WorldWideScience

Sample records for electrica con reactor

  1. Conceptual design of a nucleo electric simulator with PBMR reactor based in Reduced order models; Diseno conceptual de un simulador de nucleo electrica con reactor PBMR basado en modelos de orden reducido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J.; Morales S, J.B. [UNAM, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: jms0620@yahoo.com

    2005-07-01

    This project has as purpose to know to depth the operation of a PBMR nucleo electric type (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor), which has a reactor of moderate graphite spheres and fuel of uranium dioxide cooled with Helium and Brayton thermodynamic cycle. The simulator seeks to describe the dynamics of the one process of energy generation in the nuclear fuel, the process of transport toward the coolant one and the conversion to mechanical energy in the turbo-generators as well as in the heat exchangers indispensable for the process. The dynamics of reload of the fuel elements it is not modeled in detail but their effects are represented in the parameters of the pattern. They are modeled also the turbo-compressors of the primary circuit of the work fluid. The control of the power of the nuclear reactor is modeled by means of reactivity functions specified in the simulation platform. The proposed mathematical models will be settled in the platform of simulation of Simulink-Mat Lab. The proposed control panels for this simulator can be designed and to implement using the box of tools of Simulink that facilitates this process. The work presents the mathematical models more important used for their future implementation in Simulink. (Author)

  2. Towards a distributed electric generation scheme with non-conventional energies; Hacia un esquema de generacion electrica distribuida con energias no convencionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Several factors contributed to the existence of large electric systems as we know them today, such as: the increase of the electric demand by the advancement of the industrial development, the appearance of electric equipment, and household devices and by the advancement in the engineering systems, just to mention a few of them. With all this, the third part of the World population still does not have access to the electricity service. The efforts that the small electric enterprises perform to carry the service up to the site where it is required, every day time becomes more expensive and less effective. Exhausted by the weight of a huge economic debt, many electric utilities of the developing countries find each time more difficult to obtain financing to extend the power lines. This situation becomes still more serious with the present privatization scheme of the electric utilities. Although new technologies are being developed to counteract the negative effects caused by the large electricity generation power plants, the society seems to begin to show preferences for more benign to the environment options. The scheme of distributed generation can be given in to modalities: By means of isolated systems in remote sites, where there is not access to the conventional services; and with systems interconnected with the electric network where this is available [Espanol] Varios factores contribuyeron a la aparicion de los grandes sistemas electricos como los conocemos hoy en dia, tales como: el crecimiento de la demanda electrica por el avance del desarrollo industrial, la aparicion de equipos electricos y aparatos electrodomesticos y por avances en la ingenieria de los sistemas, por mencionar algunos. Con todo ello, la tercera parte de la poblacion mundial no tiene aun acceso al servicio electrico. Los esfuerzos que realizan las companias electricas para llevar el servicio hasta donde se requiere, resultan cada vez mas costosos y menos efectivos. Agobiadas por el peso

  3. Wind energy for electricity generation; Generacion electrica con energia del viento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M; Borja Diaz, Marco Antonio R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    A description is made of electricity generation utilizing wind energy (Eoloelectric Generation). The case of Mexico is reviewed in respect to this technology, mentioning a small power plant of 1.5 Megawatts installed by the Comision Federal de Electricidad in the zone of La Ventosa in the State of Oaxaca. Mention is made of the possible causes why Mexico has not advanced in this type of power plants for power generation as in other countries like Germany, Spain and India. The advance in these countries is shown as well as the growth statistics of the wind power in the world. It is concluded that there is not in Mexico a strategy for wind energy utilization for electricity generation in spite of the potential benefits this technology offers [Espanol] Se describe el caso de la generacion electrica utilizando la energia del viento (Generacion Eoloelectrica). Se aborda el caso de Mexico respecto a esta tecnologia, mencionando una pequena central de 1.5 Megawatts (MW) instalada por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en la zona de la Ventosa, Oaxaca. Se mencionan las posibles causas por las que en Mexico este tipo de centrales de generacion de energia no ha avanzado como en otros paises, por ejemplo: Alemania, Espana y la India. Se muestran los avances de estos paises, asi como una estadistica del crecimiento de la generacion eoloelectrica en el mundo. Se concluye en que no existe en Mexico una estrategia para la generacion eoloelectrica a pesar de los beneficios potenciales que ofrece esta tecnologia

  4. Interconnection of industrial centers with the electric network of the public service; Interconexion de centros industriales con la red electrica del servicio publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Sedano, Inocente; Lopez Velazquez, Juan Jose; Garcia Paredes, Job; Robles Pimentel, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia Alvarez, David; Guzman Camacho, Benigno [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The large industrial centers that have continuous production processes and consume high amounts of electrical energy, generally have their own power generation. The petrochemical complexes, the paper and steel factories and the sugar mills are examples of this type of centers. On the other hand, the new regulation for the generation of electrical energy that allows to the electrical energy interchange between private companies and the public network, has originated the necessity of connecting systems that formerly operated isolated. Since the original design of the isolated electrical systems was to operate in an independent form, making the interconnection can generate technical problems that must be analyzed and solved. In this paper, some experiences related with the behavior of electrical equipment when connected to operate with the public network, are presented. [Spanish] Los grandes centros industriales que tienen procesos de produccion continua y consumen altas cantidades de energia electrica, generalmente cuentan con generacion propia. Los complejos petroquimicos, las fabricas de papel y acero y los ingenios azucareros son ejemplos de este tipo de centros. Por otro lado, la nueva reglamentacion de generacion de energia electrica que permite el intercambio de energia electrica entre las companias privadas y la red publica, ha originado la necesidad de conectar sistemas que antes operaban aislados. Debido a que el diseno original de los sistemas electricos aislados fue trabajar en forma independiente, el realizar la interconexion puede generar problemas tecnicos que tienen que analizarse y resolverse. En este articulo, se presentan algunas experiencias relacionadas con el comportamiento del equipo electrico al operar conectado con la red publica.

  5. Power quality. Analysis of the losses related to the tension and current distortion in the electric network; Calidad de la energia electrica. Analisis de las perdidas relacionadas con la distorsion de la tension y corriente de la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch Sitar, Vladimir [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Facultad de Ingenieria, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In recent times every day one speaks more about power quality and about the losses produced by the tension and current distortion. The distortion in the electric network and the consumption tend to keep on increasing, and each day there will be the need of applying more resources to handle it inside a reasonable range. In this article the situation of the power quality is analyzed in the most general case and also simplified for special cases. On base on the distortion coefficients of tension and current a matrix is created where the harmonics coefficients of tension as well as the current appear in an organized form an all of the elements of that matrix are analyzed. Some topological rules are created in order to give the simplest orientation in the complex situation. The article is useful to supervise the power quality in all of the typical cases and establish a base for a more detailed analysis. [Espanol] En los ultimos tiempos cada dia mas se esta hablando sobre la calidad de la energia electrica (Power Quality) y sobre las perdidas provocadas con este factor. La distorsion de la red electrica y del consumo tiene la tendencia de seguir aumentando y cada dia mas habra que dedicar mas recursos para manejarla dentro de un rango razonable. En el articulo presentado se analiza la situacion de la calidad de energia en caso mas general y tambien simplificada para los casos especiales. A base de coeficientes de distorsion, de tension y corriente se crea una Matriz donde figuran tanto los coeficientes de armonicas de tension como de corriente en una forma ordenada y se analizan todos los elementos de esta matriz. Se crean algunas reglas topologicas para dar la orientacion mas simple en la situacion compleja. El articulo sirve para dar supervision a la calidad de energia en todos los casos tipicos y establecer una base para el analisis mas detallado.

  6. Planning the expansion of electrical transmission networks with evolutionary programming; Planeacion de la expansion de redes de transmision electrica con programacion evolucionaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceciliano Meza, Jose Luis

    1997-12-31

    In this work it is presented for the first time in the literature the solution of the problem of the planning the expansion of an electrical transmission network (PERTE) with the use of the Evolutionary Programming. The evolutionary programming is a stochastic method of optimization with similar characteristics to the generic algorithms, but different. During the development of this work it is shown what each one of these two heuristic methods of optimization consist of. Additionally, the main characteristics of other two heuristic methods known in the literature are described (Tabu Searching and Simulated Annealing). These two methods together with the genetic algorithms and decomposition of Benders have also been used to solve the problem of planning PERTE. The operation of the proposed algorithm of evolutionary programming was tested in two networks of electrical transmission. The first case of test is a system which is known in the literature. The second case is a representative system of the electrical transmission network of Central America. The results obtained improve all the results shown when applying different heuristic methods of optimization (genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and Tabu searching) to solve the same problem. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez en la literatura, la solucion del problema de la planeacion de expansion de una red de transmision electrica (PERTE) con el uso de la Programacion Evolucionaria. La programacion evolucionaria es un metodo estocastico de optimizacion con caracteristicas similares a los algoritmos geneticos, pero diferente. Durante el desarrollo de este trabajo se muestra en que consiste cada uno de estos dos metodos heuristicos de optimizacion. Ademas, se describen las caracteristicas principales de otros dos metodos heuristicos conocidos en la literatura (busqueda Tabu y Recorrido Simulado). Estos dos metodos juntos con los algoritmos geneticos y descomposicion de Benders tambien han sido

  7. Electric grid in Spain: a private network of optical fiber with national coverage; Red electrica de Espana: una red privada de fibra optica con cobertura nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.

    1995-12-31

    Red Electrica constructed a grid with optical fiber in 1989 for the grids of 400-220 Kv. In 1995 the length of the grid will be of 6.600 Km. This grid supplies the telecommunication advanced services and contributes in the efficiency and quality of different tasks of Red Electrica.

  8. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of problems with known total densities. Pt. 2; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas con densidades totales conocidas. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mauricio F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part. Here are only considered the magnetic systems or electric systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density or total electric load density is known. The algorithms that have been implanted in the software CLIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are developed in order to obtain numerical solutions for these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained by means of the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte. Aqui solo se consideran sistemas magneticos o sistemas electricos en regiones cerradas con simetria translacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total o densidad de carga electrica total es conocida. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se han implantado en el programa de computo CLIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) con el fin de obtener soluciones numericas para estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  9. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of problems with known total densities. Pt. 2; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas con densidades totales conocidas. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mauricio F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part. Here are only considered the magnetic systems or electric systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density or total electric load density is known. The algorithms that have been implanted in the software CLIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are developed in order to obtain numerical solutions for these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained by means of the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte. Aqui solo se consideran sistemas magneticos o sistemas electricos en regiones cerradas con simetria translacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total o densidad de carga electrica total es conocida. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se han implantado en el programa de computo CLIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) con el fin de obtener soluciones numericas para estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  10. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas fluidized bed combustor; El combustor de lecho fluidizado del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milan Foressi, Julio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    After synthesizing the most important aspects of the combustion technology in fluidized bed, the experimental combustor developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is described, as well as the test results of the experiences carried out with coal from Rio Escondido, Coahuila. [Espanol] Tras sintetizar los aspectos mas importantes de la tecnologia de combustion en lecho fluidizado, se describe el combustor experimental desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), asi como los resultados de las experiencias realizadas con carbon proveniente de Rio Escondido, Coahuila.

  11. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas fluidized bed combustor; El combustor de lecho fluidizado del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milan Foressi, Julio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    After synthesizing the most important aspects of the combustion technology in fluidized bed, the experimental combustor developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is described, as well as the test results of the experiences carried out with coal from Rio Escondido, Coahuila. [Espanol] Tras sintetizar los aspectos mas importantes de la tecnologia de combustion en lecho fluidizado, se describe el combustor experimental desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), asi como los resultados de las experiencias realizadas con carbon proveniente de Rio Escondido, Coahuila.

  12. Estudio de criticidad del reactor MSBR con SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Criado Martín, Alejandro Fernando

    2011-01-01

    El presente proyecto final de carrera se enmarca en el convenio de colaboración entre el Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) y la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) para la realización de proyectos en el ámbito de la seguridad nuclear y la protección radiológica. El proyecto estudia la criticidad del reactor Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) mediante el código de simulación SCALE. El MSBR es un reactor de sales fundidas concebido y diseñado por ORNL, con una composic...

  13. Thorium converter (ThorCon) - a doable molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myneni, Ganapati

    2015-01-01

    ThorCon mass-producible nuclear power plants are being built to generate electricity cheaper than coal, at a scale to make a real improvement in world poverty and environment, now. ThorCon irradiated materials and fuel salt are designed to be replaced in four-year cycles with no impact on electricity generation. This flex-fuel plant and its replaceable reactor cans can operate with mixtures of thorium and uranium at multiple enrichments. Fuel salt can be NaF/BeF 2 or LiF/BeF 2 if available. ThorCon's design exceeds current nuclear power safety practice. The team calls for regulatory participation in rigorous testing of a full-scale prototype to develop licensing guidance

  14. Simulacion borrosa de un reactor con reaccion exotermica no lineal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIGUEL ANGEL RODRIGUEZ BORROTO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo difuso basado en la estructura Takagi-Sugeno-Kang dinámica para un reactor continuo de tanque con agitador (RCTA con reacción química de primer orden exotérmico. A partir de datos experimentales obtenidos mediante simulación del proceso real, se obtiene la base de datos de las variables de entrada y salida del proceso y a partir de la misma se elaboran los archivos de datos de entrenamiento y de verificación del modelo borroso el cual es obtenido mediante la herramienta anfis de MATLAB. El modelo obtenido permite predecir la salida del sistema con errores de predicción muy bajos, por lo que el mismo sienta las bases para el diseño de un controlador predictivo no lineal del mismo en próximas etapas de la investigación

  15. Analysis and design of a dish/Stirling system for solar electric generation with a 2.7 kW air-cooled engine; Analisis y diseno de un sistema de generacion electrica termosolar con concentrador de disco parabolico y motor Stirling de 2.7 kW enfriado por aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran-Chacon, R.; Velazquez-Limon, N. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mails: rbeltran1@uabc.edu.mx; nicolas.velazquez@uabc.edu.mx; Sauceda-Carvajal, D. [Universidad Politecnica de Baja California, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: dsaucedac@upbc.edu.mx

    2012-01-15

    This paper presents a mathematical modeling, simulation and design of a solar power system of a parabolic dish with an air-cooled Stirling engine of 2.7 kW. The model used for the solar concentrator, the cavity and the Stirling engine were successfully validated against experimental data. Based on a parametric study, the design of the components of the engine is carried out. The study shows that as system capacity increases, the overall efficiency is limited by the power required by the fan, since the design of the cooler needs greater amounts of heat removal by increasing the air flow without affecting the internal conditions of the process (mass flow of working gas and internal dimensions of the same). The system was optimized and achieves an overall efficiency of solar to electric energy conversion of 26.7%. This study shows that the use of an air-cooled Stirling engine is potentially attractive for power generation at low capacities. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta un modelado matematico, la simulacion y diseno de un sistema de generacion electrica termosolar de disco parabolico con motor Stirling de 2.7 kW enfriado directamente por aire. El modelo utilizado para el concentrador, la cavidad y el motor Stirling, fueron validados satisfactoriamente con datos experimentales. Con base en un estudio parametrico se realizo el dimensionamiento de los componentes del motor. El estudio realizado muestra que conforme se incrementa la capacidad del sistema, la eficiencia global se ve limitada por la potencia requerida por el ventilador, dado que el diseno del enfriador necesita retirar mayores cantidades de calor aumentando el flujo de aire, sin afectar las condiciones internas del proceso (flujo masico del gas de trabajo y dimensiones internas del mismo). El sistema fue optimizado obteniendo una eficiencia global de conversion de energia solar a electrica de 26.7%. Este estudio muestra que el uso de un motor Stirling enfriado directamente por aire es potencialmente

  16. An internally illuminated monolith reactor: Pros and cons relative to a slurry reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, Joana T.; Carneiro, J.T.; Berger, Rob; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, kinetic models for the photo-oxidation of cyclohexane in two different photoreactor systems are discussed: a top illumination reactor (TIR) representative of a slurry reactor, and the so-called internally illuminated monolith reactor (IIMR) representing a reactor containing

  17. Specification for the interconnection to a electric network of low tension of photovoltaic systems with 30 kW of capacity; Especificacion para la interconexion a la red electrica de baja tension de sistemas fotovoltaicos con capacidad hasta 30kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Jose [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    In this presentation, there are shown the details of the photovoltaic systems interconnected with the electric network (SFVI), carried out by the Mexico's Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) with the support of the Mexican Electric Research Institute (IIE). First of all, there are found the objectives of the photovoltaic system interconnected to the electric network (SFVI). Then, there are mentioned the places where such sort of systems could be installed; besides, it is shown a diagram explaining the process of such systems. At the same time, there are briefly explained the components that are necessaries for their properly operation. Some of the elements previously mentioned are: photovoltaic generator (GFV), inverter, interface, and logic circuits and the control. It is shown a diagram with the location of the electrical disconnect switches. Then, it is shortly explained the place where the SFVI should be connected and there are given some requisites that are important to fulfill in order to have everything updated. Finally, it is mentioned the methodology that should be followed in order to supervise that everything works in a properly way, this last issue is carried out by CFE. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se presentan los pormenores del sistema fotovoltaico interconectado a la red (SFVI), realizado por la Comision federal de Electricidad (CFE) con apoyo del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). En primer lugar, se encuentran los objetivos que tiene el uso de SFVI. Enseguida, se muestra un diagrama que explica el proceso que dichos sistemas realizan. Asimismo, se explican brevemente los elementos que, de uno u otro modo, son necesarios para el adecuado funcionamiento del SFV. Ademas, se muestra un diagrama con la ubicacion de los interruptores de desconexion. Luego, se explica escuetamente el lugar donde se debe de conectar el SFVI, ademas de algunas condiciones que se deben de cumplir para que no haya mayores contratiempos. Finalmente, se

  18. Reproduction of the PSBR reactor with Exterminator-2; Reproduccion del reactor PSBR con exterminador-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1983-08-15

    To reproduce the reactor PSBR reported in (1), with the available version of the Exterminator-II in the ININ, they took the dimensions, composition specifications, effective sections of the different compositions (excepting those of the central thimble and of the moderator), the K{sub eff} and the factors of power (FP) for the different burners. Based on the comparison of the K{sub eff} and of the FP obtained with those reported the precision it is determined before in the reproduction of the reactor mentioned. (Author)

  19. Gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration; Turbina de gas reactor modular con helio en cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon de los Santos, G. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: tesgleon@gmail.com

    2009-10-15

    This work carries out the thermal evaluation from the conversion of nuclear energy to electric power and process heat, through to implement an outline gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration. Modeling and simulating with software Thermo flex of Thermo flow the performance parameters, based on a nuclear power plant constituted by an helium cooled reactor and helium gas turbine with three compression stages, two of inter cooling and one regeneration stage; more four heat recovery process, generating two pressure levels of overheat vapor, a pressure level of saturated vapor and one of hot water, with energetic characteristics to be able to give supply to a very wide gamma of industrial processes. Obtaining a relationship heat electricity of 0.52 and efficiency of net cogeneration of 54.28%, 70.2 MW net electric, 36.6 MW net thermal with 35% of condensed return to 30 C; for a supplied power by reactor of 196.7 MW; and with conditions in advanced gas turbine of 850 C and 7.06 Mpa, assembly in a shaft, inter cooling and heat recovery in cogeneration. (Author)

  20. Synthesis of colloidal metal nanocrystals in droplet reactors: the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan

    2014-07-09

    Droplet reactors have received considerable attention in recent years as an alternative route to the synthesis and potentially high-volume production of colloidal metal nanocrystals. Interfacial adsorption will immediately become an important issue to address when one seeks to translate a nanocrystal synthesis from batch reactors to droplet reactors due to the involvement of higher surface-to-volume ratios for the droplets and the fact that nanocrystals tend to be concentrated at the water-oil interface. Here we report a systematic study to compare the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption of metal nanocrystals during their synthesis in droplet reactors. On the one hand, interfacial adsorption can be used to generate nanocrystals with asymmetric shapes or structures, including one-sixth-truncated Ag octahedra and Au-Ag nanocups. On the other hand, interfacial adsorption has to be mitigated to obtain nanocrystals with uniform sizes and controlled shapes. We confirmed that Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, could effectively alleviate interfacial adsorption while imposing no impact on the capping agent typically needed for a shape-controlled synthesis. With the introduction of a proper surfactant, droplet reactors offer an attractive platform for the continuous production of colloidal metal nanocrystals.

  1. The photovoltaic generators and the electric network; Los generadores fotovoltaicos y la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga Novoa, Oscar E.; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The photovoltaic generators are analyzed as an option for the electricity supply. An analysis is made of the option that these systems be utilized in sites where it is difficult to extend the power lines an in sites where the electric service already exists, such as residences, commercial buildings, network support power stations, central power stations, all this in order that the photovoltaic systems interact with the electric network for the generation of part of the energy consumed in these sites. In order that the photovoltaic systems can be interconnected with the electric network it is required: energy quality, protection and safety of the systems and persons and normativity for the interconnection. Some of the national programs of countries like Japan, United States of America and some organs of the Commission of the European Community are described. In conclusion, it is expected that the costs of this technology decrease so these systems can be widely utilized [Espanol] Se analizan los generadores fotovoltaicos como una alternativa para el suministro electrico. Se analiza la opcion de que estos sistemas se utilicen en lugares en donde es dificil extender la red electrica y en sitios en donde el servicio electrico ya existe, tales como: residencias, edificios comerciales, estaciones de apoyo a la red, estaciones centrales, esto con la finalidad de que el sistema fotovoltaico interactue con la red electrica a fin de generar parte de la energia que se consume en estos sitios. Para que los sistemas fotovoltaicos puedan estar interconectados con la red electrica se requiere: calidad de la energia, proteccion y seguridad de los sistemas y personas, y normatividad para la interconexion. Se describen algunos programas nacionales de paises como Japon, Estados Unidos y algunos organismos de la Comision de Comunidades Europeas. En conclusion, se espera que los costos de esta tecnologia disminuyan para que estos sistemas puedan ser ampliamante utilizados

  2. The photovoltaic generators and the electric network; Los generadores fotovoltaicos y la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga Novoa, Oscar E; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The photovoltaic generators are analyzed as an option for the electricity supply. An analysis is made of the option that these systems be utilized in sites where it is difficult to extend the power lines an in sites where the electric service already exists, such as residences, commercial buildings, network support power stations, central power stations, all this in order that the photovoltaic systems interact with the electric network for the generation of part of the energy consumed in these sites. In order that the photovoltaic systems can be interconnected with the electric network it is required: energy quality, protection and safety of the systems and persons and normativity for the interconnection. Some of the national programs of countries like Japan, United States of America and some organs of the Commission of the European Community are described. In conclusion, it is expected that the costs of this technology decrease so these systems can be widely utilized [Espanol] Se analizan los generadores fotovoltaicos como una alternativa para el suministro electrico. Se analiza la opcion de que estos sistemas se utilicen en lugares en donde es dificil extender la red electrica y en sitios en donde el servicio electrico ya existe, tales como: residencias, edificios comerciales, estaciones de apoyo a la red, estaciones centrales, esto con la finalidad de que el sistema fotovoltaico interactue con la red electrica a fin de generar parte de la energia que se consume en estos sitios. Para que los sistemas fotovoltaicos puedan estar interconectados con la red electrica se requiere: calidad de la energia, proteccion y seguridad de los sistemas y personas, y normatividad para la interconexion. Se describen algunos programas nacionales de paises como Japon, Estados Unidos y algunos organismos de la Comision de Comunidades Europeas. En conclusion, se espera que los costos de esta tecnologia disminuyan para que estos sistemas puedan ser ampliamante utilizados

  3. The rebranding of Electrica Soluziona SA - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica GOMOESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to present the design and implementation stages of a rebranding campaign that took place in the Electrica Soluziona SA company. The rebranding targets a company that provides consultancy services and software solutions and that underwent a change of its main shareholders structure, as it was taken over by Indra Group. After being taken over by Indra, Electrica Soluziona has considerably enlarged its product portfolio and the market segments targeted. Thus, it was mandatory to define a complex rebranding campaign. The rebranding process was not determined only by the broadening of activity, but also by the change of visual identity elements, along with the desire of repositioning.

  4. Análisis de estabilidad del reactor PFTR para una reacción con cinética de primer orden utilizando la funcional de Lyapunov

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Armando Durán Peralta; Luis Fernando Córdoba C

    2007-01-01

    Abunda la literatura referente al análisis de estabilidad de reactores con parámetros globalizados de concentración y temperatura (por ejemplo el CSTR), en cambio es escasa la literatura sobre la estabilidad de reactores con parámetros distribuidos donde existe distribución espacial de concentración y temperatura, como es el caso del reactor tubular PFTR. Este documento analiza la estabilidad del reactor PFTR isotérmico y no isotérmico para una reacción con cinética de primer orden utilizando...

  5. Análisis de estabilidad del reactor pftr para una reacción con cinética de primer orden utilizando la funcional de lyapunov

    OpenAIRE

    Durán Peralta, Héctor Armando; Córdoba C, Luis Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Abunda la literatura referente al análisis de estabilidad de reactores con parámetros globalizados de concentración y temperatura (por ejemplo el CSTR), en cambio es escasa la literatura sobre la estabilidad de reactores con parámetros distribuidos donde existe distribución espacial de concentración y temperatura, como es el caso del reactor tubular PFTR. Este documento analiza la estabilidad del reactor PFTR isotérmico y no isotérmico para una reacción con cinética de primer orden utilizand...

  6. Calculation of electromagnetic field in electric machines through the finite element: Electromagnetic modeling; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito: Modelacion electromagnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    In this article are presented the general characteristics of the electromagnetic phenomena that can be described by means of the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) derived from a modeling based in the magnetic and electric potentials, always using the MKS rationalized units system. Closed regions are considered with axial or moving symmetry to incorporate the bi-dimensional behavior of the electromagnetic fields. The possibility of means with movement is also included. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas generales de los fenomenos electromagneticos que pueden describirse mediante el programa de computo CALIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), que provienen de una modelacion basada en los potenciales magnetico y electrico, en esta se utiliza sistema MKS racionalizado de unidades. Se consideran regiones cerradas con simetria axial o traslacional para incorporar el comportamiento bidimensional de los campos electromagneticos, se incluye tambien la posibilidad de medios con movimiento.

  7. Calculation of electromagnetic field in electric machines through the finite element: Electromagnetic modeling; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito: Modelacion electromagnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In this article are presented the general characteristics of the electromagnetic phenomena that can be described by means of the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) derived from a modeling based in the magnetic and electric potentials, always using the MKS rationalized units system. Closed regions are considered with axial or moving symmetry to incorporate the bi-dimensional behavior of the electromagnetic fields. The possibility of means with movement is also included. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas generales de los fenomenos electromagneticos que pueden describirse mediante el programa de computo CALIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), que provienen de una modelacion basada en los potenciales magnetico y electrico, en esta se utiliza sistema MKS racionalizado de unidades. Se consideran regiones cerradas con simetria axial o traslacional para incorporar el comportamiento bidimensional de los campos electromagneticos, se incluye tambien la posibilidad de medios con movimiento.

  8. Seismic damage in the electrical substations of the Colima state; Dano sismico en las subestaciones electricas del estado de Colima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mena H, Ulises; Lopez L, Alberto; Guerrero F, Vicente A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    On the 21 of January of 2003, at 20:06:36 hrs (Mexico center time) an earthquake occurred at the Pacific coast with a magnitude of 7.6 degrees in the Richter scale, whose epicenter was located near the state of Colima and it was felt in a large extent of the Mexican Republic. The earthquake caused numerous material damages in the structures (houses, churches, offices, etc) and vital lines, mainly in the infrastructure of the electrical sector of the region, leaving without electrical energy a large part of the nearby populations and some colonies of distant zones such as in Mexico City. The cause of the interruption of the electrical energy was due to the collapse of some of the equipment of 400 and 230 KV of the electrical transmission substations, among which are Manzanillo II and Colima II. With the experience acquired in the earthquake of October 9, 1995 in Manzanillo, in which also the facilities and equipment of the electrical substations were affected considerably, and as a part of the infrastructure project on the analysis of seismic risk of vital lines that is being developed at this moment at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), it was decided to inspect the electrical substations of the zone, where the greater damages in the facilities and equipment were reported, to analyze and to determine the main causes of their failure. [Spanish] El 21 de enero de 2003, a las 20:06:36 hrs (hora del centro de Mexico) ocurrio un sismo en la costa del Pacifico con una magnitud de 7.6 grados en escala Richter, cuyo epicentro se localizo cerca del estado de Colima y se percibio en gran parte de la republica mexicana. El sismo causo cuantiosos danos materiales en las estructuras (viviendas, iglesias, oficinas, etc) y lineas vitales, principalmente en la infraestructura del sector electrico de la region, dejando sin energia electrica a gran parte de las poblaciones cercanas y algunas colonias de zonas lejanas como es la ciudad de Mexico. La causa del corte de

  9. The electric energy and the environment in Mexico. Volume 3; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico. Volumen 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    y medio ambiente en Mexico. Este tercer volumen aborda los siguientes temas: Hidroelectricidad, uso del suelo y manejo del agua; la generacion electrica en Mexico y sus impactos ambientales; la nucleoelectricidad y el manejo de materiales radioactivos; exposicion a campos electromagneticos y su asociacion con leucemia en ninos; la energia en Mexico y el desarrollo sustentable; potencial de generacion electrica en gran escala con energia eolica en Mexico; hacia un esquema de generacion electrica distribuida con energias no convencionales y fuentes renovables de energia en Mexico en el siglo 21. Estos documentos fueron realizados por estudiosos del sector electrico, tanto del sector mismo como de entidades academicas, publicas y privadas

  10. Compatibility of sodium with ceramic oxides employed in nuclear reactors; Compatibilidad del sodio con oxidos ceramicos utilizados en reactores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acena Moreno, V

    1981-07-01

    This work is a review of experiments carried out up to the present time on the corrosion and compatibility of ceramic oxides with liquid sodium at temperatures corresponding to those in fast breeder reactors. The review also includes the results of a thermo-dynamic/liquid sodium reactions. The exercise has been conducted with a view to effecting experimental studies in the future. (Author)

  11. INFRAESTRUCTURA DE COMUNICACIONES EN MICRORREDES ELECTRICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Eduardo Gaona García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra un estudio de la actualidad técnica y tecnológica de la infraestructura de comunicaciones utilizadas en  microrredes eléctricas, en este sentido ha surgido la necesidad de investigar, analizar, mejorar y desarrollar métodos de comunicación tanto alámbricos como inalámbricos que permitan crear una infraestructura de comunicaciones que soporte las características de control, supervisión y trasmisión de información entre dispositivos de control en una microrred de forma eficiente, segura y confiable.Dadas estas características en el artículo se analizan  las diferentes arquitecturas y topologías propuestas entorno a comunicaciones en el ambiente Smart Grid que se puedan adaptar a la forma en que opera una microrred. Se muestran las propuestas  y desarrollos realizados en el  área de telecomunicaciones concerniente a protocolos de comunicaciones utilizados en microrredes eléctricas, con el fin de conocer las tecnologías, protocolos y algoritmos utilizados en la transmisión de datos.

  12. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    this is a system of the non-invasive type, it does not interfere with the operation of the electrical circuits. [Spanish] Las companias de electricidad de todo el mundo sufren, en mayor o menor grado, de perdidas de energia electrica. Un gran porcentaje de estas perdidas se debe, principalmente, a apropiaciones indebidas de energia. Los consumidores, mediante practicas ilicitas como tomas clandestinas y alteracion del funcionamiento de los medidores, llevan a cabo el robo de energia. Para tratar de aliviar la problematica de perdidas de energia electrica, en su mayoria por ilicitos, las companias de electricidad han implementado una o mas acciones. Entre las mas importantes estan: Inspeccion visual de las instalaciones de medicion. Su proposito es verificar el estado de las protecciones tradicionales del medidor, como son sellos y anillos de seguridad. Equipos de deteccion. Son registradores de consumo de energia y de fallas en conductores, se utilizan para detectar desviaciones en los patrones de consumo y derivaciones o conexiones ilicitas a la acometida de energia electrica o a la red secundaria de distribucion. Analisis estadistico de consumos. Muchas companias de electricidad han adaptado sus sistemas de procesamiento de lecturas de consumos para detectar desviaciones en los patrones de consumo de los clientes. Esto pudiera corresponder a situaciones anormales. Dado que este pais no es ajeno a la problematica de perdidas de energia, en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas se desarrollo un Sistema de Medicion y Deteccion de Perdidas de Energia Electrica (SIM-IV) como resultado del conocimiento de la problematica obtenido de los proyectos en el area de medicion y de la interaccion a traves de reuniones de trabajo con personal de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y de Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), en el que se aplicaron conceptos y tecnologia avanzada de medicion de variables electricas. El SIM-IV es un sistema orientado a la medicion de consumos y la

  13. Sun, wind and electric generation; Sol, viento y generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    A description is made of the electric generation known as the photovoltaic-wind power hybrid systems at the generation station of X-Calak which is located in the zone known as Punta Herrero-X-Calak Corridor, in the Southern coast of the Quintana Roo State. This is a technology in development, in which the solar and the wind energy are combined, to offer an alternative of electric generation that can be economical, reliable and of low impact on the environment. Mention is made of the experiences gathered in this station as well as the results obtained [Espanol] Se describe la tecnologia de generacion electrica conocida como sistemas hibridos fotovoltaico-eolico en la planta generadora de X-Calak, la cual esta localizada en la zona conocida como el corredor Punta Herrero-X-Calak, en la costa sur del estado de Quintana Roo. Esta es una tecnologia en desarrollo, en donde se combina la energia solar y energia eolica, para ofrecer una alternativa de generacion electrica que pretende ser economica, confiable y de bajo impacto sobre el medio ambiente. Se mencionan las experiencias obtenidas en esta planta asi como los resultados obtenidos

  14. Sun, wind and electric generation; Sol, viento y generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    A description is made of the electric generation known as the photovoltaic-wind power hybrid systems at the generation station of X-Calak which is located in the zone known as Punta Herrero-X-Calak Corridor, in the Southern coast of the Quintana Roo State. This is a technology in development, in which the solar and the wind energy are combined, to offer an alternative of electric generation that can be economical, reliable and of low impact on the environment. Mention is made of the experiences gathered in this station as well as the results obtained [Espanol] Se describe la tecnologia de generacion electrica conocida como sistemas hibridos fotovoltaico-eolico en la planta generadora de X-Calak, la cual esta localizada en la zona conocida como el corredor Punta Herrero-X-Calak, en la costa sur del estado de Quintana Roo. Esta es una tecnologia en desarrollo, en donde se combina la energia solar y energia eolica, para ofrecer una alternativa de generacion electrica que pretende ser economica, confiable y de bajo impacto sobre el medio ambiente. Se mencionan las experiencias obtenidas en esta planta asi como los resultados obtenidos

  15. Análisis de estabilidad del reactor PFTR para una reacción con cinética de primer orden utilizando la funcional de Lyapunov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Armando Durán Peralta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abunda la literatura referente al análisis de estabilidad de reactores con parámetros globalizados de concentración y temperatura (por ejemplo el CSTR, en cambio es escasa la literatura sobre la estabilidad de reactores con parámetros distribuidos donde existe distribución espacial de concentración y temperatura, como es el caso del reactor tubular PFTR. Este documento analiza la estabilidad del reactor PFTR isotérmico y no isotérmico para una reacción con cinética de primer orden utilizando la funcional de Lyapunov. Se trabaja con una cinética de primer orden pues un objetivo de este artículo es mostrar cómo se aplica la funcional de Lyapunov al análisis de un reactor de parámetros distribuidos, dado que es casi inexistente la literatura sobre el método de la funcional de Lyapunov aplicada a la estabilidad de reactores (técnica usada en el análisis de estabilidad de sistemas en ingeniería eléctrica. El análisis de estabilidad dio como resultado perfiles de temperatura y concentración asintóticamente estables para los casos PFTR isotérmico, no isotérmico con constante cinética independiente de la temperatura y PFTR no isotérmico adiabático. Para el PFTR con retiro de calor el análisis condujo a una región de estabilidad asintótica y a una región incierta donde puede o no haber oscilaciones.

  16. Simulación con el código MCNP del reactor nuclear RP-10 en su configuración #14, BOC

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro, Gerardo; Parreño, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Se presenta los resultados de exceso de reactividad del núcleo del reactor RP-10 en su configuración 14. Este exceso de reactividad ha sido calculado con MCNP4B con un modelo que describe en detalle las características de los elementos combustibles normales y de control, así como de cada elemento que constituye la configuración de trabajo #14. Este modelo fue previamente utilizado en el reactor RP-0 y ha sido aplicado en la configuración de arranque para el cálculo del exceso de reactividad y...

  17. Operating Experience with the BR-5 Reactor; Experience acquise aupres du reacteur BR-5; Opyt ehkspluatatsii reaktora BR-5; Experiencia practica con el reactor BR-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejpunskij, A. I.; Kazachkovskij, O. D.; Pinkhasik, M. S.; Aristarkhov, N. N.; Karpov, A. V.; Larin, E. P.; Efimov, I. A.

    1963-10-15

    The paper discusses the carrying-out of repair and maintenance work on the radioactive liquid-metal circuit of the BR-5 fast neutron reactor. Attention is also given to problems of reactor operation after achievement of the planned 2% fuel burn-up with some disturbance of leak-tightness in individual fuel elements. An account is given of experience in discharging the active section, examining the condition and leak-tightness of the fuel elements, and decontaminating the equipment and piping of the first radioactive circuit after reaching 5% fuel burn-up. (author) [French] Dans ce memoire les auteurs decrivent l'execution des reparations et des travaux d'entretien dans le circuit radioactif liquide-metal du reacteur a neutrons rapides BR-5. Ils etudient egalement les problemes lies au fonctionnement du reacteur au taux de combustion de 2% prevu avec quelques defauts d'etancheite dans des elements combustibles particuliers. Ils decrivent le dechargementen zone active et examinent les conditions d'etancheite des elements combustibles. Ainsi que la decontamination de l'appareillage et des tuyauteries du premier circuit radioactif apres avoir atteint un taux de combustion de 5%. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se examinan los problemas planteados por el mantenimiento del circuito radiactivo de metal liquido del reactor de neutrones rapidos BR-5. Se tratan cuestiones relacionadas con la explotacion del reactor una vez alcanzado el grado de combustion de 2%, previsto en el proyecto y luego de producirse ciertas alteraciones de la densidad de determinados elementos combustibles. Se describen la experiencia adquirida durante la descarga del cuerpo del reactor, las investigaciones del estado general y de la hermeticidad de los elementos combustibles y las operaciones de descontaminacion de la instalacion y de las tuberias del circuito radiactivo primario despues de alcanzado un grado de combustion de 5%. (author) [Russian] V doklade rassmatrivayutsya voprosy proizvodstva

  18. System for the design of electrical distribution substations; Sistema para el diseno de subestaciones electricas de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas Perez, Benjamin Eddie; Islas Perez, Eduardo; Bahena Rada, Jessica Liliana; Romero Lima, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sierra Rodriguez, Benjamin; Moreno Diaz, Humberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    llevan a cabo en las Divisiones de Distribucion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en dos procesos por separado: elaboracion de planos de ingenieria con software para diseno asistido por computadora (CAD, Computer-Aided Design) y calculo de la volumetria para la elaboracion del presupuesto base, con hojas de calculo convencionales. Los documentos se elaboran manualmente y de forma individual, sin existir alguna funcionalidad que permita actualizar automaticamente las modificaciones del diseno en todos los planos, y el correspondiente presupuesto base, resultando un proceso tardado, laborioso y factible de inconsistencia entre los documentos. Con la finalidad de optimizar el proceso de diseno de la obra civil y electromecanica de subestaciones electricas (SE) en un ambiente grafico tridimensional (3D), la Gerencia de Supervision de Proceso del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), en coordinacion con la Subdireccion de Distribucion de la CFE, desarrollo el Sistema para el Diseno de Subestaciones Electricas de Distribucion (DiDSED), el cual aprovecha las ventajas de la tecnologia CAD3D para el desarrollo de la ingenieria de detalle, ingenieria de costos para el calculo del presupuesto base y realidad virtual para navegacion tridimensional interactiva. Cabe destacar que actualmente, este sistema se encuentra en la etapa de implantacion en la Subdireccion de Distribucion de la CFE. En este articulo se describen brevemente las etapas principales del desarrollo del proyecto, asi como la funcionalidad y los componentes principales del sistema.

  19. Efficient use of electric power in corporative 3M Mexico; Uso eficiente de la energia electrica en el corporativo 3M Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Perez, Alfredo; Quinones Bonilla, Antonio S. [3M Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico); Bustos Antunez, Jorge I; Reyes Arce, Manuel [Hines Interests, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    It is not enough to count on with the state of the art technology for the daily operation of a building, the challenge is to be able to make a clear analysis and with attainable goals for the optimization of rational use of the electrical energy in the operation of intelligent buildings without affecting the comfort and productivity for users as well as the functionality and profitability for the owner. This went our base to carry out control strategies that helped the efficient use of the electrical energy, obtaining important savings without neglecting the operative part, of services and human within the property. It is thus, that 3M Mexico wanting to reach these purposes, conducted actions to improve the efficiency of the equipment in the following items: electric network, general lighting, air conditioning system, ventilation and extraction, hydropneumatic system, and sumps operation. [Spanish] No basta contar con la tecnologia de punta para la operacion diaria de un edificio, el reto es ser capaces de realizar un analisis claro y con metas alcanzables para la optimizacion de uso racional de la energia electrica en las operaciones de edificios inteligentes sin afectar el confort y productividad para usuarios asi como la funcionalidad y rentabilidad para el propietario. Esta fue nuestra base para llevar a cabo estrategias de control que ayudaron al uso eficiente de la energia electrica, obteniendo ahorros importantes sin descuidar la parte operativa, de servicios y humana dentro de la propiedad. Es asi, que 3M Mexico queriendo alcanzar dichos propositos, realizo acciones para mejorar la eficiencia de los equipos en los siguientes rubros: red electrica, iluminacion general, sistema de aire acondicionado, ventilacion y extraccion, sistema hidroneumatico, y operacion de carcamos.

  20. Power Reactor Design at Zero Power; Etudes de Reacteurs de Puissance, au Moyen de Machines de Puissance Zero; Konstruktsiya ehnergeticheskogo reaktora nulevoj moshchnosti; Diseno de Reactores Generadores con Ayuda de Reactores de Potencia Nula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redman, W. C.; Plumlee, K. E.; Baird, Q. L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1964-02-15

    choisi soit des montages exponentiels, soit des assemblages critiques non empoisonnes, soit des maquettes de puissance nulle, soit des experiences in situ pour obtenir les donnees necessaires, et indiquent quel role ont joue les travaux analytique' complementaires. Ils montrent, par des exemples precis, dans quelle mesure on peut obtenir des donnees sur la physique d'un reacteur avant son fonctionnement en puissance. Ces donnees comprennent la marge d'arret, l'excedent de reactivite pour les besoins de l'exploitation, les coefficients de temperature, l'efficacite des barres de reglage et de securite, la cinetique du reacteur, le regime de la production d'energie, les conditions a remplir en ce qui concerne la source pour le demarrage et la sensibilite des appareils, les besoins en matiere de protection et l'economie des neutrons. Cet expose des experiences faites recemment a la puissance zero montre que par le passe le Laboratoire national d'Argonne s'est largement fonde sur les systemes exponentiels et critiques pour mener a bien ses travaux dans le domaine des etudes de reacteurs. Les auteurs donnent une indication sur le role futur de ces systemes en resumant brievement les programmes de travaux, en cours d'execution ou en projet, au moyen des reacteurs de puissance zero qui existent actuellement a Argonne et de ceux que le Laboratoire se propose de construire. (author) [Spanish] Con el reactor de potencia nula de Argonne se han investigado los diseflos de numerosos reactores de investigacidn, de potencia, de propulsion, de produccion, de isotopos y de ensayo de materiales, habiendose obtenido los datos de caracter fundamental correspondientes en los conjuntos asociados-exponenciales y criticos sin envenenamiento. Con el fin de describir los experimentos mas recientes y demostrar el gran nuemero de datos sobre fisica de reactores que pueden obtenerse en sistemas de flujo debil, los autores exponen los siguientes programas experimentales: 1. Estudio de las propiedades

  1. Strategies to optimize the electric energy use in non-residential buildings; Estrategias para eficientizar el uso de la energia electrica en edificios no residenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Flores, J.; Morillon Galvez, D. [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the problems identified in non-residential buildings, where the inadequate use of energy is mainly shown in three points: inadequate technology and maintenance, wrong use and wrong habits in the energy use. The consequences of this situation in the ecological, politic and social environment were analyzed. In base of the problems detected the following strategies are proposed: An adequate project and design, retrofit, maintenance and users awareness for the rational energy use. The economic evaluation performed for the implementation of these strategies shows a significant saving potential of the electric power, with measures of null and low investment. [Espanol] Se presenta la problematica identificada en edificios no residenciales; donde el uso inadecuado de la energia electrica se manifiesta principalmente en tres puntos: tecnologia y mantenimiento inadecuados, y mal uso y costumbres de la energia. Se analizo las consecuencias de esta situacion en el ambito ecologico, economico, politico y social. Con base a la problematica se proponen las siguientes estrategias: un adecuado proyecto y diseno, retrofit, mantenimiento y concientizacion del usuario para el uso racional de la energia. La evaluacion economica realizada para implantar estas estrategias muestra un significativo potencial de ahorro de energia electrica, con medidas de nula y baja inversion.

  2. Strategies to optimize the electric energy use in non-residential buildings; Estrategias para eficientizar el uso de la energia electrica en edificios no residenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Flores, J; Morillon Galvez, D [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the problems identified in non-residential buildings, where the inadequate use of energy is mainly shown in three points: inadequate technology and maintenance, wrong use and wrong habits in the energy use. The consequences of this situation in the ecological, politic and social environment were analyzed. In base of the problems detected the following strategies are proposed: An adequate project and design, retrofit, maintenance and users awareness for the rational energy use. The economic evaluation performed for the implementation of these strategies shows a significant saving potential of the electric power, with measures of null and low investment. [Espanol] Se presenta la problematica identificada en edificios no residenciales; donde el uso inadecuado de la energia electrica se manifiesta principalmente en tres puntos: tecnologia y mantenimiento inadecuados, y mal uso y costumbres de la energia. Se analizo las consecuencias de esta situacion en el ambito ecologico, economico, politico y social. Con base a la problematica se proponen las siguientes estrategias: un adecuado proyecto y diseno, retrofit, mantenimiento y concientizacion del usuario para el uso racional de la energia. La evaluacion economica realizada para implantar estas estrategias muestra un significativo potencial de ahorro de energia electrica, con medidas de nula y baja inversion.

  3. The electric energy in Mexico and the sustainable development; La energia electrica en Mexico y el desarrollo sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Aragon, Leticia [Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document explains the importance of the sustainable development in the electric energy, that is, that the technological advances in the electric sector do no hamper the future of the generations to come and generate potential problems such as: environmental pollution, unnecessary expenses in the realization of new technologies already executed. Mention is made of the relationship between nature and society, the ecological crisis, and the electric energy, seven points are given on how to control and treat waste waters, three points are given to handle and dispose of solid wastes, finally four points are given on the noise contamination control. It is concluded that the problem of reducing the environmental impact of the generation of electricity does not depend on the applied technology, since there are technological options for its solution, but on other more complex factors that deal with the generation of wealth, its distribution and the population growing [Espanol] En el presente documento se explica la importancia del desarrollo sustentable en la energia electrica, es decir que los avances tecnologicos en el sector energetico no entorpezcan el futuro de las generaciones venideras y generen posibles problemas como: contaminacion del medio ambiente, gastos innecesarios en la realizacion de las nuevas tecnologias realizadas. Se menciona la relacion entre la naturaleza y la sociedad, la crisis ecologica y la energia electrica, se dan siete puntos de como controlar y tratar aguas residuales, se proporcionan tres puntos para manejar y disponer de residuos solidos, por ultimo se dan cuatro puntos sobre el control de la contaminacion por ruido. Se concluye en que el problema de reducir el impacto ambiental por la generacion de electricidad no depende de la tecnologia empleada pues existen alternativas tecnologicas para su solucion, sino en otros aun mas complejos que tienen que ver con la generacion de la riqueza, su distribucion y el crecimiento de la poblacion

  4. Experimental evaluation of the consumption of electrical energy of domestic refrigerators in Mexico; Evaluacion experimental del consumo de energia electrica de refrigeradores domesticos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo Cabanas, Fernando Gabriel [Programa de Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ambriz Garcia, Juan Jose; Paredes Rubio, Hernando Romero [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    In this work the experimental methodology developed to carry out tests of the electrical energy of refrigerators consumption as norm NOM-015-ENER-2002 is described. The tests were made in the Laboratory of Controlled Environment of the Iztapalapa Unit of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana to a sample of old domestic refrigerators in operation. The results found show that the consumption of electrical energy of refrigerators of more than 10 years of age can be higher than 60% of what a modern refrigerator of high efficiency would consume, or 30% higher if the refrigerator was made between 1997 and 2002. With these results it is sustained, in a more complete way, the evaluation of the saving potential of the national electrical energy by the substitution of old domestic refrigerators by modern, as reported in a previous work. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe la metodologia experimental desarrollada para efectuar pruebas del consumo de energia electrica a refrigeradores conforme la norma NOM-015-ENER-2002. Las pruebas se realizaron en el Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado de la Unidad Iztapalapa de la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana a una muestra de refrigeradores domesticos antiguos en operacion. Los resultados encontrados muestran que el consumo de energia electrica de refrigeradores de mas de 10 anos de antig�edad puede superior al 60% de lo que consumiria un refrigerador moderno de alta eficiencia, o superior en un 30% si el refrigerador fue fabricado entre 1997 y 2002. Con estos resultados se sustenta de manera mas completa la evaluacion del potencial de ahorro de energia electrica nacional por substitucion de refrigeradores domesticos antiguos por modernos reportado en un trabajo anterior.

  5. Demand curves of electric energy in domestic sector in two regions of Mexico; Curvas de demanda de energia electrica en sector domestico de dos regiones de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto; Sanchez Viveros, Luis Agustin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, is presented the analysis of residential consumption, regarding the temperature of two areas and types of electrical appliances. A shape characteristic of the load of the electrical energy is obtained for two geographical areas in Mexico. The consumption information was obtained from measurements in residential consumers and from the Mexican Utility. It is also shown the demand profile of the main residential appliances, obtained from smart metering equipment to separate the residential users' load profiles. It is shown the effect of the different variables analyzed on the electrical power consumption, mainly the type of equipment, the geographical localization, the weather (temperature, humidity and vegetation type). With the results attained, the definition of effective energy-saving programs and its effectiveness can be obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el analisis del consumo residencial considerando la temperatura de las dos areas y tipos de aparatos electricos. Se obtiene una forma caracteristica de la carga de energia electrica de dos areas geograficas de Mexico. La informacion sobre el consumo se obtuvo de mediciones en consumidores residenciales y de una empresa electrica mexicana. Tambien se muestra el perfil de demanda de los principales aparatos residenciales, derivado de equipos de medicion inteligentes para separar los perfiles de carga de usuarios residenciales. Se muestra el efecto de diferentes variables analizadas en el consumo de energia electrica, principalmente el tipo de equipo, la localizacion geografica, el clima (temperatura, humedad y tipo de vegetacion). Con los resultados alcanzados pueden definirse programas de ahorro de energia efectivos y lograr implantarlos.

  6. Methodology for evaluating the grounding system in electrical substations; Metodologia para la evaluacion del sistema de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrelles Rivas, L.F [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica: Antonio Jose de Sucre (UNEXPO), Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: torrellesluis@gmail.com; Alvarez, P. [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: alvarezph@pdvsa.com

    2013-03-15

    The present work proposes a methodology for evaluating grounding systems in electrical substations from medium and high voltage, in order to diagnose the state of the elements of the grounding system and the corresponding electrical variables. The assessment methodology developed includes a visual inspection phase to the elements of the substation. Then, by performing measurements and data analysis, the electrical continuity between the components of the substation and the mesh ground is verified, the soil resistivity and resistance of the mesh. Also included in the methodology the calculation of the step and touch voltage of the substation, based on the criteria of the International IEEE standards. We study the case of the 115 kV Pirital Substation belonging to PDVSA Oriente Transmission Network. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se plantea una metodologia para la evaluacion de sistemas de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas de media y alta tension, con la finalidad de diagnosticar el estado de los elementos que conforman dicho sistema y las variables electricas correspondientes. La metodologia de evaluacion desarrollada incluye una fase de inspeccion visual de los elementos que conforman la subestacion. Luego, mediante la ejecucion de mediciones y analisis de datos, se verifica la continuidad electrica entre los componentes de la subestacion y la malla de puesta a tierra, la resistividad del suelo y resistencia de la malla. Se incluye tambien en la metodologia el calculo de las tensiones de paso y de toque de la subestacion, segun lo fundamentado en los criterios de los estandares Internacionales IEEE. Se estudia el caso de la Subestacion Pirital 115 kV perteneciente a la Red de Transmision de PDVSA Oriente.

  7. Technological tendencies and their relation with energy markets; Tendencias tecnologicas y su relacion con mercados de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Castro, Salvador [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article some associate technological tendencies with areas of interest of the Control Systems Division of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are presented. Here the relations or influence that these tendencies have and will continue having in the future with the definition and implantation of energy markets are mentioned. [Spanish] En este articulo se presentan algunas tendencias tecnologicas asociadas con areas de interes de la Division de Sistemas de Control del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Aqui se mencionan las relaciones o influencia que dichas tendencias tienen y continuaran teniendo en el futuro con la definicion e implantacion de mercados de energia.

  8. Electric power conservation while using pumping systems; Conservacion de Energia Electrica en Sistemas de Bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambiar, P

    2007-01-15

    The pumping systems provide about 20 to 25 percent of energy which is necessary worldwide: it is fruitful to understand how to use electric power efficiently, to achieve the reduction regarding expenses a pumping system implies.It is essential to possess a better knowledge about the pumping system and its applications, in order to be able to use energy responsibly. If people do not how to operate this kind of systems properly, they will use inadequate equipment that will cause an energy waste. In addition it is important to know: alternative methods to meet variable demands, an adapted system to pump water requirements in order to ensure the pump work in its pumping point, and the life cycle system cost for the energy saving in the long term. [Spanish] En promedio del 20 al 25% de la energia necesaria en el mundo proviene de los sistemas de bombeo, por tal razon es importante saber como utilizar la energia electrica con eficiencia para asi lograr reducir los gastos que este tipo de sistemas implican. Para poder hacer un buen uso de la energia, es necesario que se tenga un conocimiento mayor del sistema de bombeo y aplicacion, ya que la ignorancia sobre esto exige el uso de aparatos que contribuyen al desperdicio de la energia; por otro lado tambien es esencial conocer metodos alternos para demandas variables, tener un sistema que se adapte a las necesidades de bombeo del agua para asegurarse de que cada bomba trabaje cerca de su punto de bombeo y finalmente conocer el costo del ciclo de vida del sistema para el ahorro de energia a largo plazo.

  9. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  10. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  11. A microwave technique for electrical conductivity measurements in semiconductors; Un procedimiento en frecuencia de microondas para la medicion de la conductividad electrica en semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A; Zehe, A [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Starostenko, O [Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, (Mexico); Perez, L [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-01-15

    In the present paper a theoretical approach is given together with the description of the experimental technique for electrical conductivity measurements of semiconductors in frequency range of 10 GHz, corresponding to a wavelength of {lambda}= 3 cm. It is shown, that the sample conductivity, measured without the need of electrical contacts, Is practically identical with results obtained by direct current methods. The potential use of the method for dielectric measurements in samples of general shape is included in the discussion. Given that the local electrical field is known only in bodies of ellipsoidal shape, one has to apply approximation methods for sample shapes of practical relevance (cylinders, cubes, disks). Finally, the measuring range and corresponding errors are explained on the base of measurements realized with silicon samples. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se desarrolla la teoria junto con la descripcion del arreglo experimental para la medicion de la conductividad electrica en muestras semiconductoras, utilizando un campo de microondas de {lambda}= 3 cm, correspondiente a una frecuencia n de 10 GHz. Se demuestra que la conductividad electrica medida sin la necesidad de contactos electricos es practicamente identica con resultados obtenidos por el metodo comun utilizando corriente directa (d.c.). Se incorpora en la discusion ademas el potencial del metodo para el estudio de propiedades dielectricas en muestras de geometria general. Dado que solamente en cuerpos con geometria elipsoidal se conoce bien el campo electrico local, y con esto el momento bipolar inducido, para muestras de geometrias mas practicas (cilindros, cubos, discos) se acude a metodos de aproximacion. Finalmente, se discute el rango de mediciones y errores, y se presentan mediciones concretas, utilizando muestras de silicio.

  12. Supervisory control for hybrid systems of electrical generation based on fuzzy logic; Control supervisorio para sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica basado en logica difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas M, Javier; Ortega S, Cesar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Caratozzolo M, Patricia [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, campus Cd. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The development and integration of hybrid systems of electrical generation (SHGE) of small capacity: The intention of these developments is its implementation in isolated or far away communities from conventional electric networks, that contribute in the own productive processes of these towns. As part of these work a system of control for their hybrid system wind-photovoltaic- internal combustion machine was developed that operates nowadays in a system installed in Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. However, in the two past years, the GENC has worked, altogether with the Management of Control and Instrumentation of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (CENIDET) (National Center of Research and Technological Development), to incorporate an intelligent control technique in the regulation of the hybrid systems of wind-photovoltaic-machine of internal combustion type. Lemos de Pereira rises that the main problems of the present technology of the SHGE are related to the control and supervision of the power systems. The system that is in charge of the actions of load control and dispatch is denominated supervisory control. This controller supervises the operation of all the components, regulates the entry or exiting of operation of the generation systems, as well as the loads. [Spanish] El desarrollo e integracion de sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica (SHGE) de pequena capacidad. El proposito de estos desarrollos es su implementacion en comunidades aisladas o alejadas de la red electrica convencional, las cuales contribuyan en los procesos productivos propios de estos poblados. Como parte de dichos trabajos se desarrollo un sistema de control para su sistema hibrido eolico-fotovoltaico-maquina de combustion interna que opera actualmente en un sistema instalado en Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Ahora bien, en los dos ultimos anos, la GENC ha trabajado, en conjunto con la Gerencia de Control e

  13. Electric power saving potential due to domestic refrigerators replacement; Potencial de ahorro de energia electrica por el reemplazo de refrigeradores domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico)]. E-mail: jose.peralta@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Mexico the second most used electrical appliance is: refrigerator. Owing to its use, it would be a promising option for electric power saving. In Guadalajara, Reynosa and Tampico it was performed a study with the aim of launching a project to replace the old refrigerators with new ones which are more effective and less expensive. Since the refrigerators cost and the electrical invoicing saving, the electric appliance change is profitable. To expect with this replacement more than eight million of refrigerators manufactured before 1997 will be changed. [Spanish] El refrigerador es el segundo electrodomestico mas utilizado a nivel nacional, esto permite que debido a su uso sea una opcion prometedora para el ahorro de energia electrica. Se hizo un estudio en Guadalajara, Reynosa y Tampico con el fin de lanzar un proyecto para sustituir los refrigeradores viejos por unos nuevos que sean mas eficaces y menos costosos. Por el costo de los refrigeradores y el ahorro en la facturacion electrica, el cambio de electrodomestico es rentable, de esta manera se espera que los mas de ocho millones de refrigeradores fabricados antes de 1997 que existen en el pais sean cambiados.

  14. Importance of the validation of saving technologies of electric power; Importancia de la validacion de tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valer Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Within the Programs of Energy Saving it is fundamental the search and application of new technologies, with which this saving can be obtained, selected with base in their technical characteristics that allow to reduce to the consumptions and demands of power, without damaging the electric networks nor the transformers of the Comision Federal de Electricidad. It is important that the investments which are made count on attractive periods of capital recovery, in comparison with the useful life of the product, reason why the knowledge and price of the new technologies will be parameters to consider in an important manner, creating the need of conducting tests that verify the veracity of the information of the supplier, resulting in certain cases, the change of design of these technologies, so that thus they fulfill the engaged characteristics. This paper indicates the characteristics that the new saving technologies of electrical energy must fulfill and the tests and parameters to consider their evaluation. [Spanish] Dentro de los Programas de Ahorro de Energia es fundamental la busqueda y aplicacion de nuevas tecnologias, con las que se pueda obtener dicho ahorro, seleccionadas con base en sus caracteristicas tecnicas que permitan reducir los consumos y demandas de potencia, sin danar las redes ni transformadores de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. Es importante que las inversiones que se realicen cuenten con periodos de recuperacion de capital atractivos, comparados con la vida util del producto, por lo que el conocimiento y precio de las nuevas tecnologias seran parametros a considerar de manera importante, creandose la necesidad de realizar pruebas que verifiquen la veracidad de la informacion del proveedor, resultando en determinados casos, el cambio de diseno de dichas tecnologias, para que asi cumplan las caracteristicas prometidas. Este trabajo indica las caracteristicas que deben cumplir las nuevas tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica y las

  15. The distribution of the electric energy consumed in the World Trade Center building; La distribucion de la energia electrica consumida en el edificio World Trade Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona de la Fuente, Alvaro; Carrillo Borja, Angel [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document describes the distribution of the electric energy in the World Trade Center building. Also called the Business International Capital, it is a modern international concept that integrates under the same roof services and supports required by the foreign commerce, with a great 50 stories high building, information network, a business center, a commercial center, an international center for exhibits and conventions and a luxury hotel. It is a modern building equipped with a numberless technological advancements an a total installed electrical load of 35000 kVA. The distribution structures utilized for high buildings are described, the structure that was decided to adopt in the World Trade Center, the requirement for the execution of the distribution electric work, the Luz y Fuerza installations in the buildings conglomerate, the operation and maintenance of the distribution network of this building and the basic needs for new installations of this type of buildings [Espanol] En el presente documento se describe la distribucion de la energia electrica del edificio World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico. Llamado tambien la capital internacional de los negocios es un moderno concepto internacional que integra bajo un mismo techo servicios y apoyos que se requieren para el comercio exterior contando con una gran torre de 50 pisos, red de informacion, un centro de negocios, un centro comercial, un centro internacional de exposiciones y convenciones y un hotel de lujo. Es un edificio moderno equipado con un sinnumero de adelantos tecnologicos y con una carga total instalada de 35000 kVA. Se describen las estructuras de distribucion utilizadas en edificios altos, la estructura que se decidio implantar en el World Trade Center, los requerimientos para la ejecucion de la obra electrica de distribucion, las instalaciones de Luz y Fuerza en el conjunto de dicho edificio, la operacion y mantenimiento de la red de distribucion de este edificio, y las necesidades

  16. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

  17. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

  18. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    this is a system of the non-invasive type, it does not interfere with the operation of the electrical circuits. [Spanish] Las companias de electricidad de todo el mundo sufren, en mayor o menor grado, de perdidas de energia electrica. Un gran porcentaje de estas perdidas se debe, principalmente, a apropiaciones indebidas de energia. Los consumidores, mediante practicas ilicitas como tomas clandestinas y alteracion del funcionamiento de los medidores, llevan a cabo el robo de energia. Para tratar de aliviar la problematica de perdidas de energia electrica, en su mayoria por ilicitos, las companias de electricidad han implementado una o mas acciones. Entre las mas importantes estan: Inspeccion visual de las instalaciones de medicion. Su proposito es verificar el estado de las protecciones tradicionales del medidor, como son sellos y anillos de seguridad. Equipos de deteccion. Son registradores de consumo de energia y de fallas en conductores, se utilizan para detectar desviaciones en los patrones de consumo y derivaciones o conexiones ilicitas a la acometida de energia electrica o a la red secundaria de distribucion. Analisis estadistico de consumos. Muchas companias de electricidad han adaptado sus sistemas de procesamiento de lecturas de consumos para detectar desviaciones en los patrones de consumo de los clientes. Esto pudiera corresponder a situaciones anormales. Dado que este pais no es ajeno a la problematica de perdidas de energia, en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas se desarrollo un Sistema de Medicion y Deteccion de Perdidas de Energia Electrica (SIM-IV) como resultado del conocimiento de la problematica obtenido de los proyectos en el area de medicion y de la interaccion a traves de reuniones de trabajo con personal de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y de Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), en el que se aplicaron conceptos y tecnologia avanzada de medicion de variables electricas. El SIM-IV es un sistema orientado a la medicion de consumos y la

  19. Electric energy saving and its impact in the mining industry; El ahorro de energia electrica y su impacto en la industria minera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga Dufour, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper are shown the most important results of the energy diagnosis performed in some representative industries of the mining industry, where opportunity areas were detected in electric energy saving, starting from those measures that do not require investment up to the ones that require medium investment, recoverable in less than two years terms as a maximum and with electric energy saving ranging from 10% to 25%. [Espanol] En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados mas importantes, obtenidos en el diagnostico energetico realizado en algunas empresas representativas de la rama de la mineria, en donde se detectaron areas de oportunidad de ahorro de energia electrica que van desde aquellas medidas que no requieren inversiones hasta las que requieren medianas inversiones, recuperables en menos de dos anos como maximo y con ahorros de energia que van desde un 10% hasta un 25%.

  20. Electric energy saving and its impact in the mining industry; El ahorro de energia electrica y su impacto en la industria minera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga Dufour, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper are shown the most important results of the energy diagnosis performed in some representative industries of the mining industry, where opportunity areas were detected in electric energy saving, starting from those measures that do not require investment up to the ones that require medium investment, recoverable in less than two years terms as a maximum and with electric energy saving ranging from 10% to 25%. [Espanol] En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados mas importantes, obtenidos en el diagnostico energetico realizado en algunas empresas representativas de la rama de la mineria, en donde se detectaron areas de oportunidad de ahorro de energia electrica que van desde aquellas medidas que no requieren inversiones hasta las que requieren medianas inversiones, recuperables en menos de dos anos como maximo y con ahorros de energia que van desde un 10% hasta un 25%.

  1. Criteria for the provision and assembly of the rotor blades of a 300 MW low pressure steam turbine for electrical generation; Criterios para el suministro y ensambles de la alabes de rotor de turbina de vapor de 300 MW baja presion para generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Galo; Felix, Jorge A; Quijano, Octavio [Especialistas en Turbopartes, S.A. de C.V., Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents some of the main criteria to consider from the inspection, disassembling and assembly of blades with different root types of a turbine rotor of steam turbines for power generation, having as an aim to count on a reliable rotor, fulfilling with the equipment original design and norms and international standards. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta algunos de los criterios principales a considerar desde la inspeccion, desmontaje y montaje de alabes de diferentes tipos de raiz de un rotor de turbinas de vapor de generacion electrica, teniendo como finalidad contar con un rotor confiable, cumpliendo con el diseno original del equipo y con normas y estandares internacionales.

  2. The Mexican electric industry under an opening triangle; La industria electrica mexicana bajo un triangulo de apertura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Guevara, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document analyzes the electric industry in Mexico in its opening phase, which must be qualified as a strategic activity within the present and future becoming of the Mexican economy. The Mexican electric sector was framed within the National Project born out in the country`s Politic Constitution; where the State economic intervention is driven and induced, with its exclusive duty in strategic activities through public enterprises created for that purpose and as a support of Mexico`s economic and social welfare. Within the opening it should be pointed out the participation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Energy Program, the Development Program and Restructure of the Energy Sector 1995-2000 [Espanol] En el presente documento se analiza la industria electrica en Mexico en su fase de apertura, la cual debe calificarse como una actividad estrategica dentro del devenir presente y futuro de la economia mexicana. El sector electrico mexicano se enmarco dentro del Proyecto Nacional que nace en la Constitucion Politica del pais; donde se impulsa e induce la intervencion economica del Estado, con su quehacer exclusivo en actividades estrategicas, por medio de empresas publicas creadas para tal fin y en apoyo del bienestar economico y social de Mexico. Dentro de la apertura hay que senalar la participacion que tiene el Tratado de Libre Comercio, el Programa de Energia y el Programa de Desarrollo y Reestructuracion del Sector Energia 1995-2000

  3. Application of unimodal optic fiber to communications among electric substations; Aplicacion de fibra optica unimodal a comunicaciones entre subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Pinon, Fernando; Hernandez Juarez, Taide [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-07-01

    The utilization of the unimodal fiber optics technology in the electric power systems, represents one of the best communication options because of its multiple advantages, that results in a better coordination of the technical and administrative activities, needed to carry the electric energy from its generation site to the most remote locations. In this document a study, in accordance with the available options for the design of communication systems via unimodal optic fiber, is presented. With this technology, ties of more than 100 kilometers without the need of repeating stations, can be made. [Espanol] La utilizacion de la tecnologia de fibra optica unimodal en los sistemas electricos de potencia representa una de las mejores alternativas de comunicacion por sus multiples ventajas que se traducen en una mejor coordinacion de las acitividades tecnicas y administrativas necesarias para llevar la energia electrica desde el lugar de generacion hasta los puntos mas distantes. En este documento se presenta un estudio de acuerdo a las opciones disponibles para el diseno de sistemas de comunicacion por fibra optica unimodal. Con esta tecnologia se pueden realizar enlaces mayores que 100 km sin necesidad de repetidores.

  4. A simple and efficient formula for saving electric energy in lighting systems; Una formula sencilla y eficaz para ahorrar energia electrica en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Noriega, L. R. [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, as well as in other regions with a similar climate, there are an important number of users of the electric energy service, whose main load consists of lighting, since systems such as environmental conditioning, refrigeration, pumping and others are either not necessary or lack of importance as electric energy consumers. These are classified in the range of small users that altogether represent a significant saving, but the precarious diffusion of the technological advances have not contemplated the need of carrying on corrective actions. Among these users are the offices, sites of entertainment and a range of commerces and services such as clothing stores, pharmacies, shoe stores, printing shops, dry cleaner`s, restaurants, barber shops, etc. The present paper pretends to provide a simple methodology easy to carry on, derived form a demonstrative project that FIDE (Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico) successfully carried out for the Club Deportivo Berinbau. [Espanol] En el area Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico, asi como en otras regiones con clima similar, existe un numero importante de usuarios del servicio de energia electrica cuya carga principal consiste en iluminacion, ya que sistemas como acondicionamiento ambiental, refrigeracion, bombeo y otros, o bien no son necesarios o carecen de la importancia en cuanto a consumo de energia electrica. Estos se catalogan dentro del rango de pequenos usuarios que en conjunto representan un potencial de ahorro significativo pero que, debido a la precaria difusion de los adelantos tecnologicos, no han contemplado la posibilidad de llevar a cabo acciones correctivas. Entre estos usuarios se encuentran oficinas, lugares de esparcimiento, planteles educativos y una gama de comercios y servicios como tiendas de ropa, farmacias, zapaterias, imprentas, tintorerias, restaurantes, peluquerias, etc. El presente trabajo pretende proporcionarles una

  5. A simple and efficient formula for saving electric energy in lighting systems; Una formula sencilla y eficaz para ahorrar energia electrica en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Noriega, L R [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, as well as in other regions with a similar climate, there are an important number of users of the electric energy service, whose main load consists of lighting, since systems such as environmental conditioning, refrigeration, pumping and others are either not necessary or lack of importance as electric energy consumers. These are classified in the range of small users that altogether represent a significant saving, but the precarious diffusion of the technological advances have not contemplated the need of carrying on corrective actions. Among these users are the offices, sites of entertainment and a range of commerces and services such as clothing stores, pharmacies, shoe stores, printing shops, dry cleaner`s, restaurants, barber shops, etc. The present paper pretends to provide a simple methodology easy to carry on, derived form a demonstrative project that FIDE (Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico) successfully carried out for the Club Deportivo Berinbau. [Espanol] En el area Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico, asi como en otras regiones con clima similar, existe un numero importante de usuarios del servicio de energia electrica cuya carga principal consiste en iluminacion, ya que sistemas como acondicionamiento ambiental, refrigeracion, bombeo y otros, o bien no son necesarios o carecen de la importancia en cuanto a consumo de energia electrica. Estos se catalogan dentro del rango de pequenos usuarios que en conjunto representan un potencial de ahorro significativo pero que, debido a la precaria difusion de los adelantos tecnologicos, no han contemplado la posibilidad de llevar a cabo acciones correctivas. Entre estos usuarios se encuentran oficinas, lugares de esparcimiento, planteles educativos y una gama de comercios y servicios como tiendas de ropa, farmacias, zapaterias, imprentas, tintorerias, restaurantes, peluquerias, etc. El presente trabajo pretende proporcionarles una

  6. Energy saving by means of air conditioning equipment replacement and the household application of thermal insulation; Ahorro de energia electrica por reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y aplicacion de aislamiento termico en viviendas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    An extension study of the Financing Program for Energy Saving looked for the evaluation of the electric energy saving potential obtained by the replacement of air conditioning equipment and the application of thermal insulation in 30 houses of two Mexican cities with warmth climate. In a joint effort with Comision Federal de Electricidad the consumption files of the users were analyzed and field measurements of electric demand and of refrigeration were made. As a following step the change of the refrigeration necessities derived from the application of thermal insulation were evaluated as well as the energy efficiency improvement obtained by the substitution of the air conditioning equipment and the favorable results obtained by the implementation of both measures - thermal insulation and change of air conditioning equipment in a joint form. This way, as a conclusion, the optimum sequence of application of these measures is revealed. [Spanish] Un estudio extension del Programa de Financiamiento para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica busco evaluar el potencial de ahorro de energia electrica alcanzado por el reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y la aplicacion de aislamiento termico en 30 viviendas de dos ciudades mexicanas con clima calido. En un esfuerzo conjunto con la Comision Federal de Electricidad se analizaron los historiales de consumo de los usuarios y se efectuaron las mediciones de campo de demanda electrica y de refrigeracion. Como paso siguiente se valoro el cambio en las necesidades de refrigeracion derivado de la aplicacion de aislamiento termico al igual que la mejora en eficiencia energetica obtenida por la sustitucion de aire acondicionado y se identificaron los resultados favorecedores arrojados por la implementacion de ambas medidas -aislamiento termico y cambio de equipo de aire acondicionado- en forma conjunta. De esta manera, como conclusion, se devela la mas optima secuencia de aplicacion de estas medidas.

  7. Fuel burn analysis of a sodium fast reactor with KANEXT and Serpent; Analisis de quemado de combustible de un reactor rapido de sodio con KANEXT y SERPENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez S, R. C.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: rcarlos.lope@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The fast reactors cooled by sodium are one of the options considered in the Generation IV. Since most of the reactors of Fourth Generation are still in development stage, is necessary to have efficient and reliable computational tools, this in order to obtain accurate results in reasonable computational times. In this paper is introduced and describes the deterministic code KANEXT (KArlsruhe Neutronic EXtended Tool) and is compared against a Monte Carlo code of more diffusion: Serpent. KANEXT, being a modular code requires the interaction of different modules to perform a job, this interaction of modules is described in this article. The parameters to be compared are the results of the neutron multiplication effective factor and the evolution of isotopes during the burning. The mentioned comparison is carried out for a fast reactor cooled by sodium of relatively small size compared to commercial size reactors. In this paper the particularities of the reactor are described, important for the analysis such as geometry, enrichments, reflector, etc. The considerations in the implementation in both codes are also described, as are simplifications, length of the burning steps, possible solutions of the Bateman equations for the burning fuel in Serpent and the solution options for transport (P3) and diffusion (P1) in KANEXT. The results show good correspondence between Serpent and KANEXT, which give confidence to continue using KANEXT as the main tool. Respect to computation time, time saving is evident with the use of deterministic codes instead of Monte Carlo codes, in this particular case, the time savings using KANEXT is about 98.5% of the time used by Serpent. (Author)

  8. Productivity of a nuclear chemical reactor with gamma radioisotopic sources; Rendimiento de un reactor quimico-nuclear con fuentes radioisotopicas gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anguis T, C

    1975-07-01

    According to an established mathematical model of successive Compton interaction processes the made calculations for major distances are extended checking the acceptability of the spheric geometry model for the experimental data for radioisotopic sources of Co-60 and Cs-137. Parameters such as the increasing factor and the absorbed dose served as comparative base. calculations for the case of a punctual source succession inside a determined volume cylinder are made to obtain the total dose, the deposited energy by each photons energetic group and the total absorbed energy inside the reactor. Varying adequately the height/radius relation for different cylinders, the distinct energy depositions are compared in each one of them once a time standardized toward a standard value of energy emitted by the reactor volume. A relation between the quantity of deposited energy in each point of the reactor and the conversion values of chemical species is established. They are induced by electromagnetic radiation and that are reported as ''G'' in the scientific literature (number of molecules formed or disappeared by each 100 e.v. of energy). Once obtained the molecular performance inside the reactor for each type of geometry, it is optimized the height/radius relation according to the maximum production of molecules by unity of time. It is completed a bibliographical review of ''G'' values reported by different types of aqueous solutions with the purpose to determine the maximum performance of molecular hydrogen as a function of pH of the solution and of the used type of solute among other factors. Calculations for the ethyl bromide production as an example of one of the industrial processes which actually work using the gamma radiation as reactions inductor are realized. (Author)

  9. Optimization of SFR Reactor design with recycling or minor actinides; Optimizacion del diseno de reactor SFR con reciclado de actinidos minoritarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Fuertes, F.; Vazquez, M.; Alvarez, F.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we show results of the design features and ESFR optimized in three configurations: the reference, load the minority actinides homogeneous throughout the reactor and the high content of AM on a radial mantle. Was calculated reactivity evolution in five cycles burned (2050 days) to recharge One approach. To do this, we have employed EVOLCODE2 a development tool of CIEMAT own coupling MCNPX and ORIGEN.

  10. Productivity of a nuclear chemical reactor with gamma radioisotopic sources; Rendimiento de un reactor quimico-nuclear con fuentes radioisotopicas gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anguis T, C

    1975-07-01

    According to an established mathematical model of successive Compton interaction processes the made calculations for major distances are extended checking the acceptability of the spheric geometry model for the experimental data for radioisotopic sources of Co-60 and Cs-137. Parameters such as the increasing factor and the absorbed dose served as comparative base. calculations for the case of a punctual source succession inside a determined volume cylinder are made to obtain the total dose, the deposited energy by each photons energetic group and the total absorbed energy inside the reactor. Varying adequately the height/radius relation for different cylinders, the distinct energy depositions are compared in each one of them once a time standardized toward a standard value of energy emitted by the reactor volume. A relation between the quantity of deposited energy in each point of the reactor and the conversion values of chemical species is established. They are induced by electromagnetic radiation and that are reported as ''G'' in the scientific literature (number of molecules formed or disappeared by each 100 e.v. of energy). Once obtained the molecular performance inside the reactor for each type of geometry, it is optimized the height/radius relation according to the maximum production of molecules by unity of time. It is completed a bibliographical review of ''G'' values reported by different types of aqueous solutions with the purpose to determine the maximum performance of molecular hydrogen as a function of pH of the solution and of the used type of solute among other factors. Calculations for the ethyl bromide production as an example of one of the industrial processes which actually work using the gamma radiation as reactions inductor are realized. (Author)

  11. Validation of the AZTRAN 1.1 code with problems Benchmark of LWR reactors; Validacion del codigo AZTRAN 1.1 con problemas Benchmark de reactores LWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallejo Q, J. A.; Bastida O, G. E.; Francois L, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Xolocostli M, J. V.; Gomez T, A. M., E-mail: amhed.jvq@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The AZTRAN module is a computational program that is part of the AZTLAN platform (Mexican modeling platform for the analysis and design of nuclear reactors) and that solves the neutron transport equation in 3-dimensional using the discrete ordinates method S{sub N}, steady state and Cartesian geometry. As part of the activities of Working Group 4 (users group) of the AZTLAN project, this work validates the AZTRAN code using the 2002 Yamamoto Benchmark for LWR reactors. For comparison, the commercial code CASMO-4 and the free code Serpent-2 are used; in addition, the results are compared with the data obtained from an article of the PHYSOR 2002 conference. The Benchmark consists of a fuel pin, two UO{sub 2} cells and two other of MOX cells; there is a problem of each cell for each type of reactor PWR and BWR. Although the AZTRAN code is at an early stage of development, the results obtained are encouraging and close to those reported with other internationally accepted codes and methodologies. (Author)

  12. Design of a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico heterogeneo con sales fundidas a base de torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina C, D.; Hernandez A, P.; Letechipia de L, C.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: dmedina_c@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents the design of a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium, with graphite moderator and a {sup 252}Cf source, whose dose levels at the periphery allows its use in teaching and research activities. The design was realized by the Monte Carlo method, where the geometry, dimensions and the fuel was varied in order to obtain the best design. The result was a cubic reactor of 110 cm of side, with graphite moderator and reflector. In the central part having 9 ducts of 3 cm in diameter, eight of them are 110 cm long, which were placed on the Y axis; the separation between each duct is 10 cm. The central duct has 60 cm in length and this contains the {sup 252}Cf source, also there are two irradiation channels and the other six contain a molten salt ({sup 7}LiF - BeF{sub 2} - ThF{sub 4} - UF{sub 4}) as fuel. For the design the k{sub eff} was calculated, neutron spectra and ambient dose equivalent. In the first instance the above was calculated for a virgin fuel, was called case 1; then a percentage of {sup 233}U was used and the percentage of Th was decreased and was called case 2. This with the purpose of comparing two different fuels operating within the reactor. For the two irradiation ducts three positions are used: center, back and front, in each duct in order to have different flows. (Author)

  13. Magnetic losses and reactance change by the use of metallic conduit in electrical installations; Perdidas magneticas y cambio de reactancia por la tuberia metalica en instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, Eduardo; Castaneda D, Miguel; Castulo A, Roberto; Bratu Serban, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    corrientes parasitas y por la magnetizacion del metal en estas tuberias conduit. Al mismo tiempo se cuantifica el impacto de estas corrientes diferenciales en la reactancia de la instalacion electrica. Se muestran los resultados obtenidos para doce tubos de diferente diametro y espesor de pared. Se hace un analisis comparativo con los resultados reportados en un articulo anterior, donde las perdidas se estimaron mediante la medicion del incremento de temperatura de la pared metalica.

  14. Magnetic losses and reactance change by the use of metallic conduit in electrical installations; Perdidas magneticas y cambio de reactancia por la tuberia metalica en instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, Eduardo; Castaneda D, Miguel; Castulo A, Roberto; Bratu Serban, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    corrientes parasitas y por la magnetizacion del metal en estas tuberias conduit. Al mismo tiempo se cuantifica el impacto de estas corrientes diferenciales en la reactancia de la instalacion electrica. Se muestran los resultados obtenidos para doce tubos de diferente diametro y espesor de pared. Se hace un analisis comparativo con los resultados reportados en un articulo anterior, donde las perdidas se estimaron mediante la medicion del incremento de temperatura de la pared metalica.

  15. Optimization of the biological process using flat membrane bioreactors. Maximum treatment performance with minimum reactor volume; Optimizacion del proceso biologico con BRM de membrana plana. Maximo rendimiento de depuracion con minimo volumen de reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lluch Vallmithana, S.; Lopez Gavin, A.

    2006-07-01

    In a conventional activated sludge process, the membranes are inside the biological reactor where they drain the water through suction or a water column. This system can be operated with heavy loads and sludge of 12-14 g/l or more, and is not affected by problems of bulking or foaming. This makes it suitable for treating difficult industrial waste waters, providing treated water that is free of bacteria and viruses. Micro filtration membranes are flat without any rubbing between them. The membranes require infrequent chemical cleaning and do not need back washing. As no final sedimented is needed, the waste water treatment plant occupies less space. (Author)

  16. Qualitative aspects in the projects that are developed in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas; Aspectos cualitativos en los proyectos que se desarrollan en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Neblina, Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The globalization of markets has generated more options of purchase of all type of goods and services, these options have generated opportunities and threats for all the companies and have looked for the satisfaction of the client as a strategy to remain or incursion into the global market. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is not the exception and therefore it looks for the identification of the qualitative aspects and to systematize its application in the projects that executes by means of the implantation of a system of quality assurance based on the series of ISO 9000 Standards. Some examples are described to identify the qualitative aspects of the projects that are developed in the Institute. [Spanish] La globalizacion de los mercados ha generado mas opciones de compra de todo tipo de bienes y servicios, dichas opciones han generado oportunidades y amenazas para todas las empresas y se ha buscado satisfacer al cliente como estrategia para permanecer o incursionar en el mercado global. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) no es la excepcion y por lo tanto busca identificar los aspectos cualitativos y sistematizar su aplicacion en los proyectos que realiza mediante la implantacion de un sistema de aseguramiento de la calidad basado en la serie de normas ISO 9000. Se describen algunos ejemplos para identificar los aspectos cualitativos de los proyectos que se desarrollan en el instituto.

  17. Development of neutronic models with KANEXT for a reactor of traveling wave; Desarrollo de modelos neutronicos con KANEXT para un reactor de onda viajera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez S, R. C.; Francois L, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingeniera, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac No. 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Becker, M., E-mail: rcarlosls@yahoo.com.mx [Institut fur Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Problems with the computation time in a based code on the Monte Carlo method, they conduct to explore the option of the deterministic codes to be able to develop a model of robust reactor of traveling wave, and where short term results are obtained to carry out experimentation work to the moment to study an assemblies exchange scheme as method of fuel administration. KANEXT is a versatile and reliable code, developed in Germany that has satisfied our development necessities until the moment. In this article is described the KANEXT operation, and like it was implemented to develop a preliminary model of reactor core of traveling wave with operation way of stationary wave. The results obtained until the moment, as for the neutrons multiplication factor and the isotopic balance, are encouraging and they lead to refine the model removing completely the axial covering. The adoption of deterministic codes has allowed carrying out tests of complete core in a conventional computer in question of only hours; this will be valuable in the next stage of the research, where developing a re situate scheme of fuel assemblies will involve a great quantity of sprints. (Author)

  18. Comparative analysis of the indexes of electric power density in buildings lighting systems; Analisis comparativo de los indices de densidad de potencia electrica de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Hernandez, J.I.; Morillon Galvez, D. [CONAE, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The national situation of the lighting systems in buildings is presented in order to know its consumption and make comparisons in accordance with the terms of the Electric Power Density that the lighting systems must satisfy, recently published in the norm, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Energy Efficiency for non Residential Buildings` Lighting Systems). The form of application of the norm to determine the Electric Power Density Indexes in Lighting Buildings (EPDIL) is described, which permitted to know the current situation of the lighting systems, to compare the results internationally and with the ones specified in the proper norm. As a conclusion, there is the need of enhancing the efficiency of the lightning systems, with savings technologies, improve the lightning levels and equalize the energy indexes of the EPDIL with the ones recommended. [Espanol] Se presenta un estudio sobre la situacion nacional de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios, con el objeto de conocer su consumo y compararlos, de acuerdo a los terminos de densidad de potencia electrica que deben cumplir los sistemas de alumbrado, publicados recientemente en la norma, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Eficiencia Energetica para los Sistemas de Alumbrado en Edificios no Residenciales). Se describe la forma de aplicar la norma para determinar los indices de densidad de potencia electrica en alumbrado (DPEA) en edificios, lo cual permitio conocer la situacion actual de los sistemas de alumbrado, comparar con los reportados internacionalmente y con los especificados en la propia norma. Como conclusion se tiene la necesidad de eficientizar los sistemas de alumbrado, con tecnologia ahorradora, mejorar los niveles de iluminacion e igualar los indices energeticos de DPEA con los recomendados.

  19. Comparative analysis of the indexes of electric power density in buildings lighting systems; Analisis comparativo de los indices de densidad de potencia electrica de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Hernandez, J I; Morillon Galvez, D [CONAE, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The national situation of the lighting systems in buildings is presented in order to know its consumption and make comparisons in accordance with the terms of the Electric Power Density that the lighting systems must satisfy, recently published in the norm, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Energy Efficiency for non Residential Buildings` Lighting Systems). The form of application of the norm to determine the Electric Power Density Indexes in Lighting Buildings (EPDIL) is described, which permitted to know the current situation of the lighting systems, to compare the results internationally and with the ones specified in the proper norm. As a conclusion, there is the need of enhancing the efficiency of the lightning systems, with savings technologies, improve the lightning levels and equalize the energy indexes of the EPDIL with the ones recommended. [Espanol] Se presenta un estudio sobre la situacion nacional de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios, con el objeto de conocer su consumo y compararlos, de acuerdo a los terminos de densidad de potencia electrica que deben cumplir los sistemas de alumbrado, publicados recientemente en la norma, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Eficiencia Energetica para los Sistemas de Alumbrado en Edificios no Residenciales). Se describe la forma de aplicar la norma para determinar los indices de densidad de potencia electrica en alumbrado (DPEA) en edificios, lo cual permitio conocer la situacion actual de los sistemas de alumbrado, comparar con los reportados internacionalmente y con los especificados en la propia norma. Como conclusion se tiene la necesidad de eficientizar los sistemas de alumbrado, con tecnologia ahorradora, mejorar los niveles de iluminacion e igualar los indices energeticos de DPEA con los recomendados.

  20. Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Vivek; Vaz Salles, Marcos António

    2018-01-01

    The requirements for OLTP database systems are becoming ever more demanding. Domains such as finance and computer games increasingly mandate that developers be able to encode complex application logic and control transaction latencies in in-memory databases. At the same time, infrastructure...... engineers in these domains need to experiment with and deploy OLTP database architectures that ensure application scalability and maximize resource utilization in modern machines. In this paper, we propose a relational actor programming model for in-memory databases as a novel, holistic approach towards......-level function calls. In contrast to classic transactional models, however, reactors allow developers to take advantage of intra-transaction parallelism and state encapsulation in their applications to reduce latency and improve locality. Moreover, reactors enable a new degree of flexibility in database...

  1. Somatic mutation and recombination induced with reactor thermal neutrons in Drosophila melanogaster; Mutacion y recombinacion somaticas inducidas con neutrones termicos de reactor en Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano A, F.; Guzman R, J.; Paredes G, L.; Delfin L, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The SMART test of Drosophila melanogaster was used to quantify the effect over the somatic mutation and recombination induced by thermal and fast neutrons at the TRIGA Mark III reactor of the ININ at the power of 300 k W for times of 30, 60 and 120 minutes with total equivalent doses respectively of 20.8, 41.6 and 83.2 Sv. A linear relation between the radiation equivalent dose and the frequency of the genetic effects such as mutation and recombination was observed. The obtained results allow to conclude that SMART is a sensitive system to the induced damage by neutrons, so this can be used for studying its biological effects. (Author)

  2. Generation of nuclear constants of the TRIGA reactor with the Leopard code; Generacion de constantes nucleares del reactor TRIGA con el codigo Leopard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F; Perusquia del C, R [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1983-09-15

    The reactor core was divided in 12 regions, this was made in function of the composition and temperature and its are: 1) central thimble, 2) B ring, 3) C ring, 4) D ring, 5) E ring, 6) F ring, 7) G ring, 8) superior caps of fuel elements (E.C. s) standard, 9) inferior caps of E.C.'s standard, 10) superior and inferior reflector of the core, 11) lateral reflector and 12) superior and inferior caps of the E.C.'s graphite. Likewise the constants of the followers' of fuel cell, of the empty follower and of the conduits of the gamma camera were obtained. For the obtaining of the enter data of the LEOPARD the dimensions and the composition of the different regions are required, this is consigned in the IT/E21-83 report. (Author)

  3. Continuous aerobic treatment of dairy waste waters. Supported reactor; Depuracion aerobia de aguas residuales de industrias lacteas en regimen continuo. Reactor con soporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, F.; Romeero, F.; Pereda, J.; Alvarez, P. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    Experiences in continuous flow been carried out to achieve effluents with low COD and a minimum ammonium nitrogen concentration. A 80 liter reactor with rectangular cross-section (width 25 cm and depth 30 cm) and length 150 cm was used thermostated. The system was aerated by air injection the air passed through perforated tubes settled at the bottom and covered by a plastic mesh. The liquor (water and milk) temperature was near 30 degree centigree Mixtures of milk and water, with pH of 11 and containing 3500 mg COD/1 (as sewage from Dairy Center`s) were fed into the reactor. A mixed cultive constituted of cultives isolated from Dairy Center`s effluent adapted to 30 degree centigree for 19 days, and mixed with sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant was used as inoculum. The influent flow rates were 81/d, 101/d and 12,6 L/d. The experiences went on up to stationary-state. In all the experience, the pH values become stabilized over 8,5 and the nitrite and nitrate nitrogen concentrations were insignificant. It was observed that when flow rate rises, the average COD values and the ammonium nitrogen concentrations (achieved at the end of experiences) decreased in a parallel way up to a certain flow rate value at which they are almost constant with the increase of the flow rate. The sludge analysis showed a composition of 5,4 gN and 2,4 gP in 100 g biomass. (Author) 16 refs.

  4. Supervisory fussy control for an electric generating hybrid system; Control supervisorio difuso para un sistema hibrido de generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas Mendoza, Javier

    2004-11-15

    the fuzzy supervisory controller were compared with a conventional controller. The results shows that the supervisory controller fulfills the three main objectives of the system operation: I) to reduce the fuel consumption of the back-up system, II) to reduce the depth of the discharge of the battery bank, and III) to keep fully charged the battery bank as much as possible in order to make a better use of the available free renewable energy sources. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un controlador supervisorio difuso para un sistema hibrido de generacion electrica (SHGE). En este trabajo se definio la configuracion y los elementos que componen el SHGE a utilizar, producto de la revision de configuraciones de sistemas hibridos propuestas actualmente. La configuracion del SHGE incluye: arreglos fotovoltaicos y aerogeneradores como fuentes de generacion renovable, una maquina de combustion interna como sistema de respaldo, un banco de baterias como medio de almacenamiento de energia, cargas electricas en corriente alterna y un inversor CD/CA para poder alimentarlas. Tambien a partir de la configuracion propuesta se buscaron y seleccionaron los modelos matematicos de los diferentes elementos del sistema. Se llevo a cabo la validacion de los modelos a traves de la comparacion de la salida contra datos reales obtenidos en un SHGE instalado en Pachuca. Con los modelos se llevo a cabo el desarrollo de un programa de simulacion para un SHGE en Matlab. Se determino la funcion principal del controlador supervisorio dentro del SHGE. La funcion es satisfacer el o los objetivos de operacion del sistema. La filosofia de operacion del controlador supervisorio se definio a partir de la configuracion electrica propuesta y de los objetivos de operacion del sistema. Por lo que respecta al desarrollo del controlador supervisorio, se llevo a cabo una revision de los controladores supervisorios actuales que utilizan alguna tecnica de control inteligente. A partir de

  5. Research activities in the use of energy; Actividades de investigacion en el uso de la energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio; Garcia Juarez, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    The use of energy is intimately related to the development and is found in the human activities of all types, consequently we could say that to a greater usage it must correspond a greater benefit. This paper carries on a comparative analysis of the Mexico`s energy efficiency versus industrialized countries; this analysis shows that while Mexico indicates a growing tendency, in the industrialized countries the tendency is to the drop, unmistakable sign of a better usage of the energy sources. It also makes evident that promoting the energy efficiency in Mexico will stimulate and regulate the energy conservation at National level, in the same way it is mentioned that an appropriate energy demand Management for the users as well as for the service providers, will diminish the peak demand, the adequate application of the electric rates at the actual conditions and the energy saving and the strategic load growth [Espanol] El uso de la energia esta intimamente relacionado con el desarrollo y se encuentra en las actividades humanas de todo tipo, de tal suerte que podriamos decir que a mayor uso debe corresponder un mayor beneficio. En este documento se realiza un analisis comparativo de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico contra paises industrializados; este analisis muestra que mientras Mexico indica una tendencia creciente, en los paises industrializados la tendencia es a la baja, signo inequivoco de un mejor uso de los energeticos, tambien hace ver que la promocion de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico estimulara y regulara el ahorro de energia a nivel nacional, de igual manera se menciona que una buena administracion de la demanda energetica tanto por los usuarios como los que prestan el servicio, reducira la demanda pico, la adecuacion de las tarifas electricas a las condiciones reales y el ahorro de los energeticos y el crecimiento estrategico de la carga

  6. Research activities in the use of energy; Actividades de investigacion en el uso de la energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio; Garcia Juarez, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The use of energy is intimately related to the development and is found in the human activities of all types, consequently we could say that to a greater usage it must correspond a greater benefit. This paper carries on a comparative analysis of the Mexico`s energy efficiency versus industrialized countries; this analysis shows that while Mexico indicates a growing tendency, in the industrialized countries the tendency is to the drop, unmistakable sign of a better usage of the energy sources. It also makes evident that promoting the energy efficiency in Mexico will stimulate and regulate the energy conservation at National level, in the same way it is mentioned that an appropriate energy demand Management for the users as well as for the service providers, will diminish the peak demand, the adequate application of the electric rates at the actual conditions and the energy saving and the strategic load growth [Espanol] El uso de la energia esta intimamente relacionado con el desarrollo y se encuentra en las actividades humanas de todo tipo, de tal suerte que podriamos decir que a mayor uso debe corresponder un mayor beneficio. En este documento se realiza un analisis comparativo de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico contra paises industrializados; este analisis muestra que mientras Mexico indica una tendencia creciente, en los paises industrializados la tendencia es a la baja, signo inequivoco de un mejor uso de los energeticos, tambien hace ver que la promocion de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico estimulara y regulara el ahorro de energia a nivel nacional, de igual manera se menciona que una buena administracion de la demanda energetica tanto por los usuarios como los que prestan el servicio, reducira la demanda pico, la adecuacion de las tarifas electricas a las condiciones reales y el ahorro de los energeticos y el crecimiento estrategico de la carga

  7. Fuel design with low peak of local power for BWR reactors with increased nominal power; Diseno de un combustible con bajo pico de potencia local para reactores BWR con potencia nominal aumentada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia C, R.; Montes, J.L.; Hernandez, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J.; Castillo, A. [ININ, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mrpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    The Federal Commission of Electricity recently announcement the beginning of the works related with the increase of the power to 120% of the original nominal one in the Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV): In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) are carried out studies of the impact on the design of the recharge of derived fuel of this increase. One of the main effects of the power increase type that it is promoting, is the increment of the flow of generated vapor, what takes, to a bigger fraction of vacuum in the core presenting increased values of the maximum fraction to the limit, so much of the ratio of lineal heat generation (XFLPD) as of the ratio of critic power (MFLCPR). In the made studies, it is found that these fractions rise lineally with the increase of the nominal power. Considering that the reactors of the CLV at the moment operate to 105% of the original nominal power, it would imply an increment of the order of 13.35% in the XFLPD and in the MFLCPR operating to a nominal power of 120% of the original one. This would propitiate bigger problems to design appropriately the fuel cycle and the necessity, almost unavoidable, of to resort to a fuel assembly type more advanced for the recharges of the cores. As option, in the ININ the feasibility of continuing using the same type of it fuel assembles that one has come using recently in the CLV, the type GE12 is analyzed. To achieve it was outlined to diminish the peak factor of local power (LPPF) of the power cells that compose the fuel recharge in 13.35%. It was started of a fuel design previously used in the recharge of the unit 1 cycle 12 and it was re-design to use it in the recharge design of the cycle 13 of the unit 1, considering an increase to 120% of the original power and the same requirements of cycle extension. For the re-design of the fuel assembly cell it was used the PreDiCeldas computer program developed in the ININ. It was able to diminish the LPPF

  8. Desalination of seawater with nuclear power reactors in cogeneration; Desalacion de agua de mar con reactores nucleares de potencia en cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores E, R M

    2004-07-01

    The growing demand for energy and hydraulic resources for satisfy the domestic, industrial, agricultural activities, etc. has wakened up the interest to carry out concerning investigations to study the diverse technologies guided to increase the available hydraulic resources, as well as to the search of alternatives of electric power generation, economic and socially profitable. In this sense the possible use of the nuclear energy is examined in cogeneration to obtain electricity and drinkable water for desalination of seawater. The technologies are analysed involved in the nuclear cogeneration (desalination technology, nuclear and desalination-nuclear joining) available in the world. At the same time it is exemplified the coupling of a nuclear reactor and a process of hybrid desalination that today in day the adult offers and economic advantages. Finally, the nuclear desalination is presented as a technical and economically viable solution in regions where necessities of drinkable water are had for the urban, agricultural consumption and industrial in great scale and that for local situations it is possible to satisfy it desalinating seawater. (Author)

  9. Calculation of the CAREM reactor with the HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT chain of codes; Calculo del reactor CAREM con la cadena de codigos HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notari, Carla; Grant, Carlos R [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the work was the evaluation of the the CAREM 25 reactor core, using a chain of codes (HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT) different to the one used in the original design (CONDOR-CITVAP-THERMIT). First, we performed a partial validation of the our codes in lattices similar to CAREM and reproduced a benchmark for simulation of gadolinium burnup. The results were considered satisfactory for this stage of the project. Then, we calculated the core along the normal operating equilibrium cycle and in hot and cold shut-down conditions. The main outcome of our evaluation confirms the general behaviour of the reference calculations except in one important point referring to the cold shut down. In this condition, the failure of one single rod of bank number 13 of the shut down system, leaves the core in a supercritical state at the beginning of the cycle and this anomaly persists during almost a third of the overall cycle. A new design of the core is proposed with minor modifications of the reference one, without introducing new types of fuel elements and keeping the same fuel management scheme. This new core fulfills all the design requirements. (author)

  10. Technologies for tritium control in fission reactors moderated with heavy water; Tecnologias para control de tritio en reactores de fision moderados con agua pesada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramilo, L B; Gomez de Soler, S M [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina). Unidad de Actividad Reactores y Centrales Nucleares

    1997-12-31

    This study was done within a program one of whose objectives was to analyze the possible strategies and technologies, to be applied to HWR at Argentine nuclear power plants, for tritium control. The high contribution of tritium to the total dose has given rise to the need by the operators and/or designers to carry out developments and improvements to try to optimize tritium control technologies. Within a tritium control program, only that one which includes the heavy water detritiation will allow to reduce the tritium concentrations at optimum levels for safety and cost-effective power plant operation. The technology chosen to be applied should depend not only on the technical feasibility but also on the analysis of economic and juncture factors such as, among others, the quantity of heavy water to be treated. It is the authors` belief that AECL tendency concerning heavy water treatment in its future reactors would be to employ the CECE technology complemented with immobilization on titanium beds, with the `on-line` detritiation in each nuclear power plant. This would not be of immediate application since our analysis suggests that AECL would assume that the process is under development and needs to be tested. (author). 21 refs.

  11. Development and implementation of a pilot network for continuous monitoring of electric energy; Desarrollo e implantacion de una red piloto de monitoreo continuo de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Cifuentes, A.; Cortes Eslava, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    analizarse para poder mejorarse, ya que se debe tener presente que aquello que no pueda medirse no se puede mejorar. A este fin, el PUE esta desarrollando una red piloto de monitoreo continuo de energia electrica con acceso local y remoto, y de un sistema automatizado de medicion. Se experimentan dos esquemas de monitoreo; uno con equipo de medicion comercial y otro con equipo de medicion de tecnologia propia. El presente trabajo describe las caracteristicas de los esquemas de monitoreo propuestos.

  12. Development and implementation of a pilot network for continuous monitoring of electric energy; Desarrollo e implantacion de una red piloto de monitoreo continuo de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Cifuentes, A; Cortes Eslava, A [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    analizarse para poder mejorarse, ya que se debe tener presente que aquello que no pueda medirse no se puede mejorar. A este fin, el PUE esta desarrollando una red piloto de monitoreo continuo de energia electrica con acceso local y remoto, y de un sistema automatizado de medicion. Se experimentan dos esquemas de monitoreo; uno con equipo de medicion comercial y otro con equipo de medicion de tecnologia propia. El presente trabajo describe las caracteristicas de los esquemas de monitoreo propuestos.

  13. Operating Experience with the VERA Zero-Energy Fast Reactor; Fonctionnement du Reacteur VERA a Neutrons Rapides, de Puissance Zero; Opyt ehkspluatatsii reaktora VERA na bystrykh nejtronakh nulevoj moshchnosti; Experiencia Adquirida con el Reactor Rapido VERA de Potencia Nula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weale, J. W.; McTaggart, M. H.; Goodfellow, H.; Paterson, W. J. [Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1964-02-15

    elements combustibles; incidences des irregularites des faces et de l'heterogeneite de la structure sur l'exactitude avec laquelle on determine la masse critique d'un assemblage equivalent 'ideal'; possibilite de reproduire l'etat critique apres avoir demonte l'assemblage ou separe les deux moities; variation de la reactivite lors de la separation des deux moities, et effets d'un chargement asymetrique; sensibilite de divers compteurs, intensite de la source de neutrons, utilisation d'un accelerateur comme source de neutrons; vitesse de reponse des circuits de securite et restrictions qu'elle peut entrainer pour la vitesse d'assemblage des deux moities; precautions supplementaires qu'il faut prendre pour utiliser le plutonium comme combustible; notes sur l'exactitude des mesures de la reactivite et sur les limitations d'ordre pratique imposees a diverses autres mesures en physique des reacteurs. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen brevemente las caracteristicas de un reactor rapido de potencia nula de dos mitades, en especial las que determinan la posibilidad de efectuar mediciones de precisidn en la esfera de la fisica de los reactores. Examinan las ventajas e inconvenientes de este tipo de reactor, basandose en la experiencia adquirida durante dos anos de funcionamiento. Exam in an los siguientes temas: ventajas, desde el punto de vista experimental, de la disposicion y de la construccidn en dos mitades; dimensiones y tolerancias de los elementos combustibles, y precisian con la que se puede determinar la posicion de dichos elementos; influencia de las irregularidades marginales y de heterogeneidad estructural sobre la exactitud con la que se determine la masa critica de un conjunto 'ideal' equivalente; posibilidad de reproducir las condiciones criticas despues de desmontar el conjunto o de separar las dos mitades; variaciones de la reactividad cuando se separan las dos mitades, en especial los efectos de una carga asimetrica; sensibilidad de varios contadores

  14. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a boiling water reactor which can enhance a quake resisting strength and flatten power distribution. Structure: At least more than four fuel bundles, in which a plurality of fuel rods are arranged in lattice fashion which upper and lower portions are supported by tie-plates, are bundled and then covered by a square channel box. The control rod is movably arranged within a space formed by adjoining channel boxes. A spacer of trapezoidal section is disposed in the central portion on the side of the channel box over substantially full length in height direction, and a neutron instrumented tube is disposed in the central portion inside the channel box. Thus, where a horizontal load is exerted due to earthquake or the like, the spacers come into contact with each other to support the channel box and prevent it from abnormal vibrations. (Furukawa, Y.)

  15. Operating Experience in Nuclear Power Plants with Boiling-Water Reactors; Experience acquise dans l'exploitation des reacteurs a eau bouillante; Opyt ehkspluatatsii kipyashchago reaktora; Experiencia adquirida con la explotacion de reactores de agua hirviente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascherl, R. J. [General Electric Company, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1963-10-15

    dans la centrale et aux alentours restent nettement au-dessous des limites fixees par les permis d'exploitation. La simplicite et la facilite d'exploitation des reacteurs a eau bouillante se sont confirmees. La rapidite de reponse du reacteur de Dresden aux variations de la demande est excellente. Aucun des travaux d'entretien et de reparation, quelle que soit leur importance, n'exige de qualification speciale ni ne comporte de risques de radioexposition excessifs. L'inspection generale et la revision de la turbine de la centrale de Dresden n'ont revele aucun probleme d'entretien apres 12 000 h de fonctionnement avec la vapeur en cycle direct. Or, on avait continue l'exploitation apres avoir constate que des cartouches de combustible etaient deteriorees. (author) [Spanish] El autor sefiala que la experiencia adquirida con la explotacion de centrales nucleoeleonicas que utilizan reactores de agua hirviente es ya bastante considerable. En efecto, al finalizar el aflo 1962 se habian generado mas de 2,2.10{sup 9} kWh en tres centrales nucleoelectricas integradas en redes de distribucion: la central nucleoelectrica de Dresden (Commonwealth Edison Company, Moriis, Illinois), la central nucleoelectrica de Vallecitos (Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pleasanton, California) y la central nucleoelectrica de Kahl (Reinisch-Westfalisches Elektrizitatswerk y Bayernwerk A.G., Kahl-am-Main, Republica Federal de Alemania). El rendimiento de estas centrales explotadas en condiciones normales de produccion de electricidad es excelente. Los factores de disponibilidad y de capacidad de los reactores y de las plantas constituyen una base firme para prever que las centrales nucleoelectricas dotadas de reactores de agua hirviente funcionaran a regimen continuo en condiciones de seguridad. En 1963 entraran en servicio cuatro nuevas centrales equipadas con reactores de agua hirviente: la central nucleoelectrica de Big Rock Point (Consumere Power Company, Charlevoix, Michigan), la central

  16. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  17. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  18. Fractal analysis of the electrical discharges' surface paths in polymeric insulation considering different pollution levels; Analisis fractal de las trayectorias de descargas electricas superficiales en aislamiento polimerico considerando diferentes niveles de contaminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios Lopez, Arturo

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis tree patterns of superficial breakdown in polymeric insulator of Silicon Rubber are generated. Experimental arrangement rod-rod was used on the basis of norm ASTM D 2303-85. Pollution levels on the basis of norm IEC 507 were also used. The experimental values of Fractal Dimension for each case of pollution were reported. A self similar method called Box Counting for the fractal dimension calculus and for the self affine methods an R/S and Variogram were used. According to the results, it was concluded that the tree patterns of superficial electric breakdown in Silicon Rubber is self similar and its value does not depend on the degree of pollution, that is equivalent to the concentration of salt for liter of water or to the Equivalent Salt Deposition (ESDD), in the surface of an insulator. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se inducen descargas electricas superficiales en un aislamiento polimerico de Hule Silicon, el arreglo experimental que se utilice es punta-punta con base en la norma ASTM D 2303-85 y los niveles de contaminacion con base en la norma IEC 507. Se reportan los valores experimentales de la Dimension Fractal para cada caso de contaminacion, se utilice el metodo auto similar de conteo de cuadros, para el calculo de la Dimension Fractal y para metodos auto afines se utilice analisis R/S y variograma. Con los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la trayectoria de la descarga electrica superficial en un polimero de Hule Silicon es auto similar y su valor no depende del grado de contaminacion, el cual es equivalente a la concentracion de gramos de sal por litro de agua o a la densidad de sal depositada (DESD), en la superficie de un aislador.

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America, Argentina: Specifications of ARGOS 380 MW Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-18

    and economy in operation. ENACE is an acronym for Empresa Nuclear Argentina de Centrales Electricas, or Argentine Nuclear Power Plant Corporation...products. The fuel transport system can be used during full reactor power operation to remove specially de - signed fuel assemblies containing rods for...SPECIFICATIONS OF ARGOS 380 MW REACTOR [Buenos Aires COMISION NACIONAL DE ENERGIA ATOMICA: INFORME in English 1987 pp 1-93] CONTENTS Argentine Offer of

  20. The electric tariff in the residential sector; Tarificacion electrica en el sector residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of this paper is to make an historical revision and analyze the current condition of the electric tariffs in the Mexican residential sector and ask ourselves if the equalization of tariffs generates the possibility that the entire population has access to the electricity service. The document is divided into three parts. The first one presents the history and the tendencies of the tariffs in the domestic sector in Mexico since 1973 until 1996 and the current tariff structure. The second one describes the characteristics of the residential users and mention is made of how the increment of the electric tariffs would affect the various population sectors. The last part of this paper presents some tariff criteria, that take into account energy conservation measures [Espanol] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es hacer una revision historica y analizar la situacion actual de las tarifas electricas en el sector residencial mexicano y preguntarnos si la igualdad de tarifas genera la posibilidad de que toda la poblacion tenga acceso al servicio electrico. El documento se divide en tres partes. La primera presenta la historia y tendencias de las tarifas del sector domestico en Mexico desde 1973 hasta 1996 y la estructura tarifaria actual. La segunda describe las caracteristicas de los usuarios residenciales y se menciona como afectaria el incremento de las tarifas electricas a los distintos sectores de la poblacion. La ultima parte de este trabajo presenta algunos criterios de tarificacion, que toman en cuenta medidas de ahorro de energia

  1. Estudio de seguridad del acoplamiento de un reactor de alta temperatura (VHTR) con una planta de producción de hidrógeno, análisis de los accidentes relevantes asociados

    OpenAIRE

    Moyart, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    Un estudio preliminar de seguridad dedicado al acoplamiento de un reactor nuclear de muy alta temperatura (Very High Temperature Reactor) con una planta de producción de hidrógeno (HYdrogen Production Plant) según el proceso de electrólisis a alta temperatura (High Temperature Electrolysis) se presenta en esta memoria. La primera parte de este documento está dedicada a las hipótesis de funcionamiento elegidas para el estudio, así como a la breve descripción de las dos instalaciones en el esta...

  2. Remoción de fósforo de diferentes aguas residuales en reactores aeróbios de lecho fluidizado trifásico con circulación interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyce Teixeira Correia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El vertimiento de aguas residuales (AR produce impactos sobre los cuerpos de agua receptores. Nutrientes como P generan implicaciones en los sistemas lénticos pues aceleran los procesos de eutrofización. Se han utilizado diversas tecnologías para la remoción de P de las AR: sistemas de tratamiento físico químico con importantes efectos por adición de productos coagulantes; procesos biológicos basados en alternancia de condiciones anaerobias y aerobias con importantes implicaciones de volumen necesario; sistemas como lagunas de estabilización e irrigación requieren de áreas muy considerables y procesos de postratamiento. Los reactores aerobios de lecho fluidizado con circulación interna (RALFCI son opciones compactas que utilizan gran concentración de biomasa activa que han demostrado su capacidad para remover materia orgánica y N. Para AR domésticas provenientes de la estación de bombeo de Ilha Solteira y para los efluentes de un sistema de recirculación acuícola (SRA de cultivo semi-intensivo de tilapia se evaluó la eficiencia de remoción de P reactivo y P total en tres tipos de RALFCI con diámetro externo de 250 mm y diferentes diámetros de tubo interno (DTI, con dos medios de soporte y diferentes concentraciones en dos de los reactores. Las eficiencias medias de remoción de P reactivo en AR domésticas para un tiempo de retención hidráulica (TRH de 3 horas en el reactor con DTI 125 mm variaron entre 25,6 y 38,4% y en el reactor con DTI 150 mm entre 27,5 y 32,5%; la remoción de P total en el SRA para un TRH de 0,19 h y DTI 100 mm fue de 32,7%.

  3. Educational software tool for protection system engineers: distance relay; Herramienta educativa para la formacion de ingenieros en protecciones electricas: relevador de distancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo-Guajardo, L.A.; Conde-Enriquez, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mail: luistrujillo84@gmail.com; con_de@yahoo.com

    2012-04-15

    In this article, a graphical software tool is presented; this tool is based on the education of protection system engineers. The theoretical fundaments used for the design of operation characteristics of distance relays and their algorithms are presented. The software allows the evaluation and analysis of real time events or simulated ones of every stage of design of the distance relay. Some example cases are presented to illustrate the activities that could be done with the graphical software tool developed. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una herramienta computacional grafica para apoyar la formacion de ingenieros en protecciones electricas. Los fundamentos teoricos para el diseno de caracteristicas de operacion de relevadores de distancia, asi como las rutinas de programacion de un relevador de distancia son presentados. La herramienta desarrollada permite la evaluacion de las etapas de diseno de relevadores y el analisis de la operacion ante eventos reales o simulados. Se presentan algunos casos de ejemplo para ilustrar las actividades didacticas que son posibles de realizar con la herramienta presentada.

  4. Calculation of the electromagnetic fields in electric machines through the use of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of induction problems. Pt. 3; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas de induccion. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part of the series for the indirect solution of partial differential equations. Magnetic systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density is partially known (induction problems) are considered. Includes the ability to deal with means in movement and a sinusoidal behavior for the source density current is assumed. Some algorithms are developed that are implanted in the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to obtain the numerical solutions of these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained through the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte de la serie y en el planteamiento proporcionado en la segunda parte para la solucion indirecta de ecuaciones diferenciales parciales. Se consideran sistemas magneticos en regiones cerradas con simetria traslacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total es parcialmente conocida (problemas de induccion). Incluye la capacidad para tratar medios con movimiento y se supone un comportamiento senoidal para la densidad de corriente fuente. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se implantan en el programa de computo CALIIE-2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para obtener las soluciones numericas de estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  5. Electrical energy saving in motors and frequency variators; Ahorro de energia electrica en motores y variadores de frecuencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Neri, Roger [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The necessity of saving energy is urgent and undeniable. We must already begin with the rational use of energy. Which is obtaining the maximum benefit of the consumed energy and of the necessary facilities for its generation, transmission and use. Guaranteeing at the same time an operation free of interferences or interruptions for the users. The electricity in alternating current does not allow its storage, reason why it is necessary to generate and distribute it at the precise moment when it is required. This forces to determine the proportions of the generation facilities, to be able to feed the periods of maximum demand called {sup p}eaks{sup .} It is this very point where the problem of the inappropriate use of the electrical energy starts. The energy waste is self-evident during the periods of low demand because of the low efficiency of the sub-utilized facilities. Electrical motors of the induction type use approximately more than 60% of the energy in the industry. If we use high efficiency motors instead of standard motors, a better advantage of the energy demanded from Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is obtained. [Spanish] Es impostergable e innegable la necesidad de ahorrar energia. Tenemos que empezar ya con el uso racional de la energia: Obtener el maximo beneficio de la energia consumida y de las instalaciones necesarias para su generacion, transmision y utilizacion. Garantizando a los usuarios un funcionamiento sin interferencias o interrupciones. La electricidad en corriente alterna no permite su almacenamiento, por lo que es necesario generarla y distribuirla en el momento preciso en que es requerida. Esto obliga a dimensionar las instalaciones de generacion, para poder alimentar los periodos de maxima demanda llamados pico. Desde esta parte inicia el problema de la mala utilizacion de la energia electrica. Ya que en los periodos de baja demanda, las instalaciones se encuentran subutilizadas y si su eficiencia es muy baja, el desperdicio de

  6. 3D As-Built a documentation of the substation electrical power 400 KV; Documentacion 3D As-Built de una subestacion electrica de 400 KV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarti Fernandez, F.

    2011-07-01

    It's getting parameters of time, yields and products obtained, in order to have an objective reference to the possible application of this technique to substations of Red Electrica Espanola (REE).

  7. Weather impact on the electric energy consumption of domestic users; Impacto del clima en el consumo de energia electrica en los usuarios domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    queremos un tiempo de retorno muy corto, o no se cuenta con el dinero necesario para la inversion inicial. Por ejemplo, una lampara incandescente cuesta varias veces menos que una lampara fluorescente compacta, pero si hacemos el calculo en el tiempo de vida y la reduccion en consumo de la lampara fluorescente compacta, podemos concluir que esta es mas rentable. El beneficio para la sociedad puede verse desde muy diversos aspectos, siendo el mas importante la conservacion de los recursos naturales y el medio ambiente. Desde el punto de vista empresa, los posibles factores de mas peso son el diferimiento de inversiones y la confiabilidad del sistema. Cuando se aplican algunos programas de administracion por el Lado de Demanda (ALD), las empresas apoyan o promueven proyectos no rentables financieramente, pero ganan impactando en el usuario, al crear una conciencia de ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia: se invierte en el corto plazo y se gana en el largo plazo. Por lo anterior, para una seleccion e implementacion optima, de medidas de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia electrica, se requiere de un conocimiento detallado de la forma de consumo. En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia que tiene el monitoreo de la forma de uso de la energia en diferentes tipos de usuarios, para poder tomar decisiones de programas de ALD, en muy diversos escenarios: ciudades, tipos de usuarios, niveles de ingresos, etc.

  8. Weather impact on the electric energy consumption of domestic users; Impacto del clima en el consumo de energia electrica en los usuarios domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    queremos un tiempo de retorno muy corto, o no se cuenta con el dinero necesario para la inversion inicial. Por ejemplo, una lampara incandescente cuesta varias veces menos que una lampara fluorescente compacta, pero si hacemos el calculo en el tiempo de vida y la reduccion en consumo de la lampara fluorescente compacta, podemos concluir que esta es mas rentable. El beneficio para la sociedad puede verse desde muy diversos aspectos, siendo el mas importante la conservacion de los recursos naturales y el medio ambiente. Desde el punto de vista empresa, los posibles factores de mas peso son el diferimiento de inversiones y la confiabilidad del sistema. Cuando se aplican algunos programas de administracion por el Lado de Demanda (ALD), las empresas apoyan o promueven proyectos no rentables financieramente, pero ganan impactando en el usuario, al crear una conciencia de ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia: se invierte en el corto plazo y se gana en el largo plazo. Por lo anterior, para una seleccion e implementacion optima, de medidas de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia electrica, se requiere de un conocimiento detallado de la forma de consumo. En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia que tiene el monitoreo de la forma de uso de la energia en diferentes tipos de usuarios, para poder tomar decisiones de programas de ALD, en muy diversos escenarios: ciudades, tipos de usuarios, niveles de ingresos, etc.

  9. Work Report 1994-1995 Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Electrical Research Institute)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas.

    1995-01-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Electrical Research Institute) collaborates with the Comision Federal de Electricidad (Electricity Federal Commission) and with the public and private entities of the electric sector in the solution of scientific and technological problems. The activity of the Institute follows the lineaments of the Secretaria de Energia (Energy Secretariat) and is inside the frame of the programs of national modernization. This two-year report presents in seven sections the activities of the Institute; the sections are: 1. Importance of the IIE in the economic context of the Governmental sector. 2. Orientations of sectorial structural policy and main operation results. 3. Structural change, 1994-1995. 4. Research and Development, advances and results. 5. Budget and financial situation. 6. Statistical Annex. 7. Glossary

  10. Notes on the Start-Up of the Latina Power Station; Notes concernant le demarrage de la centrale nucleaire de Latina; Zapusk ehlektrostantsii Latina; Notas sobre la puesta en marcha de la central electrica de Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabria, G.; Gualtieri, G. [AGIP Nucleare, Milano (Italy)

    1963-10-15

    desarrollo de los ensayos finales, sobre la carga del combustible y el orden en que se ejecutaron las operaciones de puesta en marcha y sobre las determinaciones y maniobras de regulacion posteriores al estado critico. Se resenan asimismo las operaciones iniciales de generacion y conexion de la central con la red electrica. Por ultimo, se mencionan los problemas de organizacion derivados de la explotacion de la central, incluyendo la preparacion y formacion profesional del personal y las medidas de seguridad adoptadas. (author) [Russian] Privoditsya informatsiya o zapuske pervoj ital'yanskoj atomnoj ehlektrostantsii Latina moshchnost'yu 200 mgvt. Reaktor rabotaet na prirodnom urane s grafitovym zamedlitelem i gazovym okhlazhdeniem. Posle kratkogo opisaniya osnovnykh kharakteristik ehlektrostantsii privodyatsya podrobnye dannye otnositel'no provedeniya zaklyuchitel'nykh ispytanij stantsii'', toplivnoj zagruzki i poryadka ehkspluatatsii, izmerenij i upravleniya s dovedeniem do kriticheskogo sostoyaniya. Daetsya ob''yasnenie raboty po zapusku i vklyucheniyu stantsii v ehlektroset'. Izlagayutsya takzhe problemy, svyazannye s ehkspluatatsiej stantsii, v tom chisle podgotovka personela i ego kvalifikatsiya, mery po bezopasnosti. (author)

  11. Predictive analysis on the electric energy distribution systems reliability: applying the synerGEE system; Analisis predictivo de la confiabilidad en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica: aplicando el sistema synerGEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Andrade, Carlos

    2008-12-15

    Electrical distribution systems ought to deliver electric power as economical as possible with an acceptable degree of service quality and continuity. Nevertheless, their faults represent one of the main causes of customer's unavailability. At the moment, a wide range of determinist criteria in the improvement of systems reliability based on past behavior are used, but they do not respond to the stochastic nature of system behavior, and are applied without an adequate balance between reliability and economy. In order to obtain this balance a minimum cost planning methodology that considers the predictive analysis of different investment alternatives in addition to the past behavior of the system is required, which guarantees that the economic resource available and limited will be used to gather the greater possible reliability degree. In this work this problem is approached with the fundamentals and methodologies needed to assess the design effects and operative criteria over the main reliability indexes used by the main utilities around the world, with emphasis on the need to optimize economical resources. The use of the system SynerGEETM, is investigated, probing it as a useful tool for the predictive reliability analysis. Due to the lack of experience that exists in Mexico with this type of analysis, distribution engineers has to become familiar with the concepts of the reliability engineering, their application to establish distribution systems models, and acquiring the ability to use the modern simulation tools, allowing them to evaluate the behavior of these systems with enough analytical rigor. In this sense a serial of well known study cases are presented to help them in this labor. [Spanish] Los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica deben satisfacer la demanda de energia electrica de la forma mas economica posible, con un grado de calidad y continuidad aceptable. Sin embargo, sus fallas son una de las principales causas de indisponibilidad en

  12. Advanced epithermal thorium reactor (AETR) physics; Physique d'un reacteur au thorium, a neutrons epithermiques, de type perfectionne (AETR); Fizika usovershenstvovannog o nadteplovogo torievogo reaktora; Fisica del reactor epitermico de tipo avanzado, alimentado con torio (AETR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campise, A. V. [Atomics International, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1962-03-15

    'etude de cet ensemble a mis en relief l'importance des donnees relatives aux sections efficaces et de l'interpretation theorique des resultats experimentaux pour l'etude d'un reacteur au thorium de type perfectionne. La precision des methodes analytiques employees a ete demontree lors de l'analyse des resultats experimentaux obtenus avec le ZPR-III. L'auteur compare trois configurations pour le transfert de chaleur, en utilisant le temps de doublement comme parametre d'optimisation. Les effets de la production de {sup 233}Pa et d'isotopes de l'uranium sur le bilan neutronique, les taux possibles de surgeneration et les caracteristiques de la combustion sont evalues en tenant compte de l'imprecision des sections efficaces nucleaires. (author) [Spanish] El autor estudia la concepcion del reactor AETR desde el punto de vista de la teoria actual de los parametros nucleares y del balance neutronico. En los sistemas moderados por grafito examina el efecto de la captura por resonancia en el torio para energias medias de absorcion del orden de 0,10 a 100 keV. Aplica formulas de resonancia angosta y de resonancia ancha para obtener la integral de resonancia efectiva en funcion de la temperatura, correspondiente a las barras de torio, y dicho parametro se expresa como secciones eficaces equivalentes de varios grupos. Se ha disenado y construido un conjunto critico para obtener datos nucleares indispensables en la gama de energias intermedias. En el diseno nuclear de dicho conjunto, se ha tenido particularmente en cuenta la importancia de los datos relativos a secciones eficaces y la interpretacion teorica de estos resultados experimentales, cosas ambas relacionadas con el diseno del reactor AETR. La precision de los metodos analiticos ha quedado demostrada por el estudio de los resultados experimentales obtenidos con el reactor ZPR-III. Se comparan tres sistemas de transmision de calor utilizando el tiempo de duplicacion como parametro optimo. Se estudia el efecto de la formacion

  13. The presence of harmonics in electric installations and some of its consequences; La presencia de corrientes armonicas en instalaciones electricas y algunas de sus consecuencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratu Serban, Neagu; Campero Littlewood, Eduardo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a short introduction to how the sinusoidal voltage waves are generated. A revision is made on the way of representing a distorted wave and the way of quantifying its harmonics content (harmonics distortion). An overview is made of the non-lineal consuming elements that produce distortion of the current waves. A revision is made on the concept of a power factor in conditions of waves with harmonic distortion. The consequences of feeding with distorted waves the different devices such as motors (particularly for the distortion originated by the rectifiers and the velocity electronic controls), transformers and capacitors. Mention is made of some of the methods for not to produce or for reducing the harmonic effect in the electric networks. The purpose of this article is to review the consequences on energy consumption by the presence of harmonics. [Espanol] En este articulo se hace una breve introduccion de la forma en que se generan las ondas senoidales de voltaje. Se revisa la manera de representar una onda distorsionada y la manera de cuantificar su contenido de armonicas (distorsion armonica). Se repasan los elementos consumidores no lineales que producen la deformacion de las ondas de corriente. Se revisa el concepto de factor de potencia en condiciones de ondas con distorsion armonica. Se analizan las consecuencias de alimentar con ondas distorsionadas a diferentes equipos como motores (particularmente por la distorsion originada por los rectificadores y los controladores de velocidad electronicos), transformadores y capacitores. Se mencionan algunos metodos para no producir, o reducir el efecto armonico en las redes electricas. El proposito de este articulo es revisar las consecuencias sobre el consumo de energia por la presencia de armonicas.

  14. The presence of harmonics in electric installations and some of its consequences; La presencia de corrientes armonicas en instalaciones electricas y algunas de sus consecuencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratu Serban, Neagu; Campero Littlewood, Eduardo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a short introduction to how the sinusoidal voltage waves are generated. A revision is made on the way of representing a distorted wave and the way of quantifying its harmonics content (harmonics distortion). An overview is made of the non-lineal consuming elements that produce distortion of the current waves. A revision is made on the concept of a power factor in conditions of waves with harmonic distortion. The consequences of feeding with distorted waves the different devices such as motors (particularly for the distortion originated by the rectifiers and the velocity electronic controls), transformers and capacitors. Mention is made of some of the methods for not to produce or for reducing the harmonic effect in the electric networks. The purpose of this article is to review the consequences on energy consumption by the presence of harmonics. [Espanol] En este articulo se hace una breve introduccion de la forma en que se generan las ondas senoidales de voltaje. Se revisa la manera de representar una onda distorsionada y la manera de cuantificar su contenido de armonicas (distorsion armonica). Se repasan los elementos consumidores no lineales que producen la deformacion de las ondas de corriente. Se revisa el concepto de factor de potencia en condiciones de ondas con distorsion armonica. Se analizan las consecuencias de alimentar con ondas distorsionadas a diferentes equipos como motores (particularmente por la distorsion originada por los rectificadores y los controladores de velocidad electronicos), transformadores y capacitores. Se mencionan algunos metodos para no producir, o reducir el efecto armonico en las redes electricas. El proposito de este articulo es revisar las consecuencias sobre el consumo de energia por la presencia de armonicas.

  15. DISEÑO DE UN SISTEMA DE GENERACION ELECTRICA CON PANELES FOTOVOLTAICOS BASADO EN UNA TOPOLOGIA MULTINIVEL PUENTE-H.

    OpenAIRE

    VILLANUEVA MENDEZ, ELENA ELIZABETH; VILLANUEVA MENDEZ, ELENA ELIZABETH

    2008-01-01

    L A ENERGÍA solar fotovoltaica es una fuente de energía renovable donde, por medio de paneles fotovoltaicos, se convierte la luz solar en energía eléctrica. Actualmente es una energía costosa pero tiene un gran potencial debido al elevado precio de los co 91p.

  16. Management and control of the electrical energy demand; Administracion y control de la demanda de la energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson Controls [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Administrative measures allow a reduction in the energy consumption, but not always in the electrical demand. Control measures allow a reduction in the billing of the electrical demand, but not always in the energy consumption. This is why it is explained in this document what management and control of the electrical demand is, as well as its control strategies, the control alternatives, the billing demand and at the same time graphical representations along with three practical cases on the management of demand in air compressors, air conditioning equipment and in corporative buildings are presented. [Spanish] La aplicacion de las medidas administrativas permite reducir el consumo de energia, pero no siempre la demanda electrica. La aplicacion de medidas de control permiten reducir la demanda electrica facturable, pero no siempre el consumo de energia. Es por eso que en este documento se explica que es la administracion y el control de la demanda electrica, sus estrategias de control, las alternativas de control, la demanda facturable, representaciones graficas y tres casos practicos sobre la administracion de demanda en compresores de aire, la administracion de demanda en aire acondicionado y la administracion de demanda en un edificio corporativo.

  17. Simulation of the flow obstruction of a jet pump in a BWR reactor with the code RELAP/SCDAPSIM; Simulacion de la obstruccion de flujo de una bomba jet en un reactor BWR con el codigo RELAP/SCDAPSIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas V, J.; Filio L, C., E-mail: jaime.cardenas@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose M. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    This work simulates the flow obstruction of a jet pump in one of the recirculation loops of a nuclear power plant with a reactor of type BWR at 100% of operating power, in order to analyze the behavior of the total flow of the refrigerant passing through the reactor core, the total flow in each recirculation loop of the reactor, together with the 10 jet pumps of each loop. The behavior of the power and the reactivity insertion due to the change of the refrigerant flow pattern is also analyzed. The simulation was carried out using the RELAP/SCDAPSIM version 3.5 code, using a reactor model with 10 jet pumps in each recirculation loop and a core consisting of 6 radial zones and 25 axial zones. The scenario postulates the flow obstruction in a jet pump in a recirculation loop A when the reactor operates at 100% rated power, causing a change in the total flow of refrigerant in the reactor core, leading to a decrease in power. Once the reactor conditions are established to its new power, the operator tries to recover the nominal power using the flow control valve of the recirculation loop A, opening stepwise as a strategy to safely recover the reactor power. In this analysis is assumed that the intention of the nuclear plant operator is to maintain the operation of the reactor during the established cycle. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of the reliability of electric power transmission systems; Evaluacion de confiabilidad de sistemas de transmision de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ortiz, Miguel

    1989-07-01

    algorithm in a digital program, this was proved in a personal computer applying it to IEEE transmission systems evaluated with other methods, among them one of 140 buses and 199 transmission lines. The results as far as reliability indexes compared with the other methods were very satisfactory and promising as far as required CPU time and memory for larger systems. [Spanish] En esta tesis se ataca el problema de la Evaluacion de la Confiabilidad de los Sistemas de Transmision de Energia Electrica para fines de su planeacion integral. Una vez descrito el problema se presentan los indices que miden la confiabilidad de los sistemas electricos de potencia. Despues se describen los metodos para evaluar las redes de transmision, como el de Enumeracion de Contingencias, el Monte Carlo, el de Markov y los metodos para sistemas complejos como el de Cortes Minimos. Este ultimo se desarrolla ampliamente por las ventajas que presenta su aplicacion en la planeacion de redes grandes y complejas. El metodo de cortes minimos consta de dos grandes pasos: Determinar los cortes minimos para los puntos de carga y calcular los indices de confiabilidad en base a los cortes minimos. Los algoritmos convencionales para la determinacion de cortes minimos consideran un problema por cada punto de carga en forma independiente pasando por una determinacion de caminos minimos. En este tipo de algoritmos el tiempo de CPU y el espacio en memoria requeridos crecen exponencialmente para el caso de sistemas de transmision grandes, lo que representa una fuerte restriccion para su aplicacion. Para resolver este problema se establecio una metodologia en la que se modela el sistema por medio de un grafo y se determinan los cortes minimos con un algoritmo basado en la construccion de ciclos en el grafo dual. Con estos cortes se evalua la conexidad y capacidad de la red, obteniendose los indices de confiabilidad para cada bus y para el sistema. Estos indices se calculan con la representacion equivalente para

  19. Validation of the inspections with ultrasound of the welds of the reactor of ITER vacuum vessel; Validacion de las inspecciones con ultrasonidos de las soldaduras de la Vasija de Vacio del reactor del ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.; Fernandez, F.; Perez, C.; Sillero, J. A.

    2013-07-01

    The ITER fusion reactor vacuum vessel has thousands of welding austenitic with shapes and different manufacturing processes. The RCC-MR code, which is that applied to the manufacture of the fusion reactor, requires a volumetric test all of them. This test should be mainly by x-rays and welds where it was not possible to use this method, ultrasonic.09-06.

  20. Electric protections based in microprocessors in power plants; Protecciones electricas basadas en microprocesadores en centrales generadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libreros, Domitilo; Castanon Jimenez, Jose Ismael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This article is centered around the substitution of the conventional electric protections of a power plant in connection type unit for protections based in microprocessors. A general model of conventional protection of a power plant is described and the number of analogic and digital signals that intervene in that model are quantified. A model is setup for power plant protection with microprocessors, analyzing each one of the modules that would form it. Finally, the algorithms to carry on such protection are presented. [Espanol] Este articulo se centra en torno a la sustitucion de las protecciones electricas convencionales de una central generadora en conexion tipo unidad por protecciones basadas en microprocesadores. Se describe el modelo general de proteccion convencional de una central generadora y se cuantifica el numero de senales analogicas y digitales que interviene en dicho modelo. Se propone un modelo para proteccion de centrales generadoras mediante microprocesadores, analizandose cada uno de los modulos que lo conformarian. Finalmente, se presentan los algoritmos para realizar dicha proteccion.

  1. Electric protections based in microprocessors in power plants; Protecciones electricas basadas en microprocesadores en centrales generadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libreros, Domitilo; Castanon Jimenez, Jose Ismael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is centered around the substitution of the conventional electric protections of a power plant in connection type unit for protections based in microprocessors. A general model of conventional protection of a power plant is described and the number of analogic and digital signals that intervene in that model are quantified. A model is setup for power plant protection with microprocessors, analyzing each one of the modules that would form it. Finally, the algorithms to carry on such protection are presented. [Espanol] Este articulo se centra en torno a la sustitucion de las protecciones electricas convencionales de una central generadora en conexion tipo unidad por protecciones basadas en microprocesadores. Se describe el modelo general de proteccion convencional de una central generadora y se cuantifica el numero de senales analogicas y digitales que interviene en dicho modelo. Se propone un modelo para proteccion de centrales generadoras mediante microprocesadores, analizandose cada uno de los modulos que lo conformarian. Finalmente, se presentan los algoritmos para realizar dicha proteccion.

  2. Algorithms for the evaluation of the reliability of networks and substations; Algoritmos para evaluar la confiabilidad de redes y subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ortiz, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    Two algorithms are presented, one for analyzing the reliability of networks and another one to analyzing the reliability of electrical substations. The algorithms model a network or a substation by means of a graph and determine all the exits, of up to third degree, which isolates the load points. The algorithm that is used for the network analysis, is the one of p-cuts and in the case of the substations it is the one of minimum ways, for later, from these minimum p-cuts and of the minimum ways, obtains the minimum cuts. These minimum cuts are evaluated with the approximate method and give as a result the system reliability and of each one of the components that have been modeled. At the end some examples and results obtained are shown. As case of study, the algorithm is applied to two substations arrangements and to a network of industrial distribution, but it is possible to be applied to transmission and distribution networks. [Spanish] Se presentan dos algoritmos, uno para analizar la confiabilidad de redes y otro para analizar la confiabilidad de subestaciones electricas. Los algoritmos modelan una red o una subestacion por medio de un grafo y determinan todas las salidas, de hasta tercer grado, que aislan los puntos de carga. El algoritmo que se utiliza para el analisis de redes, es el de p-cortes y en el caso de las subestaciones es el de caminos minimos, para despues, a partir de estos p-cortes minimos y de los caminos minimos, obtener los cortes minimos. Estos cortes minimos se evaluan con el metodo aproximado y dan como resultado la confiabilidad del sistema y de cada una de las componentes que se hayan modelado. Al final se muestran algunos ejemplos y resultados obtenidos. Como caso de estudio, el algoritmo se aplica a dos arreglos de subestaciones y a una red de distribucion industrial, pero se puede aplicar a redes de transmision y de distribucion.

  3. Study of a fuel assembly for the nuclear reactor of IV generation cooled with supercritical water; Estudio de un ensamble de combustible para el reactor nuclear de generacion IV enfriado con agua supercritica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan M, A.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: albrm29@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (MX)

    2011-11-15

    In this work a neutron study is presented about a square assembly design of double line of fuel rods, with moderator box to the center of the arrangement, for a nuclear reactor cooled with supercritical water (SCWR). The SCWR reactor was chosen by the characteristics of its design, mainly because is based in light water reactors (PWR and BWR), and the operational experience that has of them allow to use models and similar programs to simulate the fuel and the nucleus of this type of reactors. To develop the necessary models and to carry out the design and analysis of the SCWR reactor, the neutron codes MCNPX and Helios were used. The reason of using both codes, is because the code MCNPX used thoroughly in the neutron simulation of these reactors, it has been our reference code to analyze the results obtained with the Helios code which results are more efficient because its calculation times are minors. In the nucleus design the same parameters for both codes were considered. The results show that the design with Helios is a viable option to simulate these reactors since their values of the neutrons multiplication factor are very similar to those obtained with MCNPX. On the other hand, it could be corroborated that the CASMO-4 code is inadequate to simulate the fuel to the temperature conditions and water pressure in the SCWR. (Author)

  4. Procedures to enter the international market of the carbon and PEMEX electrical generation projects; Procedimientos para ingresar al mercado internacional del carbono y proyectos de generacion electrica de PEMEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeferino Abundis, Yolanda [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    de gases de efecto invernadero. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) tiene grandes necesidades de energia electrica y vapor, y cuenta con proyectos con caracteristicas que bajo el MDL cubren con las caracteristicas para ser tecnica y economicamente viables.

  5. Energy saving in the pumping of drinking water, Municipality of San Felipe, Guanajuato; Ahorro de energia electrica en bombeo de agua potable, en el municipio de San Felipe, Gto.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamiz Sanchez, Lorenzo [Applied Technology Center de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2006-01-15

    This paper shows the results attained in energy saving through a project of potable water pumping, which took an investment of $433,043.00 and an internal rate of return of 126%. This project puts into evidence that it is possible to reduce between 15 and 30% of the total invoicing for energy consumption in potable water pumping if an equipment of poor efficiency is replaced by another of high efficiency. The project was requested by the Guanajuato's State Water Comision and the Municipal Bureau of Sewage and Potable Water, with the double intention of reducing the energy consumption along with the corresponding invoicing and incrementing the output of the wells in order to improve the potable water supply. In the site two high efficiency submersible motor-pumps were installed previously to the energy diagnosis that triggered profitable operation results and a convenient invoicing. [Spanish] Se documentan los resultados obtenidos en un proyecto de ahorro de energia en el bombeo de agua potable realizado con una inversion de $433,043.00 y con una tasa interna de retorno de 126%. Este proyecto pone en evidencia que es posible reducir entre el 15 y 30% de la facturacion total por consumo de energia electrica en el bombeo de agua potable si se sustituye un equipo poco eficiente por otro de alta eficiencia. El proyecto fue solicitado por la Comision Estatal del Agua de Guanajuato y la Junta Municipal de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado del municipio, con un doble proposito, reducir el consumo de energia junto con la facturacion correspondiente e incrementar la capacidad de produccion de los pozos con la intencion de mejorar el abasto de agua potable. En el lugar se instalaron dos motobombas sumergibles de alta eficiencia previo diagnostico energetico que desencadenaron rentables resultados operativos y de facturacion.

  6. Reactor de película líquida descendente para la sulfonación de ésteres metílicos con trióxido de azufre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alfonso Torres Ortega

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un conjunto de experimentos de sulfonación de dodecilbenceno (DDB y ésteres metílicos (ME derivados de la esteari- na hidrogenada de palma, con SO3 gaseoso desorbido del óleum, en un reactor de sulfonación en película líquida descendente a escala banco de 40 cm de longitud y ½ pulgada de diámetro interno. Mediante titulaciones volumétricas se determinaron los porcentajes de materia sulfonada y contenido de ácido sulfúrico, así como el porcentaje de aceite libre mediante extracciones con éter de petróleo. La funcionalidad del reactor se verificó efectuando ensayos a condiciones reportadas por Gutiérrez y cola- boradores para dodecilbenceno sulfonado (DDBS, para lo cual fueron determinadas las técnicas de análisis en el Laboratorio de Ingeniería Química (LIQ de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Bogotá, con el acompañamiento de la empresa Química Básica Colombiana (Caloto, Cauca. Finalmente, se procedió a evaluar la influencia de diferentes variables de proce- so sobre la sulfonación de la mezcla de ésteres metílicos. Los resultados obtenidos en el sulfonador se ajustaron por regresión li- neal múltiple a ecuaciones empíricas, obteniendo expresiones que muestran de forma directa el efecto de variables como la re- lación molar SO3/ME, concentración de SO3 en la corriente gaseosa y flujo másico de ME.

  7. Reactores aeróbios de lecho fluidizado trifásico con circulación interna: caracterización hidrodinámica y del soporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Andrés Sánchez Ortiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los reactores aerobios de lecho fluidizado con circulación interna utilizan biomasa activa adherida a un medio soporte (biopelícula, con la ventaja de retener gran concentración de la misma, utilizando poco espacio físico y pudiendo remover, en un mismo reactor, materia carbonácea y nitrogenada. La circulación del líquido ocurre debido a la diferencia de presión hidrostática producida por la inyección de aire en el tubo de subida. En la condición de medio bifásico fueron estudiadas las velocidades de circulación, fracción volumétrica de aire y coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno, utilizando cuatro configuraciones de reactores. En medio trifásico se evaluaron las velocidades de circulación, la fracción volumétrica de aire y el coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno en una de dichas configuraciones. También se realizó la caracterización de tres posibles medios de soporte granulares. Se determinó que la relación de áreas entre los tubos interno y externo y la concentración de medio soporte influencian los valores de velocidad de circulación del líquido, de la fracción volumétrica de aire y de la transferencia de oxígeno y se observaron y compararon características importantes de los medios de soporte.

  8. Simulation of the operational monitoring of a BWR with Simulate-3; Simulacion del seguimiento operacional de un reactor BWR con Simulate-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez F, J. O.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Fuentes M, L.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: ace.jo.cu@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    This work was developed in order to describe the methodology for calculating the fuel burned of nuclear power reactors throughout the duration of their operating cycle and for each fuel reload. In other words, simulate and give monitoring to the main operation parameters of sequential way along its operation cycles. For this particular case, the operational monitoring of five consecutive cycles of a reactor was realized using the information reported by their processes computer. The simulation was performed with the Simulate-3 software and the results were compared with those of the process computer. The goal is to get the fuel burned, cycle after cycle for obtain the state conditions of the reactor needed for the fuel reload analyses, stability studies and transients analysis, and the development of a methodology that allows to manage and resolve similar cases for future fuel cycles of the nuclear power plant and explore the various options offered by the simulator. (Author)

  9. Design of the core of a breed/burn fast reactor with the deterministic code KANEXT; Diseno del nucleo de un reactor rapido de cria/quemado con el codigo deterministico KANEXT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez S, R. C.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: rcarlos.lope@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The breeding fast reactors are interesting because they generate more plutonium than they consume, however, the fuel has to be reprocessed for the generated plutonium is used in another reactor. In a breed/burn reactor (BBR) the plutonium is generated and used -in situ- inside the same reactor, reducing this way costs and the proliferation possibility. In this work, the core of a BBR was designed; cooled by sodium that consists of 210 active assemblies and 7 spaces for control rods, each assembly consists of 169 pines. The design differs from other BBR it includes a blanket in the reactor center. The above-mentioned was to take advantage of the fact by geometry that the population of fast and epithermal neutrons will be high in the area, due to the fissions in adjacent fissile areas. Favorable results were obtained, although not definitive with exchange scheme of spent fuel. Efforts should be made in the future to homogenize the power generation within the reactor and replace the spent assemblies more efficiently. (Author)

  10. Study of the neutronic behavior of a fuel assembly with gadolinium of a reactor HPLWR; Estudio del comportamiento neutronico de un ensamble combustible con gadolinia de un reactor HPLWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan M, A.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: albrm29@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    This work presents a neutronic study of a square assembly design of double line of fuel rods, with moderator box to center of the arrangement, for the nuclear reactor cooled with supercritical water, High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR). For the fuel analyses of the reactor HPLWR the neutronic code Helios-2 was used, settling down as the first study on fuel under conditions of supercritical water that has been simulated with this code. The analyzed variables, essentials in the neutronic design of any reactor, were the infinite neutrons multiplication factor (k{infinity}) and the maximum power peaking factor (PPF{sub max}), as well as the reactivity coefficients by the fuel temperature. The k{infinity} and PPF{sub max} values were obtained under conditions in cold (293.6 K) and in hot (to 880.8 K). The tests were realized for a reference fuel assembly design, with 40 fuel rods with enrichments of 4 and 5% of U-235, and considering different concentrations of consumable poison (gadolinium - Gd{sub 2O3}) in some rods of the same assembly. The obtained results show values k{infinity} and PPF{sub max} minors to the present in the conventional light water reactors. Moreover, the reactivity coefficients by fuel temperature were verified with the purpose of satisfying the safety conditions required in the nuclear reactors. (Author)

  11. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Computational aspects; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Aspectos computacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario; De la Torre, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In this article are described the computational characteristics of the Package CALIIE 2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the calculation of bi-dimensional electromagnetic fields. The computational implementation of the package is based in the electromagnetic and numerical statements formerly published in this series. [Espanol] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas computacionales del paquete CALIIE 2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para calcular campos electromagneticos bidimensionales. La implantacion computacional del paquete se basa en los planteamientos electromagneticos y numericos antes publicados en esta serie.

  12. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Computational aspects; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Aspectos computacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario; De la Torre, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    In this article are described the computational characteristics of the Package CALIIE 2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the calculation of bi-dimensional electromagnetic fields. The computational implementation of the package is based in the electromagnetic and numerical statements formerly published in this series. [Espanol] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas computacionales del paquete CALIIE 2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para calcular campos electromagneticos bidimensionales. La implantacion computacional del paquete se basa en los planteamientos electromagneticos y numericos antes publicados en esta serie.

  13. Natural ionizing system to electrical protection and energy; Sistema ionizante natural de proteccion electrica y energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabareda Fermin; Luis [Universidad de Los Andes (Venezuela)]. E-mail: lcabaredaf@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    This is the new highest technology, 100% Venezuelan and unique in the world, technological innovation, world patent for maximum protection, security and zero risk (0) to all electrical and power generation systems: hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants, wind, nuclear and solar power plants, etc; it's the only technology around the world that has the potential to disperse and propagate to land mass the enormous energies associated to the atmospheric discharges (lightning), which are in the order: 200,000 to 500,000 Amperes; 1,000 million Kilowatts and high-level transient voltage of 100 million Volts. This new high technology is the solution to the paradigm of Benjamin Franklin and it is the mechanism to end blackouts that produce so many damages and losses of billions of dollars to both generators and users of electrical service, throughout the world. [Spanish] Esta nueva mas alta tecnologia, 100% venezolana y unica en el mundo, innovacion tecnologica, patente mundial ofrece maxima proteccion, seguridad y riesgo cero (0) a todos los sistemas de generacion electrica: centrales hidroelectricas, termoelectricas, de viento, nucleares y solar, otros; es la unica tecnologia en el mundo que tiene el potencial para dispersar y propagar a la masa terrestre las enormes energias asociadas a las descargas atmosfericas (rayos) que estan en el orden de: 200.000 a 500.000 amperios, 1.000 millones de kilovatios y voltajes transitorios de alto nivel de 100 millones de voltios. Esta nueva alta tecnologia es la solucion al paradigma de Benjamin Franklin y es el mecanismo para eliminar apagones que producen danos y perdidas de billones de dolares para ambos: generados y usuarios del servicio electrico, alrededor del mundo.

  14. REVISIÓN DE LAS EXPERIENCIAS EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DOMÉSTICAS MEDIANTE REACTORES UASB EN COCHABAMBA-BOLIVIA COMPARADAS CON LAS DE LATINOAMÉRICA, INDIA Y EUROPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gandarillas R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de tratamiento anaeróbico es cada vez más reconocido como opción viable para la protección del medio ambiente y la conservación de los recursos y representa, combinado con otros métodos adecuados, un sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales sostenible y apropiado para los países en vías de desarrollo. El tratamiento anaeróbico de aguas residuales se está utilizando con éxito en los países tropicales desde la década de los 80, y con resultados alentadores en las regiones subtropicales y templadas. En este estudio se revisan las principales características del tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas, con énfasis en el Reactor Anaeróbico de Mantos de Lodos de Flujo Ascendente (RALF o Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB de su sigla en inglés. Se revisaron las aplicaciones del proceso UASB en Europa, Asia y las Américas. En Latino América y en particular en Bolivia el uso de esta tecnología ha incrementado considerablemente debido a la pequeña demanda de terreno requerida para su implementación y a sus atractivos costos de inversión y operación. La revisión mostró, en base a la experiencia de operación de distintas plantas de tratamiento ubicadas en los valles de Cochabamba, que los reactores anaerobios de mantos de lodos de flujo ascendente apropiadamente diseñados, son adecuados para el tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas en las regiones de los valles y llanos de Bolivia debido a que presentan condiciones ambientales que hacen que el uso de esta biotecnología anaerobia sea favorable bajo la perspectiva del desarrollo sostenible.

  15. Desalination plan with nuclear reactors as part of a sustainable development program in Mexico; Plan de desalinizacion con reactores nucleares como parte de un programa de desarrollo sustentable en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas A, O; Calleros M, G., E-mail: oziel.rojas.siimisa@gmail.com [Soluciones en Instrumentacion Integral y Mantenimiento Industrial y Servicios, S. A. de C. V. (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    This paper presents a project for the desalination of seawater with nuclear reactors, in order to supply fresh water to the populations near to the nuclear power plant. A case study is proposed with the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, implementing a system that allows taking advantage of the residual heat of the seawater condensate stage and with this, to supply drinking water to the surrounding localities where the vital liquid is scarce. In addition, legislation is proposed to allow some of the thermal energy generated by reactors producing electrical energy in Mexico to be used for the desalination of seawater and/or hydrogen production. (Author)

  16. Problems in producing nuclear reactor for medical isotopes and the Global Crisis of molybdenum supply; Problemas en la produccion en reactores nucleares de isotopos con fines medicos y la crisis mundial de suministro de molibdeno ({sup 9}9Mo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubiarrain, A.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear medicine uses drugs that incorporate a radioactive isotope radiopharmaceuticals. Every year are performed, worldwide, 35 million nuclear medicine procedures, of which 80% are done with radiopharmaceuticals containing the isotope, molybdenum-99, produced in nuclear reactors. In recent years, there have been several supply crisis of molybdenum-99, which have hampered diagnostic procedure with technitium-99m. (Author)

  17. Design of a mixed recharge with MOX assemblies of greater relation of moderation for a BWR reactor; Diseno de una recarga mixta con ensambles MOX de mayor relacion de moderacion para un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J.R.; Alonso V, G.; Palacios H, J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jrrs@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The study of the fuel of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium (MOX) it has been topic of investigation in many countries of the world and those are even discussed in many places the benefits of reprocessing the spent fuel to extract the plutonium created during the irradiation of the fuel in the nuclear power reactors. At the moment those reactors that have been loaded partially with MOX fuel, are mainly of the type PWR where a mature technology has been achieved in some countries like they are France, Belgium and England, however the experience with reactors of the type BWR is more limited and it is continued studying the best way to introduce this type of fuel in BWRs, one of the main problems to introduce MOX in reactors BWR is the neutronic design of the same one, existing different concepts to introduce the plutonium in the assemblies of fuel and one of them is the one of increasing the relationship of moderation of the assemble. In this work a MOX fuel assemble design is presented and the obtained results so far in the ININ. These results indicate that the investigated concept has some exploitable advantages in the use of the MOX fuel. (Author)

  18. Simulator of the punctual kinetics of a TRIGA Mark III reactor with power diffuse control in a visual environment; Simulador de la cinetica puntual de un reactor nuclear TRIGA Mark III con control difuso de potencia en un ambiente visual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez M, C

    2004-07-01

    The development of a software is presented that simulates the punctual kinetics of a nuclear reactor of investigation model TRIGA Mark III, generating the answers of the reactor low different algorithms of control of power. The user requires a graphic interface that allows him easily interacting with the simulator. To achieve the proposed objective, first the system was modeled in open loop, not using a mathematical model of the consistent reactor in a system of linear ordinary differential equations. For their solution in real time the numeric method of Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg was used. As second phase, it was modeled to the system in closed loop, using for it an algorithm of control of the power based on fuzzy logic. This software has as purpose to help the investigator in the control area who will be able to prove different algorithms for the control of the power of the reactor. This is achieved using the code source in language C, C++, Visual Basic, with which a file is generated. DLL and it is inserted in the simulator. Then they will be able to visualize the results as if their controller had installed in the reactor, analyzing the behavior of all his variables that will be stored in files, for his later study. The easiness of proving these control algorithms in the reactor without necessity to make it physically has important consequences as the saving in the expense of fuel, the not generation of radioactive waste and the most important thing, one doesn't run any risk. The simulator can be used how many times it is necessary until the total purification of the algorithm. This program is the base for following investigation processes, enlarging the capacities and options of the same one. The program fulfills the time of execution satisfactorily, assisting to the necessity of visualizing the behavior in real time of the reactor, and it responds from an effective way to the petitions of changes of power on the part of the user. (Author)

  19. Analysis of the generation of electric energy through the use of biogas obtained from sanitary fillings in Mexico; Analisis de la generacion de energia electrica a traves de biogas procedente de rellenos sanitarios en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Sauvage, Tania Kalinka [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    tecnologia en nuestro pais. En la parte introductoria de este trabajo se plantean algunas causas que han favorecido el desarrollo de tecnologias como la aqui planteada. En la primera parte se expone que es el biogas y que condiciones son necesarias para su produccion lo cual explica la produccion de biogas en los rellenos sanitarios, ademas se describe la distribucion de los residuos solidos que dan origen a la situacion actual de los rellenos sanitarios y el proceso de produccion de biogas en estos. El trabajo continua con una descripcion del proceso de generacion de energia electrica a traves del biogas procedente de rellenos sanitarios indicandose las condiciones necesarias para que el relleno cumpla sus funciones basicas; siguiendo nuestro proceso hasta la obtencion del producto final, energia electrica. Para la descripcion del proceso y analizar algunos factores que intervienen me ha parecido conveniente incluir los principales aspectos de una planta ubicada en Monterrey, que ocupa esta tecnologia. Este proyecto muestra de una forma tangible las barreras a las que esta tecnologia se enfrenta, asi como sus principales ventajas y desventajas. Se exponen las limitantes de esta tecnologia en los aspectos tecnologicos, economicos, politicos y sociales, las barreras que pueden y deben vencerse asi como las razones que justifican el esfuerzo para vencerlas. Finalmente se presentan las conclusiones a que conduce asi como los comentarios y sugerencias con respecto al tema.

  20. Simulation of a reactor FBR with hexagonal-Z geometry using the code PARCS 3.1; Simulacion de un reactor FBR con geometria hexagonal-Z usando el codigo PARCS 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M. C.; Del Valle G, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Filio L, C., E-mail: rf.melisa@gmail.com [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The nuclear reactor core type FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) was modeled in three dimensions of hexagonal-Z geometry using the code PARCS (Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator) version 3.1 developed by Purdue University researchers. To carry out the modeling of the mentioned reactor was taken the corresponding information to one of the described benchmarks in the document NEACRP-L-330 (3-D Neutron Transport Benchmarks, 1991); fundamentally the corresponding to the geometric data and the cross sections. Being a quick reactor of breeding, known as the Knk-II, for which are considered 4 energy groups without dispersions up. The reactor core is formed by prismatic elements of hexagonal transversal cut where part of them only corresponds to nuclear fuel assemblies. This has four reflector rings and 6 identical control elements that together with the active part of the core is configured with 8 different types of elements.With the extracted information of the mentioned document the entrance file was prepared for PARCS 3.1 only considering a sixth part of the core due to the symmetry that presents their configuration. The NEACRP-L-330 shows a wide range of results reported by those who collaborated in its elaboration using different solution techniques that go from the Monte Carlo method to the approaches S{sub 2} and P{sub 1}. Of all the results were selected those obtained with the code HEXNOD, to which were carried out a comparison of the effective multiplication factor, being smaller differences to the 300 pcm, for three different scenarios: a) with the control bars extracted totally, b) with the semi-inserted control bars and c) with the control bars inserted completely and two different axial meshes, a thick mesh with 14 slices and another fine with 38, that which implies that the results can be considered very similar among if same. Radial maps and axial profiles are included, as much of the power as of the neutrons flow. (Author)

  1. Remoción anaerobia del colorante azul directo brl en Reactor Anaerobio de Flujo Ascendente UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket con carbón activado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zavala-Rivera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research the brl direct blue dye was used for anaerobic removal with a bacterial consortium of industrial effluents from Industrial Park Río Seco (IPRS, Arequipa, Peru; in an anaerobic reactor of UASB Upflow with activated carbon. The reactor had a capacity of 14.4 L with sludge and activated carbon of 40% of volume, with an organic load of 6 Kg COD/m3•dia and a hydraulic retention time of 1 day with an upward flow. The objective was to measure the efficiency of the anaerobic removal of coloring in a time of 28 days. The results showed an increase of 41% of the solids suspended volatile (SSV 12894 mg•L-1 up to 21546 mg•L-1 under the conditions of the experiment, with a removal of 57% of the chemical demand of oxygen (COD from 484 mg•L-1 to 122 mg•L-1 and a removal of 87% of the dye Blue direct the 69.61 brl mg•L-1 to 9 mg•L-1. Results with activated charcoal granular only, they showed a removal of 61% of the dye Blue direct 70.67 brl mg•L-1 to 27.83 mg•L-1 at 28 days.

  2. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  3. Development and validation of a model TRIGA Mark III reactor with code MCNP5; Desarrollo y validacion de un modelo del reactor Triga Mark III con el codigo MCNP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galicia A, J.; Francois L, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Aguilar H, F., E-mail: blink19871@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The main purpose of this paper is to obtain a model of the reactor core TRIGA Mark III that accurately represents the real operating conditions to 1 M Wth, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. To provide a more detailed analysis, different models of the reactor core were realized by simulating the control rods extracted and inserted in conditions in cold (293 K) also including an analysis for shutdown margin, so that satisfied the Operation Technical Specifications. The position they must have the control rods to reach a power equal to 1 M Wth, were obtained from practice entitled Operation in Manual Mode performed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). Later, the behavior of the K{sub eff} was analyzed considering different temperatures in the fuel elements, achieving calculate subsequently the values that best represent the actual reactor operation. Finally, the calculations in the developed model for to obtain the distribution of average flow of thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons in the six new experimental facilities are presented. (Author)

  4. Evaluación de los Parametros Fisicoquímicos en Reactores Discontinuos de Lodos Activados para el Tratamiento de Aguas con Metanol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Carabali Lasso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: en la actualidad existen varios tipos de tecnologías limpias que ayudan a la descontaminación del agua residual industrial, como los sistemas de lodos activados. Dichas tecnologías han resultado efectivas en la remoción de materia orgánica y coloidal en aguas residuales domésticas e industriales, biosorción de metales pesados y remoción de patógenos y nutrientes (N y P. Lo anterior motiva la propuesta de trabajar con un sistema de tratamiento de lodos activados a escala en un ambiente controlado, a fin de demostrar su efectividad en tratamiento de aguas con metanol. Método: el sistema de tratamiento de lodos activados se diseña y construye a escala a nivel de laboratorio para estudiar diferentes concentraciones de metanol en aguas residuales de una industria. En los montajes de cinco sistemas de tratamiento se realizan mediciones de parámetros fisicoquímicos como: pH, oxígeno disuelto, temperatura, demanda química de oxígeno, sólidos suspendidos totales y la pérdida de metanol; a las 0, 24 y 48 h por cuadruplicado para observar el comportamiento de dichos parámetros durante la reducción de metanol. Resultados: para los sistemas de lodos activados se demuestra una pérdida promedio de metanol del 10,3 %. Los promedios de oxígeno disuelto decrecieron en el tiempo, aunque la demanda química de oxígeno es variable. Cada sistema con concentración diferente de metanol presenta comportamiento particular. Conclusiones: esta investigación indica que la biodegradación de metanol en aguas residuales industriales es posible, teniendo en cuenta que en el sistema de tratamiento a escala se obtuvo una disminución de metanol en el tiempo. Además, los resultados motivan a continuar investigando sobre esta tecnología limpia, de la cual no se dispone suficiente literatura en lo que respecta al manejo de lodos activados para la eliminación de metanol.

  5. Optimization of the distribution of bars with gadolinium oxide in reactor fuel elements PWR; Optimizacion de la distribucion de barras con oxido de gadolinio en elementos combustibles para reactores PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melgar Santa Cecilia, P. A.; Velazquez, J.; Ahnert Iglesias, C.

    2014-07-01

    In the schemes of low leakage, currently used in the majority of PWR reactors, it makes use of absorbent consumables for the effective control of the factors of peak, the critical concentration of initial boron and the moderator temperature coefficient. One of the most used absorbing is the oxide of gadolinium, which is integrated within the fuel pickup. Occurs a process of optimization of fuel elements with oxide of gadolinium, which allows for a smaller number of configurations with a low peak factor for bar. (Author)

  6. Methodology for solving the equation of transport ordered discrete TORT code in the reactor IPEN/MB-01; Metodologia para resolver la ecuacion del transporte con el codigo de Ordenadas Discretas TORT en el reactor IPEN/MB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, A.; Abarca, A.; Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.

    2013-07-01

    The resolution of the neutron transport equation in steady state in pool-type nuclear reactors, is normally achieved through 2 different numerical methods: Monte Carlo (stochastic) and discrete ordinates (deterministic). The discrete ordinates method solves the neutron transport equation for a set of specific addresses, obtaining a set of equations and solutions for each direction, where the solution for each direction is the angular flux. With the aim of treating energy dependence, used energy multigroup approximation, thus obtaining a set of equations that depends on the number of energy groups considered.

  7. Reliability of electric generation units by evaluating the loss of power and efficiency of turbines; Confiabilidad de las unidades de generacion electrica mediante la evaluacion de la perdida de potencia y eficiencia de las turbinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Cristalinas Navarro, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the specialized technical service to evaluate the loss of power and efficiency of an open steam turbine is to quantify these losses caused by the deterioration of internal seals, deterioration of the steam path geometry components (nozzles and blades) and increased roughness of the blades and nozzle surface due to erosion (steam, humidity and impacts) and, also, due to salts deposition. In the same way, to establish a set of recommendations, in order of importance by the attention of the Power Plant with the purpose of recovering the major quantity of power and efficiency lost by the steam turbine and assurance, by means of technical supervision of the activities set in the recommendations, and in accordance with CFE rules, international standards and the personal experience of the Instituto de Investogaciones Electricas (IIE), staff, an acceptable quality in rehabilitation of mechanical components such as the maintenance of the steam turbine itself. Using an application example, this paper describes, the methodology of execution of this kind of services. Also, the quality of the maintenance and the rehabilitation of the steam turbine components are quantified. [Spanish] El objetivo del servicio tecnico especializado para evaluar la perdida de potencia y eficiencia de una turbina de vapor abierta es cuantificar dichas perdidas a causa del deterioro de los sellos internos, del deterioro la geometria de referencia de los componentes del canal de vapor (alabes fijos y alabes moviles) y del aumento de la rugosidad de la superficie de los alabes a causa de la erosion (marcas de vapor, de humedad y de impactos) y de la deposicion de sales. Asimismo, establecer una serie de recomendaciones en orden prioritario para la atencion de la central, con el fin de recuperar la mayor parte de la potencia y eficiencia perdidas por la turbina y asegurando, mediante la supervision tecnica de las actividades resultantes de las recomendaciones y conforme a la normativa de la

  8. Inspection with non destructive assay techniques of the aluminium coating of the TRIGA Mark III reactor vat; Inspeccion con tecnicas de ensayos no destructivos del recubrimiento de aluminio de la tina del reactor TRIGA Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes A, A.I.; Gonzalez M, A.; Castaneda J, G.; Rivera M, H.; Sandoval G, I. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In June 2000, the Reactor Department assigned to the Scientific Research Direction of the National Institute of Nuclear Research requested to the Non-destructive Assays Laboratory (LEND), assigned to the Materials Science Management, the inspection and measurement of thickness of the aluminium coating (liner) of the TRIGA Mark III reactor vat with non-destructive assay techniques, due to that the aluminium coating is exposed mainly to undergo slimming on its back side due to corrosion phenomena. Activity that was able to be carried out from april until august 2001. It is worth pointing out that this type of inspection with these techniques was realized by first time. The non-destructive assays (NDA) are techniques which use indirect physical methods for inspecting the sanitation of components in process or in service, for detect lack of continuity or defects which affect their quality or usefulness. The application of those do not alter the physical, chemical, mechanical or dimensional properties of the part subject of inspection. The results of the application of the ultrasound inspection techniques, industrial radiography and penetrating liquids are presented. (Author)

  9. Comparison of results for burning with BWR reactors CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON / NEWT); Comparacion de los resultados de quemado para reactores BWR con CASMO y SCALE 6.2 (TRITON/NEWT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesado, C.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we compare the results from two codes burned, CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON). To do this, is simulated all segments corresponding to a boiling water reactor (BWR) using both codes. In addition, to account for different working points, simulations changing the instantaneous variables, these are repeated: void fractions (6 points), fuel temperature (6 points) and control rods (two points), with a total of 72 possible combinations of different instantaneous variables for each segment. After all simulations are completed for each segment, we can reorder the obtained cross sections, as SCALE CASMO both, to create a library of compositions nemtab format. This format is accepted by the neutronic code of nodal diffusion, PARCS v2.7. Finally compares the results obtained with PARCS and with the SIMULATE3 -SIMTAB methodology to level of full reactor. Also, we have made use of the KENO-VI and MCDANCOFF modules belonging to SCALE. The first is a Monte Carlo transport code with which you can validate the value of the multiplier, the second has been used to obtain values of Dancoff factor and increase the accuracy of model SCALE. (Author)

  10. Comparison of wastewater plant of Nova Pampulha, with an UASB reactor, with another ten brazilian stations; Comparacion de la EDAR de Nova Pampulha, dotada de reactor UASB, con otras diez plantas brasilenas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrosa Correa, S. M. B.; Ruiz, E.; Romero, F.

    2004-07-01

    This work is based on data of the wastewater plant of Nova Pampulha with an UASB reactor. The objective of this research was focussed in the comparison of this plant with another ten brazilian stations provided with different depuration techniques. Firstly the graphical comparison of average operational data suggest analogies between influents (less suspended solids in the Nova Pampulha), effluent (more suspended solids and bacteria in the same station) and alimentation's (smaller for suspended solids and bacteria in Nova Pampulha, where there is also an increase in alkalinity). Cluster analysis, made with percentages of elimination of constituents in the eleven stations and shown as dendrograms, was chosen as the second comparative method. A third comparison was affected by multiple linear regression for obtaiming mathematical models from the eliminations of constituents, with statistical significance at level of the 95% confidence, using as possible independent variables the flows and the concentrations of influents. The explanations of the variances of data by the calculated equations is in the range 46 to 91%. As a general conclusion, it can be said that a well operated UASB reactor may be a satisfactory technique for wastewater treatment and well adapted to climatological Brazilian conditions. (Author) 14 refs.

  11. Design and construction of the prototype of a digital meter of single phase electric energy based in a microcontroller; Diseno y construccion del prototipo de un medidor digital de energia electrica monofasico basado en un microcontrolador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alonso, Ruben

    2003-10-15

    . Este medidor toma muestras de voltaje y corriente de ondas senoidales y las convierte a digital para realizar el procesamiento en tiempo real. El aparato esta construido en base al microcontrolador PIC16F874 de la tecnologia microchip. Todos los parametros medidos y calculados son visualizados en una pantalla de cristal liquido de 2 X 16 caracteres, tiene un menu donde se selecciona alguno de los parametros a conocer. En caso de falla de suministro de energia electrica, el medidor almacena el consumo de energia en memoria. El voltaje es medido desde 1 a 255 Vrms, la corriente desde 0.1 a 25.5 Arms, la potencia se muestra en 5 digitos desde 0 a 6502.5 watts, la energia se presenta con 5 digitos enteros y 5 decimales, desde 0 hasta 99999.99999 kWh, este valor se visualiza cada segundo, y el costo por el consumo se presenta desde 0 hasta 9999.9 pesos. Para la construccion del aparato se disenaron cuatro tarjetas que son: adquisicion de datos, acondicionamiento de la senal, procesamiento de la senal y presentacion de resultados, que se interconectan entre si para formar el medidor digital de energia electrica. Se desarrollaron rutinas en lenguaje ensamblador que calculan todos los parametros electricos descritos anteriormente y se ensamblaron en el microcontrolador donde se procesa la informacion.

  12. Hybrid system of generating electricity, solar eolic diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Sistema hibrido de generacion electrica, eolico solar diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Johnston, Peter [Technology Development, Arizona (United States); Napikoski, Chester [Generation Engineering, Arizona (United States); Escutia, Ricardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    that is generated thru the selling of electric energy, guarantees the sustainable operation of the system. [Spanish] La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), y la empresa electrica norteamericana Arizona Public Service (APS), firmaron un convenio de colaboracion para desarrollar un proyecto de generacion de energia electrica con la utilizacion de energias renovables. Las premisas que se acordaron fueron las siguientes: 1. Enfoque del proyecto hacia una comunidad rural. 2. El costo de la obra debera ser menor al de su interconexion con el sistema convencional. 3. Aceptacion por parte de la comunidad, y autoridades gubernamentales. 4. Sustentabilidad de la operacion del sistema. Se efectuaron diversos analisis tecnicos y economicos asi como la evaluacion del recurso solar y eolico, estudio de impacto ambiental, plan de negocios para obtener la aprobacion de los recursos economicos ante instancias como Niagara Mohawk (NIMO), y la USAID, mediante la supervision de los Laboratorios Nacionales de Sandia. Despues de efectuarse las mediciones anemometricas y de radiacion solar, en diversas comunidades, se considero a la comunidad de San Juanico como la mas viable; tambien los aspectos de logistica, sociales, tamano de la comunidad y como detonador para las actividades economicas como la pesca y el turismo. La APS llevo a cabo el proyecto ejecutivo de conformidad con las recomendaciones de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. El proyecto consistio basicamente en la instalacion de 10 aerogeneradores de 10 Kw. c/u, un arreglo solar de 17 Kw., un inversor de 70 Kw., un banco de baterias de 432 Kwh., mas un motogenerador diesel de emergencia de 80 Kw. Ademas de la obra civil y electromecanica. Fue necesario involucrar a la poblacion en el conocimiento y seguimiento del proyecto desde sus inicios, ya que consideramos que este factor seria indispensable para lograr el exito del mismo. Se instalaron lamparas ahorradoras de energia en viviendas y alumbrado publico para optimizar el

  13. Hybrid system of generating electricity, solar eolic diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Sistema hibrido de generacion electrica, eolico solar diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Johnston, Peter [Technology Development, Arizona (United States); Napikoski, Chester [Generation Engineering, Arizona (United States); Escutia, Ricardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    is generated thru the selling of electric energy, guarantees the sustainable operation of the system. [Spanish] La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), y la empresa electrica norteamericana Arizona Public Service (APS), firmaron un convenio de colaboracion para desarrollar un proyecto de generacion de energia electrica con la utilizacion de energias renovables. Las premisas que se acordaron fueron las siguientes: 1. Enfoque del proyecto hacia una comunidad rural. 2. El costo de la obra debera ser menor al de su interconexion con el sistema convencional. 3. Aceptacion por parte de la comunidad, y autoridades gubernamentales. 4. Sustentabilidad de la operacion del sistema. Se efectuaron diversos analisis tecnicos y economicos asi como la evaluacion del recurso solar y eolico, estudio de impacto ambiental, plan de negocios para obtener la aprobacion de los recursos economicos ante instancias como Niagara Mohawk (NIMO), y la USAID, mediante la supervision de los Laboratorios Nacionales de Sandia. Despues de efectuarse las mediciones anemometricas y de radiacion solar, en diversas comunidades, se considero a la comunidad de San Juanico como la mas viable; tambien los aspectos de logistica, sociales, tamano de la comunidad y como detonador para las actividades economicas como la pesca y el turismo. La APS llevo a cabo el proyecto ejecutivo de conformidad con las recomendaciones de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. El proyecto consistio basicamente en la instalacion de 10 aerogeneradores de 10 Kw. c/u, un arreglo solar de 17 Kw., un inversor de 70 Kw., un banco de baterias de 432 Kwh., mas un motogenerador diesel de emergencia de 80 Kw. Ademas de la obra civil y electromecanica. Fue necesario involucrar a la poblacion en el conocimiento y seguimiento del proyecto desde sus inicios, ya que consideramos que este factor seria indispensable para lograr el exito del mismo. Se instalaron lamparas ahorradoras de energia en viviendas y alumbrado publico para optimizar el

  14. Electric energy saving in the cellulose and paper industry; Ahorro de energia electrica en la industria de celulosa y papel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This paper delineates the results of the demonstration project for electric energy saving, which is one of the twenty four projects in which the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) sponsors the diagnosis as well as the applied measures and the measures currently in application. Also the potential opportunity areas and the measures applied and in course of application, as well as the required investments and their recuperation periods. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describen los resultados del proyecto de demostracion de ahorro de energia electrica que es uno de los veinticuatro proyectos, en los que el Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) financia tanto el diagnostico como la aplicacion de medidas. Se presentan tanto las areas de oportunidad, potenciales y medidas aplicadas y en aplicacion, asi como las inversiones requeridas y los periodos de recuperacion de las mismas.

  15. Electric energy saving in the cellulose and paper industry; Ahorro de energia electrica en la industria de celulosa y papel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This paper delineates the results of the demonstration project for electric energy saving, which is one of the twenty four projects in which the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) sponsors the diagnosis as well as the applied measures and the measures currently in application. Also the potential opportunity areas and the measures applied and in course of application, as well as the required investments and their recuperation periods. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describen los resultados del proyecto de demostracion de ahorro de energia electrica que es uno de los veinticuatro proyectos, en los que el Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) financia tanto el diagnostico como la aplicacion de medidas. Se presentan tanto las areas de oportunidad, potenciales y medidas aplicadas y en aplicacion, asi como las inversiones requeridas y los periodos de recuperacion de las mismas.

  16. Hydraulic turbines uses for rural electric generation; Utilizacion de microturbinas para la generacion electrica en el medio rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genta, J [Facultad de Ingenieria, Instituto de Mecanica de Fluidos e Ingenieria Ambiental, Montevideo, (Uruguay); Nunes, V [Facultad de Ingenieria, Instituto de Ingenieria Electrica, Montevideo, (Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    The micro turbines use for electric generation either in autonomous systems or in connection to the national net is presented like an alternative whose viability has been studied in the Agreement taken place between the UTE Administracion Nacional de Usinas y transmisiones Electricas y la Facultad de Ingenieria. The Agreement {sup S}tudy for the Installation of Micro turbines that initially considered areas far from the national electric net it extended then to near areas to the same one to analyze the cogeneration alternative. They were considered smaller and bigger powers than 1 MW and up to 5MW. For the whole study range a methodology is described of calculate primary, starting from a minimum of field information that allows a first estimate of viability of a certain place and the selection of the turbine type, for a later detailed study.

  17. Photovoltaic systems interconnected to the electric network; Sistemas fotovoltaicos interconectados a la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano Diaz, Jaime [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    . Enseguida, se muestra la solucion que le encontro el Gobierno del Estado a este problema para lo que fue necesaria la participacion del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Esta participacion, se traduce en un proyecto que muestra la viabilidad de instalar sistemas fotovoltaicos interconectados a la red de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en casas habitacion. Despues, se presenta una descripcion no solo de los elementos que conforman el sistema, sino tambien de la metodologia y el funcionamiento del mismo. Posteriormente, se presenta el efecto positivo, economicamente y ambientalmente hablando, que tuvo la instalacion del sistema en las 220 casas habitacion del fraccionamiento Valle de las Misiones, asi como las caracteristicas generales del mismo. Ademas, se presenta la manera de alcanzar un mayor impacto y cobertura del sistema. Finalmente, se presentan los auspiciadotes del proyecto: la Secretaria de Energia (SENER), la CFE, la Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), la Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), el IIE, el Banco de Desarrollo de America del Norte (BDAN) y el Gobierno del Estado de Baja California.

  18. Analysis of an accident type sbloca in reactor contention AP1000 with 8.0 Gothic code; Analisis de un accidente tipo Sbloca en la contencion del reactor AP1000 con el codigo Gothic 8.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goni, Z.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Fernandez, K.; Queral, C.; Montero, J.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis is based on the simulation of a Small Break Loss-of-Coolant-Accident in the AP1000 nuclear reactor using a Gothic 8.0 tri dimensional model created in the Science and Technology Group of Nuclear Fision Advanced Systems of the UPM. The SBLOCA has been simulated with TRACE 5.0 code. The main purpose of this work is the study of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of the AP1000 containment during a SBLOCA. The transients simulated reveal close results to the realistic behaviour in case of an accident with similar characteristics. The pressure and temperature evolution enables the identification of the accident phases from the RCS point of view. Compared to the licensing calculations included in the AP1000 Safety Analysis, it has been proved that the average pressure and temperature evolution is similar, yet lower than the licensing calculations. However, the temperature and inventory distribution are significantly heterogeneous. (Author)

  19. The PBMR electric power generation plant; La planta de generacion de energia electrica PBMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez S, G.; Santacruz I, I.; Martin del Campo M, C. [FI-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: gabriela_perez@engineer.com

    2003-07-01

    This work has as purpose to diffuse in a general way the technology of the one modulate reactor of pebble bed. Because our country is in developing ways, the electric power demand goes in increase with that which it is presented the great challenge of satisfying this necessity, not only being in charge of the one fact per se, but also involving the environmental aspect and of security. Both factors are covered by the PBMR technology, which we approach in their basic aspects with the purpose that the public opinion knows it and was familiarized with this type of reactors that well could represent a solution for our growing electricity demand. We will treat this reactor visualizing it like part of a generation plant defining in first place to the itself reactor. We will see because that the system PBMR consists of 2 main sections: the reactor and the unit of energy conversion, highlighting that the principle of the PBMR reactor operation is based on the thermodynamic Brayton cycle cooled by helium and that, in turn, it transmits the energy in form of heat toward a gas turbine. In what concerns to the fuel, it peculiar design due to its spherical geometry is described, aspect that make to this reactor different from the traditional ones that use fuel rods. In fact in the fuel spheres of the PBMR it is where it resides great part of it inherent security since each particle of fuel, consistent in uranium dioxide, is lined one with coal and silicon carbide those which form an impenetrable barrier containing to the fuel and those radioactive products that result of the nuclear reactions. Such particles are encapsulated in graphite to form the sphere or 'pebble', of here born the name of this innovative technology. (Author)

  20. Analysis methodology for economic technical feasibility studies in offshore electrical generation systems; Metodologia de analisis para estudios de factibilidad tecnica economica en sistemas de generacion electrica costa fuera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis methodology followed in the development of technique-economic feasibility studies of systems of electrical generation in offshore electrical installations is presented, including the obtaining of the curves of the turbine and generator performance, the technical considerations for the formulation of the operation scenes and the calculations of the economic evaluation of a real scenario. [Spanish] Se muestra una metodologia de analisis seguida en el desarrollo de estudios de factibilidad tecnica-economica de sistemas de generacion electrica en instalaciones electricas costa fuera, incluyendo la obtencion de las curvas de comportamiento de la turbina y el generador, las consideraciones tecnicas para la formulacion de los escenarios de operacion y los calculos de la evaluacion economica de un escenario real.

  1. Fuel management inside the reactor. Report of generation of the nuclear bank for the fuel of the initial load of the Laguna Verde U-1 reactor with the FMS codes; Administracion de combustible dentro del reactor. Reporte de generacion del banco nuclear para el combustible de la carga inicial del reactor de Laguna Verde U-1 con los codigos del FMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Torres A, C. [CFE, Veracruz (Mexico)

    1991-06-15

    In this work in a general way the form in that it was generated the database of the initial fuel load of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor is described. The initial load is formed with fuel of the GE6 type. The obtained results during the formation of the database in as much as to the behavior of the different cell parameters regarding the one burnt of the fuel and the variation of vacuums in the coolant channel its are compared very favorably with those reported by the General Electric fuel supplier and reported in the design documents of the same one. (Author)

  2. A review of investigations on wastewater treatment with MSOBR (membrane supported and oxygenated biofilm reactors); Una revision de las investigaciones sobre el tratamiento de aguas residuales con RBSOM (reactores de biopelicula que emplean membranas con material soporte y medio de oxigenacion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban Garcia, A. L.; Tejero Monzon, I.

    2007-07-01

    MSOBR (membrane supported and oxygenated biofilm reactors) are biological reactors for wastewater treatment in which biofilm support and oxygenation functions are carried out by gas permeable membranes. In these conditions, with oxygen and substratum (carbonaceous, nitroge neous) diffusing into the biofilm from opposite sides, different environments are developed inside the biofilm, allowing simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and carbon removal. Other added advantages, such us the possibility of a high oxygen transfer efficiency or those derived from the absence of bubbles in aeration (minimizing foaming and VOC emissions), have lead numerous research groups to work in the development of different MSOBR systems, with promising results that make possible to consider their practical applicability in the near future. (Author) 69 refs.

  3. Comparison and validation of the results of the AZNHEX v.1.0 code with the MCNP code simulating the core of a fast reactor cooled with sodium; Comparacion y validacion de los resultados del codigo AZNHEX v.1.0 con el codigo MCNP simulando el nucleo de un reactor rapido refrigerado con sodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galicia A, J.; Francois L, J. L.; Bastida O, G. E. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Esquivel E, J., E-mail: blink19871@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The development of the AZTLAN platform for the analysis and design of nuclear reactors is led by Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) and divided into four working groups, which have well-defined activities to achieve significant progress in this project individually and jointly. Within these working groups is the users group, whose main task is to use the codes that make up the AZTLAN platform to provide feedback to the developers, and in this way to make the final versions of the codes are efficient and at the same time reliable and easy to understand. In this paper we present the results provided by the AZNHEX v.1.0 code when simulating the core of a fast reactor cooled with sodium at steady state. The validation of these results is a fundamental part of the platform development and responsibility of the users group, so in this research the results obtained with AZNHEX are compared and analyzed with those provided by the Monte Carlo code MCNP-5, software worldwide used and recognized. A description of the methodology used with MCNP-5 is also presented for the calculation of the interest variables and the difference that is obtained with respect to the calculated with AZNHEX. (Author)

  4. Gasification of heavy fuels to produce electrical energy and hydrogen; Gasificacion de combustibles pesados para producir energia electrica e hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Garcia, Oscar Alberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico(UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    A description is presented of the different types of integrated gasifiers that at the moment are used in the synthesis gas production to be used, with different fuels in the generation of electricity in Combined Cycle. Three cases of application of integrated gasifiers are analyzed. The first it is the engine power upgrade of a Combined Cycle power plant to natural gas to burn fuel of bad quality in an integrated gasifier (CCGI). The second one examines the incorporation of a shift reactor in which the synthesis gas is transformed into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} which are used to move the turbine to gas, adapted for pure hydrogen. Finally is studied the amount of other by-products that can be obtained from these co-generation cycles such as CO{sub 2} to be used in secondary recovery of oil wells, N{sub 2} to be used in the fertilizer industry or in the proper oil production and H{sub 2} to be used in the oil industry or the generation with fuel cells. All the cases are studied in quantitative form, making the balance of mass and energy of each one of them. In order to give more practical sense to the calculations, the engineering data of the Valladolid Power station of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have been taken as base. This article provides a basic idea, but very practical, to estimate the fuel consumption of the different modes of arrangement of a CCGI power station, as well as the volumes of the different gases that can be produced and the modifications to the size of the equipment that is required. [Spanish] Se presenta una descripcion de los diferentes tipos de gasificadores integrados que actualmente se utilizan en la produccion de gas de sintesis para ser utilizados, con diferentes combustibles, en la generacion de electricidad con Ciclo Combinado. Se analizan tres casos de aplicacion de gasificadores integrados. El primero es la repotenciacion de una planta de Ciclo Combinado a gas natural para quemar combustible de mala calidad en un gasificador

  5. Impact of a PV system interconnected to the electric network of a High Consumption Domestic user's demand in BCS; Impacto de un sistema fotovoltaico interconectado a red en la demanda electrica de un usuario DAC en BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Grajales, H. R.; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Gonzalez Galarza, R.; Munguia del Rio, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    In Mexico, the incident solar radiation is high enough, that encourage its use both to produce process heat or electricity trough solar cells in autonomous configurations or grid. In European countries with substantially lower irradiation levels such as Germany or Spain. PV Grid Connected Systems (PVGCS) are a mature technology that is widely used in these countries, mainly due to tax incentives and preferential feed in tariffs schemes. Of the benefits that electricity production modality provides both the user and to the electricity grid and also the technical benefits for the utilities for incorporating distributed generation at its distribution system. In Mexico, more and more people are motivated to invest in this type of technology. This article analyzes the particular case of a user that is classified as High Consumption Domestic Customer (HCDC) in the city of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, who owns a single phase of 6 kWp PVGCS installed on the roof of her house. The reported results in this paper come from data analyzed by the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) for a three year monitoring period. The paper includes meteorological information, energy and power balances, maximum power, standard production, system losses, efficiency of the photovoltaic generator and inverters, among other performance information. The document highlights the impact that the PV system on electricity consumption user billing from the utility, and some recommendations are provided on what must be done in order get out from the HCDC classification and the economic benefits of it. [Spanish] En Mexico se tienen niveles de irradiacion solar suficientemente altos que desde un punto de vista puramente energetico alientan a su aprovechamiento en la produccion de electricidad, ello mediante sistemas fotovoltaicos directamente conectados a la red electrica convencional (SFVI). En paises europeos con niveles de irradiacion sustancialmente inferiores - i.e. Espana o Alemania- esta

  6. Sistema de presupuesto de materiales y mano de obra electrica sipreme

    OpenAIRE

    Briones Ruiz, Freddy Roddy; Murgueitio Chuchuca, Glenda Desiree; Freire Cobo, Lenin Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    La forma más eficiente de llevar la información de las empresas es por medio de la automatización ya que debido a esto se pueda llevar un control de materiales presupuestado con los comprados y a la vez los entregados; de esa forma se pudiese dar por finalizado una obra de instalaciones eléctricas. El objetivo de nuestro sistema es que resuelva de manera eficiente, rápida y de forma fácil los diferentes requerimientos de todos aquellos profesionales de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Telefónica...

  7. Fuzzy control for the operation of an electrical energy generation system based on standard fuel cells PEM; Control difuso para la operacion de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez R, Miguel; Gutierrez A, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rodriguez P, Alejandro [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Fuel cells, as totally clean power plants, have many applications in the industry in general, in the transport system, in the electricity generation for domestic consumption and in the communication systems, among others. When developing new forms of generation with renewable energy sources, it must be considered that petroleum will stop in being an available power resource. The interest in the study of the fuel cells has been increased in the last years because it is considered a solution to the supply of distributed energy problem. Therefore, already exist research institutions that are developing work on this technology. A generation of electrical energy system based on fuel cells is a nonlinear system where the control of the variables of the process, such as the temperature of the system and the pressurization of the reactants, are an important aspect for its proper operation, since it influences in the water balance and therefore in the global efficiency of the system. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible, como fuente de energia totalmente limpia, tienen muchas aplicaciones en la industria en general: en el sistema de transporte, en la generacion de electricidad para consumo domestico y en los sistemas de comunicacion, entre otros. Al desarrollar nuevas formas de generacion con fuentes de energia renovables, se debe considerar que el petroleo dejara de ser un recurso energetico disponible. El interes en el estudio de las celdas de combustible se ha incrementado en los ultimos anos debido a que se le considera una solucion al problema de abasto de energia distribuida. Por lo tanto, ya existen instituciones de investigacion que estan desarrollando trabajos sobre esta tecnologia. Un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible es un sistema no lineal en donde el control de las variables del proceso, tales como la temperatura del sistema y la presurizacion de los reactantes, es un aspecto importante para su buen funcionamiento, ya que

  8. Design of earth network in electric substations; Diseno de redes de tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raull-Martin, J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summarized version of the different types of construction of grounding systems, as web as their materials and formulas, which are necessary and useful for the design and building of a grounding network for medium to high voltage facilities. A description is also made of how to determine the electrical resistivity of subsoil layers with different physical characteristics. Several illustrative examples are also solved in the paper. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar de manera resumida los diferentes tipos de construccion de los sistemas de tierra, asi como sus materiales y formulas, los cuales son necesarios y utiles para el diseno y edificacion de una red de tierra para instalaciones de mediana y alta tension. Se describe tambien la obtencion de las diferentes resistividades que presentan los terrenos con diversas caracteristicas fisicas. Asi mismo, se solucionan ejercicios ilustrativos a lo largo del articulo.

  9. Saving of electrical energy in educative institutions; Ahorro de energia electrica en instituciones educativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Medina, Gabino [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Campus Estado de Mexico, (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present work looks for integrating the actions of energy saving that can be applied in educative institutions, not concerning the level or size of the same ones. The actions go from questions of making aware the student population until those involved in the change in the operation, migration and implementation of technology. Without overlooking the formative aspect that the educative institutions have and the social commitment of these last ones. It is important that the saving measures have as mission to achieve a culture focussed to make efficient use of the resources, of energy as well as material. This culture must be born from the classrooms and must transform the way to be and act of the student community that will permeate itself with the society. Let us remember that actions are worth more than words, so the educative institutions must preach with the example. [Spanish] El presente trabajo busca integrar las acciones de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en instituciones educativas, no importando el nivel o tamano de las mismas. Las acciones van desde cuestiones de concienciar a la poblacion estudiantil hasta las que involucran el cambio en la operacion, migracion e implementacion de tecnologia. Sin perder de vista el aspecto formativo que tienen las instituciones educativas y el compromiso social de estas ultimas. Es importante que las medidas de ahorro tengan como mision lograr una cultura enfocada a hacer uso eficiente de los recursos, tanto energeticos como materiales. Dicha cultura debe nacer desde las aulas y debe transformar la manera de ser y actuar, de la comunidad estudiantil que se permeara con la sociedad. Recordemos que las acciones valen mas que las palabras, asi que las instituciones educativas deben predicar con el ejemplo.

  10. Estudio cinético del proceso de digestión anaerobia de aguas de lavado de aceitunas de almazara en reactores de mezcla completa con microorganismos inmovilizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja, Rafael

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic study of the continuous anaerobic digestion process of wastewaters from the washing of olives prior to the oil production process was carried out in a completely mixed reactor with sepiolite immobilised biomass at 35° C. Four influent COD concentrations, 4,5, 3,5, 2,5 y 1,5 g COD/I were used as substrate operating for a hydraulic retention time range of 4,5 to 1,25 days. The Michaelis-Menten model has been applied, obtaining the values of the maximum substrate utilization rate, k( (g COD/g VSS day, and the kinetic constant of the process, Ks (g COD/I, for each influent substrate concentration studied. The values of these parameters significantly decreased with decreasing concentration of influent wastewater, showing the highest values for the greatest influent substrate concentration used as feed. The microbial yield coefficient, Yx, and sludge decay rate coefficient, kd, were also determined to be 0,14 g VSS/g COD and 0,003 days-1 respectively.

    Se ha efectuado un estudio cinético del proceso de digestión anaerobia en régimen continuo de aguas de lavado de aceitunas de almazara en un reactor de mezcla completa utilizando sepiolita como soporte para la inmovilización de los microorganismos responsables del proceso, a la temperatura de 35° C. Se utilizan cuatro concentraciones de sustrato como alimento, 4,5, 3,5, 2,5 y 1,5g DQO/I, operando con cada una de ellas en un rango de tiempos de retención hidráulicos de 4,5 a 1,25 días. Para ello, se aplica el método cinético de Michaelis-Menten, obteniéndose los valores de la velocidad máxima de utilización de sustrato, k(g DQO/g SSV día, y de la constante cinética del proceso, Ks (g DQO/I, para cada concentración de sustrato objeto de estudio. Se observa que estas constantes cinéticas disminuyen de forma significativa al disminuir la concentración de sustrato en el alimento

  11. The Spanish energetic mix; prevision and historic evolution of the electric production structure; El mix energetico espanol; evolucion historica y prevista de la estructura de produccion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revuelta, J.; Lopez Sanz, R.

    2010-07-01

    This article describes the past and forecasted evolution of the electric production of the Spanish system (excluding the Spanish isolated systems), according to the records of the System Operator, Red Electrica de Espana, and the studies of its Network Planning department. The behaviour of the demand is analysed, as well as the evolution of the generation mix. The article expose the main recent changes the sector has undergone and points out the main future challenge it will face regarding the forecasted evolution of the demand, the integration of renewable energy sources, and the energy objectives established at European and national level. (Author)

  12. Nuclear power generation in competition with other sources for base load electricity generation; La generacion nuclear en competencia con otras fuentes para generacion electrica de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notari, C; Rey, F C [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina). Unidad de Actividad Reactores y Centrales Nucleares

    1997-12-31

    The latest studies performed by OECD and IAEA on the subject were analyzed in order to clarify the international context. Nuclear, gas and coal are compared. The general conclusion is that nuclear power is competitive for electricity generation considering new plants to be commissioned around year 2000. If the discount rate is 5% per annum it is considered the best option in most of the countries included in the studies. If 10% is chosen the levelized costs favour the gas option. In the Argentine case, the analysis of possible plants for the near future shows a clear advantage for the gas projects. This is mainly due to the low capital costs and low local gas prices. The possible evolution of this situation is considered: gas prices will most probably increase because they should approach the price of fuel oil or diesel oil which are used as substitutes in winter for electricity generation and the export projects to Chile and Brasil will also push prices up. The environmental aspects of the question and its influence on regulations and costs is a matter of speculation. Some countries have already penalized greenhouse gases emissions but it is not clear how and when this trend will affect local prices. (author). 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Red Electrica de Espana S.A.. Instrument of regulation and liberalization of the Spanish electricity market (1944-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrues-Irurzun, Josean; Lopez-Garcia, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    To understand the regulation system of the Spanish electricity market it is first necessary to understand on the one hand the system of tariffs and prices, and on the other the organization of the market for high voltage distribution. This article is concerned with this second aspect and traces its history from 1944, this is because before that date it was not possible to speak of a truly national market, but rather only of regional monopolies. In the 1940s, with Franco's new political regime, and the development of the Spanish electricity sector, it became necessary to completely rethink business strategies in relation to competition and cooperation, as well as the regulatory function of the state. In the 1950s, the main feature of the sector was the system of business self-regulation permitted by the state. Throughout the remaining years of Franco's government state intervention was particularly focussed on the subject of tariffs, but with the onset of democracy the state was to involve itself in the transmission network as well. A debate began as to whether it should be run by a private or public operator. In this dispute were ranged, on the one hand, the economic policy concepts of the major parties (PSOE and PP), and against them the strategic interests of the companies. Although the high voltage transmission network was nationalized by the state in the mid-1980s, establishing a 'traditional' model of regulation, the 1990s saw the triumph of a market-based regulation, strongly influenced by the dominant ideas in the European Union, which has converted Red Electrica into a private company. Currently the TSO (Transmission System Operators) model has been extended to Portugal and has entered into competition-cooperation with the other models of the European electricity market. (author)

  14. Energy from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hospe, J.

    1977-01-01

    This VDI-Nachrichten series has the target to provide a technical-objective basis for the discussion of the pros and cons of nuclear power. The first part deals with LWR-type reactors which so far have prevailed in nuclear power generation. (orig.) [de

  15. Diseño y simulación de un reactor prototipo que soporte condiciones de hidrogenación para crudo pesado con una capacidad de 1 galón por segundo para Petroecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Checa Ramírez, Pablo Andrés; Andy Cerda, Amilkar Patricio

    2010-01-01

    El presente proyecto se plantea en cinco capítulos estrictamente relacionados: Procesos teóricos, Tipos de reactores, Diseño y cálculo del reactor prototipo, Método del cálculo de prueba y error, y, costos que genera el diseño

  16. Energy saving in buildings through the elimination of typical problems; Ahorro de energia electrica en edificios a traves de la eliminacion de problemas tipicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Rivero, Alex G [Genertek, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The enormous electric energy consumption in buildings represents an important area of saving opportunities. The design of installations without advanced technical illumination criteria, the absence of standardization over energy efficiency, the lack of observation of the existing standards and guides, the continuous load growth in existing installations and the lack of appropriate maintenance, are some of the causes of the inefficient use of electric energy in buildings. Although the problems, and consequently the solutions, are exclusive for each unit, some of the former are frequently repeated. In this paper the problems found along more than 40 audits conducted in large buildings of different types in Mexico city are commented. [Espanol] El enorme consumo de energia electrica en edificios representa una importante area de oportunidad para ahorro. El diseno de instalaciones sin criterios luminotecnicos avanzados, la ausencia de normalizacion sobre eficiencia energetica, la falta de observancia de las normas y recomendaciones vigentes, el continuo crecimiento de carga en instalaciones existentes y la falta de mantenimiento adecuado son algunas de las causas del uso ineficiente de la energia electrica en inmuebles. Aunque los problemas y por tanto las soluciones son particulares para cada unidad, algunos de los primeros se repiten frecuentemente. En este trabajo se comentan los problemas encontrados a lo largo de mas de 40 auditorias realizadas a inmuebles grandes de diversos tipos en la ciudad de Mexico.

  17. Energy saving in buildings through the elimination of typical problems; Ahorro de energia electrica en edificios a traves de la eliminacion de problemas tipicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Rivero, Alex G. [Genertek, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The enormous electric energy consumption in buildings represents an important area of saving opportunities. The design of installations without advanced technical illumination criteria, the absence of standardization over energy efficiency, the lack of observation of the existing standards and guides, the continuous load growth in existing installations and the lack of appropriate maintenance, are some of the causes of the inefficient use of electric energy in buildings. Although the problems, and consequently the solutions, are exclusive for each unit, some of the former are frequently repeated. In this paper the problems found along more than 40 audits conducted in large buildings of different types in Mexico city are commented. [Espanol] El enorme consumo de energia electrica en edificios representa una importante area de oportunidad para ahorro. El diseno de instalaciones sin criterios luminotecnicos avanzados, la ausencia de normalizacion sobre eficiencia energetica, la falta de observancia de las normas y recomendaciones vigentes, el continuo crecimiento de carga en instalaciones existentes y la falta de mantenimiento adecuado son algunas de las causas del uso ineficiente de la energia electrica en inmuebles. Aunque los problemas y por tanto las soluciones son particulares para cada unidad, algunos de los primeros se repiten frecuentemente. En este trabajo se comentan los problemas encontrados a lo largo de mas de 40 auditorias realizadas a inmuebles grandes de diversos tipos en la ciudad de Mexico.

  18. The effective lifetime and temperature coefficient in a coupled fast-thermal reactor; Temps de vie effectif et coefficient de temperature dans un reacteur a couplage neutrons rapides-neutrons thermiques; Ehffektivnyj srok zhizni i temperaturnyj koehffitsient nejtronov v dvoyakom reaktore na bystrykh i teplovykh nejtronakh; Vida efectiva y coeficiente de temperatura en un reactor con acoplamiento rapido-termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W. [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1962-03-15

    thermique. Le probleme est etudie avec un groupe de neutrons retardes (au sens habituel). Un formalisme exprime le temps de vie effectif et le coefficient de temperature aux differents stades de la saute de puissance. L'auteur indique les sautes de puissance pour differentes valeurs de {alpha}{sub 0} jusqu'a ce que soit atteinte la limite de la cinetique du reacteur a neutrons rapides. (author) [Spanish] La teoria de los sistemas acoplados fue ampliamente desarrollada por Avery y sus colaboradores en el Argonne National Laboratory. Una de las caracteristicas mas interesantes de los sistemas acoplados es la prolongacion de la vida efectiva de los neutrones. La componente termica actua como una especie de retardador neutronico. Como en la teoria de los neutrones retardados, el efecto retardador desaparece cuando la reactividad adquiere un valor suficientemente elevado para que la componente rapida alcance la criticidad independientemente . El autor examina un reactor con acoplamiento en el que la componente rapida sufre un salto instantaneo de reactividad {alpha}{sub 0}. La temperatura aumenta como consecuencia del incremento del nivel de potencia y comienzan a actuar dos coeficiente termicos: el que corresponde a la componente rapida y el coeficiente de temperatura de la componente termica. El problema se estudia en relacion con un grupo de neutrones retardados (en el sentido corriente del termino). El autor presenta una serie de formulas que expresan la vida efectiva de los neutrones y el coeficiente de temperatura en las diferentes etapas del salto de reactividad. El autor indica esos saltos para distintos valores de {alpha}{sub 0}, basta alcanzar el limite correspondiente a la cinetica de los reactores de neutrones rapidos. (author) [Russian] Teoriya dvoyakikh sistem byla podrobno razrabotana R. Ehjveri i sotrudnikami v Argonskoj natsional'noj laboratorii. Odnim iz osnovnykh interesnykh momentov v sparennoj sisteme yavlyaetsya bol'shij ehffektivnyj srok zhizni nejtronov

  19. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  20. Experimental studies of some of the physical features of beryllium-moderated intermediate reactors; Etude experimentale de quelques particularites physiques des reacteurs a neutrons intermediaires, ralentis au beryllium; Ehksperimental'ny e issledovaniya nekotorykh fizicheskikh osobennostej promezhutochnykh reaktorov s berillievym zamedlitelem; Estudios experimentales de algunas caracteristicas fisicas de los reactores intermedios moderados con berilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejpunskij, A I; Kuznetsov, V A; Artyukhov, G Ya; Mogil' ner, A I; Prokhorov, Yu A; Steklovski, V M; Chernov, L A [Akademiya Nauk, Moskva, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1962-03-15

    modificar dentro de limites muy amplios los espectros de los neutrones causantes de la fision. En la memoria se describe el conjunto critico y sus diversas partes. Analizan los autores la eficacia comparada de la moderacion interna y externa, para reactores en que la razon de nucleos de moderador a nucleos de uranio, en el cuerpo, es muy pequena. Los experimentos demuestran que, arm. en el caso de los reflectores moderadores de gran espesor, esta baja razon ({partial_derivative}Be/{partial_derivative}{sup 235}U{approx_equal}1) conduce a un aumento de la masa critica. Gran parte de la memoria se dedica al analisis de los efectos heterogeneos en los reactores intermedios. Se demuestra que para un reactor en el que la razon {partial_derivative}Be/{partial_derivative}{sup 235}U este comprendida entre 30 y 40 distintos espesores (comprendidos entre 0,023 g/cm{sup 2} y 32 g/cm{sup 2}) de uranio muy enriquecido ejercen un efecto de magnitud constante sobre la reactividad del sistema. Se analizan las causas de la compensacion del efecto de apantallamient o del flujo neutronico por accion de capas de uranio de gran espesor. Los autores senalan un hecho interesante, a saber, el aumento de la eficacia del uranio en la proximidad de las barras de absorcion, que se observo experimentalment e en un conjunto en el que la razon {partial_derivative}Be/{partial_derivative}{sup 235}U era del orden de 200. Este hecho se explica por el acentuado descenso del nivel energetico de los neutrones absorbidos por el uranio. Para el mismo conjunto, presentan tambien datos sobre la eficacia de las barras de absorcion fabricadas con distintos materiales absorbentes. Exponen los resultados de las mediciones experimentales de la variacion de la densidad de los neutrones de distintas energias, en las cercanias de una barra de carburo de boro y la densidad de la captura neutroniea con m detector 1/v colocado en el interior de la barra. Por ultimo se exponen los metodos aplicados y los resultados obtenidos en

  1. Measurements with a Pulsed and Modulated Source in a Reactor; Mesures au Moyen d'une Source Pulsee et Modulee dans un Reacteur; Izmereniya v reaktore s pomoshch'yu impul'snogo i moduliruemogo is tochnika; Mediciones Efectuadas en Reactor con una Fuente Pulsada y Modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotter, W. [Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1965-10-15

    generateur: le temps de mesure est donc minimum. Les observations enregistrees sur bande perforee sont depouillees par une calculatrice numerique. (author) [Spanish] Los laboratorios de investigacion Philips han construido un generador neutronico de flujo variable en funcion del tiempo. Con una serie de mediciones efectuadas en el reactor BRO2 en estado subcrftico, se ha demostrado su utililidad practica en la esfera de la fisica de los reactores. El funcionamiento del generador es muy flexible debido a su alta estabilidad, a la posibilidad de variar bruscamente la intensidad neutronica, y de pulsar el flujo o modularlo de manera sinusoidal. El generador permite determinar la reactividad ({rho} = {Delta}k/{beta}) y la vida media de los neutrones ( Script-Small-L /{beta}) segun varios metodos independientes. Es posible proceder a una comparacion exacta de esos metodos, dado que pueden aplicarse sin modificar las condiciones de medicion. El autor ha calculado los siguientes valores: a) p, sobre la base de los neutrones retardados, por reduccion instantanea del flujo neutronico; b) p, sobre la base de los neutrones inmediatos, por impulsos neutronicos; c) Script-Small-L /{beta}, combinando 1) y 2), cuando 0, 5 dolares < {rho} < 2 dolares, y d) Script-Small-L /{beta}, sobre la base de la funcion de transferencia del reactor para una fuente modulada. En la memoria se examinan las funciones de transferencia correspondientes a un oscilador de reactividad y a una fuente de modulacion sinusoidal. Se demuestra que es posible medir Script-Small-L /{beta}, cuando 0,1 dolar < {rho} < 10 dolares utilizando una fuente modulada. Por el mismo metodo se obtiene tambien la reactividad partiendo de la razon neutrones inmediatos/neutrones retardados para una frecuencia optima que es practicamente independiente de los datos relativos a los neutrones retardados y del cociente Script-Small-L /{beta}. La precision estadistica de cada metodo puede aumentarse acumulando un gran numero de ciclos en el

  2. Co-generation system with integrated functions of active filter; Sistema de cogeneracion con funciones de filtro activo integradas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Grajales, Humberto Raul

    2002-07-15

    adaptive interference. This technique maintains the system in the best functional state, by means of continuous self adjustment facing changes in the operation parameters, generating important and satisfactory results. In addition, simultaneously the PVS uses, in the pursuit of the point of maximum power, the technique of {sup d}isturb and observe{sup ,} which offers a high performance in the injection of active power. [Spanish] Sin duda, la energia electrica es la forma de energia mas ampliamente usada en las actividades economicas y sociales de nuestro mundo moderno. Por ello, se puede decir que las companias generadoras y distribuidoras de electricidad asumen dos retos de relevante preocupacion actual. Uno es generar con mayor eficiencia, menor costo y con un minimo impacto sobre el medio ambiente. El segundo es cumplir con la calidad del suministro, que ha llegado a ser un punto importante tanto para los usuarios como para las companias que distribuyen la energia electrica, y que se refleja en una distribucion y un consumo de energia mas eficiente. El trabajo de tesis que se presenta, describe un sistema fotovoltaico (SFV) interconectado a la red electrica que ayuda a superar los retos citados. Este SFV tiene la funcion de recibir la energia solar entregada por un arreglo de celdas FV; operar en el punto maximo de potencia de las celdas (para mayor aprovechamiento de la energia captada); acondicionarla a una senal alterna, dentro de los parametros tecnicos normativos para la interconexion electrica (establecidos por la compania; Comision Federal de Electricidad en Mexico); e inyectarla a la red electrica con el proposito de compensar potencia reactiva (filtrado activo) demandada por cargas lineales y no lineales, reduciendo la contaminacion de la red electrica; ademas de compensar potencia activa en los picos de demanda de energia electrica maxima. El sistema funciona como filtro activo durante todo el dia, lo que permite que la capacidad de potencia instalada por el

  3. Aspects of Reactor Physics Research at the Victoria University of Manchester; Quelques Aspects des Experiences de Physique des Reacteurs a l'Universite Victoria de Manchester; Aspekty ehksperimental'nykh issledovanij po fizike reaktorov v universitete viktorii v manchestere; Trabajos de Fisica Experimental con Reactores Efectuados en la Universidad Victoria de Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M. J.; Walton, D. G. [Victoria University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1964-02-15

    pulsadas y fuentes de intensidad estacionaria. Las primeras se consagraron en particular al analisis completo de los armonicos, en especial los modos mas elevados, mientras que en las investigaciones anteriores se habia procurado unicamente eliminarlos. Con las segundas se trato de eliminar todos los efectos debidos a las dimensiones de la fuente finita y del detector, a la activacion por resonancia, a la perturbacion del flujo, etc. Los autores examinan y comparan los resultados obtenidos por ambos metodos. Describen igualmente mediciones muy cuidadosas, en curso de ejecucion, de la secciones eficaces de absorcion efectuadas por la tecnica de fuentes pulsadas, procurando eliminar los efectos armfiiicos y de otra Indole que pueden dar origen a errores. Para investigar y elaborar tecnicas de detectores integrales, han medido espectros de neutrones termicos en agua ligera 'envenenada' . Entre otras cosas, examinan algunos factores interesantes que permiten ahorrar tiempo y dinero. Han estudiado tambien las tecnicas de activacion de laminas de grandes dimensiones y las tecnicas de recuento para medir densidades neutronicas promediadas en el espacio, y tambien varios parametros del reactor. Han surgido ciertas cuestiones interesantes, en particular en lo relativo a las mediciones del espectro. Este metodo permite efectuar con recursos limitados numerosas investigaciones de fisica de los reactores. Los autores han construido un conjunto exponencial de uranio natural y agua ligera, de bajo costo. Gracias a sus caracteristicas mecanicas puede ser utilizado con muchos fines; por ejemplo, se facilitan considerablemente las mediciones paralelas y perpendiculares a las barras combustibles. Se encuentra en curso de ejecucion un programa de mediciones en estado estacionario. Los autores describen en sus lfneas generales la labor futura, que versara sobre todo en mediciones de la estructura fina, los efectos de cavitacion y estudios de flujos neutronicos pulsados. (author) [Russian

  4. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  5. Distribution transformer with automatic voltage adjustment - performance; Transformador de distribucion con ajuste automatico de tension - desempeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Ruiz, Gustavo A.; Delgadillo Bocanegra, Alfonso; Betancourt Ramirez, Enrique [PROLEC-GE, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mail: gustavo1.hernandez@ge.com; alfonso.delgadillobocanegra@ge.com; enrique.betancourt@ge.com; Ramirez Arredondo, Juan M. [CINVESTAV-Guadalajara, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico)]. E-mail: jramirez@gdl.cinvestav.mx

    2010-11-15

    In the electric power distribution systems, the power quality is strongly linked with the service stability voltage. In the radial kind systems, it is virtually impossible to achieve a flat voltage along the lines, so it is desirable to count with transformers that can adjust automatically the turns ratio. In this work, it is described the development and the performance of a transformer with an integrated electronic tap changer, that allows to change the turns ratio along the standard range of +/-5%, and it was identified the application limits of the technology. [Spanish] En los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica, la calidad del suministro de energia esta fuertemente ligada con la estabilidad del voltaje de servicio. En sistemas de tipo radial, es virtualmente imposible mantener uniforme la tension a lo largo de las lineas, por lo que se hace deseable contar con transformadores que puedan ajustar automaticamente la relacion de transformacion. En este trabajo, se describe el desarrollo y desempeno de un transformador con switch electronico integrado, que permite variar la relacion de transformacion dentro del rango estandarizado de +/-5%, y se identifican los limites de aplicacion de la tecnologia.

  6. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment for the waste water from the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas installations; Tratamiento anaerobio-aerobio de las aguas residuales de las instalaciones del IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The waste water treatment plant of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is analyzed. This plant originally was a plant of the activated sludge type (aerobic development), process that consumes large amounts of energy and that produces residual sludge 5 or 6 times greater than the anaerobic processes. The methodology and the techniques utilized were base in the analysis of the existing plant introducing an anaerobic treatment and performing laboratory experimentation. The plant design parameters considered are described. The results show the benefits of treating by anaerobic means the waste waters since depuration are obtained on the order of 75%, as well as the reduction of resulting residual sludge and in energy consumption. A reduction of 60% to 70% can be attained if a combination of anaerobic and aerobic processes is utilized [Espanol] Se analiza la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Esta planta era originalmente una planta de lodos activados (desarrollo aerobio), proceso que consume mucha energia y genera lodos residuales de 5 a 6 veces mas que los procesos anaerobios. La metodologia y las tecnicas utilizadas se basaron en el analisis de la planta de tratamiento existente en el IIE; en la caracterizacion residual del IIE; en la modificacion de la planta de tratamiento introduciendo un tratamiento anaerobio y efectuando experimentacion en laboratorio. Se describen los parametros de diseno de la planta considerados. Los resultados muestran los beneficios de tratar por medios anaerobios las aguas residuales ya que se obtienen depuraciones del orden del 75%, asi como la reduccion de lodos residuales resultantes y el consumo de energia, pueden reducirse de un 60% a un 70% si se utiliza la combinacion de los procesos anaerobios y aerobios

  7. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment for the waste water from the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas installations; Tratamiento anaerobio-aerobio de las aguas residuales de las instalaciones del IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The waste water treatment plant of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is analyzed. This plant originally was a plant of the activated sludge type (aerobic development), process that consumes large amounts of energy and that produces residual sludge 5 or 6 times greater than the anaerobic processes. The methodology and the techniques utilized were base in the analysis of the existing plant introducing an anaerobic treatment and performing laboratory experimentation. The plant design parameters considered are described. The results show the benefits of treating by anaerobic means the waste waters since depuration are obtained on the order of 75%, as well as the reduction of resulting residual sludge and in energy consumption. A reduction of 60% to 70% can be attained if a combination of anaerobic and aerobic processes is utilized [Espanol] Se analiza la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Esta planta era originalmente una planta de lodos activados (desarrollo aerobio), proceso que consume mucha energia y genera lodos residuales de 5 a 6 veces mas que los procesos anaerobios. La metodologia y las tecnicas utilizadas se basaron en el analisis de la planta de tratamiento existente en el IIE; en la caracterizacion residual del IIE; en la modificacion de la planta de tratamiento introduciendo un tratamiento anaerobio y efectuando experimentacion en laboratorio. Se describen los parametros de diseno de la planta considerados. Los resultados muestran los beneficios de tratar por medios anaerobios las aguas residuales ya que se obtienen depuraciones del orden del 75%, asi como la reduccion de lodos residuales resultantes y el consumo de energia, pueden reducirse de un 60% a un 70% si se utiliza la combinacion de los procesos anaerobios y aerobios

  8. Estudio de la distribución de los tiempos de residencia en un reactor tubular para la hidrólisis de lecitina de soja con fosfolipasa A2 inmovilizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaritzky, N.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolisis of soybean lecithin can be carried out by means of the use of immobilized A2 phospholipase which releases a fatty acid of C-2 position of the phospholipids so that an enriched product in lysolecithins is obtained. The enzymatic reaction follows a first order kinetics when the substrate concentrations are in the range: 6.34•10-3 M to 19.0•10-3 M. The value of the rate constant: k= 9.88•10-2 min-1 corresponds to the one obtained for the immobilized enzyme on alumina. A reactor was constructed and alumina was the selected support because of its good mechanic properties and fundamentally because of its low cost. The flow behaviour in the reactor and how it departs from the ideal model of plug-flow was analyzed by injecting a NaCl solution of a well-known concentration (tracer and then, passing it through the reactor. According to the experiences carried out, the conductivity measures proved adequate for the determination of the residence times. The system showed lineal behaviour. The residence times in the experimentally built reactor for different load arrangements (particle support + inert load was analyzed by using three different flows. The nonconverted fractions for the reactor were calculated and differences in the output were observed, in comparison to the plug-flow reactor, precisely because of channelizations and shut-offs that are generated inside the column. Maximal conversion in the experiences carried out both with higher substrate concentrations and for a minor feed flow were achieved. The dispersion module resulted quite higher than the limit that introduces a gaussian curve, for the one for which the degree of supposition of high dispersion was correct. The reactor showed a behaviour similar to that of a reactor of complete mixture and it was concluded that the degree of back-mixing, the formation of whirls and zones of redistribution of material are important.La hidrólisis de lecitina de soja puede ser

  9. To report the obtained results in the simulation with the FCS-11 and Presto codes of the two first operation cycles of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor; Reportar los resultados obtenidos en la simulacion con los codigos FCS-11 y PRESTO de los dos primeros ciclos de operacion del reactor Laguna Verde Unidad 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes T, J.L.; Moran L, J.M.; Cortes C, C.C

    1990-08-15

    The objective of this work is to establish a preliminary methodology to carry out analysis of recharges for the reactor of the Laguna Verde U-1, by means of the evaluation of the state of the reactor core in its first two operation cycles using the FCS2 and Presto-B codes. (Author)

  10. Development of technologies for nuclear reactors of small and medium sized; Desarrollo de Tecnologias para Reactores Nucleares de pequeno y medio tamano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    This meeting include: countries presentations, themes and objectives of the training course, reactor types, design, EPR, APR1400, A P 1000, A PWR, ATMEA 1, VVER-1000, A PWR, ATMEA 1, VVER 1200, Boiling Water Reactor, A BWR, A BWR -II, ESBUR, Ke ren, AREVA, Heavy Water Reactor, Candu 6, Acr-1000, HWR, Bw, Iris, CAREM NuCcale, Smart, KLT-HOS, Westinghouse small modular Reactor, Gas Cooled Reactors, PBMR, React ores enfriados con metales liquidos, Hs, Prism,Terra Power, Hyper ion, appliance's no electric as de energia, Generation IV Reactors,VHTR, Gas Fast Reactor, Sodium Fast Reactor, Molten salt Reactor, Lfr, Water Cooled Reactor, Technology Assessment Process, Fukushima accident.

  11. Nuclear fuel activity with minor actinides after their useful life in a BWR; Actividad del combustible nuclear con actinidos menores despues de su vida util en un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: eduardo.martinez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Nuclear fuel used in nuclear power reactors has a life cycle, in which it provides energy, at the end of this cycle is withdrawn from the reactor core. This used fuel is known as spent nuclear fuel, a strong problem with this fuel is that when the fuel was irradiated in a nuclear reactor it leaves with an activity of approximately 1.229 x 10{sup 15} Bq. The aim of the transmutation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is to reduce the activity of high level waste that must be stored in geological repositories and the lifetime of high level waste; these two achievements would reduce the number of necessary repositories, as well as the duration of storage. The present work is aimed at evaluating the activity of a nuclear fuel in which radioactive actinides could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material, first establishing a reference of actinides production in the standard nuclear fuel of uranium at end of its burning in a BWR, and a fuel rod design containing 6% of actinides in an uranium matrix from the enrichment tails is proposed, then 4 standard uranium fuel rods are replaced by 4 actinide bars to evaluate the production and transmutation of the same, finally the reduction of actinide activity in the fuel is evaluated. (Author)

  12. Methodology for the electric energy distribution systems planning of small and rural zones of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Metodologia para la planeacion de sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica de zonas pequenas y rurales de Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Gomez, Miguel Armando

    2008-12-15

    retiro de las instalaciones que ya no seran utiles. Por otra parte, la gran mayoria de los estudios de planeacion de los sistemas de distribucion que se realizan estan orientados hacia grandes urbes o areas de alto crecimiento, y aunque estos estudios pueden ser aplicados a cualquier sistema, los ingenieros de planeacion de las Zonas de Distribucion medianas o pequenas, con frecuencia se confunden tratando de hacer las actualidades de forma similar a las politicas de planeacion de esas urbes. Las Zonas de Distribucion pequenas tienen particularidades propias, por lo que vale la pena hacer un esfuerzo para investigarlas y analizar todas las oportunidades de mejorar que se presentan y aplicarlas en otras zonas de la Division Jalisco o del pais con caracteristicas similares. Despues de todo, en la Division Jalisco el 60% de las Zonas estan dentro de esta clasificacion y puede ser un porcentaje similar en las otras Divisiones de Distribucion de la CFE. Asimismo, aunque en mucha menor proporcion, estas Zonas tambien tienen necesidades de inversion que sumandolas en ciertos casos, pueden ser superiores a la suma de las necesidades de las grandes Zonas. Para atender la deficiencia anterior, en el Capitulo 2 se propone una metodologia que se especialice en la planeacion de los sistemas electricos de distribucion de las Zonas pequenas o rurales, en el cual se integraron los aspectos mas relevantes de los manuales de planeacion, la teoria de la ingenieria electrica, los procedimientos institucionales, las normas, los programas comerciales y los programas desarrollados por la Gerencia de Planeacion; utilizados en la CFE para hacer la planeacion de los sistemas electricos de distribucion. De la misma manera, en el Capitulo 4 se propone una metodologia para la optimizacion de las redes electricas en baja tension, resaltando algunos errores que comunmente se cometen en el diseno de estos tipos de redes, haciendo recomendaciones para corregirlos con inversiones de bajo costo. Por su

  13. Introduction criteria and concepts on energy saving in the technical standards for electric installations; Introduccion de criterios y conceptos de ahorro de energia en las normas tecnicas para instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Nader, Jorge A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The project Introduction Criteria and Concepts on Energy Saving in the Technical Standards for electric installations, is described, whose immediate objective is to recommend and in some cases regulate the use of energy saving equipment and devices and the adoption of attitudes and procedures that convey into saving, and the rational and efficient use of the electric energy. [Espanol] Se describe el proyecto Introduccion de Criterios y Conceptos de Ahorro de Energia en las Normas Tecnicas para instalaciones electricas, que tiene como objetivo inmediato recomendar, y en algunos casos reglamentar el uso de equipos y dispositivos ahorradores y la adopcion de actitudes y procedimientos que conduzcan a un ahorro y uso racional y eficiente de la energia electrica.

  14. Introduction criteria and concepts on energy saving in the technical standards for electric installations; Introduccion de criterios y conceptos de ahorro de energia en las normas tecnicas para instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Nader, Jorge A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The project Introduction Criteria and Concepts on Energy Saving in the Technical Standards for electric installations, is described, whose immediate objective is to recommend and in some cases regulate the use of energy saving equipment and devices and the adoption of attitudes and procedures that convey into saving, and the rational and efficient use of the electric energy. [Espanol] Se describe el proyecto Introduccion de Criterios y Conceptos de Ahorro de Energia en las Normas Tecnicas para instalaciones electricas, que tiene como objetivo inmediato recomendar, y en algunos casos reglamentar el uso de equipos y dispositivos ahorradores y la adopcion de actitudes y procedimientos que conduzcan a un ahorro y uso racional y eficiente de la energia electrica.

  15. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised

  16. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  17. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised.

  18. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  19. Development of technologies for nuclear reactors of small and medium sized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    This meeting include: countries presentations, themes and objectives of the training course, reactor types, design, EPR, APR1400, A P 1000, A PWR, ATMEA 1, VVER-1000, A PWR, ATMEA 1, VVER 1200, Boiling Water Reactor, A BWR, A BWR -II, ESBUR, Ke ren, AREVA, Heavy Water Reactor, Candu 6, Acr-1000, HWR, Bw, Iris, CAREM NuCcale, Smart, KLT-HOS, Westinghouse small modular Reactor, Gas Cooled Reactors, PBMR, React ores enfriados con metales liquidos, Hs, Prism,Terra Power, Hyper ion, appliance's no electric as de energia, Generation IV Reactors,VHTR, Gas Fast Reactor, Sodium Fast Reactor, Molten salt Reactor, Lfr, Water Cooled Reactor, Technology Assessment Process, Fukushima accident.

  20. Metodología para resolver la ecuación del transporte con el código de ordenadas discretas TORT en el reactor IPEN/MB-01

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, A.; Abarca Giménez, Agustín; Barrachina Celda, Teresa María; Miró Herrero, Rafael; Verdú Martín, Gumersindo Jesús

    2013-01-01

    La resolución de la Ecuación del Transporte Neutrónico en estado estacionario en reactores nucleares de tipo piscina, se consigue normalmente por medio de 2 métodos numéricos diferentes: Monte Carlo (estocástico) y Ordenadas Discretas (determinista). El método de las Ordenadas Discretas resuelve la Ecuación del Transporte Neutrónico para un conjunto de determinadas direcciones, obteniendo un conjunto de ecuaciones y soluciones para cada dirección, donde la solución para cada dirección es el f...

  1. Paciente con esquizofrenia tratado con ziprasidona + clozapina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Yanguas E.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available P es un paciente diagnosticado de esquizofrenia, sigue en un piso tutelado un programa de rehabilitación, está medicado con clozapina 500 mg/día y ziprasidona 280 mg/ día. Padece hipercolesterolemia, tabaquismo y sus hábitos alimenticios no son buenos. La medicación que utiliza desde 2007 hasta ahora se refleja en la tabla 1. El último tratamiento se le introdujo el 7 de agosto de 2012, habiendo presentado un electro cardiograma (ECG normal, pero con ligera taquicardia ventricular y prolactinemia de 44,8 ng/ml (valores normales: 2-18 ng/ml.

  2. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  3. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  4. Development of a electrothermal model to scale to determine the energy behavior in buildings with air conditioning; Desarrollo de un modelo electrotermico a escala para determinar el comportamiento energetico en edificaciones con aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acoltzi, Higinio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    determinar el comportamiento energetico de modulos de prueba a escala de edificios. El modelo determina la historia del consumo de energia electrica para mantener la condiciones de confort al interior de los modulos, respecto a la variacion de los materiales de los techos y ventanas; todo esto con el objeto de establecer criterios de aplicacion de dichos materiales en la industria de la edificacion. Se presenta los consumos de energia electrica para los modulos con techos de loza monolitica, vigueta y clabovedilla y ventanas con vidrios reflectasol, filtrasol y claro. Finalmente, se presentan los resultados preliminares de la aplicacion del modelo propuesto a un edificio de escala normal. Las mediciones en campo y el modelo electrotermico teorico desarrollado, presenta diferencias promedio de 16%. Los ahorros de energia electrica observados con la aplicacion del modelo electrotermico teorico son: 1) si se cambia el vidrio claro por vidrio filtrasol, se pueden lograr ahorros de energia hasta del 14.5% para la loza de vigueta y bovedilla y de 12.4% para la loza monolitica; o 2) si se cambia el vidrio claro por vidrio reflectasol se pueden obtener ahorros de energia hasta de 28.1% para el caso de loza de vigueta y bovedilla y de 16.8% para la loza monolitica. La mejor opcion es sustituir la loza monolitica y vidrio claro por la loza de vigueta y bovedilla y vidrio reflectasol para obtener hasta un 37% de ahorro. Se muestra el arreglo de dispositivo experimental con los 3 modulos acoplados al aire acondicionado, y una con paracion grafica entre el consumo de energia acumulada teorica y experimental del modulo con loza de vigueta y bovedilla para los vidrios reflectasol, filtrasol y claro. Se da un resumen de los consumos de energia electrica totales.Verificacion experimental para determinar el comportamiento energetico de modulos de prueba a escala de edificios. El modelo determina la historia del consumo de energia electrica para mantener la condiciones de confort al interior

  5. A critical summary of microscopic fast-neutron interactions with reactor structural, fissile and fertile materials; Apercu critique des interactions microscopiques des neutrons rapides avec les materiaux de construction et les matieres fissiles et fertiles utilisees dans les reacteurs; Kriticheskij obzor mikroskopicheskog o vzaimodejstviya bystrykh nejtronov s konstruktsionnymi, rasshcheplyayushchimis ya i vosproizvodyashchim i reaktornymi materialami; Resumen critico de las interacciones microscopicas de los neutrones rapidos con los materiales estructurales fisionables y fertiles utilizados en los reactores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A B [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-03-15

    reactions provoquees par des neutrons rapides, en insistant sur les conditions que doivent remplir, dans les reacteurs, les donnees nucleaires fondamentales. (author) [Spanish] El autor examina el estado actual de los conocimientos acerca de las reacciones inducidas por los neutrones rapidos que se utilizan en el proyecto de reactores nucleares. Estudia con particular atencion los metodos experimentales microscopicos, sus resultados y la precision de los mismos. Considera con detalle la dispersion de los neutrones rapidos, y da los resultados de mediciones experimentales de la dispersion en el caso del oxigeno, hierro, zirconio, niobio, wolframio, torio y uranio. Expone los resultados mas significativos de los estudios experimentales de la captura de neutrones rapidos y de la fision inducida por los mismos. Las mediciones estudiadas no solo conducen a resultados de gran utilidad practica, sino que sirven como ejemplos de la aplicacion de las tecnicas nucleares experimentales mas modernas. El autor indica los terrenos en que la informacion experimental es limitada, contradictoria o inexistente. Por ultimo, formula previsiones sobre el desarrollo de los conocimientos relativos a las reacciones de los neutrones rapidos, subrayando lo referente al cumplimiento de las condiciones necesarias para que el reactor proporcione datos nucleares basicos. (author) [Russian] V doklade rassmatrivaetsya primenenie shiroko rasprostranenny kh znanij o reaktsiyakh, vyzyvaemykh bystrymi nejtronami v yadernykh proektakh reaktornykh sistem. Osnovnoe znachenie pridaetsya mikroskopicheski m ehksperimental'ny m metodam, rezul'tatam i tochnosti. Podrobno rassmatrivaetsya rasseyanie bystrykh nejtronov, vklyuchaya rezul'taty ehksperimental'nogo opredeleniya rasseyaniya na kislorode, zheleze, tsirkonii, niobii, vol'frame, torii i urane. Privodyatsya dannye, poluchennye v rezul'tate ehksperimental'ny kh issledovanij zakhvata bystrykh nejtronov i deleniya, vyzvannogo nejtronami. Izmereniya, privedennye v

  6. Solar thermal power plants for heat and electricity generation; Presentacion de plantas termosolares para generacion de calor y energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Cajigal, V [Solartronic S. A. de C. V., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Manzini, F; Sanchez, A [Laboratorio de Energia Solar (IIM-UNAM), Temixco (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Solar thermal technology is presented for concentration into a point for the production of heat and energy in small and large scale, emphasis is made on the capacity for the combination with current technologies using fossil fuels for electricity generation and process steam, increasing the global efficiency of the power plants and notably reducing the pollutants emission to the air during the insolation hours. It is successfully compared with other solar-thermal technologies. [Espanol] Se presenta la tecnologia termosolar de concentracion puntual para produccion de calor y de energia en pequena y gran escala, se enfatiza su capacidad de combinacion con las tecnologias actuales que utilizan combustibles fosiles para produccion de electricidad y vapor de proceso, aumentando la eficiencia global de las plantas y reduciendo notablemente sus emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera durante las horas de insolacion. Se le compara exitosamente con otras tecnologias termosolares.

  7. Solar thermal power plants for heat and electricity generation; Presentacion de plantas termosolares para generacion de calor y energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Cajigal, V. [Solartronic S. A. de C. V., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Manzini, F.; Sanchez, A. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar (IIM-UNAM), Temixco (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Solar thermal technology is presented for concentration into a point for the production of heat and energy in small and large scale, emphasis is made on the capacity for the combination with current technologies using fossil fuels for electricity generation and process steam, increasing the global efficiency of the power plants and notably reducing the pollutants emission to the air during the insolation hours. It is successfully compared with other solar-thermal technologies. [Espanol] Se presenta la tecnologia termosolar de concentracion puntual para produccion de calor y de energia en pequena y gran escala, se enfatiza su capacidad de combinacion con las tecnologias actuales que utilizan combustibles fosiles para produccion de electricidad y vapor de proceso, aumentando la eficiencia global de las plantas y reduciendo notablemente sus emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera durante las horas de insolacion. Se le compara exitosamente con otras tecnologias termosolares.

  8. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to water cooled reactors and in particular to the cooling system of steam generating heavy water reactors (SGHWR). A two-coolant circuit is described for the latter. Full constructural details are given. (U.K.)

  9. Reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1984-01-01

    A pioneering project on the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, by the UKAEA, is described. Reactor data; policy; waste management; remote handling equipment; development; and recording and timescales, are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  10. ABWR, an option for the electric generation in Mexico; ABWR, una opcion para la generacion electrica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A.M.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Xolocostli M, J.V. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: amgt@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The A BWR reactor (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) it was developed in a project group among the Company TEPCO, (Tokyo Electric Power Company), Hitachi, Toshiba and General Electric. The A BWR is the first nuclear reactor of the type BWR third generation that entered in commercial operation in the 90 Th decade. One of those main characteristics of the A BWR are that the system of external recirculation has been eliminated, that is to say, the pumps and external recirculation pipes have been replaced by 10 internal recirculation pumps mounted in the inferior part of the pressure vessel, for that external recirculation systems neither the use of jet pumps are not needed. Another important characteristic of the A BWR is the simplification of the activation of the safety systems. The simplifications in the design of the A BWR and the use of new technologies have reduced the quantity of equipment and the time of construction compared with the previous designs of BWRs. The construction project for the A BWR consists of a period of construction from 48 to 54 months, measured since that the first concrete structure is placed until that it enters in commercial operation, in accordance with the documents liberated by G E. (Author)

  11. The Biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon; Central electrica de biogas de bioenergia de Nuevo Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Saldana M, Jaime L [Sistemas de Energia Internacional S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon represents, in all the national territory, the first experience on the advantage of biogas emitted by the sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy. Therefore, one of the specific objectives of this paper is the one of diffusion and reproduction of the same one in other cities of Mexico and Latin America. The project is framed within the world-wide policies on the control of emissions for the reduction of the greenhouse effect gases (GEG) and its impact in the global climatic change. The gas emitted by the trash sanitary landfills, commonly known as biogas, is a gas mixture derived from the decomposition of the organic matter of the municipal trash by microorganisms in anaerobic conditions. Biogas generated in the sanitary landfills has a methane content of 55% and a 35% of carbon dioxide. The balance 10% is made up of water steam, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfur and other gases in minimum amounts. [Spanish] La Central Electrica de Biogas de Bioenergia de Nuevo Leon representa, en todo el territorio nacional, la primera experiencia sobre el aprovechamiento del biogas emitido por los rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica. Por esta razon, uno de los objetivos especificos de este trabajo es la de difusion y reproduccion del mismo en otras ciudades de Mexico y Latinoamerica. El proyecto esta enmarcado dentro de las politicas mundiales sobre el control de emisiones para la reduccion de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y su impacto en el cambio climatico global. El gas emitido por la basura dispuesta en los rellenos sanitarios, comunmente conocido como biogas, es una mezcla de gases derivado de la descompensacion de la materia organica de la basura municipal por microorganismos en condiciones anaerobias. El biogas generado en los rellenos sanitarios tiene un contenido de metano del 55% y un 35% de bioxido de carbono. El 10% restante se compone de vapor

  12. RA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    In addition to basic characteristics of the RA reactor, organizational scheme and financial incentives, this document covers describes the state of the reactor components after 18 years of operation, problems concerned with obtaining the licence for operation with 80% fuel, problems of spent fuel storage in the storage pool of the reactor building and the need for renewal of reactor equipment, first of all instrumentation [sr

  13. Multiregion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The study of reflected reactors can be done employing the multigroup diffusion method. The neutron conservation equations, inside the intervals, can be written by fluxes and group constants. A reflected reactor (one and two groups) for a slab geometry is studied, aplying the continuity of flux and current in the interface. At the end, the appropriated solutions for a infinite cylindrical reactor and for a spherical reactor are presented. (Author) [pt

  14. Determination of mean molecular weights in organic reactor coolants. III. Differential cryoscopy with thermoelectric thermometer; Determinacion de masas moleculares medias en refrigerantes nucleares organicos. III-Crioscopia diferencial con termometro termoelectrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerro, E; Carreira, M

    1968-07-01

    The solubility problems raised by some components of the polymeric residue of irradiated polyphenolic coolants, which make it necessary to operate with very small samples, have been solved by means of a differential cryoscopic technique using a thermoelectric thermometer (thermal) as sensitive element. The method is based on the direct measurement of the difference between the freezing points of the investigated solution and of a reference solution whose concentration may be changed at will. The change of {delta} V (mV) versus c(molal) is linear, the equivalent point being determined either analytically or graphically depending on the required accuracy. The method has been tested by measurements on pure polyphenyls, using diphenyl ether as solvent. It has been also applied to the main prospective coolants for the DON reactor. Working with 10{sup 2} molal solutions the accuracy is better than {+-} 2 per cent. (Author) 2 refs.

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Sato, Morihiko.

    1994-01-01

    Liquid metals such as liquid metal sodium are filled in a reactor container as primary coolants. A plurality of reactor core containers are disposed in a row in the circumferential direction along with the inner circumferential wall of the reactor container. One or a plurality of intermediate coolers are disposed at the inside of an annular row of the reactor core containers. A reactor core constituted with fuel rods and control rods (module reactor core) is contained at the inside of each of the reactor core containers. Each of the intermediate coolers comprises a cylindrical intermediate cooling vessels. The intermediate cooling vessel comprises an intermediate heat exchanger for heat exchange of primary coolants and secondary coolants and recycling pumps for compulsorily recycling primary coolants at the inside thereof. Since a plurality of reactor core containers are thus assembled, a great reactor power can be attained. Further, the module reactor core contained in one reactor core vessel may be small sized, to facilitate the control for the reactor core operation. (I.N.)

  16. Nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    After an introduction and general explanation of nuclear power the following reactor types are described: magnox thermal reactor; advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR); pressurised water reactor (PWR); fast reactors (sodium cooled); boiling water reactor (BWR); CANDU thermal reactor; steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR); high temperature reactor (HTR); Leningrad (RMBK) type water-cooled graphite moderated reactor. (U.K.)

  17. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, Francois

    2015-10-01

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  18. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronen, Y.; Elias, E.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  19. SINTESIS, CARACTERIZACION Y ELECTRO-OXIDACION DE 2,2- DITIENIL DERIVADOS, EFECTO DE LA FUNCIONALIZACION SOBRE LAS PROPIEDADES ELECTRICAS

    OpenAIRE

    BROVELLI SEPULVEDA, FRANCISCO ANTONIO

    2002-01-01

    Desde el descubrimiento de la conducción eléctrica en sistemas poliméricos, se han realizado muchos esfuerzos con el propósito de mejorar tanto la conductividad como la resistencia mecánica de estos materiales, sin embargo, en la última década, se ha manifestado un gran interés por los sistemas semiconductores para el desarrollo de nuevos dispositivos, como por ejemplo, diodos emisores de luz (OLED). Debido a la versatilidad estructural que presentan los polímeras, se ha propuesto la sí...

  20. The electric power generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future; La generacion electrica en Mexico y sus impactos ambientales: Pasado, presente y futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the historical evolution, past and present of the installed capacity and of the electric power generation, as well as the fuel consumption and the associated green-house gases emission. Also, under the technique of economic scenarios and future towns (in short and mediate terms) the potential needs of installed capacity, generation, mix and fuel consumption and associated green gases emissions is analyzed. Later on a comment is made on the energy implications of the substitution of fuels policies and the environmental Standards. Finally, a series of comments is established on the possible technological directions for the sector, from the stand point of generation efficiency and its effects in the reduction of emissions [Espanol] El proposito del presente trabajo es analizar la evolucion historica, pasada y presente, de la capacidad instalada y de la generacion electrica, asi como el consumo de combustibles y las emisiones de gases de invernadero asociadas. Tambien se analiza bajo la tecnica de escenarios economicos y poblaciones a futuro (en el corto y mediano plazo) las posibles necesidades de capacidad instalada, generacion, mezcla y consumo de combustibles y emisiones de gases de invernadero asociadas. Posteriormente se comenta sobre las implicaciones energeticas de las politicas de sustitucion de combustibles y estandares ambientales. Por ultimo se establecen una serie de comentarios sobre las posibles direcciones tecnologicas para el sector, desde el punto de vista de la eficiencia de generacion y sus efectos en la reduccion de las emisiones

  1. The satisfaction of developing a project of electrical energy saving; La satisfaccion de desarrollar un proyecto de ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreola Suarez, Alejandro [Hotel Club Marival, Nuevo Vallarta, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    The projects for the energy saving in hotels represent a great opportunity to reduce the operation costs in the demand and consumption of electrical energy, since the existing facilities can take advantage of new technologies in illumination, air conditioning, refrigeration and heating. By their constitution, the hotels work the year around uninterruptedly and must provide all type of services to the guests and working personnel, which originates that they consume great amounts of energy in air conditioning, lightning, laundry, etc., since the prestige of the installation depends on it. [Spanish] Los proyectos para el ahorro de energia en hoteles representan una gran oportunidad para reducir costos de operacion en la demanda y consumo de energia electrica, ya que las instalaciones existentes pueden aprovechar nuevas tecnologias en iluminacion, aire acondicionado, refrigeracion y calefaccion. Por su constitucion, los hoteles trabajan ininterrumpidamente todo el ano y deben proporcionar toda clase de servicios a los huespedes y personal que labora, lo cual origina que consuman grandes cantidades de energia en aire acondicionado, iluminacion, lavanderia, etc., pues de ello depende el prestigio de la instalacion.

  2. Energy losses produced by differential currents in the metallic ducts of electric installations; Perdidas de energia producidas por corrientes diferenciales en la tuberia metalica de instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero L, Eduardo; Bratu S, Neagu; Marquez M, Luis; Caballero R, Rafael [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In this article it is explained what is known as differential currents and the conditions in which they appear in the electrical installations. A short outline is made on the magnetic induction phenomenon that appears in metallic conduits, due to the circulation of differential currents along the inside of the tube and that in turn produces energy losses in the form of heat, that is dissipated in the tube surrounding environment. The results of the measurements performed in the laboratory are shown in order to quantify the energy losses in the metallic conduit. It was found that for certain conditions these losses are significant. [Espanol] En este articulo se explica lo que se entiende por corrientes diferenciales y se describen las condiciones en las que estas aparecen en las instalaciones electricas. Se plantea brevemente el fenomeno de induccion magnetica que aparece en las tuberias metalicas, debido a la circulacion de corrientes diferenciales por el interior del tubo y que a su vez produce perdidas de energia en forma de calor, que se disipa en el ambiente que rodea al tubo. Se muestran los resultados de las mediciones que se llevaron a cabo en laboratorio para poder cuantificar las perdidas en tuberia metalica conduit. Se encontro que para ciertas condiciones estas perdidas son significativas.

  3. Electrochemical generation of energy: from the portable electronic devices to industrial plants; Generacion electroquimica de energia electrica: de los dispositivos electronicos portatiles a las plantas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Varela, Javier [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Saltillo (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article proposes the electrical energy generation via electrochemistry as substitute of petroleum and discusses on the development of low and high temperature fuel cells fed by diverse types of fuels: electrolyte fuel cells of polymeric membrane, PEM cells H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, cell of direct alcohol consumption, PEM cells and bio-fuel cells, SOFC cells and bio-fuel cells. It presents its constitution, operation principles, and use plausibility, present situation in the market, advantages and disadvantages, as well as already made cell insertion projects. [Spanish] Este trabajo propone la generacion de energia electrica via electroquimica como sustituto del petroleo y discurre sobre el desarrollo de celdas de combustible de baja y alta temperatura alimentadas por diversos tipos de combustibles: celdas de combustible de electrolito de membrana polimerica, celda PEM H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, celda de consumo directo de alcohol, celdas PEM y biocombustibles, celdas de combustible de oxido solido y biocombustibles. Expone su constitucion, principios de operacion, plausibilidad de uso, situacion actual en el mercado, ventajas y desventajas, asi como proyectos de insercion de celdas ya realizados.

  4. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, L.

    1955-01-01

    It brings together the techniques data which are involved in the discussion about the utility for a research institute to acquire an atomic reactor for research purposes. This type of decision are often taken by non-specialist people who can need a brief presentation of a research reactor and its possibilities in term of research before asking advises to experts. In a first part, it draws up a list of the different research programs which can be studied by getting a research reactor. First of all is the reactor behaviour and kinetics studies (reproducibility factor, exploration of neutron density, effect of reactor structure, effect of material irradiation...). Physical studies includes study of the behaviour of the control system, studies of neutron resonance phenomena and study of the fission process for example. Chemical studies involves the study of manipulation and control of hot material, characterisation of nuclear species produced in the reactor and chemical effects of irradiation on chemical properties and reactions. Biology and medicine research involves studies of irradiation on man and animals, genetics research, food or medical tools sterilization and neutron beams effect on tumour for example. A large number of other subjects can be studied in a reactor research as reactor construction material research, fabrication of radioactive sources for radiographic techniques or applied research as in agriculture or electronic. The second part discussed the technological considerations when choosing the reactor type. The technological factors, which are considered for its choice, are the power of the reactor, the nature of the fuel which is used, the type of moderator (water, heavy water, graphite or BeO) and the reflector, the type of coolants, the protection shield and the control systems. In the third part, it described the characteristics (place of installation, type of combustible and comments) and performance (power, neutron flux ) of already existing

  5. Hydraulic speed variators for electrical energy saving; Variadores de velocidad hidraulicos para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This paper shows the characteristics and applications of the hydraulic speed variators, where because of the conditions of the industrial processes it is necessary to vary the operation parameters, obtaining therefore an energy saving besides improving the control of these processes. In addition, the technical and economic evaluation is presented of a project of the Mazatlan Fossil Power Plant, in which it is intended to invest in the installation of a hydraulic speed variator connected to the forced draft fan of unit number three, which operates with an induction motor of 1,865 kW (2,500 H.P.), with a Voltage of 4,180 V at 1,180 rpm. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra las caracteristicas y aplicaciones de los variadores de velocidad hidraulicos, donde por las condiciones de los procesos industriales sea necesario variar los parametros de operacion, obteniendose asi un ahorro de energia ademas de mejorar el control de dichos procesos. Se presenta ademas la evaluacion tecnica y economica de un proyecto de la Planta Termoelectrica Mazatlan, en donde se pretende invertir en la instalacion de un variador de velocidad hidraulico acoplado al ventilador de tiro forzado de la unidad numero tres, el cual opera con un motor de induccion de 1,865 kW (2,500 H.P.), con un voltaje de 4,180 V y una velocidad de 1,180 rpm.

  6. Transient stability studies on industrial power systems interconnected to the transmission grid; Estudios de estabilidad transitoria en sistemas electricos industriales con generacion propia interconectaos con el sistema de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon Guizar, J.G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jgc@iie.org.mx

    2010-10-15

    Aiming to ensure continuity in the electrical supply to critical processes, the electrical systems of large industrial plants, i.e. gas, and petrochemical industries usually posses local generation. Should the local generation be enough to satisfy the demand of the plant, then the interconnection with the public grid is commonly used as an important support for emergency conditions. This paper is concerned with the dynamical performance of two interconnected industrial power systems tied to the transmission system. Simulation results indicate that the frequency performance of one of the industrial plants, after the transients caused by the loss of the tie with the transmission system have died out, is greatly improved if both industrial plants remain connected after the disturbance. [Spanish] La continuidad en el suministro de energia electrica a procesos criticos de grandes complejos industriales, tales como plantas petroquimicas, procesadoras de gas, etc., es un aspecto de fundamental importancia para garantizar una operacion adecuada de este tipo de complejos. Con el proposito de mejorar la confiabilidad en el suministro de energia a los procesos criticos, los sistemas electricos de estos complejos industriales, generalmente cuentan con generacion propia. Si la capacidad de generacion instalada en los sistemas industriales es suficiente para satisfacer el total de la carga del complejo, la interconexion con el sistema de transmision es utilizada principalmente como respaldo durante condiciones de emergencia. En este articulo se analiza el comportamiento dinamico de dos sistemas industriales con generacion propia, disenados para operar en forma aislada, interconectados entre si, a traves de un enlace de 115 kV y con el sistema de transmision. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el comportamiento de la frecuencia en estado estable en uno de los complejos, posterior a la perdida del enlace con el sistema de transmision, mejora de manera considerable cuando estos

  7. Feasibility of implementation of an autonomous hybrid system for PEM fuel cells to electrify localities in rural Cuba; Factibilidad de implementacion de un sistema hibrido autonomo con celda de combustible PEM para electrificar localidades rurales en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Torres, Yamir [Centro de Estudios de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (CETER), Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba)] e-mail: yamir@ceter.cujae.edu.cu

    2009-09-15

    The use of PEM fuel cells to produce electric energy in autonomous systems is closely linked with the production and storage of hydrogen. Eventually joined with sources of renewable energy, this creates an ecologically clean and sustainable system. In several developing countries, localities exist that do not have electricity but have significant unexploited renewable energy power, where an autonomous hybrid system can be designed to electrify these population centers. This work presents a hybrid electricity scheme with a PEM fuel cell to produce hydrogen and electricity in order to electrify rural zones far from the national power grid in Cuba. The electric demand of the zone and available energy power was calculated using the informatics modeling and simulation programs HOMER, PVSYST and Matlab 1,2,3. Variability in wind and photovoltage power was determined based on daylight hours and seasonal periods throughout the year as well as their effect on the production of hydrogen and electricity. It was shown that the energy demand is met even for the most adverse scenarios. This work offers a detailed description of the behavior of the system and evidence of no effect on the environment, enabling the electrification and wellbeing of residents of the locality. [Spanish] El uso de celdas de combustible PEM para la produccion de energia electrica en sistemas autonomos esta estrechamente ligado a la produccion y almacenamiento de hidrogeno. Esto eventualmente unido a las fuentes renovables de energia forma un sistema ecologicamente limpio y sustentable. En varios paises subdesarrollados existen localidades que no cuentan con electricidad y que tienen importantes potenciales energeticos renovables no explotados actualmente en los cuales se puede disenar un sistema hibrido autonomo para electrificar estas poblaciones. En este trabajo se presenta el esquema de un sistema hibrido autonomo con celda de combustible PEM, para la produccion de hidrogeno y electricidad encaminado

  8. Videojuego con Realidad Virtual

    OpenAIRE

    González Mora, César

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo del proyecto es el desarrollo de un videojuego deportivo que utilice realidad mixta. El videojuego se podrá utilizar con dispositivos de tipo cardboard, y utilizará realidad aumentada para la interacción del jugador con el videojuego. En el desarrollo se utilizará el motor Unity para conseguir una aplicación multiplataforma, y la librería Vuforia para implementar realidad mixta.

  9. Sistemas integrados con Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    EL YAKOUTI, MOHAMMED

    2017-01-01

    Design of a robot prototype remotely controllable from Bluetooth using Arduino. Control and testing of sensors and events interacting with Arduino and Bluetooth. Diseño de un prototipo de robot controlable remotamente con Bluetooth utilizando Arduino. Control y verificación de los sensores y eventos que interactúan mediante el Arduino y el Bluetooth. El Yakouti, M. (2017). Sistemas integrados con Arduino. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/89274. TFGM

  10. Investigando con personas con dificultades de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González Luna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra los orígenes de lo que Walmsley (2008 denomina «investigación inclusiva». Para comprender qué se entiende por investigación inclusiva tenemos que remontarnos a los debates epistemológicos sobre las metodologías cuantitativas y cualitativas, acontecidos en la década de los 90, en torno a la revista Disability & Society. A partir de una síntesis de dichos debates, focalizados en el ámbito de la «discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo», se exponen dos estrategias de colaboración con dicha población: a una aproximación etnográfica (de trabajo grupal, y b una aproximación biográfica (de trabajo individual. A continuación se esboza un posible diseño de trabajo de campo que intenta superar el paradigma cualitativo «clásico» con el objetivo de incluir a dicho colectivo más allá del rol de «sujetos de la investigación». Para finalizar se recoge el debate sobre la accesibilidad de los resultados de la investigación a los participantes en dichas investigaciones, y con ello la necesaria innovación en el ámbito de las «devoluciones» de los resultados, cuando se trata de incluir a personas que presentan limitaciones para la comprensión del lenguaje abstracto oral y/o escrito.

  11. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)

  12. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  13. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabedian, G.

    1988-01-01

    A liquid reactor is described comprising: (a) a reactor vessel having a core; (b) one or more satellite tanks; (c) pump means in the satellite tank; (d) heat exchanger means in the satellite tank; (e) an upper liquid metal conduit extending between the reactor vessel and the satellite tank; (f) a lower liquid metal duct extending between the reactor vessel and satellite tanks the upper liquid metal conduit and the lower liquid metal duct being arranged to permit free circulation of liquid metal between the reactor vessel core and the satellite tank by convective flow of liquid metal; (g) a separate sealed common containment vessel around the reactor vessel, conduits and satellite tanks; (h) the satellite tank having space for a volume of liquid metal that is sufficient to dampen temperature transients resulting from abnormal operating conditions

  14. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batheja, P.; Huber, R.; Rau, P.

    1985-01-01

    Particularly for nuclear reactors of small output, the reactor pressure vessel contains at least two heat exchangers, which have coolant flowing through them in a circuit through the reactor core. The circuit of at least one heat exchanger is controlled by a slide valve, so that even for low drive forces, particularly in natural circulation, the required even loading of the heat exchanger is possible. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Theoretical evaluation of the production of the poisons Xe-135 and Sm-149 of the TRIGA Mark III reactor with mixed core; Evaluacion teorica de la produccion de los venenos Xe-135 y Sm-149 del reactor TRIGA Mark III con nucleo mixto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.C

    1991-11-15

    It was theoretically determined the accumulation of the Xe{sup 135} and Sm {sup 149} in function, of the time during a stationary state of 72 h. continuous for the reactor TRIGA Mark III to 1 MW of thermal power with mixed core. The values of negative reactivity due to these isotopes are of 2.04 dollars and 0.694 dollars to the 72 h, quantities that will have to be compensated if wants that the reactor continues working to this power. Under the same conditions but considering a core with standard fuel, it was found a value of {rho} = 1.70 dollars, resulting a difference of 0.30 dollars of negative reactivity in function of the type of analyzed core. This difference is important for the calculations of fuel management of a reactor. The concentration in balance of the xenon was reaches after an operation to constant power of 1 MW by 50 h, contrary to the samarium that reaches it balance after 3 weeks of operation starting from the initial start up and it stays constant along the useful life of the reactor while a change of fuel doesn't exist. It was obtained that for operation times greater to 60 h. at 1 MW, a peak of negative reactivity of the Xe{sup 135} is generated between the 7 and 11 h after the instantaneous shut down, with a value of 2.43 dollars, that is to say 0.39 additional dollars to those taken place during the continuous irradiation. (Author)

  16. Simulation of a hypothetical liquid relief valve failure (open) at Embalse nuclear power plant when a reactor shutdown is considered; Simulacion de la evolucion de la CNE (central nuclear Embalse) en el caso hipotetico de la apertura espuria de una valvula de alivio liquido con disparo del reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrossian, G; Gersberg, S [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina). Unidad de Actividad Reactores y Centrales Nucleares

    1997-12-31

    The study of the spurious opening of the liquid relief valves is of great interest in CANDU nuclear power plants because this could lead to a loss of coolant through the degasser-condenser relief valves, and implies an undesirable intermittent opening/closure of them. In fact, there is a specific procedure to follow at Embalse nuclear power plant whenever this abnormal situation occurs. This procedure contains a section where a reactor trip is considered. Really, automatic reactor trip is not accepted to occur. No trip parameters set points are through to be reached (neutronic or process). However, the procedure considers the situation where the reactor does trip. We analyzed the plant behavior when a reactor shutdown is triggered. Our objective was to assess if after this trip, the procedure can lead the plant to a safe situation, preventing high pressures in the degasser-condenser and with the inventory recovered in the storage tank. The case was analyzed with Firebird III, Mod. 1.0 code. Two situations were considered: trip at 40 sec. and trip at 180 sec. after the liquid relief valve failed opened (the latter when the degasser-condenser fills up). Procedure analysis and code simulations showed that following the steps recommended, provided the liquid relief valve can be closed manually, the inventory that enters the degasser-condenser from the heat transport primary system through the failed valve could be recovered in the storage tank, leading the plant to shutdown in safe conditions, and preventing the degasser-condenser relief valves setpoint from being reached. (author). 3 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Evaluation of Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) code Open FOAM in the study of the pressurized thermal stress of PWR reactors. Comparison with the commercial code Ansys-CFX; Evaluacion del codigo de Dinamica de Fluidos Computacional (CFD) Open FOAM en el estudio del estres termico presurizado de los reactores PWR. Comparacion con el codigo comercial Ansys-CFX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.; Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Verdu Martin, G.; Chiva, S.

    2012-07-01

    In this work is proposed to evaluate the potential of the OpenFOAM code for the simulation of typical fluid flows in reactors PWR, in particular for the study of pressurized thermal stress. Test T1-1 has been simulated , within the OECD ROSA project, with the objective of evaluating the performance of the code OpenFOAM and models of turbulence that has implemented to capture the effect of the thrust forces in the case study.

  18. Qualification according to PDI's techniques UT EPRI methodology Phased Array for the inspection of vessels of PWR reactor with advanced robotic equipment; Cualificacion segun metodologia PDI de EPRI de te cnicas UT Phased Array para la inspeccion de vasijas de reactor PWR con eq uipos roboticos avanzados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadea, J. R.; Gonzalez, P.; Fernandez, F.

    2014-07-01

    The techniques and procedures qualified in the program EPRI PDI are directly applicable in plants whose reference code is ASME XI - specifically the Appendix VIII-, mainly USA and countries in which it is established American PWR technology. While countries with reactors in operation technology ABB (Sweden) or type VVER (Finland and Eastern countries) requires a qualification of specific technical type ENIQ, PDI qualification is a valuable reference since it allows to deal with such qualifications with guarantees. (Author)

  19. Preliminary risk analysis of an Hydrogen production plant using the reformed process of methane with vapor coupled to a high temperature nuclear reactor; Analisis preliminar de riesgo de una planta de produccion de hidrogeno utilizando el proceso de reformado de metano con vapor acoplada a un reactor nuclear de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores y Flores, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: alain_fyf@yahoo.com; Nelson E, P.F.; Francois L, J.L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It is necessary to identify the different types of dangers, as well as their causes, probabilities and consequences of the same ones, inside plants, industries and any process to classify the risks. This work is focused in particular to a study using the technical HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) for a plant of reformed of methane with vapor coupled to a nuclear reactor of the type HTTR (High Temperature Test Reactor), which is designed to be built in Japan. In particular in this study the interaction is analyzed between the nuclear reactor and the plant of reformed of methane with vapor. After knowing the possible causes of risk one it is built chart of results of HAZOP to have a better vision of the consequences of this faults toward the buildings and constructions, to people and the influence of the fault on each plant; for what there are proposed solutions to mitigate these consequences or to avoid them. The work is divided in three sections: a brief introduction about the technique of HAZOP; some important aspects of the plant of reformed of methane with vapor; and the construction of the chart of results of HAZOP. (Author)

  20. Experimental evaluation of the production of the poisons Xe-135 and Sm-149 of the TRIGA Mark III reactor with mixed core, configuration No. 16 (Final report of the project); Evaluacion experimental de la produccion de los venenos Xe-135 y Sm-149 del reactor TRIGA Mark III con nucleo mixto, config. No. 16 (Informe final del proyecto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L C

    1991-11-15

    It was generated the concentration curve of the Xe{sup 135} (t) during the TRIGA Mark III reactor operation cycle, for a continuous irradiation of 72 h to 1 MW of thermal power, as well as the accumulation curve of the isotope after the shutdown, for the fuel configuration No. 16 in the thermal column. The maximum negative reactivities generated by the Xe{sup 135} for operation times greater than 60 h to 1 MW and after the reactor shutdown its were of 1.968 {+-} 0.15 dollars and 2.30 {+-} 0.15 dollars respectively. When comparing these results with those theoretically calculated we find differences of the order of 3.6% and 5.34% which are understood inside the experimental error that on the average was of 7.6%. The results before mentioned have an important application during the start up process of the Reactor, when analyzing the value of the weekly reactivity excess of the core and when is choice the pattern of bars to use for experiments of but of 2 h, where is required to minimize the temporary and space interferences of the neutron flux. (Author)

  1. Heterogeneous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The microscopic study of a cell is meant for the determination of the infinite multiplication factor of the cell, which is given by the four factor formula: K(infinite) = n(epsilon)pf. The analysis of an homogeneous reactor is similar to that of an heterogeneous reactor, but each factor of the four factor formula can not be calculated by the formulas developed in the case of an homogeneous reactor. A great number of methods was developed for the calculation of heterogeneous reactors and some of them are discussed. (Author) [pt

  2. Welding with the TIG automatic process of the end fittings for the execution of the Embalse nuclear power plant fuel channel rechange; Soldadura con proceso TIG automatico de los accesorios extremos (end fitting) para la ejecucion de un recambio de canal de combustible en el reactor de la Central Nuclear Embalse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, P O

    1991-12-31

    The present work describes the methodology for the cutting of the existing welding and subsequent welding applied by the TIG process of the coupling composed by the shroud ring and the end fitting ring from one of Embalse nuclear power plant`s fuel channels. The replacement will be previously determined by the SLAR-ETTE mechanism where a displacement operated among the Gartner Spring rings, the pressure tubes are separated from the Calandria tubes. The welding to be carried out has the function of stamping the CO{sub 2} annular gas (thermal insulator) circulating between the pressure tube and the Calandria one during the functioning of the plant. (Author). [Espanol] El presente trabajo describe la metodologia de corte de la soldadura existente y la posterior soldadura aplicada mediante proceso TIG de la junta compuesta por el aro de fuelle y el anillo del `end fitting`, de uno de los canales de combustibles del reactor de la Central Nuclear Embalse. El reemplazo, se determinara previamente mediante el mecanismo de SLAR-ETTE con lo cual se observara el desplazamiento operado entre los anillos garten spring que separan los tubos de presion de los tubos de calandria. La soldadura a efectuar cumple la funcion de sellar el gas anular CO{sub 2} (aislante termico) circulante entre el tubo de presion y el tubo de calandria durante el funcionamiento de la planta. (Autor).

  3. Riego subsuperficial con aguas residuales tratadas

    OpenAIRE

    Crespi, Raúl; Camacho, Emilio; Polo, María José

    2009-01-01

    La reutilización de aguas residuales tratadas para riego por goteo subsuperficial (RGS) de cultivos extensivos, es una práctica reconocida mundialmente, siendo la obturación de emisores un serio problema en la operación de estos sistemas. Durante el ciclo agrícola 2002/03, se realizó un ensayo experimental usando dos tipos de agua: limpia (AL) y residual tratada (AR) en un sistema mixto combinando un reactor biológico con laguna de maduración y tres tipos de protectores del emisor: micro dosi...

  4. The use of reflecting paints on building`s roofs for energy saving; Uso de pinturas reflejantes en los techos de las edificaciones para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Jose Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez Soto, Ramon [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Termoenergia de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper shows the effects of the use of reflecting paints in different colors on the buildings roofs and the results in energy saving obtained in a field test carried on in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon State of Mexico using aluminum paint. [Espanol] El presente trabajo muestra los efectos del uso de pinturas reflejantes de diferentes colores en los techos de edificaciones, y los resultados de ahorro de energia electrica obtenidos en una prueba de campo efectuada en Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, utilizando pintura de aluminio.

  5. The use of reflecting paints on building`s roofs for energy saving; Uso de pinturas reflejantes en los techos de las edificaciones para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Jose Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez Soto, Ramon [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Termoenergia de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    This paper shows the effects of the use of reflecting paints in different colors on the buildings roofs and the results in energy saving obtained in a field test carried on in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon State of Mexico using aluminum paint. [Espanol] El presente trabajo muestra los efectos del uso de pinturas reflejantes de diferentes colores en los techos de edificaciones, y los resultados de ahorro de energia electrica obtenidos en una prueba de campo efectuada en Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, utilizando pintura de aluminio.

  6. Slurry reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuerten, H; Zehner, P [BASF A.G., Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    Slurry reactors are designed on the basis of empirical data and model investigations. It is as yet not possible to calculate the flow behavior of such reactors. The swarm of gas bubbles and cluster formations of solid particles and their interaction in industrial reactors are not known. These effects control to a large extent the gas hold-up, the gas-liquid interface and, similarly as in bubble columns, the back-mixing of liquids and solids. These hydrodynamic problems are illustrated in slurry reactors which constructionally may be bubble columns, stirred tanks or jet loop reactors. The expected effects are predicted by means of tests with model systems modified to represent the conditions in industrial hydrogenation reactors. In his book 'Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis' (1970) Satterfield complained of the lack of knowledge about the design of slurry reactors and hence of the impossible task of the engineer who has to design a plant according to accepted rules. There have been no fundamental changes since then. This paper presents the problems facing the engineer in designing slurry reactors, and shows new development trends.

  7. Reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, H.P.; Heuser, F.W.; May, H.

    1985-01-01

    The paper comprises an introduction into nuclear physics bases, the safety concept generally speaking, safety devices of pwr type reactors, accident analysis, external influences, probabilistic safety assessment and risk studies. It further describes operational experience, licensing procedures under the Atomic Energy Law, research in reactor safety and the nuclear fuel cycle. (DG) [de

  8. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysels, K.J.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core consists of a number of fuel regions through each of which regulated coolant flows. The coolant from neighbouring fuel regions is combined in a manner which results in an averaging of the coolant temperature at the outlet of the core. By this method the presence of hot streaks in the reactor is reduced. (UK)

  9. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami; Nishio, Masahide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the rupture of the dry well even when the melted reactor core drops into a reactor pedestal cavity. Constitution: In a reactor container in which a dry well disposed above the reactor pedestal cavity for containing the reactor pressure vessel and a torus type suppression chamber for containing pressure suppression water are connected with each other, the pedestal cavity and the suppression chamber are disposed such that the flow level of the pedestal cavity is lower than the level of the pressure suppression water. Further, a pressure suppression water introduction pipeway for introducing the pressure suppression water into the reactor pedestal cavity is disposed by way of an ON-OFF valve. In case if the melted reactor core should fall into the pedestal cavity, the ON-OFF valve for the pressure suppression water introduction pipeway is opened to introduce the pressure suppression water in the suppression chamber into the pedestal cavity to cool the melted reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  10. RA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This chapter includes the following: General description of the RA reactor, organization of work, responsibilities of leadership and operators team, regulations concerning operation and behaviour in the reactor building, regulations for performing experiments, regulations and instructions for inserting samples into experimental channels [sr

  11. Reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, H.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in research on reactor physics in 1997 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. Activities in the following four domains are discussed: core physics, ex-core neutron transport, experiments in Materials Testing Reactors, international benchmarks

  12. Electric energy saving using natural illumination, in educational spaces; Ahorro de energia electrica utilizando iluminacion natural, en espacios educativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpuche, Maria G; Marincic, Irene; Ochoa, Jose M [Programa de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sonora (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    In this article the natural illumination in a space pertaining to the building of Architecture of the University of Sonora, in the city of Hermosillo is analyzed, Located towards the Northeast facade. This same space is repeated in the South facade, and paradoxically the space has the same dimensions and the same luminance design. Also the simulation of natural illumination by means of the Ecotec program is realized, and the levels of natural illumination in educational spaces, corresponding to the facilities of the University of Sonora are analyzed, where most of the year there is a completely clear sky. [Spanish] En este articulo se analiza la iluminacion natural en un espacio correspondiente al edificio de Arquitectura de la Universidad de sonora, en la ciudad de Hermosillo, Ubicado hacia la fachada Noreste. Este mismo espacio se repite en la fachada Sur, y el espacio tienen las mismas dimensiones y paradojicamente, el mismo diseno luminico. Tambien se realiza la simulacion de iluminacion natural mediante el programa Ecotec, y se analizan los niveles de iluminacion natural en espacios educativos, correspondientes a las instalaciones de la Universidad de Sonora, donde la mayor parte del ano se cuenta con un cielo completamente despejado.

  13. Online monitoring of accessories for underground electrical installations through acoustics emissions; Monitoreo en linea de accesorios de instalaciones electricas subterraneas mediante emisiones acusticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casals-Torrens, P. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)]. E-mail: p.casals@upc.edu; Gonzalez-Parada, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: gonzaleza@salamanca.ugto.mx; Bosch-Tous, R. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)

    2012-04-15

    The acoustic waves caused by Partial Discharges inside the dielectric materials, can be detected by acoustic emission (AE) sensors and analyzed in the time domain. The experimental results presented, show the online detection capability of these sensors in the environment near a cable accessory, such as a splice or terminal. The AE sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference and constitute a detection method non-intrusive and non-destructive, which ensures a galvanic decoupling with respect to electric networks, this technique of partial discharge detection can be applied as a test method for preventive or predictive maintenance (condition-based maintenance) to equipment or facilities of medium and high voltage in service and represents an alternative method to electrical detection systems, conventional or not, that continue to rely on the detection of current pulses. This paper presents characterization tests of the sensors AE through comparative tests of partial discharge on accessories for underground power cables. [Spanish] Las ondas acusticas provocadas por las descargas parciales en el interior de un dielectrico pueden ser detectadas por sensores de Emisiones Acusticas (EA) y analizadas en el dominio del tiempo. Los resultados experimentales que se presentan, evidencian la capacidad de deteccion en linea de estos sensores, en el entorno proximo a un accesorio de cable, empalme o terminal. Los sensores EA son inmunes a las interferencias electromagneticas, son un metodo de deteccion no destructivo y garantizan desacople galvanico respecto a la red electrica; esta tecnica de deteccion de descargas parciales puede ser aplicada como metodo de prueba para mantenimiento preventivo o predictivo (mantenimiento basado en la condicion), en equipos o instalaciones de media y alta tension en servicio, y representa una alternativa a los sistemas electricos de deteccion, convencionales o no, que continuan basandose en la deteccion del impulsos de corriente. En el

  14. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  15. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    A system for controlling combustible gases, it has been constituted at present such that the combustible gases are controlled by exhausting them to the wet well of a reactor container. In this system, however, there has been a problem, in a reactor container having plenums in addition to the wet well and the dry well, that the combustible gases in such plenums can not be controlled. In view of the above, in the present invention, suction ports or exhaust ports of the combustible gas control system are disposed to the wet well, the dry well and the plenums to control the combustible gases in the reactor container. Since this can control the combustible gases in the entire reactor container, the integrity of the reactor container can be ensured. (T.M.)

  16. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Hosomi, Kenji; Otonari, Jun-ichiro.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen to be disposed in a reactor container upon rupture of pipelines of a reactor primary coolant system is prevented from deposition of water droplets formed from a reactor container spray to suppress elevation of hydrogen concentration in the reactor container. Namely, a catalytic combustion gas concentration control system comprises a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen and a support thereof. In addition, there is also disposed a water droplet deposition-preventing means for preventing deposition of water droplets in a reactor pressure vessel on the catalyst. Then, the effect of the catalyst upon catalytic oxidation reaction of hydrogen can be kept high. The local elevation of hydrogen concentration can be prevented even upon occurrence of such a phenomenon that various kinds of mobile forces in the container such as dry well cooling system are lost. (I.S.)

  17. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor and especially a high-temperature reactor in which provision is made within a pressure vessel for a main cavity containing the reactor core and a series of vertical cylindrical pods arranged in spaced relation around the main cavity and each adapted to communicate with the cavity through two collector ducts or headers for the primary fluid which flows downwards through the reactor core. Each pod contains two superposed steam-generator and circulator sets disposed in substantially symmetrical relation on each side of the hot primary-fluid header which conveys the primary fluid from the reactor cavity to the pod, the circulators of both sets being mounted respectively at the bottom and top ends of the pod

  18. Giochiamo con i robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonarini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "Giochiamo con i robot" e' un laboratorio interattivo per grandi e piccini realizzato per l'edizione 2007 del Festival della Scienza di Genova. Lungo un percorso che va dalla telerobotica alla robotica evolutiva, il laboratorio sviluppa il tema di dare intelligenza ai robot. Questo percorso, le cui tappe sono le varie installazioni, si conclude nella "bottega" dove e' possibile costruire e programmare i propri robot o smontare e modificare quelli esposti durante il percorso didattico. I visitatori sono coinvolti in attivita' ludiche grazie alle quali possonoentrare in contatto con alcune delle idee potenti della robotica,

  19. disegnare con ... Alberto Pratelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mingucci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Con questa breve intervista ad Alberto Pratelli, (non a caso scelto per aprire questa nuova rubrica intendia-mo inaugurare un dialogo con personalità significati-ve del Disegno di Architettura, che consenta riflessioni dedicate alle sue varie dimensioni, oggi più che mai da approfondire. La suggestione a farlo, viene da un’idea di Pablo Rodri-guez Navarro ed abbiamo quindi pensato di avviarla proprio in questo numero, che Pablo ha accettato di curare su un tema a lui particolarmente caro.

  20. Scale Effects in Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Reactors for Trickle-Flow Processes Les conséquences de l'extrapolation appliquée aux procédés à écoulement ruisselant réalisés en laboratoire et dans les réacteurs des unités-pilotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sie S. T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and development studies in a laboratory are necessarily conducted on a scale which is orders of magnitude smaller than that in commercial practice. In the case of the development and commercialization of an unprecedented novel process technology, available laboratory results have to be translated into envisaged technology on a commercial scale, i. e. the problem is that of scaling-up. However, in many circumstances the commercial technology is more or less defined as far as type of reactor is concerned and laboratory studies are concerned with the generation of predictive information on the behaviour of new catalysts, alternative feedstocks, etc. , in such a reactor. In many cases the complexity of feed composition and reaction kinetics preclude the prediction to be made on the basis of a combination of fundamental kinetic data and computer models, so that there is no other option than to simulate the commercial reactor on a laboratory scale, i. e. the problem is that of scaling-down. From the point of view of R & D Defficiency, the scale of the laboratory experiments should be as small as possible without detracting from the meaningfulness of the results. In the present paper some problems in the scaling-down of a trickle-flow reactor as applied in hydrotreating processes to kinetically equivalent laboratory reactors of different sizes will be discussed. Two main aspects relating to inequalities in fluid dynamics resulting from the differences in scale will be treated in more detail, viz. deviations from ideal plug flow and non ideal wetting or irrigation of the catalyst particles. Although a laboratory reactor can never be a true small-scale replica of a commercial trickle-flow reactor in all respects, it can nevertheless be made to provide representative data as far as the catalytic conversion aspects are concerned. By ressorting to measures such as catalyst bed dilution with fine catalytically inert material it proves possible to

  1. Conversando con Oriol Bohigas

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo Domínguez, Ernesto; Moya Sala, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Interview with Oriol Bohigas [ES] Entrevista con Oriol Bohigas Redondo Domínguez, E.; Moya Sala, J. (2015). Conversando con… Oriol Bohigas. EGA. Revista de Expresión Gráfica Arquitectónica. 20(26):22-35. doi:10.4995/ega.2015.4061 22 35 20 26

  2. DR Con o:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which could fall under the Ugandan influence. The con-. flict in the ..... The Congolese people and international community within SADC, the AU ..... ments and make peace among themselves. However, one ... friends overnight.There is a great ...

  3. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toru; Murata, Ritsuko.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a spent fuel storage pool of a BWR type reactor is formed at an upper portion and enlarged in the size to effectively utilize the space of the building. Namely, a reactor chamber enhouses reactor facilities including a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container, and further, a spent fuel storage pool is formed thereabove. A second spent fuel storage pool is formed above the auxiliary reactor chamber at the periphery of the reactor chamber. The spent fuel storage pool and the second spent fuel storage pool are disposed in adjacent with each other. A wall between both of them is formed vertically movable. With such a constitution, the storage amount for spent fuels is increased thereby enabling to store the entire spent fuels generated during operation period of the plant. Further, since requirement of the storage for the spent fuels is increased stepwisely during periodical exchange operation, it can be used for other usage during the period when the enlarged portion is not used. (I.S.)

  4. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Kawashima, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the temperature distribution of the reactor container so as to moderate the thermal stress distribution on the reactor wall of LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: A good heat conductor (made of Al or Cu) is appended on the outer side of the reactor container wall from below the liquid level to the lower face of a deck plate. Further, heat insulators are disposed to the outside of the good heat conductor. Furthermore, a gas-cooling duct is circumferentially disposed at the contact portion between the good heat conductor and the deck plate around the reactor container. This enables to flow the cold heat from the liquid metal rapidly through the good heat conductor to the cooling duct and allows to maintain the temperature distribution on the reactor wall substantially linear even with the abrupt temperature change in the liquid metal. Further, by appending the good heat conductor covered with inactive metals not only on the outer side but also on the inside of the reactor wall to introduce the heat near the liquid level to the upper portion and escape the same to the cooling layer below the roof slab, the effect can be improved further. (Ikeda, J.)

  5. fertilizada con diferentes abonos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera (Morus alba fertilizada con diferentes abonos. Se llevó a cabo un experimento en la Estación Experimental “Alfredo Volio Mata” de la Universidad de Costa Rica con el fi n de evaluar la aplicación de 150 kg de N/ha/año proveniente de dos abonos orgánicos: lombriabono y compostaje; y de un fertilizante químico, sobre la producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera. El periodo experimental comprendió un ciclo de 12 meses, iniciando en julio del 2003 y fi nalizando en julio del 2004. Se utilizó una plantación de morera de 12 años de establecida con una densidad de siembra de 27.777 plantas/ ha. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos: dos abonos orgánicos, nitrato de amonio (33,5% N y un control. Las plantas se podaron a 0,6 m sobre el nivel del suelo al inicio del ensayo. Durante el periodo experimental, las plantas fueron podadas consecutivamente cada 90 días. Las hojas y los tallos fueron separados y analizados para determinar el contenido de materia seca y proteína cruda. La producción de materia seca fue 23% superior y el contenido de proteína cruda fue signifi cativamente mayor con el nitrógeno químico, mientras que el contenido de materia seca fue menor. No se encontraron diferencias signifi cativas entre el tratamiento control y los tratamientos orgánicos.

  6. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor core of nuclear reactors usually is composed of individual elongated fuel elements that may be vertically arranged and through which coolant flows in axial direction, preferably from bottom to top. With their lower end the fuel elements gear in an opening of a lower support grid forming part of the core structure. According to the invention a locking is provided there, part of which is a control element that is movable along the fuel element axis. The corresponding locking element is engaged behind a lateral projection in the opening of the support grid. The invention is particularly suitable for breeder or converter reactors. (orig.) [de

  7. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinchilla, Henry [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello

  8. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  9. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  10. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor containment vessel faced internally with a metal liner is provided with thermal insulation for the liner, comprising one or more layers of compressible material such as ceramic fiber, such as would be conventional in an advanced gas-cooled reactor and also a superposed layer of ceramic bricks or tiles in combination with retention means therefor, the retention means (comprising studs projecting from the liner, and bolts or nuts in threaded engagement with the studs) being themselves insulated from the vessel interior so that the coolant temperatures achieved in a High-Temperature Reactor or a Fast Reactor can be tolerated with the vessel. The layer(s) of compressible material is held under a degree of compression either by the ceramic bricks or tiles themselves or by cover plates held on the studs, in which case the bricks or tiles are preferably bedded on a yielding layer (for example of carbon fibers) rather than directly on the cover plates

  11. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate and accelerate a leakage test of valves of a main steam pipe by adding a leakage test partition valve thereto. Constitution: A leakage testing partition valve is provided between a pressure vessel for a nuclear reactor and the most upstream side valve of a plurality of valves to be tested for leakage, a testing branch pipe is communicated with the downstream side of the partition valve, and the testing water for preventing leakage is introduced thereto through the branch pipe. Since main steam pipe can be simply isolated by closing the partition valve in the leakage test, the leakage test can be conducted without raising or lowering the water level in the pressure vessel, and since interference with other work in the reactor can be eliminated, the leakage test can be readily conducted parallel with other work in the reactor in a short time. Clean water can be used without using reactor water as the test water. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshihito; Sano, Tamotsu; Ueda, Sabuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the liquid surface disturbance in LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: A horizontal flow suppressing mechanism mainly comprising vertical members is suspended near the free liquid surface of coolants in the upper plenum. The horizontal flow of coolants near the free liquid surface is reduced by the suppressing mechanism to effectively reduce the surface disturbance. The reduction in the liquid surface disturbance further prevails to the entire surface region with no particular vertical variations to the free liquid surface to remarkably improve the preventive performance for the liquid surface disturbance. Accordingly, it is also possible to attain the advantageous effects such as prevention for the thermal fatigue in reactor vessel walls, reactor upper mechanisms, etc. and prevention of burning damage to the reactor core due to the reduction of envolved Ar gas. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. REACTOR SHIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  15. Breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollion, H.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons for the development of fast reactors are briefly reviewed (a propitious neutron balance oriented towards a maximum uranium burnup) and its special requirements (cooling, fissile material density and reprocessing) discussed. The three stages in the French program of fast reactor development are outlined with Rapsodie at Cadarache, Phenix at Marcoule, and Super Phenix at Creys-Malville. The more specific features of the program of research and development are emphasized: kinetics and the core, the fuel and the components [fr

  16. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, I.; Gutscher, E.

    1980-01-01

    The core contains a critical mass of UN or U 2 N 3 in the form of a noncritical solution with melted Sn being kept below a N atmosphere. The lining of the reactor core consists of graphite. If fission progresses part of the melted metal solution is removed and cleaned from fission products. The reactor temperatures lie in the range of 300 to 2000 0 C. (Examples and tables). (RW) [de

  17. Reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdoes, P.

    1977-01-01

    This is one of a series of articles discussing aspects of nuclear engineering ranging from a survey of various reactor types for static and mobile use to mention of atomic thermo-electric batteries of atomic thermo-electric batteries for cardiac pacemakers. Various statistics are presented on power generation in Europe and U.S.A. and economics are discussed in some detail. Molten salt reactors and research machines are also described. (G.M.E.)

  18. Reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1990-01-01

    A water vessel is disposed and the gas phase portion of the water vessel is connected to a reactor container by a pipeline having a valve disposed at the midway thereof. A pipe in communication with external air is extended upwardly from the liquid phase portion to a considerable height so as to resist against the back pressure by a waterhead in the pipeline. Accordingly, when the pressure in the container is reduced to a negative level, air passes through the pipeline and uprises through the liquid phase portion in the water vessel in the form of bubbles and then flows into the reactor container. When the pressure inside of the reactor goes higher, since the liquid surface in the water vessel is forced down, water is pushed up into the pipeline. Since the waterhead pressure of a column of water in the pipeline and the pressure of the reactor container are well-balanced, gases in the reactor container are not leaked to the outside. Further, in a case if a great positive pressure is formed in the reactor container, the inner pressure overcomes the waterhead of the column of water, so that the gases containing radioactive aerosol uprise in the pipeline. Since water and the gases flow being in contact with each other, this can provide the effect of removing aerosol. (T.M.)

  19. Fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fast reactors have capacities to spare uranium natural resources by their breeding property and to propose solutions to the management of radioactive wastes by limiting the inventory of heavy nuclei. This article highlights the role that fast reactors could play for reducing the radiotoxicity of wastes. The conversion of 238 U into 239 Pu by neutron capture is more efficient in fast reactors than in light water reactors. In fast reactors multi-recycling of U + Pu leads to fissioning up to 95% of the initial fuel ( 238 U + 235 U). 2 strategies have been studied to burn actinides: - the multi-recycling of heavy nuclei is made inside the fuel element (homogeneous option); - the unique recycling is made in special irradiation targets placed inside the core or at its surroundings (heterogeneous option). Simulations have shown that, for the same amount of energy produced (400 TWhe), the mass of transuranium elements (Pu + Np + Am + Cm) sent to waste disposal is 60,9 Kg in the homogeneous option and 204.4 Kg in the heterogeneous option. Experimental programs are carried out in Phenix and BOR60 reactors in order to study the feasibility of such strategies. (A.C.)

  20. pacientes con falla cardiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Achury Saldaña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la adherencia al tratamiento de pacientes con falla cardiaca hospitalizados, al aplicar un plan educativo quefomenta el autocuidado.Método: estudio cuasiexperimental (entrevistas enfermera-paciente realizado entre diciembre de 2004 y mayo de 2006, con unamuestra de 50 pacientes seleccionados por conveniencia. Se diseñó un instrumento para evaluar los comportamientos de los pacientes,con base en algunos resultados de la adherencia y sus respectivos indicadores de la taxonomía NOC (Nursing out comes classification. Laadherencia al tratamiento fue medida en dos momentos: el primero durante la hospitalización, seguido de la aplicación del plan educativoantes del alta, que proporcionaba información en el manejo de su enfermedad desde una dimensión física, psicológica y social quepromueve el autocuidado; y el segundo un mes después del alta en su domicilio.Resultados: diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P=0,0001 que demuestran cómo mediante la capacitación al paciente enel manejo de su tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico, el establecimiento de una sana relación entre el profesional de enfermeríay el paciente, y la participación de la familia, se logra una total adherencia al tratamiento.Conclusiones: para lograr una adherencia total del paciente con falla cardiaca al tratamiento es necesario un proceso educativo y unseguimiento continuo y personalizado que motive permanentemente al paciente y se le reconozca el papel protagónico en su cuidado y manejo de la enfermedad.

  1. Generation IV reactors: reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardonnier, J.L.; Dumaz, P.; Antoni, O.; Arnoux, P.; Bergeron, A.; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.; Delpech, M.; Garnier, J.C.; Anzieu, P.; Francois, G.; Lecomte, M.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid metal reactor concept looks promising because of its hard neutron spectrum. Sodium reactors benefit a large feedback experience in Japan and in France. Lead reactors have serious assets concerning safety but they require a great effort in technological research to overcome the corrosion issue and they lack a leader country to develop this innovative technology. In molten salt reactor concept, salt is both the nuclear fuel and the coolant fluid. The high exit temperature of the primary salt (700 Celsius degrees) allows a high energy efficiency (44%). Furthermore molten salts have interesting specificities concerning the transmutation of actinides: they are almost insensitive to irradiation damage, some salts can dissolve large quantities of actinides and they are compatible with most reprocessing processes based on pyro-chemistry. Supercritical water reactor concept is based on operating temperature and pressure conditions that infers water to be beyond its critical point. In this range water gets some useful characteristics: - boiling crisis is no more possible because liquid and vapour phase can not coexist, - a high heat transfer coefficient due to the low thermal conductivity of supercritical water, and - a high global energy efficiency due to the high temperature of water. Gas-cooled fast reactors combining hard neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle open the way to a high valorization of natural uranium while minimizing ultimate radioactive wastes and proliferation risks. Very high temperature gas-cooled reactor concept is developed in the prospect of producing hydrogen from no-fossil fuels in large scale. This use implies a reactor producing helium over 1000 Celsius degrees. (A.C.)

  2. Research reactors - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  3. End uses of electric energy in homes of a group of dwellings; Usos finales de la energia electrica en hogares de un conjunto habitacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E.; Romero Cortes, J.; Alarcon Maldonado, E.; Silva Oliver, J.; Ortiz Segura, J.; Vargas Rubio, J. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    ). El analisis de la informacion permite conocer la capacidad de consumo de energia electrica que tienen las viviendas de la muestra y a hacer inferencias de la capacidad de consumo de la unidad habitacional.

  4. End uses of electric energy in homes of a group of dwellings; Usos finales de la energia electrica en hogares de un conjunto habitacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E; Romero Cortes, J; Alarcon Maldonado, E; Silva Oliver, J; Ortiz Segura, J; Vargas Rubio, J [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    ). El analisis de la informacion permite conocer la capacidad de consumo de energia electrica que tienen las viviendas de la muestra y a hacer inferencias de la capacidad de consumo de la unidad habitacional.

  5. Simulation of the fault transitory of the feedwater controller in a Boiling water reactor with the Ramona-3B code; Simulacion del transitorio de falla del controlador de agua de alimentacion en un reactor de agua en ebullicion con el codigo RAMONA-3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, J.L.; Ortiz V, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The obtained results when carrying out the simulation of the fault transitory of the feedwater controller (FCAA) with the Ramona-3B code, happened in the Unit 2 of the Laguna Verde power plant (CNLV), in September of the year 2000 are presented. The transitory originates as consequence of the controller's fault of speed of a turbo pump of feedwater. The work includes a short description of the event, the suppositions considered for the simulation and the obtained results. Also, a discussion of the impact of the transitory event is presented on aspects of reactor safety. Although the carried out simulation is limited by the capacities of the code and for the lack of available information, it was found that even in a conservative situation, the power was incremented only in 12% above the nominal value, while that the thermal limit determined by the minimum reason of the critical power, MCPR, always stayed above the limit values of operation and safety. (Author)

  6. Cementos con cenizas volantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa M., Mauricio

    1984-03-01

    additions of 20 and 30% .

    Casi la generalidad de los estudios realizados sobre cementos con adición de cenizas volantes se refieren a sus características y comportamiento en pastas, morteros y hormigones, siempre en relación con aquéllos del cemento portland. Esta vez, se desarrolló un trabajo experimental orientado a relacionar entre sí los cementos con adiciones de cenizas volantes y de puzolana natural. Para ello se fabricaron a escala de laboratorio cementos de ambos tipos, empleando como materias primas comunes clinker y yeso y, como variables, diferentes porcentajes de las dos adiciones, que cumplieron previamente los requisitos normalizados en cuanto a sus actividades puzolánicas. La calidad de los cementos fabricados resultó adecuada y concordante con la del cemento portland-puzolánico obtenido a escala industrial con los mismos clinker, yeso y puzolana natural de este estudio. Posteriormente, se determinaron las características de los cementos experimentales y se confeccionaron morteros normales para la realización de ensayos físicos y mecánicos. Los resultados de ensayos indicaron que los cementos con adición de cenizas volantes (CCV requieren menos agua para consistencia normal, presentan tiempos de fraguado mayores y expansiones en autoclave menores que los cementos con adición de puzolana (CP. Los calores de hidratación a 7 y 28 días de edad fueron aproximadamente similares para ambos tipos de cemento. En morteros normales, los cementos CCV mostraron menor retracción de secado, mayor retentividad y mayor fluidez (para igual cantidad de agua que los cementos CP. En los ensayos de exudación se observó que ésta depende más de la finura que el tipo de adición. Finalmente, los ensayos mecánicos señalaron que las resistencias a compresión y flexotracción de los morteros con cementos CCV son menores a edades inferiores que 14 días (del orden de 5 a 10% a un día de edad, pero que a partir de entonces pasan a ser mayores que las de

  7. Nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, R F; George, B V; Baglin, C J

    1978-05-10

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given.

  8. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given. (UK)

  9. Bioconversion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  10. competencia con China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena de la Paz Hernández Águila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo ofrece un diagnóstico del desempeño de la industria mexicana del calzado desde la década de los ochenta hasta la actualidad. Analiza la problemática que ha enfrentado esta rama industrial a partir del proceso de apertura comercial y de la competencia en su mercado interno con productos provenientes de países asiáticos, particularmente China. Problematiza al respecto los retos y las perspectivas que a mediano plazo enfrentará este sector empresarial y sobre las posibilidades de competir en el mercado globalizado.

  11. Construir con Madera

    OpenAIRE

    Olabe-Velasco, F. (Fermín); Val-Hernández, Y. (Yolanda); Varela-de-la-Cruz, P. (Perla); Cabrero-Ballarín, J.M. (José Manuel)

    2010-01-01

    Guía divulgativa ‘Construir con madera’, elaborada por la Cátedra Madera de la Universidad de Navarra y el Gobierno de Navarra. La publicación pretende explicar de forma sencilla los beneficios y posibilidades de este material en la construcción, tanto en lo que respecta a su resistencia, comportamiento frente al fuego, durabilidad, capacidad de aislamiento, propiedades acústicas, estética, respeto al medio ambiente y sostenibilidad como fuente de energía. A modo de ejemplo, en la ...

  12. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.

    1976-01-01

    An improvement of the accessibility of that part of a nuclear reactor serving for biological shield is proposed. It is intended to provide within the biological shield, distributed around the circumference of the reactor pressure vessel, several shielding chambers filled with shielding material, which are isolated gastight from the outside by means of glass panes with a given bursting strength. It is advantageous that, on the one hand, inspection and maintenance will be possible without great effort and, on the other, a large relief cross section will be at desposal if required. (UWI) [de

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  14. Entrevista con Giovanni Levi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta entrevista, Giovanni Levi - como un conocedor del tema de Familia - realiza una importante evaluación sobre el actual estado de las investigaciones realizadas en el Brasil y em el exterior. Con estilo franco, agudo y lucido critica las visiones tradicionales y sus ilusiones ypropone nuevos conceptos y métodos. La historia de la familia debería ceder espacio para el estudio de las redes relacionales o de los mundos relacionales. De la misma forma, la historia cuantitativa debería abrir espacio para el estudio de las cualidades. Ya con relación a la historia de las elites, tan estudiada y reproducida en una diversidad de trabajos, que deberíase mirar en otra perspectiva. Es decir, no mirar a las reglas sociales predeterminadas, sino a los desvíos y a las variaciones. Levi defiende que los historiadores deben trascender a los documentos que se encuentran fácilmente y que pueden fortalecer perspectivas deformadas y esequilibradas de la sociedad. Para él, los historiadores deben esforzarse por estudiar a aquellos grupos que dejaron pocos rastros documentales. En ese esfuerzo existiría una nueva mirada sobre la historia de la familia.

  15. Entrevista con Patricia Ariza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Londoño La Rotta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensamiento, Palabra y Obra entrevista a una artista, feminista y activista política, quien como mujer y artista ha permitido pensar el arte más allá de un simple espectáculo. Toda una vida dedicada al teatro y a darle voz, a través de sus obras, a víctimas del conflicto colombiano, defensora de derechos humanos; además de hacer evidente en su vida y a través de la plataforma “Artistas por la paz”, las múltiples relaciones que se pueden establecer entre el arte, la construcción de paz y la resolución de conflictos. Hablamos en su casa, en medio del calor de la bienvenida con Patricia Ariza, directora del festival alternativo de teatro, de Mujeres en Escena y de la Corporación Colombiana de Teatro, entre otras muchas actividades que voluntariamente su espíritu libertario ha asumido. Esta entrevista se realizó antes del 2 de octubre, pero con la revisión de los acuerdos que propició el plebiscito ganado por una ínfima minoría por el no, sigue siendo vigente este planteamiento.

  16. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The method of operating a water-cooled neutronic reactor having a graphite moderator is described which comprises flowing a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide and helium, in which the helium comprises 40--60 volume percent of the mixture, in contact with the graphite moderator. 2 claims, 4 figures

  17. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield

  18. Reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Murase, Michio; Yokomizo, Osamu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a BWR type reactor facility capable of suppressing the amount of steams generated by the mutual effect of a failed reactor core and coolants upon occurrence of an imaginal accident, and not requiring spacial countermeasures for enhancing the pressure resistance of the container vessel. Namely, a means for supplying cooling water at a temperature not lower by 30degC than the saturated temperature corresponding to the inner pressure of the containing vessel upon occurrence of an accident is disposed to a lower dry well below the pressure vessel. As a result, upon occurrence of such an accident that the reactor core should be melted and flown downward of the pressure vessel, when cooling water at a temperature not lower than the saturated temperature, for example, cooling water at 100degC or higher is supplied to the lower dry well, abrupt generation of steams by the mutual effect of the failed reactor core and cooling water is scarcely caused compared with a case of supplying cooling water at a temperature lower than the saturation temperature by 30degC or more. Accordingly, the amount of steams to be generated can be suppressed, and special countermeasure is no more necessary for enhancing the pressure resistance of the container vessel is no more necessary. (I.S.)

  19. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilroy, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved cover structure for liquid metal cooled fast breeder type reactors is described which it is claimed reduces the temperature differential across the intermediate grid plate of the core cover structure and thereby reduces its subjection to thermal stresses. (UK)

  20. Reactor licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses reactor licensing and includes the legislative basis for licensing, other relevant legislation , the purpose of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, important regulations, regulatory document, policies, and standards. It also discusses the role of the CNSC, its mandate and safety philosophy

  1. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Sekine, Katsuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the thickness of a reactor container and reduce the height and the height and plate thickness of a roof slab without using mechanical vibration stoppers. Constitution: Earthquake proofness is improved by filling fluids such as liquid metal between a reactor container and a secondary container and connecting the outer surface of the reactor container with the inner surface of the secondary container by means of bellows. That is, for the horizontal seismic vibrations, horizontal loads can be supported by the secondary container without providing mechanical vibration stoppers to the reactor container and the wall thickness can be reduced thereby enabling to simplify thermal insulation structure for the reduction of thermal stresses. Further, for the vertical seismic vibrations, verical loads can be transmitted to the secondary container thereby enabling to reduce the wall thickness in the same manner as for the horizontal load. By the effect of transferring the point of action of the container load applied to the roof slab to the outer circumferential portion, the intended purpose can be attained and, in addition, the radiation dose rate at the upper surface of the roof slab can be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Narabayashi, Naoshi.

    1990-01-01

    The represent invention concerns a reactor system with improved water injection means to a pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor. A steam pump is connected to a heat removing system pipeline, a high pressure water injection system pipeline and a low pressure water injection system pipeline for injecting water into the pressure vessel. A pump actuation pipeline is disposed being branched from a main steam pump or a steam relieaf pipeline system, through which steams are supplied to actuate the steam pump and supply cooling water into the pressure vessel thereby cooling the reactor core. The steam pump converts the heat energy into the kinetic energy and elevates the pressure of water to a level higher than the pressure of the steams supplied by way of a pressure-elevating diffuser. Cooling water can be supplied to the pressure vessel by the pressure elevation. This can surely inject cooling water into the pressure vessel upon loss of coolant accident or in a case if reactor scram is necessary, without using an additional power source. (I.N.)

  3. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  4. New about research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorenkov, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    The multi-purpose research reactor MAPLE (Canada) and concept of new reactor MAPLE-CNF as will substitute the known Canadian research reactor NRU are described. New reactor will be used as contributor for investigations into materials, neutron beams and further developments for the CANDU type reactor. The Budapest research reactor (BRR) and its application after the last reconstruction are considered also [ru

  5. Transient and steady state analysis in the frequency domain for time-invariant and time variant electrical networks using the algebraic operational matrices approach; Analisis transitorio y de estado estable en el dominio de la frecuencia de redes electricas invariantes y variantes en el tiempo utilizando el enfoque algebraico de las matrices operacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro Castillo, Isidro Ignacio

    1999-02-01

    esta tesis es que se proporciona una solucion analitica para ambos casos: analisis de estado estable y dinamico, respectivamente. Los sistemas de potencia son operados para tener puntos de operacion periodicos con la calidad requerida por la demanda. En general las redes electricas incluyen algunos dispositivos no lineales. Sin embargo, el analisis de las redes no lineales como tales es especialmente dificil cuando se requiere un analisis en el dominio de la frecuencia, en general para hacer el problema manejable es aceptado que puede ser linealizado alrededor de un punto de operacion. Se muestra que la linealizacion de redes excitadas por fuentes periodicas produce sistemas lineales variantes en el tiempo. Desafortunadamente, el analisis de redes con componentes variantes es mas complicado que el analisis de redes con elementos constantes. (abstract truncated)

  6. Selection of large diameter drills with the aid of a computer, between diesel and electric alternatives for sedimentary mining. Seleccion de perforadoras de gran diametro con ayuda de ordenador, alternativa diesel electrica en mineria sedimentaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomo Gomez, M. (ENCASUR, Ciudad Real (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    The communication develops a rotary drill rig selection study carried out in Mina Emma, ENCASUR Puertollano (Open pit coal mine), for diameters extended from 9 7/8 to 15 inches and bench heights 10, 15 and 20 meters. Since the choice of diameters is in the transition area from diesel to electric machines, the conclusions are specially interesting in making buying decisions of this kind. 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Application of the electrical characterization to the study of the hydrated phases of the cement with coal bottom ash; Aplicacion de la caracterizacion electrica al estudio de las fases hidratadas de cemento con adicion de escorias de centrales termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, E.; Frutos, J. de; Alvaro, A. M.

    2014-02-01

    The present paper investigates the influence of using Bottom and Fly Ash as partial replacement of cement in the hydration process. Through measurements of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X -ray diffraction (XRD), we analyze from the early stages to the hydration process to the end. Values of EIS, XRD and its relation, are used to determine transformation of hydrated phases, and for each of the substitutions, is indicated as modified the hydrated phase as a function of time and compared it with the reference material. It also proves the relevance of using EIS measures in real time, and as non destructive testing to characterize the hydration process of these materials. (Author)

  8. Super compacting of drums with dry solid radioactive waste in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde;Super compactacion de bidones con desecho radiactivo solido seco en la central nucleo electrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez G, R.; Lara H, M. A.; Cabrera Ll, M.; Verdalet de la Torre, O., E-mail: marco.lara@cfe.gob.m [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Carretera Nautla-Cardel Km. 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde located in the Gulf of Mexico, completes in this 2009, nineteen years to produce by nuclear means 4.78% of the electric power that Mexico requires daily. During this time, the Unit 1 has generated more of 88.85 million mega watt-hour and the Unit 2 more of 69.48 million mega watt-hour with an availability average of 83.55%. Derived of their operation cycles, the nuclear power plant has generated (as any other installation of its type) radioactive wastes of low activity that at the moment are temporarily stored in the site. Due to the life cycle of the nuclear power plant, actually has become necessary to begin a project series focused to continue guaranteeing the storage of these wastes, guarantee that is a license requirement for the operation of this nuclear installation before the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards. The Federal Commission of Electricity beginning a project that allows continue guaranteeing space of sufficient storage for the wastes that the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde could generate for the rest of its useful life, this project consisted on a process of physical volume reduction of dry solid radioactive wastes denominated super compacting, it has made possible to reduce the volume that these wastes occupy in the temporary storage noted Dry Solid Radioactive Wastes Deposit located inside the site that occupies the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. This work presents the super compacting results, as well as a description of the realization of this task until concluding with the super compacting of 5,854 drums with dry solid radioactive waste of low activity. We will enunciate which were the radiological controls that the Department of Radiological Protection of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde applied to this work that was realized for first time in Mexico and the nuclear power plant. (Author)

  9. It extended for come into force the Electric Energy Whole Sale Market regulation and annexes; Prorrogase la entrada en vigencia del Reglamento del Mercado Mayorista de Energia Electrica con sus Anexos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-10

    It has seen seen the deadline set by the decree no. 86 March 5, 2003 for entry into force of the Regulation of wholesale power market and the desirability to adapt the wording of its provisions and for reasons of urgency.

  10. Thermal analysis of electric power generation with solar collectors at how low temperature; Analisis termico de plantas de generacion de energia electrica con la integraacion de colectores solares trabajando a bajas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monne, C.; Salina, P.; Leithner, R.; Aronis, N.

    2004-07-01

    The main focus of this article is how low temperature heat sources can be used for electric power generation. The paper will focus on solar energy in particular. The article shows simulation of five different cycles, with solar energy integration, by means ENBIPRO program (ENergie-BIlanz-PROgramm), that at the moment it is being developed by Institut Warme und Brennstofftechnik, Technische Universitat Braunschweig (Germany). (Author)

  11. Reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Masaru; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Mogi, Toshihiko; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor core, a fuel inventory at an outer peripheral region is made smaller than that at a central region. Fuel assemblies comprising a small number of large-diameter fuel rods are used at the central region and fuel assemblies comprising a great number of smalldiameter fuel rods are used at the outer peripheral region. Since a burning degradation rate of the fuels at the outer peripheral region can be increased, the burning degradation rate at the infinite multiplication factor of fuels at the outer region can substantially be made identical with that of the fuels in the inner region. As a result, the power distribution in the direction of the reactor core can be flattened throughout the entire period of the burning cycle. Further, it is also possible to make the degradation rate of fuels at the outer region substantially identical with that of fuels at the inner side. A power peak formed at the outer circumferential portion of the reactor core of advanced burning can be lowered to improve the fuel integrity, and also improve the reactor safety and operation efficiency. (N.H.)

  12. Homogeneous grouping of residential users of electric power in accordance with the variables that affect the consumption; Agrupamientos homogeneos de usuarios residenciales de energia electrica en funcion de las variables que impactan el consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E.; Romero Cortes, J. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the correlation analysis of the monthly consumption of electric power and the capacities in watts of the electric household appliances and domestic lighting performed in a sample of users of the residential tariff. To carry out this task, the information obtained in the answers to the inquiry applied to a group of dwellings, was used (the results of the inquiry are presented in another paper of this Seminar). The correlation variables were obtained from the nominal capacities or through the actual measurements of the energy consumption of the electric household appliances similar to the ones found in the visited homes. At the end of this paper the result of the application of the cluster analysis technic to obtain homogeneous groups of users, is presented, so as to be in position of estimating the shape of the hourly demand curve by means of the recording of the demand (watts) of a small sample of users. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el resultado de correlacion del consumo mensual de energia electrica y las capacidades en watts de los electrodomesticos e iluminacion realizado a una muestra de usuarios de tarifa residencial. Para este trabajo se utilizo la informacion obtenida en las respuestas de una encuesta aplicada en un conjunto habitacional (los resultados de la encuesta se presentan en otro articulo en este Seminario). Las variables de la correlacion se obtuvieron a partir de las especificaciones de capacidades o a traves de mediciones en electrodomesticos similares a los encontrados en los hogares. Al final se presenta el resultado de la aplicacion de la tecnica de formacion de agrupamientos `Cluster Analysis` para obtener grupos homogeneos de usuarios, de forma que se pueda estimar el perfil de demanda electrica mediante el registro de la demanda (watts) de una pequena muestra de usuarios.

  13. Homogeneous grouping of residential users of electric power in accordance with the variables that affect the consumption; Agrupamientos homogeneos de usuarios residenciales de energia electrica en funcion de las variables que impactan el consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E; Romero Cortes, J [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the correlation analysis of the monthly consumption of electric power and the capacities in watts of the electric household appliances and domestic lighting performed in a sample of users of the residential tariff. To carry out this task, the information obtained in the answers to the inquiry applied to a group of dwellings, was used (the results of the inquiry are presented in another paper of this Seminar). The correlation variables were obtained from the nominal capacities or through the actual measurements of the energy consumption of the electric household appliances similar to the ones found in the visited homes. At the end of this paper the result of the application of the cluster analysis technic to obtain homogeneous groups of users, is presented, so as to be in position of estimating the shape of the hourly demand curve by means of the recording of the demand (watts) of a small sample of users. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el resultado de correlacion del consumo mensual de energia electrica y las capacidades en watts de los electrodomesticos e iluminacion realizado a una muestra de usuarios de tarifa residencial. Para este trabajo se utilizo la informacion obtenida en las respuestas de una encuesta aplicada en un conjunto habitacional (los resultados de la encuesta se presentan en otro articulo en este Seminario). Las variables de la correlacion se obtuvieron a partir de las especificaciones de capacidades o a traves de mediciones en electrodomesticos similares a los encontrados en los hogares. Al final se presenta el resultado de la aplicacion de la tecnica de formacion de agrupamientos `Cluster Analysis` para obtener grupos homogeneos de usuarios, de forma que se pueda estimar el perfil de demanda electrica mediante el registro de la demanda (watts) de una pequena muestra de usuarios.

  14. preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.F.; McLaughlin, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the pressure vessel of the water-cooled nuclear reactor there is provided an internal flange on which the one- or two-part core barrel is hanging by means of an external flange. A cylinder is extending from the reactor vessel closure downwards to a seat on the core cupport structure and serves as compression element for the transmission of the clamping load from the closure head to the core barrel (upper guide structure). With the core barrel, subject to tensile stress, between the vessel internal flange and its seat on one hand and the compression of the cylinder resp. hold-down element between the closure head and the seat on the other a very strong, elastic sprung structure is obtained. (DG) [de

  16. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the nuclear reactor availability by enabling to continuously exchange fuels in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region during operation. Constitution: A control rod is withdrawn to the midway of a highly enriched uranium region by means of control rod drives and the highly enriched uranium region is burnt to maintain the nuclear reactor always at a critical state. At the same time, fresh uranium-slightly enriched uranium is continuously supplied gravitationally from a fresh fuel reservoir through fuel reservoir to each of fuel pipes in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region. Then, spent fuels reduced with the reactivity by the burn up are successively taken out from the bottom of each of the fuel pipes through an exit duct and a solenoid valve to the inside of a spent fuel reservoir and the burn up in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region is conducted continuously. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mikio; Yamauchi, Koki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the channel stability and the reactor core stability in a spontaneous circulation state of coolants. Constitution: A reactor core stabilizing device comprising a differential pressure automatic ON-OFF valve is disposed between each of a plurality of jet pumps arranged on a pump deck. The stabilizing device comprises a piston exerted with a pressure on the lower side of the pump deck by way of a pipeway and a valve for flowing coolants through the bypass opening disposed to the pump deck by the opening and closure of the valve ON-OFF. In a case where the jet pumps are stopped, since the differential pressure between the upper and the lower sides of the pump deck is removed, the valve lowers gravitationally into an opened state, whereby the coolants flow through the bypass opening to increase the spontaneous circulation amount thereby improve the stability. (Yoshino, Y.)

  18. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Bock, H.W.; Struensee, S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the use of burnable poisons in a nuclear reactor, especially in PWRs, in order to improve the controllability of the reactor. An unsymmetrical arrangement in the lattice is provided, if necessary also by insertion of special rods for these additions. It is proposed to arrange the burnable poisons in fuel elements taken over from a previous burn-up cycle and to distribute them, going out from the side facing the control rods, over not more than 20% of the lenth of the fuel elements. It seems sufficient, for the burnable poisons to bind an initial reactivity of only 0.1% and to become ineffective after normal operation of 3 to 4 months. (ORU) [de

  19. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Osamu; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the position of an intermediate slab within a reactor container and fitting a heat insulating material to the inner wall of said intermediate slab, whereby a space for a control rod exchanging device and thermal stresses of the inner peripheral wall are lowered. Constitution: In the pedestal at the lower part of a reactor pressure vessel there is formed an intermediate slab at a position lower than diaphragm floor slab of the outer periphery of the pedestal thereby to secure a space for providing automatic exchanging device of a control rod driving device. Futhermore, a heat insulating material is fitted to the inner peripheral wall at the upper side of the intermediate slab part, and the temperature gradient in the wall thickness direction at the time of a piping rupture trouble is made gentle, and thermal stresses at the inner peripheral wall are lowered. (Sekiya, K.)

  1. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a graphite-moderated, water-cooled nuclear reactor including a plurality of rectangular graphite blocks stacked in abutting relationship in layers, alternate layers having axes which are normal to one another, alternate rows of blocks in alternate layers being provided with a channel extending through the blocks, said channeled blocks being provided with concave sides and having smaller vertical dimensions than adjacent blocks in the same layer, there being nuclear fuel in the channels

  2. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, P.; Davidson, D.F.; Thatcher, G.

    1980-01-01

    The cooling system of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor of the pool kind is described. It has an intermediate heat exchange module comprising a tube-in-shell heat exchanger and an electromagnetic flow coupler in the base region of the module. Primary coolant is flowed through the heat exchanger being driven by electromagnetic interaction with secondary liquid metal coolant flow effected by a mechanical pump. (author)

  3. Planning the expansion of transmission with evolutionary programming; Planeacion de la expansion de transmision con programacion evolutiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceciliano Meza, Jose Luis; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    A method of evolutionary programming for the planning of transmission networks in electrical power systems is presented. This is a whole problem mixed and nonlinear, with a combinatory nature that leads to a very large number of possible solutions for electrical systems of medium and large scale. The problem of transmission planning is described briefly and later it is formulated in mathematical terms. The proposed algorithm of evolutionary programming is applied to a large scale network that is representative of the Mexican electrical system. [Spanish] Se presenta un metodo de programacion evolutiva para la planeacion de redes de transmision en sistemas electricos de potencia. Este es un problema entero mixto y no lineal, con una naturaleza combinatoria que conduce a un numero muy grande de soluciones posibles para sistemas electricos de mediana y gran escala. Se describe brevemente el problema de planeacion de transmision y posteriormente se formula en terminos matematicos. El algoritmo propuesto de programacion evolutiva se aplica a una red electrica de gran escala que es representativa del sistema electrico Mexicano.

  4. Analysis and evaluation of the main factors that influence the growing of the electrical power consumption in the national electrical sector, period 2000-2005; Analisis y evaluacion de los principales factores que influyen en el crecimiento del consumo de energia electrica en el sector electrico nacional, periodo 2000-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Luna, Luis Miguel

    2008-06-15

    de potencia (CUFP). Ademas, se desarrolla en esta tesis las ecuaciones utilizadas en el Jacobiano del metodo Newton-Raphson, para resolver flujos de potencia incluyendo los dispositivos SIFLETCA. Se muestra diferentes aplicaciones que se tienen al instalar un dispositivo, tales como prevencion de flujos en anillo, barrera electronica, incremento en la capacidad de transmision y especificacion del flujo de potencia en lineas de transmision. Por otra parte, se desarrolla en la tesis un analisis de sensibilidades de un sistema de potencia en estado estacionario. Tambien se proponen en la tesis los parametros de control para los cuales se calcula las sensibilidades. Asimismo, se utiliza un indice de desempeno para medir el grado de congestion de un sistema electrico. Al calcular las sensibilidades se utiliza los resultados obtenidos de los flujos de potencia. Se usa 4 redes electricas para encontrar donde se debe situar cada dispositivo SIFLETCA para reducir la congestion en el sistema. Tambien, se compara el metodo desarrollado en la tesis con un metodo de sensibilidades que emplea flujos de CD para validacion y mostrar las ventajas de usar el metodo Newton en flujos de potencia.

  5. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    Between a PWR's reactor pressure vessel made of steel and the biological shield made of concrete there is a gap. This gap is filled up with a heat insulation facting the reactor pressure vessel, for example with insulating concrete segments jacketed with sheet steel and with an additional layer. This layer serves for smooth absorption of compressive forces originating in radial direction from the reactor pressure vessel. It consists of cylinder-segment shaped bricks made of on situ concrete, for instance. The bricks have cooling agent ports in one or several rows which run parallel to the wall of the pressure vessel and in alignment with superposed bricks. Between the layer of bricks and the biological shield or rather the heat insulation, there are joints which are filled, however, with injected mortar. That guarantees a smooth series of connected components resistant tom compression. Besides, a slip foil can be set between the heat insulation and the joining joint filled with mortar for the reduction of the friction at thermal expansions. (TK) [de

  6. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  7. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Michiko.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain an optimum structural arrangement of IRM having a satisfactory responsibility to the inoperable state of a nuclear reactor and capable of detecting the reactor power in an averaged manner. Constitution: As the structural arrangement of IRM, from 6 to 16 even number of IRM are bisected into equial number so as to belong two trip systems respectively, in which all of the detectors are arranged at an equal pitch along a circumference of a circle with a radius rl having the center at the position of the central control rod in one trip system, while one detector is disposed near the central control rod and other detectors are arranged substantially at an equal pitch along the circumference of a circle with a radius r2 having the center at the position for the central control rod in another trip system. Furthermore, the radius r1 and r2 are set such that r1 = 0.3 R, r2 = 0.5 R in the case where there are 6 IRM and r1 = 0.4 R and R2 = 0.8 R where there are eight IRM where R represents the radius of the reactor core. (Kawakami, Y.)

  8. MLR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazantsev, E.P.; Egorenkov, P.M.; Nasonov, V.A.; Smimov, A.M.; Taliev, A.V.; Gromov, B.F.; Kousin, V.V.; Lantsov, M.N.; Radchenko, V.P.; Sharapov, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    The Material Testing Loop Reactor (MLR) development was commenced in 1991 with the aim of updating and widening Russia's experimental base to validate the selected directions of further progress of the nuclear power industry in Russia and to enhance its reliability and safety. The MLR reactor is the pool-type one. As coolant it applies light water and as side reflector beryllium. The direction of water circulation in the core is upward. The core comprises 30 FA arranged as hexagonal lattice with the 90-95 mm pitch. The central materials channel and six loop channels are sited in the core. The reflector includes up to 11 loop channels. The reactor power is 100 MW. The average power density of the core is 0.4 MW/I (maximal value 1.0 MW/l). The maximum neutron flux density is 7.10 14 n/cm 2 s in the core (E>0.1 MeV), and 5.10 14 n/cm 2 s in the reflector (E<0.625 eV). In 1995 due to the lack of funding the MLR designing was suspended. (author)

  9. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Toshihisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent cladding tube injuries due to thermal expansion of each of the pellets by successively extracting each of the control rods loaded in the reactor core from those having less number of notches, as well as facilitate the handling work for the control rods. Constitution: A recycle flow control device is provided to a circulation pump for forcibly circulating coolants in the reactor container and an operational device is provided for receiving each of the signals concerning number of notches for each of the control rods and flow control depending on the xenon poisoning effect obtained from the signals derived from the in-core instrument system connected to the reactor core. The operational device is connected with a control rod drive for moving each of the control rods up and down and a recycle flow control device. The operational device is set with a pattern for the aimed control rod power and the sequence of extraction. Upon extraction of the control rods, they are extracted successively from those having less notch numbers. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Hatamiya, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Terufumi; Fukui, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Ryuhei; Murase, Michio; Naito, Masanori.

    1990-01-01

    In order to suppress the pressure elevation in a reactor container due to high temperature and high pressure steams jetted out upon pipeway rupture accidents in the reactor container, the steams are introduced to a pressure suppression chamber for condensating them in stored coolants. However, the ability for suppressing the pressure elevation and steam coagulation are deteriorated due to the presence of inactive incondensible gases. Then, there are disposed a vent channel for introducing the steams in a dry well to a pressure suppression chamber in the reactor pressure vessel, a closed space disposed at the position lower than a usual liquid level, a first channel having an inlet in the pressure suppression chamber and an exit in the closed space and a second means connected by way of a backflow checking means for preventing the flow directing to the closed space. The first paths are present by plurality, a portion of which constitutes a syphon. The incondensible gases and the steams are discharged to the dry well at high pressure by using the difference of the water head for a long cooling time after the pipeway rupture accident. Then, safety can be improved without using dynamic equipments as driving source. (N.H.)

  11. Reactor core in FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumi, Ryoji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1989-01-01

    In a reactor core in FBR type reactors, a portion of homogenous fuels constituting the homogenous reactor core is replaced with multi-region fuels in which the enrichment degree of fissile materials is lower nearer to the axial center. This enables to condition the composition such that a reactor core having neutron flux distribution either of a homogenous reactor core or a heterogenous reactor core has substantially identical reactivity. Accordingly, in the transfer from the homogenous reactor core to the axially heterogenous reactor core, the average reactivity in the reactor core is substantially equal in each of the cycles. Further, by replacing a portion of the homogenous fuels with a multi-region fuels, thereby increasing the heat generation near the axial center, it is possiable to reduce the linear power output in the regions above and below thereof and, in addition, to improve the thermal margin in the reactor core. (T.M.)

  12. autorregulado con estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Andrés Montes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio es describir la forma en la que se presentan los procesos de aprendizaje autorregulado con un grupo de estudiantes (22 estudiantes de tercer semestre de Psicología de la PUJ, Cali, en el evento de preparación para la presentación un examen. Asimismo se describen las correlaciones que ocurren entre las distintas fases de dicho proceso de autorregulación del aprendizaje. Para conseguir los objetivos propuestos se ha hecho uso de una observación de desempeño en tiempo real, es decir, de la observación durante una sesión de preparación de examen de los estudiantes, en la cual se emplearon protocolos verbales para dar cuenta de lo que «pasaba por su mente» mientras estudiaban. Una entrevista semi-estructurada y una prueba objetiva. Los resultados fueron analizados a la luz del modelo mixto de procesamiento de información y constructivismo abordado por Winne(1998. Como resultado se encontró una relación significativa entre los niveles de desempeño en el proceso de ARR y el resultado del examen. Igualmente se encontraron bajos niveles de regulación en una parte importante de la muestra y un desfase significativo entre conocimiento declarativo de ARR y desempeño en el mismo

  13. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  14. Increased SRP reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAfee, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    Major changes in the current reactor hydraulic systems could be made to achieve a total of about 1500 MW increase of reactor power for P, K, and C reactors. The changes would be to install new, larger heat exchangers in the reactor buildings to increase heat transfer area about 24%, to increase H 2 O flow about 30% per reactor, to increase D 2 O flow 15 to 18% per reactor, and increase reactor blanket gas pressure from 5 psig to 10 psig. The increased reactor power is possible because of reduced inlet temperature of reactor coolant, increased heat removal capacity, and increased operating pressure (larger margin from boiling). The 23% reactor power increase, after adjustment for increased off-line time for reactor reloading, will provide a 15% increase of production from P, K, and C reactors. Restart of L Reactor would increase SRP production 33%

  15. Nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It's presented data about nuclear research reactors in the world, retrieved from the Sien (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: research reactors by countries; research reactors by type; research reactors by fuel and research reactors by purpose. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2006-01-01

    The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated

  17. Puentes con vigas pretensadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the three bridges which Hidrocivil, S. A., has built in Catalonia (northern Spain, over the river Ripoll. The other two bridges are very similar to this one, both in construction and design, and show only minor adjustments to the local topography. The contracting firm proposed several alterations in the prefabrication and constructional procedure, in relation to the initial project, and these changes were accepted. The main feature of these projects is the use of prestressed beams, built at the workshop in sections, and joined together by means of sixty 7 mm cables in each beam. As the shear forces are more acute at the joints, the end of each section has a kind of diaphragm, to provide a large contact area, and hence greater surface to transmit the shear forces. The methods of construction are also of interest. Briefly, they involve building the bridge piles, and use these to support a provisional structure with transversal movement. This provisional structure, in turn, served as platform for two bridge cranes, which lifted the girders to their final location. After the first span was completed, the deck was concreted and the auxiliary structure pushed forward to the next span, to repeat the same operations. This arrangement saved the use of provisional framework.En este trabajo se describe uno de los tres puentes que Hidrocivil, S. A., ha construido.—previo concurso— en la región catalana; concretamente, el que salva el río Ripoll. Los otros dos no han sido objeto de descripción general por ser muy similares, en lo que a ejecución y concepción se refiere, con la única variante que presentan las características topográficas locales. La empresa propuso ciertas variantes— que fueron aceptadas— en la prefabricación y métodos de construcción. El interés de estas obras se centra en el empleo de vigas pretensadas, prefabricadas en taller por trozos, y solidarizados en el mismo mediante las operaciones

  18. Violencia con el anciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Campillo Motilva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La violencia doméstica es tan antigua como la humanidad misma y se reconocen la violencia infantil, contra la mujer y al anciano, fundamentalmente; siendo este último grupo una población en ascenso por las mayores expectativas de vida de los últimos años. Como resultado de ello, el número de casos de abuso en el anciano se incrementará y el impacto de este abuso sobre la salud debe ser considerado de forma adecuada. La gama de maltratos es variadísima e incluye el abuso físico, emocional, financiero, sexual, por negligencia, negación a brindarle ayuda y otras formas más. Los ancianos con deterioro cognitivo son los más vulnerables. El médico en la atención primaria de salud es un pilar importante en la prevención y educación de este problema.Domestic violence is as old as humanity itself. Child, women and elderly abuse are mainly recognized. The elderly group is increasing due to the higher life expectancy experimented during the last years. As a result, the number of battered elderly will grow and the impact of this abuse on health should be adequately considered. The range of abuse is very wide and it includes physical, emotional, financial and sexual abuse, negligence, rejection to give assistance and others. The elderly with cognitive deterioration are the most vulnerable. The physician at the primary health care level is an important milestone in the prevention and education of this problem.

  19. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R.

    1979-01-01

    The support grid for the fuel rods of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor has a regular hexagonal contour and contains a large number of unit cells arranged honeycomb fashion. The totality of these cells make up a hexagonal shape. The grid contains a number of strips of material, and there is a window in each of three sidewalls staggered by one sidewall. The other sidewalls have embossed protrusions, thus generating a guide lining or guide bead. The windows reduce the rigidity of the areas in the middle between the ends of the cells. (DG) [de

  20. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Gruber, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor with control rods in channels between fuel assemblies wherein the fuel assemblies incorporate guide rods which protrude outwardly into the control rod channels to prevent the control rods from engaging the fuel elements. The guide rods also extend back into the fuel assembly such that they are relatively rigid members. The guide rods are tied to the fuel assembly end or support plates and serve as structural members which are supported independently of the fuel element. Fuel element spacing and support means may be attached to the guide rods. 9 claims

  1. Relación microestructura resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos duros ricos en cromo y tungsteno aplicados por soldadura electrica (SMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisys Margarita León Sevilla

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la microestructura y resistencia a la abrasión de recubrimientos duros depositados por soldadura sobre placas de acero estructural ASTM A36. Se utilizaron cinco electrodos comerciales, dos de bajo cromo, dos de alto cromo aplicados en una y dos capas y uno rico en tungsteno depositado en una capa La resistencia al desgaste fue evaluada en una máquina de rueda de caucho y arena seca construida según la norma ASTM G65-80. Como material abrasivo se utilizaron partículas de sílice con índice de finura AFS 50- 70. La caracterización de las microestructuras se realizó utilizando microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido. Los resultados mostraron que el parámetro de resistencia a la abrasión no está directamente relacionado con dureza del material pero sí con el tipo, tamaño, forma, composición química y distribución de los carburos presentes en la matriz del recubrimiento. La mejor resistencia a la abrasión se obtuvo en depósitos con microestructura compuesta por carburos primarios (del tipo M7C3 en recubrimientos ricos en Cr o del tipo MC, M6C en recubrimientos ricos en W en una matriz eutéctica.

  2. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor (e.g. one having coolant down-flow through a core to a hearth below) thermal insulation (e.g. of a floor of the hearth) comprises a layer of bricks and a layer of tiles thereon, with smaller clearances between the tiles than between the bricks but with the bricks being of reduced cross-section immediately adjacent the tiles so as to be surrounded by interconnected passages, of relatively large dimensions, constituting a continuous chamber extending behind the layer of tiles. By this arrangement, lateral coolant flow in the inter-brick clearances is much reduced. The reactor core is preferably formed of hexagonal columns, supported on diamond-shaped plates each supported on a pillar resting on one of the hearth-floor tiles. Each plate has an internal duct, four upper channels connecting the duct with coolant ducts in four core columns supported by the plate, and lower channels connecting the duct to a downwardly-open recess common to three plates, grouped to form a hexagon, at their mutually-adjacent corners. This provides mixing, and temperature-averaging, of coolant from twelve columns

  3. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hirohide; Otonari, Jun-ichiro; Tozaki, Yuka.

    1993-01-01

    Partition walls are disposed between a reactor pressure vessel and a suppression chamber to separate a dry well to an upper portion and a lower portion. A communication pipe is disposed to the partition walls. One end of the communication pipe is opened in an upper portion of the dry well at a position higher than a hole disposed to a bent tube of the suppression chamber. When coolants overflow from a depressurization valve by an erroneous operation of an emergency reactor core cooling device, the coolants accumulate in the upper portion of the dry well. When the pipeline is ruptured at the upper portion of the pressure vessel, only the inside of the pressure vessel and the upper portion of the dry well are submerged in water. In this case, the water level of the coolants does not elevate to the opening of the commuication pipe but they flow into the suppression chamber from the hole disposed to the bent tube. Since the coolants do not flow out to the lower portion of the dry well, important equipments such as control rod drives disposed at the lower portion of the dry wall can be prevented from submerging in water. (I.N.)

  4. Reactor monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tamotsu.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention monitors a reactor so that each of the operations for the relocation of fuel assemblies and the withdrawal and the insertion of control rods upon exchange of fuel assemblies and control rods in the reactor. That is, when an operator conducts relocating operation by way of a fuel assembly operation section, the device of the present invention judges whether the operation indication is adequate or not, based on the information of control rod arrangement in a control rod memory section. When the operation indication is wrong, a stop signal is sent to a fuel assembly relocating device. Further, when the operator conducts control rod operation by way of a control rod operation section, the device of the present invention judges in the control rod withdrawal judging section, as to whether the operation indication given by the operator is adequate or not by comparing it with fuel assembly arrangement information. When the operation indication is wrong, a stop signal is sent to control rod drives. With such procedures, increase of nuclear heating upon occurrence of erroneous operation can be prevented. (I.S.)

  5. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheson, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor has an upper and a lower grid plate. Protrusions project from the upper grid plate. Fuel assemblies having end fittings fit between the grid plates. An arrangement is provided for accepting axial forces generated during the operation of the nuclear reactor by the flow of the cooling medium and thermal expansion and irradiation-induced growth of the fuel assembly, which comprises rods. Each fuel assembly rests on the lower grid plate and its upper end is elastically supported against the upper grid plate by the above-mentioned arrangement. The arrangement comprises four (for example) torsion springs each having a torsion tube and a torsion bar nested within the torsion tube and connected at one end thereto. The other end of the torsion bar is connected to an associated one of four lever arms. The torsion tube is rigidly connected to the other end fitting and the springs are disposed such that the lever arms are biassed against the protrusions. (author)

  6. Allocation of the transmission service cost with base in marginal costs of the transmission network expansion; Asignacion del costo del servicio de transmision con base en costos marginales de expansion de la red de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Casillas, Manuel E.; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The transmission charges to the users must be completely defined in those systems where the restructuring has broken up the traditional functions of the companies; in order to introduce competition in the generation and commercialization segments of the electrical energy. The fundamentals of a method used are explained to assure the transmission service cases between their users. The method is based on the marginal expansion costs of the transmission network. Their more known applications have been in competitive markets of energy, in particular, where the energy price is the same one in all the localities. Nevertheless, it can be used under other forms of organization of the electrical industry. In order to illustrate results, the obtained ones from their application to the most important part of the transmission network of the Mexican system that operates interconnected, are presented. [Spanish] Los cargos de transmision a los usuarios deben estar completamente definidos en aquellos sistemas donde la reestructuracion ha desagregado las funciones tradicionales de las empresas; para introducir competencia en los segmentos de generacion y comercializacion de la energia electrica. Se explican los fundamentos de un metodo utilizado para asegurar los casos del servicio de transmision entre sus usuarios. El metodo se basa en los costos marginales de expansion de la red de transmision. Sus aplicaciones mas conocidas han sido en mercados competitivos de energia, en particular, donde el precio de la energia es el mismo en todas las localidades. Sin embargo, puede utilizarse bajo otras formas de organizacion de la industria electrica. Con el proposito de ilustrar resultados, se muestran los obtenidos de su aplicacion a la parte mas importante de la red de transmision del sistema mexicano que opera interconectada.

  7. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  8. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  9. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-11-01

    This single page document is the November 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the production reactor.

  10. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-01

    This single page document is the October 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  11. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-15

    This single page document is the October 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  12. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-09-15

    This single page document is the September 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  13. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-15

    This single page document is the December 16, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  14. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-01

    This single page document is the December 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  15. Reactor theory and power reactors. 1. Calculational methods for reactors. 2. Reactor kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Various methods for calculation of neutron flux in power reactors are discussed. Some mathematical models used to describe transients in nuclear reactors and techniques for the reactor kinetics' relevant equations solution are also presented

  16. Research and technological development on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy; Investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) carried out in the past an extensive work of research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP). The systems tried on include heat pumps by mechanical compression, thermal absorption and thermal transformers. This paper briefly describes the main aspects of R&D on heat pumps and presents a more detailed description of three of the main studies: a) a Heat Pump (HP) by mechanical compression water-water type, designed for brine purification, operating with low pressure geothermal steam at the geothermal field Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico; b) a HP by absorption for cooling and refrigeration, operating with ammoniac/water and low enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the geothermal fields of Los Azufres, Michoacan and Cerro Prieto, Baja California, and c) a thermal transformer by absorption, named Heat Pump by Absorption Type 2, which was tested to evaluate the behavior of diverse ternary solutions as working fluids. To date, there are plans to install and test a geothermal heat pump (connected to the subsoil), in Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) realizaron un trabajo extenso de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas que se probaron incluyen bombas de calor por compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: a) una Bomba de Calor (BC) por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua, disenada para purificacion de salmueras, operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan; b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion, operando con amoniaco/agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia

  17. Research on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy and waste heat; Investigacion sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica y calor de desecho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, A; Barragan-Reyes, R.M; Arellano-Gomez, V [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aggarcia@iie.org.mx

    2008-01-15

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas and the Comision Federal de Electricidad have done research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP) in past years. Tested systems include mechanical compression, absorption and heat-transformers. The main R&D aspects on HP are briefly described, and also a more detailed description about three of the main studies is presented: (a) a mechanical compression HP of the water-water type operated with low-pressure geothermal steam at the Los Azufres; Mich., geothermal field, and designed for purification of brine; (b) an absorption HP for cooling and refrigeration operating with ammonia-water and low-enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the Los Azufres and Cerro Prieto, BC, geothermal fields; and (c) a heat-transformer by absorption-Absorption Heat Pump Type II-tested to assess the performance of several ternary solutions as work fluids. Plans exist to install and test a geothermal heat pump at Cerro Prieto or Mexicali, BC. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas y la Comision Federal de Electricidad han realizado trabajo de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas probados incluyen compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor en forma general, y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: (a) una BC por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua disenada para purificacion de salmueras operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.; (b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion operando con amoniaco-agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia, la cual fue probada en los campos geotermicos de Los Azufres y Cerro Prieto, BC; y (c) un transformador termico por absorcion -llamado Bomba de Calor por Absorcion Tipo II--, el cual fue probado para evaluar el comportamiento de diversas

  18. The CEA research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Two main research reactors, specifically designed, PEGASE reactor and Laue-Langevin high flux reactor, are presented. The PEGASE reactor was designed at the end of the 50s for the study of the gas cooled reactor fuel element behaviour under irradiation; the HFR reactor, was designed in the late 60s to serve as a high yield and high level neutron source. Historical backgrounds, core and fuel characteristics and design, flux characteristics, etc., are presented. 5 figs

  19. Atomic reactor thermal engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ryong

    1983-02-01

    This book starts the introduction of atomic reactor thermal engineering including atomic reaction, chemical reaction, nuclear reaction neutron energy and soon. It explains heat transfer, heat production in the atomic reactor, heat transfer of fuel element in atomic reactor, heat transfer and flow of cooler, thermal design of atomic reactor, design of thermodynamics of atomic reactor and various. This deals with the basic knowledge of thermal engineering for atomic reactor.

  20. Nuclear reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of different reactor types designed to exploit controlled fission reactions are explained. Reactors vary from low power research devices to high power devices especially designed to produce heat, either for direct use or to produce steam to drive turbines to generate electricity or propel ships. A general outline of basic reactors (thermal and fast) is given and then the different designs considered. The first are gas cooled, including the Magnox reactors (a list of UK Magnox stations and reactor performance is given), advanced gas cooled reactors (a list of UK AGRs is given) and the high temperature reactor. Light water cooled reactors (pressurized water [PWR] and boiling water [BWR] reactors) are considered next. Heavy water reactors are explained and listed. The pressurized heavy water reactors (including CANDU type reactors), boiling light water, steam generating heavy water reactors and gas cooled heavy water reactors all come into this category. Fast reactors (liquid metal fast breeder reactors and gas cooled fast reactors) and then water-cooled graphite-moderated reactors (RBMK) (the type at Chernobyl-4) are discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.

    The people of Ontario have begun to receive the benefits of a low cost, assured supply of electrical energy from CANDU nuclear stations. This indigenous energy source also has excellent safety characteristics. Safety has been one of the central themes of the CANDU development program from its very beginning. A great deal of work has been done to establish that public risks are small. However, safety design criteria are now undergoing extensive review, with a real prospect of more stringent requirements being applied in the future. Considering the newness of the technology it is not surprising that a consensus does not yet exist; this makes it imperative to discuss the issues. It is time to examine the policies and practice of reactor safety management in Canada to decide whether or not further restrictions are justified in the light of current knowledge

  2. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Weber, R.; Bauer, A.

    1975-01-01

    The refuelling of a PWR power reactor of about 1,200 MWe is performed by a transport pipe in the containment leading from an external to an internal fuel pit. A wagon to transport the fuel elements can go from a vertical loading position to an also vertical deloading position in the inner fuel pit via guide rollers. The necessary horizontal movement is effected by means of a cable line through the transport pipe which is inclined at least 10 0 . Gravity thus helps in the movement to the deloading position. The cable line with winch is fastened outside the containment. Swivelling devices tip the wagon from the horizontal to the vertical position or vice versa. Loading and deloading are done laterally. (TK/LH) [de

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.; Glahe, E.

    1976-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor of the kind which is charged with spherical reaction elements and in which control rods are arranged to be thrust directly into the charge, each control rod has at least one screw thread on its external surface so that as the rod is thrust into the charge it is caused to rotate and thus make penetration easier. The length of each control rod may have two distinct portions, a latter portion which carries a screw thread and a lead-in portion which is shorter than the latter portion and which may carry a thread of greater pitch than that on the latter portion or may have a number of axially extending ribs instead of a thread

  4. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Hideyasu; Oyamada, Osamu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a container for a reactor provided with a pressure suppressing chamber pool which can prevent bubble vibrating load, particularly negative pressure generated at the time of starting to release exhaust from a main steam escape-safety valve from being transmitted to a lower liner plate of the container. Constitution: This arrangement is characterized in that a safety valve exhaust pool for main steam escape, in which a pressure suppressing chamber pool is separated and intercepted from pool water in the pressure suppressing chamber pool, a safety valve exhaust pipe is open into said safety valve exhaust pool, and an isolator member, which isolates the bottom liner plate in the pressure suppressing chamber pool from the pool water, is disposed on the bottom of the safety valve exhaust pool. (Nakamura, S.)

  5. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    In the system described the fuel elements are arranged vertically in groups and are supported in such a manner as to tend to tilt them towards the center of the respective group, the fuel elements being urged laterally into abutment with one another. The elements have interlocking bearing pads, whereby lateral movement of adjacent elements is resisted; this improves the stability of the reactor core during refuelling operations. Fuel elements may comprise clusters of parallel fuel pins enclosed in a wrapper of hexagonal cross section, with bearing pads in the form of spline-like ribs located on each side of the wrapper and extending parallel to the longitudinal axis of the fuel element, being interlockable with ribs on pads of adjacent fuel elements. The arrangement is applicable to a reactor core in which fuel elements and control rod guide tubes are arranged in modules each of which comprises a cluster of at least three fuel elements, one of which is rigidly supported whilst the others are resiliently tilted towards the center of the cluster so as to lean on the rigidly supported element. It is also applicable to modules comprising a cluster of six fuel elements, each resiliently tilted towards a central void to form a circular arch. The modules may include additional fuel elements located outside the clusters and also resiliently tilted towards the central voids, the latter being used to accommodate control rod guide tubes. The need for separate structural members to act as leaning posts is thus avoided. Such structural members are liable to irradiation embrittlement, that could lead to core failure. (U.K.)

  6. New Methods and Facilities for the Measurement of Physical Properties of Reactor Components and Irradiated Materials; Nouveaux Procedes et Instruments de Mesure des Proprietes Physiques des Elements de Reacteur et des Matieres Irradiees; Novye metody i sredstva izmereniya fizicheskikh s vojstv komponentov reaktora i obluchennykh materialov; Nuevos Metodos y Equipos para Medir Propiedades Fisicas de Componentes de Reactor y de Materiales Irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, F.; Mueller, P. [Institut Dr. Foerster, Reutlingen, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-09-15

    radiactivas a temperaturas comprendidas entre 20 y 1 000 Degree-Sign C. Los autores discuten el control de calidad de metales no ferrosos por medida de la conductividad electrica aplicando corrientes de Foucault. Se describe un instrumento para medir la conductividad electrica de metales no ferrosos sin utilizar elementos en contacto. Se explica la correlacion entre la conductividad electrica y las caracteristicas de esfuerzo-deformacion de metales y aleaciones no ferrosos. Se presta especial atencion a la determinacion de estas propiedades en muestras pequenas. Se describe un dispositivo para medicion directa a distancia en la zona radiactiva del reactor. Se examina la relacion existente entre conductividad electrica y la dosis de radiacion. Se describe un instrumento para medir la permeabilidad, la remanencia y la fuerza coercitiva en funcion de la-solicitacion mecanica y la deformacion elastica y plastica, como tambien de la dosis de radiacion. Se expone un metodo para medir la variacion de las propiedades magneticas en funcion de la solicitacion elastica y la deformacion plastica. Se discuten los efectos de la irradiacion sobre la permeabilidad y la fuerza coercitiva. Se describe un instrumento para medicion rapida e indicacion directa de la permeabilidad de componentes de acero inoxidable. Se explica la correlacion entre permeabilidad y contenido de {Delta} - ferrita. Se exponen las mediciones del porcentaje de {Delta} - ferrita en soldaduras practicadas en tubos de acero inoxidable, y de las precipitaciones de {Delta}-ferrita en funcion de la deformacion plastica (forjado de los elementos combustibles). (author) [Russian] Opisan pribor dlja avtomaticheskogo izmerenija i registracii modulja Junga, modulja sdviga i kojefficienta zatuhanija kak funkcii temperatury i vremeni. Izmerenie modulja Junga proizvoditsja s pomoshh'ju vozbuzhdennyh obrazcov razlichnyh razmerov pri ih estestvennoj chastote. Izmerenie kojefficienta zatuhanija proizvoditsja po svobodnomu zatuhaniju

  7. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  8. Acne polimorfo: tratamiento con Implacen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Pérez Armas

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza el estudio de 40 pacientes con acné polimorfo, los que fueron atendidos en la Consulta de Dermatología del Hospital Provincial Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Celia Sánchez Manduley", en el período comprendido de enero de 1988 a diciembre de 1989. Se revisa la literatura médica sobre los diversos métodos y medicamentos utilizados en la terapéutica de esta dermatosis. Se describe el esquema de tratamiento empleado con implacén en 30 pacientes; los 10 restantes se trataron con placebo; se compara dicho esquema con los tradicionales y se observan mejores resultados con nuestro estudio. Se destaca la ausencia de recaídas, así como el resultado del tratamiento de acuerdo con el sexo.A study was performed in 40 patients presenting with polymorphic acne who were attended in the Dermatology Department of "Celia Sánchez Manduley" Clinicosurgical and Teaching Hospital from January, 1988 to December, 1989. A review of the literature was made seeking for the different methods and drugs used for the treatment of this dermatosis. The treatment schedule with the use of implacen in 30 patients is described. Such therapeutic schedule was compared with traditional ones and better results were observed with the use of implacen. The fact that there were no relapses is highlighted, as well as the result of treatment according to sex.

  9. con mala calidad de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Martín-Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio ex post facto se ha analizado si los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida presentan diferencias en las variables clínicas de personalidad y relaciones familiares en función de que el paciente haya estado o no ingresado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Seleccionamos dos grupos: 29 familiares de pacientes traumatizados graves transcurridos cuatro años de su ingreso en una UCI de Traumatología y con mala calidad de vida (debido a secuelas físicas y/o psicológicas tras el ingreso, tales como traumatismos craneoencefálicos, politraumatismos y tetraplejias traumáticas y 32 familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida con cuatro años de evolución de su enfermedad física (hipertensión, diabetes, artritis reumatoide y síndrome de intestino irritable que no han estado ingresados en la UCI. Para alcanzar nuestro objetivo empleamos una Encuesta Psicosocial y los siguientes instrumentos: Cuestionario de Análisis Clínico, Escala de Clima Social en la Familia y Escala de Adaptación Psicosocial de la Enfermedad. Los resultados mostraron que los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que estuvieron ingresados en la UCI hace cuatro años, presentan diferencias significativas en las variables agitación y expresividad comparados con los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que no han estado ingresados en la UCI.

  10. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kimitaka; Fukuie, Ken; Iijima, Tooru; Shimpo, Masakazu.

    1994-01-01

    In an FBR type reactor for exchanging fuels by pulling up reactor core upper mechanisms, a connection mechanism is disposed for connecting the top of the reactor core and the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms. In addition, a cylindrical body is disposed surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, and a support member is disposed to the cylindrical body for supporting an intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms. Then, the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is connected to the top of the reactor core. Same displacements are caused to both of them upon occurrence of earthquakes and, as a result, it is possible to eliminate mutual horizontal displacement between a control rod guide hole of the reactor core upper mechanisms and a control rod insertion hole of the reactor core. In addition, since the intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms is supported by the support member disposed to the cylindrical body surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, deformation caused to the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is reduced, so that the mutual horizontal displacement with respect to the control rod insertion hole of the reactor core can be reduced. As a result, performance of control rod insertion upon occurrence of the earthquakes is improved, so that reactor shutdown is conducted more reliably to improve reactor safety. (N.H.)

  11. The prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which is a liquid metal cooled fast reactor power station, situated at Dounreay, Scotland. The principal design features of a Fast Reactor and the PFR are given, along with key points of operating history, and health and safety features. The role of the PFR in the development programme for commercial reactors is discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Department of reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risoe during 1979 are described. The work is presented in five chapters: Reactor Engineering, Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Heat Transfer and Hydraulics, The DR 1 Reactor, and Non-Nuclear Activities. A list of the staff and of publications is included. (author)

  13. NCSU Reactor Sharing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities

  14. Reactor safety method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachon, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature

  15. Physics of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This course gives an introduction to Nuclear Reactor Physics. The first chapter explains the most important parameters and concepts in nuclear reactor physics such as fission, cross sections and the effective multiplication factor. Further on, in the second chapter, the flux distributions in a stationary reactor are derived from the diffusion equation. Reactor kinetics, reactor control and reactor dynamics (feedback effects) are described in the following three chapters. The course concludes with a short description of the different types of existing and future reactors. (author)

  16. Reactor core and initially loaded reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo.

    1989-01-01

    In BWR type reactors, improvement for the reactor shutdown margin is an important characteristic condition togehter with power distribution flattening . However, in the reactor core at high burnup degree, the reactor shutdown margin is different depending on the radial position of the reactor core. That is , the reactor shutdown margin is smaller in the outer peripheral region than in the central region of the reactor core. In view of the above, the reactor core is divided radially into a central region and as outer region. The amount of fissionable material of first fuel assemblies newly loaded in the outer region is made less than the amount of the fissionable material of second fuel assemblies newly loaded in the central region, to thereby improve the reactor shutdown margin in the outer region. Further, the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower portion of the first fuel assemblies is made smaller than the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower region of the second fuel assemblies, to thereby obtain a sufficient thermal margin in the central region. (K.M.)

  17. Nuclear reactors. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiron, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the 'nuclear reactors' volume of the Engineers Techniques collection. It gives a general presentation of the different articles of the volume which deal with: the physical basis (neutron physics and ionizing radiations-matter interactions, neutron moderation and diffusion), the basic concepts and functioning of nuclear reactors (possible fuel-moderator-coolant-structure combinations, research and materials testing reactors, reactors theory and neutron characteristics, neutron calculations for reactor cores, thermo-hydraulics, fluid-structure interactions and thermomechanical behaviour of fuels in PWRs and fast breeder reactors, thermal and mechanical effects on reactors structure), the industrial reactors (light water, pressurized water, boiling water, graphite moderated, fast breeder, high temperature and heavy water reactors), and the technology of PWRs (conceiving and building rules, nuclear parks and safety, reactor components and site selection). (J.S.)

  18. Thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasutomi, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Moroo; Sawai, Yuichi; Chiba, Akio; Suzuki, Yasutaka.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon composited with reinforcing metals is used for a divertor cooling substrate having an effect as a cooling tube to provide a silicon base composite material having increased electric resistance and toughness. The blending ratio of reinforcing materials in the form of granules, whiskers or long fibers is controlled in order to control heat conductivity, electric resistivity and mechanical performances. The divertor cooling substrate comprising the silicon base composite material is integrated with a plasma facing material. The production method therefor includes ordinary metal matrix composite forming methods such as powder metallurgy, melting penetration method, high pressure solidification casting method, centrifugal casting method and vacuum casting method. Since the cooling plate is constituted with the light metal and highly electric resistant metal base composite material, sharing force due to eddy current can be reduced, and radiation exposure can be minimized. Accordingly, a cooling structure for a thermonuclear reactor effective for the improvement of environmental problems caused by waste disposal can be attained. (N.H.)

  19. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irion, L.; Tautz, J.; Ulrych, G.

    1976-01-01

    This additional patent complements the arrangement of non-return valves to prevent loss of cooling water on fracture of external tubes in the main coolant circuit (according to PS 24 24 427.7) by ensuring that the easily movable valves only operate in case of a fault, but do not flutter in operation, because the direction of flow is not the same at each location where they are installed. The remedy for this undesirable effect consists of allocating 1 non-return valve unit with 5 to 10 valves to each (of several) ducts for the cooling water intake. These units are installed in the annular space between the reactor vessel and the pressure vessel below the inlet of the ducts. Due to flow guidance surfaces in the same space, the incoming cooling water is deflected downwards and as the guiding surfaces are closed at the sides, must pass parallel to the valves of the non-return valve unit. On fracture of the external cooling water inlet pipe concerned, all valves of this unit close due to reversal of flow on the outlet side. (TK) [de

  20. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to auxiliary means of cooling the nuclear fuel clusters used in light or heavy water cooled nuclear reactors. One method is to provide one or more spray cooling tubes. From holes in the side walls of those tubes coolant water may be sprayed laterally into the cluster against the rods. The flow of main coolant may thus be supplemented or even replaced by the auxiliary coolant. A difficulty, however, is that only those fuel rods close to a spray cooling tube can readily be reached by the auxiliary coolant. In the arrangement described, where the fuel rods are spaced apart by transverse grids, at least one of the interspaces between the grids is provided with an axially extending auxiliary coolant conduit having lateral holes through which an auxiliary coolant is sprayed into the cluster. A deflector is provided that extends from a transverse grid into a position in front of the holes and deflects auxiliary coolant on to parts of the fuel rods otherwise inaccessible to the auxiliary coolant. The construction of the deflector is described. (U.K.)

  1. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear reactor coolant channel is described that is suitable for sub-cooled reactors as in pressurised water reactors as well as for bulk boiling, as in boiling water reactors and steam generating nuclear reactors. The arrangement aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel elements and the coolant. Full constructional details are given. See also other similar patents by the author. (U.K.)

  2. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    1975-01-01

    The author gives a survey of 'fast breeder reactors'. In detail the process of breeding, the reasons for the development of fast breeders, the possible breeder reactors, the design criteria, fuels, cladding, coolant, and safety aspects are reported on. Design data of some experimental reactors already in operation are summarized in stabular form. 300 MWe Prototype-Reactors SNR-300 and PFR are explained in detail and data of KWU helium-cooled fast breeder reactors are given. (HR) [de

  3. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la

  4. Nissan Mexicana. First place in national prize of electrical energy saving 1998; Nissan Mexicana. Primer lugar en premio nacional de ahorro de energia electrica 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez S, Enrique [Nissan Mexicana, S.A. de C.V., Planta Civac, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    For Plant CIVAC of Nissan Mexicana, the energy saving began in the year of 1990. From then, different programs have been developed using different strategies for energy saving until arriving at the Benchmarking with other Plants of Japan, which represents a new challenge, since it opened up an area of opportunity of saving in processes that generally were known in detail as far as to its main function (to make vehicles with quality, cost and opportunity of delivery), but the parameter of energy consumption of by unit and its benefits in relation to the cost was unknown. This was endorsed by the high Direction and began with the optimization of training for the operation of each equipment with the involvement of the user (Production), the engineering area (that establishes the process) and the maintenance area. We designed a general program where the basic activities were included, such as the general and special activities. Each one of them fulfilled its objective, but the special activities took us to the optimization of the processes, finding excess of energy in the design conditions. [Spanish] Para Planta CIVAC de Nissan Mexicana, el ahorro de energia se inicio en el ano de 1990. A partir de entonces se han desarrollado programas de ahorro de energia usando estrategias diferentes hasta llegar al Benchmarking con otras Plantas de Japon, el cual representa un reto nuevo, ya que puso al descubierto una area de oportunidad de ahorro en los procesos que por lo general se conocian a detalle en cuanto a la funcion principal (hacer vehiculos con calidad, costo y oportunidad de entrega), pero se desconocia el parametro de consumo de energia por unidad y sus beneficios en relacion con el costo. Esto fue avalado por la alta Direccion y se inicio con la capacitacion de la optimizacion de la operacion de cada equipo y se involucro al usuario (Produccion), al area de ingenieria (que establece el proceso) y al area de mantenimiento. Elaboramos un programa general donde se

  5. Determination of leveled costs of electric generation for gas plants, coal and nuclear; Determinacion de costos nivelados de generacion electrica para plantas de gas, carbon y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G.; Palacios H, J.C.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Gomez, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: galonso@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The present work analyzes the leveled costs of electric generation for different types of nuclear reactors known as Generation III, these costs are compared with the leveled costs of electric generation of plants with the help of natural gas and coal. In the study several discount rates were used to determine their impact in the initial investment. The obtained results are comparable with similar studies and they show that it has more than enough the base of the leveled cost the nuclear option it is quite competitive in Mexico. Also in this study it is also thinks about the economic viability of a new nuclear power station in Mexico. (Author)

  6. Electric power saving in the drinkable water, sewage and sanitation system, La Piedad; Ahorro de energia electrica en el sistema de agua potable, alcantarillado y saneamiento de La Piedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistema de Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento de la Piedad (Mexico). E-mail: sapaslapiedad@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Michoacan, Mexico, a project who seeks to benefice the Municipal public resources was crated in 1994. It would be achieved trough the electric power saving in the public lighting system, and drinkable water pumping and black water, since those activities required the budget biggest part. The program could be developed recently and the saving was significant. In addition the electromechanical efficiency increased in the equipment installation. This work is an example for other States to do something similar that can improve their conditions. [Spanish] En el estado de Michoacan, Mexico se creo un proyecto en el ano de 1994, el cual buscaba beneficiar los recursos publicos municipales, a traves del ahorro de la energia electrica en los sistemas de alumbrado publico y bombeo de agua potable y aguas negras, ya que estas actividades son las que requieren la mayor parte del presupuesto. El programa pudo llevarse a cabo en anos recientes y el ahorro fue significativo, ademas de que aumento la eficiencia electromecanica en los equipos que se instalaron, y esta obra ha servido de ejemplo a otros estados para que realicen algo similar que pueda mejorar su situacion.

  7. Pressurized thermal shock. Thermo-hydraulic conditions in the CNA-I reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, Mirta A.; Rosso, Ricardo D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyze several reports issued by the Utility (Nucleo Electrica S.A.) and related to Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) phenomena in the CNA-I Nuclear Power Plant. These analyses are aimed at obtaining conclusions and establishing criteria ensuring the RPV integrity. Special attention was given to the effects ECCS cold-water injection at the RPV down-comer leading to pressurized thermal shock scenarios. The results deal with hypothetical primary system pipe breaks of different sizes, the inadvertent opening of the pressurizer safety valve, the double guillotine break of a live steam line in the containment and the inadvertent actuation pressurizer heaters. Modeling conditions were setup to represent experiments performed at the UPTF, under the hypothesis that they are representative of those that, hypothetically, may occur at the CNA-I. No system scaling analysis was performed, so this assertion and the inferred conclusions are no fully justified, at least in principle. The above mentioned studies, indicate that the RPV internal wall surface temperature will be nearly 40 degree. It was concluded that they allowed a better approximation of PTS phenomena in the RPV of the CNA-I. Special emphasis was made on the influence of the ECCS systems on the attained RPV wall temperature, particularly the low-pressure TJ water injection system. Some conservative hypothesis made, are discussed in this report. (author)

  8. Tratamiento con implantes Leader-Nano en paciente con oligodoncia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Los implantes dentales de titanio han revolucionado el mundo de la rehabilitación desde su surgimiento. De manera particular, el empleo de implantes de carga inmediata acorta el tiempo quirúrgico y protésico, con el consiguiente bienestar estético. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 32 años de edad, con antecedentes de oligodoncia de ambos incisivos laterales superiores y portadora de prótesis parcial acrílica. Fue atendida por el equipo multidisciplinario de implantes en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente “3 de Octubre” y se le realizó tratamiento de rehabilitación integral con implantes Leader-Nano y prótesis fija con corona acrílica sobre dichos implantes. La implantología fue satisfactoria en la paciente; la mejoría estética y funcional, así como la satisfacción de la paciente, fueron los principales logros obtenidos

  9. Reactor Physics Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2007-01-01

    University courses in nuclear reactor physics at the universities consist of a theoretical description of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors. In order to demonstrate the basic concepts in reactor physics, training exercises in nuclear reactor installations are also desirable. Since the number of reactor facilities is however strongly decreasing in Europe, it becomes difficult to offer to students a means for demonstrating the basic concepts in reactor physics by performing training exercises in nuclear installations. Universities do not generally possess the capabilities for performing training exercises. Therefore, SCK-CEN offers universities the possibility to perform (on a commercial basis) training exercises at its infrastructure consisting of two research reactors (BR1 and VENUS). Besides the organisation of training exercises in the framework of university courses, SCK-CEN also organizes theoretical courses in reactor physics for the education and training of nuclear reactor operators. It is indeed a very important subject to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. In this framework, an understanding of the fundamental principles of nuclear reactor physics is also necessary for reactor operators. Therefore, the organisation of a basic Nuclear reactor physics course at the level of reactor operators in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The objectives this activity are: (1) to provide training and education activities in reactor physics for university students and (2) to organise courses in nuclear reactor physics for reactor operators

  10. con dietas suplementadas con Cromo-L-metionina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram\\u00F3n Garc\\u00EDa-Castillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 48 cerdos (Sus scrofa domesticus; 24 machos castrados y 24 hembras cruzados (Yorkshire, Hampshire, Duroc y Landrace de 3,5 a 4,0 meses de edad y 60,0 ± 5,0 kg PV en finalización. Se alimentaron con dietas isoproteícas (14,5 % PC e isoenergéticas (3.400 kcal EM/kg de MS, adicionadas con Cr-L-metionina (MiCroPlex® (0, 200, 400 y 600 ppb. El experimento tuvo una duración de 45 días y se realizó de agosto a noviembre del 2002 en las instalaciones de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, localizada en Saltillo, Coahuila, México. Al tener los animales aproximadamente 95 kg PV, se tomó muestra de 15 ml de sangre por cada animal para determinar la concentración de glucosa, ácido úrico, creatinina, urea, proteinas totales y colesterol. Se aplicó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 4; dos para el factor sexo y cuatro para nivel de cromo. Los metabolitos en suero no fueron afectados (P>0,05 por el factor sexo. La glucosa en suero disminuyó (P<0,05 y el colesterol incrementó (P<0,05 con cromo en la dieta. Se concluye que el Cr incrementa el metabolismo de glucosa y disminuye el de colesterol, con lo cual puede haber energía disponible para síntesis de proteína la cual es necesaria para el crecimiento de los animales

  11. Experimental proposal for the anticipated feasible detection of earthquakes; Propuesta experimental para la deteccion factible de terremotos con anticipacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ortega, Sergio [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-15

    Some Internet articles, as well as scientific Tv programs, show several investigations regarding the detection of low frequency electromagnetic emissions preceding different magnitude earthquakes on the nearness of epicenters. For example, a publication in Science journal indicates that these emissions cause ionization in ground water before earthquakes. The experiment exposed here show that plants may transform similar low frequency electromagnetic emissions in electric current sufficient to activate some type of alarm. As precedent, plants may predict storms, perceiving air ionization before flash lightning opening its pores for capture rain water. Therefore, considering this mechanism, the experiment may be an alternative for achieving earthquake predictions. In case of some difference regarding real underground emissions, other device with greater sensibility can be used. [Spanish] En este articulo se expone un experimento mediante un aparato que crea un arco voltaico, el cual genera en sus alrededores ondas electromagneticas (OEM) de baja frecuencia. Al acercar este arco a unos centimetros de las raices de una planta, se descubrio que esta transforma, por algun mecanismo bioelectrico todavia no documentado, estas OEM en una pequena corriente electrica, registrada por un multimetro analogico simple conectado a la planta, en rangos menores a 10 mA. Es posible vislumbrar la importancia de este sencillo descubrimiento si se relaciona con recientes investigaciones sobre terremotos [04a12] que muestran que lagunas horas, incluso dias antes de la liberacion masiva de la energia que se encuentra acumulada en las placas tectonicas, en las cercanias de los epicentros se emiten tambien OEM de baja frecuencia. Ahora bien, si se analiza el hecho de que el movimiento de la aguja del multimetro puede activar algun tipo de alarma, cabe pensar que esto permitiria contar tiempo suficiente para prevenir y evitar innumerables perdidas humanas si se presentan eventos sismicos de

  12. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.

    1990-01-01

    The arguments for and against the fast breeder reactor are debated. The case for the fast reactor is that the world energy demand will increase due to increasing population over the next forty years and that the damage to the global environment from burning fossil fuels which contribute to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear fission is the only large scale energy source which can achieve a cut in the use of carbon based fuels although energy conservation and renewable sources will also be important. Fast reactors produce more energy from uranium than other types of (thermal) reactors such as AGRs and PWRs. Fast reactors would be important from about 2020 onwards especially as by then many thermal reactors will need to be replaced. Fast reactors are also safer than normal reactors. The arguments against fast reactors are largely economic. The cost, especially the capital cost is very high. The viability of the technology is also questioned. (UK)

  13. Nuclear reactor instrumentation at research reactor renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baers, B.; Pellionisz, P.

    1981-10-01

    The paper overviews the state-of-the-art of research reactor renewals. As a case study the instrumentation reconstruction of the Finnish 250 kW TRIGA reactor is described, with particular emphasis on the nuclear control instrumentation and equipment which has been developed and manufactured by the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest. Beside the presentation of the nuclear instrument family developed primarily for research reactor reconstructions, the quality assurance policy conducted during the manufacturing process is also discussed. (author)

  14. Safeguarding research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The report is organized in four sections, including the introduction. The second section contains a discussion of the characteristics and attributes of research reactors important to safeguards. In this section, research reactors are described according to their power level, if greater than 25 thermal megawatts, or according to each fuel type. This descriptive discussion includes both reactor and reactor fuel information of a generic nature, according to the following categories. 1. Research reactors with more than 25 megawatts thermal power, 2. Plate fuelled reactors, 3. Assembly fuelled reactors. 4. Research reactors fuelled with individual rods. 5. Disk fuelled reactors, and 6. Research reactors fuelled with aqueous homogeneous fuel. The third section consists of a brief discussion of general IAEA safeguards as they apply to research reactors. This section is based on IAEA safeguards implementation documents and technical reports that are used to establish Agency-State agreements and facility attachments. The fourth and last section describes inspection activities at research reactors necessary to meet Agency objectives. The scope of the activities extends to both pre and post inspection as well as the on-site inspection and includes the examination of records and reports relative to reactor operation and to receipts, shipments and certain internal transfers, periodic verification of fresh fuel, spent fuel and core fuel, activities related to containment and surveillance, and other selected activities, depending on the reactor

  15. Guide to power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    The IAEA's major first scientific publication is the Directory of Power Reactors now in operation or under construction in various parts of the world. The purpose of the directory is to present important details of various power projects in such a way as to provide a source of easy reference for anyone interested in the development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, either at the technical or management level. Six pages have been devoted to each reactor the first of which contains general information, reactor physics data and information about the core. The second and third contain sketches of the fuel element or of the fuel element assembly, and of the horizontal and vertical sections of the reactor. On the fourth page information is grouped under the following heads: fuel element, core heat transfer, control, reactor vessel and over-all dimensions, and fluid flow. The fifth page shows a simplified flow diagram, while the sixth provides information on reflector and shielding, containment and turbo generator. Some information has also been given, when available, on cost estimates and operating staff requirements. Remarks and a bibliography constitute the last part of the description of each reactor. Reactor projects included in this directory are pressurized light water cooled power reactors. Boiling light water cooled power reactors, heavy water cooled power reactors, gas cooled power reactors, organic cooled power reactors liquid metal cooled power reactors and liquid metal cooled power reactors

  16. Selection of electric motors for industrial processes with the rational energy use criteria; Seleccion de motores electricos para procesos industriales con criterios de uso racional de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Collantes, Arturo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Under the energy and ecological crisis we are now going through, but fundamentally because as human beings we can not keep on acting in such a thoughtless way, I write these notes, with the intention that we take more into consideration that whatever we do to improve the ways of energy consumption, will ease the human life preservation. The electric motors selection, plays an important roll in this respect, since it represents the highest percentage of electric energy consumption at national level. Therefore I will point out some basic criteria for an adequate selection. [Espanol] Ante la crisis energetica y ecologica por la que actualmente pasamos, pero fundamentalmente porque como seres humanos no podemos seguir actuando en forma tan irreflexiva, escribo estas notas, con la intencion de que tomemos mas en cuenta, que lo que hagamos para mejorar las formas de consumo de energia, facilitara la preservacion de la vida humana. La seleccion de motores electricos, juega un importante papel al respecto, ya que representa el mayor porcentaje del consumo de energia electrica a nivel nacional, por lo tanto senalare algunos criterios basicos para una adecuada seleccion.

  17. Selection of electric motors for industrial processes with the rational energy use criteria; Seleccion de motores electricos para procesos industriales con criterios de uso racional de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Collantes, Arturo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Under the energy and ecological crisis we are now going through, but fundamentally because as human beings we can not keep on acting in such a thoughtless way, I write these notes, with the intention that we take more into consideration that whatever we do to improve the ways of energy consumption, will ease the human life preservation. The electric motors selection, plays an important roll in this respect, since it represents the highest percentage of electric energy consumption at national level. Therefore I will point out some basic criteria for an adequate selection. [Espanol] Ante la crisis energetica y ecologica por la que actualmente pasamos, pero fundamentalmente porque como seres humanos no podemos seguir actuando en forma tan irreflexiva, escribo estas notas, con la intencion de que tomemos mas en cuenta, que lo que hagamos para mejorar las formas de consumo de energia, facilitara la preservacion de la vida humana. La seleccion de motores electricos, juega un importante papel al respecto, ya que representa el mayor porcentaje del consumo de energia electrica a nivel nacional, por lo tanto senalare algunos criterios basicos para una adecuada seleccion.

  18. Reactor core of FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hideyuki; Ichimiya, Masakazu.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor core is a homogeneous reactor core divided into two regions of an inner reactor core region at the center and an outer reactor core region surrounding the outside of the inner reactor core region. In this case, the inner reactor core region has a lower plutonium enrichment degree and less amount of neutron leakage in the radial direction, and the outer reactor core region has higher plutonium enrichment degree and greater amount of neutron leakage in the radial direction. Moderator materials containing hydrogen are added only to the inner reactor core fuels in the inner reactor core region. Pins loaded with the fuels with addition of the moderator materials are inserted at a ratio of from 3 to 10% of the total number of the fuel pins. The moderator materials containing hydrogen comprise zirconium hydride, titanium hydride, or calcium hydride. With such a constitution, fluctuation of the power distribution in the radial direction along with burning is suppressed. In addition, an absolute value of the Doppler coefficient can be increased, and a temperature coefficient of coolants can be reduced. (I.N.)

  19. Reactor core for LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumi, Ryoji; Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi; Bando, Masaru; Watari, Yoshio.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the power distribution fluctuations and obtain flat and stable power distribution throughout the operation period in an LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: In the inner reactor core region and the outer reactor core region surrounding the same, the thickness of the inner region is made smaller than the axial height of the reactor core region and the radial width thereof is made smaller than that of the reactor core region and the volume thereof is made to 30 - 50 % for the reactor core region. Further, the amount of the fuel material per unit volume in the inner region is made to 70 - 90 % of that in the outer region. The difference in the neutron infinite multiplication factor between the inner region and the outer region is substantially constant irrespective of the burnup degree and the power distribution fluctuation can be reduced to about 2/3, by which the effect of thermal striping to the reactor core upper mechanisms can be moderated. Further, the maximum linear power during operation can be reduced by 3 %, by which the thermal margin in the reactor core is increased and the reactor core fuels can be saved by 3 %. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Recubrimiento de acero con polidopamina

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Rodríguez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Se ha obtenido recubrimientos de polidopamina en acero mecánicamente resistentes y con tiempos de obtención relativamente pequeños a través de la polimerización de la dopamina bajo diferentes condiciones.

  1. Tokamak reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of tokamak reactor studies with particular attention to commercial reactor concepts developed within the last three years. Emphasis is placed on DT fueled reactors for electricity production. A brief history of tokamak reactor studies is presented. The STARFIRE, NUWMAK, and HFCTR studies are highlighted. Recent developments that have increased the commercial attractiveness of tokamak reactor designs are discussed. These developments include smaller plant sizes, higher first wall loadings, improved maintenance concepts, steady-state operation, non-divertor particle control, and improved reactor safety features

  2. Design of a grounding network in electrical substations. Materials and formulas the most used; Diseno de redes de tierra en subestaciones electricas. Materiales y formulas mas utilizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raull Martin, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summarized version of the different types of construction of grounding systems, as well as their materials and formulas, which are necessary and useful for the design and building of a grounding network for medium to high voltage facilities. A description is also made of how to determine the electrical resistivity of subsoil layers with different physical characteristics. Several illustrative examples are also solved in the paper. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar de manera resumida los diferentes tipos de construccion de los sistemas de tierra, asi como sus materiales y formulas, los cuales son necesarios y utiles para el diseno y edificacion de una red de tierra para instalaciones de mediana y alta tension. Se describe tambien la obtencion de las diferentes resistividades que presenta los terrenos con diversas caracteristicas fisicas. Asimismo, se solucionan ejercicios ilustrativos a lo largo del articulo.

  3. Reactor Physics Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Raedt, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies

  4. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  5. Performance study of a combined cycle power plant with integral gasification; Estudio del desempeno de una planta de potencia de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Rocha, Jose Clemente

    2007-04-15

    con alto valor agregado, como la gasolina, turbosina o diesel, entre otros. Con la nueva reconfiguracion de las refineria mexicanas de Cd. Madero y Cadereyta y proximamente la terminacion de la reconfiguracion de la refineria de Minatitlan, Veracruz, grandes cantidades de coque se estaran produciendo, con la posibilidad de usarlo mediante la tecnologia de gasificacion para producir un gas sintetico limpio (gasl) con caracteristicas energeticas apropiadas para utilizarse como combustible en un ciclo combinado existente en Mexico. En Mexico se han estimado las posibilidades de generacion de energia electrica a partir del uso del coque de petroleo utilizado la tecnologia de gasificacion o usando generadores de vapor de lecho fluidizado, como es el caso de las planta de potencia TEG en Taquin, San Luis Potosi. Tal es el hecho, que actualmente PEMEX refinacion, tiene terminado el proyecto para construir en Tuxpan, Veracruz una refineria procesadora de crudo Maya con un alto contenido de azufre y junto a la termoelectrica de Tuxpan, contemplandose la posibilidad de aplicar el concepto de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada (CCGI); con esta infraestructura sera posible consumir el coque generado por las refinerias mexicanas. La generacion electrica esperada es de 500 MW, de los cuales 100 MW seran para consumo propio de la refineria y 400 MW libres para cubrir la demanda de energia electrica de la zona noreste y centro del pais. El coque de petroleo derivado de las refinerias del pais puede ser utilizado para la generacion limpia de electricidad mediante su gasificacion e integracion a una planta de ciclo combinado existente. La ubicacion estrategia del ciclo combinado Tula, el cual se encuentra adyacente a la refineria Miguel Hidalgo presenta la oportunidad de aplicar la tecnologia de gasificacion como una alternativa viable: primeramente, para la utilizacion de coque de petroleo que actualmente se esta produciendo en las refinerias de Mexico o la utilizacion del

  6. Undergraduate reactor control experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Power, M.A.; Bryan, M.

    1992-01-01

    A sequence of reactor and related experiments has been a central element of a senior-level laboratory course at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) for more than 20 yr. A new experiment has been developed where the students program and operate a computer controller that manipulates the speed of a secondary control rod to regulate TRIGA reactor power. Elementary feedback control theory is introduced to explain the experiment, which emphasizes the nonlinear aspect of reactor control where power level changes are equivalent to a change in control loop gain. Digital control of nuclear reactors has become more visible at Penn State with the replacement of the original analog-based TRIGA reactor control console with a modern computer-based digital control console. Several TRIGA reactor dynamics experiments, which comprise half of the three-credit laboratory course, lead to the control experiment finale: (a) digital simulation, (b) control rod calibration, (c) reactor pulsing, (d) reactivity oscillator, and (e) reactor noise

  7. Reactor System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, S. K.; Kim, G. K.; Yeo, J. W.

    2006-08-01

    SMART NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) has been developed for duel purpose, electricity generation and energy supply for seawater desalination. The objective of this project IS to design the reactor system of SMART pilot plant(SMART-P) which will be built and operated for the integrated technology verification of SMART. SMART-P is an integral reactor in which primary components of reactor coolant system are enclosed in single pressure vessel without connecting pipes. The major components installed within a vessel includes a core, twelve steam generator cassettes, a low-temperature self pressurizer, twelve control rod drives, and two main coolant pumps. SMART-P reactor system design was categorized to the reactor coe design, fluid system design, reactor mechanical design, major component design and MMIS design. Reactor safety -analysis and performance analysis were performed for developed SMART=P reactor system. Also, the preparation of safety analysis report, and the technical support for licensing acquisition are performed

  8. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  9. Nuclear reactors; graphical symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This standard contains graphical symbols that reveal the type of nuclear reactor and is used to design graphical and technical presentations. Distinguishing features for nuclear reactors are laid down in graphical symbols. (orig.) [de

  10. Control for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, E.B.; Bernath, L.; Facha, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is provided with several hydraulically-supported spherical bodies having a high neutron absorption cross section, which fall by gravity into the core region of the reactor when the flow of supporting fluid is shut off. (auth)

  11. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  12. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Guidebook to nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    A general introduction to reactor physics and theory is followed by descriptions of commercial nuclear reactor types. Future directions for nuclear power are also discussed. The technical level of the material is suitable for laymen

  14. continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the small and large intestines as plug flow reactor (PFR) ... from the two equations are used for the reactor sizing of the modeled reactors.

  15. Santiago, una ciudad con temor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Oviedo S.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este artículo es evaluar los efectos de la inseguridad ciudadana en el uso del espacio público. Dicha evaluación exige analizar dos relaciones que se establecen en el ámbito de la violencia: la relación entre victimización y percepción de inseguridad; y la que se establece entre actitudes sociales y resolución pacífica de conflictos nacionales. Para ello, se analizaron las variables victimización, percepción de inseguridad, uso del espacio físico, actitudes hacia el sistema institucional político y social y hacia la resolución de conflictos nacionales, y las posibles relaciones entre ellas. Los datos para realizar el estudio se obtuvieron por medio de una encuesta que se llevó a cabo con 1 200 personas de 18 y 70 años de edad residentes en la ciudad de Santiago. Los resultados indican que Santiago es una ciudad de habitantes con temor y que el aumento de la percepción de inseguridad de sus habitantes contrasta con el hecho de que las tasas de victimización se hayan mantenido, más o menos, constantes en los años que precedieron a la encuesta. El temor se relaciona con el abandono del espacio público físico y sociopolítico, así como con el refugio en los espacios y la vida privados. La actitud de resolver los conflictos por medios no pacíficos es frecuente y se asocia en mayor medida con la inseguridad, la actitud negativa hacia la democracia y la falta de expectativas sobre el futuro del país. Los resultados de este estudio respaldan la idea de que para superar el temor la gente tiende a adaptarse a la realidad adoptando una postura conformista, homogeneizando las creencias y los comportamientos, y sobreestimando la fuerza como medio para resolver las diferencias.

  16. Santiago, una ciudad con temor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oviedo S. Enrique

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este artículo es evaluar los efectos de la inseguridad ciudadana en el uso del espacio público. Dicha evaluación exige analizar dos relaciones que se establecen en el ámbito de la violencia: la relación entre victimización y percepción de inseguridad; y la que se establece entre actitudes sociales y resolución pacífica de conflictos nacionales. Para ello, se analizaron las variables victimización, percepción de inseguridad, uso del espacio físico, actitudes hacia el sistema institucional político y social y hacia la resolución de conflictos nacionales, y las posibles relaciones entre ellas. Los datos para realizar el estudio se obtuvieron por medio de una encuesta que se llevó a cabo con 1 200 personas de 18 y 70 años de edad residentes en la ciudad de Santiago. Los resultados indican que Santiago es una ciudad de habitantes con temor y que el aumento de la percepción de inseguridad de sus habitantes contrasta con el hecho de que las tasas de victimización se hayan mantenido, más o menos, constantes en los años que precedieron a la encuesta. El temor se relaciona con el abandono del espacio público físico y sociopolítico, así como con el refugio en los espacios y la vida privados. La actitud de resolver los conflictos por medios no pacíficos es frecuente y se asocia en mayor medida con la inseguridad, la actitud negativa hacia la democracia y la falta de expectativas sobre el futuro del país. Los resultados de este estudio respaldan la idea de que para superar el temor la gente tiende a adaptarse a la realidad adoptando una postura conformista, homogeneizando las creencias y los comportamientos, y sobreestimando la fuerza como medio para resolver las diferencias.

  17. Reactor physics aspects of CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critoph, E.

    1980-01-01

    These four lectures are being given at the Winter Course on Nuclear Physics at Trieste during 1978 February. They constitute part of the third week's lectures in Part II: Reactor Theory and Power Reactors. A physical description of CANDU reactors is given, followed by an overview of CANDU characteristics and some of the design options. Basic lattice physics is discussed in terms of zero energy lattice experiments, irradiation effects and analytical methods. Start-up and commissioning experiments in CANDU reactors are reviewed, and some of the more interesting aspects of operation discussed - fuel management, flux mapping and control of the power distribution. Finally, some of the characteristics of advanced fuel cycles that have been proposed for CANDU reactors are summarized. (author)

  18. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  19. Zero energy reactor 'RB'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D; Takac, S; Markovic, H; Raisic, N; Zdravkovic, Z; Radanovic, Lj [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1959-03-15

    In 1958 the zero energy reactor RB was built with the purpose of enabling critical experiments with various reactor systems to be carried out. The first core assembly built in this reactor consists of heavy water as moderator and natural uranium metal as fuel. In order to be able to obtain very accurate results when measuring the main characteristics of the assembly the reactor was built as a completely bare system. (author)

  20. Reactor utilization, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor was operated until August 1984 due to prohibition issued by the Ministry since the reactor does not have the emergency cooling system nor special filters in the ventilation system yet. This means that the operation plan was fulfilled by 69%. This annex includes detailed tables containing data about utilization of reactor experimental channels, irradiated samples, as well as interruptions of operation. Detailed data about reactor power during this period are shown as well

  1. PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor is the only research reactor in Malaysia. This 1 MW TRIGA Mk II reactor first reached criticality on 28 June 1982 and is located at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency premise in Bangi, Malaysia. This reactor has been mainly utilised for research, training and education and isotope production. Over the years several systems have been refurbished or modernised to overcome ageing and obsolescence problems. Major achievements and milestones will also be elaborated in this paper. (author)

  2. Nuclear reactor shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.; Cooper, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    An improved nuclear reactor shutdown system is described comprising a temperature sensitive device connected to control the electric power supply to a magnetic latch holding a body of a neutron absorbing material. The temperature sensitive device is exposed to the reactor coolant so that when the reactor coolant temperature rises above a specific level, the temperature sensitive device will cause deenergization of the magnetic latch to allow the body of neutron absorbing material to enter the reactor core. (author)

  3. The fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: brief description of fast reactors; advantage in conserving uranium resources; experience, in UK and elsewhere, in fast reactor design, construction and operation; safety; production of plutonium, security aspects; consideration of future UK fast reactor programme. (U.K.)

  4. Mirror fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, W.S. Jr.; Carlson, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Recent conceptual reactor designs based on mirror confinement are described. Four components of mirror reactors for which materials considerations and structural mechanics analysis must play an important role in successful design are discussed. The reactor components are: (a) first-wall and thermal conversion blanket, (b) superconducting magnets and their force restraining structure, (c) neutral beam injectors, and (d) plasma direct energy converters

  5. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  6. Rotating reactors : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, F.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schouten, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This review-perspective paper describes the current state-of-the-art in the field of rotating reactors. The paper has a focus on rotating reactor technology with applications at lab scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. Rotating reactors are classified and discussed according to their geometry:

  7. Refuelling nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, J.; Webb, J.; White, W.P.; McLaren, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved nuclear reactor refuelling machine is described which can be left in the reactor vault to reduce the off-load refuelling time for the reactor. The system comprises a gripper device rangeable within a tubular chute, the gripper device being movable by a pantograph. (U.K.)

  8. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Yuji; Seki, Eiji; Yoshida, Toshifumi; Ito, Toshiaki.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a self-powered long detector having a sensitivity over the entire length of a reactor core as an entire control rod withdrawal range of a BWR type reactor, and a reactor power measuring device using a gamma ray thermometer which scarcely causes sensitivity degradation. That is, a hollow protection pipe is disposed passing through the reactor core from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel. The self-powered long detectors and the gamma ray thermometers are inserted and installed in the protection pipe. An average reactor power in an axial direction of the reactor relative to a certain position in the horizontal cross section of the reactor core is determined based on the power of the self-powered long detector over the entire length of the reactor core. Since the response of the self-powered detector relative to a local power change is rapid, the output is used as an input signal to a safety protection device of the reactor core. Further, a gamma ray thermometer secured in the reactor and having scarce sensitivity degradation is used instead of an incore travelling neutron monitor used for relative calibration of an existent neutron monitor secured in the reactor. (I.S.)

  9. Ulysse, mentor reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquin, B.; Rio, I.; Safieh, J.

    1997-01-01

    On July 23, 1961, the ULYSSE reactor began its first power rise. Designed at that time to train nuclear engineering students and reactor operators, this reactor still remains an indispensable tool for nuclear teaching and a choice instrument for scientists. (author)

  10. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  11. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  12. Importance of the harmonics in the lighting systems for the electric energy saving; Importancia de las armonicas en el sistema de iluminacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibay Mendoza, V. [Lumisistemas, departamento de aseguramineto de calidad, Naucalpan (Mexico); Hernandez Bernal, J. M. [UNICORP, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In a lighting system the discharge lamps (fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID)), ballast and controls are generating elements of harmonics. As a consequence of the tendency of saving energy, the use of electronic ballasts and controls that integrate dimmers, daylight and present sensors has increased in order to optimize the energy use. This paper presents the harmonics generation resulting from the fluorescent lamps operating different electronic ballasts as well as their electronic controls. Likewise, are also shown the effects caused by generation of harmonics components by the lighting system in the electric system that go from the voltage and current distortion, the presence of currents in the neutral conductor in balanced systems to the repercussions in the metering equipment such as watthour meters and the effects the lighting equipment suffer due to the presence of harmonics, such as the power factor decrease in ballasts that are of high power factor and the temperature increment in the magnetic type ballasts. [Espanol] Dentro de un sistema de iluminacion, las lamparas de descarga (fluorescentes y alta intensidad de descarga {sup H}ID{sup )}, balastros y los controles son elementos generadores de armonicas. A consecuencia de la tendencia al ahorro de energia se ha incrementado el uso de balastros electronicos y controles que integran atenuadores de luz (dimmers), sensores de luz natural y de presencia con el fin de optimizar el uso de la energia. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de generacion de armonicas para lamparas fluorescentes, operando diferentes balastros electronicos asi como con controles electronicos. Asi mismo son presentados los efectos causados por la generacion de componentes armonicas por el sistema de iluminacion dentro del sistema electrico que van desde la distorsion en voltaje y corriente, la presencia de corrientes dentro del conductor neutro en sistemas balanceados, asi como la repercusion en los equipos de medicion tales

  13. Importance of the harmonics in the lighting systems for the electric energy saving; Importancia de las armonicas en el sistema de iluminacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibay Mendoza, V [Lumisistemas, departamento de aseguramineto de calidad, Naucalpan (Mexico); Hernandez Bernal, J M [UNICORP, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In a lighting system the discharge lamps (fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID)), ballast and controls are generating elements of harmonics. As a consequence of the tendency of saving energy, the use of electronic ballasts and controls that integrate dimmers, daylight and present sensors has increased in order to optimize the energy use. This paper presents the harmonics generation resulting from the fluorescent lamps operating different electronic ballasts as well as their electronic controls. Likewise, are also shown the effects caused by generation of harmonics components by the lighting system in the electric system that go from the voltage and current distortion, the presence of currents in the neutral conductor in balanced systems to the repercussions in the metering equipment such as watthour meters and the effects the lighting equipment suffer due to the presence of harmonics, such as the power factor decrease in ballasts that are of high power factor and the temperature increment in the magnetic type ballasts. [Espanol] Dentro de un sistema de iluminacion, las lamparas de descarga (fluorescentes y alta intensidad de descarga {sup H}ID{sup )}, balastros y los controles son elementos generadores de armonicas. A consecuencia de la tendencia al ahorro de energia se ha incrementado el uso de balastros electronicos y controles que integran atenuadores de luz (dimmers), sensores de luz natural y de presencia con el fin de optimizar el uso de la energia. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de generacion de armonicas para lamparas fluorescentes, operando diferentes balastros electronicos asi como con controles electronicos. Asi mismo son presentados los efectos causados por la generacion de componentes armonicas por el sistema de iluminacion dentro del sistema electrico que van desde la distorsion en voltaje y corriente, la presencia de corrientes dentro del conductor neutro en sistemas balanceados, asi como la repercusion en los equipos de medicion tales

  14. Protection of structures and buildings against the effect of electrical storms: basic concepts, evolution and application in Mexico; Proteccion contra el efecto de las tormentas electricas de estructuras y edificios: conceptos basicos, evolucion y aplicacion en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan Diego, Arturo; Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    observacion cientifica, ha demostrado su eficacia en la modernizacion de cientos de procesos industriales, comerciales, de comunicacion y de servicios, asi como de los materiales y metodologias utilizadas para la proteccion de diversos equipos y procesos; desde la proteccion en sistema y equipos en alta tension hasta sistemas que manejan muy baja energia, entre los que incluyen electronicos y digitales. Sin embargo, existen leyes fundamentales como la ley de Ohm, la ley de gravedad o la ley universal de gases que, pese a que fueron descubiertos hace muchos anos, siguen vigentes y su validez proporciona elementos invaluables para el desarrollo de nuevos metodos, procesos y desarrollos tecnologicos. Uno de los casos mas relevantes que amalgama la aplicacion de criterios fundamentales y el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologias y su aplicacion en los llamados dispositivos de proteccion no convencionales lo constituye la proteccion contra el efecto de las tormentas electricas en edificios y estructuras. La aplicacion de estos dispositivos en el ambito mundial ha generado escepticismo de una gran parte de la comunidad cientifica, reacciones diversas entre los usuarios y un postura firme por parte de los fabricantes para que dichas tecnologias sean incluidas en normas internacionales. El objetivo de este articulo es ofrecer al lector la informacion basica sobre los inicios de la proteccion, la evolucion que los metodos de proteccion contra las tormentas electricas han tenido desde el siglo XVIII, la aplicacion de los criterios fundamentales de proteccion en estructuras o edificios modernos y su contenido, asi como la situacion que prevalece actualmente en los comites de las diversas organizaciones normativas nacionales e internacionales en lo referente a la inclusion de las nuevas tecnologias en las guias de diseno.

  15. pacientes con insuficiencia renal terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Herrera Herrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación fundamenta en la clínica psicoanalítica el estudio de dos casos de tres personas diagnosticadas con IRT que reciben tratamiento de hemodiálisis, en razón a que dadas las características y el aumento de los reportes que se presentan, ya esto se considera un problema de salud pública. El objetivo principal es describir las características dinámicas del proceso de duelo en pacientes con IRT en un centro de terapia renal de la ciudad de Cartagena. El procedimiento metodológico empleó un diseño de tipo cualitativo; la investigación se desarrolló con un diseño clínico mediante el estudio de casos, y fundamentada en la hermenéutica psicoanalítica. Todo esto respaldado en la historia clínica, la entrevista semiestructurada individual y familiar, los test proyectivos, test del dibujo de la figura humana Machover y TAT de Murray, para la debida integración de los análisis. Se concluye que predominan funciones fallidas de los progenitores y que son individuos provenientes de familias psicosomáticas, que utilizan la enfermedad para obtener un beneficio secundario.

  16. con bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mora Antó

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación dio cuenta de la relación entre el estilo de funcionamiento familiar, los patrones de crianza y las edades de desarrollo evolutivo en niños, nacidos con bajo peso. El estudio descriptivo correlacional se realizó con 41 niños y sus madres, aplicándose cuestionarios sobre funcionamiento familiar, prácticas de crianza y desarrollo infantil. Los resultados señalaron la existencia de un funcionamiento familiar caracterizado por una cohesión amalgamada y una adaptabilidad caótica, una disciplina complaciente, falta de control y de límites claros en la díada madre-hijo. Se trataba de familias monoparentales, donde la temprana edad de concepción, el madresolterismo y el apoyo de la familia extensa eran constantes. Las edades evolutivas registradas indicaron un desarrollo inferior a la edad cronológica, en la mayor parte de los casos; sin embargo, éstas tendieron a ser superiores al compararlas con la edades reales de los infantes. No se encontró una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la edad de desarrollo y los diferentes factores del funcionamiento familiar para algunos de los rangos de edad considerados; sin embargo, no se lo descartó por completo, especialmente en lo referente al optimismo familiar

  17. Neutron behavior, reactor control, and reactor heat transfer. Volume four

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Volume four covers neutron behavior (neutron absorption, how big are nuclei, neutron slowing down, neutron losses, the self-sustaining reactor), reactor control (what is controlled in a reactor, controlling neutron population, is it easy to control a reactor, range of reactor control, what happens when the fuel burns up, controlling a PWR, controlling a BWR, inherent safety of reactors), and reactor heat transfer (heat generation in a nuclear reactor, how is heat removed from a reactor core, heat transfer rate, heat transfer properties of the reactor coolant)

  18. Modeling and control of an electric power generation hybrid system; Modelado y control de un sistema hibrido de generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Guzman, D; Aguilar Mejia, O; Tapia Olvera, R; Santiago Tepantlan, C. [Universidad Politecnica de Tulancingo, Huapalcalco, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: omar.aguilar@upt.edu.mx

    2013-03-15

    With growing concerns on energy subject, the development of renewable energy sources is becoming more attractive. This paper presents the output power control of a wind energy conversion system based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The currents from voltage source inverter are controlled in a synchronous orthogonal dqo frame using a decoupled feed-forward control. Based on extensive simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK, it has been established that the performance of the controllers both in transient as well as in steady state is quite satisfactory. [Spanish] Con la creciente preocupacion en materia de energia, el desarrollo de fuentes de energia renovables es cada vez mas atractivo. Este trabajo presenta la regulacion de la potencia de salida de un sistema de generacion eolica basado en un generador sincrono de imanes permanentes. Las corrientes de la fuente inversora de voltaje son controladas en un marco de referencia ortogonal dqo usando un compensador por retroalimentacion en adelanto. Las simulaciones realizadas en MATLAB / Simulink, demuestran que los controladores presentan un excelente desempeno en estado transitorio, asi como en estado estacionario.

  19. Reactor as furnace and reactor as lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    There are presented general characteristics of the following ways of transforming of nuclear energy released in reactors into chemical : ordinary way (i.e. trough the heat, mechanical energy and electricity); chemonuclear synthesis ; use of high-temperature fuel elements (reactor as furnace); use of the mixed nγ-radiation of reactors; use of the radiation loops; radiation - photochemical synthesis (reactor as lamp). Advantage and disadvantages of all above variants are compared. The yield of the primary product of fixation of nitrogen (nitric oxide NO) in reactor with the high-temperature (above ca. 1900degC) fuel elements (reactor-furnace) can exceed W ∼ 200 kg per gram of burned uranium. For the latter variant (reactor-lamp) the yield of chemical products can reach W ∼ 60 kg. per gram of uranium. Such values of W are close to or even strongly exceed the yields of chemical products for other abovementioned variants and - what is particularly important - are not connected to the necessity of archscrupulous removal of radioactive contamination of products. (author)

  20. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  1. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  2. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1981-12-01

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  3. Control voltage of the generator of auto-excited induction for applications on micro/mini generation o electric power; Control de voltaje del generador de induccion auto-excitado para aplicaciones de micro/mini generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Montalvo, Emmanuel

    2006-09-15

    literature, since in this one it is only mentioned that the dynamics of the voltage and frequency change, but it is not shown how. In base of the dynamic behavior of the GIAE a scheme of simple control is proposed to regulate the generator voltage with the minimum of necessary elements, which is translated into a reduced cost, greater reliability and in addition provides a satisfactory voltage regulation. The control strategy is simple but functional, which permits its implementation without major complications. Finally an analysis is realized of the harmonic distortion produced by the proposed control. [Spanish] Aunque solamente una parte de la potencia mini/micro hidraulica ha sido explorada en nuestro pais, este tipo de generacion de energia electrica puede ser considerada como una forma viable de generacion de electricidad, principalmente por lo que respecta a los aspectos ecologicos, economicos y sociales. El impacto que pueden tener estas plantas en las regiones en las que son instaladas es siempre positivo: reduccion de costo de la energia, derrama economica, y principalmente un bienestar social. La energia electrica es uno de los pilares para el desarrollo economico de un pais y proporciona una mejor calidad de vida. En la actualidad la investigacion y la tecnologia orientada a la operacion y control de las micro/mini plantas de generacion ha despertado el interes de muchos investigadores en diversos paises del mundo como China, la India, Canada, USA, por mencionar algunos. El generador de induccion juega un papel crucial en la utilizacion de estas tecnologias. El trabajo de Basset y Potter en 1935, es la piedra angular sobre la posibilidad de generar energia haciendo uso de la maquina de induccion y un banco de capacitores conectado a las terminales de la maquina. Esta configuracion se conoce como generador de induccion auto-excitado (GIAE). Se han realizado diversas investigaciones que tratan sobre el principio de funcionamiento y el comportamiento dinamico de un

  4. Generation III+ Reactor Portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    While the power generation needs of utilities are unique and diverse, they are all faced with the double challenge of meeting growing electricity needs while curbing CO 2 emissions. To answer these diverse needs and help tackle this challenge, AREVA has developed several reactor models which are briefly described in this document: The EPR TM Reactor: designed on the basis of the Konvoi (Germany) and N4 (France) reactors, the EPRTM reactor is an evolutionary model designed to achieve best-in-class safety and operational performance levels. The ATMEA1 TM reactor: jointly designed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and AREVA through ATMEA, their common company. This reactor design benefits from the competencies and expertise of the two mother companies, which have commissioned close to 130 reactor units. The KERENA TM reactor: Designed on the basis of the most recent German BWR reactors (Gundremmingen) the KERENA TM reactor relies on proven technology while also including innovative, yet thoroughly tested, features. The optimal combination of active and passive safety systems for a boiling water reactor achieves a very low probability of severe accident

  5. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.; Baker, M.A.W.; Hall, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Following submission of written evidence, the Energy Committee members asked questions of three witnesses from the Central Electricity Generating Board and Nuclear Electric (which will be the government owned company running nuclear power stations after privatisation). Both questions and answers are reported verbatim. The points raised include where the responsibility for the future fast reactor programme should lie, with government only or with private enterprise or both and the viability of fast breeder reactors in the future. The case for the fast reactor was stated as essentially strategic not economic. This raised the issue of nuclear cost which has both a construction and a decommissioning element. There was considerable discussion as to the cost of building a European Fast reactor and the cost of the electricity it would generate compared with PWR type reactors. The likely demand for fast reactors will not arrive for 20-30 years and the need to build a fast reactor now is questioned. (UK)

  6. One piece reactor removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Wei-Min; Wang, Song-Feng

    1993-01-01

    The strategy of Taiwan Research Reactor Renewal plan is to remove the old reactor block with One Piece Reactor Removal (OPRR) method for installing a new research reactor in original building. In this paper, the engineering design of each transportation works including the work method, the major equipments, the design policy and design criteria is described and discussed. In addition, to ensure the reactor block is safety transported for storage and to guarantee the integrity of reactor base mat is maintained for new reactor, operation safety is drawn special attention, particularly under seismic condition, to warrant safe operation of OPRR. ALARA principle and Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) practice were also incorporated in the planning to minimize the collective dose and the total amount of radioactive wastes. All these activities are introduced in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  7. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshihiko; Arita, Setsuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Fukazawa, Yukihisa; Ishii, Kazuhiko

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a reactor power control device capable of enhancing an operation efficiency while keeping high reliability and safety in a BWR type nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a means for inputting a set value of a generator power and a set value of a reactor power, (2) a means for controlling the reactor power to either smaller one of the reactor power corresponding to the set value of the generator power and the set value of the reactor power. With such procedures, even if the nuclear power plant is set so as to operate it to make the reactor power 100%, when the generator power reaches the upper limit, the reactor power is controlled with a preference given to the upper limit value of the generator power. Accordingly, safety and reliability are not deteriorated. The operation efficiency of the plant can be improved. (I.S.)

  8. Reactor power monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogen, Ayumi; Ozawa, Michihiro.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To significantly improve the working efficiency of a nuclear reactor by reflecting the control rod history effect on thermal variants required for the monitoring of the reactor operation. Constitution: An incore power distribution calculation section reads the incore neutron fluxes detected by neutron detectors disposed in the reactor to calculate the incore power distribution. A burnup degree distribution calculation section calculates the burnup degree distribution in the reactor based on the thus calculated incore power distribution. A control rod history date store device supplied with the burnup degree distribution renews the stored control rod history data based on the present control rod pattern and the burnup degree distribution. Then, thermal variants of the nuclear reactor are calculated based on the thus renewed control rod history data. Since the control rod history effect is reflected on the thermal variants required for the monitoring of the reactor operation, the working efficiency of the nuclear reactor can be improved significantly. (Seki, T.)

  9. The Maple reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.; Labrie, J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    MDS Nordion supplies the majority of the world's reactor-produced medical isotopes. These isotopes are currently produced in the NRU reactor at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Medical isotopes and related technology are relied upon around the world to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. The NRU reactor, which has played a key role in supplying medical isotopes to date, has been in operation for over 40 years. Replacing this aging reactor has been a priority for MDS Nordion to assure the global nuclear medicine community that Canada will continue to be a dependable supplier of medical isotopes. MDS Nordion contracted AECL to construct two MAPLE reactors dedicated to the production of medical isotopes. The MDS Nordion Medical Isotope Reactor (MMIR) project started in September 1996. This paper describes the MAPLE reactors that AECL has built at its CRL site, and will operate for MDS Nordion. (author)

  10. Fission reactors and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, B.R.T.

    1981-12-01

    The American-designed boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor dominate the designs currently in use and under construction worldwide. As in all energy systems, materials problems have appeared during service; these include stress-corrosion of stainless steel pipes and heat exchangers and questions regarding crack behavior in pressure vessels. To obtain the maximum potential energy from our limited uranium supplies is is essential to develop the fast breeder reactor. The materials in these reactors are subjected to higher temperatures and neutron fluxes but lower pressures than in the water reactors. The performance required of the fuel elements is more arduous in the breeder than in water reactors. Extensive materials programs are in progress in test reactors and in large test rigs to ensure that materials will be available to meet these conditions

  11. Energy saving plan: use of solar energy in the university of Valencia (Spain); Uso de la energia solar en la universidad de Valencia (Espana) para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Gomez Amo, J.L.; Tena, F.; Martinez Lozano, J.A.; Utrillas, M.P. [Grupo de Radiacion Solar, Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

    2005-07-15

    The University of Valencia financed a pilot project that would study the installation's feasibility of a generating station with photovoltaic energy, solar type, in order to replace or complement conventional sources of energy. This paper presents some of the preliminary results of the study's application in an University building, along with the analysis of the initial situation and the proposals for the handling of reactive energy and the outer and inner lighting as solutions for energy saving. This experimental project entitled Study of the Energy Saving Strategies and the Viability of Installing Solar Energy equipment in the Buildings of the University of Valencia throws preliminary data specifying the amount of investment necessary to obtain real annual benefits, as well as the recovery time of the investment and the beneficial ecological impact in quantitative terms of a measurable CO{sub 2} reduction. [Spanish] La Universidad de Valencia financio un proyecto piloto que estudiaria la factibilidad de instalacion de una estacion generadora de energia fotovoltaica de tipo solar para sustituir o complementar fuentes convencionales de energia. Este trabajo presenta algunos de los resultados preliminares de la aplicacion del estudio en un edificio de la Universidad junto con el analisis de la situacion inicial y las propuestas del manejo de energia reactiva, de iluminacion exterior e interior como soluciones para el ahorro de energia. Este proyecto experimental titulado Estudio de las estrategias del ahorro de la energia y de la viabilidad de instalar energia solar en los edificios de la Universidad de Valencia arroja datos preliminares que especifican el monto de la inversion necesaria para obtener beneficios anuales reales, asi como el tiempo de recuperacion de la inversion y el impacto ecologico benefico en terminos cuantitativos de una reduccion cuantificable de CO{sub 2}.

  12. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  13. Research reactors in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos Ruben Calabrese

    1999-01-01

    Argentine Nuclear Development started in early fifties. In 1957, it was decided to built the first a research reactor. RA-1 reactor (120 kw, today licensed to work at 40 kW) started operation in January 1958. Originally RA-1 was an Argonaut (American design) reactor. In early sixties, the RA-1 core was changed. Fuel rods (20% enrichment) was introduced instead the old Argonaut core design. For that reason, a critical facility named RA-0 was built. After that, the RA-3 project started, to build a multipurpose 5 MW nuclear reactor MTR pool type, to produce radioisotopes and research. For that reason and to define the characteristics of the RA-3 core, another critical facility was built, RA-2. Initially RA-3 was a 90 % enriched fuel reactor, and started operation in 1967. When Atucha I NPP project started, a German design Power Reactor, a small homogeneous reactor was donated by the German Government to Argentina (1969). This was RA-4 reactor (20% enrichment, 1W). In 1982, RA-6 pool reactor achieved criticality. This is a 500 kW reactor with 90% enriched MTR fuel elements. In 1990, RA-3 started to operate fueled by 20% enriched fuel. In 1997, the RA-8 (multipurpose critical facility located at Pilcaniyeu) started to operate. RA-3 reactor is the most important CNEA reactor for Argentine Research Reactors development. It is the first in a succession of Argentine MTR reactors built by CNEA (and INVAP SE ) in Argentina and other countries: RA-6 (500 kW, Bariloche-Argentina), RP-10 (10MW, Peru), NUR (500 kW, Algeria), MPR (22 MW, Egypt). The experience of Argentinian industry permits to compete with foreign developed countries as supplier of research reactors. Today, CNEA has six research reactors whose activities have a range from education and promotion of nuclear activity, to radioisotope production. For more than forty years, Argentine Research Reactors are working. The experience of Argentine is important, and argentine firms are able to compete in the design and

  14. Conversando con...Momoyo Kaijima

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Alonso, Carlos; Álvarez Isidro, Eva; Torres Barchino, Ana

    2017-01-01

    [ES] Momoyo Kaijima es profesora en la Facultad de Arte y Diseño de la Universidad de Tsukuba en la Prefectura de Ibaraki y profesora visitante en la ETH de Zürich, en Royal Academy of Fine Arts, en Rice School of Architecture y en Harvard GSD. A lo largo de los años, Atelier Bow Wow ha colaborado con Krešimir Rogina, arquitecto de Zagreb y socio de la firma internacional Penezic&Rogina, en la realización del Grožnjan International Summer School of Architecture, siendo Rogina el nexo indispen...

  15. Siting of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop criteria for siting and the site-related design basis for research reactors. The concepts presented in this document are intended as recommendations for new reactors and are not suggested for backfitting purposes for facilities already in existence. In siting research reactors serious consideration is given to minimizing the effects of the site on the reactor and the reactor on the site and the potential impact of the reactor on the environment. In this document guidance is first provided on the evaluation of the radiological impact of the installation under normal reactor operation and accident conditions. A classification of research reactors in groups is then proposed, together with a different approach for each group, to take into account the relevant safety problems associated with facilities of different characteristics. Guidance is also provided for both extreme natural events and for man-induced external events which could affect the safe operation of the reactor. Extreme natural events include earthquakes, flooding for river or coastal sites and extreme meteorological phenomena. The feasibility of emergency planning is finally considered for each group of reactors

  16. Reactor core for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoko; Watanabe, Hisao; Kasai, Shigeo; Yokoyama, Tsugio; Matsumoto, Hiroshi.

    1996-01-01

    In a gas-sealed assembly for a FBR type reactor, two or more kinds of assemblies having different eigen frequency and a structure for suppressing oscillation of liquid surface are disposed in a reactor core. Coolant introduction channels for introducing coolants from inside and outside are disposed in the inside of structural members of an upper shielding member to form a shielding member-cooling structure in the reactor core. A structure for promoting heat conduction between a sealed gas in the assembly and coolants at the inner side or the outside of the assembly is disposed in the reactor core. A material which generates heat by neutron irradiation is disposed in the assembly to heat the sealed gases positively by radiation heat from the heat generation member also upon occurrence of power elevation-type event to cause temperature expansion. Namely, the coolants flown out from or into the gas sealed-assemblies cause differential fluctuation on the liquid surface, and the change of the capacity of a gas region is also different on every gas-sealed assemblies thereby enabling to suppress fluctuation of the reactor power. Pressure loss is increased by a baffle plate or the like to lower the liquid surface of the sodium coolants or decrease the elevating speed thereof thereby suppressing fluctuation of the reactor power. (N.H.)

  17. Thai research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramrattana, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established in 1962, as a reactor center, by the virtue of the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, under operational policy and authority of the Thai Atomic Energy for Peace Commission (TAEPC); and under administration of Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy. It owns and operates the only Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1). The TRR-1/M1 is a mixed reactor system constituting of the old MTR type swimming pool, irradiation facilities and cooling system; and TRIGA Mark III core and control instrumentation. The general performance of TRR-1/M1 is summarized in Table I. The safe operation of TRR-1/M1 is regulated by Reactor Safety Committee (RSC), established under TAEPC, and Health Physics Group of OAEP. The RCS has responsibility and duty to review of and make recommendations on Reactor Standing Orders, Reactor Operation Procedures, Reactor Core Loading and Requests for Reactor Experiments. In addition,there also exist of Emergency Procedures which is administered by OAEP. The Reactor Operation Procedures constitute of reactor operating procedures, system operating procedures and reactor maintenance procedures. At the level of reactor routine operating procedures, there is a set of Specifications on Safety and Operation Limits and Code of Practice from which reactor shift supervisor and operators must follow in order to assure the safe operation of TRR-1/M1. Table II is the summary of such specifications. The OAEP is now upgrading certain major components of the TRR-1/M1 such as the cooling system, the ventilation system and monitoring equipment to ensure their adequately safe and reliable performance under normal and emergency conditions. Furthermore, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing assistance in areas of operation and maintenance and safety analysis. (author)

  18. Nuclear Reactor Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2001-02-01

    An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

  19. Reactor containment and reactor safety in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor safety systems of two reactors are studied aiming at the reactor containment integrity. The first is a BWR type reactor and is called Peachbottom 2, and the second is a PWR type reactor, and is called surry. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Food irradiation - pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The use of ionising radiation for food preservation is a much-disputed topic, both among experts and among consumers. Pros and cons of this issue were discussed in detail at the consumers' forum. Professor Dr. Johannes Friedrich Diehl, Director of the Institute for Biochemistry of the Food Research Centre, Karlsruhe, is a well-known supporter of the new method of food preservation; he sees advantages in the radiopreservation of food because, for example, losses due to inedibility are reduced, the danger of salmonellosis is decreased, just as the use of chemicals. He thinks this method to be without danger to health, shown by many years of experience. Opponents to food irradiation like Prof. Dr. Konrad Pfeilsticker, Professor for food science and food chemistry at the Bonn University deem the method to be unnecessary and raise the problem of qualitative changes caused in the food. In the course of the discussions, the pros and cons seemed to balance each other out. (orig./AJ) [de

  1. De paseo con los Bourbaki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Escudero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Setenta y siete años después de la fundación del grupo Bourbaki, procedemos a una reflexión que puede ser útil para los estudiantes que acaso no sepan de su existencia, ni tan siquiera los de matemáticas. Sería interesante conocer que a este grupo se le debe el signo del vacío como conjunto. Con todo lo discutible que sea el método Bourbaki en su reinterpretación de la matemática, no cabe duda de su importante repercusión hasta el punto de que ha marcado una época. Hay un antes y un después tras su irrupción, ningún matemático de primera fila de la segunda mitad del siglo XX fue ajeno a su influjo, para encabezarlo o para reprobarlo. Comenzaron como una juvenil extravagancia, pero repleta de conocimientos y con decidida voluntad de aprehender el rigor de forma exhaustiva.

  2. Tratamiento del paciente con artrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Negrín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo terapéutico del paciente con artrosis tiene como objetivo disminuir la sintomatología dolorosa e inflamatoria, mejorar la capacidad funcional del paciente y la aplicación de intervenciones terapéuticas eficaces y lo más seguras posibles. Un enfoque centrado en el paciente implica su participación activa en el diseño del plan terapéutico y en la toma de decisiones informadas oportunas en todas las etapas de la enfermedad. La educación terapéutica, la actividad física y el ejercicio terapéutico junto con el control de peso, en caso de sobrepeso u obesidad, constituyen el núcleo central del tratamiento. Los autocuidados individuales y por los familiares son fundamentales en el control del día a día del paciente. El uso de terapias físicas, ayudas técnicas (bastón, etc. y de fármacos tipo analgésicos simples, opioides y antiinflamatorios tiene evidencias demostradas en el control del dolor, mejora la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida del paciente y una clara recomendación de uso en el tratamiento de la artrosis. La cirugía conservadora y la de reemplazo articular se indican en los casos en los que no se logran los objetivos terapéuticos en casos concretos.

  3. Multipurpose research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The international symposium on the utilization of multipurpose research reactors and related international co-operation was organized by the IAEA to provide for information exchange on current uses of research reactors and international co-operative projects. The symposium was attended by about 140 participants from 36 countries and two international organizations. There were 49 oral presentations of papers and 24 poster presentations. The presentations were divided into 7 sessions devoted to the following topics: neutron beam research and applications of neutron scattering (6 papers and 1 poster), reactor engineering (6 papers and 5 posters), irradiation testing of fuel and material for fission and fusion reactors (6 papers and 10 posters), research reactor utilization programmes (13 papers and 4 posters), neutron capture therapy (4 papers), neutron activation analysis (3 papers and 4 posters), application of small reactors in research and training (11 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. TRIGA reactor main systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2007-01-01

    This module describes the main systems of low power (<2 MW) and higher power (≥2 MW) TRIGA reactors. The most significant difference between the two is that forced reactor cooling and an emergency core cooling system are generally required for the higher power TRIGA reactors. However, those TRIGA reactors that are designed to be operated above 3 MW also use a TRIGA fuel that is specifically designed for those higher power outputs (3 to 14 MW). Typical values are given for the respective systems although each TRIGA facility will have unique characteristics that may only be determined by the experienced facility operators. Due to the inherent wide scope of these research reactor facilities construction and missions, this training module covers those systems found at most operating TRIGA reactor facilities but may also discuss non-standard equipment that was found to be operationally useful although not necessarily required. (author)

  5. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  6. Upgradation of Apsara reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammen, S.; Mukherjee, P.; Bhatnagar, A.; Sasidharan, K.; Raina, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Apsara is a 1 MW swimming pool type research reactor using high enriched uranium as fuel with light water as coolant and moderator. The reactor is in operation for more than five decades and has been extensively used for basic research, radioisotope production, neutron radiography, detector testing, shielding experiments etc. In view of its long service period, it is planned to carry out refurbishment of the reactor to extend its useful life. During refurbishment, it is also planned to upgrade the reactor to a 2 MW reactor to improve its utilization and to upgrade the structure, system and components in line with the current safety standards. This paper gives a brief account of the design features and safety aspects of the upgraded Apsara reactor. (author)

  7. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1979 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committees on Reactor Physics and on Decomissioning of Nuclear Facilities. (author)

  8. Spectral shift reactor control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impink, A.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A method of operating a nuclear reactor having a core and coolant displacer elements arranged in the core wherein is established a reator coolant temperature set point at which it is desired to operate said reactor and first reactor coolant temperature band limits are provided within which said set point is located and it is desired to operate said reactor charactrized in that said reactor coolant displacer elements are moved relative to the reactor core for adjusting the volume of reactor coolant in said core as said reactor coolant temperature approaches said first band limits thereby to maintain said reactor coolant temperature near said set point and within said first band limits

  9. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    Research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1984 are described. The work of the Department is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and Fusion Reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, reactor physics experiment and analysis, fusion neutronics, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, safeguards technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  10. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Shojiro; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Takano, Hideki

    1982-09-01

    Research and development activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1981 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  11. Power reactors operational diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, K.; Pecinka, L.

    1976-01-01

    The definition of reactor operational diagnostics is presented and the fundamental trends of research are determined. The possible sources of power reactor malfunctions, the methods of defect detection, the data evaluation and the analysis of the results are discussed in detail. In view of scarcity of a theoretical basis and of insufficient in-core instrumentation, operational diagnostics cannot be as yet incorporated in a computer-aided reactor control system. (author)

  12. Fast reactors worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.S.; Vignon, D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the evolution of fast reactors over the past 30 years, and their present status. Fast reactor development in different countries is described, and the present position, with emphasis on cost reduction and collaboration, is examined. The French development of the fast breeder type reactor is reviewed, and includes: the acquisition of technical skills, the search for competitive costs and the spx2 project, and more advanced designs. Future prospects are also discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Pressurised water reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnie, S.; Lamonby, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    The operation of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is described with respect to the procedure for a unit start-up. The systems details and numerical data are for a four loop PWR station of the design proposed for Sizewell-'B', United Kingdom. A description is given of: the initial conditions, filling the reactor coolant system (RCS), heat-up and pressurisation of the RCS, secondary system preparations, reactor start-up, and reactivity control at power. (UK)

  14. Reactor Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arien, B.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on reactor safety is to develop expertise in probabilistic and deterministic reactor safety analysis. The research programme consists of four main activities, in particular the development of software for reliability analysis of large systems and participation in the international PHEBUS-FP programme for severe accidents, the development of an expert system for the aid to diagnosis; the development and application of a probabilistic reactor dynamics method. Main achievements in 1999 are reported

  15. Seals in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this invention is the provision of improved seals for reactor vessels in which fuel assemblies are located together with inlets and outlets for the circulation of a coolant. The object is to provide a seal arrangement for the rotatable plugs of nuclear reactor closure heads which has good sealing capacities over a wide gap during operation of the reactor but which also permits uninhibited rotation of the plugs for maintenance. (U.K.)

  16. Reactor BR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2000-07-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  17. The Dragon reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The concept on which the Dragon Reactor Experiment was based was evolved at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell in 1956, and in February of that year a High Temperature Gas- cooled Reactor Project Group was set up to study the feasibility of a helium-cooled reactor with a graphite or beryllium moderator, and with the emphasis on the thorium fuel cycle [af

  18. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    1999-01-01

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  19. TRIGA reactor characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2007-01-01

    This module describes the general design, characteristics and parameters of TRIGA reactors and fuels. It is recommended that most of this information should be incorporated into any reactor operator training program and, in many cases, the facility Safety Analysis Report. It is oriented to teach the basics of the physics and mechanical design of the TRIGA fuel as well as its unique operational characteristics and the differences between TRIGA fuels and others more traditional reactor fuels. (nevyjel)

  20. Integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics

  1. Reactor BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported

  2. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Special Nuclear Material Control by the Power Reactor Operator; Controle des Matieres Nucleaires Speciales par l'Exploitant d'une Centrale Nucleaire; Spetsial'nyj kontrol' nalichiya yadernykh materialov operatorom ehnergeticheskogo reaktora; Control de Materiales Nucleares Especiales por Parte de Quienes Operan el Reactor de Potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordin, R. A. [Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Boston, MA (United States)

    1966-02-15

    matieres nucleaires ne se limite pas S de simples travaux d'inventaire mais sert de base a beaucoup d'autres activites qui font partie integrante du programme d'operations de tout reacteur, par exemple les expeditions de combustible irradie, le traitement chimique du combustible epuise et la comptabilite du combustible recupere et des matieres produites au cours du fonctionnement du reacteur, et l'institution et l'application d'un regime d'assurance satisfaisant. (author) [Spanish] Combustible relativamente nuevo y sumamente valioso para la produccion de energia electrica, el uranio requiere un control muy minucioso desde el momento en que la direccion de una central asume la responsabilidad financiera inherente a su posesion hasta que como combustible parcialmente agotado se transfiere a otra instalacion en la que se recupera la parte que no se ha consumido. Antes de que se descubriera la posibilidad de emplear la energia nuclear para producir electricidad, la mayor parte de las empresas que actualmente explotan centrales nucleares explotaban centrales alimentadas con combustibles fosiles y hablan establecido sistemas de control relativamente completos y adecuados para los combustibles de ese tipo. Los responsables de las centrales nucleoelectricas deben disponer de sistemas no menos adecuados para controlar los materiales nucleares especiales que utilizan. La explotacion de los reactores de potencia no es una ciencia antigua, pero durante el tiempo relativamente corto que ha transcurrido desde que se inicio su empleo los ingenieros y hombres de ciencia han mejorado continuamente el diseflo del equipo y los metodos de trabajo con objeto de disminuir los costos de produccion y de lograr que las centrales nucleares puedan competir en el plano economico con las centrales clasicas. La administracion de los materiales nucleares debe efectuarse con metodos modernos y eficientes a fin de que los adelantos tecnologicos que han permitido reducir los costos no resulten inutiles

  4. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  5. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  6. Australian research reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Australian AEC has two research reactors at the Lucas Heights Research Establishment, a 10 HW DIDO class materials testing reactor, HIFAR, and a smaller 100kW reactor MOATA, which was recently upgraded from 10kW power level. Because of the HIFAR being some 20 years old, major renewal and repair programmes are necessary to keep it operational. To enable meeting projected increases in demand for radioisotopes, plans for a new reactor to replace the HIFAR have been made and the design criteria are described in the paper. (author)

  7. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have carried out conceptual design studies of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fission fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid based on standard mirror confinement, and also a small pilot plant hybrid. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000 MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single cell pilot plant

  8. Reactor feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikabe, Katsumi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: In order to prevent thermal stresses of a core of PWR type reactor, described has been a method for feeding heated recirculating water to the core in the case of the reactor start-up or shut-down. Constitution: A recirculating water is degassed, cleaned up and heated in the steam condensers, and then feeds the water to the reactor, characterized in that heaters are provided in the bypasses of the turbine, so that heated water is constantly supplied to the reactor. (Nakamura, S.)

  9. Remote Reactor Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dazeley, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dobie, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brennan, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gerling, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sumner, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweany, Melinda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-21

    The overall goal of the WATCHMAN project is to experimentally demonstrate the potential of water Cerenkov antineutrino detectors as a tool for remote monitoring of nuclear reactors. In particular, the project seeks to field a large prototype gadolinium-doped, water-based antineutrino detector to demonstrate sensitivity to a power reactor at ~10 kilometer standoff using a kiloton scale detector. The technology under development, when fully realized at large scale, could provide remote near-real-time information about reactor existence and operational status for small operating nuclear reactors out to distances of many hundreds of kilometers.

  10. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed

  11. Trench reactor: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.; Rohach, A.F.; Razzaque, M.M.; Sankoorikal, J.T.; Schmidt, R.S.; Lofshult, J.; Ramin, T.; Sokmen, N.; Lin, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Recent fast, sodium-cooled reactor designs reflect new conditions. In nuclear energy these conditions are (a) emphasis on maintainability and operability, (b) design for more transparent safety, and (c) a surplus of uranium and enrichment availability that eases concerns about light water reactor fueling costs. In utility practice the demand is for less capital exposure, short construction time, smaller new unit sizes, and low capital cost. The PRISM, SAFR, and integral fast reactor (IFR) concepts are responses to these conditions. Fast reactors will not soon be deployed commercially, so more radical designs can be considered. The trench reactor is the product of such thinking. Its concepts are intended as contributions to the literature, which may be picked up by one of the existing programs or used in a new experimental project. The trench reactor is a thin-slab, pool-type reactor operated at very low power density and- for sodium-modest temperature. The thin slab is repeated in the sodium tank and the reactor core. The low power density permits a longer than conventional core height and a large-diameter fuel pin. Control is by borated steel slabs that can be lowered between the core and lateral sodium reflector. Shutdown is by semaphore slabs that can be swung into place just outside the control slabs. The paper presents major characteristics of the trench reactor that have been changed since the last report

  12. New reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.; Govaerts, P.; Baugnet, J.-M.; Delbrassine, A.

    1998-11-01

    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost

  13. Advanced CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.T.; Finlay, R.B.; Olmstead, R.A.

    1988-12-01

    AECL has undertaken the design and development of a series of advanced CANDU reactors in the 700-1150 MW(e) size range. These advanced reactor designs are the product of ongoing generic research and development programs on CANDU technology and design studies for advanced CANDU reactors. The prime objective is to create a series of advanced CANDU reactors which are cost competitive with coal-fired plants in the market for large electricity generating stations. Specific plant designs in the advanced CANDU series will be ready for project commitment in the early 1990s and will be capable of further development to remain competitive well into the next century

  14. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  15. Nuclear reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.; Roberts, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A safety system for shutting down a nuclear reactor under overload conditions is described. The system includes a series of parallel-connected computer memory type look-up tables each of which receives data on a particular reactor parameter and in each of which a precalculated functional value for that parameter is stored indicative of the percentage of maximum reactor load that the parameter contributes. The various functional values corresponding to the actual measured parameters are added together to provide a control signal used to shut down the reactor under overload conditions. (U.K.)

  16. RA Reactor; Reaktor RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-15

    In addition to basic characteristics of the RA reactor, organizational scheme and financial incentives, this document covers describes the state of the reactor components after 18 years of operation, problems concerned with obtaining the licence for operation with 80% fuel, problems of spent fuel storage in the storage pool of the reactor building and the need for renewal of reactor equipment, first of all instrumentation. [Serbo-Croat] Pored osnovnih karakeristika reaktora RA, organizacije rada i finansijskih pokazatelja, razmatra se stanje opreme reaktora nakon 18 godina rada, pitanja dozvole za rad sa 80% obogacenim gorivom, problem skladistenja isluzenog goriva u bazenu zgrade reaktora i potreba za obnavljanjem komponenti opreme, pre svega elektronske.

  17. Nuclear reactor internals arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, E.; Andrews, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor internals arrangement is disclosed which facilitates reactor refueling. A reactor vessel and a nuclear core is utilized in conjunction with an upper core support arrangement having means for storing withdrawn control rods therein. The upper core support is mounted to the underside of the reactor vessel closure head so that upon withdrawal of the control rods into the upper core support, the closure head, the upper core support and the control rods are removed as a single unit thereby directly exposing the core for purposes of refueling

  18. Multi purpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, V.K.; Sasidharan, K.; Sengupta, Samiran; Singh, Tej

    2006-01-01

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor

  19. FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuoki, Akira; Yamakawa, Masanori.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety and reliable after-heat removal from a reactor core. Constitution: During ordinary operation of a FBR type reactor, sodium coolants heated to a high temperature in a reactor core are exhausted therefrom, collide against the reactor core upper mechanisms to radially change the flowing direction and then enter between each of the guide vanes. In the case if a main recycling pump is failed and stopped during reactor operation and the recycling force is eliminated, the swirling stream of sodium that has been resulted by the flow guide mechanism during normal reactor operation is continuously maintained within a plenum at a high temperature. Accordingly, the sodium recycling force in the coolant flow channels within the reactor vessel can surely be maintained for a long period of time due to the centrifugal force of the sodium swirling stream. In this way, since the reactor core recycling flow rate can be secured even after the stopping of the main recycling pump, after-heat from the reactor core can safely and surely be removed. (Seki, T.)

  20. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayase, Tamotsu.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns an FBR type reactor in which transuranium elements are eliminated by nuclear conversion. There are loaded reactor core fuels being charged with mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium, and blanket fuels mainly comprising depleted uranium. Further, liquid sodium is used as coolants. As transuranium elements, isotope elements of neptunium, americium and curium contained in wastes taken out from light water reactors or the composition thereof are used. The reactor core comprises a region with a greater mixing ratio and a region with a less mixing ratio of the transuranium elements. The mixing ratio of the transuranium elements is made greater for the fuels in the reactor core region at the boundary with the blanket of great neutron leakage. With such a constitution, since the positive reactivity value at the reactor core central portion is small in the Na void reactivity distribution in the reactor core, the positive reactivity is small upon Na boiling in the reactor core central region upon occurrence of imaginable accident, to attain reactor safety. (I.N.)