions of structural and perfusion damage due to fighting and whether these structural and perfusion differences are associated with neuropsychological measurements in active professional fighters is still unknown. To that end, T1-weighted and pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI on a group of healthy controls and active professional fighters were acquired. Voxelwise group comparisons, in a univariate and multivariate sense, were performed to investigate differences in gray and white matter density (GMD, WMD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) between the two groups. A significantly positive association between global GMD and WMD was obtained with psychomotor speed and reaction time, respectively, in our cohort of active professional fighters. In addition, regional WMD deficit was observed in a cluster encompassing bilateral pons, hippocampus, and thalamus in fighters (0.49 ± 0.04 arbitrary units (a.u.)) as compared to controls (0.51 ± 0.05a.u.). WMD in the cluster of active fighters was also significantly associated with reaction time. Significantly lower CBF was observed in right inferior temporal lobe with both partial volume corrected (46.9 ± 14.93 ml/100 g/min) and non-partial volume corrected CBF maps (25.91 ± 7.99 ml/100 g/min) in professional fighters, as compared to controls (65.45 ± 22.24 ml/100 g/min and 35.22 ± 12.18 ml/100 g/min respectively). A paradoxical increase in CBF accompanying right cerebellum and fusiform gyrus in the active professional fighters (29.52 ± 13.03 ml/100 g/min) as compared to controls (19.43 ± 12.56 ml/100 g/min) was observed with non-partial volume corrected CBF maps. Multivariate analysis with both structural and perfusion measurements found the same clusters as univariate analysis in addition to a cluster in right precuneus

  2. Investigating structural and perfusion deficits due to repeated head trauma in active professional fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Mishra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated head trauma experienced by active professional fighters results in various structural, functional and perfusion damage. However, whether there are common regions of structural and perfusion damage due to fighting and whether these structural and perfusion differences are associated with neuropsychological measurements in active professional fighters is still unknown. To that end, T1-weighted and pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI on a group of healthy controls and active professional fighters were acquired. Voxelwise group comparisons, in a univariate and multivariate sense, were performed to investigate differences in gray and white matter density (GMD, WMD and cerebral blood flow (CBF between the two groups. A significantly positive association between global GMD and WMD was obtained with psychomotor speed and reaction time, respectively, in our cohort of active professional fighters. In addition, regional WMD deficit was observed in a cluster encompassing bilateral pons, hippocampus, and thalamus in fighters (0.49 ± 0.04 arbitrary units (a.u. as compared to controls (0.51 ± 0.05a.u.. WMD in the cluster of active fighters was also significantly associated with reaction time. Significantly lower CBF was observed in right inferior temporal lobe with both partial volume corrected (46.9 ± 14.93 ml/100 g/min and non-partial volume corrected CBF maps (25.91 ± 7.99 ml/100 g/min in professional fighters, as compared to controls (65.45 ± 22.24 ml/100 g/min and 35.22 ± 12.18 ml/100 g/min respectively. A paradoxical increase in CBF accompanying right cerebellum and fusiform gyrus in the active professional fighters (29.52 ± 13.03 ml/100 g/min as compared to controls (19.43 ± 12.56 ml/100 g/min was observed with non-partial volume corrected CBF maps. Multivariate analysis with both structural and perfusion measurements found the same clusters as univariate analysis in addition to a cluster in right

  3. Performance of an active electric bearing for rotary micromotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, F T; Wang, L; Wu, Q P; Liu, Y F

    2011-01-01

    An electric bearing used to support a micromachined rotor of variable-capacitance motors was designed and tested in order to study the characteristics of this frictionless bearing. Electrostatic suspension of a ring-shaped rotor in five degrees of freedom is required to eliminate the mechanical bearing and thus the friction and wear between the rotor and the substrate. Bulk microfabrication-based glass/silicon/glass bonding is chosen for this device, allowing the fabrication of large area sense capacitors and rotor, which make the device potentially suitable for the development of an electrostatically suspended micromachined gyroscope. The device and its basic operating principle are described, as well as the dynamics of the rotor and basic design considerations of the electric bearing system. A theoretical relationship to relate the characteristics of a classical lag–lead compensator to the stiffness properties of the electric bearing is developed to explain the experimental bearing measurements. The experimental results of closed-loop frequency response, suspension stiffness and drive voltage effects are presented and discussed for the bearing operated initially in the atmospheric environment. The performance of a tri-axial electrostatic accelerometer has also been experimentally investigated on the prototype of the electric bearing system

  4. Study on Active Suppression Control of Drivetrain Oscillations in an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Cui, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Due to the low damping in a central driven electric vehicle and lack of passive damping mechanisms as compared with a conventional vehicle, the vehicle may endure torsional vibrations which may deteriorates the vehicle’s drivability. Thus active damping control strategy is required to reduce the undesirable oscillations in an EV. In this paper, the origin of the vibration and the design of a damping control method to suppress such oscillations to improve the drivability of an EV are studied. The traction motor torque that is given by the vehicle controller is adjusted according to the acceleration rate of the motor speed to attenuate the resonant frequency. Simulations and experiments are performed to validate the system. The results show that the proposed control system can effectively suppress oscillations and hence improve drivability.

  5. Hybrid Modulation of Bidirectional Three-Phase Dual-Active-Bridge DC Converters for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ching Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional power converters for electric vehicles (EVs have received much attention recently, due to either grid-supporting requirements or emergent power supplies. This paper proposes a hybrid modulation of the three-phase dual-active bridge (3ΦDAB converter for EV charging systems. The designed hybrid modulation allows the converter to switch its modulation between phase-shifted and trapezoidal modes to increase the conversion efficiency, even under light-load conditions. The mode transition is realized in a real-time manner according to the charging or discharging current. The operation principle of the converter is analyzed in different modes and thus design considerations of the modulation are derived. A lab-scaled prototype circuit with a 48V/20Ah LiFePO4 battery is established to validate the feasibility and effectiveness.

  6. Enzyme activity deviates due to spatial and temporal temperature profiles in commercial microtiter plate readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosch, Jan-Hendrik; Sieben, Michaela; Lattermann, Clemens; Kauffmann, Kira; Büchs, Jochen; Spieß, Antje C

    2016-03-01

    Microtiter plates (MTP) and automatized techniques are increasingly applied in the field of biotechnology. However, the susceptibility of MTPs to edge effects such as thermal gradients can lead to high variation of measured enzyme activities. In an effort to enhance experimental reliability, to quantify, and to minimize instrument-caused deviations in enzyme kinetics between two MTP-readers, we comprehensively quantified temperature distribution in 96-well MTPs. We demonstrated the robust application of the absorbance dye cresol red as easily applicable temperature indicator in cuvettes and MTPs and determined its accuracy to ±0.16°C. We then quantified temperature distributions in 96-well MTPs revealing temperature deviations over single MTP of up to 2.2°C and different patterns in two commercial devices (BioTek Synergy 4 and Synergy Mx). The obtained liquid temperature was shown to be substantially controlled by evaporation. The temperature-induced enzyme activity variation within MTPs amounted to about 20 %. Activity deviations between MTPs and to those in cuvettes were determined to 40 % due to deviations from the set temperature in MTPs. In conclusion, we propose a better control of experimental conditions in MTPs or alternative experimental systems for reliable determination of kinetic parameters for bioprocess development. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Anisotropy of electrical conductivity in dc due to intrinsic defect formation in α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal implanted with Mg ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardío, M., E-mail: mtardio@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganés (Madrid) (Spain); Egaña, A.; Ramírez, R.; Muñoz-Santiuste, J.E. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganés (Madrid) (Spain); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 2695-066 Bobadela (Portugal)

    2016-07-15

    The electrical conductivity in α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals implanted with Mg ions in two different crystalline orientations, parallel and perpendicular to c axis, was investigated. The samples were implanted at room temperature with energies of 50 and 100 keV and fluences of 1 × 10{sup 15}, 5 × 10{sup 15} and 5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. Optical characterization reveals slight differences in the absorption bands at 6.0 and 4.2 eV, attributed to F type centers and Mie scattering from Mg precipitates, respectively. DC electrical measurements using the four and two-point probe methods, between 295 and 490 K, were used to characterize the electrical conductivity of the implanted area (Meshakim and Tanabe, 2001). Measurements in this temperature range indicate that: (1) the electrical conductivity is thermally activated independently of crystallographic orientation, (2) resistance values in the implanted region decrease with fluence levels, and (3) the I–V characteristic of electrical contacts in samples with perpendicular c axis orientation is clearly ohmic, whereas contacts are blocking in samples with parallel c axis. When thin layers are sequentially removed from the implanted region by immersing the sample in a hot solution of nitric and fluorhydric acids the electrical resistance increases until reaching the values of non-implanted crystal (Jheeta et al., 2006). We conclude that the enhancement in conductivity observed in the implanted regions is related to the intrinsic defects created by the implantation rather than to the implanted Mg ions (da Silva et al., 2002; Tardío et al., 2001; Tardío et al., 2008).

  8. Electric-current Neutralization, Magnetic Shear, and Eruptive Activity in Solar Active Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xudong [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Török, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S. [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Leake, James E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The physical conditions that determine whether or not solar active regions (ARs) produce strong flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are not yet well understood. Here, we investigate the association between electric-current neutralization, magnetic shear along polarity inversion lines (PILs), and eruptive activity in four ARs: two emerging and two well-developed ones. We find that the CME-producing ARs are characterized by a strongly non-neutralized total current, while the total current in the ARs that did not produce CMEs is almost perfectly neutralized. The difference in the PIL shear between these two groups is much less pronounced, which suggests that the degree of current neutralization may serve as a better proxy for assessing the ability of ARs to produce CMEs.

  9. Electrical remodeling of cardiac myocytes from mice with heart failure due to the overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova-Kirova, Polina S; Gursoy, Erdal; Mehdi, Haider; McTiernan, Charles F; London, Barry; Salama, Guy

    2006-05-01

    Mice that overexpress the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the heart (TNF mice) develop heart failure characterized by atrial and ventricular dilatation, decreased ejection fraction, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and increased mortality (males > females). Abnormalities in Ca2+ handling, prolonged action potential duration (APD), calcium alternans, and reentrant atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were previously observed with the use of optical mapping of perfused hearts from TNF mice. We therefore tested whether altered voltage-gated outward K+ and/or inward Ca2+ currents contribute to the altered action potential characteristics and the increased vulnerability to arrhythmias. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of K+ currents from left ventricular myocytes of TNF mice revealed an approximately 50% decrease in the rapidly activating, rapidly inactivating transient outward K+ current Ito and in the rapidly activating, slowly inactivating delayed rectifier current IK,slow1, an approximately 25% decrease in the rapidly activating, slowly inactivating delayed rectifier current IK,slow2, and no significant change in the steady-state current Iss compared with controls. Peak amplitudes and inactivation kinetics of the L-type Ca2+ current ICa,L were not altered. Western blot analyses revealed a reduction in the proteins underlying Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and Kv1.5. Thus decreased K+ channel expression is largely responsible for the prolonged APD in the TNF mice and may, along with abnormalities in Ca2+ handling, contribute to arrhythmias.

  10. Method to probe the electrical activity of dislocations in non-intentionally doped n-GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimila-Arroyo, J., E-mail: jmimila@cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional No 2508, Mexico D.F., CP 07360 (Mexico); Morales, E. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional No 2508, Mexico D.F., CP 07360 (Mexico); Lusson, A. [Groupe d' Etudes de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Versailles, CNRS (UMR 8635), Batiment FERMAT, 45, Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2012-09-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first method proposed to probe the electrical activity of dislocations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on Hall and resistivity measurements under sub-bad gap illumination. High sensitivity to the charge contained at the dislocations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is non destructive. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer And can be applied at some point in the processing of samples and devices. - Abstract: Here is presented a method to probe the electrical activity of dislocations in non-intentionally doped n-GaN epitaxial layers based on the study of their sub-band gap photoconductivity, monitoring their electron concentration and mobility. Non-intentionally doped n-GaN layers bearing charged and thus highly dispersive and recombining dislocations when illuminated with sub-band gap photons show a strong increase on their conductivity, due to an equivalent increase on the electron mobility while the electron concentration remains unchanged. On the other side, non-intentionally doped n-GaN layers bearing electrically inactive dislocations display almost no photoconduction, as both; carrier concentration and their mobility remain unchanged under the same illumination conditions. The method, simultaneously assess the electrical activity of dislocations and the material quality, and can be applied to any other semiconducting material bearing high dislocations densities.

  11. Selective detrusor activation by electrical sacral nerve root stimulation in spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhoff, N. J.; Wijkstra, H.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1997-01-01

    Electrical sacral nerve root stimulation can be used in spinal cord injury patients to induce urinary bladder contraction. However, existing stimulation methods activate simultaneously both the detrusor muscle and the urethral sphincter. Urine evacuation is therefore only possible using poststimulus

  12. Effects of Electrical and Optogenetic Deep Brain Stimulation on Synchronized Oscillatory Activity in Parkinsonian Basal Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnadurai-Giridharan, Shivakeshavan; Cheung, Chung C; Rubchinsky, Leonid L

    2017-11-01

    Conventional deep brain stimulation of basal ganglia uses high-frequency regular electrical pulses to treat Parkinsonian motor symptoms but has a series of limitations. Relatively new and not yet clinically tested, optogenetic stimulation is an effective experimental stimulation technique to affect pathological network dynamics. We compared the effects of electrical and optogenetic stimulation of the basal gangliaon the pathologicalParkinsonian rhythmic neural activity. We studied the network response to electrical stimulation and excitatory and inhibitory optogenetic stimulations. Different stimulations exhibit different interactions with pathological activity in the network. We studied these interactions for different network and stimulation parameter values. Optogenetic stimulation was found to be more efficient than electrical stimulation in suppressing pathological rhythmicity. Our findings indicate that optogenetic control of neural synchrony may be more efficacious than electrical control because of the different ways of how stimulations interact with network dynamics.

  13. An experimental investigation of composite floor vibration due to human activities. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser G. Mohamed Fahmy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite steel floor decks are used in a large variety of constructions with long spans, such as administration and commercial buildings, hotels and bridges. Due to decreased floor mass and longer span lengths, floor vibrations have become an area of concern. Floor decks with low frequencies may be in resonance with the vibrations due to human activities and the resulting acceleration may exceed human comfort levels. The design of slender floor structures, with steel or composite cross sections, is often limited by the serviceability criteria such as deflection limits and vibration behavior, rather than the strength criteria. Control of deflections under AISC specifications requirement is not enough to satisfy the serviceability requirements of the floor systems for vibration. In addition, vibration analysis procedures introduced by AISC design Guide No. 11 are based on regularly-shaped structures and simple boundary conditions. In this paper, a case study for full scale testing of a composite floor system proposed for a tower at Kuwait state that was tested prior to construction. The heel-drop and walking tests are performed on floor systems with and without raised floor respectively. Since heel-drop and walking test results would vary in light of person performance, both tests are carried out three or four times to reduce uncertainty. The fundamental frequencies and damping ratio of the floor system are measured. Comparison of the experimental results with results based on the AISC hand calculations shows that there is no significant difference; therefore the results based on AISC are generally acceptable.

  14. Wind energy research activities of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halberg, N.

    1990-01-01

    The varying degrees of penetration of wind energy conversion systems (WECs) into the Dutch electricity generating system has been examined. A simulation has been carried out using wind data recorded at 6 sites spread across the area of interest in the Netherlands. The recorded wind data has been used in conjunction with a production costing model normally used by Sep (the Dutch Electricity Generating Board) for planning purposes. This model was modified to give a correct assessment of the quantity and value of fuel savings made by WECs. System studies were carried out for the year 2000 for zero wind penetration and for three distinctive penetration degrees of WECs, namely 5%, 10% and 15%. After incorporation of the WECS capacity, adjustments were made to the basic plant mix to allow the capacity credit WECs. Separate production cost simulations were executed for each distinct WECS capacity factor. Economic assessments were carried out using standard procedures. Except for the unpredictable development of fuel prices, the capital costs of the WECs proved to be the determinant for the economic viability of wind power. Significant improvements in costs and performance, as may be achieved through additional technological advances, are needed to made wind power competitive in widespread utility applications. (Author)

  15. A novel active equalization method for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai; Xie, Jing; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Build an active equalization method for lithium-ion batteries. • A bidirectional transformer topology is introduced for active equalization. • The PF method is used for cell SOC estimation to eliminate drift noise of current. • The SOC based equalization algorithm is analyzed with different SOC bounds. - Abstract: Cell inconsistency is inevitable due to manufacturing constraint. Therefore, cell equalization is essentially required. In this paper, we propose a novel active equalization method based on the remaining capacity of cells which is feasible for lithium-ion battery packs in electric vehicles (EVs). The cell models are established based on a combined electrochemical model of lithium-ion batteries. The remaining capacity and state-of-charge (SOC) of cells are observed at the beginning of equalization. The particle filter (PF) method is employed to estimate the cell SOCs during equalization in order to eliminate the drift noise of the current sensor. The first high-SOC cell discharge (FHCD) and first low-SOC cell charge (FLCC) equalization algorithms are proposed and compared with 1% and 3% SOC bounds, respectively. The validation experiment results have shown that the proposed algorithm is suitable for equalization of lithium-ion batteries in EVs

  16. Evaluation of a process for the decontamination of radioactive hotspots due to activated stellite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Veena; Chandramohan, Palogi; Chandran, Sinu; Srinivasan, Madapusi P.; Rangarajan, Srinivasan; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam; Narasimhan, Sevilmedu V.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the Indian pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which use Stellite balls in the ball and screw mechanism of the adjustor rod drive mechanism in the moderator circuit have encountered high radiation fields in the moderator system due to 60 Co. Release of particulate Stellite is responsible for the hotspots in addition to the general uniform contamination of internal surfaces with 60 Co. Extensive laboratory studies have shown that it is possible to dissolve these Stellite particles by adopting a three-step redox process with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent. These investigations with inactive Stellite in powder form helped to optimize the process conditions. Permanganic acid was found to have the highest dissolution efficiency as compared to alkaline and nitric acid permanganate. The susceptibility of Stellite to corrode or dissolve was found to depend on the concentration of the permanganate, pH and temperature of the process and microstructure of the Stellite alloy. This process was evaluated for its effectiveness on components from nuclear power plants. Component decontamination was carried out on adjustor rod drive assemblies which had 60 Co activity due to Stellite particles with the radiation field ranging from 3 R . h -1 to 20 R . h -1 . They were subjected to decontamination with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent, followed by citric acid and a solution containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ascorbic acid and citric acid in a 4:3:3 ratio by weight as the reducing formulation. In the first trial, one adjustor rod drive mechanism was subjected to decontamination. After two cycles of treatment, an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.8, with a maximum DF of 11.7, was achieved. The same process but with one cycle was repeated on eight more adjustor rod drive mechanisms. 60 Co activity in the range of 13-93 mCi was removed from these adjustor rods. Loose contamination of the order of 30 000-40 000 decays per min and cm 2 observed

  17. Evaluation of a process for the decontamination of radioactive hotspots due to activated stellite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Chandramohan, P.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Khandelwal, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the Indian PHWRs which used stellite balls in the ball and screw mechanism of the adjustor rod drive mechanism in the moderator circuit encountered high radiation field in moderator system due to 60 Co. Release of particulate stellite was responsible for the hotspots besides the general uniform contamination of internal surfaces with 60 Co. Extensive laboratory studies have shown that it is possible to dissolve these stellite particles by adopting a three step redox process with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent. These investigations with inactive stellite in powder form helped to optimize the process conditions. Permanganic acid was found to have the highest dissolution efficiency as compared to alkaline and nitric acid permanganate. The concentration of the permanganate was also found to be an important factor in deciding the efficiency of the dissolution of stellite. The efficiency of dissolution as a function of permanganic acid concentration showed a maximum. This process was evaluated for its effectiveness on components from nuclear power plants. Component decontamination was carried out on adjustor rod drive assemblies which had 60 Co activity due to stellite particles with the radiation field ranging from 3 R/h to 20 R/h. They were subjected to decontamination with permanganic acid as oxidizing agent, followed by citric acid and a solution containing EDTA, ascorbic acid and citric acid in 4:3:3 ratio by weight (EAC) as reducing formulations. A test rig was fabricated for this purpose. In the first trial, one adjustor rod drive mechanism was subjected to decontamination. After two cycles of treatment, an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.8, with a maximum DF of 11.7 was achieved. The same process but one cycle was repeated on eight more adjustor rod drive mechanisms. 60 Co activity in the range of 13 - 93 mCi was removed from these adjustor rods. Loose contamination of the order of 30000 - 40000 dpm/cm 2 observed before decontamination

  18. Evaluation of a process for the decontamination of radioactive hotspots due to activated stellite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Veena; Chandramohan, Palogi; Chandran, Sinu; Srinivasan, Madapusi P.; Rangarajan, Srinivasan; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam; Narasimhan, Sevilmedu V. [BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India). Water and Steam Chemistry Div.

    2011-06-15

    Some of the Indian pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which use Stellite balls in the ball and screw mechanism of the adjustor rod drive mechanism in the moderator circuit have encountered high radiation fields in the moderator system due to {sup 60}Co. Release of particulate Stellite is responsible for the hotspots in addition to the general uniform contamination of internal surfaces with {sup 60}Co. Extensive laboratory studies have shown that it is possible to dissolve these Stellite particles by adopting a three-step redox process with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent. These investigations with inactive Stellite in powder form helped to optimize the process conditions. Permanganic acid was found to have the highest dissolution efficiency as compared to alkaline and nitric acid permanganate. The susceptibility of Stellite to corrode or dissolve was found to depend on the concentration of the permanganate, pH and temperature of the process and microstructure of the Stellite alloy. This process was evaluated for its effectiveness on components from nuclear power plants. Component decontamination was carried out on adjustor rod drive assemblies which had {sup 60}Co activity due to Stellite particles with the radiation field ranging from 3 R . h{sup -1} to 20 R . h{sup -1}. They were subjected to decontamination with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent, followed by citric acid and a solution containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ascorbic acid and citric acid in a 4:3:3 ratio by weight as the reducing formulation. In the first trial, one adjustor rod drive mechanism was subjected to decontamination. After two cycles of treatment, an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.8, with a maximum DF of 11.7, was achieved. The same process but with one cycle was repeated on eight more adjustor rod drive mechanisms. {sup 60}Co activity in the range of 13-93 mCi was removed from these adjustor rods. Loose contamination of the order of 30 000-40 000

  19. Evaluation of a process for the decontamination of radioactive hotspots due to activated stellite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, V.; Chandramohan, P.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V., E-mail: svn@igcar.gov.in [BARC Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Khandelwal, R.C. [Kakrapara Atomic Power Station, KAPS, Surat, Gujarat (India)

    2010-07-01

    Some of the Indian PHWRs which used stellite balls in the ball and screw mechanism of the adjustor rod drive mechanism in the moderator circuit encountered high radiation field in moderator system due to {sup 60}Co. Release of particulate stellite was responsible for the hotspots besides the general uniform contamination of internal surfaces with {sup 60}Co. Extensive laboratory studies have shown that it is possible to dissolve these stellite particles by adopting a three step redox process with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent. These investigations with inactive stellite in powder form helped to optimize the process conditions. Permanganic acid was found to have the highest dissolution efficiency as compared to alkaline and nitric acid permanganate. The concentration of the permanganate was also found to be an important factor in deciding the efficiency of the dissolution of stellite. The efficiency of dissolution as a function of permanganic acid concentration showed a maximum. This process was evaluated for its effectiveness on components from nuclear power plants. Component decontamination was carried out on adjustor rod drive assemblies which had {sup 60}Co activity due to stellite particles with the radiation field ranging from 3 R/h to 20 R/h. They were subjected to decontamination with permanganic acid as oxidizing agent, followed by citric acid and a solution containing EDTA, ascorbic acid and citric acid in 4:3:3 ratio by weight (EAC) as reducing formulations. A test rig was fabricated for this purpose. In the first trial, one adjustor rod drive mechanism was subjected to decontamination. After two cycles of treatment, an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.8, with a maximum DF of 11.7 was achieved. The same process but one cycle was repeated on eight more adjustor rod drive mechanisms. {sup 60}Co activity in the range of 13 - 93 mCi was removed from these adjustor rods. Loose contamination of the order of 30000 - 40000 dpm/cm{sup 2} observed

  20. The influence of postmortem electrical stimulation on rigor mortis development, calpastatin activity, and tenderness in broiler and duck pectoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, C Z; Sams, A R

    2000-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on rigor mortis development, calpastatin activity, and tenderness in anatomically similar avian muscles composed primarily of either red or white muscle fibers. A total of 72 broilers and 72 White Pekin ducks were either treated with postmortem (PM) ES (450 mA) at the neck in a 1% NaCl solution for 2 s on and 1 s off for a total of 15 s or were used as nonstimulated controls. Both pectoralis muscles were harvested from the carcasses after 0.25, 1.25, and 24 h PM and analyzed for pH, inosine:adenosine ratio (R-value), sarcomere length, gravimetric fragmentation index, calpastatin activity, shear value, and cook loss. All data were analyzed within species for the effects of ES. Electrically stimulated ducks had a lower muscle pH at 0.25 and 1.25 h PM and higher R-values at 0.25 h PM compared with controls. Electrically stimulated broilers had a lower muscle pH at 1.25 h and higher R-values at 0.25 and 1.25 h PM compared with controls. Muscles of electrically stimulated broilers exhibited increased myofibrillar fragmentation at 0.25 and 1.25 h PM, whereas there was no such difference over PM time in the duck muscle. Electrical stimulation did not affect calpastatin activity in either broilers or ducks; however, the calpastatin activity of the broilers did decrease over the aging time period, whereas that of the ducks did not. Electrical stimulation decreased shear values in broilers at 1.25 h PM compared with controls; however, there was no difference in shear values of duck muscle due to ES at any sampling time. Cook loss was lower for electrically stimulated broilers at 0.25 and 1.25 h PM compared with the controls, but had no effect in the ducks. These results suggest that the red fibers of the duck pectoralis have less potential for rigor mortis acceleration and tenderization due to ES than do the white fibers of the broiler pectoralis.

  1. Young Scientists Explore Electricity & Magnetism. Book 7--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of electricity and magnetism. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  2. Persistent alterations in active and passive electrical membrane properties of regenerated nerve fibers of man and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Alvarez Herrero, Susana; Rosberg, Mette R.

    2016-01-01

    Excitability of regenerated fibers remains impaired due to changes in both passive cable properties and alterations in the voltage-dependent membrane function. These abnormalities were studied by mathematical modeling in human regenerated nerves and experimental studies in mice. In three adult male...... activity protocol triggered partial Wallerian degeneration in regenerated nerves but not in control nerves from age-matched mice. The current data suggest that the nodal voltage-gated ion channel machinery is restored in regenerated axons, although the electrical separation from the internodal compartment...... remains compromised. Due to the persistent increase in number of nodes, the increased activity-dependent Na+ influx could lead to hyperactivity of the Na+/K+ pump resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and neurotoxic energy insufficiency during strenuous activity....

  3. A review on soil carbon accumulation due to the management change of major Brazilian agricultural activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. La Scala Júnior

    Full Text Available Agricultural areas deal with enormous CO2 intake fluxes offering an opportunity for greenhouse effect mitigation. In this work we studied the potential of soil carbon sequestration due to the management conversion in major agricultural activities in Brazil. Data from several studies indicate that in soybean/maize, and related rotation systems, a significant soil carbon sequestration was observed over the year of conversion from conventional to no-till practices, with a mean rate of 0.41 Mg C ha-1 year-1. The same effect was observed in sugarcane fields, but with a much higher accumulation of carbon in soil stocks, when sugarcane fields are converted from burned to mechanised based harvest, where large amounts of sugarcane residues remain on the soil surface (1.8 Mg C ha-1 year-1. The higher sequestration potential of sugarcane crops, when compared to the others, has a direct relation to the primary production of this crop. Nevertheless, much of this mitigation potential of soil carbon accumulation in sugarcane fields is lost once areas are reformed, or intensive tillage is applied. Pasture lands have shown soil carbon depletion once natural areas are converted to livestock use, while integration of those areas with agriculture use has shown an improvement in soil carbon stocks. Those works have shown that the main crop systems of Brazil have a huge mitigation potential, especially in soil carbon form, being an opportunity for future mitigation strategies.

  4. Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) inhibits jack bean urease activity due to methylglyoxal and dihydroxyacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückriemen, Jana; Klemm, Oliver; Henle, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) exerts a strong antibacterial effect. Bacterial enzymes are an important target for antibacterial compounds. The enzyme urease produces ammonia and enables bacteria to adapt to an acidic environment. A new enzymatic assay, based on photometric detection of ammonia with ninhydrin, was developed to study urease activity. Methylglyoxal (MGO) and its precursor dihydroxyacetone (DHA), which are naturally present in manuka honey, were identified as jack bean urease inhibitors with IC 50 values of 2.8 and 5.0mM, respectively. Urease inhibition of manuka honey correlates with its MGO and DHA content. Non-manuka honeys, which lack MGO and DHA, showed significantly less urease inhibition. MGO depletion from manuka honey with glyoxalase reduced urease inhibition. Therefore, urease inhibition by manuka honey is mainly due to MGO and DHA. The results obtained with jack bean urease as a model urease, may contribute to the understanding of bacterial inhibition by manuka honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A review on soil carbon accumulation due to the management change of major Brazilian agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Scala, N; De Figueiredo, E B; Panosso, A R

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural areas deal with enormous CO2 intake fluxes offering an opportunity for greenhouse effect mitigation. In this work we studied the potential of soil carbon sequestration due to the management conversion in major agricultural activities in Brazil. Data from several studies indicate that in soybean/maize, and related rotation systems, a significant soil carbon sequestration was observed over the year of conversion from conventional to no-till practices, with a mean rate of 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). The same effect was observed in sugarcane fields, but with a much higher accumulation of carbon in soil stocks, when sugarcane fields are converted from burned to mechanised based harvest, where large amounts of sugarcane residues remain on the soil surface (1.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)). The higher sequestration potential of sugarcane crops, when compared to the others, has a direct relation to the primary production of this crop. Nevertheless, much of this mitigation potential of soil carbon accumulation in sugarcane fields is lost once areas are reformed, or intensive tillage is applied. Pasture lands have shown soil carbon depletion once natural areas are converted to livestock use, while integration of those areas with agriculture use has shown an improvement in soil carbon stocks. Those works have shown that the main crop systems of Brazil have a huge mitigation potential, especially in soil carbon form, being an opportunity for future mitigation strategies.

  6. Urinary trehalase activity as an indicator of kidney injury due to environmental cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Kohkichi; Katoh, Terutaka; Morikawa, Yuuko; Aoshima, Keiko; Nishijo, Muneko; Teranishi, Hidetoyo; Kasuya, Minoru

    1988-12-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight subjects, patients with Itai-itai disease and their family members, aged 12-87 years living in a cadmium (Cd)-polluted area in the Jinzu River basin (Cd-exposed group) and 176 controls (control group) were examined. In the Cd-exposed group urinary trehalase increased with increasing age, urinary /beta/2-microglobulin (/beta/2-m) and retinol-binding protein. Although urinary cadmium was higher in the Cd-exposed group, no particular correlation was found between urinary trehalase and urinary cadmium. Seventeen men and 11 women showed raised urinary trehalase activities despite normal values of urinary /beta/2-m (<300 /mu/g/g.creatinine), suggesting that urinary trehalase increases earlier than urinary /beta/2-m. In 19 patients with Itai-itai disease included in the Cd-exposed group, urinary trehalase decreased with decreasing reciprocal of serum creatinine, suggesting that urinary trehalase decreases in the most advanced cases of chronic cadmium nephropathy due to reduced tubular cell mass. (orig.).

  7. Cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone against human breast and cervical cancers are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor {gamma} activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Soyoung; Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, So Jung; Kim, Jinkyoung; Yoon, Doyoung; Kim, Yangmee [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eunrhan [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Human peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR{gamma}) has been implicated in numerous pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Previously, we verified that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPAR{gamma} and probed the molecular basis of its action. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of amentoflavone in cancer cells and demonstrated that amentoflavone showed strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines. We showed that hPPAR{gamma} expression in MCF-7 and HeLa cells is specifically stimulated by amentoflavone, and suggested that amentoflavone-induced cytotoxic activities are mediated by activation of hPPAR{gamma} in these two cancer cell lines. Moreover, amentoflavone increased PTEN levels in these two cancer cell lines, indicating that the cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to hPPAR{gamma} activation.

  8. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low

  9. Tissue plasminogen activator-assisted vitrectomy for submacular hemorrhage due to age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment efficacy of vitrectomy combined with subretinal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA and factors affecting visual improvement in patients with submacular hemorrhage (SMH due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 17 consecutive patients diagnosed with SMH secondary to nAMD were retrospectively reviewed. The initial surgical procedure involved a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy, subretinal r-tPA application through a self-sealing inferior retinotomy, and sulfur hexafluoride gas for tamponade in all patients. The duration, size, and thickness of the hemorrhage and the pre- and post-operative visual acuity (VA using a Snellen chart were recorded. VA was converted to logMAR for statistical analysis. Results: The average duration and size of the SMH were 12.8 ± 18.2 days and 8.6 ± 5.3 disc areas, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 16.9 ± 4.7 months. A statistically significant visual improvement was found when comparing initial VA with postoperative best-corrected VA (BCVA and final BCVA (Wilcoxon rank test, P ≤ 0.01. There was no significant correlation between the size of the hemorrhage and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. There was no statistically significant correlation between the initial VA and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. There was no significant correlation between the duration of hemorrhage and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. The preoperative thickness of hemorrhage (747.5 ± 30 μm was not correlated with postoperative BCVA or final BCVA (Pearson's test. Conclusions: Vitrectomy combined with subretinal r-tPA injection and gas tamponade is an effective surgical intervention to preserve VA in selected patients with apparent SMH.

  10. Association of time of occurrence of electrical heart storms with environmental physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliiyahu; Kusniec, Jairo; Golovchiner, Gregory; Abramson, Evgeny; Kadmon, Udi; Strasberg, Boris

    2014-08-01

    Many publications in recent decades have reported a temporal link between medical events and environmental physical activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the time of occurrence of electrical heart storms against levels of cosmological parameters. The sample included 82 patients (71 male) with ischemic cardiomyopathy treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator at a tertiary medical center in 1999-2012 (5,114 days). The time of occurrence of all electrical heart storms, defined as three or more events of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation daily, was recorded from the defibrillator devices. Findings were analyzed against data on solar, geomagnetic, and cosmic ray (neutron) activity for the same time period obtained from space institutions in the United States and Russia. Electrical storms occurred in all months of the year, with a slight decrease in July, August, and September. Most events took place on days with lower-than-average levels of solar and geomagnetic activity and higher-than-average levels of cosmic ray (neutron) activity. There was a significant difference in mean daily cosmic ray activity between the whole observation period and the days of electrical storm activity (P = 0.0001). These data extend earlier findings on the association of the timing of cardiac events and space weather parameters to the most dangerous form of cardiac arrhythmia-electric storms. Further studies are needed to delineate the pathogenetic mechanism underlying this association. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Workshop Physics Activity Guide, Module 4: Electricity and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2004-05-01

    The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is a set of student workbooks designed to serve as the foundation for a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics course. It consists of 28 units that interweave text materials with activities that include prediction, qualitative observation, explanation, equation derivation, mathematical modeling, quantitative experiments, and problem solving. Students use a powerful set of computer tools to record, display, and analyze data, as well as to develop mathematical models of physical phenomena. The design of many of the activities is based on the outcomes of physics education research. The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is supported by an Instructor's Website that: (1) describes the history and philosophy of the Workshop Physics Project; (2) provides advice on how to integrate the Guide into a variety of educational settings; (3) provides information on computer tools (hardware and software) and apparatus; and (4) includes suggested homework assignments for each unit. Log on to the Workshop Physics Project website at http://physics.dickinson.edu/ Workshop Physics is a component of the Physics Suite--a collection of materials created by a group of educational reformers known as the Activity Based Physics Group. The Physics Suite contains a broad array of curricular materials that are based on physics education research, including: Understanding Physics, by Cummings, Laws, Redish and Cooney (an introductory textbook based on the best-selling text by Halliday/Resnick/Walker) RealTime Physics Laboratory Modules Physics by Inquiry (intended for use in a workshop setting) Interactive Lecture Demonstration Tutorials in Introductory Physics Activity Based Tutorials (designed primarily for use in recitations)

  12. The Evaluation of Removal Efficiency of COD Due to Water Contaminated by Gasoline by Granular Active Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salmani

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We can conclude from this study that the activated carbon is an appropriate adsorbent for decreasing of COD due to gasoline contamination in water. The use of this adsorbent can well decrease COD of water contamination due to gasoline at times of 30 min.

  13. The impact of liberalisation on every day's activity of the electricity market participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beran, H.

    2004-01-01

    This contribution is dedicated to the consequences of the liberalisation of the electricity market. Special attention is paid to activities of electricity suppliers and eligible customers connected with work with load profiles. The first part is dedicated to electricity suppliers and traders. It identifies the main changes brought by the liberalisation process and the activities of the suppliers connected with work with load profiles. Special software tools are mentioned, such as tools for balancing, prediction, optimisation of costs, pricing, and communication tools. The second part of this contribution is dedicated to eligible customers. It describes the main changes for eligible customers and the challenges of the open market. Special software tools for eligible customers are introduced, such as tools for balancing, load profile creation, price calculation and communication. At the end of this contribution, selected consequences of inadequate preparation for the electricity market are mentioned as well as the ways to minimize the negative effects. (author)

  14. Microbial Activity Influences Electrical Conductivity of Biofilm Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed the conductivity of a Geobacter-enriched biofilm anode along with biofilm activity in a microbial electrochemical cell (MxC) equipped with two gold anodes (25 mM acetate medium), as different proton gradients were built throughout the biofilm. There was no pH ...

  15. An active learning organisation: teaching projects in electrical engineering education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, H.-P.; Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.; Lemoult, B.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of active learning in engineering education is often started by enthusiastic teachers or change agents. They usually encounter resistance from stakeholders such as colleagues, department boards or students. For a successful introduction these stakeholders all have to learn what

  16. Imbalance of Nature due to Anthropogenic Activities in the Bay of Bacorehuis, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Cárdenas Cota, H.

    2013-05-01

    Pollution is further enhancing water scarcity by reducing water usability downstream, globally the most prevalent water quality problem is eutrophication, a result of high-nutrient loads, which substantially impairs beneficial uses of water. Projected food production needs and increasing wastewater effluents associated with an increasing population over the next three decades suggest a 10%-15% increase in the river input of nitrogen loads into coastal ecosystems (UNO, 2009). Our study in the Bay of Bacorehuis in the State of Sinaloa, which was carried out due to a request from local fishermen who wanted to find out the reason for fishing stocks depletion, confirmed this trend with the consequent imbalance of nature. Sinaloa depends heavily on intensive agricultural production to support its economy which in turn relies on water irrigation and the application of agro-chemicals. The research project included a desk top study of geophysical and environmental factors as well as sampling and testing of the water. In addition we carried out socio-economic research to find out the impact on the local community of the imbalance caused by anthropogenic activities in the watershed upstream from the Bay. Our research established that the Bay of Bacorehuis is contaminated by organic matter, bacteria coliforms, pesticides and mercury due to the discharge of surplus runoff generated by irrigation of farmlands into drainage networks as well as the discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater form more than 24,000 inhabitants. The main contaminants detected in the water bodies were organic matter, faecal coliforms, mercury, dimethoate, endosulfan, heptachlor, DDE, DDT, organonitrogen, synthetic pyrethroid, chlorothalonil, ethion, endosulfan, diazinon, malathion and chlorpyrifos. Contaminants in sediments included the pesticides endosulfan, heptachlor, DDE, DDT, organophosphates, organonitrogen and synthetic pyrethroids. Natural water courses have been highly modified

  17. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  18. Electrical processes for the treatment of medium-active liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Bowen, W.R.; Bridger, N.J.; Junkison, A.R.; Cox, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Cross-flow electrokinetic dewatering has been developed on a lab-scale into an effective process for the treatment of such wastes as gravity-settled flocs, or sludges arising from fuel storage. The product may be concentrated to 25-42 % solids while still remaining fluid, prior to immobilization - e.g. by addition of cement powder. Complete retention of activity in the concentrate was observed during the treatment of Harwell low-level waste sludges due to the high solids separation factor (>10 4 ). It is a low pressure, low temperature process - consuming only 0.03-0.13 kWh/L at permeation rates of 0.3-1.5 m/h (depending on the stream), corresponding to 1/67 - 1/15 of that needed for evaporation. An advanced electrochemical ion-exchange system has been developed in which ionic material can be electrically absorbed and eluted by polarity reversal > 1000 times, without any change in performance. Decontamination factors of about 2000 were achieved for Cs removal, up to 75 % loading of the exchanger at flow rates of 8 bed volumes/h. Elution into water can give concentrates of > 0.25 M - with consequent high volume reduction factors. Inorganic ion-exchangers have also demonstrated system selectivity for the removal of specific cations. Overall energy consumption is 3 (1/400 evaporation). Significant cost savings over conventional ion-exchange may accrue from the improved performance under electrical control, and the reduced volumes of waste requiring disposal. 25 refs, 28 tabs, 114 figs

  19. Improved model of activation energy absorption for different electrical breakdowns in semi-crystalline insulating polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Wenxia; Jiang, Xiongwei; Peng, Qingjun; Sun, Potao

    2018-05-01

    Electrical breakdown is an important physical phenomenon in electrical equipment and electronic devices. Many related models and theories of electrical breakdown have been proposed. However, a widely recognized understanding on the following phenomenon is still lacking: impulse breakdown strength which varies with waveform parameters, decrease in the breakdown strength of AC voltage with increasing frequency, and higher impulse breakdown strength than that of AC. In this work, an improved model of activation energy absorption for different electrical breakdowns in semi-crystalline insulating polymers is proposed based on the Harmonic oscillator model. Simulation and experimental results show that, the energy of trapped charges obtained from AC stress is higher than that of impulse voltage, and the absorbed activation energy increases with the increase in the electric field frequency. Meanwhile, the frequency-dependent relative dielectric constant ε r and dielectric loss tanδ also affect the absorption of activation energy. The absorbed activation energy and modified trap level synergistically determine the breakdown strength. The mechanism analysis of breakdown strength under various voltage waveforms is consistent with the experimental results. Therefore, the proposed model of activation energy absorption in the present work may provide a new possible method for analyzing and explaining the breakdown phenomenon in semi-crystalline insulating polymers.

  20. Environmental changes in the central Po Plain (northern Italy) due to fluvial modifications and anthropogenic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mauro

    2002-05-01

    The fluvial environment of the central Po Plain, the largest plain in Italy, is discussed in this paper. Bounded by the mountain chains of the Alps and the Apennines, this plain is a link between the Mediterranean environment and the cultural and continental influences of both western and eastern Europe. In the past decades, economic development has been responsible for many changes in the fluvial environment of the area. This paper discusses the changes in fluvial dynamics that started from Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene due to distinct climatic changes. The discussion is based on geomorphological, pedological, and archaeological evidences and radiocarbon dating. In the northern foothills, Late Pleistocene palaeochannels indicate several cases of underfit streams among the northern tributaries of the River Po. On the other hand, on the southern side of the Po Plain, no geomorphological evidence of similar discharge reduction has been found. Here, stratigraphic sections, together with archaeological remains buried under the fluvial deposits, show a reduction in the size of fluvial sediments after the 10th millennium BC. During the Holocene, fluvial sedimentation became finer, and was characterised by minor fluctuations in the rate of deposition, probably related to short and less intense climatic fluctuations. Given the high rate of population growth and the development of human activities since the Neolithic Age, human influence on fluvial dynamics, especially since the Roman Age, prevailed over other factors (i.e., climate, tectonics, vegetation, etc.). During the Holocene, the most important changes in the Po Plain were not modifications in water discharge but in sediment. From the 1st to 3rd Century AD, land grants to war veterans caused almost complete deforestation, generalised soil erosion, and maximum progradation of the River Po delta. At present, land abandonment in the mountainous region has led to reafforestation. Artificial channel control in the

  1. Active Thrust on an Inclined Retaining Wall with Inclined Cohesionless Backfill due to Surcharge Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaikar, D. M.; Pandey, S. R.; Dixit, Jagabandhu

    2012-01-01

    A method based on the application of Kötter’s equation is proposed for the complete analysis of active thrust on an inclined wall with inclined cohesionless backfill under surcharge effect. Coulomb’s failure mechanism is considered in the analysis. The point of application of active thrust is determined from the condition of moment equilibrium. The coefficient of active pressure and the point of application of the active thrust are computed and presented in nondimensional form. One distinguis...

  2. Performance and brain electrical activity during prolonged confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, B; Lorenz, J; Manzey, D

    1996-01-01

    A subset of the AGARD-STRES battery including memory search, unstable tracking, and a combination of both tasks (dual-task), was applied repeatedly to the four chamber crew members before, during, and after the 60-day isolation period of EXEMSI. Five ground control group members served as a control group. A subjective state questionnaire was also included. The results were subjected to a quantitative single-subject analysis. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded to permit correlation of changes in task performance with changes in the physiological state. Evaluation of the EEG focused on spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG waves. No physiological data were collected from the control group. Significant decrements in tracking ability were observed in the chamber crew. The time course of these effects followed a triphasic pattern with initial deterioration, intermediate recovery to pre-isolation baseline scores after the first half of the isolation period, and a second deterioration towards the end. None of the control group subjects displayed such an effect. Memory search (speed and accuracy) was only occasionally impaired during isolation, but the control group displayed a similar pattern of changes. It is suggested that a state of decreased alertness causes tracking deterioration, which leads to a reduced efficiency of sustained cue utilization. The assumption of low alertness was further substantiated by higher fatigue ratings by the chamber crew compared to those of the control group. Analysis of the continuous EEG recordings revealed that only two subjects produced reliable alpha wave activity (8-12 Hz) over Pz and, to a much smaller extent, Fz-theta wave activity (5-7 Hz) during task performance. In both subjects Pz-alpha power decreased consistently under task conditions involving single-task and dual-task tracking. Fz-theta activity was increased more by single-task and dual-task memory search than by single-task tracking. The alpha attenuation appears

  3. Electric Pulse Discharge Activated Carbon Supercapacitors for Transportation Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Subhadarshi; Agrawal, Jyoti

    2012-03-01

    ScienceTomorrow is developing a high-speed, low-cost process for synthesizing high-porosity electrodes for electrochemical double-layer capacitors. Four types of coal (lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite) were used as precursor materials for spark discharge activation with multiscale porous structure. The final porosity and pore distribution depended, among other factors, on precursor type. The high gas content in low-grade carbon resulted in mechanical disintegration, whereas high capacitance was attained in higher-grade coal. The properties, including capacitance, mechanical robustness, and internal conductivity, were excellent when the cost is taken into consideration.

  4. Patterns recognition of electric brain activity using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Pchelintseva, S. V.; Runnova, A. E.; Hramov, A. E.

    2017-04-01

    An approach for the recognition of various cognitive processes in the brain activity in the perception of ambiguous images. On the basis of developed theoretical background and the experimental data, we propose a new classification of oscillating patterns in the human EEG by using an artificial neural network approach. After learning of the artificial neural network reliably identified cube recognition processes, for example, left-handed or right-oriented Necker cube with different intensity of their edges, construct an artificial neural network based on Perceptron architecture and demonstrate its effectiveness in the pattern recognition of the EEG in the experimental.

  5. Preparation of activated carbon aerogel and its application to electrode material for electric double layer capacitor in organic electrolyte: Effect of activation temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soon Hyung; Lee, Eunji; Kim, Myung-Soo; Jung, Ji Chul [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum-Soo; Kim, Sang-Gil; Lee, Byung-Jun [Vitzrocell Co., Yesan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Carbon aerogel was chemically activated with KOH at various activation temperatures with the aim of improving the electrochemical performance of carbon aerogel for EDLC electrode. Electrochemical performance of activated carbon aerogel electrode was determined by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge methods using coin-type EDLC cell in organic electrolyte. Activation temperature played an important role in determining the electrochemical performance of activated carbon aerogel for EDLC electrode. Specific capacitance of activated carbon aerogel at a high current density (5 A/g) showed a volcano-shaped curve with respect to activation temperature. Excessively high activation temperature could have an adverse effect on the electrochemical properties of activated carbon aerogel due to the low electrical conductivity caused by a collapse of characteristic structure of carbon aerogel. Among the carbon samples, carbon aerogel activated at 800 .deg. C with a high surface area and a well-developed porous structure exhibited the highest specific capacitance. In addition, carbon aerogel activated at 800 .deg. C retained a considerable specific capacitance at a high current density even after 1000 cycles of charge/discharge. Therefore, it is concluded that carbon aerogel activated with KOH at 800 .deg. C can serve as an efficient electrode material for commercial EDLC with a high power density.

  6. Pancreatic β-Cell Electrical Activity and Insulin Secretion: of Mice and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorsman, Patrik; Ashcroft, Frances M

    2018-01-01

    The pancreatic β-cell plays a key role in glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin, the only hormone capable of lowering the blood glucose concentration. Impaired insulin secretion results in the chronic hyperglycaemia that characterizes type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which currently afflicts >450 million people worldwide. The healthy β-cell acts as a glucose sensor matching its output to the circulating glucose concentration. It does so via metabolically induced changes in electrical activity, which culminate in an increase in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration and initiation of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of insulin-containing secretory granules. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the β-cell transcriptome, electrical activity and insulin exocytosis. We highlight salient differences between mouse and human β-cells, provide models of how the different ion channels contribute to their electrical activity and insulin secretion, and conclude by discussing how these processes become perturbed in T2DM. PMID:29212789

  7. Preterm labor--modeling the uterine electrical activity from cellular level to surface recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihana, S; Marque, C

    2008-01-01

    Uterine electrical activity is correlated to the appearance of uterine contractions. forceful contractions appear at the end of term. Therefore, understanding the genesis and the propagation of uterine electrical activity may provide an efficient tool to diagnose preterm labor. Moreover, the control of uterine excitability seems to have important consequences in the control of preterm labor. Modeling the electrical activity in uterine tissue is thus an important step in understanding physiological uterine contractile mechanisms and to permit uterine EMG simulation. Our model presented in this paper, incorporates ion channel models at the cell level, the reaction diffusion equations at the tissue level and the spatiotemporal integration at the uterine EMG reconstructed level. This model validates some key physiological observation hypotheses concerning uterine excitability and propagation.

  8. Interactions between electricity generation sources and economic activity in Greece: A VECM approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, António Cardoso; Fuinhas, José Alberto; Menegaki, Angeliki N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Adjustment dynamics in electricity sources and industrial production are examined. • The Johansen’s method with a conditional VEC model was pursued. • Results confirm endogeneity among variables. • Cointegration relationships for fossil and for renewables sources were founded. • Renewables are less affected by disturbance in economic activity. - Abstract: The interactions between electricity generation sources and industrial production in Greece were analysed from August 2004 to October 2013. Greece has been subject to a tough economic adjustment under external financial assistance guidelines. In the meantime, the country has remained committed to international agreements concerning the use of renewables. The variables interact with each other, and this endogeneity has been analysed using a VECM model. A short-run, causal relationship from conventional fossil sources to economic growth, was proved. However, there is no evidence of causal relationships from renewable electricity to economic growth, either in the short- or long-run. Only economic growth gives rise to renewable electricity, whether in the short- or long-run. A fresh insight on the current state of dynamics between electricity sources within an electricity generation system, is thus added to the literature. These findings will inform energy policymakers in designing policies both to encourage the incorporation of national technology into renewables and to reduce electricity consumption without hampering economic growth

  9. Activity concentration and population dose from 226Ra due to consumption of dietary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, S.S.; Patra, A.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    226 Ra (T 1/2 = 1620 years, α-energy 4.78 MeV, 4.59 MeV, γ-energy 186 keV), a product of natural uranium decay series, is abundantly observed in natural environment. Radium, along with its homologue calcium, an essential element in the plant system, is absorbed from the soil by plants and gets redistributed. within different parts of the plants. Because of the long half-life of 226 Ra, it gets accumulated in the human body for along time. The hazard due to ingestion of 226 Ra dissolved in water is reported to be about 40 times higher than that of 90 Sr. This paper deals with the concentration of 226 Ra in different dietary components and ingestion dose from 226 Ra due to consumption of dietary components. Internal radiation exposure to non-human biota due to 226 Ra is also discussed

  10. The Challenge Posed by Geomagnetic Activity to Electric Power Reliability: Evidence From England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Kevin F.; St. Cyr, O. C.

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses whether geomagnetic activity challenged the reliability of the electric power system during part of the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Operations by National Grid in England and Wales are examined over the period of 11 March 2003 through 31 March 2005. This paper examines the relationship between measures of geomagnetic activity and a metric of challenged electric power reliability known as the net imbalance volume (NIV). Measured in megawatt hours, NIV represents the sum of all energy deployments initiated by the system operator to balance the electric power system. The relationship between geomagnetic activity and NIV is assessed using a multivariate econometric model. The model was estimated using half-hour settlement data over the period of 11 March 2003 through 31 December 2004. The results indicate that geomagnetic activity had a demonstrable effect on NIV over the sample period. Based on the parameter estimates, out-of-sample predictions of NIV were generated for each half hour over the period of 1 January to 31 March 2005. Consistent with the existence of a causal relationship between geomagnetic activity and the electricity market imbalance, the root-mean-square error of the out-of-sample predictions of NIV is smaller; that is, the predictions are more accurate, when the statistically significant estimated effects of geomagnetic activity are included as drivers in the predictions.

  11. On the Photonic Cellular Interaction and the Electric Activity of Neurons in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salari, V; Tuszynski, J; Bokkon, I; Rahnama, M; Cifra, M

    2011-01-01

    The subject of Ultraweak Photon Emission (UPE) by biological systems is very fascinating, and both evidence of its effects and applications are growing rapidly due to improvements in experimental techniques. Since the relevant equipment should be ultrasensitive with high quantum efficiencies and very low noise levels, the subject of UPE is still hotly debated and some of the interpretations need stronger empirical evidence to be accepted at face value. In this paper we first review different types of interactions between light and living systems based on recent publications. We then discuss the feasibility of UPE production in the human brain. The subject of UPE in the brain is still in early stages of development and needs more accurate experimental methods for proper analysis. In this work we also discuss a possible role of mitochondria in the production of UPE in the neurons of the brain and the plausibility of their effects on microtubules (MTs). MTs have been implicated as playing an important role in the signal and information processing taking place in the mammalian (especially human) brain. Finally, we provide a short discussion about the feasible effects of MTs on electric neural activity in the human brain.

  12. Characterizing Motif Dynamics of Electric Brain Activity Using Symbolic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zanin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motifs are small recurring circuits of interactions which constitute the backbone of networked systems. Characterizing motif dynamics is therefore key to understanding the functioning of such systems. Here we propose a method to define and quantify the temporal variability and time scales of electroencephalogram (EEG motifs of resting brain activity. Given a triplet of EEG sensors, links between them are calculated by means of linear correlation; each pattern of links (i.e., each motif is then associated to a symbol, and its appearance frequency is analyzed by means of Shannon entropy. Our results show that each motif becomes observable with different coupling thresholds and evolves at its own time scale, with fronto-temporal sensors emerging at high thresholds and changing at fast time scales, and parietal ones at low thresholds and changing at slower rates. Finally, while motif dynamics differed across individuals, for each subject, it showed robustness across experimental conditions, indicating that it could represent an individual dynamical signature.

  13. CHANGES IN THE GASTRIC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY AFTER A WHIPPLE PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roushan

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Several recent reports reveal that patients develop symptoms of gastorintestinal motility disorders after the standard Whipple procedure. In the Department of Propedeutics of Surgery at Bulgarian Medical Academy in Sofia we observed the same phenomenon in our Whipple-operated group of patients. But the pathogenetic mechanism was so far unclear that prompted us to conduct an experimental study in this area. Eight mongrel dogs weighing an average weight of 15-20 Kg were operated after a Whipple procedure; five dogs survived postoperatively. Microelectrodes were implanted subserously on the muscular wall of the gastric remnant, afferent and efferent loop of the jejunum, as well as in the duodenum which were kept intact to serve the purpose. Bioelectric tracings were conducted twice or thrice weekly for a period of 2-3 hours up to the end of the first postoperative year. Serious rhythmic as well as characteristic disturbances which are believed to be related to the motility disorders after this operative procedure were found in the bioelectric activity of the gastric remnant.

  14. Total sitting time, leisure time physical activity and risk of hospitalization due to low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Mie; Holmberg, Teresa; Petersen, Christina B

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed to test the hypotheses that a high total sitting time and vigorous physical activity in leisure time increase the risk of low back pain and herniated lumbar disc disease. METHODS: A total of 76,438 adults answered questions regarding their total sitting time and physical...... activity during leisure time in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Information on low back pain diagnoses up to 10 September 2015 was obtained from The National Patient Register. The mean follow-up time was 7.4 years. Data were analysed using Cox regression analysis with adjustment...... disc disease. However, moderate or vigorous physical activity, as compared to light physical activity, was associated with increased risk of low back pain (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30 and HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.83). Moderate, but not vigorous physical activity was associated with increased risk...

  15. Activity concentration and AACED due to 40K in some selected medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekara, K.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The activity concentrations in soil and medicinal plants, soil to plant transfer factors (TF), and Average Annual Committed Effective Dose (AACED) of 40 K in prominent medicinal plants of Malnad Kerala were estimated. The range of activity concentrations were 144.15 - 558.99 and 405.87 - 2990.75 Bq kg -1 in soil and medicinal plants respectively. The TF was found to vary from 2.34 to 14.84, whereas AACED varied in the range 2.51 - 18.54 mSv y -1 . The study may help to form the database and safety regulations connected with 40 K activity in medicinal plants. (author)

  16. Delayed culture conversion due to cigarette smoking in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenbandring de Boer, Renee; Oliveira e Souza Filho, João Baptista de; Cobelens, Frank; Ramalho, Daniela de Paula; Campino Miranda, Pryscilla Fernandes; Logo, Karina de; Oliveira, Hedi; Mesquita, Eliene; Oliveira, Martha Maria; Kritski, Afrânio

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have assessed factors affecting culture conversion during tuberculosis treatment, few have looked into the effect of tobacco smoking. This study included 89 active pulmonary tuberculosis patients with positive sputum culture upon presentation and collected information regarding

  17. A novel application of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for improving glutathione (GSH) antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wang, Ke; Wang, Ying; Lin, Songyi; Zhao, Ping; Jones, Gregory

    2014-10-15

    Glutathione (GSH) was treated by pulsed electric field (PEF) processing to investigate its effect on antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of GSH was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical inhibition. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables, which were concentration, electric field intensity and pulse frequency was used to establish the regression equation of second-order response surface. Optimal conditions were as follows: GSH concentration 8.86mg/mL, electric field intensity 9.74kV/cm and pulse frequency 2549.08Hz. The DPPH radical inhibition increased from 81.83% to 97.40%. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) were used to analyse the change of structure and functional groups of GSH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phosphate Uptake from Phytate Due to Hyphae-Mediated Phytase Activity by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Xin; Hoffland, Ellis; Feng, Gu; Kuyper, Thomas W

    2017-01-01

    Phytate is the most abundant form of soil organic phosphorus (P). Increased P nutrition of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants derived from phytate has been repeatedly reported. Earlier studies assessed acid phosphatase rather than phytase as an indication of mycorrhizal fungi-mediated phytate use. We investigated the effect of mycorrhizal hyphae-mediated phytase activity on P uptake by maize. Two maize ( Zea mays L.) cultivars, non-inoculated or inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis mosseae or Claroideoglomus etunicatum , were grown for 45 days in two-compartment rhizoboxes, containing a root compartment and a hyphal compartment. The soil in the hyphal compartment was supplemented with 20, 100, and 200 mg P kg -1 soil as calcium phytate. We measured activity of phytase and acid phosphatase in the hyphal compartment, hyphal length density, P uptake, and plant biomass. Our results showed: (1) phytate addition increased phytase and acid phosphatase activity, and resulted in larger P uptake and plant biomass; (2) increases in P uptake and biomass were correlated with phytase activity but not with acid phosphatase activity; (3) lower phytate addition rate increased, but higher addition rate decreased hyphal length density. We conclude that P from phytate can be taken up by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants and that phytase plays a more important role in mineralizing phytate than acid phosphatase.

  19. Electrically aligned cellulose film for electro-active paper and its piezoelectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sungryul; Jang, Sangdong; Yun, Gyu-Young; Kim, Jaehwan

    2009-01-01

    Electrically aligned regenerated cellulose films were fabricated and the effect of applied electric field was investigated for the piezoelectricity of electro-active paper (EAPap). The EAPap was fabricated by coating gold electrodes on both sides of regenerated cellulose film. The cellulose film was prepared by dissolving cotton pulp in LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution followed by a cellulose chain regeneration process. During the regeneration process an external electric field was applied in the direction of mechanical stretching. Alignment of cellulose fiber chains was investigated as a function of applied electric field. The material characteristics of the cellulose films were analyzed by using an x-ray diffractometer, a field emission scanning electron microscope and a high voltage electron microscope. The application of external electric fields was found to induce formation of nanofibers in the cellulose, resulting in an increase in the crystallinity index (CI) values. It was also found that samples with higher CI values showed higher in-plane piezoelectric constant, d 31 , values. The piezoelectricity of the current EAPap films was measured to be equivalent or better than that of ordinary PVDF films. Therefore, an external electric field applied to a cellulose film along with a mechanical stretching during the regeneration process can enhance the piezoelectricity. (technical note)

  20. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  1. Agriculture--Agricultural Mechanics, Electric Motors. Kit No. 56. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomar, William

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on agricultural mechanics (electric motors) are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings:…

  2. Active and Collaborative Learning in an Introductory Electrical and Computer Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotru, Sushma; Burkett, Susan L.; Jackson, David Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Active and collaborative learning instruments were introduced into an introductory electrical and computer engineering course. These instruments were designed to assess specific learning objectives and program outcomes. Results show that students developed an understanding comparable to that of more advanced students assessed later in the…

  3. Profuse activity of blue electrical discharges at the tops of thunderstorms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten; Mogensen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    . The emissions are related to the so-called blue jets, blue starters and possibly pixies. The observations are the first of their kind and give a new perspective on the electrical activity at the top of tropical thunderstorms; further, they underscore that thunderstorm discharges directly perturb the chemistry...

  4. Dynamic Variation in Pleasure in Children Predicts Nonlinear Change in Lateral Frontal Brain Electrical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sharee N.; Coan, James A.; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Davidson, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Individual variation in the experience and expression of pleasure may relate to differential patterns of lateral frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral frontal cortex in positive emotion, but the excellent time resolution of these measures has not been used to capture…

  5. Combining fluidized activated carbon with weak alternating electric fields for disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Sharabati, J.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, A.H.; Yntema, D.R.; Mayer, M.J.J.; Bruning, H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents fluidized bed electrodes as a new device for disinfection. In the fluidized bed electrodes system, granular activated carbon particles were suspended, and an alternating radio frequency electric field was applied over the suspended bed. Proof-of-principle studies with the

  6. Electrical activity of the diaphragm during nCPAP and high flow nasal cannula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, C. G.; Hutten, G. J.; Kraaijenga, J. V.; de Jongh, F. H.; van Kaam, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine if the electrical activity of the diaphragm, as measure of neural respiratory drive and breathing effort, changes over time in preterm infants transitioned from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) to high flow nasal cannula (HFNC). Design Prospective

  7. Spherical active coated nano-particles – impact of the electric Hertzian dipole orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Mostafavi, M.; Malureanu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    Spherical active coated nano-particles comprised of a silica nano-cylinder core covered with a plasmonic nano-shell are investigated with regard to their near- and far-field properties. The source of excitation is taken to be that of a tangential or a radial electric Hertizan dipole while three...

  8. Motor unit activation order during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, CK; Nelson, G; Than, L; Zijdewind, Inge

    The activation order of motor units during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed thenar muscles was determined in seven subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. The median nerve was stimulated percutaneously with pulses of graded intensity to produce

  9. Dune-slope activity due to frost and wind throughout the north polar erg, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candice J; Allen, Amanda; Grigsby, Nathan; Li, Zheyu; Perez, Tyler; Chojnacki, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Repeat, high-resolution imaging of dunes within the Martian north polar erg have shown that these dune slopes are very active, with alcoves forming along the dune brink each Mars year. In some areas, a few hundred cubic metres of downslope sand movement have been observed, sometimes moving the dune brink 'backwards'. Based on morphological and activity-timing similarities of these north polar features to southern dune gullies, identifying the processes forming these features is likely to have relevance for understanding the general evolution/modification of dune gullies. To determine alcove-formation model constraints, we have surveyed seven dune fields, each over 1-4 Mars winters. Consistent with earlier reports, we found that alcove-formation activity occurs during the autumn-winter seasons, before or while the stable seasonal frost layer is deposited. We propose a new model in which alcove formation occurs during the autumn, and springtime sublimation activity then enhances the feature. Summertime winds blow sand into the new alcoves, erasing small alcoves over a few Mars years. Based on the observed rate of alcove erasure, we estimated the effective aeolian sand transport flux. From this, we proposed that alcove formation may account for 2-20% of the total sand movement within these dune fields.

  10. Direct electrical stimulation of human cortex evokes high gamma activity that predicts conscious somatosensory perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Leah; Rolston, John D.; Fox, Neal P.; Knowlton, Robert; Rao, Vikram R.; Chang, Edward F.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a clinical gold standard for human brain mapping and readily evokes conscious percepts, yet the neurophysiological changes underlying these percepts are not well understood. Approach. To determine the neural correlates of DES, we stimulated the somatosensory cortex of ten human participants at frequency-amplitude combinations that both elicited and failed to elicit conscious percepts, meanwhile recording neural activity directly surrounding the stimulation site. We then compared the neural activity of perceived trials to that of non-perceived trials. Main results. We found that stimulation evokes distributed high gamma activity, which correlates with conscious perception better than stimulation parameters themselves. Significance. Our findings suggest that high gamma activity is a reliable biomarker for perception evoked by both natural and electrical stimuli.

  11. A new loss mechanism in graphene nanoresonators due to the synthetic electric fields caused by inherent out-of-plane membrane corrugations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firsova, N E; Firsov, Yu A

    2012-01-01

    For the first time the influence of out-of-plane deformations, which always exist in graphene, on the non-stationary processes is considered for the case of a monolayer graphene nanoresonator. A new loss mechanism for this device caused by dissipative intra-valley currents stipulated by synthetic electric fields is studied. These fields are generated by time-dependent gauge fields arising in a graphene membrane due to its intrinsic out-of-plane distortions and the influence of the external periodic electromotive force. The corresponding formula for the quality factor has a quantum mechanical origin and includes quantum mechanical parameters. This loss mechanism accounts for an essential part (about 40%) of losses in a graphene nanoresonator and it is specific just for graphene. The ways of minimization of this kind of dissipation (an increase in the quality factor of the electromechanical system) are discussed. It is explained why one can enhance the quality factor by correctly choosing a combination of strains (by strain engineering). In addition, it is shown that the quality factor can be increased by switching on a magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene membrane.

  12. Comparison of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Cryotherapy for Increasing Quadriceps Activation in Patients With Knee Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Conrad M; Lepley, Adam S; Uhl, Tim L; Mattacola, Carl G

    2016-08-01

    Proper neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle is essential for maintaining quadriceps (quad) strength and lower-extremity function. Quad activation (QA) failure is a common characteristic observed in patients with knee pathologies, defined as an inability to voluntarily activate the entire alpha-motor-neuron pool innervating the quad. One of the more popular techniques used to assess QA is the superimposed burst (SIB) technique, a force-based technique that uses a supramaximal, percutaneous electrical stimulation to activate all of the motor units in the quad during a maximal, voluntary isometric contraction. Central activation ratio (CAR) is the formula used to calculate QA level (CAR = voluntary force/SIB force) with the SIB technique. People who can voluntarily activate 95% or more (CAR = 0.95-1.0) of their motor units are defined as being fully activated. Therapeutic exercises aimed at improving quad strength in patients with knee pathologies are limited in their effectiveness due to a failure to fully activate the muscle. Within the past decade, several disinhibitory interventions have been introduced to treat QA failure in patients with knee pathologies. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and cryotherapy are sensory-targeted modalities traditionally used to treat pain, but they have been shown to be 2 of the most successful treatments for increasing QA levels in patients with QA failure. Both modalities are hypothesized to positively affect voluntary QA by disinhibiting the motor-neuron pool of the quad. In essence, these modalities provide excitatory afferent stimuli to the spinal cord, which thereby overrides the inhibitory afferent signaling that arises from the involved joint. However, it remains unknown whether 1 is more effective than the other for restoring QA levels in patients with knee pathologies. By knowing the capabilities of each disinhibitory modality, clinicians can tailor treatments based on the rehabilitation goals

  13. Remediation activities wrestling with environmental pollution and radwaste generated by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident due to the Tohoku district-off the pacific ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Motoi; Fujitsuka, Tetsuro; Yoshihara, Koichi; Katsumi, Takeshi; Tochiyama, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Based on the lectures and panel discussions 'Radioactive waste countermeasures and the role of civil engineering technology' on the occasion of 3rd year of the Great East Japan Earthquake, March 11, 2011, hosted by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers, the paper summarizes remediation activities reported during the seminar. Radioactive materials contaminated area due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident from the Department of Environment, endeavors for setting-up of temporary storage facilities for the decontaminated soils and solid wastes, present status of roadmap toward the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Plants from the Japanese Government and Tokyo Electric Power Co. were presented followed by expectations of civil engineers cooperation. (S. Ohno)

  14. Intrinsic rotation due to MHD activity in a tokamak with a resistive wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M G; Gimblett, C G; Hastie, R J

    2013-01-01

    MHD activity in a tokamak, in the form of waves and instabilities, generally has a preferred direction for propagation in a two-fluid plasma. When the radial component of magnetic field associated with this activity interacts with a resistive wall, momentum or angular momentum will be given to the wall. The equal and opposite reaction will be on the plasma, in particular, for ideal and resistive modes, at the singular or resonant surfaces for the various modes. In this case the torque exerted is electromagnetic. This is in contrast to other mechanisms for intrinsic or spontaneous rotation which may arise at the plasma boundary. The resistive wall is considered generally, and the thin and thick wall limits found, the latter being relevant to ITER parameters. Remarkably small radial perturbing fields of order 0.1 G could produce a torque comparable in effect to the apparent anomalous toroidal viscosity. (paper)

  15. Risks due to industrial activities and to transports around nuclear installations sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumenc, A.; Faure, J.

    1988-01-01

    In order to verify that the human activities around a site under consideration are not incompatible with the installation conception, they should be analyzed before the definitive site selection, then watched over and if necessary limited during the installation construction and operation. Taking account of the aggression sources diversity, there is to consider different distances according to the risks. 6 tabs., 5 refs. (F.M.)

  16. Review : Pollution due to Coal Mining Activity and its Impact on Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Arif Setiawan; Dedik Budianta; Dwi Putro Priadi; Suheryanto

    2018-01-01

    Utilization of natural resources in the form of coal mines has a positive impact on economic and energy development, in addition to coal mining activities have a negative impact on the environment that result in environmental pollution in soil, water, and air. Pollution begins when clearing land, taking exploitation, transporting, stockpile and when the coal is burned. When land clearing causes damage to forest ecosystems. At the time of exploitation impact on air pollution by coal dust parti...

  17. Occupational exposure to natural radionuclides due to mining activities in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ademola, J.A.; Okpalaonwuka, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    The activity concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium in minerals and soil samples from a mining site in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria were measured using gamma ray spectroscopy method. Effective dose per annum has been calculated from the activity concentrations of dominant gamma-emitting natural radionuclides, potassium, uranium and thorium. Samples collected include minerals (beryl, quartz and feldspar), soil samples from the mining pits, heaps and undisturbed land around the mining site. The activity concentrations of 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th, respectively in Bq kg-1 in the mineral samples were as follows: 1985 ± 16, 4.8 ± 0.9 and 11.8 ± 5.8 for beryl sample, 115.1 ± 27.9, 5.0 ± 1.3 and 6.3 ± 5.0 for feldspar samples and 1421 ± 122, 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th, respectively, were 314.2 ± 5.7, 27.7 ± 2.6 and 11.5 ± 5.9 Bq kg-1 for soil samples from the pits and 278.1 ± 5.4, 21.1 ± 2.0 and 15.3 ± 7.5 Bq kg-1 for soil samples from heaps. The mean activity concentrations of soil samples from the undisturbed land around the mining site were 194.3 ± 25.2, 14.5 ± 5.1 and 13.3 ± 5.9 Bq kg-1 for 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th, respectively. The effective dose to which the miners are exposed according to exposure scenarios were calculated as 89.9 μSv y-1 for digging and handling of soil and mineral samples in the pit and 63.6 μSv y-1 for handling of soil and mineral samples at the heaps. (authors)

  18. Biglycan deficiency increases osteoclast differentiation and activity due to defective osteoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bi, Yanming; Nielsen, Karina L; Kilts, Tina M

    2006-01-01

    to be independent of the differential production of soluble RANKL and OPG and, instead, due to a decrease in osteoblast maturation accompanied by increase in osteoblastic proliferation. In addition to the imbalance between differentiation and proliferation, there was a differential decrease in secretory leukocyte......Bone mass is maintained by a fine balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. Although osteoblasts and osteoclasts have different developmental origins, it is generally believed that the differentiation, function, and survival of osteoclasts are regulated...... by osteogenic cells. We have previously shown that the extracellular matrix protein, biglycan (Bgn), plays an important role in the differentiation of osteoblast precursors. In this paper, we showed that Bgn is involved in regulating osteoclast differentiation through its effect on osteoblasts...

  19. Dynamic Analysis of an Office Building due to Vibration from Road Construction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, T. N. T.; Kamil, M. R. H.; Yusoff, N. A.; Ibrahim, M. H. W.

    2018-04-01

    Construction activities are widely known as one of the predominant sources of man-made vibrations that able to create nuisance towards any adjacent building, and this includes the road construction operations. Few studies conclude the construction-induced vibration may be harmful directly and indirectly towards the neighbouring building. This lead to the awareness of study the building vibration response of concrete masonry load bearing system and its vibrational performance towards the road construction activities. This study will simulate multi-storey office building of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan (SMK) Bandar Enstek at Negeri Sembilan by using finite element vibration analyses. The excitation of transient loads from ground borne vibrations which triggered by the road construction activities are modelled into the building. The vibration response was recorded during in-situ ambient vibration test by using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV), which specifically performed on four different locations. The finite element simulation process was developed in the commercial FEA software ABAQUS. Then, the experimental data was processed and evaluated in MATLAB ModalV to assess the vibration criteria of the floor in building. As a result, the vibration level of floor in building is fall under VC-E curve which was under the maximum permissible level for office building (VC-ISO). The vibration level on floor is acceptable within the limit that have been referred.

  20. Structural activation calculations due to proton beam loss in the APT accelerator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. K.; Beard, C. A.; Wilson, W. B.; Daemen, L. L.; Liska, D. J.; Waters, L. S.; Adams, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    For the new, high-power accelerators currently being designed, the amount of activation of the accelerator structure has become an important issue. To quantify this activation, a methodology was utilized that coupled transport and depletion codes to obtain dose rate estimates at several locations near the accelerator. This research focused on the 20 and 100 MeV sections of the Bridge-Coupled Drift Tube Linear Accelerator. The peak dose rate was found to be approximately 6 mR/hr in the 100 MeV section near the quadrupoles at a 25-cm radius for an assumed beam loss of 1 nA/m. It was determined that the activation was dominated by the proton interactions and subsequent spallation product generation, as opposed to the presence of the generated neutrons. The worst contributors were the spallation products created by proton bombardment of iron, and the worst component was the beam pipe, which consists mostly of iron. No definitive conclusions about the feasibility of hands-on maintenance can be determined, as the design is still not finalized

  1. Structural activation calculations due to proton beam loss in the APT accelerator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.K.; Beard, C.A.; Wilson, W.B.; Daemen, L.L.; Liska, D.J.; Waters, L.S.; Adams, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    For the new, high-power accelerators currently being designed, the amount of activation of the accelerator structure has become an important issue. To quantify this activation, a methodology was utilized that coupled transport and depletion codes to obtain dose rate estimates at several locations near the accelerator. This research focused on the 20 and 100 MeV sections of the Bridge-Coupled Drift Tube Linear Accelerator. The peak dose rate was found to be approximately 6 mR/hr in the 100 MeV section near the quadrupoles at a 25-cm radius for an assumed beam loss of 1 nA/m. It was determined that the activation was dominated by the proton interactions and subsequent spallation product generation, as opposed to the presence of the generated neutrons. The worst contributors were the spallation products created by proton bombardment of iron, and the worst component was the beam pipe, which consists mostly of iron. No definitive conclusions about the feasibility of hands-on maintenance can be determined, as the design is still not finalized

  2. Enhancement of natural radiation and population exposures due to the activity of large steelworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewiadomski, T; Godek, J; Jasinska, M; Wasiolek, P [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland)

    1984-09-01

    Radionuclide releases and resulting population exposures from large industrial plants have recently become a subject of some public concern. Methods for assessing these effects were developed and, as an example, a complex of large steelworks located in the vicinity of the city of Krakow was investigated. The following critical pathways were considered: atmospheric release, and use of fly ash for production of building materials. For assessing annual average radionuclide concentrations in air and in soil around the works, a computer program was developed while other mathematical methods were applied to the assessment of maximum individual effective dose equivalent commitments (EDEC) due to inhalation, ingestion, and external gamma radiation. In order to acquire data for calculations many samples of raw materials, coal, ash, and dust were analysed as to their radionuclide concentration. The total individual EDEC at the place of maximum immission was estimated to be about 100 ..mu..Sv a/sup -1/ (i.e., about 6% of the natural exposure in this region), this being mainly due to ingestion (ca. 65 ..mu..Sv a/sup -1/) and to gamma radiation (ca. 30 ..mu..Sv a/sup -1/). The enhancement of dose rates over the ponds and of radioactivity concentration of liquid discharges from the ponds was found to be negligible. Dose rates in houses built entirely of fly ash were estimated to be higher than those in red-brick houses by not more than 0.2 ..mu..Sv a/sup -1/. The collective EDEC from the operational discharge of the steelworks is less than 11 man Sv a/sup -1/ and that of use of fly-ash prefabricated elements will be in the future less than 45 man Sv a/sup -1/.

  3. Coma Morphology Due to an Extended Active Region and Implications for the Spin State of Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.

    2000-01-01

    We show that the circular character of continuum structures observed in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp around the perihelion passage is most likely due to a dust jet from a large extended active region on the surface. Coma morphology due to a wide jet is different from that due to a narrow jet. The latter shows foreshortening effects due to observing geometry, wider jet produces more circular features. This circularization effect provides a self-consistent explanation for the evolution of near-perihelion coma morphology. No changes in the direction of the rotational angular momentum vector are required during this period in contrast to the models of Schleicher et al. This circularization effect also enables us to produce near-circular coma features in the S-E quadrant during 1997 late February and therefore questions the basic premise on which Sekanina bases his morphological arguments for a gravitationally bound satellite nucleus.

  4. Lévy noise improves the electrical activity in a neuron under electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Xu, Yong; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    As the fluctuations of the internal bioelectricity of nervous system is various and complex, the external electromagnetic radiation induced by magnet flux on membrane can be described by the non-Gaussian type distribution of Lévy noise. Thus, the electrical activities in an improved Hindmarsh-Rose model excited by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise are investigated and some interesting modes of the electrical activities are exhibited. The external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise leads to the mode transition of the electrical activities and spatial phase, such as from the rest state to the firing state, from the spiking state to the spiking state with more spikes, and from the spiking state to the bursting state. Then the time points of the firing state versus Lévy noise intensity are depicted. The increasing of Lévy noise intensity heightens the neuron firing. Also the stationary probability distribution functions of the membrane potential of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise with different intensity, stability index and skewness papremeters are analyzed. Moreover, through the positive largest Lyapunov exponent, the parameter regions of chaotic electrical mode of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise distribution are detected.

  5. Lévy noise improves the electrical activity in a neuron under electromagnetic radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    Full Text Available As the fluctuations of the internal bioelectricity of nervous system is various and complex, the external electromagnetic radiation induced by magnet flux on membrane can be described by the non-Gaussian type distribution of Lévy noise. Thus, the electrical activities in an improved Hindmarsh-Rose model excited by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise are investigated and some interesting modes of the electrical activities are exhibited. The external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise leads to the mode transition of the electrical activities and spatial phase, such as from the rest state to the firing state, from the spiking state to the spiking state with more spikes, and from the spiking state to the bursting state. Then the time points of the firing state versus Lévy noise intensity are depicted. The increasing of Lévy noise intensity heightens the neuron firing. Also the stationary probability distribution functions of the membrane potential of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise with different intensity, stability index and skewness papremeters are analyzed. Moreover, through the positive largest Lyapunov exponent, the parameter regions of chaotic electrical mode of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise distribution are detected.

  6. Proton activation studies of changes in mineral composition of Eucalyptus obliqua due to Phytophthora cinnamomi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M.A.; Lee, M.M.; Rouse, J.L.; Weste, G.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a study of disease caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi in native vegetation, the mineral composition of diseased plants has been compared with those free from disease, but grown under the same conditions. Using proton activation it has been shown that a reduction of 70% in iron and 41% in titanium occurs for diseased Eucalytus obliqua compared with disease-free plants. The reduction in iron is associated with severe chlorosis which occurs as a primary symptom in most plants attacked by this pathogen. (author)

  7. Coal mining activities change plant community structure due to air pollution and soil degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bhanu; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coal mining activities on the community structures of woody and herbaceous plants. The response of individual plants of community to defilement caused by coal mining was also assessed. Air monitoring, soil physico-chemical and phytosociological analyses were carried around Jharia coalfield (JCF) and Raniganj coalfield. The importance value index of sensitive species minified and those of tolerant species enhanced with increasing pollution load and altered soil quality around coal mining areas. Although the species richness of woody and herbaceous plants decreased with higher pollution load, a large number of species acclimatized to the stress caused by the coal mining activities. Woody plant community at JCF was more affected by coal mining than herbaceous community. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that structure of herbaceous community was mainly driven by soil total organic carbon, soil nitrogen, whereas woody layer community was influenced by sulphur dioxide in ambient air, soil sulphate and soil phosphorus. The changes in species diversity observed at mining areas indicated an increase in the proportion of resistant herbs and grasses showing a tendency towards a definite selection strategy of ecosystem in response to air pollution and altered soil characteristics.

  8. Are the changes in the peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels due to platelet activation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Millàs, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in central nervous system development, neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity. BDNF is also expressed in several non-neuronal tissues, and it could play an important role in other processes, such as cancer, angiogenesis, etc. Platelets are the major source of peripheral BDNF. However, platelets also contain high amounts of serotonin; they express specific surface receptors during activation, and a multitude of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory bioactive compounds are secreted from the granules. Until recently, there was insufficient knowledge regarding the relationship between BDNF and platelets. Recent studies showed that BDNF is present in two distinct pools in platelets, in α-granules and in the cytoplasm, and only the BDNF in the granules is secreted following stimulation, representing 30% of the total BDNF in platelets. BDNF has an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. Low levels of serum BDNF have been described in patients with major depressive disorder, and BDNF levels increased with chronic antidepressant treatment. Interestingly, there is an association between depression and platelet function. This review analyzed studies that evaluated the relationship between BDNF and platelet activation and the effect of treatments on both parameters. Only a few studies consider this possible confounding factor, and it could be very important in diseases such as depression, which show changes in both parameters. PMID:27014600

  9. Review : Pollution due to Coal Mining Activity and its Impact on Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Arif Setiawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of natural resources in the form of coal mines has a positive impact on economic and energy development, in addition to coal mining activities have a negative impact on the environment that result in environmental pollution in soil, water, and air. Pollution begins when clearing land, taking exploitation, transporting, stockpile and when the coal is burned. When land clearing causes damage to forest ecosystems. At the time of exploitation impact on air pollution by coal dust particles, the erosion, siltation of the river, the pollution of heavy metals and the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD. The high acid conditions cause the faster heavy metals such as Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni present in the coal dissolved and carried to the waters. Coal stockpile activity also causes pollution in the air, soil, and water. At the time the coal is burned as an energy source causes the emission of hazardous materials into the air of Hg, As, Se and CO2 gas, NOx, SO2. This condition has an impact on the environment and ultimately on human health.

  10. Telmisartan prevented cognitive decline partly due to PPAR-γ activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogi, Masaki; Li Jianmei; Tsukuda, Kana; Iwanami, Jun; Min, Li-Juan; Sakata, Akiko; Fujita, Teppei; Iwai, Masaru; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2008-01-01

    Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Here, we investigated the preventive effect of telmisartan on cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. In ddY mice, intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-40 significantly attenuated their cognitive function evaluated by shuttle avoidance test. Pretreatment with a non-hypotensive dose of telmisartan significantly inhibited such cognitive decline. Interestingly, co-treatment with GW9662, a PPAR-γ antagonist, partially inhibited this improvement of cognitive decline. Another ARB, losartan, which has less PPAR-γ agonistic effect, also inhibited Aβ-injection-induced cognitive decline; however the effect was smaller than that of telmisartan and was not affected by GW9662. Immunohistochemical staining for Aβ showed the reduced Aβ deposition in telmisartan-treated mice. However, this reduction was not observed in mice co-administered GW9662. These findings suggest that ARB has a preventive effect on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease, and telmisartan, with PPAR-γ activation, could exert a stronger effect

  11. Hemolytic activity of Fusobacterium necrophorum culture supernatants due to presence of phospholipase A and lysophospholipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, P M; Kendall, C J; Stauffer, L R; Holland, J W

    1979-01-01

    Culture supernatants of Fusobacterium necrophorum demonstrated hemolytic activity. The hemolysin(s), which was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, was temperature-dependent and heat labile. The spectrum of hemolytic activity against various erythrocytes included rabbit, human, and dog erythrocytes. Goats, sheep, and bovine erythrocytes showed only trace hemolysis. According to results of thin-layer chromatography, the hemolysin hydrolyzed rabbit erythrocyte phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysophosphatidyl choline, and bovine phosphatidyl choline. Hydrolysis of egg yolk phosphatidyl choline, bovine phosphatidyl ethanolamine, cholesterol, 1,2-dipalmitin, 1,3-dipalmitin, sphingomyelin, or triolein was not detected by thin layer chromatography. A more sensitive procedure utilizing gas-liquid chromatography revealed that, of the substrates tested, the following were bein hydrolyzed: bovine and egg yolk phosphatidyl choline, lysophosphatidyl choline, alpha-palmito-beta-eleoyl-L-alpha lecithin and alpha-oleoyl-betal-palmitoyl-L-alpha lecithin. Substrates which were weakly hydrolyzed were bovine phosphatidyl ethanolamine, DL-alpha-hosphatidyl ethanolamine dipalmitoyl, 1,2-dipalmitin, 1,3-dipalmitin, and triolein.

  12. Can human local activities worsen the rise of temperature due to Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, E.; Santana, J.; Deeb, A.; Grünwaldt, A.; Prieto, R.

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have shown a global scale temperature rise which in consequence, have brought up the need to propose various impact scenarios for this change on the planet and its life forms. Climate changes have a direct effect on human activities. Particularly these alterations have a negative impact on economy which in turn affects the most vulnerable and marginal population on developing nations. In a recent study based on 30 years climatological observed temperature in ten Mexican watersheds, from the period between 1970 and 1999, positive trend on maximum temperature were found in all watersheds. At each watershed at least 10 climatological stations from the net operated by the National Meteorological Service (Servicio Meterologico Nacional), whose data are maintained in the CLICOM database (Computerized Climate database), were selected. The climatological stations have at least 70% valid data per decade. In eight watersheds a maximum temperature trend oscillates between +0.5 to +1 oC every 30 years with a 95% confidence level. Nonetheless, in Rio Bravo and Rio Verde watersheds the tendencies are +1.75 and +2.75 oC over 30 years. The result in these two last watersheds evinces that: 1) there are fragile systems; 2) the human activities have a strong impact in those places, and 3) a principal anthropogenic influence on temperature rise is the change in land use. Temperature rised on Jalostitlan within Rio Verde watershed

  13. Trends and Variability of Global Fire Emissions Due To Historical Anthropogenic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Daniel S.; Shevliakova, Elena; Malyshev, Sergey; Rabin, Sam

    2018-01-01

    Globally, fires are a major source of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere, occurring on a seasonal cycle and with substantial interannual variability. To understand past trends and variability in sources and sinks of terrestrial carbon, we need quantitative estimates of global fire distributions. Here we introduce an updated version of the Fire Including Natural and Agricultural Lands model, version 2 (FINAL.2), modified to include multiday burning and enhanced fire spread rate in forest crowns. We demonstrate that the improved model reproduces the interannual variability and spatial distribution of fire emissions reported in present-day remotely sensed inventories. We use FINAL.2 to simulate historical (post-1700) fires and attribute past fire trends and variability to individual drivers: land use and land cover change, population growth, and lightning variability. Global fire emissions of carbon increase by about 10% between 1700 and 1900, reaching a maximum of 3.4 Pg C yr-1 in the 1910s, followed by a decrease to about 5% below year 1700 levels by 2010. The decrease in emissions from the 1910s to the present day is driven mainly by land use change, with a smaller contribution from increased fire suppression due to increased human population and is largest in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Interannual variability of global fire emissions is similar in the present day as in the early historical period, but present-day wildfires would be more variable in the absence of land use change.

  14. Honey as a bioindicator of arsenic contamination due to volcanic and mining activities in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Bastías

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The content of heavy metals in honey is indicative of natural or anthropogenic pollution and has therefore been proposed as a feasible bioindicator for arsenic contamination in different regions of Chile. Total arsenic (t-As and inorganic As (i-As concentrations were determined in 227 samples of honey harvested during the years 2007, 2008, and 2009 in the areas of San Pedro de Atacama, Atacama, Chiloé, and Futaleufú, with the last town located 156 km from the Chaitén Volcano (latest eruption in 2008. These analyses were conducted using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled with a hydride generator. In the honey samples, the concentrations of t-As ranged from 2.2 to 171.9 μg kg-1, and the i-As concentrations ranged from none detected (ND to 24.6 μg kg-1, with the area of San Pedro de Atacama having the highest As concentrations. The samples of honey from Futaleufú showed higher As concentrations after the eruption of the Chaitén Volcano in 2008. This study demonstrates that As pollution in honey may originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. The results indicate that it is appropriate to use honey as a bioindicator of environmental pollution. In addition, the consumption of the honey studied herein does not pose any health hazards to the consumer due to its As content.

  15. Biological Activities of Uric Acid in Infection Due to Enteropathogenic and Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Jacqueline E.; Lis, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, we identified xanthine oxidase (XO) as an important enzyme in the interaction between the host and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC). Many of the biological effects of XO were due to the hydrogen peroxide produced by the enzyme. We wondered, however, if uric acid generated by XO also had biological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Uric acid triggered inflammatory responses in the gut, including increased submucosal edema and release of extracellular DNA from host cells. While uric acid alone was unable to trigger a chloride secretory response in intestinal monolayers, it did potentiate the secretory response to cyclic AMP agonists. Uric acid crystals were formed in vivo in the lumen of the gut in response to EPEC and STEC infections. While trying to visualize uric acid crystals formed during EPEC and STEC infections, we noticed that uric acid crystals became enmeshed in the neutrophilic extracellular traps (NETs) produced from host cells in response to bacteria in cultured cell systems and in the intestine in vivo. Uric acid levels in the gut lumen increased in response to exogenous DNA, and these increases were enhanced by the actions of DNase I. Interestingly, addition of DNase I reduced the numbers of EPEC bacteria recovered after a 20-h infection and protected against EPEC-induced histologic damage. PMID:26787720

  16. Active Mycobacterium Infection Due to Intramuscular BCG Administration Following Multi-Steps Medication Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza Rafati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG is indicated for treatment of primary or relapsing flat urothelial cell carcinoma in situ (CIS of the urinary bladder. Disseminated infectious complications occasionally occur due to BCG as a vaccine and intravesical therapy.  Intramuscular (IM or Intravenous (IV administrations of BCG are rare medication errors which are more probable to produce systemic infections. This report presents 13 years old case that several steps medication errors occurred consequently from physician handwriting, pharmacy dispensing, nursing administration and patient family. The physician wrote βHCG instead of HCG in the prescription. βHCG was read as BCG by the pharmacy staff and 6 vials of intravesical BCG were administered IM twice a week for 3 consecutive weeks. The patient experienced fever and chills after each injection, but he was admitted 2 months after first IM administration of BCG with fever and pancytopenia. Unfortunately four month after using drug, during second admission duo to cellulitis at the sites of BCG injection the physicians diagnosed the medication error. Using handwritten prescription and inappropriate abbreviations, spending inadequate time for taking a brief medical history in pharmacy, lack of verifying name, dose and wrote before medication administration and lack of considering medication error as an important differential diagnosis had roles to occur this multi-steps medication error.

  17. Financial costs due to excess health risks among active employees of a utility company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Louis; Schultz, Alyssa; Schnueringer, Elaine; Edington, Dee W

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the health risk-related excess costs of time away from work, medical claims, pharmacy claims, and total costs with and without considering the prevalence of health risks. A total of 2082 of 4266 employees of a Midwest utility participated in a health risk appraisal (HRA). Individuals were classified by their HRA participation status and also by 15 health risks. Total and excess costs were analyzed for all employees. There were significant excess costs due to individual risks and overall excess health risks in all cost measures. Both excess cost per risk and prevalence of the risk were important factors in determining the excess costs in the population. As compared with low-risk participants, HRA nonparticipants and the medium- and high-risk participants were 1.99, 2.22, and 3.97 times more likely to be high cost status. Approximately one third of corporate costs in medical claims, pharmacy claims, and time away from work could be defined as excess costs associated with excess health risks.

  18. Unloaded shortening velocity of voluntarily and electrically activated human dorsiflexor muscles in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Sasaki

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that unloaded shortening velocity (V(0 of human plantar flexors can be determined in vivo, by applying the "slack test" to submaximal voluntary contractions (J Physiol 567:1047-1056, 2005. In the present study, to investigate the effect of motor unit recruitment pattern on V(0 of human muscle, we modified the slack test and applied this method to both voluntary and electrically elicited contractions of dorsiflexors. A series of quick releases (i.e., rapid ankle joint rotation driven by an electrical dynamometer was applied to voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles at three different contraction intensities (15, 50, and 85% of maximal voluntary contraction; MVC. The quick-release trials were also performed on electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles, in which three stimulus conditions were used: submaximal (equal to 15%MVC 50-Hz stimulation, supramaximal 50-Hz stimulation, and supramaximal 20-Hz stimulation. Modification of the slack test in vivo resulted in good reproducibility of V(0, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.95. Regression analysis showed that V(0 of voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles significantly increased with increasing contraction intensity (R(2 = 0.52, P<0.001. By contrast, V(0 of electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles remained unchanged (R(2<0.001, P = 0.98 among three different stimulus conditions showing a large variation of tetanic torque. These results suggest that the recruitment pattern of motor units, which is quite different between voluntary and electrically elicited contractions, plays an important role in determining shortening velocity of human skeletal muscle in vivo.

  19. Aerosol nucleation and growth in the TTL, due to tropical convection, during the ACTIVE campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddicor, D.; Vaughan, G.; Choularton, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Aerosol and Chemical Transport In tropical convection (ACTIVE) campaign took place between October 2005 and February 2006. This investigation involved the sampling of deep convective storms that occur in the Tropics; the campaign was based in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia - the latter half of the campaign coincided with the monsoon season. A range of scientific equipment was used to sample the inflow and outflow air from these storms; of particular importance were the NERC Dornier (low-level) and ARA Egrett (high-level outflow) aircraft. The Dornier held a range of aerosol, particle and chemical detectors for the purpose of analysing the planetary boundary layer (PBL), in the vicinity of tropical convection. The Egrett contained detection instrumentation for a range of sizes of aerosol and cloud particles (2 Condensation Particle Counters (CPC), CAPS, CIP, CPI) in the storm outflow. This allowed a quantifiable measurement to be made of the effect of deep tropical convection on the aerosol population in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). The ACTIVE campaign found that there were large numbers of aerosol particles in the 10 - 100 nm (up to 25,000 /cm3 STP) and 100 - 1000 nm (up to 600 /cm3) size ranges. These values, in many instances, surpassed those found in the PBL. The higher levels of aerosol found in the TTL compared to the PBL could indicate that aerosol nucleation was occurring in the TTL as a direct result of convective activity. Furthermore, the Egrett aircraft found distinct boundaries between the high levels of aerosol, which were found in cloud free regions, and very low numbers of aerosol, which were found in the cloudy regions (storm anvil). The air masses were determined, from back trajectories, to have been through convective uplift and were formerly part of the anvil cloud. The cloudy regions would have contained high levels of entrapped precursor gases. Reduced nucleation and cloud particle scavenging of aerosol and gases would give a

  20. Possible sea sediments due to glaciofluvial activity in Elysium Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, J.

    Observations of fluvial morphologies in southern Elysium Planitia strongly supports the hypothesis that water substantially affected this region during the relatively recent geologic past. As of yet, however, the extent of a standing body of water has been speculative. The observation of zig-zag features potentially analogous to those observed near the Wadden Sea on Earth [see 1] may help show in more detail the origin, activity, and fate of water in this region of Mars. These terrestrial analogs could constrain environmental scenarios concerning the formation of these features. We present a geomorphologic map of central Elysium Planitia, that aids in our interpretation of potentially site-specific depositional/erosional morphologies. Positive relief zig-zag features within the Medusae Fossae Formation (Themis Image V05875001) resemble similar structures on Earth observed at shorelines of flat regions. Glaciofluvial activity is indicated by linear features resembling straight glacial flutings, which could form aeolian yardangs subsequently. The flutings are associated with branches of inverted fluvial channels (Images Themis V05588002, MOC e1800307). Their excavated positive relief (height ~40 m) indicates, that the adjacent material was eroded by sublimation or aeolian activity. The channels possibly resemble ice marginal channels. A high resolution Digital Terrain Model of one of the channels suggests, that one channel is possibly running upslope. Fluvial processes could have operated at one location at one time, and glacial processes at another location at another time [2]. A glacial drainage system [see 3] is a possible terrestrial analog for one inverted fluvial channel on Mars (Themis Image V05875001). Flutings occur on the foreland of many glaciers and their length may provide important evidence for rapid advance over substantial distances. Flutings are the product of subglacial erosion and transport processes [4]. By assigning the different environmental

  1. Active sensing associated with spatial learning reveals memory-based attention in an electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, James J; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Active sensing behaviors reveal what an animal is attending to and how it changes with learning. Gymnotus sp, a gymnotiform weakly electric fish, generates an electric organ discharge (EOD) as discrete pulses to actively sense its surroundings. We monitored freely behaving gymnotid fish in a large dark "maze" and extracted their trajectories and EOD pulse pattern and rate while they learned to find food with electrically detectable landmarks as cues. After training, they more rapidly found food using shorter, more stereotyped trajectories and spent more time near the food location. We observed three forms of active sensing: sustained high EOD rates per unit distance (sampling density), transient large increases in EOD rate (E-scans) and stereotyped scanning movements (B-scans) were initially strong at landmarks and food, but, after learning, intensified only at the food location. During probe (no food) trials, after learning, the fish's search area and intense active sampling was still centered on the missing food location, but now also increased near landmarks. We hypothesize that active sensing is a behavioral manifestation of attention and essential for spatial learning; the fish use spatial memory of landmarks and path integration to reach the expected food location and confine their attention to this region. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Mitigation of Autoignition Due to Premixing in a Hypervelocity Flow Using Active Wall Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axdahl, Erik; Kumar, Ajay; Wilhite, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Preinjection of fuel on the forebody of an airbreathing vehicle is a proposed method to gain access to hypervelocity flight Mach numbers. However, this creates the possibility of autoignition either near the wall or in the core of the flow, thereby consuming fuel prematurely as well as increasing the amount of pressure drag on the vehicle. The computational fluid dynamics code VULCAN was used to conduct three dimensional simulations of the reacting flow in the vicinity of hydrogen injectors on a flat plate at conditions relevant to a Mach 12 notional flight vehicle forebody to determine the location where autoignition occurs. Active wall cooling strategies were formulated and simulated in response to regions of autoignition. It was found that tangential film cooling using hydrogen or helium were both able to nearly or completely eliminate wall autoignition in the flow domain of interest.

  3. Proton activation studies of changes in mineral composition of eucalyptus obliqua due to phytophthora cinnamomi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudri, M.A.; Lee, M.M.; Rouse, J.L.; Weste, G.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a study of disease caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi in native vegetation, the mineral composition of diseased plants was compared with those free from disease, but grown under the same conditions. Young plants of Eucalyptus obliqua, three years old and with well-formed lignotubers, were selected (a) diseased plant from soil containing a high concentration of P. cinnamomi, and (b) unaffected plant from an adjacent area where the soil was free from this pathogen. The plants were ashed and their mineral composition was compared by activation analysis using proton beams from the Melbourne University Cyclotron. Results showed a 70% reduction in iron and 41% in titanium from diseased plants compared with disease-free plants. The reduction in iron is associated with severe chlorosis which occurs as a primary symptom in most plants attacked by this pathogen

  4. Possibilities for Estimating Horizontal Electrical Currents in Active Regions on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursyak, Yu. A.; Abramenko, V. I.

    2017-12-01

    Part of the "free" magnetic energy associated with electrical current systems in the active region (AR) is released during solar flares. This proposition is widely accepted and it has stimulated interest in detecting electrical currents in active regions. The vertical component of an electric current in the photosphere can be found by observing the transverse magnetic field. At present, however, there are no direct methods for calculating transverse electric currents based on these observations. These calculations require information on the field vector measured simultaneously at several levels in the photosphere, which has not yet been done with solar instrumentation. In this paper we examine an approach to calculating the structure of the square of the density of a transverse electrical current based on a magnetogram of the vertical component of the magnetic field in the AR. Data obtained with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) for the AR of NOAA AR 11283 are used. It is shown that (1) the observed variations in the magnetic field of a sunspot and the proposed estimate of the density of an annular horizontal current around the spot are consistent with Faraday's law and (2) the resulting estimates of the magnitude of the square of the density of the horizontal current {j}_{\\perp}^2 = (0.002- 0.004) A2/m4 are consistent with previously obtained values of the density of a vertical current in the photosphere. Thus, the proposed estimate is physically significant and this method can be used to estimate the density and structure of transverse electrical currents in the photosphere.

  5. Is pulseless electrical activity a reason to refuse cardiopulmonary resuscitation with ECMO support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Dirk; Brehm, Christoph E

    2018-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation with ECMO support (ECPR) has shown to improve outcome in patients after cardiac arrest under resuscitation. Most current recommendations for ECPR do not include patients with a non-shockable rhythm such as PEA and asystole. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of 3 patient groups separated by initial rhythm at time of ECMO placement during CPR: asystole, PEA and shockable rhythm. We made a retrospective single-center study of adults who underwent ECPR for in-hospital cardiac arrest between June 2008 and January 2017. Outcome and survival were identified in 3 groups of patients regarding to the heart rhythm at the time decision for ECMO support was made: 1. patients with asystole, 2. patients with pulseless electrical activity, 3. patients with a shockable rhythm. 63 patients underwent ECPR in the mentioned time frame. Five patients were excluded due to incomplete data. Under the 58 included patients the number of cases for asystole, PEA, shockable rhythm was 7, 21 and 30 respectively. The means of CPR-time in these groups were 37, 41 and 37min. Survival to discharge was 0.0%, 23.8% and 40.0% respectively (p=0.09). All survivors to discharge had a good neurological outcome, defined as cerebral performance category 1or 2. Survival to discharge in patients with PEA as initial rhythm at the time of decision for ECPR is 23.8% while no patients with asystole as initial rhythm survived discharge. Patients with PEA should be carefully considered for ECPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relativistic Coupled Cluster (RCC) Computation of the Electric Dipole Moment Enhancement Factor of Francium Due to the Violation of Time Reversal Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, Debashis; Sahoo, B. K.; Nataraj, H. S.; Das, B. P.

    2009-01-01

    A relativistic many-body theory for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms arising from the electric dipole moment of the electron is presented and implemented. The relativistic coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations (RCCSD) using the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian and

  7. Changes in Protein Content and Urease Activity Due to Soaking Treatment of gamma irradiated Soybean Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, H.A.; Aly, M.A.S.; Afifi, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The total protein measurement revealed that both soaking time and radiation affected protein content of soybean seeds. Amount of protein content increased gradually with time up to 6 h. The amount recorded 388, 396 and 465 mg/g.d.wt in control, 10, 25, 50 Gy, respectively. Then the amount decreased at and 24 h whereas, protein content of cotyledonary leaves (120 h) increased by 25 and 50 Gy reaching 7305 and 80.6 mg/g.d.wt as compared to 68.5 mg/g.d wt in case on control. On comparison with control samples, 10 Gy appeared to have no effect on protein content while 25 and 50 Gy increased protein in a dose dependant matter. Maximum increase in urease activity was recorded at 6 h of soaking (1110, 1162 and 1200 unit/g f.wt in control, 10, 25 and 50 Gy respectively) Moreover, the 25 and 50 Gy increased urease activity at all time intervals. After sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied, bands could be segregated into high molecular weight bands they are represented from band No 1 with 200 KDa to band No 8 with 100 kDa. On the other hand low molecular weight are presented from band No 9 with 75 kDa to band No 14 with 10 kDa. Characteristic bands No 4 and 10 were common in all samples and several other bands were characteristic to the time or gamma-radiation applied. Calculated similarity index (SI) showed similarity between control and 25 Gy treated samples (except at 6 h). In contrast, the similarity index between control and 50 Gy decreased from zero up to 6 h then increased to 1 at 120 h (the same trend was also observed between 25 and 50 Gy). From similarity index study it could be concluded that at cotyledonary stage(120 h) there were no differences between different samples, thus indicating a recovery from the effect of gamma irradiation

  8. Secondary contamination of 30-km zone of the Chernobyl atomic electric plant and adjacent territory due to radionuclides carried by ascending wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garger, E.K.; Gavrilov, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The territory contaminated with radionuclides as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic electric plant is a surface source of radioactive aerosols carried into the atmosphere by ascending winds. In this connection, a number of problems arise whose solution is important for assessment of the radiation conditions in the atmosphere near the Earth's surface: (1) calculation of the volume concentration of radionuclides and their fallout on the contaminated and neighboring territory and on this basis determine the potentially dangerous contaminated regions; (2) assessment of the secondary contamination of deactivated territories due to ascending winds and transfer of radionuclides; and (3) determination of the size of the protective (buffer) zones around or near populated areas to ensure low volume concentrations of radionuclides during strong winds. In order to calculate the transfer of radionuclides from a surface source, it is necessary to know its dust intensity, which is the vertical turbulent flux of the radionuclides in the atmosphere layer near the ground Q (Ci · m -2 sec -1 ). A quantity frequently used in practice is Q referred to the contamination density of the surface layer c (Ci/m 2 ) and called the wind ascent intensity α = Q/c. As a rule, the radionuclide wind ascent intensity for a plane source with a nonuniform surface and contamination density may depend on the physical characteristics of the surface as well as on those of the radionuclides and also on the space coordinates x, y and on time. In the present study, the wind ascent intensity was determined by gradient measurements of the mean radionuclide concentration, the wind velocity and air temperature; the conditions during the measurements were assumed to correspond to the case of a plane homogeneous, stationary source of a nondepositing admixture

  9. ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line broadening due to the earth magnetic field, occuring only in the case of an axially symmetric electric field gradient tensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissani, Sarra; Guendouz, Laouès; Marande, Pierre-Louis; Canet, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    As demonstrated before, the application of a weak static B0 magnetic field (less than 10 G) may produce definite effects on the ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line when the electric field gradient tensor at the nitrogen nucleus level is of axial symmetry. Here, we address more precisely the problem of the relative orientation of the two magnetic fields (the static field and the radio-frequency field of the pure NQR experiment). For a field of 6G, the evolution of the signal intensity, as a function of this relative orientation, is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions. There is in particular an intensity loss by a factor of three when going from the parallel configuration to the perpendicular configuration. By contrast, when dealing with a very weak magnetic field (as the earth field, around 0.5 G), this effect drops to ca. 1.5 in the case Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT).This is explained by the fact that the Zeeman shift (due to the very weak magnetic field) becomes comparable to the natural line-width. The latter can therefore be determined by accounting for this competition. Still in the case of HMT, the estimated natural line-width is half the observed line-width. The extra broadening is thus attributed to earth magnetic field. The latter constitutes therefore the main cause of the difference between the natural transverse relaxation time (T₂) and the transverse relaxation time derived from the observed line-width (T₂(⁎)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Load kick-back effects due to activation of demand response in view of distribution grid operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2014-01-01

    . The paper has shown how aggregated consumption dynamics introduce new peaks in the system due to the synchronous behaviors of a portfolio of homogeneous DSRs, which is instructed by the flexibility management system. This dynamic effect is recognized as load kick-back effect. The impact of load kick......-back effects onto the distribution grid is analysed in this paper by establishing scenarios based on the estimation of DSR penetration levels from the system operator. The results indicate some risks that the activation of demand response may create critical peaks in the local grid due to kick-back effects....

  11. The effect of merger and consolidation activities on the efficiency of electricity distribution regions in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelen, Aydın

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the efficiency performances of Turkish electricity distribution companies throughout 2002 and 2009 in the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) framework. Our more specific goal is to measure how the efficiency performances of the electricity distribution regions were affected by the mergers between distribution regions occurred in 2005. The results demonstrate that efficiencies of the companies serving to mostly the residential customers are higher than those of other companies. However, the positive impact of residential customers on the efficiencies decreased significantly following the mergers between electricity distribution companies. In contrast, the positive impact of higher customer density on efficiency also decreased, but insignificantly following the restructuring activities in the market in 2005. Our study also witnesses that the positive impact of the mergers on the efficiencies decreases as the proportion of sales to residential customers in regions increases. In contrast, the restructuring activities of 2005 increased equally the efficiencies of the companies serving in the regions with higher and lower customer densities. - Highlights: • We analyze efficiency performances of Turkish electricity distribution companies. • The efficiencies of companies serving to mostly residential customers are higher. • Positive impact of residential customers on the efficiencies dropped after mergers. • Positive impact of customer density also decreased, but insignificantly. • Positive impact of mergers on efficiency decreases as sales to residents increase

  12. Sensory flow shaped by active sensing: sensorimotor strategies in electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Volker; Sanguinetti-Scheck, Juan I; Künzel, Silke; Geurten, Bart; Gómez-Sena, Leonel; Engelmann, Jacob

    2013-07-01

    Goal-directed behavior in most cases is composed of a sequential order of elementary motor patterns shaped by sensorimotor contingencies. The sensory information acquired thus is structured in both space and time. Here we review the role of motion during the generation of sensory flow focusing on how animals actively shape information by behavioral strategies. We use the well-studied examples of vision in insects and echolocation in bats to describe commonalities of sensory-related behavioral strategies across sensory systems, and evaluate what is currently known about comparable active sensing strategies in electroreception of electric fish. In this sensory system the sensors are dispersed across the animal's body and the carrier source emitting energy used for sensing, the electric organ, is moved while the animal moves. Thus ego-motions strongly influence sensory dynamics. We present, for the first time, data of electric flow during natural probing behavior in Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae), which provide evidence for this influence. These data reveal a complex interdependency between the physical input to the receptors and the animal's movements, posture and objects in its environment. Although research on spatiotemporal dynamics in electrolocation is still in its infancy, the emerging field of dynamical sensory systems analysis in electric fish is a promising approach to the study of the link between movement and acquisition of sensory information.

  13. Ionospheric quasi-static electric field anomalies during seismic activity in August–September 1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gousheva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes new results, analyses and information for the plate tectonic situation in the processing of INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite data about anomalies of the quasi-static electric field in the upper ionosphere over activated earthquake source regions at different latitudes. The earthquake catalogue is made on the basis of information from the United State Geological Survey (USGS website. The disturbances in ionospheric quasi-static electric fields are recorded by IESP-1 instrument aboard the INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite and they are compared with significant seismic events from the period 14 August–20 September 1981 in magnetically very quiet, quiet and medium quiet days. The main tectonic characteristics of the seismically activated territories are also taken in account. The main goal of the above research work is to enlarge the research of possible connections between anomalous vertical electric field penetrations into the ionosphere and the earthquake manifestations, also to propose tectonic arguments for the observed phenomena. The studies are represented in four main blocks: (i previous studies of similar problems, (ii selection of satellite, seismic and plate tectonic data, (iii data processing with new specialized software and observations of the quasi-static electric field and (iiii summary, comparison of new with previous results in our studies and conclusion. We establish the high informativity of the vertical component Ez of the quasi-static electric field in the upper ionosphere according observations by INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 that are placed above considerably activated earthquake sources. This component shows an increase of about 2–10 mV/m above sources, situated on mobile structures of the plates. The paper discusses the observed effects. It is represented also a statistical study of ionospheric effects 5–15 days before and 5–15 days after the earthquakes with magnitude M 4.8–7.9.

  14. Dust emission and soil loss due to anthropogenic activities by wind erosion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katra, Itzhak; Swet, Nitzan; Tanner, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Wind erosion is major process of soil loss and air pollution by dust emission of clays, nutrients, and microorganisms. Many soils throughout the world are currently or potentially associated with dust emissions, especially in dryland zones. The research focuses on wind erosion in semi-arid soils (Northern Negev, Israel) that are subjected to increased human activities of urban development and agriculture. A boundary-layer wind tunnel has been used to study dust emission and soil loss by simulation and quantification of high-resolution wind processes. Field experiments were conducted in various surface types of dry loess soils. The experimental plots represent soils with long-term and short term influences of land uses such as agriculture (conventional and organic practices), grazing, and natural preserves. The wind tunnel was operated under various wind velocities that are above the threshold velocity of aeolian erosion. Total soil sediment and particulate matter (PM) fluxes were calculated. Topsoil samples from the experimental plots were analysed in the laboratory for physical and chemical characteristics including aggregation, organic matter, and high-resolution particle size distribution. The results showed variations in dust emission in response to surface types and winds to provide quantitative estimates of soil loss over time. Substantial loss of particulate matter that is < 10 micrometer in diameter, including clays and nutrients, was recorded in most experimental conditions. Integrative analyses of the topsoil properties and dust experiment highlight the significant implications for soil nutrient resources and management strategies as well as for PM loading to the atmosphere and air pollution.

  15. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2013-02-08

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms was conducted, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetQ and tetZ) and integrase genes (i.e., intI1 and intI2). We observed that the abundances of tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in the soils increased at least 6-fold after manure application, and their abundances remained elevated above the background for up to 16 months. Q-PCR further determined total abundances of up to 5.88 × 109 copies/ng DNA for tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in some of the groundwater wells that were situated next to the manure lagoon and in the facility well used to supply water for one of the farms. We further utilized 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to assess the microbial communities, and our comparative analyses suggest that most of the soil samples collected before and after manure application did not change significantly, sharing a high Bray-Curtis similarity of 78.5%. In contrast, an increase in Bacteroidetes and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations was observed in the groundwaters collected from lagoon-associated groundwater wells. Genera associated with opportunistic human and animal pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Yersinia, and Coxiella, were detected in some of the manure-treated soils and affected groundwater wells. Feces-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix, and Bacteroides were detected in the manure, soil, and groundwater ecosystems, suggesting a perturbation of the soil and groundwater environments by invader species from pig production activities.

  16. Does physical activity buffer insomnia due to back and neck pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iben Axén

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent and a burden to society, recurrent and persistent low back pain (LBP and neck pain (NP being the most common conditions. They are associated with other poor health outcomes such as sleep problems. Physical activity (PA prevents LBP and NP, but the direct effect on sleep is unclear. This study explored the effect of pain on insomnia, and examined if adherence to moderate-to-high intensity levels of PA influenced this relationship.In this prospective observational study, 1821 workers were followed over 3 years. Data included self-rated measures of LBP and NP, insomnia and level and amount of PA. Pain variables were used in a "risk profile" for future sick-listing, insomnia was categorized into those with and without such problems, and adherence to PA was defined as reporting moderate-to-high levels in two consecutive years. In Poisson regression models, individuals with pain risk profiles were analysed according to PA adherence for the outcome insomnia. Repeated measurements allowed control for prior pain.In this mainly male working population, individuals with a risk profile for LBP and NP had a significant increased risk (RR = 1.5 of developing insomnia one year later when not adhering to moderate-to-high levels of PA. Among those not reporting prior pain, the risk was even larger (RR = 2.5. Generalizability may be restricted to relatively healthy males. The individuals who reported a pain risk profile two consecutive years did not get the buffer effect from adhering to moderate-to-high levels of PA in terms of developing insomnia.

  17. Obesity-exposed oocytes accumulate and transmit damaged mitochondria due to an inability to activate mitophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudoures, Anna L; Saben, Jessica; Drury, Andrea; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Modi, Zeel; Zhang, Wendy; Moley, Kelle H

    2017-06-01

    Mitochondria are the most prominent organelle in the oocyte. Somatic cells maintain a healthy population of mitochondria by degrading damaged mitochondria via mitophagy, a specialized autophagy pathway. However, evidence from previous work investigating the more general macroautophagy pathway in oocytes suggests that mitophagy may not be active in the oocyte. This would leave the vast numbers of mitochondria - poised to be inherited by the offspring - vulnerable to damage. Here we test the hypothesis that inactive mitophagy in the oocyte underlies maternal transmission of dysfunctional mitochondria. To determine whether oocytes can complete mitophagy, we used either CCCP or AntimycinA to depolarize mitochondria and trigger mitophagy. After depolarization, we did not detect co-localization of mitochondria with autophagosomes and mitochondrial DNA copy number remained unchanged, indicating the non-functional mitochondrial population was not removed. To investigate the impact of an absence of mitophagy in oocytes with damaged mitochondria on offspring mitochondrial function, we utilized in vitro fertilization of high fat high sugar (HF/HS)-exposed oocytes, which have lower mitochondrial membrane potential and damaged mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate that blastocysts generated from HF/HS oocytes have decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, lower metabolites involved in ATP generation, and accumulation of PINK1, a mitophagy marker protein. This mitochondrial phenotype in the blastocyst mirrors the phenotype we show in HF/HS exposed oocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that the mechanisms governing oocyte mitophagy are fundamentally distinct from those governing somatic cell mitophagy and that the absence of mitophagy in the setting of HF/HS exposure contributes to the oocyte-to-blastocyst transmission of dysfunctional mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neutrophil microparticle production and inflammasome activation by hyperglycemia due to cytoskeletal instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Stephen R; Bhopale, Veena M; Yu, Kevin; Huang, Weiliang; Kane, Maureen A; Margolis, David J

    2017-11-03

    Microparticles are lipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles produced by cells under oxidative stress. MP production is elevated in patients with diabetes, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that raising glucose above the physiological level of 5.5 mm would stimulate leukocytes to produce MPs and activate the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. We found that when incubated in buffer with up to 20 mm glucose, human and murine neutrophils, but not monocytes, generate progressively more MPs with high interleukin (IL)-1β content. Enhanced MP production required generation of reactive chemical species by mitochondria, NADPH oxidase, and type 2 nitric-oxide synthase (NOS-2) and resulted in S -nitrosylation of actin. Depleting cells of capon (C-terminal PDZ ligand of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase protein), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing C-terminal caspase recruitment domain (ASC), or pro-IL-1β prevented the hyperglycemia-induced enhancement of reactive species production, MP generation, and IL-1β synthesis. Additional components required for these responses included inositol 1,3,5-triphosphate receptors, PKC, and enhancement of filamentous-actin turnover. Numerous proteins become localized to short filamentous actin in response to S -nitrosylation, including vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, focal adhesion kinase, the membrane phospholipid translocation enzymes flippase and floppase, capon, NLRP3, and ASC. We conclude that an interdependent oxidative stress response to hyperglycemia perturbs neutrophil cytoskeletal stability leading to MP production and IL-1β synthesis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Electric field in the magnetotail depending on the geomagnetic activity level and intensity Esub(y) in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudovkin, M.I.; Osipov, V.V.; Shukhtina, M.A.; Zajtseva, S.A.; AN SSSR, Vladivostok. Dal'nevostochnyh Nauchnyj Tsentr)

    1982-01-01

    The value of the large-scale electric field in the near magnetotail on AE-index variations delay in relation to interplanetary electric field variations is estimated. It is obtained that the electric field value in a tail increases with magnetic activity level. The solar wind electric field under strong magnetic disturbance penetrates into the magnetosphere practically without weakening and is essentially weakened in magneto-quit conditions. Calculated values of the electric field magnitude in the magnetotail (0.01-1mBm) are in agreement with those obtained earlier [ru

  20. Actively Controlling the Topological Transition of Dispersion Based on Electrically Controllable Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Topological transition of the iso-frequency contour (IFC from a closed ellipsoid to an open hyperboloid provides unique capabilities for controlling the propagation of light. However, the ability to actively tune these effects remains elusive, and the related experimental observations are highly desirable. Here, a tunable electric IFC in a periodic structure composed of graphene/dielectric multilayers is investigated by tuning the chemical potential of the graphene layer. Specially, we present the actively controlled transportation in two kinds of anisotropic zero-index media containing perfect electric conductor/perfect magnetic conductor impurities. Finally, by adding variable capacitance diodes into a two-dimensional transmission-line system, we present an experimental demonstration of the actively controlled magnetic topological transition of dispersion based on electrically controllable metamaterials. With the increase in voltage, we measure the different emission patterns from a point source inside the structure and observe the phase-transition process of IFCs. The realization of an actively tuned topological transition will open up a new avenue in the dynamical control of metamaterials.

  1. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.

  2. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J

    2015-02-05

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale.

  3. Electrical activation and spin coherence of ultra low doseantimony implants in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, T.; Tyryshkin, A.M.; de Sousa, R.; Whaley, K.B.; Bokor,J.; Liddle, J.A.; Persaud, A.; Shangkuan, J.; Chakarov, I.; Lyon, S.A.

    2005-07-13

    We implanted ultra low doses (0.2 to 2 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}) of Sb ions into isotopically enriched {sup 28}Si, and probed electrical activation and electron spin relaxation after rapid thermal annealing. Strong segregation of dopants towards both Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiO{sub 2} interfaces limits electrical activation. Pulsed Electron Spin Resonance shows that spin echo decay is sensitive to the dopant profiles, and the interface quality. A spin decoherence time, T{sub 2}, of 1.5 ms is found for profiles peaking 25 nm below a Si/SiO{sub 2} interface, increasing to 2.1 ms when the surface is passivated with hydrogen. These measurements provide benchmark data for the development of devices in which quantum information is encoded in donor electron spins.

  4. Submicron confinement effect on electrical activation of B implanted in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, E.; Mirabella, S.; Impellizzeri, G.; Priolo, F.; Giannazzo, F.; Raineri, V.; Napolitani, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we studied the effect of B implantation in Si through submicron laterally confined area on B clustering and its electrical activation. For this study, we implanted B 3 keV into a Si wafer grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) through a patterned oxide mask with opening widths down to 0.38 μm. Then, we annealed the sample at 800 deg. C for several times up to 120 min and monitored the 2D carrier profile by quantitative high resolution Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM). We show that by reducing the opening widths, not only the B clustering is strongly reduced, but also the B cluster dissolution is accelerated. This demonstrates the beneficial role of implanted B confinement on the B electrical activation. The above results have a significant impact in the modern Si based electronic device engineering

  5. Passivation of electrically active centers by Hydrogen and Lithium in Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The hyperfine technique of Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy (PAC) has proven to be excellently suited for the microscopic investigation of impurity complexes in semiconductors. But this method is seriously limited by the small number of chemically different isotopes which are suitable for PAC measurements and represent electrically active centers in semiconductors. This bottleneck can be widely overcome by the ISOLDE facility which provides a great variety of shortliving PAC isotopes. The probe atom $^{111m}$Cd, provided by ISOLDE opened the first successful access to PAC investigations of III-V compounds and enabled also the first PAC experiments on double acceptors in silicon and germamum. \\\\ \\\\ At the new ISOLDE facility our experiments were concentrated on the passivation of electrically active centres by hydrogen and lithium in Si, Ge and III-V compounds. Experiments on $^{111m}$Cd in Ge revealed the formation of two different acceptor hydrogen and two different acceptor lithium complexes respe...

  6. Geomorphological and hydrological transformation of the landscape due to mining activity in the mining area Bana Dolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balga, J.; Hroncova, E.

    2010-01-01

    After more than 150 year history of mining activity in the brown coal mining area Bana Dolina have been produced a range of anthropogenic forms of relief. For reasons of underground coal mining to make interventions in the hydrographic network. Significant changes due to surface mining of coal seams should result in subsidence basins of different sizes, damage to buildings and roads. Mining activity was influenced by agricultural and forestry fund, gardening settlements. All these factors have contributed to the change in relief of the surrounding area. This study aims to research the effects of the largest mining Bana Dolina mining area reflecting the structure of land area. (authors)

  7. Cesium 137 body activity in a group of children coming from affected areas due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R.; Lopez, G.; Arado, O.; Jova, L.; Corripio, A.

    1994-01-01

    The implementation and calibration of two whole body counters for determination of Cs-137 body burden of children is describe. The results of measurements of 4506 children coming from affected areas due to Chernobyl accident of the Republics of Ukrainian, Russian and Belaruss, and who received medical attention in Cuba is presented. Installations, equipment and calibration phantoms used are described. The values of measured activity is relationed whit the place of origin groups of age and the form of feeding. The measured activity values range from 1,5 to 565 Bq/kg, and have a long-normal character for each region

  8. Microstructural and electrical changes in nickel manganite powder induced by mechanical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, S.M.; Mancic, L.; Vojisavljevic, K.; Stojanovic, G.; Brankovic, Z.; Aleksic, O.S.; Brankovic, G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The influence of mechanical activation on microstructure evolution in the nickel manganite powder was investigated as well as electrical properties of the sintered samples. → Structural refinement obtained by Topas-Academic software based on Rietveld analysis showed that the milling process remarkably changed the powder morphology and microstructure. → SEM studies of sintered samples also revealed the strong influence of milling time on ceramics density (increases with milling time). → The electrical properties of ceramic samples are clearly conditioned by terms of synthesis, in our case the time of mechanical activation. → The highest density and higher values of dielectric constant were achieved at the sample activated for 45 min. -- Abstract: Nickel manganite powder synthesized by calcination of a stoichiometric mixture of manganese and nickel oxide was additionally mechanically activated in a high energy planetary ball mill for 5-60 min in order to obtain a pure NiMn 2 O 4 phase. The as-prepared powders were uniaxially pressed into disc shape pellets and then sintered for 60 min at 1200 o C. Changes in the particle morphology induced by mechanical activation were monitored using scanning electron microscopy, while changes in powder structural characteristics were followed using X-ray powder diffraction. The ac impedance spectroscopy was performed on sintered nickel manganite samples at 25 o C, 50 o C and 80 o C. It was shown that mechanical activation intensifies transport processes causing a decrease in the average crystallites size, while longer activation times can lead to the formation of aggregates, defects and increase of lattice microstrains. The observed changes in microstructures were correlated with measured electrical properties in order to define optimal processing conditions.

  9. Microstructural and electrical changes in nickel manganite powder induced by mechanical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, S.M., E-mail: slavicas@cms.bg.ac.rs [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research-University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1a, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Mancic, L. [Institute of Technical Sciences SASA, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vojisavljevic, K. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research-University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1a, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Stojanovic, G. [Faculty of Technical Sciences University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 6, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Brankovic, Z.; Aleksic, O.S.; Brankovic, G. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research-University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1a, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} The influence of mechanical activation on microstructure evolution in the nickel manganite powder was investigated as well as electrical properties of the sintered samples. {yields} Structural refinement obtained by Topas-Academic software based on Rietveld analysis showed that the milling process remarkably changed the powder morphology and microstructure. {yields} SEM studies of sintered samples also revealed the strong influence of milling time on ceramics density (increases with milling time). {yields} The electrical properties of ceramic samples are clearly conditioned by terms of synthesis, in our case the time of mechanical activation. {yields} The highest density and higher values of dielectric constant were achieved at the sample activated for 45 min. -- Abstract: Nickel manganite powder synthesized by calcination of a stoichiometric mixture of manganese and nickel oxide was additionally mechanically activated in a high energy planetary ball mill for 5-60 min in order to obtain a pure NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase. The as-prepared powders were uniaxially pressed into disc shape pellets and then sintered for 60 min at 1200 {sup o}C. Changes in the particle morphology induced by mechanical activation were monitored using scanning electron microscopy, while changes in powder structural characteristics were followed using X-ray powder diffraction. The ac impedance spectroscopy was performed on sintered nickel manganite samples at 25 {sup o}C, 50 {sup o}C and 80 {sup o}C. It was shown that mechanical activation intensifies transport processes causing a decrease in the average crystallites size, while longer activation times can lead to the formation of aggregates, defects and increase of lattice microstrains. The observed changes in microstructures were correlated with measured electrical properties in order to define optimal processing conditions.

  10. A Biophysical Model of Electrical Activity in Human β-Cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2010-01-01

    Electrical activity in pancreatic β-cells plays a pivotal role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by coupling metabolism to calcium-triggered exocytosis. Mathematical models based on rodent data have helped in understanding the mechanisms underlying the electrophysiological patterns observed in laboratory animals. However, human β-cells differ in several aspects, and in particular in their electrophysiological characteristics, from rodent β-cells. Hence, from a clinical perspective and t...

  11. Use of brain electrical activity for the identification of hematomas in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Daniel F; Chabot, Robert; Mould, W Andrew; Morgan, Timothy; Naunheim, Rosanne; Sheth, Kevin N; Chiang, William; Prichep, Leslie S

    2013-12-15

    This study investigates the potential clinical utility in the emergency department (ED) of an index of brain electrical activity to identify intracranial hematomas. The relationship between this index and depth, size, and type of hematoma was explored. Ten minutes of brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage in 38 adult patients with traumatic hematomas (CT scan positive) and 38 mild head injured controls (CT scan negative) in the ED. The volume of blood and distance from recording electrodes were measured by blinded independent experts. Brain electrical activity data were submitted to a classification algorithm independently developed traumatic brain injury (TBI) index to identify the probability of a CT+traumatic event. There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and type of hematoma, or distance of the bleed from recording sites. A significant correlation was found between TBI-Index and blood volume. The sensitivity to hematomas was 100%, positive predictive value was 74.5%, and positive likelihood ratio was 2.92. The TBI-Index, derived from brain electrical activity, demonstrates high accuracy for identification of traumatic hematomas. Further, this was not influenced by distance of the bleed from the recording electrodes, blood volume, or type of hematoma. Distance and volume limitations noted with other methods, (such as that based on near-infrared spectroscopy) were not found, thus suggesting the TBI-Index to be a potentially important adjunct to acute assessment of head injury. Because of the life-threatening risk of undetected hematomas (false negatives), specificity was permitted to be lower, 66%, in exchange for extremely high sensitivity.

  12. A High Power Density Integrated Charger for Electric Vehicles with Active Ripple Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Liwen; Zhang, Chengning

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests a high power density on-board integrated charger with active ripple compensation circuit for electric vehicles. To obtain a high power density and high efficiency, silicon carbide devices are reported to meet the requirement of high-switching-frequency operation. An integrated bidirectional converter is proposed to function as AC/DC battery charger and to transfer energy between battery pack and motor drive of the traction system. In addition, the conventional H-bridge cir...

  13. Fatigue-induced changes in group IV muscle afferent activity: differences between high- and low-frequency electrically induced fatigues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darques, J L; Jammes, Y

    1997-03-07

    Recordings of group IV afferent activity of tibialis anterior muscle were performed in paralysed rabbits during runs of electrically induced fatigue produced by direct muscle stimulation at a high (100 Hz, high-frequency fatigue HFF) or a low rate (10 Hz, low-frequency fatigue LFF). In addition to analysis of afferent nerve action potentials, muscle force and compound muscle action potentials (M waves) elicited by direct muscle stimulation with single shocks were recorded. Changes in M wave configuration were used as an index of the altered propagation of membrane potentials and the associated efflux of potassium from muscle fibers. The data show that increased group IV afferent activity occurred during LFF as well as HFF trials and developed parallel with force failure. Enhanced afferent activity was significantly higher during LFF (maximal delta f(impulses) = 249 +/- 35%) than HFF (147 +/- 45%). No correlation was obtained between the responses of group IV afferents to LFF or to pressure exerted on tibialis anterior muscle. On the other hand, decreased M wave amplitude was minimal with LFF while it was pronounced with HFF. Close correlations were found between fatigue-induced activation of group IV afferents and decreases in force or M wave amplitude, but their strength was significantly higher with LFF compared to HFF. Thus, electrically induced fatigue activates group IV muscle afferents with a prominent effect of low-frequency stimulation. The mechanism of muscle afferent stimulation does not seem to be due to the sole increase in extracellular potassium concentration, but also by the efflux of muscle metabolites, present during fatiguing contractions at low rate of stimulation.

  14. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Feibiao; Liu, Shenquan

    2017-01-01

    Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L) model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons.

  15. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feibiao Zhan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons.

  16. Improved detection of electrical activity with a voltage probe based on a voltage-sensing phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Jinno, Yuka; Tomita, Akiko; Niino, Yusuke; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Yasushi

    2013-09-15

      One of the most awaited techniques in modern physiology is the sensitive detection of spatiotemporal electrical activity in a complex network of excitable cells. The use of genetically encoded voltage probes has been expected to enable such analysis. However, in spite of recent progress, existing probes still suffer from low signal amplitude and/or kinetics too slow to detect fast electrical activity. Here, we have developed an improved voltage probe named Mermaid2, which is based on the voltage-sensor domain of the voltage-sensing phosphatase from Ciona intestinalis and Förster energy transfer between a pair of fluorescent proteins. In mammalian cells, Mermaid2 permits ratiometric readouts of fractional changes of more than 50% over a physiologically relevant voltage range with fast kinetics, and it was used to follow a train of action potentials at frequencies of up to 150 Hz. Mermaid2 was also able to detect single action potentials and subthreshold voltage responses in hippocampal neurons in vitro, in addition to cortical electrical activity evoked by sound stimuli in single trials in living mice.

  17. Bilateral Changes of Spontaneous Activity Within the Central Auditory Pathway Upon Chronic Unilateral Intracochlear Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Dietmar; Götze, Romy; Gröschel, Moritz; Jansen, Sebastian; Janke, Oliver; Tzschentke, Barbara; Boyle, Patrick; Ernst, Arne

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, cochlear implants have been applied successfully for the treatment of unilateral hearing loss with quite surprising benefit. One reason for this successful treatment, including the relief from tinnitus, could be the normalization of spontaneous activity in the central auditory pathway because of the electrical stimulation. The present study, therefore, investigated at a cellular level, the effect of a unilateral chronic intracochlear stimulation on key structures of the central auditory pathway. Normal-hearing guinea pigs were mechanically single-sided deafened through a standard HiFocus1j electrode array (on a HiRes 90k cochlear implant) being inserted into the first turn of the cochlea. Four to five electrode contacts could be used for the stimulation. Six weeks after surgery, the speech processor (Auria) was fitted, based on tNRI values and mounted on the animal's back. The two experimental groups were stimulated 16 hours per day for 90 days, using a HiRes strategy based on different stimulation rates (low rate (275 pps/ch), high rate (5000 pps/ch)). The results were compared with those of unilateral deafened controls (implanted but not stimulated), as well as between the treatment groups. All animals experienced a standardized free field auditory environment. The low-rate group showed a significantly lower average spontaneous activity bilaterally in the dorsal cochlear nucleus and the medial geniculate body than the controls. However, there was no difference in the inferior colliculus and the primary auditory cortex. Spontaneous activity of the high-rate group was also reduced bilaterally in the dorsal cochlear nucleus and in the primary auditory cortex. No differences could be observed between the high-rate group and the controls in the contra-lateral inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body. The high-rate group showed bilaterally a higher activity in the CN and the MGB compared with the low-rate group, whereas in the IC and in the

  18. Electric field measurement of two commercial active/sham coils for transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James Evan; Peterchev, Angel V

    2018-06-22

    Sham TMS coils isolate the ancillary effects of their active counterparts, but typically induce low-strength electric fields (E-fields) in the brain, which could be biologically active. We measured the E-fields induced by two pairs of commonly-used commercial active/sham coils. Approach: E-field distributions of the active and sham configurations of the Magstim 70 mm AFC and MagVenture Cool-B65 A/P coils were measured over a 7-cm-radius, hemispherical grid approximating the cortical surface. Peak E-field strength was recorded over a range of pulse amplitudes. Main results: The Magstim and MagVenture shams induce peak E-fields corresponding to 25.3% and 7.72% of their respective active values. The MagVenture sham has an E-field distribution shaped like its active counterpart. The Magstim sham induces nearly zero E-field under the coil's center, and its peak E-field forms a diffuse oval 3-7 cm from the center. Electrical scalp stimulation paired with the MagVenture sham is estimated to increase the sham E-field in the brain up to 10%. Significance: Different commercial shams induce different E-field strengths and distributions in the brain, which should be considered in interpreting outcomes of sham stimulation. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. S. cerevisiae fermentation activity after moderate pulsed electric field pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Jessy R; Turk, Mohammad F; Nonus, Maurice; Lebovka, Nikolai I; El Zakhem, Henri; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2015-06-01

    The batch fermentation process, inoculated by Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treated wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Actiflore F33), was studied. PEF treatment was applied to the aqueous yeast suspensions ([Y] = 0.012 g/L) at the electric field strengths of E = 100 and 6000 V/cm using the same treatment protocol (number of pulses n = 1000, pulse duration ti = 100 μs, and pulse repetition time Δt = 100 ms). Electrical conductivity was increasing during and after the PEF treatment, which reflected cell electroporation. Then, fermentation was run for 150 h in an incubator (30 °C) with synchronic agitation. Electro-stimulation was revealing itself by the improvement of fermentation characteristics, and thus increased yeast metabolism. At the end of the lag phase (t = 40 h), fructose consumption in samples with electrically activated inoculum exceeded that of the control samples by ≈ 2.33 times for E = 100 V/cm and by ≈ 3.98 for E = 6000 V/cm. At the end of the log phase (120 h of fermentation), ≈ 30% mass reduction was reached in samples with PEF-treated inocula (E = 6000 V/cm), whereas the same mass reduction of the control sample required approximately 20 extra hours of fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Electron Runaround: Understanding Electric Circuit Basics Through a Classroom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-05-01

    Several misconceptions abound among college students taking their first general physics course, and to some extent pre-engineering physics students, regarding the physics and applications of electric circuits. Analogies used in textbooks, such as those that liken an electric circuit to a piped closed loop of water driven by a water pump, do not completely resolve these misconceptions. Mazur and Knight,2 in particular, separately note that such misconceptions include the notion that electric current on either side of a light bulb in a circuit can be different. Other difficulties and confusions involve understanding why the current in a parallel circuit exceeds the current in a series circuit with the same components, and include the role of the battery (where students may assume wrongly that a dry cell battery is a fixed-current rather than a fixed-voltage device). A simple classroom activity that students can play as a game can resolve these misconceptions, providing an intellectual as well as a hands-on understanding. This paper describes the "Electron Runaround," first developed by the author to teach extremely bright 8-year-old home-schooled children the basics of electric circuits and subsequently altered (according to the required level of instruction) and used for various college physics courses.

  1. Inspecting the microstructure of electrically active defects at the Ge/GeOx interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanciulli, Marco; Baldovino, Silvia; Molle, Alessandro

    2012-02-01

    High mobility substrates are important key elements in the development of advanced devices targeting a vast range of functionalities. Among them, Ge showed promising properties promoting it as valid candidate to replace Si in CMOS technology. However, the electrical quality of the Ge/oxide interface is still a problematic issue, in particular for the observed inversion of the n-type Ge surface, attributed to the presence of dangling bonds inducing a severe band bending [1]. In this scenario, the identification of electrically active defects present at the Ge/oxide interface and the capability to passivate or anneal them becomes a mandatory issue aiming at an electrically optimized interface. We report on the application of highly sensitive electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) techniques in the investigation of defects at the interface between Ge and GeO2 (or GeOx), including Ge dangling bonds and defects in the oxide [2]. In particular we will investigate how different surface orientations, e.g. the (001) against the (111) Ge surface, impacts the microstructure of the interface defects. [1] P. Tsipas and A. Dimoulas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 012114 (2009) [2] S. Baldovino, A. Molle, and M. Fanciulli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 222110 (2010)

  2. Experimental investigation on the effect of surface electric field in the growth of tungsten nano-tendril morphology due to low energy helium irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woller, K.B.; Whyte, D.G.; Wright, G.M.; Brunner, D.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for and controlling the growth of tungsten nano-tendrils (or “fuzz”) under low-energy helium plasma exposure remain unclear. For the first time in nano-tendril experiments, the plasma sheath-produced electric field and the helium (He) ion energy have been decoupled, showing that the sheath electric field has little impact on nano-tendril growth, eliminating a possible cause for tendril growth. The well-established necessary growth conditions for W fuzz were maintained with He ion flux density Γ He  > 10 21  He m −2  s −1 , surface temperature T s  = 1273 K, He ion energy E He  = 64 eV, and He ion fluence Φ He  > 10 24  He m −2 . A grid is situated between the tungsten sample and plasma, with the grid and sample potentials independently controlled in order to control the electric field at the surface of the sample while maintaining the same incident He ion energy to the surface. A calculation of the potential profile in the drift space between the grid and sample was used to account for space charge and calculate the electric field at the surface of the sample. Tungsten fuzz formed at all electric fields tested, even near zero electric field. Also, the depth of the resulting W fuzz layer was unaltered by the electric field when compared to the calculated depth determined from an empirical growth model. The conclusion is that the sheath electric field is not necessary to cause the changes in surface morphology. - Highlights: • Surface electric field is proposed as a possible driver of tungsten fuzz growth. • A method that decouples plasma sheath electric field and ion energy is described. • Tungsten fuzz is shown to grow even without direct exposure to plasma. • Tungsten fuzz grows to the same depth with and without the plasma sheath.

  3. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L Frelinger

    Full Text Available Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma.To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity.PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, endothelial growth factor (EGF and platelet factor 4 (PF4, and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin.PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the presence of platelet

  4. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, Andrew L; Gerrits, Anja J; Garner, Allen L; Torres, Andrew S; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A; Berny-Lang, Michelle A; Carmichael, Sabrina L; Neculaes, V Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF) pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma. To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF) bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity. PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF) and platelet factor 4 (PF4), and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin. PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the presence of platelet

  5. Phenolic Lipids Affect the Activity and Conformation of Acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein. PMID:24787269

  6. Shock-induced electrical activity in polymeric solids. A mechanically induced bond scission model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    When polymeric solids are subjected to high-pressure shock loading, two anomalous electrical phenomena, shock-induced conduction and shock-induced polarization, are observed. The present paper proposes a model of mechanically induced bond scission within the shock front to account for the effects. An experimental study of shock-induced polarization in poly(pyromellitimide) (Vespel SP-1) is reported for shock compressions from 17 to 23% (pressures from 2.5 to 5.4 GPa). Poly(pyromellitimide) is found to be a strong generator of such polarization and the polarization is found to reflect an irreversible or highly hysteretic process. The present measurements are combined with prior measurements to establish a correlation between monomer structure and strength of shock-induced polarization; feeble signals are observed in the simpler monomer repeat units of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and polyethylene while the strongest signals are observed in more complex monomers of poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(pyromellitimide). It is also noted that there is an apparent correlation between shock-induced conduction and shock-induced polarization. Such shock-induced electrical activity is also found to be well correlated with the propensity for mechanical bond scission observed in experiments carried out in conventional mechanochemical studies. The bond scission model can account for characteristics observed for electrical activity in shock-loaded polymers and their correlation to monomer structure. Localization of elastic energy within the monomer repeat unit or along the main chain leads to the different propensities for bond scission and resulting shock-induced electrical activity

  7. Pressurised electro-osmotic dewatering of activated and anaerobically digested sludges: electrical variables analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citeau, M; Olivier, J; Mahmoud, A; Vaxelaire, J; Larue, O; Vorobiev, E

    2012-09-15

    Pressurised electro-osmotic dewatering (PEOD) of two sewage sludges (activated and anaerobically digested) was studied under constant electric current (C.C.) and constant voltage (C.V.) with a laboratory chamber simulating closely an industrial filter. The influence of sludge characteristics, process parameters, and electrode/filter cloth position was investigated. The next parameters were tested: 40 and 80 A/m², 20, 30, and 50 V-for digested sludge dewatering; and 20, 40 and 80 A/m², 20, 30, and 50 V-for activated sludge dewatering. Effects of filter cloth electric resistance and initial cake thickness were also investigated. The application of PEOD provides a gain of 12 points of dry solids content for the digested sludge (47.0% w/w) and for the activated sludge (31.7% w/w). In PEOD processed at C.C. or at C.V., the dewatering flow rate was similar for the same electric field intensity. In C.C. mode, both the electric resistance of cake and voltage increase, causing a temperature rise by ohmic effect. In C.V. mode, a current intensity peak was observed in the earlier dewatering period. Applying at first a constant current and later on a constant voltage, permitted to have better control of ohmic heating effect. The dewatering rate was not significantly affected by the presence of filter cloth on electrodes, but the use of a thin filter cloth reduced remarkably the energy consumption compared to a thicker one: 69% of reduction energy input at 45% w/w of dry solids content. The reduction of the initial cake thickness is advantageous to increase the final dry solids content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulatory barriers for activating flexibility in the Nordic-Baltic electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergaentzlé, Claire; Skytte, Klaus; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    to flexibility. We find that the most restrictive barriers against flexibility are emitted by public authorities as part of broader policy strategies. Overall, we find that current regulatory and market framework conditions do not hinder flexibility. However, despite that, flexibility remains limited due......, load adjustment or to a greater coupling to other energy sectors. In this paper, we identify the framework conditions that influence the provision of VRE-friendly flexibility in the Nordic and Baltic electricity sector, i.e., the market and regulatory settings that act as drivers or barriers...... to a lack of coherent instruments intended to both the demand and supply-side to effectively act flexibly....

  9. Self-sustained firing activities of the cortical network with plastic rules in weak AC electrical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Ying-Mei; Wang Jiang; Men Cong; Zhao Jia; Wei Xi-Le; Deng Bin

    2012-01-01

    Both external and endogenous electrical fields widely exist in the environment of cortical neurons. The effects of a weak alternating current (AC) field on a neural network model with synaptic plasticity are studied. It is found that self-sustained rhythmic firing patterns, which are closely correlated with the cognitive functions, are significantly modified due to the self-organizing of the network in the weak AC field. The activities of the neural networks are affected by the synaptic connection strength, the external stimuli, and so on. In the presence of learning rules, the synaptic connections can be modulated by the external stimuli, which will further enhance the sensitivity of the network to the external signal. The properties of the external AC stimuli can serve as control parameters in modulating the evolution of the neural network. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. A brief report on the statistical study of net electric current in solar active regions with longitudinal fields of opposite polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic processes occurring in solar active regions are dominated by the solar magnetic field. As of now, observations using a solar magnetograph have supplied us with the vector components of a solar photospheric magnetic field. The two transverse components of a photospheric magnetic field allow us to compute the amount of electric current. We found that the electric current in areas with positive (negative) polarity due to the longitudinal magnetic field have both positive and negative signs in an active region, however, the net current is found to be an order-of-magnitude less than the mean absolute magnitude and has a preferred sign. In particular, we have statistically found that there is a systematic net electric current from areas with negative (positive) polarity to areas with positive (negative) polarity in solar active regions in the northern (southern) hemisphere, but during the solar minimum this tendency is reversed over time at some latitudes. The result indicates that there is weak net electric current in areas of solar active regions with opposite polarity, thus providing further details about the hemispheric helicity rule found in a series of previous studies.

  11. Effects of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Treatment on Enhancing Activity and Conformation of α-Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei-ling; Fang, Ting; Du, Mu-ying; Zhang, Fu-sheng

    2016-04-01

    To explore an efficient, safe, and speedy application of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology for enzymatic modification, effects of PEF treatment on the enzymatic activity, property and kinetic parameters of α-amylase were investigated. Conformational transitions were also studied with the aid of circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectra. The maximum enzymatic activity of α-amylase was obtained under 15 kV/cm electric field intensity and 100 mL/min flow velocity PEF treatment, in which the enzymatic activity increased by 22.13 ± 1.14% compared with control. The activation effect could last for 18 h at 4 °C. PEF treatment could widen the range of optimum temperature for α-amylase, however, it barely exerted any effect on the optimum pH. On the other hand, α-amylase treated by PEF showed an increase of Vmax, t1/2 and ΔG, whereas a decrease of Km and k were observed. Furthermore, it can be observed from fluorescence and CD spectra that PEF treatment had increased the number of amino acid residues, especially that of tryptophan, on α-amylase surface with enhanced α-helices by 34.76% and decreased random coil by 12.04% on α-amylase when compared with that of untreated. These changes in structure had positive effect on enhancing α-amylase activity and property.

  12. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  13. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-07-16

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was -1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: -0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: -0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): -0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: -2 min/day; steps/day: -156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  14. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in patients with active variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension and portal vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyun Woong; Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Lee, Sang Kwon; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Young Sun; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in patients with active variceal bleeding due to liver cirrhosis and pre-existing portal vein thrombosis. Of a total of 123 patients who underwent TIPS, 14 patients with intractable variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension and portal vein thrombosis were included in this study. Noncavernomatous portal vein occlusion was seen in eight patients, and complete portal vein occlusion with cavernomatous trans-formation in six. For all patients, the methods used for TIPS placement were the same as those used in patients with patents portal veins. In seven of eight patients with noncavernomatous occlusion, right hepatic vein-right portal vein shunting was performed; in one with knoncavernomatous occlusion, a shunt was created between the right hepatic and left portal vein. In five of six patients with cavernomatous occlusion, the right hepatic and main portal vein were connected via a collateral vein. The procedures were technically successful in all except one patient. Immediate hemostatis was achieved after all technically successful procedures, and no significant complications were encountered. Minor complications were noted in six patients (three biliary tree punctures, one transperitoneal puncture, one splenic vein perforation, one hepatic subcapsular hematoma). TIPS is a technically feasible and hemodynamically effective procedure, even in patients with active variceal bleeding due to cirrhosis and complete portal vein occlusion

  15. Recording of the Neural Activity Induced by the Electrical Subthalamic Stimulation Using Ca2+ Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Yagi, Tetsuya; Osanai, Makoto

    The basal ganglia (BG) have important roles in some kind of motor control and learning. Parkinson's disease is one of the motor impairment disease. Recently, to recover a motor severity in patients of Parkinsonism, the stimulus electrode is implanted to the subthalamic nucleus, which is a part of the basal ganglia, and the deep brain stimulation (DBS) is often conducted. However, the effects of the DBS on the subthalamic neurons have not been elucidated. Thus, to analyze the effects of the electrical stimulation on the subthalamic neurons, we conducted the calcium imaging at the mouse subthalamic nucleus. When the single stimulus was applied to the subthalamic nucleus, the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) transients were observed. In the case of application of the single electrical stimulation, the [Ca2+]i arose near the stimulus position. When 100 Hz 10-100 times tetanic stimulations were applied, the responded area and the amplitudes of [Ca2+]i transients were increased. The [Ca2+]i transients were disappeared almost completely on the action potential blockade, but blockade of the excitatory and the inhibitory synaptic transmission had little effects on the responded area and the amplitudes of the [Ca2+]i transients. These results suggested that the electrical stimulation to the subthalamic neurons led to activate the subthalamic neurons directly but not via synaptic transmissions. Thus, DBS may change the activity of the subthalamic neurons, hence, may alter the input-output relationship of the subthalamic neurons

  16. Metabolic Syndrome Remodels Electrical Activity of the Sinoatrial Node and Produces Arrhythmias in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarado-Ibañez, Alondra; Avelino-Cruz, José Everardo; Velasco, Myrian; Torres-Jácome, Julián; Hiriart, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    In the last ten years, the incidences of metabolic syndrome and supraventricular arrhythmias have greatly increased. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of alterations, which include obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, that increase the risk of developing, among others, atrial and nodal arrhythmias. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that metabolic syndrome induces electrical remodeling of the sinus node and produces arrhythmias. We induced metabolic syndrome in 2-month-old male Wistar rats by administering 20% sucrose in the drinking water. Eight weeks later, the rats were anesthetized and the electrocardiogram was recorded, revealing the presence of arrhythmias only in treated rats. Using conventional microelectrode and voltage clamp techniques, we analyzed the electrical activity of the sinoatrial node. We observed that in the sinoatrial node of “metabolic syndrome rats”, compared to controls, the spontaneous firing of all cells decreased, while the slope of the diastolic depolarization increased only in latent pacemaker cells. Accordingly, the pacemaker currents If and Ist increased. Furthermore, histological analysis showed a large amount of fat surrounding nodal cardiomyocytes and a rise in the sympathetic innervation. Finally, Poincaré plot denoted irregularity in the R-R and P-P ECG intervals, in agreement with the variability of nodal firing potential recorded in metabolic syndrome rats. We conclude that metabolic syndrome produces a dysfunction SA node by disrupting normal architecture and the electrical activity, which could explain the onset of arrhythmias in rats. PMID:24250786

  17. Statistical parameters of nonisothermal lower ionospheric plasma in the electrically active mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, S. I.; Rozumenko, V. T.; Tyrnov, O. F.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.

    The large V/m electric fields inherent in the lower mesosphere play an essential role in lower ionospheric electrodynamics. They must be the cause of large variations in the electron temperature and the electron collision frequency and consequently of the transition of the ionospheric plasma in the lower part of the D region into a nonisothermal state. This study is based on the datasets on large mesospheric electric fields collected with the 2.2-MHz radar of the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Canada (52°N geographic latitude, 60.4°N geomagnetic latitude), and with the 2.3-MHz radar of the Kharkiv V. Karazin National University, Ukraine (49.6°N geographic latitude, 45.6°N geomagnetic latitude). The statistical analysis of these data is presented by [Meek, C.E., Manson, A.H., Martynenko, S.I., Rozumenko, V.T., Tyrnov, O.F. Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 881-890, 2004. 10.1016/j.jastp.2004.02.002]. The large mesospheric electric fields in the 60-67-km altitude range are experimentally established to follow a Rayleigh distribution in the 0 < E < 2.5 V/m interval. These data have permitted the resulting differential distributions of relative disturbances in the electron temperature, θ, and the effective electron collision frequency, η, to be determined. The most probable θ and η values are found to be in the 1.4-2.2 interval, and hence the nonstationary state of the lower part of the D region needs to be accounted for in studying processes coupling the electrically active mesosphere and the lower ionospheric plasma.

  18. Enhancing the smoothness of joint motion induced by functional electrical stimulation using co-activation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruppel Mirjana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The motor precision of today’s neuroprosthetic devices that use artificial generation of limb motion using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES is generally low. We investigate the adoption of natural co-activation strategies as present in antagonistic muscle pairs aiming to improve motor precision produced by FES. In a test in which artificial knee-joint movements were generated, we could improve the smoothness of FES-induced motion by 513% when applying co-activation during the phases in which torque production is switched between muscles – compared to no co-activation. We further demonstrated how the co-activation level influences the joint stiffness in a pendulum test.

  19. Crossover from band-like to thermally activated charge transport in organic transistors due to strain-induced traps

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Yaochuan

    2017-08-02

    The temperature dependence of the charge-carrier mobility provides essential insight into the charge transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors. Such knowledge imparts critical understanding of the electrical properties of these materials, leading to better design of high-performance materials for consumer applications. Here, we present experimental results that suggest that the inhomogeneous strain induced in organic semiconductor layers by the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of the consecutive device layers of field-effect transistors generates trapping states that localize charge carriers. We observe a universal scaling between the activation energy of the transistors and the interfacial thermal expansion mismatch, in which band-like transport is observed for similar CTEs, and activated transport otherwise. Our results provide evidence that a high-quality semiconductor layer is necessary, but not sufficient, to obtain efficient charge-carrier transport in devices, and underline the importance of holistic device design to achieve the intrinsic performance limits of a given organic semiconductor. We go on to show that insertion of an ultrathin CTE buffer layer mitigates this problem and can help achieve band-like transport on a wide range of substrate platforms.

  20. Crossover from band-like to thermally activated charge transport in organic transistors due to strain-induced traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yaochuan; Diemer, Peter J; Niazi, Muhammad R; Hallani, Rawad K; Jarolimek, Karol; Day, Cynthia S; Risko, Chad; Anthony, John E; Amassian, Aram; Jurchescu, Oana D

    2017-08-15

    The temperature dependence of the charge-carrier mobility provides essential insight into the charge transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors. Such knowledge imparts critical understanding of the electrical properties of these materials, leading to better design of high-performance materials for consumer applications. Here, we present experimental results that suggest that the inhomogeneous strain induced in organic semiconductor layers by the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of the consecutive device layers of field-effect transistors generates trapping states that localize charge carriers. We observe a universal scaling between the activation energy of the transistors and the interfacial thermal expansion mismatch, in which band-like transport is observed for similar CTEs, and activated transport otherwise. Our results provide evidence that a high-quality semiconductor layer is necessary, but not sufficient, to obtain efficient charge-carrier transport in devices, and underline the importance of holistic device design to achieve the intrinsic performance limits of a given organic semiconductor. We go on to show that insertion of an ultrathin CTE buffer layer mitigates this problem and can help achieve band-like transport on a wide range of substrate platforms.

  1. A model for the scattering of high-frequency electromagnetic fields from dielectrics exhibiting thermally-activated electrical losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Raiford E.

    1991-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model (ECM) approach is used to predict the scattering behavior of temperature-activated, electrically lossy dielectric layers. The total electrical response of the dielectric (relaxation + conductive) is given by the ECM and used in combination with transmission line theory to compute reflectance spectra for a Dallenbach layer configuration. The effects of thermally-activated relaxation processes on the scattering properties is discussed. Also, the effect of relaxation and conduction activation energy on the electrical properties of the dielectric is described.

  2. Efficient solution of ordinary differential equations modeling electrical activity in cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundnes, J; Lines, G T; Tveito, A

    2001-08-01

    The contraction of the heart is preceded and caused by a cellular electro-chemical reaction, causing an electrical field to be generated. Performing realistic computer simulations of this process involves solving a set of partial differential equations, as well as a large number of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterizing the reactive behavior of the cardiac tissue. Experiments have shown that the solution of the ODEs contribute significantly to the total work of a simulation, and there is thus a strong need to utilize efficient solution methods for this part of the problem. This paper presents how an efficient implicit Runge-Kutta method may be adapted to solve a complicated cardiac cell model consisting of 31 ODEs, and how this solver may be coupled to a set of PDE solvers to provide complete simulations of the electrical activity.

  3. Effects of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on slow electric activity and spike activity of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu

    2013-09-01

    In chronic experiments on rabbits, the effect of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on myoelectric activity of the fundal and antral parts of the stomach was studied under conditions of hunger and satiation in the absence of food. Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation and in previously fed rabbits produced incessant seeking behavior, which was followed by reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of muscles of the stomach body and antrum specific for hungry and satiated animals. Increased hunger motivation during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation in the replacement of bimodal distribution of slow wave periods to a trimodal type typical of 2-day deprivation, while transition from satiation to hunger caused by electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was associated with a shift from monomodal distributions of slow wave periods to a bimodal type typical of 24-h deprivation. Reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was determined by descending inhibitory influences of food motivational excitation on activity of the myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature of the stomach.

  4. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  5. EVALUATING DEGREE OF ACTIVE POWER LOSSES REDUCTION IN THE ELECTRIC POWER LINES WITH REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Radkevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers evaluation procedure for the degree of active power losses reduction in the power transmission lines under 1 kV and 6–10 kV of the systems of electric power supply of industrial enterprises with compensating installations mounted at the side of the customer. The capacitor installations conform to the applied voltage level and factor in dielectric losses in the capacitors. The voltage at the compensating device terminal changes from 0.95 to 1.05 of the capacitors nominal voltage. The study did not account for reactive power losses in the line, nor did it for its charge capacity, conditioned by relative shortness of the cable lines generally operating in the mains of industrial enterprises. For this reason, the quantities of reactive power being consumed and generated by the transmission line are negligible and do not significantly affect the reactive power flux. The researchers obtain functional relations that allow estimating the degree of power loss reduction in the transmission line factoring in its explicit initial data. They perform mathematical analysis of the obtained functional relations and study the function by means of derivatives. The function extremum points are found as well as the intervals of its increment and decrement. A graphical research of the obtained functional relation is performed. It is ascertained that reduction of the active power losses is contingent on the line and the capacitor-installation engineering factors, the electrical energy consumer reactive load value as well as the voltage applied to the capacitor installation. The functional relations presented in the article can be employed in scoping calculation necessary for decision making on the reactive power compensation in systems of the industrial facilities electric power supply. Their account will allow a more accurate estimate of technical and economic effect of the capacitor bank installation in the electrical mains under 1 kV and 6

  6. Lasing from the domain of collision of ionisation waves produced due to electric field concentration at electrodes with a small radius of curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasenko, Viktor F; Tel'minov, A E; Burachenko, A G; Rybka, D V; Baksht, E Kh; Lomaev, Mikhail I; Panchenko, Aleksei N; Vil'tovskii, P O

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of UV lasing in nitrogen and of diffusive discharge produced without an additional ionisation source were experimentally investigated in a nonuniform electric field formed by electrodes with different profiles. High-voltage nanosecond pulses were applied to the blade- and cylinder-shaped electrodes. It was determined that the gap breakdown at elevated pressure was caused by diffusive jets which propagate from the electrodes with a small radius of curvature. The electric field increased in the intersection of counter-propagating jets, with the effect that the threshold of lasing in the C 3 Π u - B 3 Π g (λ = 337.1 nm) molecular nitrogen band was attained for low average electric fields (below 60 V cm -1 Torr -1 ) and at pressures of 760 Torr and above. With lowering the pressure from 760 to 20 Torr, the voltage of gap breakdown in the nonuniform electric field was observed to increase for a voltage pulse rise time of ∼300 ps and to decrease for a pulse rise time of ∼2 ns.

  7. Electric power saving potential due to domestic refrigerators replacement; Potencial de ahorro de energia electrica por el reemplazo de refrigeradores domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico)]. E-mail: jose.peralta@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Mexico the second most used electrical appliance is: refrigerator. Owing to its use, it would be a promising option for electric power saving. In Guadalajara, Reynosa and Tampico it was performed a study with the aim of launching a project to replace the old refrigerators with new ones which are more effective and less expensive. Since the refrigerators cost and the electrical invoicing saving, the electric appliance change is profitable. To expect with this replacement more than eight million of refrigerators manufactured before 1997 will be changed. [Spanish] El refrigerador es el segundo electrodomestico mas utilizado a nivel nacional, esto permite que debido a su uso sea una opcion prometedora para el ahorro de energia electrica. Se hizo un estudio en Guadalajara, Reynosa y Tampico con el fin de lanzar un proyecto para sustituir los refrigeradores viejos por unos nuevos que sean mas eficaces y menos costosos. Por el costo de los refrigeradores y el ahorro en la facturacion electrica, el cambio de electrodomestico es rentable, de esta manera se espera que los mas de ocho millones de refrigeradores fabricados antes de 1997 que existen en el pais sean cambiados.

  8. Twelve years of continuous measurements of atmospheric electrical activity in Mexico's Tropical highland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troncoso Lozada, O. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-04-01

    Atmospheric electric activity measurements have been recorded continuously by a punctual lightning system at a tropical highland observatory from 1988 onwards, and were analyzed to obtain lightning statistical confident results for thunderstorms occurrence on the leeward side of the southern mountain ridge of Mexico's Valley. Shown, as examples, are individual profiles of the atmospheric electrical activity, associated with severe storms. The results make clear that the fastest possible sequence of electrical measurements is required to obtain significant and applications oriented data in connection with a whole series of thunderstorms taking into account the mean time variation of the atmospheric electricity measurements at an altitude of 2270 m a.s.l. The seasonal variation indicates that the lightning flash peak currents were found to be larger in summer with less than 10% occurring in the autumn and winter. With rainfall data from a network of 66 stations, we obtained a significant correlation with the lightning frequency. Special attention was undertaken concerning the question of the atmospheric electrical activity and climate at Valley of Mexico. [Spanish] Se midieron ininterrumpidamente las variaciones de la actividad electrica en la atmosfera, de enero de 1988 a diciembre de 1999, en un observatorio de altura (2,250 m s.n.m.), y se analizaron para obtener resultados estadisticos confiables con relacion a la ocurrencia de tormentas en la region sur del Valle de Mexico. Como ejemplos, se muestran los perfiles individuales de la actividad electrica atmosferica asociada con tormentas severas. Los resultados dejan claro que se requiere de la secuencia de medidas electricas lo mas rapida posible para obtener datos significativos y aplicables en relacion con una serie completa de tormentas, considerando la media del tiempo de variacion de las mediciones de la actividad electrica atmosferica a una altitud de 2,270 m s.n.m. La validacion estacional indica que

  9. Preterm labour detection by use of a biophysical marker: the uterine electrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marque, Catherine K; Terrien, Jérémy; Rihana, Sandy; Germain, Guy

    2007-06-01

    The electrical activity of the uterine muscle is representative of uterine contractility. Its characterization may be used to detect a potential risk of preterm delivery in women, even at an early gestational stage. We have investigated the effect of the recording electrode position on the spectral content of the signal by using a mathematical model of the women's abdomen. We have then compared the simulated results to actual recordings. On signals with noise reduced with a dedicated algorithm, we have characterized the main frequency components of the signal spectrum in order to compute parameters indicative of different situations: preterm contractions resulting nonetheless in term delivery (i.e. normal contractions) and preterm contractions leading to preterm delivery (i.e. high-risk contractions). A diagnosis system permitted us to discriminate between these different categories of contractions. As the position of the placenta seems to affect the frequency content of electrical activity, we have also investigated in monkeys, with internal electrodes attached on the uterus, the effect of the placenta on the spectral content of the electrical signals. In women, the best electrode position was the median vertical axis of the abdomen. The discrimination between high risk and normal contractions showed that it was possible to detect a risk of preterm labour as early as at the 27th week of pregnancy (Misclassification Rate range: 11-19.5%). Placental influence on electrical signals was evidenced in animal recordings, with higher energy content in high frequency bands, for signals recorded away from the placenta when compared to signals recorded above the placental insertion. However, we noticed, from pregnancy to labour, a similar evolution of the frequency content of the signal towards high frequencies, whatever the relative position of electrodes and placenta. On human recordings, this study has proved that it is possible to detect, by non-invasive abdominal

  10. Preterm labour detection by use of a biophysical marker: the uterine electrical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germain Guy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The electrical activity of the uterine muscle is representative of uterine contractility. Its characterization may be used to detect a potential risk of preterm delivery in women, even at an early gestational stage. Methods We have investigated the effect of the recording electrode position on the spectral content of the signal by using a mathematical model of the women's abdomen. We have then compared the simulated results to actual recordings. On signals with noise reduced with a dedicated algorithm, we have characterized the main frequency components of the signal spectrum in order to compute parameters indicative of different situations: preterm contractions resulting nonetheless in term delivery (i.e. normal contractions and preterm contractions leading to preterm delivery (i.e. high-risk contractions. A diagnosis system permitted us to discriminate between these different categories of contractions. As the position of the placenta seems to affect the frequency content of electrical activity, we have also investigated in monkeys, with internal electrodes attached on the uterus, the effect of the placenta on the spectral content of the electrical signals. Results In women, the best electrode position was the median vertical axis of the abdomen. The discrimination between high risk and normal contractions showed that it was possible to detect a risk of preterm labour as early as at the 27th week of pregnancy (Misclassification Rate range: 11–19.5%. Placental influence on electrical signals was evidenced in animal recordings, with higher energy content in high frequency bands, for signals recorded away from the placenta when compared to signals recorded above the placental insertion. However, we noticed, from pregnancy to labour, a similar evolution of the frequency content of the signal towards high frequencies, whatever the relative position of electrodes and placenta. Conclusion On human recordings, this study has

  11. Fluctuation-driven directional flow of energy in biochemical cycle: Electric activation of Na,K ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow Tsong, Tian

    1998-03-01

    Na,K ATPase is an ion pump which uses chemical bond energy of ATP to pump Na ion out of, and K ion into living cell thus maintaining ionic and osmotic balances of the cell. Both are uphill transport reactions. Surprisingly we have found that electric energy can also substitute chemical energy to fuel the pump activity. However, in this case only electric fields of certain waveforms, amplitudes, and frequencies are effective. Waveform, amplitude and frequency are three elements of signal. In other words, Na,K ATPase can recognize, process, and harvest energy from an oscillating or a fluctuating electric field to drive an endergonic reaction. The enzyme is a molecular transducer of electric signal. This report will describe electric activation experiment to define electric signal. Electric signal will then mixed with electric noise of broad power spectrum for experiment. Effect of white noise (WN) on the efficiency of Na,K ATPase will be investigated. It will be shown that WN of appropriate power level can improve the pump efficiency when a sub-optimal electric field is used. WN can also carry a sub-threshold signal to cross over the threshold. Stochastic resonance will be discussed in reference to these observations.

  12. Change of the natural radiation exposure due to agriculture and industrial activities in a high natural radioactivity area from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Amaral, E.C. da.

    1992-01-01

    The Pocos de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais State one of the biggest alkaline intrusions in the world. This study has shown the expected value for the mean annual radiation exposure due to the agricultural activities ranges from 6 up to 14 mSv/a depending on the age and living habits of the population group. The inhalation exposure of radon, thoron and their progenies represents the largest radiological health hazard (70-90%); this is followed by the external gamma irradiation from soil (10-25%). Ingestion of natural radionuclides with local food is only of minor radiological consequence. It was found that the lethal cancer risk might increase by 4% for a person born at the plateau, living and working there for the rest of her life. For the remote population the consumption the consumption of food products exported from the plateau leads to an expected value for the collective dose of 19 man Sv/a. This corresponding nominally to the small calculated number of 1 additional case of cancer per year. Therefore the main radiation impact of the agricultural activities are not the increased concentrations of natural radionuclides in food products but the fact that they are produced there with human labor and thus increasing the radiation exposure to a large number of farm workers and their families that move for occupational reasons to that region. The radiation exposure due to the mining and milling activities is, in spite of the significant increase of radionuclide activity concentrations in river waters, only of the order of 0.3 mSv/a. However as a recognized industrial source the ICRP dose limitation system has to be applied. Under this aspect the exposure calculated here, 0.3 mSv/a, should be considered as acceptable. (author). 93 refs, 16 figs, 58 tabs

  13. Estriol-induced fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin by nitric oxide synthesis in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Pradipta; Maiti, Smarajit; Kahn, Nighat N; Sinha, Asru K

    2015-04-01

    Estriol, an oestrogen, at 0.6 nmol/l was reported to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation through nitric oxide synthesis. As nitric oxide has been reported to cause fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, the role of estriol as a fibrinolytic agent was investigated. Also, the mechanism of estriol-induced nitric oxide synthesis in anucleated platelets was investigated. The estriol-induced lysis of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clot was determined by photography of the clot lysis and by the assay of fibrin degradation products in the lysate and was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Nitric oxide was determined by methemoglobin method. The platelet membrane protein was isolated from the platelets by using Triton X-100 (0.05% v/v). The binding of estriol to the protein was determined by Scatchard plot by using an ELISA for estriol. Estriol at 0.6 nmol/l was found to lyse the clotted PRP due to fibrinolysis that produced fibrin degradation products in the lysate. The amino acid analysis of the platelet membrane protein, which resembles with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, was activated nearly 10-fold over the control in the presence of estriol and was identified to be a human serum albumin precursor (Mr. 69 kDa) that binds to estriol with Kd1 of 6.0 × 10 mol/l and 39 ± 2 molecules of estriol bound the NOS molecule. The estriol-induced nitric oxide is capable of inducing fibrinolysis of the clotted PRP. The binding of estriol to platelet membrane NOS activated the enzyme in the absence of DNA in the platelet.

  14. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhaoguang; Hu, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  15. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang [State Grid Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zheng [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  16. Electrical properties of alkali-activated slag composite with combined graphite/CNT filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovnaník, P.; Míková, M.; Kusák, I.

    2017-10-01

    Alkali-activated industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag are known to possess properties which are comparable to or even better than those observed for ordinary Portland cement. The combination of alkali-activated slag matrix with conductive filler introduces new functionalities which are commonly known for self-sensing or self-heating concrete. The present paper discusses the effect of the mixture of two different conductive fillers, graphite powder and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), on the electrical properties of alkali-activated slag mortars. Prepared samples were also tested for their mechanical properties and microstructure was investigated by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The percolation threshold for the resistance was reached for the mixture containing 0.1% CNTs and 8% graphite powder.

  17. Physical work load and psychological stress of daily activities as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-06-01

    Physical work loading and psychological stress commonly co-occur in working life, hence potentially having an interrelationship that may affect work incapacity. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of stability and change in physical work loading and stress on the risk of disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD), while accounting for familial confounding in these associations. Data on 12,455 twins born before 1958 were surveyed of their physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data was collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the follow up, 893 participants were granted DP due to MSD. Stable high (hazard ratio, HR, 2.21), but also increased physical work loading (HR 2.05) and high psychological stress (HR 2.22) were associated with increased risk for DP, and had significant interaction (p=0.032). The associations were confirmed when accounting for several confounding factors. Stable high but also increased physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities between two timepoints with 6 years apart confirms their predictive role for an increased risk of DP. Both physical work loading and psychological stress seem to be independent from various confounding factors hence suggesting direct effect on risk for DP providing potential for occupational health care to early identification of persons at risk. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  18. Theoretical and experimental studies on the electric impedance of active piezoelectric sensors bonded on cracked beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Y D; Chen, C Y; Shi, S Q; Chan, P K L; He, X Q

    2010-01-01

    The electric impedance of symmetrically surface-bonded piezoelectric sensors on a cracked beam is studied. To investigate the effect of the crack on the electric impedance in a convenient fashion, an analytical expression is derived that is correlated to the physical parameters of the crack and the host beam. The beam segment covered with piezoelectric patches and the cracked region are regarded as a bimorph segment and an equivalent spring, respectively, and the entire beam system is then represented by three elastic beam segments and a bimorph segment together with the spring. Electric impedance experiments are also conducted for uncracked beams and for cracked beams with single-edge or double-edge cracks. The experimental results agree with those generated by the analytical expression. The crack depth has little effect on the corresponding mode frequency for cracks located at the mode node of a beam. For cracks located away from the mode node, the corresponding mode frequency decreases as the crack depth increases. Moreover, the closer the crack to the anti-node of the mode, the greater the decrease in the corresponding mode frequency. The mechanism of these changes is discussed. The findings should prove helpful for structural health monitoring using active piezoelectric sensors

  19. Spatio-temporal analysis of brain electrical activity in epilepsy based on cellular nonlinear networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollas, Frank; Tetzlaff, Ronald

    2009-05-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic disorder of the nervous system. Generally, epileptic seizures appear without foregoing sign or warning. The problem of detecting a possible pre-seizure state in epilepsy from EEG signals has been addressed by many authors over the past decades. Different approaches of time series analysis of brain electrical activity already are providing valuable insights into the underlying complex dynamics. But the main goal the identification of an impending epileptic seizure with a sufficient specificity and reliability, has not been achieved up to now. An algorithm for a reliable, automated prediction of epileptic seizures would enable the realization of implantable seizure warning devices, which could provide valuable information to the patient and time/event specific drug delivery or possibly a direct electrical nerve stimulation. Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) are promising candidates for future seizure warning devices. CNN are characterized by local couplings of comparatively simple dynamical systems. With this property these networks are well suited to be realized as highly parallel, analog computer chips. Today available CNN hardware realizations exhibit a processing speed in the range of TeraOps combined with low power consumption. In this contribution new algorithms based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of CNN are considered in order to analyze intracranial EEG signals and thus taking into account mutual dependencies between neighboring regions of the brain. In an identification procedure Reaction-Diffusion CNN (RD-CNN) are determined for short segments of brain electrical activity, by means of a supervised parameter optimization. RD-CNN are deduced from Reaction-Diffusion Systems, which usually are applied to investigate complex phenomena like nonlinear wave propagation or pattern formation. The Local Activity Theory provides a necessary condition for emergent behavior in RD-CNN. In comparison linear spatio

  20. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Li, Yu-You; Zhao, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DD SCOD ), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (k hyd ), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  1. Improved structural and electrical properties in native Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices due to intermixing mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cecchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Superlattices made of Sb2Te3/GeTe phase change materials have demonstrated outstanding performance with respect to GeSbTe alloys in memory applications. Recently, epitaxial Sb2Te3/GeTe superlattices were found to feature GexSb2Te3+x blocks as a result of intermixing between constituting layers. Here we present the epitaxy and characterization of Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices, where GexSb2Te3+x was intentionally fabricated. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and lateral electrical transport data are reported. The intrinsic 2D nature of both sublayers is found to mitigate the intermixing in the structures, significantly improving the interface sharpness and ultimately the superlattice structural and electrical properties.

  2. On the effects on a Landau-type system for an atom with no permanent electric dipole moment due to a Coulomb-type potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Abinael B.; Bakke, Knut, E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br

    2016-02-15

    We analyse the bound states for a Landau-type system for an atom with no permanent electric dipole moment subject to a Coulomb-type potential. By comparing the energy levels for bound states of the system with the Landau quantization for an atom with no permanent electric dipole moment (Furtado et al., 2006), we show that the energy levels of the Landau-type system are modified, where the degeneracy of the energy levels is broken. Another quantum effect investigated is a dependence of the angular frequency of the system on the quantum numbers associated with the radial modes and the angular momentum. As examples, we obtain the angular frequency and the energy levels associated with the ground state and the first excited state of the system.

  3. On the effects on a Landau-type system for an atom with no permanent electric dipole moment due to a Coulomb-type potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Abinael B.; Bakke, Knut

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the bound states for a Landau-type system for an atom with no permanent electric dipole moment subject to a Coulomb-type potential. By comparing the energy levels for bound states of the system with the Landau quantization for an atom with no permanent electric dipole moment (Furtado et al., 2006), we show that the energy levels of the Landau-type system are modified, where the degeneracy of the energy levels is broken. Another quantum effect investigated is a dependence of the angular frequency of the system on the quantum numbers associated with the radial modes and the angular momentum. As examples, we obtain the angular frequency and the energy levels associated with the ground state and the first excited state of the system.

  4. 78 FR 7394 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ..., freezers, apparel washing machines and dryers, electric ranges, and air-conditioners, under FTZ procedures...), fan motors, fans, filter/ dryers, expansion valves, accumulators, parts of electric water heaters...

  5. Depletion of NADP(H) due to CD38 activation triggers endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Levy A; Boslett, James; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; De Pascali, Francesco; Hemann, Craig; Druhan, Lawrence J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; El-Mahdy, Mohamed; Zweier, Jay L

    2015-09-15

    In the postischemic heart, coronary vasodilation is impaired due to loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Although the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is depleted, its repletion only partially restores eNOS-mediated coronary vasodilation, indicating that other critical factors trigger endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, studies were performed to characterize the unidentified factor(s) that trigger endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart. We observed that depletion of the eNOS substrate NADPH occurs in the postischemic heart with near total depletion from the endothelium, triggering impaired eNOS function and limiting BH4 rescue through NADPH-dependent salvage pathways. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), depletion of the NADP(H) pool occurred and was most marked in the endothelium, with >85% depletion. Repletion of NADPH after I/R increased NOS-dependent coronary flow well above that with BH4 alone. With combined NADPH and BH4 repletion, full restoration of NOS-dependent coronary flow occurred. Profound endothelial NADPH depletion was identified to be due to marked activation of the NAD(P)ase-activity of CD38 and could be prevented by inhibition or specific knockdown of this protein. Depletion of the NADPH precursor, NADP(+), coincided with formation of 2'-phospho-ADP ribose, a CD38-derived signaling molecule. Inhibition of CD38 prevented NADP(H) depletion and preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation and NO generation with increased recovery of contractile function and decreased infarction in the postischemic heart. Thus, CD38 activation is an important cause of postischemic endothelial dysfunction and presents a novel therapeutic target for prevention of this dysfunction in unstable coronary syndromes.

  6. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2006 Annual Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    2006 was another recordbreaking year in the electricity and gas utilities sector. Total deal values shot through the record level set in 2005 to reach a dizzying USD 298.8bn. This is nearly seven times the USD 43bn level of transactions recorded in the sector only three years earlier in 2003. The rise is all the more astonishing as it comes in a year when deal activity from corporate US utility players plummeted. The sharp downturn in North America came as companies took stock of aggressive regulatory stances from some state regulators during a US midterm election year that coincided with the ending of rate freezes and reaction to the repeal of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act. North American electricity deal values by bidder fell 64% to USD 20.7bn, not far above the USD 16.7bn level of 2003. The picture in Europe and the Asia Pacific region was very different. Both regions recorded record levels of power deal activities as utility companies continued to strive for super regional'' scale. Deal activity in Europe was given extra momentum by the countdown to the July 2007 implementation of full retail market liberalisation. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key power and gas markets. Looking to the future, the regulatory environment will play a key role in determining the course of deal activity. Companies entering into big deals need to be ready more than ever for the long haul. However, the underpinning momentum in the sector remains strong and this is likely to create continued buoyancy in the period ahead

  7. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2006 Annual Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    2006 was another recordbreaking year in the electricity and gas utilities sector. Total deal values shot through the record level set in 2005 to reach a dizzying USD 298.8bn. This is nearly seven times the USD 43bn level of transactions recorded in the sector only three years earlier in 2003. The rise is all the more astonishing as it comes in a year when deal activity from corporate US utility players plummeted. The sharp downturn in North America came as companies took stock of aggressive regulatory stances from some state regulators during a US midterm election year that coincided with the ending of rate freezes and reaction to the repeal of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act. North American electricity deal values by bidder fell 64% to USD 20.7bn, not far above the USD 16.7bn level of 2003. The picture in Europe and the Asia Pacific region was very different. Both regions recorded record levels of power deal activities as utility companies continued to strive for super regional'' scale. Deal activity in Europe was given extra momentum by the countdown to the July 2007 implementation of full retail market liberalisation. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key power and gas markets. Looking to the future, the regulatory environment will play a key role in determining the course of deal activity. Companies entering into big deals need to be ready more than ever for the long haul. However, the underpinning momentum in the sector remains strong and this is likely to create continued buoyancy in the period ahead.

  8. Integration of in-home electricity storage systems in a multi-agent active distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, E.A.M.; Reulink, M.H.B.; Haytema, A.P.; Frunt, J.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    The living lab demonstration project PowerMatching City is a clear example of how distribution networks can take advantage of the increasing number of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Due to the applied decentralized market model in this project, DER become active players on the local market.

  9. Diadenosine pentaphosphate affects electrical activity in guinea pig atrium via activation of potassium acetylcholine-dependent inward rectifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramochkin, Denis V; Karimova, Viktoria M; Filatova, Tatiana S; Kamkin, Andre

    2017-07-01

    Diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) belongs to the family of diadenosine polyphosphates, endogenously produced compounds that affect vascular tone and cardiac performance when released from platelets. The previous findings indicate that Ap5A shortens action potentials (APs) in rat myocardium via activation of purine P2 receptors. The present study demonstrates alternative mechanism of Ap5A electrophysiological effects found in guinea pig myocardium. Ap5A (10 -4  M) shortens APs in guinea pig working atrial myocardium and slows down pacemaker activity in the sinoatrial node. P1 receptors antagonist DPCPX (10 -7  M) or selective GIRK channels blocker tertiapin (10 -6  M) completely abolished all Ap5A effects, while P2 blocker PPADS (10 -4  M) was ineffective. Patch-clamp experiments revealed potassium inward rectifier current activated by Ap5A in guinea pig atrial myocytes. The current was abolished by DPCPX or tertiapin and therefore was considered as potassium acetylcholine-dependent inward rectifier (I KACh ). Thus, unlike rat, in guinea pig atrium Ap5A produces activation of P1 receptors and subsequent opening of KACh channels leading to negative effects on cardiac electrical activity.

  10. Mode selection in electrical activities of myocardial cell exposed to electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Ya; Wang, Chunni; Xu, Ying; Ren, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Neuronal model under electromagnetic induction and radiation is set up; • The transition of electrical activities under electromagnetic radiation is discussed; • Dynamical response of encoding of neuron is discussed for possible mechanism of heart disease. - Abstract: Based on the Fitzhugh–Nagumo neuron model, the effect of electromagnetic induction is considered and external electromagnetic radiation is imposed to detect the mode transition of electrical activities in a myocardial cell. Appropriate dynamical and functional responses can be observed in the sampled series for membrane potentials by setting different feedback modulation on the membrane potential in presence of electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic radiation is described by a periodical forcing on the magnetic flux, and it is found that the response frequency can keep pace with the frequency of external forcing. However, mismatch of frequency occurs by further increasing the frequency of external forcing, it could account for the information encoding of neuron. The dynamical response could be associated with the magnetization and polarization of the media, thus the outputs of membrane potential can become quiescent and/or bursting as well.

  11. THE EVOLUTION OF THE ELECTRIC CURRENT DURING THE FORMATION AND ERUPTION OF ACTIVE-REGION FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jincheng; Yan, Xiaoli; Qu, Zhongquan; Xue, Zhike; Xiang, Yongyuan; Li, Hao, E-mail: egnever@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the electric current related to the formation and eruption of active region filaments in NOAA AR 11884. The vertical current on the solar surface was investigated by using vector magnetograms (VMs) observed by HMI on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. To obtain the electric current along the filament's axis, we reconstructed the magnetic fields above the photosphere by using nonlinear force-free field extrapolation based on photospheric VMs. Spatio-temporal evolutions of the vertical current on the photospheric surface and the horizontal current along the filament's axis were studied during the long-term evolution and eruption-related period, respectively. The results show that the vertical currents of the entire active region behaved with a decreasing trend and the magnetic fields also kept decreasing during the long-term evolution. For the eruption-related evolution, the mean transverse field strengths decreased before two eruptions and increased sharply after two eruptions in the vicinity of the polarity inversion lines underneath the filament. The related vertical current showed different behaviors in two of the eruptions. On the other hand, a very interesting feature was found: opposite horizontal currents with respect to the current of the filament's axis appeared and increased under the filament before the eruptions and disappeared after the eruptions. We suggest that these opposite currents were carried by the new flux emerging from the photosphere bottom and might be the trigger mechanism for these filament eruptions.

  12. Individual differences in object permanence performance at 8 months: locomotor experience and brain electrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M A; Fox, N A

    1997-12-01

    This work was designed to investigate individual differences in hands-and-knees crawling and frontal brain electrical activity with respect to object permanence performance in 76 eight-month-old infants. Four groups of infants (one prelocomotor and 3 with varying lengths of hands-and-knees crawling experience) were tested on an object permanence scale in a research design similar to that used by Kermoian and Campos (1988). In addition, baseline EEG was recorded and used as an indicator of brain development, as in the Bell and Fox (1992) longitudinal study. Individual differences in frontal and occipital EEG power and in locomotor experience were associated with performance on the object permanence task. Infants successful at A-not-B exhibited greater frontal EEG power and greater occipital EEG power than unsuccessful infants. In contrast to Kermoian and Campos (1988), who noted that long-term crawling experience was associated with higher performance on an object permanence scale, infants in this study with any amount of hands and knees crawling experience performed at a higher level on the object permanence scale than prelocomotor infants. There was no interaction among brain electrical activity, locomotor experience, and object permanence performance. These data highlight the value of electrophysiological research and the need for a brain-behavior model of object permanence performance that incorporates both electrophysiological and behavioral factors.

  13. Multi-objective decoupling algorithm for active distance control of intelligent hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yugong; Chen, Tao; Li, Keqiang

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel active distance control strategy for intelligent hybrid electric vehicles (IHEV) with the purpose of guaranteeing an optimal performance in view of the driving functions, optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort. Considering the complexity of driving situations, the objects of safety and ride comfort are decoupled from that of fuel economy, and a hierarchical control architecture is adopted to improve the real-time performance and the adaptability. The hierarchical control structure consists of four layers: active distance control object determination, comprehensive driving and braking torque calculation, comprehensive torque distribution and torque coordination. The safety distance control and the emergency stop algorithms are designed to achieve the safety and ride comfort goals. The optimal rule-based energy management algorithm of the hybrid electric system is developed to improve the fuel economy. The torque coordination control strategy is proposed to regulate engine torque, motor torque and hydraulic braking torque to improve the ride comfort. This strategy is verified by simulation and experiment using a forward simulation platform and a prototype vehicle. The results show that the novel control strategy can achieve the integrated and coordinated control of its multiple subsystems, which guarantees top performance of the driving functions and optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort.

  14. The number of supports does not modify the electrical cortical activity during balance tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective was to evaluate the electrical cortical activity during two static and two dynamic tasks, comparing between tasks with single support tasks and tasks with two feet on the platform. Settings and Design: Sixteen young males participated in this cross-sectional study. Methods and Material: Electrical cortical activity was assessed using the Enobio device. Two static and two dynamic tasks were performed, all of them on the Biodex Balance System device. Statistical analysis used: Mean power spectrum for the Alpha band was analyzed. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare tasks with one single support and tasks with the two feet on the platform. Results: No significant difference was observed when comparing the balance tasks. Conclusions: The number of supports did not significantly modify the EEG signal in the alpha band. However, cognitive demands in the single support dynamic task seemed to be somewhat higher compared with the rest of the tasks. These results may be relevant to design future programs based on dual task.

  15. ACETYL-L-CARNITINE AFFECTS THE ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF MECHANOSENSORY NEURONS IN HIRUDO MEDICINALIS GANGLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Traina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Was previously discovered that in the leech Hirudo medicinalis, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC affects forms of non-associative learning, such as sensitization and dishabituation, due to nociceptive stimulation of the dorsal skin in the swim induction behavioural paradigm, likely through modulating the activity of the mechanosensory tactile (T neurons, which initiate swimming. Since was found that ALC impaired sensitization and dishabituation, both of which are mediated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, the present study analyzed how ALC may interfere with the sensitizing response. Was already found that ALC reduced the activity of nociceptive (N neurons, which modulate T cell activity through serotonergic mediation.

  16. Influence of the active layer pattern on the electrical characteristics of organic inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kwon, Jin-Hyuk; Bae, Jin-Hyuk [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Hoon; Baang, Sung-Keun [Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We describe the importance of a patterned active layer for the fine driving of organic inverters. In the case of a non-patterned inverter, the capacitance as a function of the applied bias in an organic capacitor structure exhibits a slow saturation nature due to the slow movement of charge carriers. Hence, during the operation of organic inverters with non-patterned active layers, the voltage gains inevitably exhibit lower values whereas higher gains are achieved in the case of sharply-patterned pentacene layers. These results suggest that the patterning of the active layer can be a decisive factor for realizing high-performance electronic circuits based on organic semiconductors.

  17. Atmospheric-pressure electric discharge as an instrument of chemical activation of water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, V. V.; Shutov, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    Results of experimental studies and numerical simulations of physicochemical characteristics of plasmas generated in different types of atmospheric-pressure discharges (pulsed streamer corona, gliding electric arc, dielectric barrier discharge, glow-discharge electrolysis, diaphragmatic discharge, and dc glow discharge) used to initiate various chemical processes in water solutions are analyzed. Typical reactor designs are considered. Data on the power supply characteristics, plasma electron parameters, gas temperatures, and densities of active particles in different types of discharges excited in different gases and their dependences on the external parameters of discharges are presented. The chemical composition of active particles formed in water is described. Possible mechanisms of production and loss of plasma particles are discussed.

  18. A Classroom Activity for Teaching Electric Polarization of Insulators and Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligkaris, Christos

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of electric polarization is crucial to student understanding of forces exerted between charged objects and insulators or conductors, the process of charging by induction, and the behavior of electroscopes near charged objects. In addition, polarization allows for microscopic-level models of everyday-life macroscopic-level phenomena. Textbooks may adequately discuss polarization, but there is little material in active learning labs and tutorials on this topic. Since polarization of materials is a microscopic phenomenon, instructors often use diagrams and figures on the classroom board to explain the process in a lecture setting. In this paper I will describe a classroom activity where the students play the role of electrons as an alternative option.

  19. Improving the Performance of Electrically Activated NiTi Shape Memory Actuators by Pre-Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann1, Christian; Fleczok1, Benjamin; Otibar1, Dennis; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2017-06-01

    Shape memory alloys possess an array of unique functional properties which are influenced by a complex interaction of different factors. Due to thermal sensitivity, slight changes in temperature may cause the properties to change significantly. This poses a huge challenge especially for the use of shape memory alloys as actuators. The displacement is the key performance indicator, which has to be of equal or better quality compared to conventional actuators. One problem of shape memory alloys is the change in functional fatigue in the first cycles, which makes it rather difficult to design the actuator. Therefore, the reduction of this shakedown effect is crucial. For this reason, this paper investigates the effect of electrical heat treatment as a method for pre-aging. This topic has so far been little investigated so that the investigations focus on identifying important factors and effects by using the design of experiments.

  20. Water concentration/activity and loss of vitamins B1 and E in pork due to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.; Kohout, K.M.; Thayer, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    When irradiated, increasing the water content of pork by partial rehydration of freeze-dried L. dorsi muscle resulted in increasing rate of thiamin loss from zero in dry tissue to ca 6%/kGy of irradiation in tissue with 70% water. Conversely, the rate of loss of alpha-tocopherol decreased from 44%/kGy at 0% to 32%/kGy at 70% water. Decreasing water activity in buffers or in ground or freeze-dried pork by salt or sucrose had no effect on rate of loss of either vitamin following irradiation. Salt decreased the loss of both vitamins in pork due to competition for the hydroxyl radical by chloride ions

  1. Activity concentration and population dose from natural occurring radionuclide (40K) due to consumption of fresh water fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, M.K.; Patra, A.K.; Jaison, T.J.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentration of natural occurring radionuclide ( 40 K) in different fresh water fish collected from Moticher lake near Kakrapar, Gujarat. The three types of commonly available fresh water fish in Moticher lake are Notopterus sps, Ophiocephalus sps. and Tor sps. The 40 K activity (Bq/kg flesh wt.) was found to be in the range of 38-100 (Notopterus sps.), 33-123 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 80-116 (Tor sps.) respectively. The ingestion dose (μSv/y) to the adult population around Kakrapar was estimated due to the consumption of fresh water fish and found to be in the range of 7.7-20.5 (Notopterus sps.), 6.8-25.0 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 16.0-24.0 (Tor sps.) respectively. (author)

  2. Radiation hazards due to activated corrosion and neutron sputtering products in fusion reactor coolant and tritium breeding fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.C.; Vogelsang, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation of radioactive corrosion and neutron sputtering products on the surfaces of components in fusion reactor coolant and tritium breeding systems can cause significant personnel access problems. Remote maintenance techniques or special treatment may be required to limit the amount of radiation exposure to plant operational and maintenance personnel. A computer code, RAPTOR, has been developed to estimate the transport of this activated material throughout a fusion heat transfer and/or tritium breeding material loop. A method is devised which treats the components of the loop individually and determines the source rates, deposition and erosion rates, decay rates, and purification rates of these radioactive materials. RAPTOR has been applied to the MARS and Starfire conceptual reactor designs to determine the degree of the possible radiation hazard due to these products. Due to the very high corrosion release rate by HT-9 when exposed to LiPb in the MARS reactor design, the radiation fields surrounding the primary system will preclude direct contact maintenance even after shutdown. Even the removal of the radioactive LiPb from the system will not decrease the radiation fields to reasonable levels. The Starfire primary system will exhibit radiation fields similar to those found in present pressurized water reactors. (orig.)

  3. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) produces edema due to BBB disruption induced by MMP-9 activation in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Mercedes; Fernández-Valle, María Encarnación; Rubio-Araiz, Ana; Vidal, Rebeca; Gutiérrez-López, María Dolores; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, María Isabel

    2017-05-15

    The recreational drug of abuse, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) disrupts blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in rats through an early P2X 7 receptor-mediated event which induces MMP-9 activity. Increased BBB permeability often causes plasma proteins and water to access cerebral tissue leading to vasogenic edema formation. The current study was performed to examine the effect of a single neurotoxic dose of MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) on in vivo edema development associated with changes in the expression of the perivascular astrocytic water channel, AQP4, as well as in the expression of the tight-junction (TJ) protein, claudin-5 and Evans Blue dye extravasation in the hippocampus of adult male Dark Agouti rats. We also evaluated the ability of the MMP-9 inhibitor, SB-3CT (25 mg/kg, i.p.), to prevent these changes in order to validate the involvement of MMP-9 activation in MDMA-induced BBB disruption. The results show that MDMA produces edema of short duration temporally associated with changes in AQP4 expression and a reduction in claudin-5 expression, changes which are prevented by SB-3CT. In addition, MDMA induces a short-term increase in both tPA activity and expression, a serine-protease which is involved in BBB disruption and upregulation of MMP-9 expression. In conclusion, this study provides evidence enough to conclude that MDMA induces edema of short duration due to BBB disruption mediated by MMP-9 activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of (n, f)-radiography for assessment of environmental impact by uranium due to industrial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertman, E.B.; Vasidov, A.; Tsipin, V.Z.; Tillaev, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron induced (n, f)-radiography has been used for assessment of radioactive impact on biota by industrial wastes and exhalation. The objects analyzed were tree leaves which can serve the natural seasonal microelements collectors. Sampling was made in the urban area with two main industrial plants - on the processing of atomic raw material and production of mineral fertilizer. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and neutron induced (n, f)-radiography. The latter technique was used for the study of uranium distribution in a leaf surface. A procedure of the technique was that a detector foil (LEXAN) in a tied contact with a sample surface was subject to thermal neutron exposure in our WWR-SM nuclear reactor. Fission fragments from the 235U(n, f) reaction form radiation damages - tracks - in the surface layer of the detector. Due to close contact of the detector to the sample surface, location of tracks is consistent to location of the determined element. This makes it possible to get a picture of surface distribution of the element and, thus, to get an idea on genesis of pollution with this element. There are two principal ways for intake of pollutant elements in plants, namely, through the root system from the soil, and through the aerosol, dust and/or rain deposition on leaves. Presence of dense track spots like clusters or stars in the produced radiographs asserts their genesis was due to industrial disposal and exhalation. The average uranium concentrations in the leaves cover the range of 0.026 to 0.83 ppm. Based on the experimental data, uranium mapping of the explored territory has been made. Epicenter of the highest uranium level field was spatially consistent to location of the industrial plants, and, therefore, most probably, was generated by their activity

  5. Electrical activity in rat tail artery during asynchronous activation of postganglionic nerve terminals by ciguatoxin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J. A.; McLachlan, E. M.; Jobling, P.; Lewis, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of ciguatoxin-1 (CTX-1) on the membrane potential of smooth muscle cells have been examined in rat proximal tail arteries isolated in vitro. 2. CTX-1 (> or = 10 pM) increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (s.e.j.ps). At 100-400 pM, there was also a marked and maintained depolarization (19.7 +/- 1.4 mV, n = 14, at 400 pM). 3. In 20-400 pM CTX-1, perivascular stimuli evoked excitatory junction potentials (e.j.ps) which were prolonged in time course relative to control. 4. Although threshold and latency of the e.j.p. were not affected by CTX-1 ( or = 100 pM. 5. The spontaneous activity and the depolarization produced by CTX-1 were reduced in the presence of Ca2+ (0.1 mM)/Mg2+ (25 mM), omega-conotoxin (0.1 microM) or Cd2+ (50-100 microM). 6. All effects of CTX-1 were abolished by tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM). 7. Raised Ca2+ (6 mM) reduced the depolarization and spontaneous activity produced by CTX-1. 8. In 400 pM CTX-1, the membrane repolarized (17 +/- 3.2 mV, n = 4) following the addition of phentolamine (1 microM). S.e.j.ps and e.j.ps were selectively abolished by suramin (1 mM), and the membrane repolarized by 1.3 +/- 1.6 mV (n = 4). 9. We conclude that CTX-1 releases noradrenaline and ATP by initiating asynchronous discharge of postganglionic perivascular axons. In 100-400 pM CTX-1, the smooth muscle was depolarized to levels resembling those recorded in this artery during ongoing vasoconstrictor discharge in vivo. PMID:8564251

  6. Crossover from band-like to thermally activated charge transport in organic transistors due to strain-induced traps

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Yaochuan; Diemer, Peter J.; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Hallani, Rawad K.; Jarolimek, Karol; Day, Cynthia S.; Risko, Chad; Anthony, John E.; Amassian, Aram; Jurchescu, Oana D.

    2017-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the charge-carrier mobility provides essential insight into the charge transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors. Such knowledge imparts critical understanding of the electrical properties of these materials

  7. Polyfurfuryl alcohol derived activated carbons for high power electrical double layer capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, V. [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia); Pandolfo, A.G., E-mail: tony.pandolfo@csiro.a [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia)

    2010-10-30

    Polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) derived activated carbons were prepared by the acid catalysed polymerization of furfuryl alcohol, followed by potassium hydroxide activation. Activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas ranging from 1070 to 2600 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and corresponding average micropore sizes between 0.6 and 1.6 nm were obtained. The porosity of these carbons can be carefully controlled during activation and their performance as electrode materials in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) in a non-aqueous electrolyte (1 M Et{sub 4}NBF{sub 4}/ACN) is investigated. Carbon materials with a low average pore size (<{approx}0.6 nm) exhibited electrolyte accessibility issues and an associated decrease in capacitance at high charging rates. PFA carbons with larger average pore sizes exhibited greatly improved performance, with specific electrode capacitances of 150 F g{sup -1} at an operating voltage window of 0-2.5 V; which corresponds to 32 Wh kg{sup -1} and 38 kW kg{sup -1} on an active material basis. These carbons also displayed an outstanding performance at high current densities delivering up to 100 F g{sup -1} at current densities as high as 250 A g{sup -1}. The exceptionally high capacitance and power of this electrode material is attributed to its good electronic conductivity and a highly effective combination of micro- and fine mesoporosity.

  8. Polyfurfuryl alcohol derived activated carbons for high power electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, V.; Pandolfo, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) derived activated carbons were prepared by the acid catalysed polymerization of furfuryl alcohol, followed by potassium hydroxide activation. Activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas ranging from 1070 to 2600 m 2 g -1 , and corresponding average micropore sizes between 0.6 and 1.6 nm were obtained. The porosity of these carbons can be carefully controlled during activation and their performance as electrode materials in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) in a non-aqueous electrolyte (1 M Et 4 NBF 4 /ACN) is investigated. Carbon materials with a low average pore size ( -1 at an operating voltage window of 0-2.5 V; which corresponds to 32 Wh kg -1 and 38 kW kg -1 on an active material basis. These carbons also displayed an outstanding performance at high current densities delivering up to 100 F g -1 at current densities as high as 250 A g -1 . The exceptionally high capacitance and power of this electrode material is attributed to its good electronic conductivity and a highly effective combination of micro- and fine mesoporosity.

  9. Hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle performance testing by the US Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and vehicle development programs. The AVTA has tested full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting baseline performance, battery benchmark and fleet tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). Testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 2.5 million test miles. Testing is currently incorporating PHEVs from four different vehicle converters. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory.

  10. Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia with Bartter syndrome due to a novel activating mutation of calcium sensing receptor, Y829C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Keun Hee; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won; Cheong, Hae Il

    2015-04-01

    The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) plays an important role in calcium homeostasis. Activating mutations of CaSR cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia by affecting parathyroid hormone secretion in parathyroid gland and calcium resorption in kidney. They can also cause a type 5 Bartter syndrome by inhibiting the apical potassium channel in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidney. This study presents a patient who had autosomal dominant hypocalcemia with Bartter syndrome due to an activating mutation Y829C in the transmembrane domain of the CaSR. Symptoms of hypocalcemia occurred 12 days after birth and medication was started immediately. Medullary nephrocalcinosis and basal ganglia calcification were found at 7 years old and at 17 years old. Three hypercalcemic episodes occurred, one at 14 years old and two at 17 years old. The Bartter syndrome was not severe while the serum calcium concentration was controlled, but during hypercalcemic periods, the symptoms of Bartter syndrome were aggravated.

  11. Effects of surface chemical properties of activated carbon modified by amino-fluorination for electric double-layer capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Jung; Jeong, Euigyung; Cho, Seho; Yeo, Sang Young; Lee, Young-Seak

    2012-09-01

    The surface of phenol-based activated carbon (AC) was seriatim amino-fluorinated with solution of ammonium hydroxide and hydrofluoric acid in varying ratio to fabricate electrode materials for use in an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The specific capacitance of the amino-fluorinated AC-based EDLC was measured in a 1 M H(2)SO(4) electrolyte, in which it was observed that the specific capacitances increased from 215 to 389 Fg(-1) and 119 and 250 Fg(-1) with the current densities of 0.1 and 1.0 Ag(-1), respectively, in comparison with those of an untreated AC-based EDLC when the amino-fluorination was optimized via seriatim mixed solution of 7.43 mol L(-1) ammonium hydroxide and 2.06 mol L(-1) hydrofluoric acid. This enhancement of capacitance was attributed to the synergistic effects of an increased electrochemical activity due to the formation of surface N- and F-functional groups and increased, specific surface area, and mesopore volumes, all of which resulted from the amino-fluorination of the electrode material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Activity of ISO9001:2015 certification that Fuji Electric Co., LTD. (Nuclear Power Division) performed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Kazuhiko; Umetsu, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Masaaki; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Regarding the certification transition to ISO9001:2015 version, this paper introduces the contents of the revision to the 2015 version, contents of activities until the certification transition performed by Fuji Electric Co. Nuclear Power Division, and outline of the quality management system (QMS) that was established. The main contents of the revision are as follows; (1) 2015 version is composed of the unification of various management structure standards existing in ISO standards, (2) integration of business and QMS based on the understanding of organization's situation and the needs and expectations of stakeholders, (3) introduction of risk-based concept on preventive actions, (4) strengthening of leadership, (5) emphasis on performance (conversion to output matters), and (6) strengthening, addition, and expansion of the specific requirements of QMS. Regarding the certification transition activities of Fuji Electric Co. Nuclear Power Division, the schedule goal was set as transition examination with about two years of allowance, and the activities thereafter were as follows; (1) extract of the revised parts of division regulations and formulation of revision policy, (2) revision of quality manual, and implementation of gap analysis, (3) formulation of division regulations by the working group, (4) 6 months of pilot operation, and (5) acceptance of transition examination. As a result of the transition, QMS has been strengthened as described below, and customers have given greater trust. The strengthening of QMS is composed of the accumulation of organization's knowledge (specific technology) and its daily practice, which helped the company to form the organization that can prevent beforehand the problems caused by risks and opportunities in face of business management. (A.O.)

  13. Astrocyte Hypertrophy and Microglia Activation in the Rat Auditory Midbrain Is Induced by Electrical Intracochlear Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskothen-Kuhl, Nicole; Hildebrandt, Heika; Birkenhäger, Ralf; Illing, Robert-Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Neuron-glia interactions contribute to tissue homeostasis and functional plasticity in the mammalian brain, but it remains unclear how this is achieved. The potential of central auditory brain tissue for stimulation-dependent cellular remodeling was studied in hearing-experienced and neonatally deafened rats. At adulthood, both groups received an intracochlear electrode into the left cochlea and were continuously stimulated for 1 or 7 days after waking up from anesthesia. Normal hearing and deafness were assessed by auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The effectiveness of stimulation was verified by electrically evoked ABRs as well as immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization for the immediate early gene product Fos on sections through the auditory midbrain containing the inferior colliculus (IC). Whereas hearing-experienced animals showed a tonotopically restricted Fos response in the IC contralateral to electrical intracochlear stimulation, Fos-positive neurons were found almost throughout the contralateral IC in deaf animals. In deaf rats, the Fos response was accompanied by a massive increase of GFAP indicating astrocytic hypertrophy, and a local activation of microglial cells identified by IBA1. These glia responses led to a noticeable increase of neuron-glia approximations. Moreover, staining for the GABA synthetizing enzymes GAD65 and GAD67 rose significantly in neuronal cell bodies and presynaptic boutons in the contralateral IC of deaf rats. Activation of neurons and glial cells and tissue re-composition were in no case accompanied by cell death as would have been apparent by a Tunel reaction. These findings suggest that growth and activity of glial cells is crucial for the local adjustment of neuronal inhibition to neuronal excitation.

  14. Electrical activation and local structure of Se atoms in ion-implanted indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.M.; Chan, N.; Hsu, L.

    1996-01-01

    The solid phase regrowth, dopant activation, and local environments of Se-implanted InP are investigated with ion-beam techniques and extended x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy. We find that the local Se endash In structure is already established in the as-implanted amorphous InP although the Se atoms have a lower average coordination number (∼3.5) and no long-range order. After high-temperature rapid thermal annealing (950 degree C, 5 s), the amorphous InP regrows, becoming a single crystal with the Se atoms bonded to four In neighbors; however, only ∼50% of the Se becomes electrically active. Part of the Se precipitates in the form of an In endash Se phase, another part is compensated by defects which are not totally removed by annealing. The Se emdash In bond distance for a Se on a P site is 4.5% longer than the matrix In emdash P bond length, introducing large strains in the crystal. The solid solubility of Se in InP is estimated from our results to be ≅8.7x10 19 /cm 3 while the electron concentration saturates at 5.4x10 19 /cm 3 . Se atoms in InP regrown at lower temperatures in a furnace are only ∼7% electrically active and are found to have different local environments (higher coordination number and shorter bond distance) than those in the InP perfectly regrown at higher temperature. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Solar activity and transformer failures in the Greek national electric grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zois Ioannis Panayiotis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We study both the short term and long term effects of solar activity on the large transformers (150 kV and 400 kV of the Greek national electric grid. Methods: We use data analysis and various statistical methods and models. Results: Contrary to common belief in PPC Greece, we see that there are considerable both short term (immediate and long term effects of solar activity onto large transformers in a mid-latitude country like Greece. Our results can be summarised as follows: For the short term effects: During 1989–2010 there were 43 “stormy days” (namely days with for example Ap ≥ 100 and we had 19 failures occurring during a stormy day plus or minus 3 days and 51 failures occurring during a stormy day plus or minus 7 days. All these failures can be directly related to Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs. Explicit cases are briefly presented. For the long term effects, again for the same period 1989–2010, we have two main results: The annual number of transformer failures seems to follow the solar activity pattern. Yet the maximum number of transformer failures occurs about half a solar cycle after the maximum of solar activity. There is statistical correlation between solar activity expressed using various newly defined long term solar activity indices and the annual number of transformer failures. These new long term solar activity indices were defined using both local (from the geomagnetic station in Greece and global (planetary averages geomagnetic data. Applying both linear and non-linear statistical regression we compute the regression equations and the corresponding coefficients of determination.

  16. ABOUT THE SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE PROTECTION OF THE TECHNICAL SECURITY SYSTEMS AGAINST INFORMATION LEAKAGE DUE TO THE ACOUSTO-ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Durakovskiy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available None of the critically important facilities can operate without the engineered safety system. Functionally varied security networks or a fire alarm system can refer to this system as well as safety and reliability which are provided by secured energy, water and heating supply. In the process of attestation according to the requirements of information security of information objects with such technical means, it is necessary to conduct special investigations of protection against leakage of acoustic speech information through the channels of the acousto-electrical transformations (AET. There are major aspects in the data leak via AET, which currently include the following: lack of and /or obtaining legal and safety norms to regulate specified parameters; lack of the automated hardware and software system for some AET variations to carry out measurements; lack of specified safety equipment for some AET variations; lack of shelter security units; high costs of AET measurement and control units; and low measurement repeatability.

  17. Biphasic electrical targeting plays a significant role in schwann cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Sook; Song, Yun Mi; Cho, Tae Hyung; Pan, Hui; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Sung June; Hwang, Soon Jung

    2011-05-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is a promising technique for axonal regeneration of peripheral nerve injuries. However, long-term, continuous ES in the form of biphasic electric current (BEC) to stimulate axonal regeneration has rarely been attempted and the effects of BEC on Schwann cells are unknown. We hypothesized that long-term, continuous ES would trigger the activation of Schwann cells, and we therefore investigated the effect of BEC on the functional differentiation of primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) into Schwann cells, as well as the activity of primary Schwann cells. Differentiation of hMSCs into Schwann cells was determined by coculture with rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cell line). We also investigated the in vivo effects of long-term ES (4 weeks) on axonal outgrowth of a severed sciatic nerve with a 7-mm gap after retraction of the nerve ends in rats by implanting an electronic device to serve as a neural conduit. PC12 cells cocultured with hMSCs electrically stimulated during culture in Schwann cell differentiation medium (Group I) had longer neurites and a greater percentage of PC12 cells were neurite-sprouting than when cocultured with hMSCs cultured in growth medium (control group) or unstimulated hMSCs in the same culture conditions as used for Group I (Group II). Group I cells showed significant upregulation of Schwann cell-related neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor compared to Group II cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Primary Schwann cells responded to continuous BEC with increased proliferation and the induction of nerve growth factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor, similar to Group I cells, and in addition, induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was observed. Immunohistochemical investigation of sciatic nerve regenerates revealed that BEC increased axonal outgrowth significantly. These results demonstrate that BEC enhanced the functional activity of

  18. Design Considerations for the Electrical Power Supply of Future Civil Aircraft with Active High-Lift Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-K. Mueller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Active high-lift systems of future civil aircraft allow noise reduction and the use of shorter runways. Powering high-lift systems electrically have a strong impact on the design requirements for the electrical power supply of the aircraft. The active high-lift system of the reference aircraft design considered in this paper consists of a flexible leading-edge device together with a combination of boundary-layer suction and Coanda-jet blowing. Electrically driven compressors distributed along the aircraft wings provide the required mass flow of pressurized air. Their additional loads significantly increase the electric power demand during take-off and landing, which is commonly provided by electric generators attached to the aircraft engines. The focus of the present study is a feasibility assessment of alternative electric power supply concepts to unburden or eliminate the generator coupled to the aircraft engine. For this purpose, two different concepts using either fuel cells or batteries are outlined and evaluated in terms of weight, efficiency, and technology availability. The most promising, but least developed alternative to the engine-powered electric generator is the usage of fuel cells. The advantages are high power density and short refueling time, compared to the battery storage concept.

  19. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2007 Annual Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The year 2007 saw a continued remarkable expansion in the total number and value of deals in the power utilities sector (electricity and gas) worldwide. A 25% increase put the total power deal value of USD 372.5bn nearly nine times above the US$43bn recorded just four years earlier in 2003. Records continue to be set in the sector for the total number and value of deals and for the size of individual deals. There was little sign of the sector pausing for breath in 2007. There were fewer mega-deals, reflecting the complexity of getting really huge deals over the political and regulatory hurdles, but this was more than compensated by a rise in mid-size deal numbers. There was no clear evidence of a fall-off in deal activity in the second half of the year as the credit crisis broke. Indeed, 57% of all power sector deals, 441 of the total 768 deals, came in the second half. Strong deal momentum characterised all the major markets and, with the restructuring of the Russian electricity sector, 2007 marked the year when deals in the Russian Federation made a significant impact on the worldwide totals. Thus, for the first time, Power Deals 2007 includes a specific section on the Russian deals and we separate them out from the wider Asia Pacific totals where they featured in previous editions

  20. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2007 Annual Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The year 2007 saw a continued remarkable expansion in the total number and value of deals in the power utilities sector (electricity and gas) worldwide. A 25% increase put the total power deal value of USD 372.5bn nearly nine times above the US$43bn recorded just four years earlier in 2003. Records continue to be set in the sector for the total number and value of deals and for the size of individual deals. There was little sign of the sector pausing for breath in 2007. There were fewer mega-deals, reflecting the complexity of getting really huge deals over the political and regulatory hurdles, but this was more than compensated by a rise in mid-size deal numbers. There was no clear evidence of a fall-off in deal activity in the second half of the year as the credit crisis broke. Indeed, 57% of all power sector deals, 441 of the total 768 deals, came in the second half. Strong deal momentum characterised all the major markets and, with the restructuring of the Russian electricity sector, 2007 marked the year when deals in the Russian Federation made a significant impact on the worldwide totals. Thus, for the first time, Power Deals 2007 includes a specific section on the Russian deals and we separate them out from the wider Asia Pacific totals where they featured in previous editions.

  1. Electrical Conductivity of Rocks and Dominant Charge Carriers. Part 1; Thermally Activated Positive Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann T.; Freund, Minoru M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevailing view in the geophysics community is that the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth's continental crust over the 5-35 km depth range can best be understood by assuming the presence of intergranular fluids and/or of intragranular carbon films. Based on single crystal studies of melt-grown MgO, magma-derived sanidine and anorthosite feldspars and upper mantle olivine, we present evidence for the presence of electronic charge carriers, which derive from peroxy defects that are introduced during cooling, under non-equilibrium conditions, through a redox conversion of pairs of solute hydroxyl arising from dissolution of H2O.The peroxy defects become thermally activated in a 2-step process, leading to the release of defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice. Known as positive holes and symbolized by h(dot), these electronic charge carriers are highly mobile. Chemically equivalent to O(-) in a matrix of O(2-) they are highly oxidizing. Being metastable they can exist in the matrix of minerals, which crystallized in highly reduced environments. The h(dot) are highly mobile. They appear to control the electrical conductivity of crustal rocks in much of the 5-35 km depth range.

  2. Late Quaternary activity along the Scorciabuoi Fault (Southern Italy as inferred from electrical resistivity tomographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loperte

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Scorciabuoi Fault is one of the major tectonic structures affecting the Southern Apennines, Italy. Across its central sector, we performed several electrical resistivity tomographies with different electrode spacing (5 and 10 m and using a multielectrode system with 32 electrodes. All tomographies were acquired with two different arrays, the dipole-dipole and the Wenner-Schlumberger. We also tested the different sensitivity of the two arrays with respect to the specific geological conditions and research goals. Detailed geological mapping and two boreholes were used to calibrate the electrical stratigraphy. In all but one tomography (purposely performed off the fault trace, we could recognise an abrupt subvertical lateral variation of the main sedimentary bodies showing the displacement and sharp thickening of the two youngest alluvial bodies in the hanging-wall block. These features are interpreted as evidence of synsedimentary activity of the Scorciabuoi Fault during Late Pleistocene and possibly as recently as Holocene and allow accurate location of the fault trace within the Sauro alluvial plain.

  3. Electrical conductivity of metal (hydr)oxide–activated carbon composites under compression. A comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso-Bogeat, A., E-mail: adrianbogeat@unex.es [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Alexandre-Franco, M.; Fernández-González, C. [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Sánchez-González, J. [Department of Mechanical, Energetic and Materials Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Gómez-Serrano, V. [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    From a granular commercial activated carbon (AC) and six metal (hydr)oxide precursors, including Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, SnCl{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, a broadly varied series of metal (hydr)oxide–AC composites were prepared by wet impregnation and subsequent oven-drying at 120 °C. Here, the electrical conductivity of the resulting products was studied under moderate compression. The influence of the applied pressure, sample volume, mechanical work, and density of the hybrid materials was thoroughly investigated. The dc electrical conductivity of the compressed samples was measured at room temperature by the four-probe method. Compaction assays show that the mechanical properties of the composites are largely determined by the carbon matrix. Both the decrease in volume and the increase in density under compression were very small and only significant at pressures lower than 100 kPa for AC and most composites. By contrast, the bulk electrical conductivity of the hybrid materials was strongly influenced by the nature, content and intrinsic conductivity of the supported metal phases, which act as insulating thin layers thereby hindering the effective electron transport between AC cores of neighbouring sample particles in contact under compression. Conductivity values for the composites were lower than for the raw AC, all of them falling in the range of typical semiconductor materials. The patterns of variation of the electrical conductivity with pressure and mechanical work were slightly similar, thus suggesting the predominance of the pressure effects rather than the volume ones. - Highlights: • Pressure-dependent conductivity is studied for metal (hydr)oxide–AC composites. • Mechanical properties of the composites are essentially determined by AC. • Supported metal (hydr)oxides determine the bulk conductivity of the composites. • Metal (hydr)oxides act as insulating thin layers hindering the

  4. Muscle electrical activity during exercises with and without load executed on dry land and in an aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Nayra Paz Santos

    Full Text Available Introduction Muscle activity in the aquatic environment was investigated using electromyographic analyses. The physical properties of water and the resistance used may influence the response of the muscle during exercise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the electrical activity in water and on the floor during flexion and knee extension exercises with and without load and aimed at understanding the muscular response while performing resistance exercises in water. Methods The sample consisted of 14 volunteers between 18 and 35 years old who were subjected to active exercises involving knee flexion and extension with and without load on the floor and in water. Electromyography was performed during the movement. Results A significant increase was found in the electrical activity of the rectus femoris muscle during exercises on the floor. The biceps femoris muscle showed increased electromyographic activity when resistance was used. A significant increase was found in the electrical activity of the rectus femoris muscle compared with exercises with and without load and the moment of rest in immersion. The electrical activity of the rectus and biceps femoris muscles was reduced in exercises with load and without load in a therapy pool compared with on the floor. Conclusion There was a reduction of the electromyographic activity in the aquatic environment compared with that on the ground, which could be attributed to the effects from hot water. Therefore, it is believed that resistance exercises can be performed early in a therapy pool, which will facilitate the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.

  5. Transition from phreatic to phreatomagmatic explosive activity of Zhupanovsky volcano (Kamchatka) in 2013-2016 due to volcanic cone collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Natalia; Plechova, Anastasiya; Portnyagin, Maxim

    2017-04-01

    Zhupanovsky volcano, situated 70 km north from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky city, resumed its activity in October 2013 [3]. In 2014 and in the first half of 2015, episodic explosions with ash plumes rising up to 6-8 km above sea level occurred on Priemish cone - one of four cones on the Zhupanovsky volcanic edifice [1]. In July 2015 after a series of seismic and explosive events, the southern sector of the active cone collapsed. The landslide and lahar deposits resulted from the collapse formed a large field on the volcano slopes [2]. In November 2015 and January-March 2016, a series of powerful explosions took place sending ash up to 8-10 km above sea level. No pure magmatic, effusive or extrusive, activity has been observed on Zhupanovsky in 2013-2016. We have studied the composition, morphology and textural features of ash particles produced by the largest explosive events of Zhupanovsky in the period from October 2013 to March 2016. The main components of the ash were found to be hydrothermally altered particles and lithics, likely originated by the defragmentation of rocks composing the volcanic edifice. Juvenile glass fragments occur in very subordinate quantities. The maximum amount of glass particles (up to 7%) was found in the ash erupted in January-March 2016, after the cone collapse. We suggest that the phreatic to phreatomagmatic explosive activity of Zhupanovsky volcano in 2013-2016 was initially caused by the intrusion of a new magma batch under the volcano. The intrusion and associated degassing of magma led to heating, overpressure and instability in the hydrothermal system of the volcano, causing episodic, predominantly phreatic explosions. Decompression of the shallow magmatic and hydrothermal system of the volcano due to the cone collapse in July 2015 facilitated a larger involvement of the magmatic component in the eruption and more powerful explosions. [1] Girina O.A. et al., 2016 Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 18, EGU2016-2101, doi: 10

  6. Prestroke physical activity is associated with good functional outcome and arterial recanalization after stroke due to a large vessel occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Ana Clara; López-Cancio, Elena; Pérez de la Ossa, Natalia; Sobrino, Tomás; Hernández-Pérez, María; Gomis, Meritxell; Munuera, Josep; Muñoz, Lucía; Dorado, Laura; Millán, Mónica; Dávalos, Antonio; Arenillas, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    Although multiple studies and meta-analyses have consistently suggested that regular physical activity (PhA) is associated with a decreased stroke risk and recurrence, there is limited data on the possible preconditioning effect of prestroke PhA on stroke severity and prognosis. We aimed to study the association of prestroke PhA with different outcome variables in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to an anterior large vessel occlusion. The Prestroke Physical Activity and Functional Recovery in Patients with Ischemic Stroke and Arterial Occlusion trial is an observational and longitudinal study that included consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to a single tertiary stroke center. Main inclusion criteria were: anterior circulation ischemic stroke within 12 h from symptom onset; presence of a confirmed anterior large vessel occlusion, and functional independence previous to stroke. Prestroke PhA was evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and categorized into mild, moderate and high levels by means of metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes per week thresholds. The primary outcome measure was good functional outcome at 3 months (modified Rankin scale ≤2). Secondary outcomes were severity of stroke at admission, complete early recanalization, early dramatic neurological improvement and final infarct volume. During the study period, 159 patients fulfilled the above criteria. The mean age was 68 years, 62% were men and the baseline NIHSS score was 17. Patients with high levels of prestroke PhA were younger, had more frequently distal occlusions and had lower levels of blood glucose and fibrinogen at admission. After multivariate analysis, a high level of prestroke PhA was associated with a good functional outcome at 3 months. Regarding secondary outcome variables and after adjustment for relevant factors, a high level of prestroke PhA was independently associated with milder stroke severity at admission, early dramatic

  7. Mitochondrial apoptotic pathway activation in the atria of heart failure patients due to mitral and tricuspid regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen-Ping; Chen, Mien-Cheng; Liu, Wen-Hao; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Yao-Kuang; Pan, Kuo-Li; Ho, Wan-Chun; Fang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Huang-Chung

    2015-08-01

    . Immunoblotting of atrial extracts showed that there was enhanced expression of cytosolic cytochrome c, an effector of the mitochondrial pathways, but no expression of membrane TRADD and cytosolic caspase-8 in the right atrial tissue of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation patients with sinus rhythm, and right atrial and left atrial tissues of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation patients with atrial fibrillation. Taken together, this study showed that mitochondrial pathway for apoptosis was activated in the right atria in sinus rhythm and in the left and right atria in atrial fibrillation of heart failure patients due to mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, and this mitochondrial pathway activation may contribute to atrial contractile dysfunction and enlargement in this clinical setting. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Development of a new technique of localised analysis of electrically active defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, T.

    1988-07-01

    An analysis technique derived from minority carrier transient spectroscopy (MCTS) was developed. By giving this technique spatial resolution via a focused optical beam, it is possible to exploit the high sensitivity and the spectroscopic nature of the technique to develop a method called scanning MCTS (SMCTS) which can be used to acquire information on lateral distribution of electrically active flaws in semiconductors or associated chemical impurities. The optimum conditions, corresponding to the maximum signal for the highest resolution, can be expressed by the value of a signal parameter. The transients system was digitized, considerably reducing background noise. In order to link the SMCTS to a given flaw, two methods for exploiting the transients are used. The method was verified in tests with artificial defects created by laser and on real cases, arising in industrial processes [fr

  9. Chaotic electrical activity of living β-cells in the mouse pancreatic islet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takahiro; Miyano, Takaya; Tokuda, Isao; Galvanovskis, Juris; Wakui, Makoto

    2007-02-01

    To test for chaotic dynamics of the insulin producing β-cell and explore its biological role, we observed the action potentials with the perforated patch clamp technique, for isolated cells as well as for intact cells of the mouse pancreatic islet. The time series obtained were analyzed using nonlinear diagnostic algorithms associated with the surrogate method. The isolated cells exhibited short-term predictability and visible determinism, in the steady state response to 10 mM glucose, while the intact cells did not. In the latter case, determinism became visible after the application of a gap junction inhibitor. This tendency was enhanced by the stimulation with tolbutamide. Our observations suggest that, thanks to the integration of individual chaotic dynamics via gap junction coupling, the β-cells will lose memory of fluctuations occurring at any instant in their electrical activity more rapidly with time. This is likely to contribute to the functional stability of the islet against uncertain perturbations.

  10. Effect of External Electric Field on Substrate Transport of a Secondary Active Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Long; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Yu, Li-Ying; Li, Zheng-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Xing

    2016-08-22

    Substrate transport across a membrane accomplished by a secondary active transporter (SAT) is essential to the normal physiological function of living cells. In the present research, a series of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations under different electric field (EF) strengths was performed to investigate the effect of an external EF on the substrate transport of an SAT. The results show that EF both affects the interaction between substrate and related protein's residues by changing their conformations and tunes the timeline of the transport event, which collectively reduces the height of energy barrier for substrate transport and results in the appearance of two intermediate conformations under the existence of an external EF. Our work spotlights the crucial influence of external EFs on the substrate transport of SATs and could provide a more penetrating understanding of the substrate transport mechanism of SATs.

  11. Subcritical Hopf Bifurcation and Stochastic Resonance of Electrical Activities in Neuron under Electromagnetic Induction

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    Yu-Xuan Fu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The FitzHugh–Nagumo model is improved to consider the effect of the electromagnetic induction on single neuron. On the basis of investigating the Hopf bifurcation behavior of the improved model, stochastic resonance in the stochastic version is captured near the bifurcation point. It is revealed that a weak harmonic oscillation in the electromagnetic disturbance can be amplified through stochastic resonance, and it is the cooperative effect of random transition between the resting state and the large amplitude oscillating state that results in the resonant phenomenon. Using the noise dependence of the mean of interburst intervals, we essentially suggest a biologically feasible clue for detecting weak signal by means of neuron model with subcritical Hopf bifurcation. These observations should be helpful in understanding the influence of the magnetic field to neural electrical activity.

  12. High-fidelity optical reporting of neuronal electrical activity with an ultrafast fluorescent voltage sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, François; Marshall, Jesse D; Yang, Ying; Gong, Yiyang; Schnitzer, Mark J; Lin, Michael Z

    2015-01-01

    Accurate optical reporting of electrical activity in genetically defined neuronal populations is a long-standing goal in neuroscience. Here we describe Accelerated Sensor of Action Potentials 1 (ASAP1), a novel voltage sensor design in which a circularly permuted green fluorescent protein is inserted within an extracellular loop of a voltage-sensing domain, rendering fluorescence responsive to membrane potential. ASAP1 demonstrates on- and off- kinetics of 2.1 and 2.0 ms, reliably detects single action potentials and subthreshold potential changes, and tracks trains of action potential waveforms up to 200 Hz in single trials. With a favorable combination of brightness, dynamic range, and speed, ASAP1 enables continuous monitoring of membrane potential in neurons at KHz frame rates using standard epifluorescence microscopy. PMID:24755780

  13. Composition Related Electrical Active Defect States of InGaAs and GaAsN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Kosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses results of electrically active defect states - deep energy level analysis in InGaAs and GaAsN undoped semiconductor structures grown for solar cell applications. Main attention is focused on composition and growth condition dependent impurities and the investigation of their possible origins. For this purpose a widely utilized spectroscopy method, Deep Level Transient Fourier Spectroscopy, was utilized. The most significant responses of each sample labelled as InG2, InG3 and NG1, NG2 were discussed in detail and confirmed by simulations and literature data. The presence of a possible dual conduction type and dual state defect complex, dependent on the In/N composition, is reported. Beneficial characteristics of specific indium and nitrogen concentrations capable of eliminating or reducing certain point defects and dislocations are stated.

  14. Schottky effect model of electrical activity of metallic precipitates in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plekhanov, P. S.; Tan, T. Y.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative model of the electrical activity of metallic precipitates in Si is formulated with an emphasis on the Schottky junction effects of the precipitate-Si system. Carrier diffusion and carrier drift in the Si space charge region are accounted for. Carrier recombination is attributed to the thermionic emission mechanism of charge transport across the Schottky junction rather than the surface recombination. It is shown that the precipitates can have a very large minority carrier capture cross-section. Under weak carrier generation conditions, the supply of minority carriers is found to be the limiting factor of the recombination process. The plausibility of the model is demonstrated by a comparison of calculated and available experimental results. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  15. Taurine Supplementation Improves Functional Capacity, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, and Electrical Activity in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Ashourpore, Eadeh

    2017-07-04

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in the heart in very high concentrations. It is assumed that taurine contributes to several physiological functions of mammalian cells, such as osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, membrane stabilization, ion transport modulation, and regulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of taurine supplementation on functional capacity, myocardial oxygen consumption, and electrical activity in patients with heart failure. In a double-blind and randomly designed study, 16 patients with heart failure were assigned to two groups: taurine (TG, n = 8) and placebo (PG, n = 8). TG received 500-mg taurine supplementation three times per day for two weeks. Significant decrease in the values of Q-T segments (p heart failure patients. Together, these findings support the view that taurine improves cardiac function and functional capacity in patients with heart failure. This idea warrants further study.

  16. The characterization of the antibacterial efficacy of an electrically activated silver ion-based surface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A.

    There have been growing concerns in the global healthcare system about the eradication of pathogens in hospitals and other health-critical environments. The problem has been aggravated by the overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) which are difficult to kill. Lower immunity of sick patients coupled with the escalating concurrent problem of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has resulted in increasing incidences of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. There is an immediate need to control the transmission of such infections, primarily in healthcare environments, by creating touch-contact and work surfaces (e.g., door knobs, push plates, countertops) that utilize alternative antibacterial materials like the heavy metal, silver. Recent research has shown that it is silver in its ionic (Ag+ ) and not elemental form that is antibacterial. Thus, silver-based antibacterial surfaces have to release silver ions directly into the pathogenic environment (generally, an aqueous media) in order to be effective. This dissertation presents the study and analysis of a new silver-based surface system that utilizes low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) for generation of silver ions to primarily inhibit indirect contact transmission of infections. The broader objective of this research is to understand the design, and characterization of the electrically activated silver ion-based antibacterial surface system. The specific objectives of this dissertation include: (1) Developing a comprehensive system design, and identifying and studying its critical design parameters and functional mechanisms. (2) Evaluating effects of the critical design parameters on the antibacterial efficacy of the proposed surface system. (3) Developing a response surface model for the surface system performance. These objectives are

  17. Neuronal Activation in the Periaqueductal Gray Matter Upon Electrical Stimulation of the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Meriaux

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reflexes, that involve the spinobulbospinal pathway control both storage and voiding of urine. The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG, a pontine structure is part of the micturition pathway. Alteration in this pathway could lead to micturition disorders and urinary incontinence, such as the overactive bladder symptom complex (OABS. Although different therapeutic options exist for the management of OABS, these are either not effective in all patients. Part of the pathology of OABS is faulty sensory signaling about the filling status of the urinary bladder, which results in aberrant efferent signaling leading to overt detrusor contractions and the sensation of urgency and frequent voiding. In order to identify novel targets for therapy (i.e., structures in the central nervous system and explore novel treatment modalities such as neuromodulation, we aimed at investigating which areas in the central nervous system are functionally activated upon sensory afferent stimulation of the bladder. Hence, we designed a robust protocol with multiple readout parameters including immunohistological and behavioral parameters during electrical stimulation of the rat urinary bladder. Bladder stimulation induced by electrical stimulation, below the voiding threshold, influences neural activity in: (1 the caudal ventrolateral PAG, close to the aqueduct; (2 the pontine micturition center and locus coeruleus; and (3 the superficial layers of the dorsal horn, sacral parasympathetic nucleus and central canal region of the spinal cord. In stimulated animals, a higher voiding frequency was observed but was not accompanied by increase in anxiety level and locomotor deficits. Taken together, this work establishes a critical role for the vlPAG in the processing of sensory information from the urinary bladder and urges future studies to investigate the potential of neuromodulatory approaches for urological diseases.

  18. Utility experiences in redevelopment of formerly used sites -- Wisconsin Electric's risk management and economic development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borofka, B.P.

    1999-01-01

    Wisconsin Electric Power Company, which recently celebrated its 100th anniversary, has actively promoted the redevelopment of its former sites as well as those of its customers. Serving Milwaukee and southeast Wisconsin, Wisconsin Electric's (WE) sites include former power plants, landfills, right-of-ways, and manufactured gas plant sites. In setting an example for others, as well as seeking to maximize the economic value of these sites, WE has either redeveloped or promoted the redevelopment of these sites by others. Examples include the East Wells Power Plant (now home of the Milwaukee Repertory Theater), the Lakeside Power Plant Site (now the home of Harnischfeger Corporation's headquarters), and the Commerce Street Power Plant located on the Milwaukee River near downtown Milwaukee. In each case the company evaluated the potential environmental liabilities against the unrealized asset value derived from facility location, site size, architectural uniqueness, or other characteristics. At the Commerce Street Power Plant, walking distance to the downtown Milwaukee business district combined with river frontage, were significant site values leveraged against a $5 million asbestos and lead-based paint removal project done to prepare the plant for marketing. More recently, WE has used its experience in promoting the redevelopment of the Menomonee River Valley, the original core of Milwaukee's industrial community, and in advancing a more practical regulatory approach to redeveloping older sites. Finally, the company is working with a non-profit community health clinic, community groups and local foundations in linking these redevelopment activities with the economic and physical health of inner city residents

  19. In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of the Probiotic Strain Bacillus subtilis 3 Is Due to Secretion of Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchuk, Irina V.; Bressollier, Philippe; Verneuil, Bernard; Fenet, Bernard; Sorokulova, Irina B.; Mégraud, Francis; Urdaci, Maria C.

    2001-01-01

    A limited number of antibiotics can be used against Helicobacter pylori infection, and resistance jeopardizes the success of treatment. Therefore, a search for new agents is warranted. The use of probiotics to enhance gastrointestinal health has been proposed for many years, but the scientific basis of the prophylactic and therapeutic actions of probiotics has not yet been clearly delineated. Probiotic strain Bacillus subtilis 3, whose safety has previously been demonstrated, is known to have antagonistic properties against species of the family Enterobacteriaceae. In the present study, it was also found to inhibit H. pylori. The anti-H. pylori activity present in the cell-free supernatant was not related to pH or organic acid concentration. It was heat stable and protease insensitive. At least two antibiotics, detected by thin-layer chromatography (Rf values, 0.47 and 0.85, respectively) and confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis, were found to be responsible for this anti-H. pylori activity. All H. pylori strains tested were sensitive to both compounds. One of these compounds was identified as amicoumacin A, an antibiotic with anti-inflammatory properties. MICs for H. pylori determined in solid and liquid media ranged between 1.7 and 6.8 μg/ml and 0.75 and 2.5 μg/ml, respectively. The underestimation of MICs determined in solid medium may be due to physicochemical instability of the antibiotic under these test conditions. An additive effect between amicoumacin A and the nonamicoumacin antibiotic against H. pylori was demonstrated. PMID:11600371

  20. Time allocation shifts and pollutant exposure due to traffic congestion: an analysis using the national human activity pattern survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart A

    2009-10-15

    Traffic congestion increases air pollutant exposures of commuters and urban populations due to the increased time spent in traffic and the increased vehicular emissions that occur in congestion, especially "stop-and-go" traffic. Increased time in traffic also decreases time in other microenvironments, a trade-off that has not been considered in previous time activity pattern (TAP) analyses conducted for exposure assessment purposes. This research investigates changes in time allocations and exposures that result from traffic congestion. Time shifts were derived using data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS), which was aggregated to nine microenvironments (six indoor locations, two outdoor locations and one transport location). After imputing missing values, handling outliers, and conducting other quality checks, these data were stratified by respondent age, employment status and period (weekday/weekend). Trade-offs or time-shift coefficients between time spent in vehicles and the eight other microenvironments were then estimated using robust regression. For children and retirees, congestion primarily reduced the time spent at home; for older children and working adults, congestion shifted the time spent at home as well as time in schools, public buildings, and other indoor environments. Changes in benzene and PM(2.5) exposure were estimated for the current average travel delay in the U.S. (9 min day(-1)) and other scenarios using the estimated time shifts coefficients, concentrations in key microenvironments derived from the literature, and a probabilistic analysis. Changes in exposures depended on the duration of the congestion and the pollutant. For example, a 30 min day(-1) travel delay was determined to account for 21+/-12% of current exposure to benzene and 14+/-8% of PM(2.5) exposure. The time allocation shifts and the dynamic approach to TAPs improve estimates of exposure impacts from congestion and other recurring events.

  1. ELECTRICITY-FREE PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM BIOMASS IN BORNEO TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Sasaki,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons (ACs were prepared from biomass of Borneo island (wood charcoal, peat, and coconut husk by using an electricity–free furnace, of which the energy source was exclusively wood charcoal. This furnace was comprised of two parts, an inner vessel equipped with water inlet for steam activation and an outer shell as a heating part for the inner vessel. The inside temperature of the inner vessel was able to reach over 1000 oC. Peat and wood charcoal were converted to AC by carbonization followed by steam activation, and the specific BET surface areas of resultant ACs were 889 m2/g and 749 m2/g, respectively. A mobile apparatus for water purification was newly designed and fabricated with the resultant AC, together with a white quartz sand, which is called keranggas in Kalimantan. The CODOH of both polluted creek water by the University of Palangka Raya and Kahayan River water were remarkably decreased by the purification with the designed apparatus from 20.0 mgO/L to 0.93 mgO/L, and 18.2 mgO/L to 0.74 mgO/L, respectively. Thus, the newly designed furnace and purification apparatus were shown to be highly effective tools to produce a promising agent for water purification and to produce clarified water without use of electricity, respectively.

  2. Interest of Monitoring Diaphragmatic Electrical Activity in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ducharme-Crevier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi is a new minimally invasive bedside technology that was developed for the neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA mode of ventilation. In addition to its role in NAVA ventilation, this technology provides the clinician with previously unavailable and essential information on diaphragm activity. In this paper, we review the clinical interests of EAdi in the pediatric intensive care setting. Firstly, the monitoring of EAdi allows the clinician to tailor the ventilatory settings on an individual basis, avoiding frequent overassistance leading potentially to diaphragmatic atrophy. Increased inspiratory EAdi levels can also suggest insufficient support, while a strong tonic activity may reflect the patient efforts to increase its lung volume. EAdi monitoring also allows detection of patient-ventilator asynchrony. It can play a role in evaluation of extubation readiness. Finally, EAdi monitoring provides the clinician with better understanding of the ventilatory capacity of patients with acute neuromuscular disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical impact of these potential benefits.

  3. Comparison of the electrical activity in upper trapezius and wrist extensor muscles during two typewriting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Comel

    Full Text Available Introduction The proper use of the position of the arm and wrist while typing may reduce muscle overload and prevent musculoskeletal disorders.Objective To evaluate the electromyographic activity of upper trapezius and wrist extensor muscles during two typewriting conditions.Materials and methods : Six healthy females (Xage = 42 years,SD= 10, (Xheight = 1.65m, SD = 0.05 and (Xweight = 71kg, SD = 16 participated in this study. The task was performed with a newly developed arm support and without the support. A perceived exertion scale was used with all subjects. An ANOVA with repeated measures was used to verify differences in perceived exertion and root mean square (RMS.Results There were no statistically significant differences for the RMS between the typewriting tasks. The condition without arm support presented a significantly greater mean velocity and amount of words typed (P= 0.02; P= 0.03 and there was a significant difference in perceived exertion during the condition without arm support (P= 0.03. Electromyographic activity did not present differences.Conclusion The muscle electrical activity was not altered regardless the arm support and occurred the improvement of the perceived exertion after 10 minutes of typing without support. Long-term studies are needed.

  4. A high-resolution stochastic model of domestic activity patterns and electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgard, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Realistic time-resolved data on occupant behaviour, presence and energy use are important inputs to various types of simulations, including performance of small-scale energy systems and buildings' indoor climate, use of lighting and energy demand. This paper presents a modelling framework for stochastic generation of high-resolution series of such data. The model generates both synthetic activity sequences of individual household members, including occupancy states, and domestic electricity demand based on these patterns. The activity-generating model, based on non-homogeneous Markov chains that are tuned to an extensive empirical time-use data set, creates a realistic spread of activities over time, down to a 1-min resolution. A detailed validation against measurements shows that modelled power demand data for individual households as well as aggregate demand for an arbitrary number of households are highly realistic in terms of end-use composition, annual and diurnal variations, diversity between households, short time-scale fluctuations and load coincidence. An important aim with the model development has been to maintain a sound balance between complexity and output quality. Although the model yields a high-quality output, the proposed model structure is uncomplicated in comparison to other available domestic load models.

  5. A High Power Density Integrated Charger for Electric Vehicles with Active Ripple Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a high power density on-board integrated charger with active ripple compensation circuit for electric vehicles. To obtain a high power density and high efficiency, silicon carbide devices are reported to meet the requirement of high-switching-frequency operation. An integrated bidirectional converter is proposed to function as AC/DC battery charger and to transfer energy between battery pack and motor drive of the traction system. In addition, the conventional H-bridge circuit suffers from ripple power pulsating at second-order line frequency, and a scheme of active ripple compensation circuit has been explored to solve this second-order ripple problem, in which a pair of power switches shared traction mode, a ripple energy storage capacitor, and an energy transfer inductor. Simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink validated the eligibility of the proposed topology. The integrated charger can work as a 70 kW motor drive circuit or a converter with an active ripple compensation circuit for 3 kW charging the battery. The impact of the proposed topology and control strategy on the integrated charger power losses, efficiency, power density, and thermal performance has also been analysed and simulated.

  6. Characteristics of Atmosphere-Ocean CO2 Exchange due to Typhoon Activities over the East Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Cho, C. H.; Lim, D. H.; Sun, M.; Lee, J.; Byun, Y. H.; Lee, J.

    2014-12-01

    Although the oceans are generally known as a net carbon sink in global sense, it is expected that CO₂release from oceans can occur locally depending on specific weather. This study addresses investigation of change in CO2 exchange between atmosphere and ocean due to typhoon activities, using "Carbon Tracker-Asia (CTA)". The CTA has constructed and managed at National Institute of Meteorological Research(NIMR) based on Carbon Tracker developed by NOAA. In order to examine effect of typhoon on change in air-sea CO2 exchange, we selected several cases which typhoon approached to Korean peninsula in the summertime and their tracks are similar to each other. Also, we analyzed difference between CO2 flux along typhoon tracks and other adjacent region not to be directly affected by typhoon in these cases. There is a difference in ocean fluxes around 15 gC/m²yr over strong typhoon areas compared to other areas. This difference varied with the wind speeds, the correlation coefficient between the ocean and the wind flux was found 0.7. Changes in carbon flux to affect the concentration of CO₂ in the atmosphere near surface instantly.

  7. Amplification due to two-stream instability of self-electric and magnetic fields of an ion beam propagating in background plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokluoglu, Erinc K.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Carlsson, Johan A.; Hara, Kentaro; Startsev, Edward A.

    2018-05-01

    Propagation of charged particle beams in background plasma as a method of space charge neutralization has been shown to achieve a high degree of charge and current neutralization and therefore enables nearly ballistic propagation and focusing of charged particle beams. Correspondingly, the use of plasmas for propagation of charged particle beams has important applications for transport and focusing of intense particle beams in inertial fusion and high energy density laboratory plasma physics. However, the streaming of beam ions through a background plasma can lead to the development of two-stream instability between the beam ions and the plasma electrons. The beam electric and magnetic fields enhanced by the two-stream instability can lead to defocusing of the ion beam. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we study the scaling of the instability-driven self-electromagnetic fields and consequent defocusing forces with the background plasma density and beam ion mass. We identify plasma parameters where the defocusing forces can be reduced.

  8. Plant for the production of activated carbon and electric power from the gases originated in gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganan, J.; Turegano, J.P.; Calama, G.; Roman, S.; Al-Kassir, A.

    2006-01-01

    The development of the countries involves a high energy demand; however, the energetic resources used by the moment are not renewable. Events like the energetic crisis of 1973, the continuous geopolitic clashes in energetic resource-rich areas, and the global environmental deterioration as a consequence of the industrial activity taking place in last century, make obvious the need of searching new sources of energy [1]. One of these sources is the obtainment of energy from biomass exploitation. The use of this raw material involves advantages in the emission of low quantities of contaminants to the atmosphere and its renewable character. Until now, the main drawback of this source is its lack of viability when trying to obtain electric power from biomass, due to the use of systems composed of a boiler and a steam turbine (which offer low operative flexibility), which are not rentable in such a competitive market as it is, currently, the energetic one. Nowadays, the use of internal combustion engines, combined with biomass gasifiers, allows rapid connection-disconnection of the plant (aproximately of five minutes), which confers a big flexibility to the system and, as a consequence, a better exploitation of the plant in maximum energetic consumption hours. It also has the advantage of establishing a co-generation system since the gases are generated at a high temperature, 800 o C [2]. With this view, the aim of this work has focused in the re-design of a gasification plant for the production of activated carbons, from biomassic residues, for the energetic exploitation of the combustible gases produced during the pyrolytic process (H 2 , CO, CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 6 ), since these gases are currently burnt in a torch in the plant. The idea of designing the activated carbon production plant arose from the need of managing the biomass residues (olive wastes) generated by the firm Euroliva-Azeites e Oleos Alimentares SA, located in Alto Alentejo, in the city

  9. Plant for the production of activated carbon and electric power from the gases originated in gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan, J.; Turegano, J.P.; Calama, G. [Area de Engenharia. Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao. Instituto Politecnico de Portalegre, Lugar da Abadesa, Apartado 148, 7301 Portalegre Codex (Portugal); Roman, S.; Al-Kassir, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, 06071 (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The development of the countries involves a high energy demand; however, the energetic resources used by the moment are not renewable. Events like the energetic crisis of 1973, the continuous geopolitic clashes in energetic resource-rich areas, and the global environmental deterioration as a consequence of the industrial activity taking place in last century, make obvious the need of searching new sources of energy [1]. One of these sources is the obtainment of energy from biomass exploitation. The use of this raw material involves advantages in the emission of low quantities of contaminants to the atmosphere and its renewable character. Until now, the main drawback of this source is its lack of viability when trying to obtain electric power from biomass, due to the use of systems composed of a boiler and a steam turbine (which offer low operative flexibility), which are not rentable in such a competitive market as it is, currently, the energetic one. Nowadays, the use of internal combustion engines, combined with biomass gasifiers, allows rapid connection-disconnection of the plant (aproximately of five minutes), which confers a big flexibility to the system and, as a consequence, a better exploitation of the plant in maximum energetic consumption hours. It also has the advantage of establishing a co-generation system since the gases are generated at a high temperature, 800 {sup o}C [2]. With this view, the aim of this work has focused in the re-design of a gasification plant for the production of activated carbons, from biomassic residues, for the energetic exploitation of the combustible gases produced during the pyrolytic process (H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), since these gases are currently burnt in a torch in the plant. The idea of designing the activated carbon production plant arose from the need of managing the biomass residues (olive wastes) generated by the firm Euroliva-Azeites e Oleos Alimentares SA

  10. Bactericidal Activity of Copper Oxide Nanocomposite/Bioglass for in Vitro Clindamycin Release in Implant Infections Due to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijanian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent years, bioactive bioceramics such as bioglass and hydroxyapatite (HA have been introduced as a remarkable development in the field of medicine due to their bio-adaptability, non-toxicity, and persistence, in vivo. They have many potential applications in the repair of bone defects and hence they have attracted significant interest from scholars. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize inorganic matrix CuO-based bioglasses and evaluate their antibacterial activity against aerobic bacterial infections in bone implants. Methods Nano-composite samples of silica-based bioactive glass, 60S BG with nano-powder CuO, were synthesized using the sol-gel method and then assessed with regard to their antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus using well diffusion agar. The samples included BG58S (58%SiO2, 36%CaO, 6%P2O5, BG/10CuO (58%SiO2, 26%CaO, 6%P2O5, 10%CuO, and BG/20CuO (48%SiO2, 26%CaO, 6%P2O5, 20%CuO. To evaluate their bioactivity, the prepared samples of BG/20CuO, BG/10CuO, and BG58S were immersed in simulated body fluids (SBF. The surface morphology and structure of the samples before and after immersion in the SBF were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, respectively. Then, the BG/20CuO and BG/10CuO samples were loaded in clindamycin, an antibiotic widely used in the treatment of osteomyelitis, and their release profiles were studied in phosphate buffer solution. Results It was observed that the growth inhibition zone increased through clindamycin release due to the increasing CuO percentage in the nanocomposite of bioactive glass. The bioactivity of the nanocomposite/bioglass with CuO was superior to that of bioglass alone. In this study, the BG/20CuO sample showed a sustained release of clindamycin, which is sufficient for a drug delivery system. Conclusions Increasing the Cu nanoparticles in bioactive glass samples leads to the release of Cu2

  11. Registration and Analysis of Bioelectric Activity of Sensory-Motor Cortex During the Electrical Stimulation of Nucleus Caudate in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Medenica-Milanović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeThe caudate circuit takes part in cognitive control of motor activity The purpose of the present work was registration and analysis of basic bioelectrical activity of ventral and dorsal sensory-motor cortex and nucleus caudate, study of the changes in EEG after nucleus caudate electrical stimulation and to identify of threshold level of electrical stimuli responsible for changes of electrical activity in registered brain area.Materials and methodsWe used 28 albino Wistar rat of both genders. After the animal fixation on stereotaxic apparatus to dry bone, the places for electrode fixation were marked. Two days after the electrodes had been implanted an EEG was registered so that the animals would adjust to the conditions and so they would repair the tissue reactions. EEG was registered with bipolar electrodes with ten-channeled apparatus. For first half an hour spontaneous activity of the brain was registered, and after that the head of nucleus caudate was stimulated with altered impulses of various voltages, frequency and duration.Results and conclusionsThreshold values of electric stimulus intensity from 3 to 5 V, frequency from 3 to 5 Hz, duration from 3 to 5 ms, by stimulation the head of nucleus caudate of rat, lead to the change of basal bioelectric activity of cerebrum. The change of bioelectric activity is firstly recorded in equilateral cortex, and with the higher intensity of the stimulus the changes overtake the contra lateral cortex.

  12. The muon spin response to intermittent hyperfine interaction: modelling the high-temperature electrical activity of hydrogen in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, J S; Cox, S F J; Charlton, M; Werf, D P Van der; Lichti, R L; Amato, A

    2004-01-01

    At temperatures above 600 K in silicon, unlike at lower temperatures, the partitioning of muonium between its neutral paramagnetic states and its charged or electronically diamagnetic states corresponds closely to thermodynamic equilibrium. The individual charge states are short lived, with many cycles of carrier capture and release occurring within the muon lifetime. The resultant intermittent hyperfine interaction depolarizes the muons strongly, with longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates remaining distinct up to about 700 K but becoming equal at still higher temperatures. Data up to 900 K are presented and interpreted. The muon spin rotation spectrum in transverse magnetic fields, although collapsed to a single broad line in this charge exchange regime, is shifted substantially from the muon Larmor frequency, the shift being non-linear in field and only in small part due to electron polarization. A new density matrix treatment shows how all three observables can be accounted for with a consistent set of transition rates. These in turn may be interpreted in terms of effective donor and acceptor energy levels appropriate to this high-temperature regime, confirming negative-U behaviour and providing the first estimate, for muonium, of this elusive parameter. At temperatures where passivation complexes are dissociated, these findings provide a guide to, and microscopic models for, the electrical activity of hydrogen

  13. Computational investigation of the flow field contribution to improve electricity generation in granular activated carbon-assisted microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Jian; Battaglia, Francine; He, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) offer an alternative approach to treat wastewater with less energy input and direct electricity generation. To optimize MFC anodic performance, adding granular activated carbon (GAC) has been proved to be an effective way, most likely due to the enlarged electrode surface for biomass attachment and improved mixing of the flow field. The impact of a flow field on the current enhancement within a porous anode medium (e.g., GAC) has not been well understood before, and thus is investigated in this study by using mathematical modeling of the multi-order Butler-Volmer equation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. By comparing three different CFD cases (without GAC, with GAC as a nonreactive porous medium, and with GAC as a reactive porous medium), it is demonstrated that adding GAC contributes to a uniform flow field and a total current enhancement of 17%, a factor that cannot be neglected in MFC design. However, in an actual MFC operation, this percentage could be even higher because of the microbial competition and energy loss issues within a porous medium. The results of the present study are expected to help with formulating strategies to optimize MFC with a better flow pattern design.

  14. Enhanced Electrical Activation in In-Implanted Si0.35Ge0.65 by C Co-Doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Ruixing; Kremer, Felipe; Sprouster, David J.; Mirzaei, Sahar; Decoster, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we have achieved a significant increase in the electrically active dopant fraction in Indium (In)-implanted Si 0.35 Ge 0.65 , by co-doping with the isovalent element Carbon (C). Electrical measurements have been correlated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine the electrical properties and the In atom lattice location. With C+In co-doping, the solid solubility of In in Si 0.35 Ge 0.65 was at least tripled from between 0.02 and 0.06 at% to between 0.2 and 0.6 at% as a result of C–In pair formation, which suppressed In metal precipitation. A dramatic improvement of electrical properties was thus attained in the co-doped samples.

  15. Avian mortalities due to transmission line collisions: a review of current estimates and field methods with an emphasis on applications to the Canadian electric network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Rioux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Birds are vulnerable to collisions with human-made fixed structures. Despite ongoing development and increases in infrastructure, we have few estimates of the magnitude of collision mortality. We reviewed the existing literature on avian mortality associated with transmission lines and derived an initial estimate for Canada. Estimating mortality from collisions with power lines is challenging due to the lack of studies, especially from sites within Canada, and due to uncertainty about the magnitude of detection biases. Detection of bird collisions with transmission lines varies due to habitat type, species size, and scavenging rates. In addition, birds can be crippled by the impact and subsequently die, although crippling rates are poorly known and rarely incorporated into estimates. We used existing data to derive a range of estimates of avian mortality associated with collisions with transmission lines in Canada by incorporating detection, scavenging, and crippling biases. There are 231,966 km of transmission lines across Canada, mostly in the boreal forest. Mortality estimates ranged from 1 million to 229.5 million birds per year, depending on the bias corrections applied. We consider our most realistic estimate, taking into account variation in risk across Canada, to range from 2.5 million to 25.6 million birds killed per year. Data from multiple studies across Canada and the northern U.S. indicate that the most vulnerable bird groups are (1 waterfowl, (2 grebes, (3 shorebirds, and (4 cranes, which is consistent with other studies. Populations of several groups that are vulnerable to collisions are increasing across Canada (e.g., waterfowl, raptors, which suggests that collision mortality, at current levels, is not limiting population growth. However, there may be impacts on other declining species, such as shorebirds and some species at risk, including Alberta's Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator and western Canada's endangered Whooping

  16. Contribution of delayed rectifier potassium currents to the electrical activity of murine colonic smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, S D; Ward, S M; Dick, G M; Epperson, A; Bonner, H P; Sanders, K M; Horowitz, B; Kenyon, J L

    1999-01-01

    We used intracellular microelectrodes to record the membrane potential (Vm) of intact murine colonic smooth muscle. Electrical activity consisted of spike complexes separated by quiescent periods (Vm≈−60 mV). The spike complexes consisted of about a dozen action potentials of approximately 30 mV amplitude. Tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1–10 mM) had little effect on the quiescent periods but increased the amplitude of the action potential spikes. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, ⋧ 5 mM) caused continuous spiking.Voltage clamp of isolated myocytes identified delayed rectifier K+ currents that activated rapidly (time to half-maximum current, 11.5 ms at 0 mV) and inactivated in two phases (τf = 96 ms, τs = 1.5 s at 0 mV). The half-activation voltage of the permeability was −27 mV, with significant activation at −50 mV.TEA (10 mM) reduced the outward current at potentials positive to 0 mV. 4-AP (5 mM) reduced the early current but increased outward current at later times (100–500 ms) consistent with block of resting channels relieved by depolarization. 4-AP inhibited outward current at potentials negative to −20 mV, potentials where TEA had no effect.Qualitative PCR amplification of mRNA identified transcripts encoding delayed rectifier K+ channel subunits Kv1.6, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and the Kvβ1.1 subunit in murine colon myocytes. mRNA encoding Kv 1.4 was not detected.We find that TEA-sensitive delayed rectifier currents are important determinants of action potential amplitude but not rhythmicity. Delayed rectifier currents sensitive to 4-AP are important determinants of rhythmicity but not action potential amplitude. PMID:10050014

  17. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2008 Annual Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    2008 was the year in which power deal values came down from their record-breaking highs of the two preceding years as the financial crisis and a number of market uncertainties had a negative impact on deal activity. Nonetheless, total deal numbers leapt by 24% as companies concentrated on smaller deals and took advantage of new opportunities that arose in the changed market conditions. Europe was least affected by the downturn in deal values and accounted for over half of all bidder and target power deal value. In contrast, power deals in Australia, which had previously been a main motor of growing M and A activity in the Asia Pacific region, virtually stalled as uncertainty over new carbon emission policies combined with the financial crisis to deter deal flow. In North America, like Europe, big deals were fewer but underlying deal activity was comparable with previous years. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector, drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key electricity and gas utilities markets. Looking to the future, the easing of the financial crisis will be key to deal flow but the near-term outlook looks less robust than the recent past, especially as debt markets will be further constrained by calls from the public financing required to support government bail-out programmes. Set against this, the underlying imperatives of consolidation, supply security and capitalisation remain in place and will create increasing pent-up deal demand. A lower energy price environment will change the metrics for more expensive cleaner power assets, placing an even higher importance on the outcome of global climate talks and the run-up to the December 2009 UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen

  18. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2008 Annual Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    2008 was the year in which power deal values came down from their record-breaking highs of the two preceding years as the financial crisis and a number of market uncertainties had a negative impact on deal activity. Nonetheless, total deal numbers leapt by 24% as companies concentrated on smaller deals and took advantage of new opportunities that arose in the changed market conditions. Europe was least affected by the downturn in deal values and accounted for over half of all bidder and target power deal value. In contrast, power deals in Australia, which had previously been a main motor of growing M and A activity in the Asia Pacific region, virtually stalled as uncertainty over new carbon emission policies combined with the financial crisis to deter deal flow. In North America, like Europe, big deals were fewer but underlying deal activity was comparable with previous years. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector, drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key electricity and gas utilities markets. Looking to the future, the easing of the financial crisis will be key to deal flow but the near-term outlook looks less robust than the recent past, especially as debt markets will be further constrained by calls from the public financing required to support government bail-out programmes. Set against this, the underlying imperatives of consolidation, supply security and capitalisation remain in place and will create increasing pent-up deal demand. A lower energy price environment will change the metrics for more expensive cleaner power assets, placing an even higher importance on the outcome of global climate talks and the run-up to the December 2009 UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen.

  19. Pulseless electrical activity in acute massive pulmonary embolism during thrombolytic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Hua Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute pulmonary embolism with hemodynamic instability diagnosed by a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram. The patient developed pulseless electrical activity during systemic thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Successful return of spontaneous circulation was achieved after immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation with chest compressions for 6 min. His electrocardiogram (ECG on arrival in the emergency department displayed sinus tachycardia, an S wave in lead I, a Q wave in lead III, incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB, T-wave inversion (TWI in leads V1–V3, ST elevation in leads aVR and V1, and ST depression in leads I, II, III, aVF, and V4–V6. These characteristic ECG changes might have prognostic value for clinical deterioration. He recovered after treatment. After discharge, the ECG showed resolution of TWI in leads V1–V3 and incomplete RBBB, suggesting recovery from right ventricular dysfunction, which was confirmed by an echocardiogram on follow in the outpatient department.

  20. Optimal use of EEG recordings to target active brain areas with transcranial electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jacek P; Koessler, Laurent; Norcia, Anthony M; Bikson, Marom; Parra, Lucas C

    2017-08-15

    To demonstrate causal relationships between brain and behavior, investigators would like to guide brain stimulation using measurements of neural activity. Particularly promising in this context are electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), as they are linked by a reciprocity principle which, despite being known for decades, has not led to a formalism for relating EEG recordings to optimal stimulation parameters. Here we derive a closed-form expression for the TES configuration that optimally stimulates (i.e., targets) the sources of recorded EEG, without making assumptions about source location or distribution. We also derive a duality between TES targeting and EEG source localization, and demonstrate that in cases where source localization fails, so does the proposed targeting. Numerical simulations with multiple head models confirm these theoretical predictions and quantify the achieved stimulation in terms of focality and intensity. We show that constraining the stimulation currents automatically selects optimal montages that involve only a few (4-7) electrodes, with only incremental loss in performance when targeting focal activations. The proposed technique allows brain scientists and clinicians to rationally target the sources of observed EEG and thus overcomes a major obstacle to the realization of individualized or closed-loop brain stimulation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased determinism in brain electrical activity occurs in association with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrubba, Simona; Minagar, Alireza; Chesson, Andrew L; Frilot, Clifton; Marino, Andrew A

    2012-04-01

    Increased determinism (decreased complexity) of brain electrical activity has been associated with some brain diseases. Our objective was to determine whether a similar association occurred for multiple sclerosis (MS). Ten subjects with a relapsing-remitting course of MS who were in remission were studied; the controls were age- and gender-matched clinically normal subjects. Recurrence plots were calculated using representative electroencephalogram (EEG) epochs (1-7 seconds) from six derivations; the plots were quantified using the nonlinear variables percent recurrence (%R) and percent determinism (%D). The results were averaged over all derivations for each participant, and the means were compared between the groups. As a linear control procedure the groups were also compared using spectral analysis. The mean±SD of %R for the MS subjects was 6·6±1·3%, compared with 5·1±1·3% in the normal group (P = 0·017), indicating that brain activity in the subjects with MS was less complex, as hypothesized. The groups were not distinguishable using %D or spectral analysis. Taken together with our earlier report that %R could be used to discriminate between MS and normal subjects based on the ability to exhibit evoked potentials, the evidence suggests that complexity analysis of the EEG has potential for development as a diagnostic test for MS.

  2. [Effect of prokinetic agents on the electrical activity of stomach and duodenum in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fujun; Zou, Yiyou; Huang, Tianhui

    2009-07-01

    To determine the effect of prokinetic agents such as domperidone, mosapride, clarithromycin, and itopride on the electrical activity of the stomach and duodenum in SD rats,and also to explore the mechanism. The organism functional experiment system BL-420E was used to record the myoelectrical activity in the stomach and duodenum of SD rats in all groups using domperidone, mosapride, itopride, clarithromycin, and physiological saline on the interdigestive phase. The effect of the prokinetic agents on the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal electromyogram in the SD rats was compared. The antagonists such as atropine, phentolamine, and propranolol were added to investigate the mechanism of action with all prokinetic agents. All prokinetic agents increased the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal fast waves in the SD rats(Pitopride was the most obvious among the 3 groups (Pitopride, and physiological saline were inhibited by atropine(PItopride, mosapride, domperidone, and clarithromycin can increase the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal fast waves in the SD rats. The mechanism may be related to cholinergic receptors, but not adrenergic receptors.

  3. Electric field responsive origami structures using electrostriction-based active materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saad; Arrojado, Erika; Sigamani, Nirmal; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2015-04-01

    The objective of origami engineering is to combine origami principles with advanced materials to yield active origami shapes, which fold and unfold in response to external stimuli. We are investigating the use of P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE), a relaxor ferroelectric terpolymer, to realize origami-inspired folding and unfolding of structures and to actuate so-called action origami structures. To accomplish these two objectives, we have explored different approaches to the P(VDF-TrFECTFE) polymer actuator construction, ranging from unimorph to multilayered stacks. Electromechanical characterization of the terpolymer-based actuators is conducted with a focus on free strain, force-displacement and blocked force. Moreover dynamic thickness strains of P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) terpolymer at different frequencies ranging from 0.1Hz to 10Hz is also measured. Quantifying the performance of terpolymer-based actuators is important to the design of action origami structures. Following these studies, action origami prototypes based on catapult, flapping butterfly wings and barking fox are actuated and characterization of these prototypes are conducted by studying impact of various parameters such as electric field magnitude and frequency, number of active layers, and actuator dimensions.

  4. Preparation of activated carbon aerogels with hierarchically porous structures for electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dong; Shen, Jun; Liu, Nianping; Yang, Huiyu; Du, Ai

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbon aerogels (ACAs) with hierarchically porous structures and high specific surface area have been prepared via CO 2 and KOH activation processes. The pore structures of ACAs are characterized by N 2 adsorption/desorption and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the ACAs contain three types of pores: micropores with diameters below 2 nm, small mesopores with diameters from 2 to 4 nm and large pores or channels with diameters over 30 nm. The typical sample ACAs-4, which possess pore volume of 2.73 cm 3 g −1 and specific surface area of 2119 m 2 g −1 , exhibits high specific capacitances of 250 F g −1 and 198 F g −1 at the current densities of 0.5 A g −1 and 20 A g −1 respectively in 6 M KOH aqueous solution. Furthermore, the resultant ACAs electrode materials also exhibit high power density, good cycling stability and long lifetime. With these features, ACAs are expected to be promising electrode materials for electrical double layer capacitors

  5. A new active portfolio risk management for an electricity retailer based on a drawdown risk preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charwand, Mansour; Gitizadeh, Mohsen; Siano, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the deciding under uncertainty of an electricity retailer in order to maximise its total expected rate of return. The developed methodology is based on the modelling of the stochastic evolution of zonal prices that seeks to manage a portfolio of different contracts. Retailer's load and the price at each zone are forecasted using the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and a clustering technique is used for scenario reduction. Supply sources include the pool, self-production facilities, forward and bilateral contracts. The risk of cost fluctuation due to uncertainties is explicitly modelled using the multi-scenario drawdown methodology. This risk function quantifies in aggregated format the frequency and magnitude of the portfolio drawdowns over planning horizon. In-sample and out-of-sample runs are performed for a portfolio allocation problem. Carried out experimental results on the basis of realistic data, show that imposing risk constraints improve the “real” performance of a portfolio management in out-of-sample runs. - Highlights: • A new drawdown-based method is introduced to retailer deciding under uncertainty. • This tool is used to assess the risk levels regarding retailer midterm strategies. • The methodology is based on the modeling of the stochastic evolution of zonal prices. • The risk function quantifies the frequency and magnitude of the portfolio drawdowns. • In-sample and out-of-sample runs are performed for a portfolio allocation problem.

  6. Characteristics of powdered activated carbon treated with dielectric barrier discharge for electric double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashima, Daisuke; Yoshitama, Hiromu; Sakoda, Tatsuya; Okazaki, Akihito; Kawaji, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The specific capacitance of the EDLCs could be improved by oxygen plasma treatment. ► 15 s treated EDLCs showed a 20% increase in capacitance relative to untreated EDLCs. ► The plasma treatment yields EDLCs that are suitable for high-energy applications. - Abstract: The electrochemical properties of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) made with plasma-treated powdered activated carbon (treated using a dielectric barrier discharge) were examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV), Cole–Cole plots, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The dielectric barrier discharge method, which operates at atmospheric pressure, dramatically reduces the processing time and does not require vacuum equipment, making it a more practical alternative than low-pressure plasma treatment. The experimental data indicate that the specific capacitance of the EDLCs could be improved by oxygen plasma treatment. Capacitance of EDLCs made with activated carbon treated for 15 s showed 193.5 F/g that 20% increase in the specific capacitance relative to untreated EDLCs. This result indicates that the plasma treatment yields EDLCs that are suitable for high-energy applications. The enhancement of capacitance was mainly attributed to an increase in the BET surface area of the activated carbon and the creation of carboxyl groups on the surface of the carbon. The carboxyl groups induced oxidation–reduction reactions in the presence of O 2 which was included in the operation gas. In addition, the carboxyl groups improved the penetration of the electrolyte solution into the carbon electrodes.

  7. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy to probe sensorimotor region activation during electrical stimulation-evoked movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Ferrari, Marco; Quaresima, Valentina; Kerr, Graham; Perrey, Stephane

    2017-11-07

    This study used non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) neuroimaging to monitor bilateral sensorimotor region activation during unilateral voluntary (VOL) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked movements. In eight healthy male volunteers, fNIRS was used to measure relative changes in oxyhaemoglobin (O 2 Hb) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) concentrations from a cortical sensorimotor region of interest in the left (LH) and right (RH) hemispheres during NMES-evoked and VOL wrist extension movements of the right arm. NMES-evoked movements induced significantly greater activation (increase in O 2 Hb and concomitant decrease in HHb) in the contralateral LH than in the ipsilateral RH (O 2 Hb: 0·44 ± 0·16 μM and 0·25 ± 0·22 μM, P = 0·017; HHb: -0·19 ± 0·10 μM and -0·12 ± 0·09 μM, P = 0·036, respectively) as did VOL movements (0·51 ± 0·24 μΜ and 0·34 ± 0·21 μM, P = 0·031; HHb: -0·18 ± 0·07 μΜ and -0·12 ± 0·04 μΜ, P = 0·05, respectively). There was no significant difference between conditions for O 2 Hb (P = 0·144) and HHb (P = 0·958). fNIRS neuroimaging enables quantification of bilateral sensorimotor regional activation profiles during voluntary and NMES-evoked wrist extension movements. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Electrical Activation Studies of Silicon Implanted Aluminum Gallium Nitride with High Aluminum Mole Fraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-01

    ...) alloys, and represents a comprehensive analysis of the resulting material's electrical and optical properties as a function of Al mole fraction, anneal temperature, anneal time, and implantation dose...

  9. Accelerated electricity conservation in Juneau, Alaska: A study of household activities that reduced demand 25%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leighty, Wayne; Meier, Alan

    2011-01-01

    An avalanche destroyed the main hydroelectric transmission line to Juneau, Alaska in April, 2008. Diesel-generated electricity was substituted, causing electricity prices to increase 500% for 45 days. Electricity demand fell by 25% during the supply disruption. Most of the reduction occurred before the higher rates were implemented. Some conservation - about 8% of historic consumption - persisted after the transmission line was repaired and prices returned to normal. Consumers reduced energy use through a combination of new habits and technical improvements. A survey of residential consumers indicated that the average household undertook 10 conservation actions, with major changes in lighting, space heating, fuel switching, and water and appliance use. We propose a method for prioritizing conservation actions for promotion according to their impact in electricity savings (as a function of popularity, effectiveness, and persistence) and a dynamic framework for electricity use before, during, and after a supply disruption (i.e., both the magnitude and rates of change in electricity conservation). - Research highlights: → An electricity supply disruption caused prices to increase 500% for 45 days. → Electricity conservation of 25% occurred in a matter of days. → Electricity conservation of 8% persisted after the supply disruption was repaired. → Conservation occurred through behavior change and technology adoption. → The disruption induced consumers to try new behaviors that became new habits.

  10. Immediate effect of selective neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise DalAva Augusto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p155 The Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is described as an anterior or retropatellar knee pain in the absence of other associated diseases, and has often been associated with dysfunction of the vastus medialis oblique muscle (VMO. However, several studies have demonstrated the impossibility of selectively activating this muscle with exercises. The aim of the present study was to analyze the immediate effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of VMO muscle by means of monitoring the electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO and vastus lateralis (VL muscles. Eighteen healthy women with a mean age of 23.2 years and mean BMI of 20 Kg/m2 were evaluated. The study protocol included electromyographic analysis of VMO and VL muscles, before and immediately after neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the VMO muscle. During the electromyographic analysis, the volunteers performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction in a 60° knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. “Russian current” apparatus was used for electrical stimulation. Results: The data analysis demonstrated a signifi cant increase in VMO activation intensity immediately after it had been electrically stimulated (p=0.0125, whereas VL activation intensity exhibited no signifi cant increase (p=0.924. Moreover, a significant increase in the VMO/VL ratio was also detected (p=0.048. In this study it was observed that electrical stimulation modifiedthe VMO/VL ratio, which suggests electrical stimulation has a benefi cial effect on VMO muscle strength.

  11. Application and optimization of electric field-assisted ultrasonication for disintegration of waste activated sludge using response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Hwang, Min-Jin; Cha, Min-Jung; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, an electric field is applied in order to disintegrate waste activated sludge (WAS). As a preliminary step, feasibility tests are investigated using different applied voltages of 10-100V for 60min. As the applied voltage increases, the disintegration degrees (DD) are gradually enhanced, and thereby the soluble N, P, and carbohydrate concentrations increase simultaneously due to the WAS decomposition. Subsequently, an optimization process is conducted using a response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The total solid concentration, applied voltage, and reaction time are selected as independent variables, while the DD is selected as the response variable. The overall results demonstrate that the BBD with an experimental design can be used effectively in the optimization of the electric field treatment of WAS. In the confirmation test, a DD of 10.26±0.14% is recorded, which corresponds to 99.1% of the predicted response value under the statistically optimized conditions. Finally, the statistic optimization of the combined treatment (electric field+ultrasonication) demonstrated that even though this method is limited to highly disintegrated WAS when it is applied individually, a high DD of 47.28±0.20% was recorded where the TS concentration was 6780mg/l, the strength of ultrasonication was 8.0W, the applied voltage was 68.4V, and the reaction time was 44min. E-SEM images clearly revealed that the application of the electric field is a significant alternative method for the combined treatment of WAS. This study was the first attempt to increase disintegration using the electric field for a combined treatment with ultrasonication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutron activation analysis measurements of sub micron aerosol deposition onto a cylinder energized with an alternating electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fila, M S [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    Experimental measurements of aerosol deposition onto a cylinder energized with a 60 Hz electric field were conducted using a neutron activation analysis technique with a hafnium salt aerosol. The measured collection efficiencies were compared to theoretical expressions based on an electrostatic collection mechanism and fair agreement was found. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  13. Voltage- and current-activated metal–insulator transition in VO2-based electrical switches: a lifetime operation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Crunteanu, Julien Givernaud, Jonathan Leroy, David Mardivirin, Corinne Champeaux, Jean-Christophe Orlianges, Alain Catherinot and Pierre Blondy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide is an intensively studied material that undergoes a temperature-induced metal–insulator phase transition accompanied by a large change in electrical resistivity. Electrical switches based on this material show promising properties in terms of speed and broadband operation. The exploration of the failure behavior and reliability of such devices is very important in view of their integration in practical electronic circuits. We performed systematic lifetime investigations of two-terminal switches based on the electrical activation of the metal–insulator transition in VO2 thin films. The devices were integrated in coplanar microwave waveguides (CPWs in series configuration. We detected the evolution of a 10 GHz microwave signal transmitted through the CPW, modulated by the activation of the VO2 switches in both voltage- and current-controlled modes. We demonstrated enhanced lifetime operation of current-controlled VO2-based switching (more than 260 million cycles without failure compared with the voltage-activated mode (breakdown at around 16 million activation cycles. The evolution of the electrical self-oscillations of a VO2-based switch induced in the current-operated mode is a subtle indicator of the material properties modification and can be used to monitor its behavior under various external stresses in sensor applications.

  14. Active coated nano-particle excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole — resonance and transparency effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the optical properties of active coated spherical nano-particles excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole. The nano-particles are made of specific dielectric and plasmonic materials. The spatial near-field distribution as well as the normalized...

  15. 78 FR 28190 - Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-7-2013] Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water Heaters); Louisville, Kentucky On January 7, 2013, GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C in Louisville, Kentucky, submitted a notification of proposed...

  16. Mitigation of Power Quality Issues Due to High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources in Electric Grid Systems Using Three-Phase APF/STATCOM Technologies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajahat Ullah Khan Tareen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes an analytical review on the comparison of three-phase static compensator (STATCOM and active power filter (APF inverter topologies and their control schemes using industrial standards and advanced high-power configurations. Transformerless and reduced switch count topologies are the leading technologies in power electronics that aim to reduce system cost and offer the additional benefits of small volumetric size, lightweight and compact structure, and high reliability. A detailed comparison of the topologies, control strategies and implementation structures of grid-connected high-power converters is presented. However, reducing the number of power semiconductor devices, sensors, and control circuits requires complex control strategies. This study focuses on different topological devices, namely, passive filters, shunt and hybrid filters, and STATCOMs, which are typically used for power quality improvement. Additionally, appropriate control schemes, such as sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM and space vector PWM techniques, are selected. According to recent developments in shunt APF/STATCOM inverters, simulation and experimental results prove the effectiveness of APF/STATCOM systems for harmonic mitigation based on the defined limit in IEEE-519.

  17. Ion pump as molecular ratchet and effects of noise: electric activation of cation pumping by Na,K-ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsong, T. Y.; Xie, T. D.

    2002-08-01

    Na,K-ATPase is a universal ion pump of the biological cell. Under physiological conditions, it uses the γ-phosphorus bond energy of ATP during hydrolysis to pump 2 K+ inward and 3 Na+ outward; both being uphill transports. The experiment presented here demonstrates that the protein transporter can also use electric energy to fuel its pump activity. A theory of electroconformational coupling (TEC) is described and an experiment performed to verify several predictions of the model. Analysis based on the TEC model suggests that Na,K-ATPase is a Brownian ratchet. The enzyme harvests energy from the applied field by means of the field-induced conformational oscillation or fluctuation. However, high efficiency of energy transduction can only be achieved with an electric field of certain intensities, frequencies and waveforms. This property of the enzyme allows us to define an electric signal and differentiate it from electric noise on the basis of the analysis by the TEC model. Data show that electric noise alone does not induce pump activity. However, an appropriate power level of noise imposed on a signal can enhance the pump efficiency. The effect of noise on the signal transduction of Na,K-ATPase is reminiscent of the stochastic resonance phenomenon reported in other biological systems [3, 35]. The TEC model embodies many common features of enzymes and biological motors. It is potentially energy-efficient, much more so than models based on the ion-rectification mechanism.

  18. Characteristics and Antitumor Activity of Morchella esculenta Polysaccharide Extracted by Pulsed Electric Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta have been proven to be functional and helpful for humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical structure and anti-proliferating and antitumor activities of a Morchella esculenta polysaccharide (MEP extracted by pulsed electric field (PEF in submerged fermentation. The endo-polysaccharide was separated and purified by column chromatography and Gel permeation chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The MEP with an average molecular weight of 81,835 Da consisted of xylose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose and galactose at the ratio of 5.4:5.0:6.5:7.8:72.3. Structure of MEP was further analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H and 13C liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apoptosis tests proved that MEP could inhibit the proliferation and growth of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner within 48 h. This study provides more information on chemical structure of anti-proliferating polysaccharides isolated from Morchella esculenta.

  19. Emulating the electrical activity of the neuron using a silicon oxide RRAM cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan eMehonic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, formidable effort has been devoted to exploring the potential of Resistive RAM (RRAM devices to model key features of biological synapses. This is done to strengthen the link between neuro-computing architectures and neuroscience, bearing in mind the extremely low power consumption and immense parallelism of biological systems. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using the RRAM cell to go further and to model aspects of the electrical activity of the neuron. We focus on the specific operational procedures required for the generation of controlled voltage transients, which resemble spike-like responses. Further, we demonstrate that RRAM devices are capable of integrating input current pulses over time to produce thresholded voltage transients. We show that the frequency of the output transients can be controlled by the input signal, and we relate recent models of the redox-based nanoionic resistive memory cell to two common neuronal models, the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH conductance model and the leaky integrate-and-fire model. We employ a simplified circuit model to phenomenologically describe voltage transient generation.

  20. Electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid wastes: a laboratory-scale evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Bowen, W.R.; Bridger, N.J.; Harrison, K.T.

    1983-10-01

    A wide range of electrochemical separation processes has been evaluated through literature and experimental studies for potential application to the treatment of medium-active liquid wastes. Of the ten processes considered, electro-osmosis and electrochemical ion-exchange show the most promise for immediate further development to a larger scale, while the faradaic deposition of PuO 2 , Tc, RuO 2 require further laboratory study before judgement can be passed on these. Electro-osmosis has an exceptionally high solids retention (99.99%) and is capable of dewatering suspensions to 35% - suitable for direct incorporation in concrete. Electrochemical ion-exchange has the attractions of a conventional ion-exchange process but with the added features of enhanced kinetics and pH operating range, as well as elution into demineralized water merely by polarity reversal. All electrical processes have the advantage of the added process variable of externally applied potential, which can enable remote, automatic control. (author)

  1. Electrical processes for the treatment of medium-active liquid wastes: a laboratory-scale evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Bowen, W.R.; Bridger, N.J.; Harrison, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range of electrochemical separation processes have been evaluated through the literature and experimental studies for potential application to the treatment of medium-active liquid wastes. Of the 10 processes considered, electro-osmosis and electrochemical ion-exchange show the most promise for immediate further development to a larger scale, while the faradic deposition of PuO 2 , Tc, RuO 2 require further laboratory study before judgment can be passed on these. Electro-osmosis has an exceptionally high solids retention (99.99%) and is capable of dewatering suspensions to 35% - suitable for direct incorporation in concrete. Electrochemical ion-exchange has the attractions of a conventional ion-exchange process but with the added features of enhanced kinetics and pH operating range, as well as elution into demineralized water merely by polarity reversal. All electrical processes have the advantage of the added process variable of externally applied potential, which can enable remote, automatic control

  2. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles Supported on Electrically Polarized Hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefei; Yates, Matthew Z

    2018-05-23

    Fast recombination of photogenerated charge carriers in titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) remains a challenging issue, limiting the photocatalytic activity. This study demonstrates increased photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 nanoparticles supported on electrically polarized hydroxyapatite (HA) films. Dense and thermally stable yttrium and fluorine co-doped HA films with giant internal polarization were synthesized as photocatalyst supports. TiO 2 nanoparticles deposited on the support were then used to catalyze the photochemical reduction of aqueous silver ions to produce silver nanoparticles. It was found that significantly more silver nanoparticles were produced on polarized HA supports than on depolarized HA supports. In addition, the photodegradation of methyl orange with TiO 2 nanoparticles on polarized HA supports was found to be much faster than with TiO 2 nanoparticles on depolarized HA supports. It is proposed that separation of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO nanoparticles is promoted by the internal polarization of the HA support, and consequently, the recombination of charge carriers is mitigated. The results imply that materials with large internal polarization can be used in strategies for enhancing quantum efficiency of photocatalysts.

  3. Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS): a review of patents 1906-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Salvatore; Sakka, Yoshio; Maizza, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS) is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECASed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020) who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents), the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents). A subset of 119 (out of 642) ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals. The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time (fast and ultrafast ECAS). The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature. (topical review)

  4. Reduction of protease activity in milk by continuous flow high-intensity pulsed electric field treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendicho, S; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Martín, O

    2003-03-01

    High-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) is a non-thermal food processing technology that is currently being investigated to inactivate microorganisms and certain enzymes, involving a limited increase of food temperature. Promising results have been obtained on the inactivation of microbial enzymes in milk when suspended in simulated milk ultrafiltrate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous HIPEF equipment on inactivating a protease from Bacillus subtilis inoculated in milk. Samples were subjected to HIPEF treatments of up to 866 micros of squared wave pulses at field strengths from 19.7 to 35.5 kV/cm, using a treatment chamber that consisted of eight colinear chambers connected in series. Moreover, the effects of different parameters such as pulse width (4 and 7 micros), pulse repetition rates (67, 89, and 111 Hz), and milk composition (skim and whole milk) were tested. Protease activity decreased with increased treatment time or field strength and pulse repetition rate. Regarding pulse width, no differences were observed between 4 and 7 micros pulses when total treatment time was considered. On the other hand, it was observed that milk composition affected the results since higher inactivation levels were reached in skim than in whole milk. The maximum inactivation (81%) was attained in skim milk after an 866-micros treatment at 35.5 kV/cm and 111 Hz.

  5. Emulating the Electrical Activity of the Neuron Using a Silicon Oxide RRAM Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehonic, Adnan; Kenyon, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, formidable effort has been devoted to exploring the potential of Resistive RAM (RRAM) devices to model key features of biological synapses. This is done to strengthen the link between neuro-computing architectures and neuroscience, bearing in mind the extremely low power consumption and immense parallelism of biological systems. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using the RRAM cell to go further and to model aspects of the electrical activity of the neuron. We focus on the specific operational procedures required for the generation of controlled voltage transients, which resemble spike-like responses. Further, we demonstrate that RRAM devices are capable of integrating input current pulses over time to produce thresholded voltage transients. We show that the frequency of the output transients can be controlled by the input signal, and we relate recent models of the redox-based nanoionic resistive memory cell to two common neuronal models, the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) conductance model and the leaky integrate-and-fire model. We employ a simplified circuit model to phenomenologically describe voltage transient generation. PMID:26941598

  6. The Electron Runaround: Understanding Electric Circuit Basics through a Classroom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-01-01

    Several misconceptions abound among college students taking their first general physics course, and to some extent pre-engineering physics students, regarding the physics and applications of electric circuits. Analogies used in textbooks, such as those that liken an electric circuit to a piped closed loop of water driven by a water pump, do not…

  7. Brain electrical activity and subjective experience during altered states of consciousness: ganzfeld and hypnagogic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jiri; Pütz, Peter; Büchi, Simone; Strauch, Inge; Lehmann, Dietrich

    2002-11-01

    Manifestations of experimentally induced altered states of consciousness in the brain's electrical activity as well as in subjective experience were explored via the hypnagogic state at sleep onset, and the state induced by exposure to an unstructured perceptual field (ganzfeld). Twelve female paid volunteers participated in sessions involving sleep onset, ganzfeld, and eyes-closed relaxed waking, and were repeatedly prompted for recall of their momentary mentation, according to a predefined schedule. Nineteen channel EEG, two channels EOG and EMG were recorded simultaneously. The mentation reports were followed by the subjects' ratings of their experience on a number of ordinal scales. Two-hundred and forty-one mentation reports were collected. EEG epochs immediately preceding the mentation reports were FFT-analysed and the spectra compared between states. The ganzfeld EEG spectrum, showing no signs of decreased vigilance, was very similar to the EEG spectrum of waking states, even showed a minor acceleration of alpha activity. The subjective experience data were reduced to four principal components: Factor I represented the subjective vigilance dimension, as confirmed by correlations with EEG spectral indices. Only Factor IV, the 'absorption' dimension, differentiated between the ganzfeld state (more absorption) and other states. In waking states and in ganzfeld, the subjects estimated elapsed time periods significantly shorter than in states at sleep onset. The results did not support the assumption of a hypnagogic nature of the ganzfeld imagery. Dream-like imagery can occur in various global functional states of the brain; hypnagogic and ganzfeld-induced states should be conceived as special cases of a broader class of 'hypnagoid' phenomena.

  8. Effect of the both texture and electrical properties of activated carbon on the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djeridi, W. [Research Laboratory: Engineering Process and Industrial Systems, National school of Engineers of Gabes, University of Gabes, St Omar Ibn Elkhattab, 6029 Gabes (Tunisia); Chimistry laboratory of Provence, University Aix-Marseille I, II, III- CNRS, UMR 6264, Centre de Saint Jerome, 13397 Marseille (France); Ouederni, A. [Research Laboratory: Engineering Process and Industrial Systems, National school of Engineers of Gabes, University of Gabes, St Omar Ibn Elkhattab, 6029 Gabes (Tunisia); Mansour, N.Ben [National Nanotechnology Research Centre, KACST, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Llewellyn, P.L. [Chimistry laboratory of Provence, University Aix-Marseille I, II, III- CNRS, UMR 6264, Centre de Saint Jerome, 13397 Marseille (France); Alyamani, A. [National Nanotechnology Research Centre, KACST, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); El Mir, L., E-mail: djeridiwahid@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Gabes University, Faculty of Sciences in Gabes, Gabes (Tunisia); Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), College of Sciences, Department of Physics, 11623 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • A series of activated carbon pellet without binder was prepared by chemical activation. • Carbon dioxide storage isotherm at 30 °C and up to 25 bars was measured for the microporous carbon. • Adsorption enthalpies have been correlated with the carbon dioxide uptake. • Pyrolysis temperature effect on the electrical conductivity of the samples. • Impact of the both texture and electrical properties on CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity have been deducted - Abstract: A series of activated carbon pellets (ACP) based on olive stones were studied for CO{sub 2} storage application. The surface area, pore volume, and pore diameter were evaluated from the analysis of N{sub 2} adsorption isotherm data. The characterization of carbon materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The adsorption enthalpies were obtained by microcalorimetry. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on textural, electrical conductivity and gas adsorption capacities of the ACP were investigated by adsorbing CO{sub 2} at 303 K in the pressure range of 0–2.3 MPa. In fact the electrical conductivity is strongly affected by the microporosity of the samples and the size of the micropore. It increases when the pore size decreases which affect the CO{sub 2} adsorption. Also with increases temperature the free electrons concentration on the surface increases which affect the interaction of the adsorbed gas molecules.

  9. Normal and abnormal electrical activation of the heart. Imaging patterns obtained by phase analysis of equilibrium cardiac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.; Byrom, E.; Swiryn, S.; Meyer-Pavel, C.; Rosen, K.

    1981-01-01

    By using a temporal Fourier analysis of gated equilibrium cardiac studies, phase images were obtained. These functional images were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively to determine if specific patterns can be found for normal versus abnormal electrical activation of the heart. The study included eight subjects with normal cardiac function and 24 patients with abnormal electrical activation: eight with left bundle branch block (LBBB), two with right bundle branch block (RBBB), six with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), one with junctional rhythm, one with spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (all with normal wall motion), two with chronic transvenous pacemakers, and four with induced sustained VT (all with regional wall motion abnormalities). The results show that the two ventricals have the same mean phase (within +-9 0 ) in normals, but significantly different mean phases in all patients with bundle branch blocks. Of the six WPW patients, three had a distinctive abnormal pattern. The patient with junctional rhythm, those with transvenous pacemakers, and those with VT all had abnormal patterns on the phase image. The phase image is capable of showing differences between patients with electrical activation and a variety of electrical abnormalities. Within the latter category distinct patterns can be associated with each type of abnormality. (author)

  10. A cardiac electrical activity model based on a cellular automata system in comparison with neural network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Sadiq Ali; Yousuf, Sidrah

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac Electrical Activity is commonly distributed into three dimensions of Cardiac Tissue (Myocardium) and evolves with duration of time. The indicator of heart diseases can occur randomly at any time of a day. Heart rate, conduction and each electrical activity during cardiac cycle should be monitor non-invasively for the assessment of "Action Potential" (regular) and "Arrhythmia" (irregular) rhythms. Many heart diseases can easily be examined through Automata model like Cellular Automata concepts. This paper deals with the different states of cardiac rhythms using cellular automata with the comparison of neural network also provides fast and highly effective stimulation for the contraction of cardiac muscles on the Atria in the result of genesis of electrical spark or wave. The specific formulated model named as "States of automaton Proposed Model for CEA (Cardiac Electrical Activity)" by using Cellular Automata Methodology is commonly shows the three states of cardiac tissues conduction phenomena (i) Resting (Relax and Excitable state), (ii) ARP (Excited but Absolutely refractory Phase i.e. Excited but not able to excite neighboring cells) (iii) RRP (Excited but Relatively Refractory Phase i.e. Excited and able to excite neighboring cells). The result indicates most efficient modeling with few burden of computation and it is Action Potential during the pumping of blood in cardiac cycle.

  11. Validity of instruments to measure physical activity may be questionable due to a lack of conceptual frameworks: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Guidance documents for the development and validation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) advise the use of conceptual frameworks, which outline the structure of the concept that a PRO aims to measure. It is unknown whether currently available PROs are based on conceptual frameworks. This study, which was limited to a specific case, had the following aims: (i) to identify conceptual frameworks of physical activity in chronic respiratory patients or similar populations (chronic heart disease patients or the elderly) and (ii) to assess whether the development and validation of PROs to measure physical activity in these populations were based on a conceptual framework of physical activity. Methods Two systematic reviews were conducted through searches of the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cinahl databases prior to January 2010. Results In the first review, only 2 out of 581 references pertaining to physical activity in the defined populations provided a conceptual framework of physical activity in COPD patients. In the second review, out of 103 studies developing PROs to measure physical activity or related constructs, none were based on a conceptual framework of physical activity. Conclusions These findings raise concerns about how the large body of evidence from studies that use physical activity PRO instruments should be evaluated by health care providers, guideline developers, and regulatory agencies. PMID:21967887

  12. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group housed, growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  13. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  14. Antimicrobial activity of suspensions and nanoemulsions of citral in combination with heat or pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, E; Berdejo, D; Espina, L; García-Gonzalo, D; Pagán, R

    2018-01-01

    The application of essential oils in form of nanoemulsions has been proposed as a method to improve their solubility in aqueous solutions, and hence their antimicrobial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of citral, applied directly or in combined treatments with heat or pulsed electric fields (PEF), as a function of the inoculation procedure assayed: (i) a simple, vigorous shaking method by vortex agitation (suspension of citral; s-citral) or (ii) the previous preparation of nanoemulsions by the emulsion phase inversion (EPI) method (nanoemulsion of citral; n-citral). n-Citral was more effective in either inhibiting or inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai than s-citral. However, when combined with heat, a greater synergistic effect was observed with s-citral rather than with n-citral, either in lab media (pH 7·0 and 4·0) or apple juice. For instance, while almost 5 log 10 cell cycles were inactivated in apple juice after 15 min at 53°C in the presence of 0·1 μl ml -1 of s-citral, the use of n-citral required 30 min. The use of nanoemulsions did not modify the slight synergism observed when citral and mild PEF were combined (150 μs, 30 kV cm -1 ). The exploration of different delivery systems of antimicrobial compounds such as citral in aqueous food products aids in the establishment of successful combined treatments for food preservation. While at room temperature, citral in form of a nanoemulsion shows a higher antimicrobial activity; its combination with heat would imply a partial loss of the outstanding synergistic lethal effect achieved when added in suspension form. Therefore, the most suitable procedure to magnify the synergism between heat and citral when processing juices would merely require an intense homogenization step prior to the combined treatment. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Active control of massively separated high-speed/base flows with electric arc plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlauw, Bradley G.

    The current project was undertaken to evaluate the effects of electric arc plasma actuators on high-speed separated flows. Two underlying goals motivated these experiments. The first goal was to provide a flow control technique that will result in enhanced flight performance for supersonic vehicles by altering the near-wake characteristics. The second goal was to gain a broader and more sophisticated understanding of these complex, supersonic, massively-separated, compressible, and turbulent flow fields. The attainment of the proposed objectives was facilitated through energy deposition from multiple electric-arc plasma discharges near the base corner separation point. The control authority of electric arc plasma actuators on a supersonic axisymmetric base flow was evaluated for several actuator geometries, frequencies, forcing modes, duty cycles/on-times, and currents. Initially, an electric arc plasma actuator power supply and control system were constructed to generate the arcs. Experiments were performed to evaluate the operational characteristics, electromagnetic emission, and fluidic effect of the actuators in quiescent ambient air. The maximum velocity induced by the arc when formed in a 5 mm x 1.6 mm x 2 mm deep cavity was about 40 m/s. During breakdown, the electromagnetic emission exhibited a rise and fall in intensity over a period of about 340 ns. After breakdown, the emission stabilized to a near-constant distribution. It was also observed that the plasma formed into two different modes: "high-voltage" and "low-voltage". It is believed that the plasma may be switching between an arc discharge and a glow discharge for these different modes. The two types of plasma do not appear to cause substantial differences on the induced fluidic effects of the actuator. In general, the characterization study provided a greater fundamental understanding of the operation of the actuators, as well as data for computational model comparison. Preliminary investigations

  16. On the evolution of the regulatory guidance for seismic qualification of electric and active mechanical equipment for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Ching Hang; Chen, Pei-Ying

    2009-01-01

    All electric and active mechanical equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants must be seismically qualified by testing, analysis, or combined analysis and testing. The general requirements for seismic qualification of electric and active mechanical equipment in nuclear power plants are delineated in Appendix S, 'Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,' to Title 10, Part 50, 'Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities,' of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50), item 52.47(20) of 10 CFR 52.47, 'Contents of Applications; Technical Information,' and Appendix A, 'Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,' to 10 CFR Part 100, 'Reactor Site Criteria.' The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Revision 2 of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.100, 'Seismic Qualification of Electric and Mechanical for Nuclear Power Plants' in 1988, which endorsed, with restrictions, exceptions, and clarifications, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 344-1987 'IEEE Recommended Practice for Seismic Qualification of Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations,' for use in seismic qualification of both electric and mechanical equipment. In 2008, the staff at the NRC drafted Revision 3 of RG 1.100 to endorse, with restrictions, exceptions, and clarifications, the IEEE Std 344-2004 and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) QME-1-2007 'Qualification of Active Mechanical Equipment Used in Nuclear Power Plants.' IEEE Std 344-2004 was an update of Std 344-1987 and ASME QME-1-2007 was an update of QME-1-2002. The major changes in IEEE Std 344-2004 and ASME QME-1-2007 include the update and expansion of criteria and procedures describing the use of experience data as a method for seismic qualification of Class 1E electric equipment (including I and C components) as well as active mechanical equipment. In this paper, the staff will compare the draft Revision 3 to

  17. Development of the algorithm of measurement data and tomographic section reconstruction results processing for evaluating the respiratory activity of the lungs using the multi-angle electric impedance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksanyan, Grayr; Shcherbakov, Ivan; Kucher, Artem; Sulyz, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of the patient's breathing by the method of multi-angle electric impedance tomography allows to obtain images of conduction change in the chest cavity during the monitoring. Direct analysis of images is difficult due to the large amount of information and low resolution images obtained by multi-angle electrical impedance tomography. This work presents a method for obtaining a graph of respiratory activity of the lungs based on the results of continuous lung monitoring using the multi-angle electrical impedance tomography method. The method makes it possible to obtain a graph of the respiratory activity of the left and right lungs separately, as well as a summary graph, to which it is possible to apply methods of processing the results of spirography.

  18. Unified Brake Service by a Hierarchical Controller for Active Deceleration Control in an Electric and Automated Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Nie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unified brake service is a universal service for generating certain brake force to meet the demand deceleration and is essential for an automated driving system. However, it is rather difficult to control the pressure in the wheel cylinders to reach the target deceleration of the automated vehicle, which is the key issue of the active deceleration control system (ADC. This paper proposes a hierarchical control method to actively control vehicle deceleration with active-brake actuators. In the upper hierarchical, the target pressure of wheel cylinders is obtained by dynamic equations of a pure electric vehicle. In the lower hierarchical, the solenoid valve instructions and the pump speed of hydraulic control unit (HCU are determined to satisfy the desired pressure with the feedback of measured wheel cylinder pressure by pressure sensors. Results of road experiments of a pure electric and automated vehicle indicate that the proposed method realizes the target deceleration accurately and efficiently.

  19. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  20. Anomalous electrical signals associated with microbial activity: Results from Iron and Nitrate-Reducing Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, R. B.; Zheng, Q.; Flynn, P.; Singha, K.; Brantley, S.

    2008-12-01

    Three flow-through columns outfitted with Ag/AgCl electrodes were constructed to test the effects of different microbial processes on the geophysical measurements of self potential (SP), bulk electrical conductivity (σ b), and induced polarization (IP). The columns were filled with sieved, Fe-bearing subsurface sediment from the Delmarva Peninsula near Oyster, VA, inoculated (9:1 ratio) with a freshly-collected, shallow subsurface sediment from a wetland floodplain (Dorn Creek) near Madison, WI. Each of the columns was fed anoxic and sterile PIPES buffered artificial groundwater (PBAGW) containing different concentrations of acetate and nitrate. The medium fed to Column 1 (nitrate-reducing) was amended with 100 μM acetate and 2 mM nitrate. Column 2 (iron-reducing) was run with PBAGW containing 1.0 mM acetate and 0 mM nitrate. Column 3 (alternating redox state) was operated under conditions designed to alternately stimulate nitrate-reducing and iron-reducing populations to provide conditions, i.e., the presence of both nitrate and microbially-produced Fe(II), that would allow growth of nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing populations. We operated Column 3 with a cycling strategy of 14-18 days of high C medium (1 mM acetate and 100 μ M nitrate) followed by 14-18 days of low C medium (100 μ M acetate and 2 mM nitrate). Effluent chemistry (NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, acetate, and Fe2+) was sampled daily for four months so as to be concurrent with the electrical measurements. We observed chemical evidence of iron reduction (dissolved [Fe(II)] = 0.2mM) in the effluent from the iron reduction and alternating redox columns. Chemical depletion of NO3- ([NO3-] ranged from 1 to 0.02mM), the production of NO2-, and possible production of NH4+ (0.2 mM) was observed in the nitrate reducing column as well as the alternating redox column. All three columns displayed loss of acetate as microbial activity progressed. σ b remained constant in the alternating redox column (~0.15 S

  1. Situations of decontamination promotion activities. Efforts by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Fukushima Revitalization Headquarters, Decontamination Promotion Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Takahiko; Ito, Kei; Takizawa, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    As for the decontamination of the soil contaminated with radioactive materials, decontamination is on the way in compliance with the 'Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Environmental Pollution by Radioactive Materials by the NPS Accident Associated with the Tohoku District - Off the Pacific Ocean' (hereinafter, the Act on Special Measures). Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), as the party concerned to the accident, is cooperating with decontamination activities conducted by countries and municipalities under the Act on Special Measures. Total number of people cooperated by the Decontamination Promotion Office amounts to about 120,000 people. The cooperation to the decontamination by countries and municipalities covers the following fields: provision of knowledge of radiation, training of site management and supervisors, and proposal such as the decontamination method suitable for the site. As cooperation to various monitoring, there is a traveling monitoring that performs radiation measurement from the vehicles. As cooperation in the farming and industrial resumption toward the reconstruction, the group has implemented support for the distribution promotion of the holdup that was stuck in distribution due to contamination with radioactive substances. As decontamination related technology, the following are performed: (1) preparation of radiation understanding promotion tool, (2) development of precise individual dose measurement technology, and (3) development and utilization of decontamination effect analysis program. In the future, this group will perform the follow-up for decontamination, and measures toward the lifting of evacuation order. It will install the basis to perform various technical analyses on decontamination, and will further intensify technical cooperation. (A.O.)

  2. Electricity in France. Activities in 2012. Economic briefing note Nr 707 of the 31 July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leherpeur, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    This publication proposes tables and graphs which illustrate: the evolution of the place of electricity in the French energy assessment since 2002 (in the national production and consumption of primary energy, in the final energy consumption per sector, in the energy bill); the assessment of the electric industry in France (production, trade, consumption); the evolution of production installations and of their production (energy types: nuclear, fossil, hydraulic, other renewable energies), globally and in the different French regions; the evolution of electricity consumption (domestic consumption, final consumption per region and per sector); the evolution of daily energy peaks; the evolution of high and very-high voltage grid (grid lengths); the evolution of energy prices (gas, domestic fuel, propane, electricity) for individual housing and for big industries

  3. Seismic functional qualification of active mechanical and electrical components based on shaking table testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurukovski, D.

    1999-01-01

    The seismic testing for qualification of one sample of the NPP Kozloduy Control Panel type YKTC was carried out under Research Contract no: 8008/Rl, entitled: 'Seismic Functional Qualification of Active Mechanical and Electrical Components Based on Shaking Table Testing'. The tested specimen was selected by the Kozloduy NPP staff, Section 'TIA-2' (Technical Instrumentation and Automatics), however the seismic input parameters were selected by the NPP Kozloduy staff, Section HTS and SC (Hydro-Technical Systems and Engineering Structures). The applied methodology was developed by the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology staff. This report presents all relevant items related to the selected specimen seismic testing for seismic qualification such as: description of the tested specimen, mounting conditions on the shaking table, selection of seismic input parameters and creation of seismic excitations, description of the testing equipment, explanation of the applied methodology, 'on line' and 'off line' monitoring of the tested specimen, functioning capabilities, discussion of the results and their presentation and finally conclusions and recommendations. In this partial project report, two items are presented. The first item presents a review of the existing and used regulations for performing of the seismic and vibratory withstand testing of electro-mechanical equipment. The selection is made based on MEA, IEEE, IEC and former Soviet Union regulations. The second item presents the abstracts of all the tests performed at the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology in Skopje. The selected regulations, the experience of the Institute that has been gathered for the last seventeen years and some theoretical and experimental research will be the basis for further investigations for development of a synthesised methodology for seismic qualification of differently categorized equipment for nuclear power plants

  4. Artificial noise due to DC electric trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senanayake, W.E.

    1987-08-01

    The current distribution in a DC railway and the resulting magnetic effects have been modelled using the parameters of the DC railway networks in Italy. The results show that the magnetic perturbations are substantially high in the vicinity of electrified railway lines. The order of magnitude of the induced field can be as significant as ∼ 40nT at a distance of ≅ 2km from the railway line indicating that geophysical techniques that employ natural magnetic anomalies can be badly effected, within this range. The magnetic effects rapidly decay with increasing distance, but the noise level could be significant even at a range of ∼ 10km. Also, these induced anomalies vary significantly with the conductivity of the ground. When the conductivity is high it is possible that the railway currents dispersed through the ground interact with those induced in the earth, causing a severe disruption to the telluric measurements. (author). 11 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  5. Activation of Anti-tumor Immune Response by Ablation of HCC with Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Chen, Yiling; Zhang, Ruiqing; Miao, Xudong; Chen, Xinhua

    2018-03-28

    Locoregional therapy is playing an increasingly important role in the non-surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The novel technique of non-thermal electric ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric field has been recognized as a potential locoregional methodology for indicated HCC. This manuscript explores the most recent studies to indicate its unique anti-tumor immune response. The possible immune mechanism, termed as nano-pulse stimulation, was also analyzed.

  6. Activities for the privatisation of the electricity supply industry in Great Britain. Electricity changing from public ownership to administrative, regulatory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, H P

    1988-11-01

    According to Great Britain's energy policy, the electricity industry is going to be denationalised, so that the electricity sector will be governed by the principles of free competition, releaved from governmental intervention and political constraints, and supervised by the Director General of Electricity Supply. This restructurisation is intended to improve Britain's electricity industry in terms of dynamics, creativity, supply quality, and efficiency. A major goal is to strengthen the competitiveness of the British industry, and to enhance electricity supply to private consumers by way of more favourable electricity rates.

  7. Application of the Monte Carlo method to estimate doses due to neutron activation of different materials in a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, José

    2017-11-01

    All materials exposed to some neutron flux can be activated independently of the kind of the neutron source. In this study, a nuclear reactor has been considered as neutron source. In particular, the activation of control rods in a BWR is studied to obtain the doses produced around the storage pool for irradiated fuel of the plant when control rods are withdrawn from the reactor and installed into this pool. It is very important to calculate these doses because they can affect to plant workers in the area. The MCNP code based on the Monte Carlo method has been applied to simulate activation reactions produced in the control rods inserted into the reactor. Obtained activities are introduced as input into another MC model to estimate doses produced by them. The comparison of simulation results with experimental measurements allows the validation of developed models. The developed MC models have been also applied to simulate the activation of other materials, such as components of a stainless steel sample introduced into a training reactors. These models, once validated, can be applied to other situations and materials where a neutron flux can be found, not only nuclear reactors. For instance, activation analysis with an Am-Be source, neutrography techniques in both medical applications and non-destructive analysis of materials, civil engineering applications using a Troxler, analysis of materials in decommissioning of nuclear power plants, etc.

  8. Investigation of electrically-active deep levels in single-crystalline diamond by particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kada, W., E-mail: kada.wataru@gunma-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kambayashi, Y.; Ando, Y. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Onoda, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Umezawa, H.; Mokuno, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Shikata, S. [Kwansei Gakuin Univ., 2-1, Gakuen, Mita, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Makino, T.; Koka, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Hanaizumi, O. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    To investigate electrically-active deep levels in high-resistivity single-crystalline diamond, particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy (QTS) techniques were performed using 5.5 MeV alpha particles and 9 MeV carbon focused microprobes. For unintentionally-doped (UID) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, deep levels with activation energies of 0.35 eV and 0.43 eV were detected which correspond to the activation energy of boron acceptors in diamond. The results suggested that alpha particle and heavy ion induced QTS techniques are the promising candidate for in-situ investigation of deep levels in high-resistivity semiconductors.

  9. Electrical activation of nitrogen heavily implanted 3C-SiC(1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fan, E-mail: f.li.1@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Sharma, Yogesh; Shah, Vishal; Jennings, Mike [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Pérez-Tomás, Amador [ICN2 – Institut Catala de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Myronov, Maksym [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Fisher, Craig [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Leadley, David [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mawby, Phil [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nitrogen is fully activated by 1175 °C annealing for 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} doped 3C-SiC. • Free donor concentration is found to readily saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. • 3C-SiC is found to have complete donor thermal ionization above 150 K. • Donor in 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} nitrogen implanted 3C-SiC has an energy level ∼15 meV. • The SiO{sub 2} cap is found to have a bigger influence on low and medium doped samples. - Abstract: A degenerated wide bandgap semiconductor is a rare system. In general, implant levels lie deeper in the band-gap and carrier freeze-out usually takes place at room temperature. Nevertheless, we have observed that heavily doped n-type degenerated 3C-SiC films are achieved by nitrogen implantation level of ∼6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} at 20 K. According to temperature dependent Hall measurements, nitrogen activation rates decrease with the doping level from almost 100% (1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, donor level 15 meV) to ∼12% for 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Free donors are found to saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The implanted film electrical performances are characterized as a function of the dopant doses and post implantation annealing (PIA) conditions by fabricating Van der Pauw structures. A deposited SiO{sub 2} layer was used as the surface capping layer during the PIA process to study its effect on the resultant film properties. From the device design point of view, the lowest sheet resistivity (∼1.4 mΩ cm) has been observed for medium doped (4 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) sample with PIA 1375 °C 2 h without a SiO{sub 2} cap.

  10. Stress-Activated Electric Currents in the Earth Crust: How they Can and Cannot Flow (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, F. T.; Bleier, T. E.; Bortnik, J.; Dahlgren, R.

    2010-12-01

    Dormant electronic charge carriers exist in rocks. They “wake up” when stresses are applied: electrons e’ and positive holes, h., the latter being defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice of minerals [1, 2]. The h. can flow out of the stressed subvolume. They can spread into the unstressed surrounding, turning the rocks into p-type semiconductors. They travel fast and far using energy levels at the upper edge of the valence bands. Contrary to the h., the co-activated electrons e’ cannot flow out and propagate through unstressed rocks: they are stuck in the activation volume. The situation is akin to that in an electrochemical battery except that, in the “rock battery”, the positive charge carriers are not cations but positive holes h.. In the laboratory it is easy to close the battery circuit by offering the electrons a metal contact and connecting the stressed and unstressed rock with a metal wire. This is useful to demonstrate the functioning of the “rock battery”. In the field the h. outflow from a stressed rock volume is restricted as long as there is no return path. This is an important point when we try to understand why pre-earthquake EM emission is widely considered “unreliable” [3, 4]. However, there are at least three conditions, under which circuit closure can be achieved in the field under realistic pre-earthquake situations: (i) via n-type conducting rocks; (ii) via electrolytic conductivity of water; and (iii) via the air when the air above the epicentral region becomes highly ionized. We report on examples where these three conditions might have allowed large currents to flow and strong EM signals to be emitted. [1] Freund, F.T. et al.: Electric currents streaming out of stressed igneous rocks - A step towards understanding pre-earthquake low frequency EM emissions, Phys. Chem. Earth 31, 389-396 (2006). [2] Freund, F.T.: Charge generation and propagation in rocks, J. Geodyn. 33, 545-572 (2002). [3] Johnston, M.J.S. and

  11. Mussel-Inspired Anisotropic Nanocellulose and Silver Nanoparticle Composite with Improved Mechanical Properties, Electrical Conductivity and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Linh Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Materials for wearable devices, tissue engineering and bio-sensing applications require both antibacterial activity to prevent bacterial infection and biofilm formation, and electrical conductivity to electric signals inside and outside of the human body. Recently, cellulose nanofibers have been utilized for various applications but cellulose itself has neither antibacterial activity nor conductivity. Here, an antibacterial and electrically conductive composite was formed by generating catechol mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the surface of cellulose nanofibers. The chemically immobilized catechol moiety on the nanofibrous cellulose network reduced Ag+ to form AgNPs on the cellulose nanofiber. The AgNPs cellulose composite showed excellent antibacterial efficacy against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the catechol conjugation and the addition of AgNP induced anisotropic self-alignment of the cellulose nanofibers which enhances electrical and mechanical properties of the composite. Therefore, the composite containing AgNPs and anisotropic aligned the cellulose nanofiber may be useful for biomedical applications.

  12. Comparison of global storm activity rate calculated from Schumann resonance background components to electric field intensity E0 Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieckarz, Zenon; Kułak, Andrzej; Zięba, Stanisław; Kubicki, Marek; Michnowski, Stanisław; Barański, Piotr

    2009-02-01

    This work presents the results of a comparison between the global storm activity rate IRS and electric field intensity E0 Z. The permanent analysis of the IRS may become an important tool for testing Global Electric Circuit models. IRS is determined by a new method that uses the background component of the first 7 Schumann resonances (SR). The rate calculations are based on ELF observations carried out in 2005 and 2006 in the observatory station "Hylaty" of the Jagiellonian University in the Eastern Carpathians (Kułak, A., Zięba, S., Micek, S., Nieckarz, Z., 2003. Solar variations in extremely low frequency propagation parameters: I. A two-dimensional telegraph equation (TDTE) model of ELF propagation and fundamental parameters of Schumann resonances, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 1270, doi:10.1029/2002JA009304). Diurnal runs of the IRS rate were compared with diurnal runs of E0 Z amplitudes registered at the Earth's surface in the Geophysical Observatory of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Świder (Kubicki, M., 2005. Results of Atmospheric Electricity and Meteorological Observations, S. Kalinowski Geophysical Observatory at Świder 2004, Pub. Inst. Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, D-68 (383), Warszawa.). The days with the highest values of the correlation coefficient ( R) between amplitudes of both observed parameters characterizing atmosphere electric activity are shown. The seasonal changes of R, IRS and E0 Z are also presented.

  13. Simulating TGF and gamma ray emission above and within stormclouds due to the interaction of TeV cosmic ray shower electrons/positrons/photons with plausible electric field geometries generated in stormclouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Valencia has developed a software simulator LEPTRACK to simulate lepton and photon scattering in any kind of media with a variable density, and permeated by electric/magnetic fields of any geometry, and which can handle an exponential runaway avalanche. Here we show results of simulating the interaction of electrons/positrons/photons in an incoming TeV cosmic ray shower with the kind of electric fields expected in a stormcloud after a CG discharge which removes much of the positive charge build up at the centre of the cloud. The point is to show not just a Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche (RREA) above the upper negative shielding layer at 12 km but other gamma ray emission due to electron/positron interaction in the remaining positive charge around 9km and the lower negative charge at 6km altitude. We present here images, lightcurves, altitude profiles, spectra and videos showing the different ionization, excitation and photon density fields produced, their time evolution, and how they depend critically on where the cosmic ray shower beam intercepts the electric field geometry. We also show a new effect of incoming positrons, which make up a significant fraction of the shower, where they appear to "orbit" within the high altitude negative shielding layer, and which has been conjectured to produce significant microwave emission, as well as a short range 511 keV annihilation line. The interesting question is if this conjectured emission can be observed and correlated with TGF orbital observations to prove that a TGF originates i