WorldWideScience

Sample records for electric industry structure

  1. Industrial structure and privatisation of the Slovenian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovatin, N.

    1999-01-01

    The paper first analyses the existing structure of the Slovenian electricity industry and gives recommendations for its restructuring so as to conform to efficiency criteria and to comply with European Union provisions on the internal European electricity market. Then the paper outlines the necessity for privatisation and draws some conclusions on it such as determination of market values companies, the proportion for sale, privatisation methods and the general public's participation [it

  2. Industrial electricity demand for Turkey: A structural time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish industrial electricity consumption, industrial value added and electricity prices in order to forecast future Turkish industrial electricity demand. To achieve this, an industrial electricity demand function for Turkey is estimated by applying the structural time series technique to annual data over the period 1960 to 2008. In addition to identifying the size and significance of the price and industrial value added (output) elasticities, this technique also uncovers the electricity Underlying Energy Demand Trend (UEDT) for the Turkish industrial sector and is, as far as is known, the first attempt to do this. The results suggest that output and real electricity prices and a UEDT all have an important role to play in driving Turkish industrial electricity demand. Consequently, they should all be incorporated when modelling Turkish industrial electricity demand and the estimated UEDT should arguably be considered in future energy policy decisions concerning the Turkish electricity industry. The output and price elasticities are estimated to be 0.15 and - 0.16 respectively, with an increasing (but at a decreasing rate) UEDT and based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish industrial electricity demand will be somewhere between 97 and 148 TWh by 2020. -- Research Highlights: → Estimated output and price elasticities of 0.15 and -0.16 respectively. → Estimated upward sloping UEDT (i.e. energy using) but at a decreasing rate. → Predicted Turkish industrial electricity demand between 97 and 148 TWh in 2020.

  3. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  4. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today's electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry's transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment

  5. Structure of the German electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The German integrated association is a union of those electric power supply utilities in the Federal Republic of Germany which cooperate in the integrated operation of 220 kV and 380 kV. The German integrated association (DVG) was founded in 1948. Its main task is to create the technical, operational and legal conditions for the cooperation in the national and international integrated system. The inclusion of the new Federal States has been practiced for the first time with the 320 MW power station in Offleben. (DG) [de

  6. Electric utility strategies and the emerging industry structure - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motupalli, S.

    1991-01-01

    The electric utility industry is our most capital intensive industry by far. Over the past few decades, socioeconomic and technological forces have been quietly revolutionizing the way the industry conducts itself. During the 1980s, these changes have been particularly intense, often catching both regulators and regulated ill-prepared to develop effective and profitable strategies to deal with such change. Much has already been written about these changes: independent power producers, competitive procurement of resources, incentive-based regulation, the benefits of affiliated company structures, mergers and consolidation, customer energy conservation, and marketing strategy development are all currently highly popular article and seminar topics. The author's object in this two-part series is to facilitate development of a decision framework to put these various changes in perspective, to help develop effective strategies through better focused and equipped planning methodologies. Gaining an understanding of the role, strengths and weaknesses of the various players in an industry and the structural constraints in which they operate is a necessary precursor to developing effective operating strategies to deal with change or to manipulate industry forces in your favor. Michael Port's popular five forces model provides a convenient way to develop such an understanding. It provides a way to map the industry forces driving profitability, through a review of the strengths, weaknesses and leverage of: current industry players, suppliers to the industry, customers for the industry's product, new entrants into the market, and substitute products providing equal or better value. Part 1 of this series reviews each of these five forces along some key dimensions to determine their direction of change or influence, and whether this change impacts a utility's competitive position favorably or unfavorably

  7. Electricity supply industry. Structure, ownership and regulation in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This study surveys developments and implications in the electricity supply industries in OECD countries. Chapter 1 introduces the issues. (Competition or electricity supply for everybody?) Electricity markets are dynamic and the participants are restructuring and repositioning themselves in order to benefit from new opportunities or policy initiatives. These changes are described in chapter 2. Privatisation is being pursued by some governments, not only for reasons of economic efficiency. Arguments for and against privatisation and different ways of introducing it are discussed in chapter 3. Fair trade and competition legislation, as it applies to all corporate entities, creates the institutional framework within which the utility has to operate. Various approaches to regulation and recent developments are described in chapter 4; the implications of regulatory changes are analysed in chapter 5. Having surveyed recent developments and their direct consequences, this study then goes on to look at their broader implications for the achievement of a range of energy policy objectives. Chapter 6 looks at fuel choice and investment decisions. Chapter 7 considers the issue of security of electricity supply, which has many special characteristics for both suppliers and regulators. OECD countries use different approaches for ensuring security of supply. Chapter 8 looks at environmental protection. Chapter 9 looks at energy efficiency. Chapter 10 discusses pricing. The introduction of competition has significant effects: it tends to reduce costs, remove cross subsidies, and bring prices more closely in line with the structure of costs. But there is no clear evidence at this stage as to whether, in the long run, competition produces lower overall prices. Finally chapter 11 analyses risk. The electricity business, like every other business, is faced with a variety of risks that cover every financial and technical facet of electricity production, transport, and supply. (N.C.)

  8. A study of hierarchical structure on South China industrial electricity-consumption correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Ji-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Based on industrial electricity-consumption data of five southern provinces of China from 2005 to 2013, we study the industrial correlation mechanism with MST (minimal spanning tree) and HT (hierarchical tree) models. First, we comparatively analyze the industrial electricity-consumption correlation structure in pre-crisis and after-crisis period using MST model and Bootstrap technique of statistical reliability test of links. Results exhibit that all industrial electricity-consumption trees of five southern provinces of China in pre-crisis and after-crisis time are in formation of chain, and the "center-periphery structure" of those chain-like trees is consistent with industrial specialization in classical industrial chain theory. Additionally, the industrial structure of some provinces is reorganized and transferred in pre-crisis and after-crisis time. Further, the comparative analysis with hierarchical tree and Bootstrap technique demonstrates that as for both observations of GD and overall NF, the industrial electricity-consumption correlation is non-significant clustered in pre-crisis period, whereas it turns significant clustered in after-crisis time. Therefore we propose that in perspective of electricity-consumption, their industrial structures are directed to optimized organization and global correlation. Finally, the analysis of distance of HTs verifies that industrial reorganization and development may strengthen market integration, coordination and correlation of industrial production. Except GZ, other four provinces have a shorter distance of industrial electricity-consumption correlation in after-crisis period, revealing a better performance of regional specialization and integration.

  9. Market structure in the US electricity industry: a long-term perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerschen, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate changes in market structure in the US electric power industry during the last three decades using two independent approaches. First, we estimate an industry-wide conjectural-variations parameter. We find that industry concentration was generally rising during the 1970s but has been gradually and consistently falling since the early 1980s. To check the robustness of these results, we then use a translog production function to estimate the Lerner Index. The results confirm that the industry was becoming less concentrated during the 1980s, though the Lerner Index tended to fluctuate during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Our results suggest that the current state of the electricity industry may have more to do with long-term changes in market structure than recent attempts to establish competitive wholesale electricity markets. (author)

  10. Electric Industry Structure and Regulatory Responses in a High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corneli, Steve [Seventhwave, Madison, WI (United States); Kihm, Steve [Seventhwave, Madison, WI (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of distributed energy resources (DERs) that can generate, manage and store energy on the customer side of the electric meter is widely recognized as a transformative force in the power sector. This report focuses on two key aspects of that transformation: structural changes in the electric industry and related changes in business organization and regulation that are likely to result from them. Both industry structure and regulation are inextricably linked. History shows that the regulation of the power sector has responded primarily to innovation in technologies and business models that created significant structural changes in the sector’s cost and organizational structure.

  11. Structural changes in industrial electricity use. The case of the pulp and paper industry in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksson, E.; Lundmark, R. [Economics Unit, Department of Business Administration and Social Science, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse altering energy demand patterns and energy factor substitution possibilities over time in the pulp and paper industry in order to increase our understanding of suitable policy options for increasing energy efficiency. The investigation employs a flexible translog cost function and an unbalanced panel data set covering 32 pulp and paper mills over the time period 1974-2005 in Sweden. Specifically, we test whether energy factor demand patterns in the industry for the period 1974-1990 differ from those during the latter period, 1991-2005. The empirical results reveal that even though the Swedish pulp and paper industry is relatively insensitive to changes in energy factor input prices in the short run, we find evidence of significant changes over time. According to the results, the own-price sensitivity of fuel has increased since the 1970s and the 1980s, thus indicating that fuel demand has become more sensitive to short-run changes in relative prices. The estimated cross-price elasticities between electricity and fuel also support the hypothesis of increased substitutability over time. However, the null hypothesis of an equal own-price elasticity of electricity demand across the two time periods cannot be rejected.

  12. Restructuring the Electricity Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    We study the role of vertical structure in determining generating capacities and retail prices in the electricity industry. Allowing for uncertain demand, we compare three market configurations: (i) integrated monopoly, (ii) integrated duopoly with wholesale trade, and (iii) separated duopoly wit...

  13. The structure of atomic power industry with allowance for energy production other than electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.P.; Legasov, V.A.; Sidorenko, V.A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Grebennik, V.N.; Glushkov, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The important tendency in the development of nuclear power is broadening the scope of its application for substitution of mineral fuel by the nuclear one not only at the electrical power production but in other energy consuming fields of industry. The development of large-scale nuclear power plants permits the provision of the significant part of energy supply of all kinds and save on oil and gas. Scales and rates of development of nuclear power are estimated for the model society on the basis of predicted need energy consumption per capita. The possible rates and scales of nuclear power development are determined at some alternative amounts of potential reserves of organic fuel (oil, gas) per capita and within the economically and ecologically reasonable scales of coal utilization. There has been given the analysis of possible scopes of application of nuclear power industry: for production of electricity, central heating, hydrogen generation, gasification of coals, metallurgy, chemistry by means of medium- and high-temperature reactors. The conceivable relation between electrical energy and heat production in energetics and the nuclear power industry and the dynamics of change in this relation is being forecasted. The promising development of high temperature helium reactors has been discussed. Considerations on possible effect of thorium cycle on the structure of nuclear power industry are outlined. The nuclear power industry is being developed mainly on the basis of nuclear power plants with thermal reactors and it should not be expected for the next decade that its structure is to change significantly. However, the development of only this type reactors will require, as early as the end of this century, the significant consumption of natural uranium and considerable increase in capacities of uranium output and uranium enrichment industry. Therefore, in the following stages of development of nuclear power industry it is necessary to introduce fast breeders

  14. The changing structure of the electric power industry, 1970--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95--91) requires the Administrator of the Energy information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. To assist in meeting these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, The Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry, 1970--1991. The purpose of the this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the US electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects

  15. The optimal vertical structure in the electricity industry when the incumbent has a cost advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakawa, Yukihide

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies how the vertical structure of the electricity industry affects the social welfare when the incumbent has a cost advantage in generation relative to the entrants. The model consists of a generation sector and a transmission sector. In the generation sector the incumbent and entrants compete in a Cournot fashion taking as given the access charge to the transmission network set in advance by the regulator to maximize the social welfare. Two vertical structures, integration and separation, are considered. Under vertical separation the transmission network is established as an organization independent of every generator, whereas under vertical integration it is a part of the incumbent's organization. The optimal vertical structure is shown to depend on the number of entrants. If the number of entrants is smaller than a certain threshold, vertical separation is superior in welfare to vertical integration, and vice versa. This is because the choice of vertical structure produces a trade-off in the effects on competition promotion and production efficiency. If a break-even constraint is imposed in the transmission sector, however, vertical integration is shown to be always superior in welfare. - Highlights: • We examine the optimal vertical structure in the electricity industry. • We model a generation sector in which the incumbent has a cost advantage. • A trade-off between production efficiency and competition promotion occurs. • The optimal vertical structure depends on the number of entrants. • Vertical integration is always superior if a break-even constraint is imposed

  16. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  17. What are the alternatives available to Hong Kong in structuring the electricity supply industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chi Tak

    2006-01-01

    The Hong Kong (HK) Government is conducting a review on the regulatory and market model of the electricity supply industry (ESI), in light of the expiry of the existing Scheme of Control Agreements with the vertical integrated utilities in 2008. Although the explicit agreements provided a stable regulatory environment to facilitate the past development of the electricity industry, it was found to become inadequate to deal with the increasing demand for economic efficiency and consumer protection. As such, there is an immediate opportunity to review the current situation and, if appropriate, consider changes to the regulatory and market structure of the ESI. The objective of this paper is to examine the desirable sector policy objectives in HK and consider different instruments and strategies to meet these objectives. The first part of the policy analysis suggests that a more balanced set of policy objectives should be pursued to elevate the priority of economic efficiency but recognizing the inherit limitations in local context. The latter part of the paper reviews the regulatory instruments for their applicability and acceptability in HK. They include rate-of-return regulation, performance-based regulation, competitive bidding and wholesale market competition. With the objective of keeping risks and uncertainties to a minimum, the paper devises strategies to pursue these instruments, allowing HK to improve its regulatory framework and at the same time prepare the industry for potential introduction of competition in the future

  18. What are the alternatives available to Hong Kong in structuring the electricity supply industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Hong Kong (HK) Government is conducting a review on the regulatory and market model of the electricity supply industry (ESI), in light of the expiry of the existing Scheme of Control Agreements with the vertical integrated utilities in 2008. Although the explicit agreements provided a stable regulatory environment to facilitate the past development of the electricity industry, it was found to become inadequate to deal with the increasing demand for economic efficiency and consumer protection. As such, there is an immediate opportunity to review the current situation and, if appropriate, consider changes to the regulatory and market structure of the ESI. The objective of this paper is to examine the desirable sector policy objectives in HK and consider different instruments and strategies to meet these objectives. The first part of the policy analysis suggests that a more balanced set of policy objectives should be pursued to elevate the priority of economic efficiency but recognizing the inherit limitations in local context. The latter part of the paper reviews the regulatory instruments for their applicability and acceptability in HK. They include rate-of-return regulation, performance-based regulation, competitive bidding and wholesale market competition. With the objective of keeping risks and uncertainties to a minimum, the paper devises strategies to pursue these instruments, allowing HK to improve its regulatory framework and at the same time prepare the industry for potential introduction of competition in the future. (author)

  19. Highlights of Electric Power Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Reform and Development of Electric Power Management Before 1978, China's electric power industry,managed by the Central Government, was a vertically monopoly sector. Along with China's reformation of economy structure started in 1978, electric power industry has step on its road of restructuring and deregulation. Up to now administration of China's electric power industry underwent following reciprocative changes:

  20. Efficiency in the United States electric industry: Transaction costs, deregulation, and governance structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carl

    Transaction costs economics (TCE) posits that firms have an incentive to bypass the market mechanisms in situations where the cost of using the market is prohibitive. Vertical integration, among other governance mechanisms, can be used to minimize the transactions costs associated with the market mechanism. The study analyses different governance mechanisms, which range from complete vertical integration to the use of market mechanisms, for firms in the US electric sector. This sector has undergone tremendous change in the past decade including the introduction of retail competition in some jurisdictions. As a result of the push toward deregulation of the industry, vertically integration, while still significant in the sector, has steadily been replaced by alternative governance structures. Using a sample of 136 investor-owned electric utilities that reported data the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission between 1996 and 2002, this study estimates firm level efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and relates these estimates to governance structure and public policies. The analysis finds that vertical integration is positively related to firm efficiency, although in a non-linear fashion suggesting that hybrid governance structures tend to be associated with lower efficiency scores. In addition, while some evidence is found for negative short-term effects on firm efficiency from the choice to deregulate, this result is sensitive to DEA model choice. Further, competition in retail markets is found to be positively related to firm level efficiency, but the retreat from deregulation, which occurred after 2000, is negatively associated with firm-level efficiency. These results are important in the ongoing academic and public policy debates concerning deregulation of the electric section and indicate that vertical economies remain in the industry, but that competition has provided incentives for improving firm level efficiency.

  1. Good, BETTA, best? The role of industry structure in electricity reform in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prandini, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of industry structure on the effectiveness of the restructuring process of the electricity industry in Scotland, with particular reference to the unbundling of electricity transmission. The analysis is carried out with respect to a set of goals designed to reflect Ofgem's statutory duties, namely: to promote competition (as a proxy of consumer interests), to signal the need for investments in generation, load and transmission expansion and to ensure efficient use of the network by licensees. The assessment of the 1990-2005 regulatory framework reveals major efficiency and competitive flaws and we argue that vertical integration of Scottish incumbents had a substantial role in determining this unsatisfactory performance. The paper discusses whether, and to what extent, the separation of transmission ownership and management under BETTA can be expected to deliver benefits to consumers with respect to the three goals assumed: we find that BETTA does in fact improve the performance of the restructuring process and we comment on the pros and cons of the separation between ownership and control of the grid brought about by BETTA. The final section examines the issues unaddressed, or only partially addressed, under the BETTA reform and argues in favour of a GB-wide Transco model

  2. Laminated wood as an alternative to wood poles : Engineered wood structures for electric utility and telecommunications industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisdorff, R. [Laminated Wood Systems Inc., Seward, NE (United States)

    2002-07-01

    In this PowerPoint presentation, the author discusses the major advantages of laminated structures, for both the electric and telecommunication industries. The advantages include economy, quick delivery, climbing and field modifications, dimensional uniformity and stability. A series of pictures was displayed which showed the manufacturing process. Laminated structures have a proven history. They were developed in Europe in 1890, and introduced to the United States in 1934. Framing members were introduced in the late 1940s, while poles were introduced in 1963, two years ahead of steel poles. Some of the electrical utility applications include: (1) distribution structures, (2) transmission structures such as single-pole, phase over phase switch structures, tangent structures, and H-Frame construction. The applications for the telecommunication industry consist of joint use structures, such as electric and telecommunication, lighting and telecommunication, overhead telephone and wireless; mono-pole applications; three-pole Bell Towers; and tree poles. Examples of each type were shown. figs.

  3. World electricity and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahane, A.

    1990-01-01

    Electric and gas utilities are central middlemen in the energy business. Worldwide, more than 50% of all primary energy is transformed by utilities and delivered to final consumers through utility wires and pipes. The structure and behavior of the electricity and gas industries and the role and behavior of utilities are therefore important to all other energy industry players. The electricity and gas industries are special. Unlike oil, coal, or wood, electricity and gas are transported from producers to consumers mostly via fixed grids. This means that supplies are generally tied to specific markets and, unlike an oil tanker on the high seas, cannot be easily diverted elsewhere. These grids are natural monopolies inasmuch as having more than one wire or pipe along a given route is generally unnecessary duplicative. In addition, both supply and grid investments are generally large and lumpy. Industrial organization theory suggests that the coordination of industries can be achieved either through hierarchies or through markets. Hierarchies are generally preferred when the transaction costs of coordinating through markets is too high. These two elements of electricity and gas industry structure are the means of hierarchical coordination. This paper discusses the possibilities for changing the structure of utilities to one which has greater reliance on markets

  4. Ontario electricity industry restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of Ontario's electricity industry restructuring was described as an effort to enhance Ontario's competitiveness. It is believed that restructuring can be accomplished without an increase in electricity rates. In a series of charts, the report provides the timeline of restructuring from the time of the Macdonald report in 1995 to the beginning of open competition in Ontario electricity markets. It oulines the principles underlying the financial restructuring and the financial results of restructuring, including the size of the stranded debt ($ 7.8 billion). It lists the changes that have occurred since October 1998, explains some key factors in valuing the successor companies and profiles the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation. Restructuring of the industry is expected to have a neutral to positive impact on Ontario's fiscal position. The residual stranded debt of $7.8 billion will be retired through revenues generated by the electricity sector, without recourse to the Provincial Treasury. 9 figs

  5. PM-HIP research for structural and pressuring retaining applications within the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandy, David W.

    2015-01-01

    For more than 60 years now, the nuclear power industry has relied on structural and pressure retaining materials generated via established manufacturing practices such as casting, plate rolling-and-welding, forging, drawing, and/or extrusion. During the past three years, EPRI has been leading the development and introduction of another established process, powder metallurgy and hot Isostatic pressing (PM/HIP), for pressure retaining applications in electric power industry. The research includes assessment of two primary alloys: 316L stainless steel and Grade 91 creep-strength enhanced ferritic steels, for introduction into the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Continuing DOE and EPRI research on other structural/pressure retaining alloys such as Alloy 690, SA 508 Class 1, Alloy 625, hard-facing materials, and others are also underway. This research will have a tremendous impact as we move forward over the next few decades on the selection of new alloys and components for advanced light water reactors and small modular reactors. Furthermore, fabrication of high alloy materials/components may require the use of new manufacturing processes to achieve acceptable properties for higher temperature applications such as those in Generation IV applications. Current research by EPRI and DOE will be reviewed and emphasis will be targeted at advanced applications where PM/HIP may be applied in the future. (authors)

  6. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation's economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures

  7. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation`s economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures.

  8. Electric industry restructuring review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum Hollis, S.

    2004-01-01

    Restructuring of the electric power industry began in the early 1990's in many jurisdictions in the United States. Restructuring was an attempt to offer large industrial customers lower rates and freedom from regulation for generators and traditional public utilities. The move has gained most attention in the past two years as some utilities report high profits while others, such as Pacific Gas and Electric Co., the largest investor-owned utility in the United States, is in bankruptcy. The August 2003 blackout in the Midwest and Northeast United States and Canada also raised questions regarding electric reliability. The question now remains whether markets should be allowed to determine the need for services and the prices to be charged, and who is in charge in the imperfect market. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 2000 led to the formation of a Regional Transmission Organizations which is still in the implementation stage. Its influence on precursor Order numbers 888 and 889 were discussed in this paper with reference to independent system operators; regional transmission organizations; standard market design; rates and pricing devices; congestion management; market monitoring; market investigations; reliability measures; OASIS and other information access; interconnection policy; jurisdiction; mergers and merger policy; standards of conduct; policing affiliates; municipal utilities; stranded costs; and, state restructuring scorecards. refs

  9. Impact of Ontario electricity industry structure on the viability of cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuddy, B.

    1999-01-01

    A review of Ontario Hydro's existing market structure and how its move toward a more competitive profile can be advantageous for cogeneration projects was presented. Ontario's existing electric power supply is as follows: 6 fossil fuels stations generate a total of 9, 969 MW of electricity, 23 NUG stations generate 1,541 MW, 3 nuclear stations generate a total of 9,028 MW and 69 hydro-electric stations generates 6,751 MW of electricity. The criteria and characteristics for cogeneration projects were listed. The paper also discussed other topics such as the market price of power, outstanding regulatory issues, market volatility and relative pricing. The prognosis for Ontario cogeneration projects for the early years from 1999-2004 is that for economic reasons, only big projects with large loads of 200 to 800 MW will be considered. In later years, other projects will become economic

  10. IT substitution for energy leads to a resilient structure for a survival strategy of Japan's electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Chihiro; Kishioka, Miharu; Carvajal, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The dramatic surge in information technology (IT) around the world, and an evolving global economy, are subjecting firms to megacompetition. This is the case, particularly in Japan's electric power industry, where the power rate is one of the highest in the world; hence it is noted that Japan's industry has lost its price competitiveness in the world market, resulting in stagnation of production, hence leading to stagnation in power demand. In addition, an increase in trends of customer's preferences and the variety of participants in the power supply race, have put electric power companies at the mercy of customers with alternative supply sources. Given that uncertainty with respect to energy security, as well as power generation and distribution systems safety increases, as strongly cautioned by the recent blackout in the US and Canada, a dramatic conversion of existing strategies would be indispensable for electric power companies. A conversion from a high-demand-elasticity dependent, supply structure to a resilient structure is required. While the former aims at constructing a high-demand-elasticity supply structure, based on the myth of high growth of demand, the latter aims at maintaining profit, while minimizing the elasticities of factors with high uncertainty, such as energy resources and costly capital investment linked to a fluctuating power demand. This paper demonstrates the significance of IT substitution for energy through consortia structure, thereby utilizing IT spillover and leading to resilience and leveraging consortia structure as Japan's electric power industry survival strategy. An empirical analysis using Japan's nine leading electric power companies over the last quarter century has been conducted

  11. The structure and operation of the privatised UK electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerss, W.

    1991-01-01

    The National Grid Company has just over a years experience in running the England and Wales Grid System as a public limited company (plc) in a market led environment. The industry has been restructured for privatisation with NGC Holdings, owner of NGC plc, being jointly owned by the 12 Regional Electricity Companies. The successful flotation of the 12 Regional Electricity Companies at the end of 1990 included the businesses and assets of NGC. The role of NGC is twofold; firstly to operate and maintain the HV transmission grid for England and Wales and secondly to facilitate competition in the market for electricity. To meet the requirements for facilitating competition NGC is responsible for the arrangements which will enable new players to enter the market. Under its Transmission Licence NGC has to respond swiftly to a request for connections and the charges levied must be seen to be fair. The publishing of service charges and opportunities identified in the Seven Year Statement enable existing and potential users of the Grid System to identify new connection opportunities. To ensure impartiality in its operation, the pooling and settlement system is administered NGC Settlements Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of NGC, with strict rules on commercial security. Separate in-house businesses have also been set up to administer the other commercial activities of NGC; the Pumped Storage Business, the Interconnection Business (France and Scotland) and the Ancillary Services Business for the provision of system reserve and other services to ensure the stability and security of the system. (author)

  12. Electric industry in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The production of electricity in 1992 is analyzed. The increase (0,4%) of electricity consumption and the decrease of its production are the main characteristics of 1993 in Spain. These aspect with the UNESA data are studied. In 1992 30000 Kw of 216.505 Kw total were produced by wind mills

  13. Electric power industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisheng Jiang [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China). Bureau of Electric Power Machinery

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the electric power in China, highlighting the following aspects: recent achievement, electricity increased sharing in the total energy consumption, technical economic indexes, nuclear power, renewable energy sources, rural electrification, transmission and power network, transmission lines and substations, present status and development trends for power network, regulation of power system dispatching, power system communication. The document also presents the future developing plan, approaching the outlook and strategy, development targets of the electric power industry and the administrative system reforming of the electric power industry.

  14. Analysing green supply chain management practices in Brazil's electrical/electronics industry using interpretive structural modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kannan, Devika; Mathiyazhagan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Industries need to adopt the environmental management concepts in the traditional supply chain management. The green supply chain management (GSCM) is an established concept to ensure environment-friendly activities in industry. This paper identifies the relationship of driving and dependence...

  15. An introduction to electric industry restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, J.F.; Berry, L.G.

    1997-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the electric industry, its residential markets, industry structure and current trends. Its purpose is to provide Weatherization grants managers with the background necessary to assess their leveraging opportunities in an industry that is experiencing sweeping changes, commonly known as electric industry restructuring. The study describes the terrain of a changing industry topography on a national and regional basis, with some state and local information also provided. Weatherization managers and subgrantees who read this paper should be better able to understand the leveraging opportunities that are emerging now in the electricity market place. The reader will be introduced to the basics of the electric industry as it presently operates, the nature of the changes that are in the process of occurring, and the driving forces that are behind those changes. The major industry players are described by type and their interests are explored in further depth. There will also be an overview of the regulatory process as it has operated historically, as well as the changes now underway at both the state and federal levels. Finally, the paper will conclude with a description of some of the assets and opportunities available to those who may be interested in participating in the restructuring process in order to expand or protect low-income programs in their own states.

  16. Commercial and industrial electric installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal, Carreno; William

    2000-01-01

    The proliferation of computers and other sensitive elements in the office ambient and of factory it has fomented the necessity to design the electric systems of the buildings considering topics of quality in the supply of the electric power (Power Quality). Exists great quantity of literature regarding the diagnosis and solution of quality problems of the supply in existent structures, but little allusion is made, to the design considerations to minimize this problem from the construction moment. The main focus of this article is of wired technical and on setting to earth recommended for the design of new structures

  17. Restructuring in the electricity industry: [proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Restructuring is the pivotal concept in today's marketplace, implying new organizational structures for a more effective and efficient delivery of goods and services to an increasingly discriminating community of consumers. The conference was held in Toronto in February 1995, to examine the forces driving the change in organizational structures and methods for delivering services, and to examine the most effective ways to bring about change specifically in the electrical industry. Problems of definition, open access, the role of provincial governments, the perspectives of individual utilities, competitive electric power systems in the UK and elsewhere, impact of industry restructuring on municipal utilities, and implications for public policy were debated at length. Regulatory control, steps in implementing a new structure, and ways of balancing regulatory and commercial constraints were also discussed

  18. Competition in the electric industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Mel

    1998-01-01

    Deregulation of the electric power industry is changing the 'personality' of utilities and the way they operate in order to survive in a more competitive marketplace. This paper will identify and discuss key issues NAC International believes will arise as the nuclear industry responds to deregulation. The regulatory treatment of such issues as retail wheeling, recovery of stranded costs, divestiture of assets and securitization will have a significant impact on how utilities, particularly those with nuclear assets, proceed into the new marketplace. While some will survive as a result of innovative thinking, cost control, and entrance into new niche markets, others will be forced to reassess their viability altogether. Increased mergers and acquisitions and early plant closures are potential consequences of these struggles. Meanwhile, innovative companies will develop and enter into new nuclear markets including most notably the acquisition of generating assets. Other key drivers that will significantly impact the competitiveness of nuclear versus other fuels will be the resolution of the nuclear waste issue, the reduction of O and M and decisions regarding whether to make expensive capital additions. Additionally, this paper will present an overview of key regulatory and legislative initiatives impacting electricity. Finally, this paper will examine the roles of regulating bodies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and state utility commissions, and will provide an outlook for further legislative and regulatory actions in this competitive environment. (author)

  19. The Local Structure of Globalization. The Network Dynamics of Foreign Direct Investments in the International Electricity Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Johan; Lomi, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    We study the evolution of the network of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the international electricity industry during the period 1994-2003. We assume that the ties in the network of investment relations between countries are created and deleted in continuous time, according to a conditional Gibbs distribution. This assumption allows us to take simultaneously into account the aggregate predictions of the well-established gravity model of international trade as well as local dependencies between network ties connecting the countries in our sample. According to the modified version of the gravity model that we specify, the probability of observing an investment tie between two countries depends on the mass of the economies involved, their physical distance, and the tendency of the network to self-organize into local configurations of network ties. While the limiting distribution of the data generating process is an exponential random graph model, we do not assume the system to be in equilibrium. We find evidence of the effects of the standard gravity model of international trade on evolution of the global FDI network. However, we also provide evidence of significant dyadic and extra-dyadic dependencies between investment ties that are typically ignored in available research. We show that local dependencies between national electricity industries are sufficient for explaining global properties of the network of foreign direct investments. We also show, however, that network dependencies vary significantly over time giving rise to a time-heterogeneous localized process of network evolution.

  20. Deregulation of Electricity Supply Industry in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed S. Al-Maghderi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the opportunities available and the conditions needed for the deregulation of the Electricity Supply Industry (ESI, with particular reference to the Sultanate of Oman. The paper highlights the general issues of regulation required to encourage competition in the ESI.  After that, the discussion focuses on regulation methods in the privatized ESI by describing the regulators control through price caps setting for regulatees, the conduct regulation process, the rate of return regulation setting, and the spot market (the pool contract. Finally, the prospects of restructuring and privatizing the ESI in the Sultanate of Oman are examined by reviewing the current structure of the industry and government objectives in deregulation of the electricity sector as well as the regulation framework.

  1. Electricity distribution industry restructuring in South Africa: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaunt, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    For 20 years there has been vigorous debate about restructuring the large, developed electricity industry in South Africa, but the plans have not been implemented. The justification of the proposed restructuring illustrates the different expectations of the participants in the electricity industry. The case study reviews what has occurred against a background of some theories about organisations, and identifies six key issues. Some lessons include the need to adopt an industry structure compatible with the objectives of electricity distribution in developing countries, the unsuitability of orthodox approaches to organisations, that no industry structure appears to be significantly better than others, industry restructuring of public sector utilities has a significant political dimension, restructuring can fail even if there is support from a high level of government, and indecision and uncertainty have serious negative consequences. The experience should be helpful for other developing countries considering structural change of their electricity industry

  2. Some perspectives on the electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winer, J.H. [Mountain Energy, Inc., South Burlington, VT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding future directions of the U.S. electric utility industry are presented in the paper. Pertinent historical aspects and current industry rules are summarized. Major issues and trends in the electricity market are outlined, and recommendations are presented. It is concluded that new rules in the industry will be set directly by customers, and that customers want renewable energy resources.

  3. Export of electric power through industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de; David, J.M.S.; Campos, J.M.; Perecmanis, J.; Carneiro, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    We forecast the electrical energy incorporated to the exports of products of the industrial sectors of steel, aluminium, ferro-alloys, chlorine and caustic soda, pulp and paper and petrochemistry, accordingly to scenarios for these sectors consistent with a macro economic reference scenario, for the period 1990/2000. We also compare the electrical energy exported through those industrial products with the forecasted industrial and total markets of electrical energy. (author)

  4. Ontario electricity rates and industrial competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Industrial electricity prices in Ontario rose significantly after the opening of the competitive Ontario electricity market in 2002, thereby widening the gap between industrial electricity prices in Ontario and those in other Canadian provinces. Navigant Consulting Ltd. conducted this study at the request of the Association of Major Power Consumers in Ontario (AMPCO) to research and compare current and historical electricity prices in Ontario and other jurisdictions in North America. The study provided an independent analysis of how industrial electricity prices in Ontario compare to those in other jurisdiction in which AMPCO members operate. It also formed the basis for comparing the impacts of electricity policy on the economic competitiveness of major power consumers in Ontario. The relative electricity intensity in the United States, Ontario and other Canadian provinces was reviewed for specific industries, including forest products, steel manufacturing, petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing and cement manufacturing. Publicly available aggregate data from Statistics Canada and the United States Bureau of the Census was then used to compare average electricity prices for industrial customers in Ontario. The data confirmed that Ontario has experienced a decline in its competitive price advantage in industrial electricity. Delivered industrial electricity prices in Ontario have increased by more than 60 per cent since 2001. Industrial electricity prices in Ontario rose above those in Quebec, Manitoba, British Columbia and New Brunswick. In addition, industrial electricity prices in Ontario rose above those in competing states such as Ohio and Illinois, in part due to the increase in the value of the Canadian dollar. It was concluded that the price increase may lead to a greater decline in economic output in Ontario compared to competing jurisdictions. 2 tabs., 14 figs., 1 appendix

  5. Outlook for California's electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes how the Southern California Edison Company deals with revolutionary change as the state's electricity industry reinvents itself. The topics of the article include how competition has make things better for SCEC's employees, customers, and shareholders, and an outline of the principal features of the electric utility industry in California

  6. American Indian tribes and electric industry restructuring: Issues and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, D. [Morse, Richard, and Weisenmiller, and Associates Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Busch, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Starrs, T. [Kelso, Starrs, and Associates LLC, Vashon, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.

  7. Industrialized timber structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    It was recently learned that a number of innovations in structural timber components are available to the construction industry, but that they were largely unknown to bridge designers. The purpose of this study was to develop for the Department a fea...

  8. Industry's use of electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    Alternative energy supplies and adaptation to energy demand are elucidated, primarily concerning space heating and industry. The consequences of the alternatives on the economic development of Sweden, the growth of industry, the situation of households and the effects of health and environment are being analysed. It is concluded that considerable portions of the industry will loose their competitive advantages. There will be restricted possibilities to solve the technical adaptation to the year 1997

  9. Environmental problems facing the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on the environmental problems facing the electricity industry was first presented at the World Electricity Conference, Nov. 1987. According to the author, the biggest immediate environmental challenge the electricity industry faces is the need for the role and importance of nuclear power to be reasserted clearly and unambiguously. The main environmental problems from electricity generation are air pollution and the carbon dioxide/greenhouse issue, and the author thinks that both could be reduced by an increased use of nuclear power as an energy source. (U.K.)

  10. Industrial companies' demand for electricity. Evidence from a micropanel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerner, T.B.; Togeby, M.; Jensen, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a micro-econometric analysis of industrial companies' demand for electricity. Previous studies on electricity consumption in the industrial sector have relied on aggregate data or cross-section observations. Here we present an econometric study on electricity demand based on a panel of 2949 Danish companies followed from 1983 to 1996. It is found that estimators of electricity demand that take account of the panel structure (fixed effect models) yield considerably lower price and production elasticities compared to estimators that do not (like cross-section models). It is also investigated how various company characteristics like size, type of industrial sub-sector and electricity intensity in production influence price and production elasticities. It appears that companies with a high electricity intensity also have a high own-price elasticity

  11. Electric industry restructuring in Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This Staff Report suggests a modified approach designed to significantly increase the ability of all customer classes to participate and share in the benefits of competition. The concepts discussed in this Report are designed to ensure that rates are not increased for any customers as a result of restructuring and, where possible, rates are reduced through the use of rate reduction bonds. The program outlined in this Report is designed to fulfill five objectives. First, it protects the interests of smaller customers, including low-income residential customers and senior citizens. Second, the program provides opportunities to strengthen Michigan's business community. Third, the program includes funding for employee retraining to assure that utility employees are not negatively impacted by restructuring. Fourth, the phase-in program provides the utilities with the opportunity to prepare for competition so that they remain Michigan-based companies. Fifth, the program is designed to foster competition upon a level playing field. The Commission has jurisdiction over all investor electric utilities and rural electric cooperatives in Michigan. Municipal electric utilities are not subject to Commission jurisdiction. Although this Report discusses details regarding Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, its concepts and principles are intended to apply to all jurisdictional electric utilities

  12. Electricity prices in a competitive market: a preliminary analysis of the deregulated Thai electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipattanasomporn, M.; Ongsakul, W.; Pacudan, R.; Lefevre, T.

    2000-01-01

    The electricity industry throughout the world is currently undergoing a significant transition towards restructuring and deregulation. Following this new legislation, Thailand has initiated an institutional and structural reform with a belief that this could be the best way forward for the Thai electricity supply industry (ESI) to improve efficiency, lower electricity prices, and tackle financial debts. This paper presents an analysis of the extent to which prices for generation services in a competitive market may differ from regulated electricity prices, if competitive prices are based on marginal costs and regulated prices are based on average costs, by using Thailand as a case study. (Author)

  13. The internationalization of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulli, F.; Indigenti, S.; Ninni, A.

    1998-01-01

    During the last years the evolution of the electricity industry has been featured by a marked development of the internationalization processes. Several companies started huge foreign investment programmes; construction of power plants; acquisition of generation, distribution and integrated companies. The goal of this study is to analyse the determinants in the internationalization process of the world electricity industry. This topic is introduced in the first, part with a hint on the main theoretical contributions regarding the companies internationalization. In the second part, an attempt is made to define the size of the phenomenon adopting the results yielded by a detailed inquiry about the international strategies of the leading electric companies. In the third part, an econometric analysis, referring to a significant sample of electric companies, is aimed at identifying the main determining factors affecting the international development is mainly due to both organization and regulation of the single national markets [it

  14. Turmoil and transition: Electric utility industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    In a review of electric utility industry trends, focusing on North America, it is noted that four critical influences are dominant: competition in the electricity supply business; technological advances; the recognized need for environmental protection; and a favoring of market economics and customer choice. As energy costs rose in the 1970s and 1980s, electricity usage growth rates decreased and demand side management became an accepted alternative to building new power plants. In large areas of Canada and the USA, substantial surplus generation capacity arose, transmission linkages improved, and regional electricity markets developed. Privatization measures in the British electric sector were closely studied in North America and electric markets in the USA were pushed toward more competition with the 1992 Energy Policy Act. Non-utility generators have entered the market, including industrial companies, pipeline companies, independent renewable-energy providers, and power companies set up by the utilities themselves. Power pools may evolve into regional transmission grids in which the transmission owning utilities would exchange their lines for an interest in the grid. California is likely to lead in opening access to transmission on a regional scale. Distribution systems are likely to remain a regulated monopoly as before. Substantial change is expected in customer services as functions such as power purchase and conservation are being performed by independent companies. Other possible developments in the industry include emissions trading and spot markets for power. The implications of these trends for British Columbia Hydro are discussed

  15. Shock to the system: Restructuring America's electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, T.J.; Palmer, K.L.; Kopp, R.J.; Krupnick, A.J.; Stagliano, V.

    1996-01-01

    Recent decades have seen revolutions in communications, finance, and transportation. In a similar way, technological, economic, and political developments are reshaping the US electricity industry. This concise, balanced, and readable primer, produced by a team of economic analysts at Resources for the Future, introduces the concepts, crucial elements, and terminology used in discussions about electricity restructuring. A Shock to the System provides the background necessary to understand the increasing role of competition in electricity markets. The authors present the history of public policy regarding electricity, identify the significant proposals for implementing competition, and examine their potential consequences for utility regulation, industry structure, cost recovery, and the environment. This volume is an instructive guide to the decisions that electricity providers, customers, and policy makers will face, what forms the decisions are likely to take, and what the long-term ramifications may be

  16. Using restructured electricity supply industries to understand oligopoly industry outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolak, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that many determinants of generic oligopoly market outcomes can be studied in bid-based wholesale electricity markets under much weaker assumptions than in other oligopoly industries because of their rich data, regulatory history, and clearly specified market rules. These methods are compared to those used in existing studies of oligopolistic industries where the best data available are market-clearing prices and quantities and demand and cost shifters. The extent to which the methods used in bid-based wholesale electricity markets generalize conventional methods is explained in detail and major applications of these techniques are summarized. Lessons from the study of wholesale electricity markets for the monitoring and design of other oligopolistic markets are also discussed. (author)

  17. Tradable allowances in a restructuring electric industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschirhart, J.

    1999-01-01

    The SO 2 tradable allowance program has been introduced into an electric industry undergoing dramatic changes. Entry of nonutilities into the industry and the emergence of stranded costs are two major changes that are shown to have an impact on the market for allowances and the industry's incentives to switch to cleaner fuels. The degree of impact depends on the extent to which consumers bypass traditional utilities and buy from entrants, and on public utility commission policies regarding the recovery of stranded costs. In turn, the amount of stranded costs depends on fuel switching. The results follow from simulations of a two-utility model that illustrate the qualitative effects of changing policies

  18. Industrial consumers and electricity sector deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jukic, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the electricity sector deregulation from the point of view of major industrial consumers (MIC). Possibilities and limitations of MIC's impact on the introduction and development of an open power market in some European countries, the USA and Croatia are discussed. (author)

  19. Grappling with Change: The South African Electricity Supply Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen, P. S.

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews the debate over the future structure of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) with focus on the electricity distribution industry (EDI) segment. The importance of both new and old institutions in the ESI in facilitating change is discussed. The perspective is that of an outside observer who spent nearly 2 years following events in the South African ESI. The ESI situation reviewed here is very complex and connected to a myriad of other economic, financial, cultural, social, and political issues.

  20. Grappling with Change: The South African Electricity Supply Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galen, Paul S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the debate over the future structure of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) with focus on the electricity distribution industry (EDI) segment. The importance of both new and old institutions in the ESI in facilitating change is discussed. The perspective is that of an outside observer who spent nearly 2 years following events in the South African ESI. The ESI situation reviewed here is very complex and connected to a myriad of other economic, financial, cultural, social, and political issues

  1. Values in the electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, K. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    A basic conclusion established by the seven essays presented is that nowhere within the complex decision-making process of the electric power industry is there any provision for systematically considering the curtailment of consumption as a serious alternative to continued expansion of power production. Six recommendations are summarized for concrete steps toward remedying this deficiency as a result of examining the essays. Continued expansion of power generation could result in desirable consequences of economic growth, jobs, ready transportation, and many consumer conveniences; undesirable consequences are: increasing air and water pollution, further depletion of nonrenewable resources, and increased dependence on foreign sources of energy. The papers are: A Cybernetic Analysis of Certain Energy Consumption Patterns, by Kenneth Sayre; Social and Environmental Value in Power Plant Licensing: A Study in the Regulation of Nuclear Power by Vaughn McKim; Legal and Economic Aspects of the Electric Utility's ''Mandate to Serve'', by Charles Murdock; Economies of Scale in the Electric Power Industry, by Kenneth Jameson; Dynamics of Growth in the U.S. Electric Power Industry, by Ellen Maher; Utilitarianism and Cost-Benefit Analysis: An Essay on the Relevance of Moral Philosophy to Bureaucratic Theory, by Alasdair MacIntyre; and An Ethical Analysis of Power Company Decision-Making, by Kenneth Goodpaster and Kenneth Sayre. (MCW)

  2. Technical results French electricity supply industry 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This booklet presents provisional results for the French electricity supply industry (excluding overseas territories). Data come from measures made by RTE, completed by various actors of the power system and by estimations made by RTE. Data from 2001 to 2005 were updated in order to take into account additional information given by different actors of the electrical energy sector. Contents: 1 - General results in France (National consumption, Physical exchanges with foreign countries, Net generation, Energy consumed, Electrical energy balance in France, Energy generated); 2 - Consumption in France (Annual consumption, Weekly consumption in 2007, Temperature, Daily consumption); 3 - Electrical energy flows (End consumption by type of customer, Physical flows of electrical energy, Physical exchanges with foreign countries); 4 - Trend of the electricity market (Cross-border contractual exchanges, Balance Responsible Entities, Sales of generation capacity auction, Energy sales on Powernext Day-Ahead TM , Balancing mechanism); 5 - Generation in France (Installed capacity and generation by type of facility, thermal, hydro, other renewable energy sources); 6 - Equipment on the electricity network (Equipment in operation as of 31 December); 7 - Power system operation (Equivalent time of interruption, Long outage frequency, Short outage frequency, Number of annual Significant System Events by severity); 8 - Access to the RTE network; 9 - Development over the past 15 years (Facilities in France at year-end, Annual results in France); 10 - International comparisons (Energy data of UCTE countries in 2006); 11 - Terminology

  3. Electricity pricing: optimal operation and investment by industrial consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outhred, H.R.; Kaye, R.J.; Sutanto, D.; Manimaran, R.; Bannister, C.H.; Lee, Y.B.

    1988-08-01

    Ongoing research in the areas of economically efficient electricity pricing and industrial consumer response is described. A new electricity pricing theory is described that incorporates future uncertainty and intertemporal linkages between decisions. It indicates that electricity prices should contain two terms - short-run marginal cost plus a term that reflects how each particular decision is likely to affect future global welfare. A practical implementation using spot prices and forward contracts plus financial instruments for risk sharing and decision coordination is explored, and a procedure for developing long-term pricing policy is considered. The operation of industrial plant has been investigated and models developed to optimize plant behaviour in response to spot prices and forward contracts for electricity. These models are described and results of simulation studies discussed. The economic efficiency and risk sharing advantages of this advanced tariff structure compared with a conventional time-of-use tariff are illustrated.

  4. The deregulation of Taiwan electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Taiwan is on the brink of embarking on an ambitious reform in the electricity sector. The future electricity market of Taiwan will be operated under the framework set out in the Electricity Act Amendment. Independent system operator (ISO) will be the core body of the future market operations and its establishment will therefore be the key to the liberalization. This paper presents the proposed implementation plan based on diverse factors considered by the officials. A three steps phased introduction of Taiwan ISO is discussed. During the proposed Phase I interim market arrangements, Taipower's System Operation Department will assume the role of System Operator for the market. The dispatch rules are largely based on the existing Taipower internal procedure. As competition increases, the need for increased transparency will necessitate the establishment of a fully independent ISO in Phase II to provide the real time dispatch services. This will be completed within 2 years after the passage of the Electricity Act Amendment Bill. In the last phase of the deregulation process a multilateral market arrangement for managing energy imbalance and transmission constraints will result in better outcomes in relation to the policy objectives of security and economic efficiency. The 2-year timeframe stipulated in the Electricity Act Amendment Bill is a challenge for the Government and the industry. However, a smoothly functioning Taiwan ISO will bring benefits to the industry and the country in general

  5. Electricity privatisation and the Scottish coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P.

    1988-09-01

    In the run up to the privatisation of the electricity supply industry in Scotland, the South of Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB) is involved in a battle for power with British Coal's Scottish area over the price of its coal, the bulk of which has been purchased by the SSEB in recent years. The SSEB has been trying to persuade British Coal to bring its prices down to those currently available on the world market. This would require a reduction of some 30%. The SSEB has backed up its requests by threatening to import more foreign coal if British Coal refuses to comply.

  6. Performance issues for a changing electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    Extremely cold weather created record demands for electricity in the eastern two-thirds of the United States during the week of January 16, 1994. Fuel-related problems, mostly the result of transportation constraints resulting from ice accumulation on roads and water-ways, and unexpected generating capacity outages at utilities and nonutilities resulted in demand not being met. Some utilities asked nonessential customers along with State governments and a portion of the Federal Government to shut down. Two electric control areas, the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) and Virginia Electric & Power Company (VEPCO), instituted rolling blackouts. This disturbance was reported widely in the press and, along with other disturbances, peaked renewed interest in the reliability of the electric power system. The renewed interest in reliability has coincided with substantial changes that are beginning to occur in the structure and competitiveness of the electric power industry. Juxtaposing the question of reliability and the issue of changing industry structure leads to the central concern of this report: What effect, if any, will the changing structure of the industry have on the reliability of the system?

  7. RISKS OF LOSING CONTROLLABILITY WHILE LIBERALIZING THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Petrusha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses controllability qua a reliability characteristic of the electric-power grid controlling system. The following notions are used: the object (environment susceptibility towards the control stimuli, the controlling system adequacy, environment of the secure functioning. The author points to the necessity of accounting for the limitations of technological and organizational character. While liberalizing the electric-power industry, the backbone control-principle “the industry functioning reliability” is being replaced with the principle of “profit-making” that requires complete restatement of the control philosophy.The conflict between commercial benefit gaining and the reliability assurance expenses leads to losing controllability in all the managerial links and to probable catastrophic consequences. The recapitulation of the Russian Federation power industry privatization substantiates concerns of the liberal ideas poor survivability in the ex-Soviet territories. The results of degradation of the secure-functioning environment demonstrate affinity of the mechanisms that triggered the Chernobyl NPP, Fukusima NPP, and Sayan-Shushenskya HPP disasters. Securing reliability of the strategic objects leaves the competence boundaries of the electricpower industry.The topical issue of Belorussian electric-power industry functioning and developing is the combination of technical re-equipment (developing the operational dispatch management and the control-system organizational modernizing in general with gradual and controllable transition to the market mechanisms of functioning. Herewith, preserving the state monopoly on regime provision for the operation of the electric-power system should not leave out the industry appeal for outside investment and is regulated by the optimal degree and intensity of the state participation in governing the electric-power supply industry. The distinction of privatization models and the stages

  8. Some thoughts on the Turkish electricity distribution industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, the electricity industry of the Republic of Turkey (and indeed the world) has undergone profound reform in its structure, ownership and mindset. Increasing public concern about efficiency in the sector has led Turkey to discard the traditional model of a vertically integrated industry subject to cost-based regulation in favor of the unbundling of activities and the introduction of competition where it is possible. The industry has been structurally separated into generation, transmission, distribution and retail segments. The competitive segments of the industry (generation and retail) are planed to progressively expose to competition; the monopoly segments (especially, distribution) are to be reoriented to foster competition. Further, the ownership of the industry is under increasing pressure to move away from the public domain into the private one. The present article not only presents an analysis of the Turkish distribution sector and proposed privatization process but also provides some guidelines for policy makers. (author)

  9. Renewable energies - Industrials, produce your own electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    As a public bidding has been launched at the initiative of the French government on self-consumption in industrial and office building sites, this article discusses this issue of self-production and consumption, and its perspectives. Professionals and individuals could be interested in the recent evolutions as it was before more interesting to sell the produced photovoltaic electricity to EDF than to consume it. Some industries (warehouses, supermarkets, oil production, and airport) have already implemented this solution, and its development could boost the use of photovoltaic panels

  10. Alberta electric industry annual statistics for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Tables containing data on electric energy generation and capacity for Alberta are provided for the following aspects: capacity and generation of power plants for 1998; capacity of power plants by type, unit, and energy resource for 1998; generating units approved for construction for 1998; generating units completed in 1998; transmission additions approved for construction and completed for 1998; net annual generating capacity and generation for 1988-1998; net monthly generation by plant for 1998; net annual generation by energy resource and type for 1988-1998; net monthly generation by energy resource and type for 1998; generation capacity reserve; relative capacity and generation by type of energy resource for 1998; capacity, generation and fuel consumption of isolated plants for 1998; other industrial on-site plant capacity and generation for 1998. Also listed are: energy resource consumption and energy conversion efficiency of thermal power plants for 1998; stack emissions from thermal generating plants for 1998; non-utility electric generators, wind and hydro for 1998; and hydroelectric energy utilization and conversion efficiency for 1998. Tables contain information on electric energy generation and capacity for hydroelectric energy stored in reservoirs in 1998; details of non-coincident net peak generation and load by utility operators for the Alberta electric system for 1998; and Alberta electric system generation and load at peak load hour for 1998. Further tables cover electric energy distribution for interchange and distribution for 1998 and 1981-1998; annual energy distribution to ultimate customers for 1988-1998 and to ultimate customers for 1998; and the number of electric utility customers in 1998. Final tables cover the transmission and distribution systems with data on: circuit km of such lines for 1988-1998; total circuit km of such lines by major electric utility for 1998 and number of rural electric utility customers for 1998

  11. The Mexican electricity industry - cogeneration potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy, I.L.

    2000-01-01

    A brief history of Mexico's electric power industry is given. Diagrams show (i) the increase in primary energy production from 1990-1998; (ii) energy consumption by sector and (iii) the change in capacity between 1990 and 1998. The projected energy development for 1998-2007 is discussed. The Mexican government has chosen cogeneration to be an important contributor to future energy-efficient power production. Data on installed cogeneration capacity for years 2000 and 2001 are given according to sector

  12. Industry agreement on efficient electrical motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnyder, G.

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive final report presents the results of a project carried out on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Swiss Automation Pool (SAP) concerning the efficiency of electrical drives. The main goal of the project was to conclude a target agreement between the federal government and the Swiss electric motors/drives industry. This involves the promotion of the highest, 'eff1' energy-efficiency category of the three categories defined by the European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (CEMP). The report presents the findings of the project and recommends the banning of the use of motors in the lowest, 'eff3' category. Comparisons are made between the CEMP standards and further standards and promotion programmes in the USA and in Great Britain. Associated measures to be taken to aid the promotion of the drive standard are discussed

  13. Industrial manufacturing of electric insulators; Fabricacion industrial de aisladores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Lucia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    Porcelain is the insulating material more extensively used for electric insulators manufacturing, due to its dielectric properties; nevertheless, it presents fragility problems of manufacture and of resistance to the thermal shock, among others. For this reason studies are being conducted for the substitution of porcelain in the electric insulators manufacturing. In this area, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas developed an improved insulating formulation - the polymeric concrete- and an industrial prototype machine for the manufacture of high voltage electric insulators for outdoors use. [Espanol] La porcelana es el material aislante electrico mas utilizado en la elaboracion de aisladores electricos, debido a sus propiedades dielectricas; sin embargo, presenta problemas de fragilidad, de fabricacion y de baja resistencia al choque termico, entre otros. Es por ello que se realizan estudios para sustituir la porcelana en la fabricacion de aisladores electricos. En este campo, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas desarrollo una formulacion aislante mejorada -el concreto polimerico- y una maquina prototipo industrial para fabricar aisladores electricos de alto voltaje para uso en exteriores.

  14. Industrial manufacturing of electric insulators; Fabricacion industrial de aisladores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Lucia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    Porcelain is the insulating material more extensively used for electric insulators manufacturing, due to its dielectric properties; nevertheless, it presents fragility problems of manufacture and of resistance to the thermal shock, among others. For this reason studies are being conducted for the substitution of porcelain in the electric insulators manufacturing. In this area, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas developed an improved insulating formulation - the polymeric concrete- and an industrial prototype machine for the manufacture of high voltage electric insulators for outdoors use. [Espanol] La porcelana es el material aislante electrico mas utilizado en la elaboracion de aisladores electricos, debido a sus propiedades dielectricas; sin embargo, presenta problemas de fragilidad, de fabricacion y de baja resistencia al choque termico, entre otros. Es por ello que se realizan estudios para sustituir la porcelana en la fabricacion de aisladores electricos. En este campo, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas desarrollo una formulacion aislante mejorada -el concreto polimerico- y una maquina prototipo industrial para fabricar aisladores electricos de alto voltaje para uso en exteriores.

  15. Geothermal energy and the bulk electric power and petroleum industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, S.

    1977-01-01

    The roles of competition and power pooling in the utility industry are assessed and explained, and the structure of the Western Electric Utility industry is evaluated. It is argued that a hostile environment for small utilities, maintained by larger investor-owned utilities and by the Bureau of Reclamation, leads to a combination of motives for rapid development of geothermal resources and impedes their success. It is suggested that the impediment feature of the hostile environment for small utilities could be alleviated by granting small utilities access to pooling and, relatedly, by improving the power marketing performance of the Bureau of Reclamation. (MHR)

  16. Strategic prospects of the electric power industry of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, A. A.; Veselov, F. V.; Makarova, A. S.; Novikova, T. V.; Pankrushina, T. G.

    2017-11-01

    The prospects for the development of the electric power industry of Russia adopted at a regular stage of working out the Energy Strategy and the General Plan of Distribution of the Electric Power Facilities are discussed. The monitoring of the progress in the implementation of the Energy Strategies for the periods until 2020 and 2030 adopted in 2003 and 2009 has, in general, validated the correctness of the estimated volumes of the energy resource production under overestimation of the expected domestic demand owing to an excessively optimistic forecast of the real development of the economy. The priority lines of the national energy policy in electric power and allied industries proposed in the Energy Strategy for the period until 2035 are considered. The tools for implementation of most of the proposals and the effectiveness of their implementation have yet to be defined more concretely. The development of the energy sector and the electric power industry under the conservative and optimistic scenarios of the development of the country's economy has been predicted using the SCANER modeling and information system, viz., the dynamics of the domestic consumption, export, and production of the primary energy and the electric power has been determined and the commissioning and structure of the required generating capacities and the consumption of the basic types of the energy resources by the electric power industry and the centralized heat supply systems has been optimized. Changes in the economic efficiency of the nuclear and thermal power plants under the expected improvements on their cost and performance characteristics and an increase in the domestic fuel prices are presented. The competitiveness of the wind and solar power production under Russian conditions has been evaluated considering the necessity of reservation and partial duplication of their capacities when operated in the power supply systems. When optimizing the electric power industry as a subsystem

  17. Deregulation of Electricity Market and Drivers of Demand for Electrical Energy in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojnec Štefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates deregulation of electricity market focusing on electricity prices and drivers of demand for electrical energy in industry in Slovenia. The patterns in evolution of real electricity price developments and the three main components of the electricity price are calculated: liberalized market share for purchased electricity price, regulated infrastructure share for use of electricity network grids and mandatory state charges in the sale of electricity (duty, excise duty and value-added tax. To calculate the real value of electricity prices, producer price index of industrial commodities for electricity prices in industry is used as deflator and implicit deflator of gross domestic product for the size of the economy. In the empirical econometric part is used regression analysis for the amount electricity consumption in the industry depending on the real gross domestic product, direct and cross-price elasticity for natural gas prices in the industry. The results confirmed volatility in real electricity price developments with their increasing tendency and the increasing share of different taxes and state charges in the electricity prices for industry. Demand for electrical energy in industry is positively associated with gross domestic product and price of natural gas as substitute for electrical energy in industry use, and negatively associated with prices of electrical energy for industry.

  18. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs

  19. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Decomposing the variation of aggregate electricity intensity in Spanish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, P.F.; Suarez, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Several papers have dealt with methodological and application issues related to techniques for decomposing changes in environmental indicators. This paper aims to decompose changes in electricity intensity in Spanish industry and to explain the factors that contribute to these changes. Focusing on an energy intensity approach based on Divisia indices, we began by reviewing the two general parametric Divisia methods and six specific cases. In order to avoid obtaining significantly different results by using differing methods, all of them have been applied to Spanish data. Also two different disaggregation levels have been taken into consideration. Combined with electricity price analysis, the results of this paper indicate the poor contribution of structural change to substantial reductions in aggregate electricity intensity, and underline the role of innovation, development, diffusion and access to more efficient technologies as main contributors to the reduction of the energy/production ratio. (author)

  1. Electric drive motors for industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, K.

    1985-04-01

    In robotized industrial plants it is possible to use electric motors in the technological process and also for control, assembly, transport, testing, and measurements. Particularly suitable for these applications are permanent-magnet d.c. motors. A new special series was developed for industrial robots with hinge joints in kinematic pairs. The complete drive includes thyristors or transistor controls with regulators and, if necessary, a line transformer as well as a servomotor with tachometer and odometer for speed, current, and position control. The drive is coupled to a robot tong through mechanical torque and force converters. In addition to a 0 to 4000 rpm speed regulation, without wobble at low speeds, and a high torque-to-weight ratio for repetitive short-time heavy duty, these low-inertia motors develop high starting and accelerating torques over the entire speed range. They operate from a 1 to O 220 V a.c. line through a rectifier. The motors are totally enclosed, or of open construction for better ventilation. Their windings have class F insulation for operation at ambient temperatures up to 40 C.

  2. Organization, structure, and performance in the US nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Several propositions are advanced concerning the effects of industry organization and structure on the economic performance of the American commercial nuclear power industry. Both the electric utility industry and the nuclear power plant supply industry are relatively high degree of horizontal disaggregation. The latter is also characterized by an absence of vertical integration. The impact of each of these factors on construction and operating performance is discussed. Evidence is presented suggesting that the combination of horizontal and vertical disaggregation in the industry has had a significant adverse effect on economic performance. The relationship between industrial structure and regulatory behavior is also discussed. 43 references, 4 figures, 9 tables

  3. United States electric industry : restructuring in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum Hollis, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed review of the United States electric power industry. The aim of the review was to clarify and better define current industry procedures and practices in light of significant and recent restructuring. In addition, recent bankruptcies and the power blackout in 2003 have raised concerns over industry practices. Issues concerning Independent System Operators (ISO) and regional transmission organizations were evaluated, with reference to an evolution and implementation of Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) policy, including a cost-benefit analysis. A background of RTO formations was provided with reference to consolidation, selection process and transfer of assets. Standard market design, network access and pricing issues were reviewed, as well as market and reliability concerns. Issues concerning affiliate treatment, shortages and the effect of sale of securities were presented. Various approaches to congestion management were examined, with examples from California and New England. Market monitoring issues, investigations and hearings were also examined, with examples and orders, including details of refunds. Measures to improve reliability were reviewed, including: management systems, benefit margins, requirements, assurance agreements and reserve markets. Issues concerning information access were presented, including: Open Access Same-time Information System (OASIS) requirements; tagging; standard business practices and protocols; and quarterly report practices and protocols. Interconnection policies were reviewed with reference to applicability, service options and pricing. The issue of variations was examined, with case examples concerning cost allocation, contract rights and treatment of specific costs. Jurisdiction issues concerning corporate realignments and power exchanges were presented, as well as specific services and state-federal relations. Issues concerning mergers and merger policy were also discussed, with reference

  4. Three Studies in Industrial Economics: Competition and Industry Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Jan

    Chapter 1 reviews alternative theories of competition - the standard Neoclassical view, the contribution of the Chicago School as well as the two dynamic lines of thought which are part of Austrian economics and Classical Political Economy. The latter is presented as a consistent alternative to the other existing theories. Of special interest is the question if and how industry structure matters in these approaches, how profitability differentials are explained and what role market share concentration and mobility barriers play. Their predictions and implications for empirical research are compared. Ways to test and evaluate these different approaches are described. Chapter 2 investigates econometrically how industry and micro level variables determine persistent differentials in the rate of return on assets in the U.S. The analysis is the first to use business segment data to explain long term profitability differentials. It presents new market concentration indicators that are superior to concentration ratios and allow to analyze an unpreceded amount of concentration and other data back to 1977. Critical concentration levels, non-linearities, interaction effects and previously ignored important control variables like industrial unionization are being considered. Concentration is found to have significant negative effects on profitability differentials. Barrier indicators are insignificant while market shares are positively correlated with long-run profitability. Concentration thus increases, not diminishes the degree of industrial competition. This is interpreted as evidence in support of Classical Political Economic competition theory. Chapter 3 presents a costs of production based industry analytical study that aims at consistency with Classical Political Economic thought. It investigates how growth of renewable electricity in Germany forces conventional power plants to shift towards more flexible operating regimes. The simulation of individual power plant load

  5. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  6. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-06-11

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  7. Electricity Self-Generation Costs for Industrial Companies in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diboma Benjamin Salomon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production in developing countries (DC is frequently perturbed by electric energy supply difficulties. To overcome this problem, generators are used in self-generation of energy, but this leads to an increase of electricity-related expenses. This article assesses the impact of electricity self-generation on Cameroonian industrial companies. The model described in this article is based on data collected through a survey of a representative sample of industrial companies and from numerous previous thematic and statistical studies. The results of our analyses show that expenses related to electricity in industrial companies in Cameroon have increased five times due to electricity rationing and untimely power cuts. The article also suggests some solutions to improve the electricity self-generation capacity of industrial companies.

  8. Reforming European electricity industries: to each, his own ''single market''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    National transpositions of the European directive on domestic electricity markets have maintained a degree of diversity; and this also characterizes the other conditions for accessing national electricity markets (physical, commercial, industrial and capital access). As a look at the prices of electricity shows, these national markets do not operate in a single way Europe-wide. Furthermore, electricity companies - key actors in this competition - differ widely from each other in size, electrical potential, investment portfolios and strategies for growth. (authors)

  9. The development of power generation by electricity supply undertakings and industries in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cura, H.

    1998-01-01

    Following the events of recent years - the opening up of the east, efforts to stimulate international competition - the Western European electricity industry is strongly on the move. In spite of the non-uniformity of the electricity supply structures in the individual countries, the trend towards liberalization of the electricity market is characterized by different forms of expression. Against this background, this paper provides a review of the status and prospects of electricity demand developments and of primary energy supply. It considers the consequences which thereby arise for the power plant inventory of electricity supply undertakings and industries. (orig.) [de

  10. Electric power industry restructuring and ROE: The case of Korea Electric Power Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Gu-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Korea's electric power industry was previously run by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) in a natural monopoly-type structure. As economy of scale was waning in influence and management effectiveness began to increase in importance, KEPCO was divided into six subsidiaries and faced competition beginning in April 2001. This study evaluates the restructuring process for Korea's power industry and analyzes the financial outcomes based on return on equity (ROE). The results show that the ROE ratio increased. In the analysis period (1993-2004), the financial ratio showed a better performance than that before restructuring. However, productivity ratios such as productivity of capital (or gross value added to total assets) and gross value added to property, plant, and equipment decreased compared to the situation before restructuring. It is believed that the results were due to the increased financial leverage of KEPCO. For this reason, KEPCO should make further efforts to manage its debt in a systematic way

  11. Decomposition of electricity demand in China's industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    In the past five years, China's demand for electricity has accelerated far beyond what central planners had forecasted, leading to supply constraints and costly brownouts throughout the country. This paper presents analysis of the effect of changes in the industrial sector on electricity demand, an important economic sector contributing to these above patterns as it consumes nearly 70% of the electricity generated in China. Using decomposition analysis, it is found that both increased industrial activity and fuel shifts helped increase industrial sector electricity demand between 1998 and 2002, the period of focus in this study, but significant increases in energy efficiency countered this

  12. A modeling and control framework for operating large-scale electric power systems under present and newly evolving competitive industry structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija D. Ilić

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a systematic, structure-based modeling framework for analysis and control of electric power systems for processes evolving over the mid-term and long-term time horizons. Much simpler models than the detailed dynamics specifically for control design at different hierarchical levels are obtained by applying both temporal and spatial separation. These simple models, or the aggregate models, represent the net effect of interactions among interconnected regions on specific hierarchical levels. They are exact, since no assumptions on weak interconnections among the subsystems are made. Moreover they are easily understood in terms of power flows among the regions. The approach is essential for improving present performance of the system. It is also potentially useful in a competitive utility environment in which it is critical to study the interplay between technical and economic processes.

  13. Electricity consumption, industrial production, and entrepreneurship in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Sizhong; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of a tri-variate vector autoregressive framework that includes entrepreneurship, this paper examines the link between electricity consumption and industrial production in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Unlike the existing studies, this paper focuses on one sector of the economy and utilises a unique monthly dataset. Empirical analysis based on Johansen's cointegration approach shows that the three variables are cointegrated – i.e., a stable long-run relationship exists among electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Empirical analysis based on data from January 1983 to February 2014 reveals that electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to industrial production and entrepreneurship. Furthermore, entrepreneurship Granger causes electricity consumption, which causes industrial production. As electricity consumption causes industrial output, the growth hypothesis concerning energy consumption and economic growth holds in Singapore's manufacturing sector and policies that restrict electricity production, without electricity imports, are likely to lead to a decline in the manufacturing output. - Highlights: • Using a unique monthly dataset, we focus on Singapore's manufacturing sector. • Electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship are cointegrated. • Electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to the other variables. • Entrepreneurship causes electricity consumption which causes industrial production. • We find that growth hypothesis governs the electricity consumption and real output

  14. Private wind powered electricity generators for industry in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabit, S. S.; Stark, J.

    This paper investigates the impact of the provisions of the new Energy Act, 1983 on industrial wind-powered private generators of electricity and the effects of published tariffs on various industrial working patterns. Up to 30 percent savings can be achieved in annual electricity bill costs for an industrial generator/user of electricity working a single daily shift, if located in a favorable, 7 m/s mean annual wind speed regime. Variation of the availability charge between Electricity Boards about a base value of 0.70 pounds sterling/kVA was found to have insignificant (+ or - 1.3 percent) impact on total electricity bill costs. It was also shown that for industrial users of electricity, the simpler two-rate purchase terms were commercially adequate when compared with the four-rate alternative where expensive metering becomes necessary.

  15. Transmission and wind investment in a deregulated electricity industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Lajos; Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2013-01-01

    carrying out investment in wind farms. In this paper, we analyse the interaction between the two conflicting objectives under various assumptions about the electricity market structure and the degree of producers' market power. Via a three-node illustrative example, we show that a merchant investor...... the auspices of a regulated welfare-maximising planner, recent restructuring of electricity industries has introduced a merchant model for transmission investment, which provides congestion rents from construction of a new line. Thus, the merchant investor's incentives are different from those of producers...... typically builds less transmission capacity than a welfare-maximising transmission system operator or central planner. Although social welfare is lower and nodal prices are generally higher with a merchant investor and when producers are assumed to behave à la Cournot, the effect of lower price response...

  16. Research and development in the electricity supply industry conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document summarizes the views expressed in the conference papers. These are grouped into fuels for the future, coal fired powers stations, renewables, use of heat as a by-product of electricity generation, fuel cells, electric vehicles, and environmental issues in the electricity supply industry. The points and ideas from the two workshops held in conjunction with the conference are also summarized

  17. Auction development for the price-based electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekrajangpetch, Somgiat

    The restructuring of the electric power industry is to move away from the cost-based monopolistic environment of the past to the priced-based competitive environment. As the electric power industry is restructuring in many places, there are still many problems that need to be solved. The work in this dissertation contributes to solve some of the electric power auction problems. The majority of this work is aimed to help develop good markets. A LaGrangian relaxation (LR) Centralized Daily Commitment Auction (CDCA) has been implemented. It has been shown that the solution might not be optimal nor fair to some generation companies (GENCOs) when identical or similar generating units participate in a LR CDCA based auction. Supporting information for bidding strategies on how to change unit data to enhance the chances of bid acceptance has been developed. The majority of this work is based on Single Period Commodity Auction (SPCA). Alternative structures for the SPCA are outlined. Whether the optimal solution is degenerated is investigated. Good pricing criteria are summarized and the pricing method following good pricing criteria is developed. Electricity is generally considered as a homogeneous product. When availability level is used as additional characteristic to distinct electricity, electricity can be considered a heterogeneous product. The procedure to trade electricity as a heterogeneous product is developed. The SPCA is formulated as a linear program. The basic IPLP algorithm has been extended so that sensitivity analysis can be performed as in the simplex method. Sensitivity analysis is used to determine market reach. Additionally, sensitivity analysis is used in combination with the investigation of historical auction results to provide raw data for power system expansion. Market power is a critical issue in electric power deregulation. Firms with market power have an advantage over other competitor firms in terms of market reach. Various approaches to

  18. Electrical industry and the eighties - triumph or disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-16

    A brief review of progress made in the electrical industry during the 1880s is presented. Then the trials and tribulations which are in store for the industry in 1980 are reviewed. How these problems should be tackled by a strong and unified industry is suggested. Areas covered include the anti-nuclear movement, the energy supply problems, rampant consumerism, and the consumer lobby.

  19. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  20. Public-policy responsibilities in a restructured electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1995-06-01

    In this report, we identify and define the key public-policy values, objectives, and actions that the US electricity industry currently meets. We also discuss the opportunities for meeting these objectives in a restructured industry that relies primarily on market forces rather than on government mandates. And we discuss those functions that governments might undertake, presumably because they will not be fully met by a restructured industry on its own. These discussions are based on a variety of inputs. The most important inputs came from participants in an April 1995 workshop on Public-Policy Responsibilities and Electric Industry Restructuring: Shaping the Research Agenda. Other sources of information and insights include the reviews of a draft of this report by workshop participants and others and the rapidly growing literature on electric-industry restructuring and its implications. One of the major concerns about the future of the electricity industry is the fate of numerous social and environmental programs supported by today`s electric utilities. Many people worry that a market-driven industry may not meet the public-policy objectives that electric utilities have met in the past. Examples of potentially at-risk programs include demand-side management (DSM), renewable energy, low-income weatherization, and fuel diversity. Workshop participants represented electric utilities, public utility commissions (PUCs), state energy offices, public-interest groups, other energy providers, and the research community.

  1. Continuous Improvement and its Barriers in Electrical and Electronic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Md Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous improvement is one of the core strategies for manufacturing excellent and it is considered vital in today’s business environment. Continuous improvement is an important factor in TQM implementation. However, manufacturers in Electrical and Electronic Industry is facing variety of challenges such as, time constraint, quality issue, headcount issue, human issue and competition in domestic as well as the global market. This paper presents total quality management practices in Electrical and Electronic (EE Industry. These manufacturers have to keep improving in key activities and processes to cope the challenges. Therefore, EE industry realize the importance of continuous improvement in helping the industries by setting clear goals and priorities for the area of improvement. The aims of this study are to determine the main factor in implementing continuous improvement practices, identify tools of continuous improvement that have been used and their obstacle in implementing continuous improvement practices. 200 questionnaires had been distributed to the employees in Electrical and Electronic Industry located at Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia. A total of 41 questionnaires were answered which represented about 20.5% response rates. Survey result shows that teamwork and training and learning are respectively the importance factor and the most practices factor in Electrical and Electronic Industry. Most of the Electrical and Electronic Industry emphasis is on using Lean Manufacturing as the tool of continuous improvement practices. Besides that, Electrical and Electronic Industry faced the problems of lack of budget and lack of worker commitment.

  2. Guide to Alberta's competitive electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    A crucial point was reached at the beginning of 2001 in the process of competitive electricity market in Alberta, when record high prices were reached in both the natural gas and electricity markets. In this document, the intent was to present, in a non-technical way, the new electricity market. It was designed to cover issues as they flow, from generator to consumer. Therefore, it began with a market model illustration going through each step of the process. Frequently asked questions, developed using the input from 160,000 Albertans, were answered in each section. The first section of the document dealt with a competitive market. In section 2, the electricity supply was discussed, followed by section 3 and the wholesale electricity market. In section, 4, the reader was invited to explore customer choice, and consumer information was provided in section 5. tabs., figs

  3. Powering the future: Blueprint for a sustainable electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1997-01-01

    Long known for its vast scale and fierce resistance to change, the US power industry is poised for a sweeping transformation. Although driven by many of the same forces propelling the telecommunications revolution, the electricity industry has received only a fraction as much attention. Yet the electric industry is far larger, with a current investment per customer of $6,000--double that of the phone and cable industries combined. Moreover, unlike telecommunications, the future of the power industry will have an enormous impact on the global environment. The glimmerings of a more efficient, decentralized, and less-polluting power system are beginning to capture the interest--and even the investment dollars--of some. In this paper, the authors describe the route to a more environmentally sustainable electric industry to power the twenty-first century

  4. Ways to control quality of electric equipment in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipilov, A.D.; Nabokov, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    A structure is proposed for organization in the coal industry of a permanent service for controlling quality of electrical engineering equipment. A form was developed for introduction of recommendations to improve quality. Methods are suggested for evaluating the quality level as applied to specific tasks of controlling quality of the electrical equipment used in mining.

  5. Essays in energy economics: The electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Chombo, Eduardo

    Electricity demand analysis using cointegration and error-correction models with time varying parameters: The Mexican case. In this essay we show how some flexibility can be allowed in modeling the parameters of the electricity demand function by employing the time varying coefficient (TVC) cointegrating model developed by Park and Hahn (1999). With the income elasticity of electricity demand modeled as a TVC, we perform tests to examine the adequacy of the proposed model against the cointegrating regression with fixed coefficients, as well as against the spuriousness of the regression with TVC. The results reject the specification of the model with fixed coefficients and favor the proposed model. We also show how some flexibility is gained in the specification of the error correction model based on the proposed TVC cointegrating model, by including more lags of the error correction term as predetermined variables. Finally, we present the results of some out-of-sample forecast comparison among competing models. Electricity demand and supply in Mexico. In this essay we present a simplified model of the Mexican electricity transmission network. We use the model to approximate the marginal cost of supplying electricity to consumers in different locations and at different times of the year. We examine how costs and system operations will be affected by proposed investments in generation and transmission capacity given a forecast of growth in regional electricity demands. Decomposing electricity prices with jumps. In this essay we propose a model that decomposes electricity prices into two independent stochastic processes: one that represents the "normal" pattern of electricity prices and the other that captures temporary shocks, or "jumps", with non-lasting effects in the market. Each contains specific mean reverting parameters to estimate. In order to identify such components we specify a state-space model with regime switching. Using Kim's (1994) filtering algorithm

  6. An imbalanced development of coal and electricity industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing

    2007-01-01

    China's coal and electricity industries have a strong reliance on each other, however, because of excessive invasion of government, it is difficult for these two industries to form a stable, reasonable, and transaction cost-saving relationships, but long-run disputes and quarrels. This paper discusses the pricing policies and transaction relationship between these two industries from the historical perspective. It begins with the discussion of coal. Coal market has become competitive since 1980 due to the system of dual track approach, but coal sold to electricity was still tightly controlled by government-guided pricing. Then the paper examines electricity investment and tariff reform. Unlike coal, entry to electricity generation sector was gradually relaxed but generation and retailing tariffs are still strictly regulated. As energy demand and prices soared after 2002, coal and electricity enterprises are all unsatisfied with the rule of price setting of coal sold to electricity industry. This paper concludes that the deliberate low coal price policy does protect electricity industry from fuel cost fluctuation but harm coal industry. Allocative and productive efficiency are difficult to achieve in the long run

  7. An imbalanced development of coal and electricity industries in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bing [School of Public Administration, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)]. E-mail: wbyf@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2007-10-15

    China's coal and electricity industries have a strong reliance on each other, however, because of excessive invasion of government, it is difficult for these two industries to form a stable, reasonable, and transaction cost-saving relationships, but long-run disputes and quarrels. This paper discusses the pricing policies and transaction relationship between these two industries from the historical perspective. It begins with the discussion of coal. Coal market has become competitive since 1980 due to the system of dual track approach, but coal sold to electricity was still tightly controlled by government-guided pricing. Then the paper examines electricity investment and tariff reform. Unlike coal, entry to electricity generation sector was gradually relaxed but generation and retailing tariffs are still strictly regulated. As energy demand and prices soared after 2002, coal and electricity enterprises are all unsatisfied with the rule of price setting of coal sold to electricity industry. This paper concludes that the deliberate low coal price policy does protect electricity industry from fuel cost fluctuation but harm coal industry. Allocative and productive efficiency are difficult to achieve in the long run.

  8. An imbalanced development of coal and electricity industries in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing Wang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). School of Public Administration

    2007-10-15

    China's coal and electricity industries have a strong reliance on each other, however, because of excessive invasion of government, it is difficult for these two industries to form a stable, reasonable, and transaction cost-saving relationships, but long-run disputes and quarrels. This paper discusses the pricing policies and transaction relationship between these two industries from the historical perspective. It begins with the discussion of coal. The coal market has become competitive since 1980 due to the system of dual track approach, but coal sold to electricity was still tightly controlled by government-guided pricing. The paper next examines electricity investment and tariff reform. Unlike coal, entry to the electricity generation sector was gradually relaxed but generation and retailing tariffs are still strictly regulated. As energy demand and prices soared after 2002, coal and electricity enterprises are all unsatisfied with the rule of price setting of coal sold to the electricity industry. It is concluded that the deliberate low coal price policy does protect the electricity industry from fuel cost fluctuation but harms the coal industry. Allocative and productive efficiency are difficult to achieve in the long run. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Guide to the economic regulation of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Guide to the Economic Regulation of the Electricity Industry, part of the series of OXERA Guides to Regulation, is designed as an essential work of reference for those who work in regulation and for practitioners who need to understand the needs and mechanics of regulation. The 154-page document provides: comprehensive coverage of the institutional and legal framework which defines the regulation of the electricity industry; an examination of current regulatory issues and developments in the industry; explanations of the roles of the key players; a condensed account of all the relevant legal documents; coverage of the industry in Scotland and Northern Ireland. (Author)

  10. Planning games for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, K.

    1977-01-01

    The author shows the main differences between the electricity supply planning game for the Bernische Kraftwerke AG (PEW-1) and that for the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Elektrizitaetswerke AG (PEW-2). (orig.) [de

  11. The electric power industry in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleo, J.N.; Anthoine, K.; Vallon, D.; Baleo, V.

    2003-03-01

    As more than 99% of the electric power in Norway come from the hydro energy, the climatic conditions influence the energy prices. Since 1996 and because of an increasing consumption, the country needs to import electric power from Sweden, Denmark, Finland and for a little part Russia. This report evaluates the today situation, the distribution and production sources, the regulations, the Government policy and the research programs concerning the ''classical energy sources'' and the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  12. Electricity utility deregulation in Great Britain: economic and industrial consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we analyze in the first part how was made the deregulation of the public electric utilities in Great Britain and in the second the logic and the contradictions of this deregulation in an industrial point of view

  13. Bulgarian electricity market and the large-scale industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, P.; Kanev, K.; Dyankov, M.; Minkov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The paper focuses on a brief overview of the Bulgarian Electricity Market Design and steps toward its development, as well as on preliminary analyses for market opening and influence of large industrial customers to system and market operation. (author)

  14. Restructuring, ownership and efficiency in the electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanefelter, Jennifer Kaiser

    a reduction in superfluous or redundant employment, as suggested by the broadening of union job titles during the 1990s. Additionally, the second chapter examines the wage trend in the industry, which is not observable using aggregate establishment payroll data. I find that in the electricity industry, after controlling for person-level characteristics, employee wages are statistically equivalent in states with a high degree of restructuring activity as in traditionally regulated states. When the person-level controls are dropped, wages are significantly higher in states with a more competitive industry structure. This supports the hypothesis that employment has been reduced disproportionately among the lower-skilled employees in the industry. Chapters 1 and 2 document the experience of labor in the electricity industry in the post-regulatory restructuring era. Chapter 1 finds evidence that employment has been reduced significantly at electricity generation plants that are owned by nonutilities ("merchants"). That chapter also finds that the nonutility average wage is higher than the utility average wage. Chapter 2 further finds that the average wage is increasing in the industry not because individual employees, adjusting for worker characteristics, are better-compensated to an equal degree, but rather because nonutility-owned plants are using employees with a different set of attributes. Chapter 3 of this analysis considers the shift in the wage distribution, identifying how different types of employees have fared under restructuring, which provides insight into which employees most benefit from restructuring in this industry. Chapters 1 and 2 hypothesize that low-skill employees in this industry were most affected by regulatory restructuring, which eroded the regulatory rents that accrued to this group in the form of employment stabilization. I graph the wage distribution in the electricity industry, breaking the data into different groups to judge how the

  15. Strategies to address transition costs in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.; Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1996-07-01

    Transition costs are the potential monetary losses that electric- utility shareholders, ratepayers, or other parties might experience because of structural changes in the electricity industry. Regulators, policy analysts, utilities, and consumer groups have proposed a number of strategies to address transition costs, such as immediately opening retail electricity markets or delaying retail competition. This report has 3 objectives: identify a wide range of strategies available to regulators and utilities; systematically examine effects of strategies; and identify potentially promising strategies that may provide benefits to more than one set of stakeholders. The many individual strategies are grouped into 6 major categories: market actions, depreciation options, rate-making actions, utility cost reductions, tax measures, and other options. Of the 34 individual strategies, retail ratepayers have primary or secondary responsibility for paying transition costs in 19 of the strategies, shareholders in 12, wheeling customers in 11, taxpayers in 8, and nonutility suppliers in 4. Most of the strategies shift costs among different segments of the economy, although utility cost reductions can be used to offset transition costs. Most of the strategies require cooperation of other parties, including regulators, to be implemented successfully; financial stakeholders must be engages in negotiations that hold the promise of shared benefits. Only by rejecting ``winner-take-all`` strategies will the transition-cost issue be expeditiously resolved.

  16. Managing an evolution: Deregulation of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the emerging competitive situation in the electric power industry as deregulation of electric utilities looms on the horizon. The paper supports this change, and the competition it will bring, but urges caution as changes are instituted, and the regulatory bodies decide how and how much to free, and at what rates. The reason for his urge for caution comes from historical experience of other industries, which were smaller and had less direct impact on every American.

  17. Industrial Electricity. In-Plant Distribution. Vocational Trade and Industrial Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Cash; Pewewardy, Garner

    This curriculum guide, part of a series of industrial electricity curriculum guides, consists of materials for use in teaching a course on the in-plant distribution of electricity. Discussed in the introductory lessons are the National Electrical Code, power equipment, and blueprint reading. The next section, a series of units on branch-circuit…

  18. The effect of electricity prices on industry in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roepenack, A. von

    1992-01-01

    The contribution gives a survey of the general consumption of electricity in the (former) Federal Republic of Germany from 1980 until 1990 and illustrates the effect of electricity prices on industry - safety of the site, competition, influences on prices for electricity, intensity of electricity, comparison to gross increase in value. In addition, the influence of politics on electricity prices is examined. Among other things, we owe the success of our industry on the international market to the increase in our use of electric power. This is the basis of our success in rationalization and our status on the world market. The dependency of industry and industrial products on this form of energy has increased and will continue to do so. Thus the politicians have little room to act if they do not want to influence industry in a negative way. On the basis of the situation described here, electricity prices which are competitive internationally are an essential prerequisite for the future of our economy. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Addressing the human resource challenge in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The electricity industry is facing significant challenges in terms of its labour forces in the years ahead due to an aging workforce and pending retirements in an industry already challenged by increasing demand, technological change and regulatory instability. A shortage of skilled labour could compromise the electricity sector in a variety of ways including: reduced reliability, increased cost of production, infrastructure projects delays, and decreased safety and productivity due to less experienced employees and worker shortages. This report presented a briefing of recommendations developed by the Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) that offered concrete solutions to addressing the electricity industry's workforce challenges. The recommendations focused around three areas: building Canadian skills base by investing in education, skills training and apprenticeships, particularly in underrepresented communities; ensuring trained, skilled workers are able to work and flourish in their area of expertise by streamlining certification and credential recognition, and facilitating workforce mobility; and attracting and retaining skilled foreign workers by ensuring successful community and workplace integration. Background information on the electricity industry in Canada was also presented. The CEA also proposed a list of policy initiatives to ensure the Canadian electricity industry can maintain and enhance its human and electricity potential. It was concluded that the CEA is prepared to develop detailed implementation plans and programs to operationalize any and all of the recommendations in the briefing. 2 figs.

  20. Waste utilization in electric energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parate, N.S.; Harris, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electric energy is an integral element of today's economy and the standard quality of life. The availability of energy at an affordable cost has always been of basic concern because of the intimate relationship of energy to our societal development and progress. Coal and Uranium are the primary alternative energy sources for large electric power plants. Coal remains the dominant fuel for electric generation. The pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology has the potential of utilizing all types of coal, including coal with high ash, high sulphur, and high moisture content. Fluidized bed combustion is a firing technique which fulfills today's pollution control requirements without downstream flue gas cleaning plants like scrubbers, baghouses, and precipitators

  1. The complexity of electricity markets: the limits of the liberalisation of electric industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2015-12-01

    As electric industries have been liberalised or privatised later than other public utilities, notably in developed countries, this article first recalls that this activity has been during a long time a monopoly hold by a public service, and precisely planned with tariffs regulated by public authorities. Then, the author explains how deregulation is performed for such an industry to allow competition to be introduced at all levels of the electric sector. He describes the operation mode of the wholesale market which is structured in an hourly market due to the non-storable characteristic of electricity, describes retail price formation by pilling up the wholesale price, regulated tariffs of transport and distribution, and a tax aimed at paying the cost of public policies. This price can be compared with the regulated tariff which previously encompassed everything without any dissociation. Finally, he highlights the main defects and drawbacks of this market which do not allow long term investments in base equipment, back up equipment and on low carbon equipment (renewable, nuclear, and others)

  2. Moves towards privatization and market liberalization in Ukraine's electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, A.

    1997-01-01

    The problems surrounding Ukraine's electricity industry and the safety of its nuclear reactors have attracted much international concern. This paper describes the political and economic developments in the country since it became independent in 1991, and highlights the electricity sector reforms which have been aided by the EBRD, the IMPF and the World Bank. (author)

  3. Financing future exports of Canada's electrical power equipment industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, K.A.J.; Saravanamuttoo, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The economic impact on the Canadian power sector of continued constraints on the availability of concessionary export financing is examined. An overview of the structure of the Canadian electrical power equipment industry is provided, followed by a discussion of its competitiveness and performance. Export prospects are outlined and separate reviews are presented of hydroelectric and thermal expansion. A global market of US $17 billion for hydroelectric power in the 1990s is forecast, and a market of US $300 billion for all forms of power generation in developing Asia. The export strategies of international competitive bidding, forming a consortium within an international multinational enterprise, co-financing with Japanese aid agencies, and direct negotiation are discussed. The costs and benefits of concessional financing are assessed and shown to bring net fiscal benefits. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Topical problems of the German electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeck, H [Stadtwerke Hannover A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Worm, N [Hannover-Braunschweigische Stromversorgungs-A.G., Hannover (Germany, F.R.); Brohmeyer, M [Schleswig-Holsteinische Stromversorgungs A.G., Rendsburg (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Anwendungstechnik und Beratung; Deuster, G [Energieversorgung Oberhausen A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Heitzer, H; Holzer, J [Bayernwerk A.G., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.); Deparade, K [Verband der Energie-Abnehmer e.V., Hannover (Germany, F.R.); Marnet, C [Stadtwerke Duesseldorf A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Oberlack, H W [Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Segatz, U [Preussische Elektrizitaets-A.G. (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-06-01

    On the occasion of the general meeting of the VDE high-ranking personalities of the German Power Supply Industry were interviewed on current affairs. The following subjects were discussed: (1) problems involved in energy policy; (2) energy problems due to newly formed regions; (3) utilization of electric power in agriculture; (4) development prospects of district heating; (5) problems of power generation far from coal districts; (6) rationalization in the commercial sector; (7) opportunities and limits of industrial combined heat and power generation; (8) environmental protection and electric power supply; (9) possible utilization of imported coal; and (10). assuring the primary energy basis for electric power supply.

  5. Expert System Applications for the Electric Power Industry: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    A conference on Expert System Applications for the Electric Power Industry was held in Boston on September 8--11, 1991 to provide a forum for technology transfer, technical information exchange, and education. The conference was attended by more than 150 representatives of electric utilities, equipment manufacturers, engineering consulting organizations, universities, national laboratories, and government agencies. The meeting included a keynote address, 70 papers, and 18 expert system demonstrations. Sessions covered expert systems in power system planning operations, fossil power plant applications, nuclear power plant applications, and intelligent user interfaces. The presentations showed how expert systems can provide immediate benefits to the electric power industry in many applications. Individual papers are indexed separately

  6. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  7. Managing relationships between electric power industry restructuring and grid reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The electricity system is a critical infrastructure, and its continued and reliable functioning is essential to the nation's economy and well-being. However, the inter-dependency of electricity networks is not completely understood. The economic impact of outages was discussed in this white paper. It was suggested that moving to a restructured environment has degraded the reliability of the bulk system. New institutional arrangements and approaches to information management are needed. It was suggested that reliability practices caused the 2003 blackout, and not technical failures. Uncertainties in the restructured market were discussed, as well as incentives to maintain system adequacy. Examples of deregulation in other countries were presented. Organizational complexities were reviewed, including the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) requirements and the new layers of complexity that have been added to the decision-making process in the light of restructuring. Planning and connectivity issues were reviewed. The need for design standards in power grid control centres was discussed. Difficulties in collecting data from different control centres were considered. Issues concerning the lack of investment in research and development were discussed, with particular reference to the urgent need for coordinated research programs. The looming manpower crisis in the electric power industry was also discussed. Recommendations included ensuring that the transmission system can support a market structure; building a national reliability centre; solving the manpower crisis; and testing market designs before deploying them. It was concluded that good engineering design principles, including experimental economic testing, should be required of any new electricity market design before authorizing its use. 31 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  8. The electricity industry and 'Energy 2000'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederberger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The action programme 'Energy 2000', presented by Federal Councillor Ogi as a result of the agreements of last September, aims, on the one hand, for a stabilization of power consumption until the turn of the century, and, on the other hand, for an extension of domestic production, to which a contribution should also be made by renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic power. The Swiss electricity producers are prepared to make their contribution to the realization of these ambitious objectives. (orig.) [de

  9. An industrial customer's view of changes in electricity purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muiznieks, R.

    1995-01-01

    The purchasing agent for Canadian Occidental Chemicals described his experiences in the purchase of electricity under the new circumstances of competition. Electrical power costs for Canadian Occidental's manufacturing operation were described as a key consideration in expanding their chlorate production. The ideal purchasing scheme was described from the purchaser's standpoint. A list of what purchasers wish to gain from increased supplier choices was provided. The behaviour of the electricity suppliers that provide power to CanadianOccidental was described since changes in British Columbia's electric power regulations were enacted. Electric utility marketing practices in Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta were noted in comparison. It was prophesized that deeregulation will ultimately benefit consumers and provincial economies, by transforming the power industry into a customer driven industry

  10. Tariff structures for the transport of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenken, R.M.L.; Van de Water, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Some possible tariff structures for electricity transport are discussed. First, the costs associated with the transport of electricity are explained. The fixed and variable costs of a transport are illustrated with some examples. Furthermore, the most common tariff structures (contract path, megawatt mile, postage stamp) and negotiated Third Party Access are discussed. Finally, the way the tariff structures reflect the costs of electricity transport are reviewed. 3 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  11. Policies and strategies for meeting emission abatement targets in the UK electricity supply industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyte, W S [Powergen, Solihull (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    A new electricity industry structure was created in the UK on 31 March 1990 and this was launched into the private sector during 1990/91. This structure differs considerably from the public corporations that preceeded it. Public awareness of the environment has grown during this period and the newly privatised electricity supply industry is having to implement new pollution controls. Legislation increasingly comes from the European Commission and is interpreted by HM Inspectorate of Pollution having regard to Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) and Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Cost (BATNEEC). Issues of particular importance include acid rain, and global warming - especially CO{sub 2} reduction. 3 figs.

  12. Transmission pricing and stranded costs in the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumol, W.J.; Sidak, J.G.

    1995-09-01

    Stranded costs are those costs that electric utilities are currently permitted to recover through their rates but whose recovery may be impeded or prevented by the advent of competition in the industry. Estimates of these costs run from the tens to the hundreds of billions of dollars. Should regulators permit utilities to recover stranded costs while they take steps to promote competition in the electric power industry. William Baumol and J. Gregory Sidak argue that answer to that question should be yes.The authors show that a transmission price, the price for sending electricity over the transmission grid, can be determined in a manner that is compatible with economic efficiency and clearly neutral in its effects upon all competitors in electricity generation. A correctly constructed regime of transmission pricing may in fact achieve the efficiency and equity goals that justify the recovery of stranded costs

  13. Continuous Improvement and its Barriers in Electrical and Electronic Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Md Fauzi; Yan Toh Li; Wei Chan Shiau; Aizat Ahmad Ahmad Nur; Raja Mohd Rasi Raja Zuraidah; Abdul Rahman Nor Aida; Muhd Nor Nik Hisyamudin; Hassan Mohd Fahrul; Hashim Fatan Adibah

    2017-01-01

    Continuous improvement is one of the core strategies for manufacturing excellent and it is considered vital in today’s business environment. Continuous improvement is an important factor in TQM implementation. However, manufacturers in Electrical and Electronic Industry is facing variety of challenges such as, time constraint, quality issue, headcount issue, human issue and competition in domestic as well as the global market. This paper presents total quality management practices in Electric...

  14. Tariffs regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    1997-01-01

    This work tries to explain the tariff regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry from the end of the second world war to now. These events, shown in the following tables, are divided into four phases: 1) the progressive standardization of electric power prices (1945-61); 2) the price control (1961-74); 3) the 'interferences' in the tariff system (1974-95); 4) the present deregulation (price-cap)

  15. Shadows and lights of the italian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, Salvatore; Silva, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The passage of the electricity industry from a public monopoly vertically integrated to a decentralized and competitive system poses organizational, institutional, economic and technical problems whose complexity must be taken in due account. The recent electricity reform in Italy is a good test to verity the capabilities of the policy maker to design and implement such a difficult process. Inadequate competencies, doubts, conflicts and institutional rigidities produced a sub-optimal result [it

  16. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schaffhauser, A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  17. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, B.; Schaffhauser, A.

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ''business as usual,'' ''technotopia future,'' and ''fortress state'' -and three electric utility scenarios- ''frozen in headlights,'' ''megaelectric,'' and ''discomania.'' The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest

  18. Institutional contexts of market power in the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foer, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Market power is widely recognized as one of the principal issues that must be dealt with if the electricity industry is to make the transition from regulation to competition. In this article, the author provides a legal and economic introduction to what the antitrust community means by market power and offers a primer on why market power is so central an issue in the electricity industry. Finally and most importantly, he offers comments on the institutional contexts of market power, exploring a process which he calls Shermanization that helps explain the institutional aspect of moving from regulation to competition and holds implications for where oversight should reside during this complex transition

  19. Product Differentiation and Industrial Structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaked, Avner; Sutton, John

    1987-01-01

    Some recent literature on "vertical product differentiation" has d eveloped the idea that if the nature of technology and tastes in some industry take a certain form, then the industry must necessarily be "concentrated" and must remain so, no matter how large the economy becomes. The present paper develops this idea further and looks at so me of its implications. This approach offers a simple unified framewo rk within which to reexplore many issues that arise in considering th e relationship ...

  20. Methods for Estimation of Market Power in Electric Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Junghans, G.; Kolcun, M.

    2012-01-01

    The article is related to a topical issue of the newly-arisen market power phenomenon in the electric power industry. The authors point out to the importance of effective instruments and methods for credible estimation of the market power on liberalized electricity market as well as the forms and consequences of market power abuse. The fundamental principles and methods of the market power estimation are given along with the most common relevant indicators. Furthermore, in the work a proposal for determination of the relevant market place taking into account the specific features of power system and a theoretical example of estimating the residual supply index (RSI) in the electricity market are given.

  1. Electrical energy industry regulation: trend in the international context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Arriaga, J.I.

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of the electric power industry is presently experiencing significative changes world-wide at an unprecedented pace. In these circumstances it is useless to attempt the preparation of a static snapshot of the current situation, because of the difficulties in capturing the exact position of each player and also because the picture would become obsolete in a very short time. This paper presents the specific features characterising power organisation, the regulatory approaches to the several services involved in supplying electricity, and alternative schemes for introduction of different levels of competition in traditionally regulated electric systems. (Author) 24 refs

  2. Electricity supply enterprises: Profits in comparison between industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnl, U.

    1995-01-01

    The acquisition of participations by major electricity supply enterprises during the last years met with strong criticism from the general public and revived the controversial discussion about electricity prices and profits. Yet the electricity industry is subject to specific legal price controls guaranteeing a price formation that is cost-economical, just and fair under the causation principle and does not permit excessive profits. Under this aspect and against the background of discussing this issue on an economic basis the author presents an empirical survey. (orig.)

  3. Basic strategies in the electric power industry in the new competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Filho, Ary Pinto; Moraes, Walter Fernando Araujo de

    1999-01-01

    This work identifies the probable strategic characteristics of the interconnected North-Northeast Brazilian electricity industry, after the current restructuring and privatization process has been implemented. It is a 15.0 thousand MW generation industry supplying more than 33.5 million consumers. The normative scenery for analysis of the electricity industry takes into consideration the premises that the government establishes the vertical separation of generation, transmission, distribution and retailing, and introduces the regulation to a competitive industrial structure in generation and retailing. It is assumed that free access to transmit and distribute electricity and broad choices for consumers are the main features for competition in both generation and retailing. The essence of formulating strategy is to relate a company with its environment, considering the industrial structure. The probable generic strategies and industrial trends are presented, and considerations are made concerned with the future expansion capacity. Finally, in the new industrial structure which will settle after the deregulation and privatization, the main strategic issues of the companies will likely focus on: profitability, cost control, managerial competence, consumer behavior, and new technologies, in special the ones related to modern thermal power plants. (author)

  4. Privatization of British electricity supply industry: Critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervigni, G.

    1993-01-01

    Until 1989, despite the partially disintegrated organization of the British electricity supply industry (ESI) and the attempt of the Energy Act of 1983 to pull down entrance barriers to the power generation business, ESI operated like an integrated monopoly. Between 1989 and 1990, ESI has been subjected to a reorganization process and transfer to the private sector with the declared aim of improving short and long run micro-economic efficiency. For this purpose, the attempt of introducing competition in the phases of the production process where possible and of regulating those which are structurally non competitive, has been made. The new configuration of ESI in terms of organizational structure, property regime and regulatory system is analyzed. Areas of improvement of the regulatory system and delayed key decisions of the public operator, are identified. However, any evaluation of the process as a whole can only relate to a minor part of the present situation; thus it subtends a scenary for the future, where the role of the regulatory authority is crucial

  5. What goes down must come up? Trends of industrial electricity use in the North-West of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korppoo, Anna; Luukkanen, Jyrki; Vehmas, Jarmo; Kinnunen, Miia

    2008-01-01

    This article uses decomposition method to analyse industrial electricity consumption in North-Western Russia, namely in Archangelsk oblast, the Republic of Karelia and Murmansk oblast. The case sectors, forestry and electricity, have in most cases developed similarly in the chosen regions during 1990-2001. The decomposition analysis shows that the reduction of economic activity has reduced electricity consumption in all three regions but that it is not always the main factor reducing consumption. The changes in energy efficiency increased consumption in the forestry sector in all regions while in the electricity sector it led to a reduction. The changes in the structures of the regional economies increased electricity consumption in electricity industry which gained importance due to developments in the manufacturing industry. In Murmansk, forestry sector has almost disappeared during the observation period. This was the main observed electricity consumption reduction caused by structural changes. Many of the developments can be better understood against the general knowledge of transition factors

  6. The first step in restructuring the US electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, A.H. [American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Reutter, K.A. [Nathan Associates, Auburn (United States); Thompson, H. [Auburn University (United States). Comer Hall

    2005-03-01

    The electric industry lobbied for its first step in restructuring, from local franchises to regulated state monopolies during the early 1900s. The present paper examines this restructuring with an empirical model that includes the introduction of natural gas and steam turbine generators. The restructuring resulted in fewer firms, higher costs, and higher prices, consistent with increased monopoly power and captured regulators. (author)

  7. The first step in restructuring the US electric industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, A.H.; Reutter, K.A.; Thompson, H.

    2005-01-01

    The electric industry lobbied for its first step in restructuring, from local franchises to regulated state monopolies during the early 1900s. The present paper examines this restructuring with an empirical model that includes the introduction of natural gas and steam turbine generators. The restructuring resulted in fewer firms, higher costs, and higher prices, consistent with increased monopoly power and captured regulators. (author)

  8. Challenges in sensor development for the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Barry H.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industry is reducing operating costs in order to prepare for deregulation. The reduction in operating cost has meant a reduction in manpower. The ability to utilize remaining maintenance staff more effectively and to stay competitive in a deregulated environment has therefore become critical. In recent years, the industry has moved away from routine or periodic maintenance to predictive or condition based maintenance. This requires the assessment of equipment condition by frequent testing and inspection; a requirement that is incompatible with cost reduction. To overcome this dilemma, industry trends are toward condition monitoring, whereby the health of apparatus is monitored continuously. This requires the installation of sensors hr transducers on power equipment and the data taken forwarded to an intelligent device for further processing. These devices then analyze the data and make evaluations based on parameter levels or trends, in an attempt to predict possible deterioration. This continuous monitoring allows the electric utility to schedule maintenance on an as needed basis. The industry has been faced with many challenges in sensor design. The measurement of physical, chemical and electrical parameters under extreme conditions of electric fields, magnetic fields, temperature, corrosion, etc. is extensive. This paper will give an overview of these challenges and the solutions adopted for apparatus such as power transformers, circuit breakers, boilers, cables, batteries, and rotating machinery.

  9. Monopoly and competition in the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eugeniu, P.; Rucareanu, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The authors show how some of the electric energy characteristics can lead to monopoly and state control and how this trend acts in the totalitarian regimes and in the market economy countries. For exemplification, the organization of the electricity industry in several countries, its evolution and its trends for the near future, are shown. Taking into consideration the Romanian present situation, there are underlined the factors able to ensure the transition to a regime based on private property and competition. Finally it is shown that the Romanian electricity industry requires a two stage implementation of the privatization process: first a non-cession form implying management contracts, loaning contracts, concessions in exploitation and public and private enterprises associations, followed by a cession form when the capital is privatized by direct selling. (author)

  10. On industrial application of structural reliability theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoft-Christensen, P

    1998-06-01

    In this paper it is shown that modern structural reliability theory is being successfully applied to a number of different industries. This review of papers is in no way complete. In the literature there is a large number of similar applications and also application not touched on in this presentation. There has been some concern among scientists from this area that structural reliability theory is not being used by industry. It is probably correct that structural reliability theory is not being used by industry as much as it should be used. However, the work by the ESReDA Working Group clearly shows the vary wide application of structural reliability theory by many different industries. One must also have in mind that industry often is reluctant to publish data related to safety and reliability. (au) 32 refs.

  11. On industrial application of structural reliability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoft-Christensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that modern structural reliability theory is being successfully applied to a number of different industries. This review of papers is in no way complete. In the literature there is a large number of similar applications and also application not touched on in this presentation. There has been some concern among scientists from this area that structural reliability theory is not being used by industry. It is probably correct that structural reliability theory is not being used by industry as much as it should be used. However, the work by the ESReDA Working Group clearly shows the vary wide application of structural reliability theory by many different industries. One must also have in mind that industry often is reluctant to publish data related to safety and reliability. (au)

  12. Distribution reliability in the reformed New Zealand electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlinchy, B. J.

    1997-01-01

    The process of deregulating the electric power industry in New Zealand, which began in 1984, and is now a fully competitive system, was described. The industry is not only fully competitive, but enjoys the distinction of being subject only to very light-handed regulation. The regulation requires each company within the industry to publish an annual financial statement, the rate of profit and some performance indicators including reliability indices. Companies also report on faults in lines and cables, and on a voluntary basis they contribute to a 'by cause' survey, using indicators developed by the Canadian Electricity Association. It is expected that the indices that will be developed from this data will be used as benchmarks for performance. The data could also be used for probability analysis in system expansion programs. 6 refs., 7 figs

  13. Efficiency and environmental factors in the US electricity transmission industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Manuel; Orea, Luis; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The electricity industry in most developed countries has been restructured over recent decades with the aim of improving both service quality and firm performance. Regulated segments (e.g. transmission) still provide the infrastructure for the competitive segments and represent a significant share of the total price paid by final customers. However there is a lack of empirical studies that analyse firms' performance in the electricity transmission sector. In this paper an empirical analysis of US electricity transmission companies is conducted for the period 2001–2009. We use alternative stochastic frontier models that allow us to identify the determinants of firms' inefficiency. These models also permit us to control for weather conditions, potentially one of the most decisive uncontrollable factors in electricity transmission. Our results suggest that weather conditions clearly have an influence on transmission costs and that there is room for improvement in the management of US electricity transmission systems. Regulators should also be aware that more adverse conditions generate higher levels of inefficiency, and that achieving long-term efficiency improvements tends to worsen firms' short-term relative performance. - Highlights: • We analyse firms' performance in the US electricity transmission industry. • Alternative SFA models are estimated to identify determinants of firms' efficiency. • Our results indicate that firms' efficiency has declined and diverged over time. • We find that more adverse conditions generate higher levels of inefficiency.

  14. Electric power industry in Korea: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hoesung.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical power is an indispensable tool in the industrialization of a developing country. An efficient, reliable source of electricity is a key factor in the establishment of a wide range of industries, and the supply of energy must keep pace with the increasing demand which economic growth creates in order for that growth to be sustained. As one of the most successful of all developing countries, Korea has registered impressive economic growth over the last decade, and it could be said that the rapid growth of the Korean economy would not have been possible without corresponding growth in the supply of electric power. Power producers in Korea, and elsewhere in Asia, are to be commended for successfully meeting the challenge of providing the necessary power to spur what some call an economic miracle. The future continues to hold great potential for participants in the electrical power industry, but a number of important challenges must be met in order for that potential to be fully realized. Demand for electricity continues to grow at a staggering rate, while concerns over the environmental impact of power generating facilities must not be ignored. As it becomes increasingly difficult to finance the rapid, and increasingly larger-scale expansion of the power industry through internal sources, the government must find resources to meet the growing demand at least cost. This will lead to important opportunities for the private sector. It is important, therefore, for those interested in participating in the power production industry and taking advantage of the newly emerging opportunities that lie in the Korean market, and elsewhere in Asia, to discuss the relevant issues and become informed of the specific conditions of each market

  15. Environmental regulation and competition in the U.S. electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, S.C.; Weyant, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The structural evolution of the electric utility industry, with reference to its dynamics with environmental regulation, is described, explicitly including suppliers to the industry, the consumers of the products of the industry, and the industries that produce substitutes for the products. The structure of the industry has changed dramatically over the years 1970-1990, and is likely to continue to evolve throughout the 1990s. This evolution has resulted from changes in the milieu within which the industry operates, for example changes in fuel and capital markets, as well as federal, state and local regulations governing its activities. The environmental regulations of the 1970s have had a significant impact on the structure, behavior and performance of the industry and changes in the structure have had a feedback effect on the types of environmental regulations likely to be successful within the industry in reducing emissions of SO 2 , NOx and CO 2 . This and numerous other studies using the framework designed by Michael Porter of the Harvard Business School have demonstrated that this expanded view of competition frequently provides a much better explanation for changes in industry structure and corporate strategy than conventional analyses. 10 refs., 3 figs

  16. Forces that direct the competition in the electric power industry in the new institutional scenery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Filho, Ary Pinto; Moraes, Walter Fernando Araujo de

    1999-01-01

    This work identifies the probable strategic characteristics of the interconnected North-Northeast Brazilian electricity industry, after the current restructuring and privatization process has been implemented. It is a 15.0 thousand MW generation industry supplying more than 33.5 million consumers. The normative scenery for analysis of the electricity industry takes into consideration the premises that the government establishes the vertical separation of generation, transmission, distribution and retailing, and introduces the regulation to a competitive industrial structure in generation and retailing. It is assumed that free access to transmit and distribute electricity and broad choices for consumers are the main features for competition in both generation and retailing. The essence of formulating strategy is to relate a company with its environment, considering the industrial structure. Porter's five forces model for industry environment and competition, emphasizing the role of the government in such regulated industry, is the basic theoretical reference. The main strategic characteristics related to entry barriers, rivalry intensity, supplier power, customer power and substitute products are analyzed. (author)

  17. Resbuffling of the electric power industries: internationalization new players, diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M.; Salaun, D.

    1995-01-01

    The changes that are being brought in the forms of organization of the power industry lead to a global restructuring of the industry. Traditional players are forced to redefine their strategies concerning vertical and horizontal integration and also diversification. They tend to internationalize their business but they are facing aggressive new-comers. The future structure of the industry is not yet determined but there will be a great number of very different corporate players. (authors). 1 fig

  18. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, Beatriz; Javier Ramos-Real, Francisco; De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)

  19. Powering China: Reforming the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Chong Xu

    2002-01-01

    The book reports on the rapidly changing face of the electricity business in China. Reforms by the central government and the need for more and more electric power have pushed the electricity sector from a central planned economy to a markets-based system. The international ramifications of China's reform programme are discussed. The author describes electricity industry reform in other countries including the USA and UK. The author points out that in China after 1998 there was a move to recentralise control but by then it was too late to reverse the reforms. The problems of tariff policies, pricing, and sources of new investments, including from foreign countries, are discussed. The final section of the book deals with problems arising from the need for massive retrenchment of power-section workers, cross-subsidies, and triangular debts. The book is said to provide a sound description of the political economy of power reform in China without getting bogged down in economic modelling

  20. Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.G.; Islam, M.; Rose, K.

    1996-01-01

    This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis

  1. Electricity industry restructuring revisited: the case of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byoung-Hoon; Ahn, Hyeon-Hyo

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, the Korean Government suspended its electricity market reform based on the two-thirds majority recommendation of a six-member joint study team. This suspension effectively interrupts the basic plan adopted in 1998 by the previous administration to divest and privatize Korea Electric Power Corporation's (KEPCO's) generation segment in 2000-2002, implement transmission open access and wholesale competition by 2008, and introduce retail competition thereafter. This policy-decision followed the controversial debate on electricity market reform in Korea. Reform proponents claim that electricity can be treated as ordinary goods exchangeable in the competitive market, and any problems caused by the transition to the market system are manageable. By contrast, reform opponents argue that effective competition of the power industry is not yet feasible due to the idiosyncratic nature of electricity (e.g., low-price elasticity of demand and not being storable at low cost) as well as the country's isolated electricity network. In suspending the electricity reform, the current administration accepted the final conclusion of the joint study team in the Tripartite Commission on the ground that the alleged benefits of reform are theoretical and uncertain, while the real costs and risks are substantial. (author)

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of reforming Israel's electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishler, A.; Newman, J.; Spekterman, I.; Woo, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    In June 2003, the Israeli government decided to reform the Israeli electricity industry, which is currently dominated by Israel electric corporation (IEC), a government-owned vertically integrated electric utility. The first step of the planned reform will be taken in 2006, when IEC will be functionally separated into generation, transmission, local distribution, and customer services. Immediately thereafter will be the second step, which by 2012 will result in the deregulation and privatization of the wholesale generation and customer services. Transmission and distribution (T and D) services will remain regulated but will be available to all T and D users under mandatory open access. This paper summarizes a cost-benefit analysis of the government's reform plan. Relative to a regulated regime, the government's plan, even if carried out flawlessly, may only yield a small net benefit. However, it entails a large increase in electricity producer profit and government tax receipt, at the expense of electricity consumers. A less-than-perfect transition to competition can easily wipe out the potential gain of the government plan. Market reform experience to date shows that electricity market reform can easily fail, and the factors for success do not exist in Israel. Since the outcome of a failing reform can be disastrous, it will be imprudent to implement the government's plan in 2006, when the current electricity law expires. Hence, we recommend performance-based regulation for the period of 2006-2010. Subject to an updated cost-benefit analysis, possible decentralization, privatization and competition may follow

  3. NEDO report (April, 1995). Restructuring California's electric services industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Recognizing nationwide changes in the electric utilities industry, Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The purpose is to foster competition and a basis on market mechanisms as the preferred means to develop and deliver energy services. The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) hoped to better understand this change while emphasizing efforts to maintain safe, reliable, and reasonably priced electric service. According to the report in February, 1993, CPUC was considering reform of its regulatory program in view of technological change, competitive pressures and emerging market forces. Further, new electric service providers have entered the industry, intensifying competition and producing the opportunity and pressure for consumer choice. Consequently, CPUC are asking the industry to adopt strategic measures to deal with the regulation such as reduced costs and development of efficient innovative services. Hearings have been repeated for the revision of the law; however, the confusion will continue for the time being. Some kind of revision will be concluded within 1995; however, no deregulation will be implemented for the power industry probably until 1996. (NEDO)

  4. Industrial safety: its structuring and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial development has led to an on-going increase in productivity, but the concept of safety has also become highly relevant. In this article, the authors address the structuring and content of industrial safety which involves laying down essential safety requirements, both in manufacturing and processes and in products. (Author)

  5. What happened to efficiency in electricity industries after reforms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed widespread power market reforms in both developed and developing countries that have cost billions of dollars. Among the key aims (and assumptions) of these reforms, there has always been realization of improvements in power sector efficiency. This paper questions the validity of this hypothesis. Using panel data from 92 countries covering the period 1982-2008, empirical models are developed and analyzed. The research findings suggest that the impact of the reforms on electricity industry performance is statistically significant but also limited. The results imply that, after controlling for country-specific variables, application of liberal market models in electricity industries slightly increases efficiency in power sector. Besides, we detect a positive relationship between reform process and the percentage share of network (transmission and distribution) losses in total electricity supplied, meaning that as countries take more reform steps the network losses as a fraction of power generated tend to increase. Moreover, the study puts forward that income level and other country specific features are more important determinants of industry efficiency than the reform process. Overall, contrary to expectations of substantial increases in sector efficiency, the paper concludes that introducing a decentralized market model with competition in the electricity sector has a limited increasing effect on power industry performance. - Highlights: → The paper questions whether the reforms increase efficiency in the power sector. → Panel data from 92 countries covering the period 1982-2008 are employed. → Models are developed by fixed/random effect panel data estimation methods. → The paper concludes the reforms have a limited effect on the industry performance. → We also find that as countries take more reform steps the network losses increase.

  6. Steady development of the electric power industry in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsumov, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text : Application aspects of alternative energy sources as the most comprehensible and renewable sources are considered. Among them the paramount role in fuel and energy balance of the country plays an organic fuel using of which renders an irreparable harm to an environment. Therefore application of organic fuel admits unacceptable in the industrial countries as it does not provide sufficient development of power industry. With the purpose of more expedient development of power industry conducting of increase procedures of production efficiency of the electric power, and also using additional alternative energy sources, such as a solar energy, a wind power, biomass energy and also energy of water is necessary. It is important to mark that using of renewable sources of energy reduces emission of harmful waste products on an environment. Further in this each of the marked sources are separately described, and also ways of the further development of this branch of power industry are specified [ru

  7. The need for revaluation of the model structure for electricity liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Szablewski, Andrzej T.

    2011-01-01

    The question about an appropriate structure for the electricity industry has been extensively discussed in scientific literature and experts studies. Since the beginning of electricity liberalization, it was apparent for its promoters that such a structure (in this paper referred to as the model structure or ideal structural model) for the electricity sector should involve a separation of its four sub-sectors, i.e., generation, transmission, distribution, and supply. With the e...

  8. Games for electricity traders: Understanding risk in a deregulated industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyner, Isaac [Energy Institute, CeiBA-Complexity Center, Universidad Nacional de Colombia AA 1027 Medellin (Colombia)], E-mail: idyner@unalmed.edu.co; Larsen, Erik [Faculty of Economics, University of Lugano, Via Buffi 13 CH-6900 Lugano (Switzerland)], E-mail: erik.larsen@lu.unisi.ch; Franco, Carlos Jaime [Energy Institute, CeiBA-Complexity Center, Universidad Nacional de Colombia AA 1027 Medellin (Colombia)], E-mail: cjfranco@unalmed.edu.co

    2009-02-15

    We illustrate and discuss the use of a computer-based learning environment, known as a microworld, for training agents in the Colombian electricity market. As the market operator was concerned with efficiency in the electricity spot market because of an insufficient number of participants, they commissioned a tool that could help potential participants to learn about both market operation as well as the risk management it involved. By making the industry more transparent it was intended that a larger number of traders and companies would participate in the market, making it more efficient. We describe the development and use of this tool, which is based on system dynamics and gaming.

  9. Games for electricity traders. Understanding risk in a deregulated industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyner, Isaac; Franco, Carlos Jaime [Energy Institute, CeiBA-Complexity Center, Universidad Nacional de Colombia AA 1027 Medellin (Colombia); Larsen, Erik [Faculty of Economics, University of Lugano, Via Buffi 13 CH-6900 Lugano (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    We illustrate and discuss the use of a computer-based learning environment, known as a microworld, for training agents in the Colombian electricity market. As the market operator was concerned with efficiency in the electricity spot market because of an insufficient number of participants, they commissioned a tool that could help potential participants to learn about both market operation as well as the risk management it involved. By making the industry more transparent it was intended that a larger number of traders and companies would participate in the market, making it more efficient. We describe the development and use of this tool, which is based on system dynamics and gaming. (author)

  10. Games for electricity traders. Understanding risk in a deregulated industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyner, Isaac; Franco, Carlos Jaime; Larsen, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We illustrate and discuss the use of a computer-based learning environment, known as a microworld, for training agents in the Colombian electricity market. As the market operator was concerned with efficiency in the electricity spot market because of an insufficient number of participants, they commissioned a tool that could help potential participants to learn about both market operation as well as the risk management it involved. By making the industry more transparent it was intended that a larger number of traders and companies would participate in the market, making it more efficient. We describe the development and use of this tool, which is based on system dynamics and gaming. (author)

  11. Irradiation Crosslinking of Polyamides for the Electrical and Automotive Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehring, J.

    2006-01-01

    Irradiation crosslinking of electrical cables and heat shrinkable tubes have been widely accepted in the automotive and electrical industry for a long time. Due higher demands regarding temperature resistance, arc resistance and good chemical resistance against oil and greases crosslinked injection moulded parts made out of polyamid and polybutylentherephtalate become also more and more interesting. Crosslinked polyamide can also replace thermosets for switches and offers therefore additional financial benefits. It will be shown on the basis of already realized projects, which basic requirements exist and how irradiation crosslinking can fulfil these demands

  12. New competition hits the U.S. electric industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, M.

    1993-01-01

    Three case studies of competition in the United States electric industry are described which illustrate some of the most striking characteristics of the new competitive situation: utilities foraging in other service areas for long-term customers, customers playing one service-area's pricing against another to obtain better terms, and new generating entities being created with the option of seeking mandated transmission access. The trends illustrated by these studies indicate a move away from a regulated monopoly setting toward a market in which the price of bulk electricity is driven down toward the long-run marginal cost of the service. In New England, non-utility generation in 1992 accounted for 17% of electricity sales, up from essentially zero in 1980. Although increasing competition among electric utilities could lower electric power prices and improve industrial competitiveness, there are several concerns which may signify unpleasant outcomes for electric utilities. These concerns include inefficient investment, in which local utility grids are bypassed in favor of other generating units whose competitive advantage may be the result of arbitrary cost-shifting; the exit of large power users placing more of a fixed-cost burden on the remaining customers of a utility, resulting in a vicious spiral of more defections; and insecurities in purchasing power from a new supplier who may not be subject to the same legal obligations as a local utility. Recommendations are made for accommodating more competition without causing adverse effects, including proper pricing of transmission, helping utilities compete on generation, and avoiding non-electric mandates for utilities. 9 refs

  13. Questions of the day in the electricity supply industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, P [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke e.V. (VDEW), Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-06-01

    The author deals with the especially important points that have given rise to the situation in the German electricity supply industry since the oil-price crisis, and in particular in the year 1976. He then turns to the present urgent problems facing the supply industry. The following are discussed: the energy program; meeting the power demand; nuclear energy from licensing up to the disposal of the waste material; use of conventional power stations; actions by associations/initiatives; saving of energy; promotion of energy consumption by advertising; and power/heat coupling.

  14. Electric restructuring and consumer choice: lessons from other network industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    The advantages of the U.S. model of private markets with limited regulation as the best alternative for delivering goods and services to consumers are discussed by citing examples from deregulated industries such as transportation, primary energy and financial markets. In all these cases deregulation has been extraordinarily successful. Experiences from these industries are examined in an effort to extract lessons that might be useful in predicting the likely evolution of competition in the electricity and telecommunications industries. A warning is sounded that deregulating these industries without opening access to the infrastructure (which is owned by carriers) could create major problems of natural-monopoly exploitation by the incumbents that would negate any productive and allocative efficiency gains conferred by deregulation. One obvious choice for liberalizing a network industry with natural-monopoly infrastructure is simply to separate the infrastructure from the delivery of the service as was done with railroads in the United Kingdom. A similar, but less far-reaching example might be the solution devised for natural gas pipelines in the U.S. where pipeline owners opened their infrastructure to competitors, albeit at regulated rates. In the electricity industry, separating power generation from transmission and distribution appears to be fairly simple, provided access to transmission and distribution network is granted. In the telecommunication industry where there is no generation, the natural monopoly may be in the local distribution of traffic to subscribers, hence separation of local distribution from national or regional distribution is the normal way to open up the market to new service providers. Experiences in the U. S., the U. K., Canada and New Zealand in electricity and telecommunications industry deregulation are examined and various pitfalls in current approaches are pointed out. It is the author's contention that announcing a date for the end

  15. THE COSTS OF THE ELECTRICAL ENERGY IN THE ALUMINIUM INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilianu Marian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has given the opportunity to reconsider the use of resources, so the subject of competitive advantage has become actual. In the aluminium industry the cost of electrical energy is critical not only for competitive reasons but for the mere existence and performance of numerous production facilities . Several ways of resisting the pressure of high energy costs have been experimented the most promising being those based on different forms of public-private partnership/co-operation. In many countries the big industrial producers benefit from a special treatment concerning the energy acquisition and are supported by the government in order to remain competitive.

  16. Questions of the day in the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, P.

    1977-01-01

    In his exposition the author deals with the especially important points which have given rise to the situation in the German electricity supply industry since the oil-price crisis, and in particular in the year 1976. He then turns to the present urgent problems facing this branch of industry. As key-words we would mention: the energy programme; meeting the power demand; and nuclear energy from licensing up to the disposal of the waste material; the use of conventional power stations; actions by associations/initiatives; saving of energy; promotion of energy consumption by advertising and power/heat coupling. (orig.) [de

  17. Results of the electricity power industry reform in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz de Hasson, G.

    1995-01-01

    After a brief description of the speedy transformation carried out in the organization and regulation of the electricity sector, based on the segmentation of the industry and on the promotion of competition, an analysis is made of the implications and results of the new rules of the game over the system's future. This analysis reflects, apart from the author's opinion, the visions and expectations of the actors over the difficulties in setting up competitive markets and their influence over decision making criteria, in an industry characterized by a long term perspective. (author). 5 refs

  18. The US Electricity Industry and the Low-Carbon Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Carole

    2016-04-01

    While the wave of liberalisation produced a fragmented, but now stabilised, industrial landscape, the US power sector is about to undergo another major transformation with the low-carbon transition. Against a background of combined weak demand for electricity, a boom in distributed solar PV power and a decline in the profitability of merchant assets, incumbent stakeholders are currently dealing with further questions about the future of their business models. Driven as much by market forces as by government support mechanisms, these destabilising factors have an impact, which is still difficult to assess, but the need to control future transformation is already at the heart of debate. In areas where output is priced on the wholesale markets, new tools are being studied to secure compensation for some power stations, with the issue of possible excessive dependency on natural gas in the background. At the same time, an increasing number of states are questioning the design of their support mechanisms for distributed energy. If net metering, the main support mechanism for distributed solar PV power, has been a resounding success because of its simplicity, it is now criticised because of the problems of covering grid costs and the cross-subsidies it leads to. Although reforms are always difficult to implement, since they involve a conflict of increasingly organised interests, consensus is beginning to emerge regarding the structure of retail sales tariffs. Nevertheless, calls for an assessment of distributed generation according to its actual value for the system are increasing, without any real convergence of views on the methodology to be adopted to date. Conventional stakeholders are also looking to adapt in order to find growth opportunities where primarily only challenges appear. The diversification of activities is an important lever for transformation, even if the case of NRG Energy illustrates the difficulty in making strategic shifts while maintaining

  19. European industrial policy with regard to photovoltaic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambrine, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The production of photovoltaic electricity has increased considerably over the last decade, especially in Europe and particularly in Germany and Italy, owing to the stimulus imparted by the advantageous rates for purchasing this electricity and by the steadily decreasing price of photovoltaic modules. This growth will continue in countries with intense sunshine and in areas that lack interconnected grids or where production is maximal during demand peaks caused by air-conditioning. Growth will also continue in the industrialized countries that want to re-balance their energy mix and break out of their heavy dependence on fossil fuels and nuclear power. In 2011, installations for generating nearly 30 GWc of solar photovoltaic power were set up around the world; and total power from this source at the end of 2011 was nearly 70 GWc, and could reach 300 GWc in 2020. This raises questions about how to develop industries for satisfying this demand

  20. Global Electricity Trade Network: Structures and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ling; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nations increasingly trade electricity, and understanding the structure of the global power grid can help identify nations that are critical for its reliability. This study examines the global grid as a network with nations as nodes and international electricity trade as links. We analyze the structure of the global electricity trade network and find that the network consists of four sub-networks, and provide a detailed analysis of the largest network, Eurasia. Russia, China, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan have high betweenness measures in the Eurasian sub-network, indicating the degrees of centrality of the positions they hold. The analysis reveals that the Eurasian sub-network consists of seven communities based on the network structure. We find that the communities do not fully align with geographical proximity, and that the present international electricity trade in the Eurasian sub-network causes an approximately 11 million additional tons of CO2 emissions. PMID:27504825

  1. The greening of European electricity industry: A battle of modernities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midttun, Atle

    2012-01-01

    Europe has played the role of a green hegemon on the global arena for several decades. By exploring its green transition in the electricity industry, the article discusses whether Europe is on track with regard to delivering sustainable development in a core sector at home. The article finds that the greening of European electricity industry has been highly dynamic and can best be represented in terms of competing modernities; where carbon, nuclear, renewables and demand side management challenge each other in the race for sustainable energy solutions. The article describes Greening European electricity industry as a complex institutional game which resembles a relay race where various factors have driven innovation at different stages. Change may be initially have been politically driven, while the baton is later taken by markets, technology or civic mobilization. The article shows how strong greening policies may lead to blockage, whereas softer and less confrontational policies with triggering effects may have a better chance of success. The article also argues that a central factor in the apparent European success in greening electricity has been an advantageous blend of technology push and market pull approaches, which has merged out of national rivalry rather than coordinated planning. - Highlights: ► European el-industry has met the climate challenge with four rivaling modernities. ► They are carbon modernity, nuclear modernity, supply and demand side ecomodernity. ► Europe has successfully facilitated green transition through three channels. ► They are green radicalism, institutional pluralism and multiple policy instruments. ► Europe has been a front-runner, but faces challenges mainstreaming sustainability.

  2. Production in Italian industry: Electric power demand indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajello, V.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the recession in Italy were first evidenced during the period spanning 1990-1992 with a sharp drop in the international competitiveness of Italian products. This phase was then followed by a significant drop in internal demand, the devaluation of the Italian Lira and subsequent market uncertainty. This paper presents graphs of national and regional electric power production and consumption figures which reflect the downturn in the viability of the Italian economy, especially in the industrial sector

  3. Transmission and wind investment in a deregulated electricity industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Lajos; Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2015-01-01

    Adoption of dispersed renewable energy technologies requires transmission network expansion. Besides the transmission system operator (TSO), restructuring of electricity industries has introduced a merchant investor (MI), who earns congestion rents from constructing new lines. We compare these tw...... proportion of energy is produced by wind. In effect, withholding of generation capacity by producers prompts more transmission investment since the TSO aims to increase welfare by subsidizing wind and the MI creates more flow to maximize profit....

  4. NUMERICAL COMPUTATION AND PREDICTION OF ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN TOBACCO INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Laković

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is a key energy source in each country and an important condition for economic development. It is necessary to use modern methods and tools to predict energy consumption for different types of systems and weather conditions. In every industrial plant, electricity consumption presents one of the greatest operating costs. Monitoring and forecasting of this parameter provide the opportunity to rationalize the use of electricity and thus significantly reduce the costs. The paper proposes the prediction of energy consumption by a new time-series model. This involves time series models using a set of previously collected data to predict the future load. The most commonly used linear time series models are the AR (Autoregressive Model, MA (Moving Average and ARMA (Autoregressive Moving Average Model. The AR model is used in this paper. Using the AR (Autoregressive Model model, the Monte Carlo simulation method is utilized for predicting and analyzing the energy consumption change in the considered tobacco industrial plant. One of the main parts of the AR model is a seasonal pattern that takes into account the climatic conditions for a given geographical area. This part of the model was delineated by the Fourier transform and was used with the aim of avoiding the model complexity. As an example, the numerical results were performed for tobacco production in one industrial plant. A probabilistic range of input values is used to determine the future probabilistic level of energy consumption.

  5. The future of the electric utility industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threlkeld, R.

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of future changes in the electric power utility industry in Canada was presented. The impacts of deregulation were considered, including increased competition, and reduced profits resulting from it. Restructuring measures taken by BC Hydro to prepare for industry changes were described. Competition was not only expected to result from new electric utilities, but also gas utilities that are establishing themselves in the home heating business. Emphasis was placed on making the utilities' priorities, the same as their customers'. Flexibility of rate scheduling and increased dependence on customer-owned generation were needed to remain competitive. Exportation of surplus electricity and development of power utilities in developing nations was considered as a potentially lucrative development strategy. It was suggested that making use of strategic alliances within Canada and worldwide, will help to keep utilities ahead of the competition. A warning was issued to the effect that environmental concerns must always be considered well in advance of regulations since they are continually becoming more stringent. Making common cause with customers, and continuous improvement were considered to be the most important keys to future success for the industry

  6. Effects of regulatory reforms in the electricity supply industry on electricity prices in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    Electric power sector reforms in the electricity supply industry have had an impact on industrial and household prices in developing countries in Latin America, the former Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Using original panel data for 83 countries during the period from 1985 to 2002, we examine how each policy instrument of the reform measures influenced electricity prices for countries in the above regions. We found that variables such as entry of independent power producers (IPP), unbundling of generation and transmission, establishment of a regulatory agency, and the introduction of a wholesale spot market have had a variety of impacts on electricity prices, some of which were not always consistent with expected results. The research findings suggest that neither unbundling nor introduction of a wholesale pool market on their own necessarily reduces the electric power price. In fact, contrary to expectations, there was a tendency for the price to rise. However, coexistent with an independent regulator, unbundling may work to reduce electricity prices. Privatization and the introduction of foreign IPP and retail competition lower electricity prices in some regions, but not all

  7. The electricity supply industry as a subject for public criticism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, R.

    1977-01-01

    The German electricity supply industry is becoming the subject for more public criticism although it has supplied the whole population and industry in recent years with electricity without limitations and at a favourable price. In spite of the satisfactory and exemplary achievements of this branch of the economy a wave of criticism has built up, caused by the increase in nuclear power station construction, and this is assuming greater proportions and includes wider fields. This situation requires a matching publicity campaign in a number of directions which must be preceded by comprehensive research into causes. It is urgently necessary to achieve a realisation of the basic questions in this branch of the economy in all those, engaged in electricity supply. Full information on the special physical characteristics of the electricity produced, with all the consequences which follow from these, must be supplied to the relevant groups in society both within and outside the economy and also to the mass media, together with continuous efforts to gain the trust of the public. (orig.) [de

  8. Regulation and competition in United Kingdom electricity and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, F.

    1992-01-01

    Focussing on the role of regulation in developing competition, this paper reviews the development of a regulation system to monitor and control prices, as well as, quality of service, in the UK's recently privatized electricity and gas industries. The review covers: the control mechanisms applied to the natural gas tariff and contract markets in the area of common carriage; performance monitoring and the concept of yardstick competition in the electric power industry; and the management and control, by OFFER (Office of Electricity Regulation), of the total 'pool' of generated electricity. It is noted that whereas Great Britain's particular energy supply situation permits this nation to attempt privatization/competition regulation, the energy balances of other European countries make similar attempts, for them, risky. The UK experience with privatization/competition regulation so far has shown that regulation is indispensable in guaranteeing competition, and that the incorporation of the controlling board within the framework of anti-trust legislation and the granting of full autonomy to this board has greatly favoured its effectiveness

  9. Investment and deregulation in the electricity generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peluchon, B.

    2007-12-01

    This work addresses the issue of investment in the electricity generation industry. As the analysis of many crisis which have affected electricity markets shows, there is a systematic under-investment in peak capacity. Electricity prices are not high enough to cover fixed costs of such generators, a phenomenon that has been dubbed 'missing money' in some recent papers (Stoft). The investment decisions of a duo-poly facing random demand are then compared to those of a public monopoly. The results are that no prices may be high enough to solve the 'missing money' problem, since the duo-poly is able to exercise market power in order to maximize his profit. This results systematically in fewer peak capacity in the duo-poly case than in the public monopoly case. This remains true in the case of a n-oligopoly. The necessity of designing a mechanism remunerating capacity is thus demonstrated. Capacity markets are then analysed in the light of those results. What appears is that operating reserves are a public good and, as such, prevents capacity markets to solve the 'missing money' problem. This casts a shadow on the pursuit of deregulation in the electricity industry. (author)

  10. The impact of electricity restructuring on the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given, G.

    1999-03-01

    The main objective of the study is to quantify the impact of electrical restructuring on the natural gas industry, in particular the expected rise in natural gas consumption for electricity generation in Canada from 2000 to 2020. To this end, the study estimates how large the demand potential is and where it is likely to materialize, with the timing of these events also considered. Chapter two discusses the study methodology, which is that of a quantitative forecast. Before an analytical model was chosen, a careful review of potential candidates, a literature review, and an analysis of important issues were undertaken. Chapter three provides requisite background information of electricity restructuring issues. U.K. experiences are highlighted, and common issues and differences among states and provinces are discussed also. Chapter four provides some necessary historical background and puts into perspective the importance of gas consumption for electric generation. Also treated are relevant Canadian and U.S. generation and capacity, and forecasts of restructuring impacts from other organizations. Whether a consensus forecast for gas demand exists is examined, as well as a number of critical factors examined in various studies. Chapter five describes the development of individual study scenarios and key assumptions contained in each scenario. Also described are some of the selected model's capabilities. Retail and generation company strategy parameters are highlighted to provide a better understanding of those capabilities. The competition parameters chosen for generators and retail companies in the model are described. Chapter six reports all key forecast variables in a discussion which compares relevant scenario and sensitivity forecast results. Detailed forecast results for two scenarios are provided in appendices. Chapter seven discusses new investment and business opportunities and challenges in light of the forecast results. These are reviewed for a number of

  11. Regulation and competition in public utilities: Electric utility management in Italy and other industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraquelli, G.

    1992-01-01

    In industrialized countries, electric power has become a vital energy resource requiring significant efforts on the part of national institutions to establish and maintain sound management and energy supply strategies. The situation in Italy reflects world trends in that electric power in this country now accounts for over one-third of total energy consumption and this percentage is expected to increase steadily through to the year 2000. This endorsement of electric power is having a strong impact on quality of life and on international relations as Italy, in order to ensure security of energy supplies, is actively pursuing of strategy of energy source and supplier diversification. With reference to recent proposals, in line with European Communities free market strategies, to deregulate the Italian electric power industry, this paper briefly analyzes the current institutional nature of ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) and compares the Italian electric power industry and market situation with that of Japan and the USA. The various aspects taken into consideration include investment, rate structure, quality of service, management methods and competition. An analysis is made of the most pressing difficulties currently troubling ENEL and suggestions are made as to the best courses of action to be taken

  12. Nanowire structures and electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezryadin, Alexey; Remeika, Mikas

    2010-07-06

    The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive segments and conductance constricting segments of a nanowire, such as metallic, superconducting or semiconducting nanowire. The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive nanowire segments and conductance constricting nanowire segments having accurately selected phases including crystalline and amorphous states, compositions, morphologies and physical dimensions, including selected cross sectional dimensions, shapes and lengths along the length of a nanowire. Further, the present invention provides methods of processing nanowires capable of patterning a nanowire to form a plurality of conductance constricting segments having selected positions along the length of a nanowire, including conductance constricting segments having reduced cross sectional dimensions and conductance constricting segments comprising one or more insulating materials such as metal oxides.

  13. Synthesis, structural and electrical characterizations of thermally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, structural and electrical characterizations of thermally evaporated Cu 2 SnS 3 thin films. ... The surface profilometer shows that the deposited films are rough. The XRD spectra identified the ... The electrical resistivity of the deposited Cu2SnS3 film is 2.55 x 10-3 Ωcm. The conductivity is in the order of 103 Ω-1cm-1.

  14. Research and technology management in the electricity industry methods, tools and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Daim, Tugrul; Kim, Jisun

    2013-01-01

    Technologies such as renewable energy alternatives including wind, solar and biomass, storage technologies and electric engines are creating a different landscape for the  electricity industry. Using sources and ideas from technologies such as renewable energy alternatives, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry explores a different landscape for this industry and applies it to the electric industry supported by real industry cases. Divided into three sections, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry introduces a range of  methods and tools includ

  15. Essays on industrial structure and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-01-01

    The book is a thesis submitted for the degree of dr. polit. at the University of Bergen. It has chapters on economic development and industrial structure, trade and growth with static and dynamic economies of scale, terms of trade and economic growth in a world of constrained capital mobility, how liberalization of trade in services may conserve natural reserves, some reasons why capital does not flow from rich to poor counties and finally on South African manufacturing industries - catching up or falling behind

  16. Electric power industry restructuring in Australia: Lessons from down-under. Occasional paper No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Australia`s electric power industry (EPI) is undergoing major restructuring. This restructuring includes commercialization of state-owned electric organization through privatization and through corporatization into separate governmental business units; structural unbundling of generation, transmission, retailing, and distribution; and creation of a National Electricity Market (NEM) organized as a centralized, market-based trading pool for buying and selling electricity. The principal rationales for change in the EPI were the related needs of enhancing international competitiveness, improving productivity, and lowering electric rates. Reducing public debt through privatization also played an important role. Reforms in the EPI are part of the overall economic reform package that is being implemented in Australia. Enhancing efficiency in the economy through competition is a key objective of the reforms. As the need for reform was being discussed in the early 1990s, Australia`s previous prime minister, Paul Keating, observed that {open_quotes}the engine which drives efficiency is free and open competition.{close_quotes} The optimism about the economic benefits of the full package of reforms across the different sectors of the economy, including the electricity industry, is reflected in estimated benefits of a 5.5 percent annual increase in real gross domestic product and the creation of 30,000 more jobs. The largest source of the benefits (estimated at 25 percent of total benefits) was projected to come from reform of the electricity and gas sectors.

  17. Emissions trading and innovation in the German electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, Martin

    2010-07-01

    One major objective of the introduction of emissions trading in the European Union was to promote innovation towards mitigating climate change. Focusing on the German electricity industry, the extent to which this objective has been achieved up to now and how the design of the trading scheme could be improved towards achieving the intended objective shall be analyzed in this thesis. These questions are tackled in the thesis from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. The theoretical analysis was largely based on neoclassical environmental economics by using an algebraic model which allowed for comparison of the relevant companies' profits under various configurations of the analyzed design options. The empirical analysis was grounded on two surveys of the electricity industry - one before the start of emissions trading, the other after two and a half years of experience - which enabled identification of the concrete changes in the companies' perceptions and attitudes towards innovation due to the introduction of emissions trading. The analysis reveals some indications that the instrument has basically functioned as originally intended although it has certainly not yet developed its full potential in terms of promoting innovation towards a more climate friendly electricity system. From an environmental innovation perspective the following improvements are essential: (1) Closure provisions should be abolished as soon as possible because they basically extend the lifetime of old installations and thus rather delay innovation. (2) Fuel-specific allocation to new entrants should also be abandoned since it eliminates - at least partly - the incentives to shift investments towards technologies which use more carbon friendly fuels such as natural gas or biomass. (3) Introducing full auctioning for the electricity industry would remedy both of the above-mentioned weaknesses and at the same time eliminate the windfall profit generated by free allocation of allowances

  18. Emissions trading and innovation in the German electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, Martin

    2010-07-01

    One major objective of the introduction of emissions trading in the European Union was to promote innovation towards mitigating climate change. Focusing on the German electricity industry, the extent to which this objective has been achieved up to now and how the design of the trading scheme could be improved towards achieving the intended objective shall be analyzed in this thesis. These questions are tackled in the thesis from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. The theoretical analysis was largely based on neoclassical environmental economics by using an algebraic model which allowed for comparison of the relevant companies' profits under various configurations of the analyzed design options. The empirical analysis was grounded on two surveys of the electricity industry - one before the start of emissions trading, the other after two and a half years of experience - which enabled identification of the concrete changes in the companies' perceptions and attitudes towards innovation due to the introduction of emissions trading. The analysis reveals some indications that the instrument has basically functioned as originally intended although it has certainly not yet developed its full potential in terms of promoting innovation towards a more climate friendly electricity system. From an environmental innovation perspective the following improvements are essential: (1) Closure provisions should be abolished as soon as possible because they basically extend the lifetime of old installations and thus rather delay innovation. (2) Fuel-specific allocation to new entrants should also be abandoned since it eliminates - at least partly - the incentives to shift investments towards technologies which use more carbon friendly fuels such as natural gas or biomass. (3) Introducing full auctioning for the electricity industry would remedy both of the above-mentioned weaknesses and at the same time eliminate the windfall profit generated by free allocation of

  19. Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6

  20. Electricity distribution industry restructuring, electrification, and competition in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galen, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) and proposals for reorienting and restructuring it. South Africa has been intensely examining its ESI for more than 4 years in an effort to determine whether and how it should be restructured to best support the country's new economic development and social upliftment goals. The debate has been spirited and inclusive of most ESI stakeholders. The demands on and expectations for the ESI are many and varied. The debate has reflected this diversity of interests and views. In essence, however, there is a consensus on what is expected of the industry, namely, to extend provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable electricity service to all citizens and segments of the economy. This means a large-scale electrification program to reach as many of the nearly 50% of households currently without electricity service as soon as possible, tariff reform to promote equity and efficiency, and the upgrading of service quality now being provided by some of the newly consolidated municipal authorities. The issues involved are how best to achieve these results within the context of the national Reconstruction and Development Program, while accounting for time and resource constraints and balancing the interests of the various parties

  1. Deregulation and restructuring of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, Hal [Utility Workers Union of America (UWUA), AFL-CIO, (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Federal and state policy makers are currently faced with the rapidly evolving issue of the restructuring and potential deregulation of the electric utility industry, a sector of the economy of huge importance through its sheer size and its impact on the daily life and livelihood of everyone. This paper describes eleven principles that must be adhered to in any restructuring of the electric industry. Adherence to the principle and positions outlined can help assure that the transition in this industry benefits all, not just a few, and that the general health and welfare of the people is protected and enhanced [Espanol] Los legisladores estatales y federales se estan enfrentando con el rapido y envolvente aspecto de la reestructuracion y desregulacion potencial de la industria electrica, un sector de la economia de enorme importancia por su tamano y su impacto en la vida diaria y los medios de vida. En esta ponencia se describen once principios y posiciones que deben ser considerados en cualquier reestructuracion de la industria electrica. El apego a los principios y posiciones comentados puede ayudar a asegurar que la transicion en esta industria deneficie a todos, no solo a unos cuantos, y que la salud general y bienestar de la gente sea protegida y mejorada

  2. Specification of merger gains in the Norwegian electricity distribution industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saastamoinen, Antti; Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Electricity distribution often exhibits economies of scale. In Norway, a number of smaller distribution system operators exist and thus there is potential to restructure the industry, possibly through mergers. However, the revenue cap regulatory model in Norway does not incentivize firms to merge as merging leads to a stricter revenue cap for the merged company. Thus the regulator compensates the firms in order to create such incentives. The amount of compensation is based on the potential gains of the merger estimated using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) based frontier approach introduced by Bogetoft and Wang (2005). DEA is however only one of many possible frontier estimators that can be used in estimation. Furthermore, the returns to scale assumption, the operating environment of firms and the presence of stochastic noise and outlier observations are all known to affect to the estimation of production technology. In this paper we explore how varying assumptions under two alternative frontier estimators shape the distribution of merger gains within the Norwegian distribution industry. Our results reveal that the restructuring policies of the industry may be significantly altered depending how potential gains from the mergers are estimated. - Highlights: • The merger gains of Norwegian electricity distribution firm are investigated. • Different estimators and model specifications are applied. • Results show that the gains are significantly affected by the model choice. • Incentives to merge may be shaped through the estimation of gains.

  3. Dynamics of productivity change in the Australian electricity industry: Assessing the impacts of electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghdam, Reza Fathollahzadeh, E-mail: reza_f_a@yahoo.com [Department of Finance and Economics, College of Industrial Management, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, PO Box 257, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-06-15

    The Australian electricity industry has undergone a significant reform, since the mid-1990s. Key changes comprised functional unbundling, market restructuring, regulatory reform, public corporatisation and privatisation. Technological development has been another indisputable constituent of these changes, in the wake of ICT revolution. The principle rationale behind these changes has been that they would improve productivity of the industry and social well-being of people. This paper examines the dynamics of productivity changes in the Australian electricity industry and conducts several hypotheses-testings to identify whether industry's efficiency measures are truly improved as a result of the reform-driven changes. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index approach and ANOVA are used for this purpose. The results reveal that the productivity gains in the industry have been largely driven by technological improvements and, to a lesser extent, by reform-induced comparative efficiency gains. On average at national level and for the entire industry, there are efficiency gains that, to large extents, can be attributed to functional unbundling and public corporatisation and, to a lesser extent, to market restructuring and privatisation. The results, however, reveal that the reform-driven changes have made insignificant contribution to comparative efficiency, at the level of thermal generation. - Highlights: > Dynamics of productivity changes in Australian electricity industry are examined. > Several hypotheses are also tested against reform-driven changes. > Technology impact is proved to be far larger than reform-induced impacts. > Unbundling and corporatisation had larger impacts than market restructuring and privatisation. > At thermal generation level, no reform-induced impact is encountered.

  4. Dynamics of productivity change in the Australian electricity industry: Assessing the impacts of electricity reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghdam, Reza Fathollahzadeh

    2011-01-01

    The Australian electricity industry has undergone a significant reform, since the mid-1990s. Key changes comprised functional unbundling, market restructuring, regulatory reform, public corporatisation and privatisation. Technological development has been another indisputable constituent of these changes, in the wake of ICT revolution. The principle rationale behind these changes has been that they would improve productivity of the industry and social well-being of people. This paper examines the dynamics of productivity changes in the Australian electricity industry and conducts several hypotheses-testings to identify whether industry's efficiency measures are truly improved as a result of the reform-driven changes. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index approach and ANOVA are used for this purpose. The results reveal that the productivity gains in the industry have been largely driven by technological improvements and, to a lesser extent, by reform-induced comparative efficiency gains. On average at national level and for the entire industry, there are efficiency gains that, to large extents, can be attributed to functional unbundling and public corporatisation and, to a lesser extent, to market restructuring and privatisation. The results, however, reveal that the reform-driven changes have made insignificant contribution to comparative efficiency, at the level of thermal generation. - Highlights: → Dynamics of productivity changes in Australian electricity industry are examined. → Several hypotheses are also tested against reform-driven changes. → Technology impact is proved to be far larger than reform-induced impacts. → Unbundling and corporatisation had larger impacts than market restructuring and privatisation. → At thermal generation level, no reform-induced impact is encountered.

  5. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-09-01

    The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

  6. Exploring the options for carbon dioxide mitigation in Turkish electric power industry: System dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saysel, Ali Kerem; Hekimoğlu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Electric power industry has a huge carbon mitigation potential, fundamentally because there are large carbon-free, renewable resource options. In Turkey, with growing demand in electricity consumption and incentives offered for natural gas fired electricity generation, CO 2 emissions sourced from electric power industry had tripled over the last two decades. Current governmental strategy focuses on energy security and resource diversity in a growing economy and does not articulate sufficient mitigation targets and appropriate regulations. In this research, an original dynamic simulation model is built, validated and analyzed to explore the options for carbon mitigation in Turkish electric power industry. Model structure represents the investment, dispatch and pricing heuristics as well as the natural resource base of electricity generation in Turkey. It operates on annual basis over 30 years to simulate installed capacities and generations of power plants with alternative resources and their resulting CO 2 emissions. The analysis presented in this paper reveals that there are mitigation options below 50% of business as usual growth, with common policy options such as feed-in-tariffs, investment subsidies and carbon taxes. The model can serve as an experimental platform for further analysis of problems related to carbon mitigation in Turkish electricity sector. - Highlights: • An original computer model is created to investigate carbon mitigation. • It is holistic and comprises investment, generation, dispatch, and resources. • The model's structure, information base and foresights are specific to Turkey. • Direct and indirect strategies are explored and integrated. • Dramatic reductions are possible only with supply side strategies

  7. An undertaking planning game for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troescher, H.

    1977-01-01

    Planning games have been found satisfactory in many field in political and economic life. In particular the more convenient access to electronic calculators has made a contrinution to their wider use. It is therefore surprising that the first planning game which has become known for the electricity supply industry was first published in the year 1975. This is the planning game for the Bernischen Kraftwerke AG, which is based on a simplified model of a small electricity supply undertaking (EVU). This planning game was adapted in the RWE to the conditions in larger EVU and a few additional model components were added. Besides the general points of view on planning games for EVU the author deals with the extended planning game which is termed in the article PEW. (orig.) [de

  8. Industrial plant electrical systems: Simplicity, reliability, cost savings, redundancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, A.; Tommazzolli, F.; Pavia Univ.

    1992-01-01

    This article represents a compact but complete design and construction manual for industrial plant electrical systems. It is to be used by design engineers having prior knowledge of local power supply routes and voltages and regards principally the optimum choice of internal distribution systems which can be radial or single, double ringed or with various network configurations, and with single or multiple supplies, and many or few redundancies. After giving guidelines on the choosing of these options, the manual deals with problematics relevant to suitable cable sizing. A cost benefit benefit analysis method is suggested for the choice of the number of redundancies. Recommendations are given for the choice of transformers, motorized equipment, switch boards and circuit breakers. Reference is made to Italian electrical safety and building codes

  9. The Swiss electrical power industry: energy policy problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognola, F.

    1986-01-01

    The emotive consequences of the Chernobyl accident have had a devastating effect on Swiss public opinion and endanger the serious effort by the Swiss electrical power industry over many years at making possible a power supply capable of meeting increasing demand at minimum cost, compatible with security of supply and protection of the environment. It is considered that two new nuclear power stations will be required, one in 1995 and the other in 2000. The serious consequences if these are not built and, particularly, if it were decided to shut down all existing Swiss nuclear stations are stressed. (P.G.R.)

  10. Electric power industry deregulation in the United States: impacts on U.S. and Canadian markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G.R. [Putnam, Hayes and Bartlett, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    An overview of the restructuring and deregulation of the United States electric power industry and the implications for the North American natural gas industry was presented. Electric power restructuring and its effect on wholesale and retail competition was discussed. It was suggested that although in the short term electric power deregulation impacts negatively on the natural gas industry, the long term impacts are favourable. The short term impact on the natural gas industry will mean increased competition and downward pressure on gas prices. In contrast, the long term impact could mean increased reliance on gas for electric power generation and convergence of the electric power and natural gas industries.

  11. Guide to the economic regulation of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, M.; Lobban, S.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the fist edition of OXERA's Guide to the Economic Regulation of the Electricity Industry in the UK. It is primarily intended as a work of reference, summarising the key statutory controls of the industry and the most important features of the companies' licences. The main features of the guide are as follows. It provides comprehensive coverage of the institutional and legal framework which defines the regulation of the industry. The roles of the key players are explained and a condensed account of all the relevant legal documents is given. It aims to bring the reader up to date with current regulatory issues and possible developments in the industry. It presents the information in a clear and concise form. The emphasis is on identifying and highlighting the key points in each area so that readers can rapidly familiarise themselves with the subject matter. It does not examine the process by which businesses are valued and the various price caps are set. These are issues which are best approached within the context of utility regulation in general. (author)

  12. Outsourcing services in electricity distribution network industry; Ostopalveluiden kaeyttoe verkkoliiketoiminnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminoff, A.; Lappetelaeinen, I. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Partanen, J.; Viljainen, S.; Tahvanainen, K. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)); Jaerventausta, P.; Trygg, P. (Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland))

    2009-02-15

    This report examines purchased services in the electricity distribution industry. The report is specially directed to readers working in the industry or otherwise interested in it. This report is a result of a research study that was done in 2008 by VTT, Lappeenranta University of Technology and Tampere University of Technology. The authors are thankful for funders and companies that made this research possible and provided lot of information and knowledge. We appreciate the participants in the steering group as well as the companies and people who answered to questionnaires, gave interviews and took part in GDSSinnovation session. In the business of electricity distribution the usage of purchased services has been increasing during the past years and network companies have focused more on their core business processes. There are a couple of peaks in the number of new purchasing decisions in the middle of the 90s and in the beginning of 2000. The most popular purchased services are network construction and maintenance services. On the other hand, many network planning related activities are still done in-house by the network companies, and are considered their core business. There are some industry specific factors that affect to the decision on whether or not to buy the service outside the company and how to cooperate with the suppliers. For instance, many network companies are owned by municipalities and many service providers are owned by the network companies. The former issue may sometimes bring local politics into the decision-making of the network companies. The latter issue, in turn, has an impact on the relationship between the customer and the supplier, and the infra-organizational issues may sometimes complicate the service purchasing process. Electricity network companies also have natural monopoly positions in their operating areas. To prevent the abuse of monopoly positions, the network companies are subjected to economic regulation. This affects

  13. Electricity supply of Switzerland. Development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutzner, J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the history of the Swiss power supply since the founding of the Swiss Electricity Works Association in the year 1985 is provided. Power supply, requirements, linkage and exchange with other countries are dealt with. Further themes are the organizational structures, tariffs, power supply and energy policies, as well as national and international connections. 87 figs., 40 refs

  14. On Industrial Application of Structural Reliability Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    For the last two decades we have seen an increasing interest in applying structural reliability theory to many different industries. However, the number of real applications is much smaller than what one would expect. At the beginning most applications were in the design/analyses area especially...

  15. High performance structural ceramics for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Faker, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A family of Saint-Gobain structural ceramic materials and products produced by its High performance Refractory Division is described. Over the last fifty years or so, Saint-Gobain has been a leader in developing non oxide ceramic based novel materials, processes and products for application in Nuclear, Chemical, Automotive, Defense and Mining industries

  16. State aid in the Austrian electricity industry law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present work deals with the existence of State aid in the Austrian electricity industry and focuses on three selected areas of the Austrian legal system, which are examined for their compatibility with Community law. Subject of the first part of this work is a representation of the article 87 ff Treaty of Rome and its impact on Austrian provisions on the promotion of electricity from renewable energies or on the promotion of cogeneration energy. In this context, the first principles of the European state aid law and in particular the European Court are presented regarding the existence of State aid. Here, the Rsp of the Court in connection with the use of State resources in the Rs PreussenElektra Stardust Marine and Pearle is paid in connection with para-fiscal levies special attention. The evaluation of the Austrian support model is based on PreussenElektra, Stardust Marine and Pearle. Then the system of green electricity production in Austria represented. In addition to the Community law principles (green power directive, frameworks and guidelines for environmental aid) is here in particular the 'Oekostromgesetz' and treated it's novellas. It is an intensive discussion with the Commission's decisions on the compatibility of the green power and CHP funding and the funding of the countries with state aid rules. As part of this analysis is to attempt a classification of the Commission's practice in the Community legal system. The second part of the work deals with the determination of absorbed. System utilization rates and their distribution to the network operator. After a presentation of the Community legislation (EC regulations, the internal electricity market directives) and Rsp of the European Court of Justice (Case ADBHu, Ferring, Altmark Trans) to services of general economic interest is first attempted to determine the presence of these services in the 216 Austrian legislation. Here, the question will be, entrusted with services of general economic

  17. Industrial and residential electricity demand dynamics in Japan: How did price and income elasticities evolve from 1989 to 2014?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Nan; Mogi, Gento

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the price and income elasticities of industrial and residential electricity demand in Japan with the annual data from 1989 to 2014. A time varying parameter (TVP) model with the Kalman filter is applied to monitor the evolution of consumer behaviors in the “post-bubble” period given the exogenous shock (financial crisis in 2008) and the structural breaks (electricity deregulation and Fukushima Daiichi crisis). The TVP model can provide a robust estimation of elasticities and can detect the outliers and the structural breaks. The results suggest that both industrial and residential consumers become less sensitive to price after the electricity deregulation and the financial crisis, and more sensitive to price after the Fukushima Daiichi crisis. Especially the industrial sector is less sensitive to price after the retail deregulation. By contrast, the income elasticities of industrial and residential sector consumers are stable during the examined period. Results also indicate that a negative relationship exists between the price elasticity of electricity demand and the price level of electricity after the electric sector deregulation. Some insights on the further electric sector reform and the environmental taxation in Japan are also provided. - Highlights: • A time varying parameter model is calculated with the Kalman filter. • Income elasticities are stable while price elasticities are time-varying. • Industrial sector is less sensitive to price change than residential sector. • Negative relationship between price elasticity and price level is found.

  18. The electricity supply industry in Germany: market power or power of the market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunekreeft, G.; Keller, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the electricity supply industry in Germany, which was liberalized in April 1998. Noticeable aspects are the eligibility of all end-users, the lack of constraints on the vertical industry structure and the option for negotiated third party access. There is no sector-specific regulation. This paper argues that the vertically integrated firms concentrate on excessive network access charges, whereas the stages generation and retail appear to be relatively competitive. Empirical evidence suggests that in Germany network access charges make up a significantly higher share of end-user prices than in the UK, which is used as regulation-benchmark. (author)

  19. Strategies for promoting renewables in a new electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes strategies for promoting renewable resources in an era characterized by competitive pressures in the electric industry. It begins with a background section to describe the perspective from which I am writing and the nature of the pressures confronting renewables in 1996. Then, the paper turns to a discussion of the regulatory and other options to promote renewables in this environment. The major conclusion of the paper is that there is no {open_quotes}magic bullet{close_quotes} to guide the development of renewables through the developing competitive era within the electric industry. Indeed, it appears that the job can get done only through a combination of different measures at all levels of government. The author believes that among the most effective measures are likely to be: a national renewable resources generation standard; conditions attached to restructuring events; regional interstate compacts; regional risk-sharing consortia supported by federal and state tax and fiscal policy; and state {open_quotes}systems benefits charges;{close_quotes}

  20. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  1. Economic aspects of electricity and industrial heat generating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.; Moulle, N.; Dutheil, F.

    1964-01-01

    The economic advantage of electricity-generating nuclear stations decreases when their size decreases. However, when a counter-pressure turbine is joined on to a reactor and the residual heat can be properly used, it can be shown that fairly low capacity nuclear equipment may compete with conventional equipment under certain realistic enough conditions. The aim of this paper is to define these special conditions under which nuclear energy can be profitable. They are connected with the location and the general economic environment of the station, the pattern of the electricity and heat demands it must meet, the level of fuel and specific capital costs, nuclear and conventional. These conditions entail certain technical and economic specifications for the reactors used in this way otherwise they are unlikely to be competitive. In addition, these results are referred to the potential steam and electricity market, which leads us to examine certain uses for the heat generated by double purpose power stations; for example, to supply combined industrial plants, various types of town heating and for removal of salt from sea water. (authors) [fr

  2. The uranium producing industry - its capital structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    The uranium mining industry has undergone a substantial change over the past decade. A few rather informal statistics relevant to this change have been gathered together, with particular emphasis on the corporate and capital structures which existed in the industry in the 1970s and 1980s. These data offer interesting insights on the availability of capital for new uranium mining ventures, and lead to a sketch of the finances of a hypothetical new venture. The results of this work suggest that there may be few producers likely to start work on a greenfield site in the next few years, even if the market recovers from its present doldrums. (author)

  3. Institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying public policy responsibilities in a retail competitive electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of retail competition in the US electric power industry places at risk various environmental and social programmes such as demand side management, low income programmes and renewable energy. This paper presents institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying these kinds of public policy responsibilities in a disintegrated industry. Suggestions include customer owned electricity franchises, electricity facility siting marketplaces, electric industry foresight councils, model systems programmes, integrated social services programmes, collaborative electric service programmes, ISO standards and portfolio standards. These recommendations would be funded by a national transmission charge, a state level distribution charge and franchise level sales taxes, to be paid by transmission organizations, distribution organizations and electricity consumers, respectively. (author)

  4. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safarzynska, K.E.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological

  5. The electricity supply industry in Queensland, financial report 1982/83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This fourth financial report deals with the finances of the electricity supply industry and includes three sections. Section 1: letter to the minister; scope of the report; the Commission; the electricity authorities; forecasts; tariff policy; and the Queensland Electricity Supply Industry Superannuation Board. Section 2: consolidated schedules; and audited financial statements. Section 3: statistics; including production, distribution, consumption, financial, accidents, towns and locations.

  6. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and... following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...

  7. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors; Proposed... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY... proposes energy conservation standards for a number of different groups of electric motors that DOE has not...

  8. Trend of electricity prices in privatised industry: UK compared to other european countries 1985-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzoni, A.

    1995-01-01

    Great efforts are devoted nowadays in many countries to reform the electric power system in order to achieve higher efficiency. The model under consideration is, more or less overtly, the new Electricity Supply Industry (ESI) in England and Wales which first transformed the vertically integrated state monopoly and introduced as the same time competition in electricity generation and supply. This paper analyses the trend of the final prices in UK during the ESI structural transformation between 1985 and 1994, since the final price of electricity is acknowledge as a good indicator of the performance of an ESI, and highlights the impact of privatisation on the different classes of consumers. It is investigated the evolution of the ratio between regulated-prices and free-market prices to further understand who profited from the new structure of the industry; the study continues with a comparison among the prices in UK, Italy and France. The analysis applies first to the nominal prices, and secondly to the deflated prices, in order to compare different years at constant purchase power

  9. Inductance, electrically adjusted by semiconductor structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenov А. А.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model of a passive flat inductor with electronic control is offered. Design charts of tank inductance and Q factor dependence on the forward bias voltage of n—i—p—i—n-structure, used as a specific core, the characteristics of which are regulated under the influence of an applied electric field, are presented. The comparison of design values with experimental features has shown their good correspondence with each other.

  10. Strategies to address transition costs in a restructuring electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, Lester; Hirst, Eric; Hadley, Stanton

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential financial consequences, or transition costs, of transforming electricity generation from a regulated to a competitive market in the US. Industry-wide estimates suggest potential monetary losses could exceed $100 billion as a result of the move to competition. The paper discusses the most prominent strategies suggested to address these potential losses. For each strategy, the paper identifies the parties most likely to bear the financial consequences. Most strategies do nothing to reduce the total costs to society, but instead shift costs from one set of economic actors to another. The exceptions are those strategies that result in economic-efficiency gains, which can then be used to offset the transition costs. Most of the strategies examined require the cooperation of several parties, including regulators, to be implemented successfully. (author)

  11. Evolution of industrial sector electricity demand in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Steven C.

    2005-01-01

    This note is a preliminary investigation into the relationship between the efficiency of electricity utilization in the Costa Rican industrial sector and the competitive pressures generated by the implementation of economic reforms, in particular, the progressive liberalization of international trade, in the years since the debt and economic crisis of the early 1980s. The steady, year-by-year, reduction in the rate of import tariff protection, with only temporary interruptions and reverses, has been the most consistently implemented component of the macroeconomic, trade, and financial sector reforms upon which this country has embarked over the past two decades. The note sheds some light on the nature of the general policy environment that is conductive to an efficient utilization of energy in the productive sectors and to the success of national energy efficiency promotion programs in this and other parts of the world. (Author)

  12. Transition-cost issues for a restructuring US electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Utilities regulators can use a variety of approaches to calculate transition costs. We categorized these approaches along three dimensions. The first dimension is the use of administrative vs. market procedures to value the assets in question. Administrative approaches use analytical techniques to estimate transition costs. Market valuation relies on the purchase price of particular assets to determine their market values. The second dimension concerns when the valuation is done, either before or after the restructuring of the electricity industry. The third dimension concerns the level of detail involved in the valuation, what is often called top-down vs. bottom-up valuation. This paper discusses estimation approaches, criteria to assess estimation methods, specific approaches to estimating transition costs, factors that affect transition-cost estimates, strategies to address transition costs, who should pay transition costs, and the integration of cost recovery with competitive markets.

  13. Contributions of the restructuring of the electric power industry to the August 14, 2003 blackout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casazza, J.; Delea, F.; Loehr, G.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the roles of industry and government in the 2003 blackout was presented. This white paper was prepared by a group of engineers with high level experience in the electric power industry who are concerned that deregulation of the industry has led to a significant decrease in reliability. It was noted that post-blackout reviews have focused on technical failures instead of examining the responsibilities and failures of the National Electric Reliability Council (NERC). Deficiencies in the analytical capabilities of control centres were discussed, as well as issues concerning communication protocols and training. Deregulation and the concomitant restructuring of the electric power industry has led to a shift from long term optimization, inter-system coordination and reliability towards dependence on immediate profits. In addition, there have been significant reductions in personnel at electric power organizations and companies, as well as increasing complexity in operations. Increased complexity has resulted in a dilution of management responsibility, as well as over-reliance on markets to solve scientifically complex problems. There have also been cutbacks in training and research. The functional separation of generation and transmission within companies has contributed to the diffusion of best technical knowledge. Many private utilities have divested their generation resources in response to regulatory pressures. The entrance of merchant power plants in the power system has led to the establishment of new market areas that are inconsistent with the boundaries of responsible operating entities. It was concluded that all these changes have created a more complicated and compartmentalized industry structure. Decisions are now made by a large number of entities, most of which are competitors and each of which has more interest in profit than in bulk power system reliability. Procedural rules established between and among the various parties are no longer

  14. The End of a Natural Monopoly. Deregulation and Competition in the Electric Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, P.Z.; Cole, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    For a hundred years, scholars and government officials understood, or thought they did, the electric power industry. Electric power, based on a single, large service provider, connected by wires to all of its customers, was thought to be an industry that could only operate efficiently as a monopoly; indeed it was something called a 'natural monopoly'. Since it had to be a monopoly, with all the attendant inefficiencies and potential market abuses monopoly entails, government regulation was necessary. These basic assumptions, which at times seemed to conflict with observed facts remained largely unquestioned for the better part of 75 years. Then, changing institutional and technological circumstances led economists to question the basis in fact of the theory of natural monopoly, and the regulatory system it entailed. Movement toward a deregulated electric power system began albeit in piece-meal fashion. Indeed, the result has been a crazy quilt of deregulation and re-regulations, which often have resulted in more costs than benefits for society as a whole. In the most infamous case, California, the entire enterprise of regulatory change has been called into question. The process of deregulation or reregulation in several other states has stopped because of fear of repeating California's mistakes. This book addresses some of the fundamental issues underlying the debate over electric power regulation and deregulation. Only by understanding these questions and exploring a variety of possible answers to them can we hope to move the debate over the proper structure of the electric power industry. Undoubtedly, electric power deregulation will be a major legal and economic concern for years to come

  15. Ice storm '98: The electricity industry's great challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The biggest and most costly natural disaster to hit Canada in over a century, the ice storms of 1998, that transformed Eastern Canada into a virtual glacier, was discussed. Trees, wires, poles, transmission towers, transformers succumbed to the immense weight of the ice, countless transmission and distribution lines were destroyed, leaving millions in the dark and cold, many for several weeks. The unprecedented show of solidarity within the electricity industry, as hundreds of crews from utilities across Canada and the U.S., the many thousands of private individuals and some 16,000 members of the Canadian Forces that came to the assistance of those in the affected areas, working 16-hour days, braving falling trees and sub-zero temperatures, was truly astonishing, and clearly the stuff of which legends are made. The storm has humbled Canadian public authorities and especially the Canadian electricity industry. Besides honoring those that weathered the storm, and paying tribute to the utilities and private companies that reached out to assist in the relief efforts, this review also discusses the need for government agencies and utility companies to review their emergency preparedness plans. The objective is to improve them by incorporating the most important lessons learned from this experience, in an effort to forestall their future recurrence. It is generally accepted that the Ice Storm of '98 was a unique natural disaster that no amount of planning could have foreseen, much less prevented. Nevertheless, by examining the lessons learned, it might be possible to reduce the severity should a similar disaster occur again

  16. Opportunities to improve the private capital in Brazilian electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, R.A. de.

    1993-08-01

    The Brazilian electricity supply industry has passed substantial changes in the last fifty years. In the 50's was almost completely controlled by foreign companies. In the 70's, it turned to be almost exclusively ruled by Federal and State Enterprises. In the 80's the electricity supply sector started a financial and institutional crises. Some changes, already in course, indicate new changes of it for the next years. This study give emphasis to: the reasons that lead to a fast and well succeeded State intervention in the post-war; the multiple reasons of the recent crisis in sector, trying to insert it in the general context of the country; the alternative that have being formulated to overcome the obstacles created by the crisis; and the main factors for an efficient re-structure of the Brazilian electricity sector for the next years, included privatisation. (author)

  17. Competition and power pooling in the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinski, P.; Yarrow, G.; Fusaro, P.

    1995-01-01

    Two contributions to the debate on power pooling and competition in the electricity supply industry are presented. In the first, the situation in England and Wales where power pooling was introduced shortly before privatization is analysed. Pooling has existed for many years in the USA but as an inter-generator arrangement designed to optimize production and costs. The British system sought in addition to establish a spot market in which bulk buyers as well as bulk suppliers could participate. There are however obvious weaknesses in the pool as a competitive market and it is argued that a combination of pooling arrangements and longer-term bilateral supply contracts are more likely to offer the prospect of workably competitive and efficient outcomes. The second contribution discusses how competitive markets will evolve in the USA under the new regime of less onerous regulation heralded by the Energy Policy Act if 1992 and the emergence of electricity trading markets which followed. In particular, the proposal by the California Public Utility commission favouring a mandatory Poolco is examined. Poolco would operate the transmission grid and dispatch generating plants while the utilities would retain ownership of transmission facilities and be required to supply the pool. This is seen as representing only partial deregulation and not to be consistent with moves to further competition and encourage free markets. (U.K.)

  18. The structure of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaist, G.T.; Morisette, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1952, when Canadians began to study the application of reactors to power generation, the CANDU reactor design and the manufacturing and and engineering capability supporting it have evolved into a world-class technology. At present, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. works directly with provincial electrical utilities in developing their power reactor requirements. It assumes responsibility for the detailed design of the nuclear steam supply system of stations, undertakes some procurement activities, and may represent the utilities in licensing applications. The detailed design and supply of components for the remainder of the nuclear steam plant, as well as for the secondary plant, are provided in Ontario by Ontario Hydro together with manufacturers, and in Quebec and New Brunswick by private firms. Canadian utilities have always assumed the project managment function themselves, but with export sales AECL has taken turnkey responsiblity for either the nuclear steam plant or the complete power station. AECL owns design specifications and other documentation, the use of which it can license, but manufacturing technology resides with Canadian industry. Canadian manufacturers have supported AECL design licensing initiatives overseas. The Canadian nuclear industry's major problem is the current lack of a vigorous domestic market combined with an uncertain international one

  19. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Winfried [RWE SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany)

    2006-11-23

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  20. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  1. Impact of electric industry deregulation on gas markets: a power marketer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahns, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of electric industry deregulation on gas markets was examined. The presentation included industry comparisons of 1994 gas total revenues versus electricity total revenues for residential, commercial, and industrial use. A chart forecasting the outlook for gas-fired generation of electric power indicated that the use of natural gas as feedstock for power generation will increase from 12% to 37% during the period 1994 to 2003. 16 figs

  2. Electric industry Latin American: Achievements and perspectives - Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1999-01-01

    It includes a historical review; what is the general management of electricity, actors that intervene in the electric market, goals, alternative sources, investment opportunities and foreign investment

  3. OOA composite structures applicable in railway industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnáková Soňa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite sandwich structures offers several advantages over conventional structural materials such as lightweight, high bending and torsional stiffness, superior thermal insulation and excellent acoustic damping. In the aerospace industry, sandwich composites are commonly manufactured using the autoclave process which is associated with high operating cost. Out-of-autoclave (OOA manufacturing has been shown to be capable of producing low cost and high performance composites. In this paper we present results of experimental testing of various sandwich materials according various standards and actual requirements in transport industry. We compared the different types of surface and paint systems, because these layers are the most important in contact with the surrounding environment and load conditions. In the experimental measurements were used various materials. For the core of the sandwich structure were selected aluminium honeycomb, aramid honeycomb and PET (Polyethylene terephthalate foam core. Support layers were chosen two kinds of predimpregnated materials. The conditions of measurements were requirements for strength and rigidity, safety - flame resistance and reflectivity resistance. The samples were tested at the 3 - point bending test according to standard EN ISO 178, by modified test to determine the force required to rapture threaded insert, by test of reflectivity according to UIC CODE 844-4 R and according to standard EN 45545-2 fire protection of railway vehicles.

  4. Air quality enhancement by reducing emissions from electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzeh, Ali

    2006-01-01

    The electric power industry is responsible for electricity generations, transmission and distribution. The system is dominated by thermal electricity generation (in Syria its share is about 80%). The fossil fuels used in te thermal power plants are a major stationary source of greenhouse gases (GHG) in addition to other pollutant. The primary GHG are CO 2 , NO x , SO 2 , CO, and VOC, of which CO 2 is believed to account for about half of the global warming. There are many approaches to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted from power systems. The best measures as given mainly by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 1996 are presented in the paper. From the efficiency and sustainability side of view, the implementation of these approaches cannot be done optimally without an integrated environmental management program (EMP). The paper proposes an EMP as a conceptual strategy using a set of evaluation criteria to be applied on the power system on concern. As a final item, a case study of the Syrian power system is presented. The energy system in Syria emitted about 115 million tons of CO 2 in the year 2000. The electric power system alone consumes approximately 36% of the total consumed fossil fuels in the country, and is responsible of about 35-40% of the CO 2 emissions. The Syrian power system has three major problems (like many systems in the region) which need to be resolved in order to improve its operation and consequently to reduce the emission of green house gases. First, the technical electrical losses are about 25-30% of net generated electricity. Second, the power factor has reached alarming levels in various parts of the power system. Third, the efficiencies in all power plant units are very low and still decreasing rapidly. The paper gives an overview of the energy sector in Syria showing a significant potential for energy efficiency and environmental protection projects. The main outcome of the case study is a comprehensive program

  5. Evaluation of the Impact of Outsourcing on the Performance of Lithuanian Electricity Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligita Gasparėnienė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at evaluation of the impact of outsourcing on the performance of Lithuanian electricity industry. Research methods include systematic analysis of the scientific literature and expert evaluation. Theoretical analysis of the literature has enabled to identify the most significant outsourcing determinants, which have the impact on the performance of electricity industry, and the main outsourcing-related risks for the companies operating in this industry. The results of the empirical research have revealed the effects of various outsourcing determinants on the performance of Lithuanian electricity industry as well as negative outcomes of outsourcing application in the researched industry.

  6. Economic impact of regulatory reforms in the electricity supply industry: a panel data analysis for OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Toru; Tsutsui, Miki

    2004-01-01

    This paper re-examines the impact of the regulatory reforms on price in the electricity supply industry, using panel data for 19 OECD countries for the period 1987-1999, and compares the results with those found in an earlier study by Steiner (Regulation, industry structure and performance in the electricity supply industry, OECD Economics Department Working Paper, ECO/WKP, 2000, p. 11). We found that expanded retail access is likely to lower the industrial price and increase the price differential between industrial customers and household customers, as expected. We also found that the unbundling of generation and the introduction of a wholesale spot market did not necessarily lower the price and may possibly have resulted in a higher price. This finding is not consistent with expectations and differs from Steiner (2000), but it is plausible in the light of recent experiences in many countries. (author)

  7. Transition costs in the electricity industry: A summary of issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

    1996-10-01

    Progress is evident as the restructuring debate in the U.S. electricity industry completes its third year. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission released a final rule on transmission open access-a key element to facilitate more efficient wholesale markets. The majority of states have initiated investigations or discussions on restructuring retail markets. Yet hurdles remain in formulating and implementing state-level restructuring proposals. Perhaps foremost among these hurdles is the issue of transition costs (the potential monetary losses experienced by utilities, consumers, and other economic actors as a result of government initiatives to transform electricity generation from a regulated to a competitive market). Transition costs are approximately equal to the difference between the embedded cost for generation services under traditional cost-of-service regulation and the competitive-market price for power. When government takes action to open current monopoly franchises to multiple generation providers and the competitive-market price falls below embedded generation costs, then transition costs will arise. Transition costs will include one or more of the following four classes of costs: (1) assets, primarily utility-owned power plants; (2) liabilities, primarily long-term power-purchase and fuel-supply contracts; (3) regulatory assets, including deferred expenses and costs that regulators allow utilities to place on their balance sheets; and (4) public-policy programs, such as energy efficiency, low-income programs, and research and development. What is at issue in the transition-cost debate? The debate turns on four questions: (1) How large are the potential transition costs from restructuring? (2) How are these costs estimated? (3) What, if anything, might be done to address these costs? (4) Who will ultimately pay for any remaining costs and how? This paper summarizes some of the key results from a project at ORNL that addresses these four questions.

  8. Global environmental problems in the electric industry. Denki jigyo ni okeru chikyu kankyo mondai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugi, T [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1992-09-30

    Since the electric industry has grappled with a prevention of the environmental pollution such as the air pollution and water contamination as a forerunner in case of construction and operation of the power facilities, and at the same time has conducted actively the environmental conservation countermeasures, it has consequently achieved the environmental conservation level as a top level in the world. On the other hand, as for the emission quantity of CO2 relating to the earth warming, the power field occupies about one fourth of total Japan. Therefore the electric industry should aim at the electric energy supply considering the influence on the environment, such as the power supply structure to restrain CO2 emission as less as possible, higher efficiency of equipments, higher efficiency of energy utilization by using the unused energy and so forth. In addition to it, the consumer side should aim at the social structure with a recycle type such as saving resources and saving energy, and aim at changeover of life style. It is hoped to conduct the overall measure including the items mentioned above. In this report, the recent trend of earth enviromental problems, grappling with the environmental problems as a forerunner such as the prevention measure of air pollution in the thermal power plant, etc., and the correspondence to the earth warming problems are outlined. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Optimal Remanufacturing Certification Contracts in the Electrical and Electronic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While remanufacturing is highly encouraged worldwide, some original equipment manufacturers (OEMs in the electrical and electronics industry are still not willing to embrace remanufacturing, for fear of expensive investment or the cannibalization of existing products. Meanwhile, third-party remanufacturers’ (TPRs remanufactured products are developing quickly. Due to quality reasons, consumers usually have a higher preference for OEM-certified remanufactured products than uncertified ones. As such, remanufacturing certification has become a strategy that OEMs can use to benefit from product remanufacturing. Our paper focuses on the remanufacturing certification contract between an OEM and a TPR. Once certified, the TPR makes payments to the OEM. These payment terms will affect their enthusiasm for participating in remanufacturing certification. By establishing game models among an OEM, a certified TPR, and an uncertified TPR, our paper explores three certification contracts, namely, the lump-sum payment, profit-sharing payment, and piece-rate payment. We identify the conditions for the OEM and certified TPR to reach a win-win outcome. Our results show that when TPRs have a high profit margin and there is no significant difference in consumers’ preferences between certified and non-certified remanufacturing channels, the profit-sharing payment contract yields the highest profit; otherwise, the piece-rate payment contract is best for the OEM.

  10. Electrical Resistivity Structure of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, USA: Results From 3D Inversion of Modern and Legacy Magnetotelluric Data Collected by Industry and the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, D. W.; Bedrosian, P.; Jiracek, G. R.; Pellerin, L.; Nettleton, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Valles caldera, in north-central New Mexico, USA, is a 20-km wide topographic depression in the Jemez Mountains volcanic complex that formed during two massive ignimbrite eruptions 1.65 and 1.26 Ma. Post-collapse volcanic activity in the caldera includes the rise of a 1 km high resurgent dome, periodic eruptions of the Valles rhyolite along ring fractures, and the presence of a geothermal reservoir beneath the western caldera with temperatures in excess of 300°C at a mere 2 km depth. We present an electrical resistivity model of the upper crust from three-dimensional (3D) inversion of broadband (100 Hz to 600 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data collected in and around the Valles caldera. The Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) has been acquiring geophysical data in the northern Rio Grande rift for more than three decades (1983-2017). Included in that vast dataset are over 60 broadband magnetotelluric soundings that have recently been cataloged, geo-located, and digitized for use in modern geophysical processing and modeling. The resistivity models presented here were produced by inverting a subset of SAGE MT data along with 30 broadband MT soundings acquired by the Unocal Corporation in 1983 for geothermal exploration of the caldera. We use the 3D inversion algorithm ModEM (Egbert and Kelbert, 2012) to invert full impedance tensors and tipper functions from >30 MT stations for the electrical resistivity structure beneath the caldera. Our preferred model reveals the geometry and electrical properties of (1) the conductive caldera fill, (2) the resistive crystalline basement, and (3) an enigmatic mid-crustal conductor related to magmatic activity that post-dates caldera formation.

  11. Generating and distributing electricity economically and in large amounts for generations. Siemens - a synonym of electrical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldenkirchen, W.

    1997-01-01

    The development of electrical engineering and the history of the Siemens company have been closely interrelated since their beginnings. Since the late 19th century, the electrical industry, by constantly extending its range of products, has turned into a sector of economy with an international reputation. Under the paradigm of assuming technological leadership, or co-leadership, in the development of electrical engineering world-wide, Siemens has had its share in this process. (orig.) [de

  12. The {open_quotes}obligation to serve{close_quotes} and a competitive electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, R.D. [Fisher, Sheehan and Colton (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents an assessment of what the ``obligation to serve`` might look like in a competitive electric industry. Broadly, this research has three objectives: to define the ``duty to serve`` of a competitive electric industry; to identify those companies to whom that duty applies; and to explain how that duty protects residual classes.

  13. Electric technology in the food service industry; Les technologies electriques dans les services alimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labonte, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1997-04-01

    Many innovative technologies in the food service industry have been made through the use of electricity as a source of energy. Electricity made it possible to improve the productivity and profitability of the food industry. Some of these technologies include: (1) cooking by induction, which is based on the principle of magnetic fields, (2) combined convection ovens which accelerate thermal exchange, and (3) electric fryers. The advantages of each technology were described. The environmental advantage of using electricity as an energy source in the food service industry was also discussed.

  14. Analysis on Potential of Electric Energy Market based on Large Industrial Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingyi; Zhu, Xinzhi; Yang, Shuo; Xia, Huaijian; Yang, Di; Li, Hao; Lin, Haiying

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of electric energy substitution by enterprises plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in china. In order to explore alternative energy potential of industrial enterprises, to simulate and analyze the process of industrial enterprises, identify high energy consumption process and equipment, give priority to alternative energy technologies, and determine the enterprise electric energy substitution potential predictive value, this paper constructs the evaluation model of the influence factors of the electric energy substitution potential of industrial enterprises, and uses the combined weight method to determine the weight value of the evaluation factors to calculate the target value of the electric energy substitution potential. Taking the iron and steel industry as an example, this method is used to excavate the potential. The results show that the method can effectively tap the potential of the electric power industry

  15. The structure of the electricity market in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany can be subdivided into the three subareas of public electricity supply, industrial power generation, and electricity supply to the Federal Railways. The most important sector, public electricity supply, is organized in private companies. Its special characteristics are its decentralized, pluralistic structure. The public electricity supply sector is made up of approximately 1000 firms, half of which only have a market share of approx. 1%, however. 89% of the total deliveries of useful electricity come from the 91 largest companies; the 26 biggest firms are responsible for 64% of the total deliveries of useful electricity. In terms of electricity generation, the two largest firms contribute 43%, the 25 largest, 72%, and the 116 largest, 99%. The firms in the public electricity supply sector contributed well over 80% of the total electricity production in 1988 of approx. 425 billion kWh. Since its origins late in the past century, the public power industry has been arranged in a comprehensive network of agreements restricting competition. At the distribution level, for instance, the supply regions of the electricity utilities are divided up by agreements excluding competition, so-called demarcation agreements. (orig.) [de

  16. Prediction of Industrial Electric Energy Consumption in Anhui Province Based on GA-BP Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajing; Yin, Guodong; Ni, Youcong; Chen, Jinlan

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the prediction accuracy of industrial electrical energy consumption, a prediction model of industrial electrical energy consumption was proposed based on genetic algorithm and neural network. The model use genetic algorithm to optimize the weights and thresholds of BP neural network, and the model is used to predict the energy consumption of industrial power in Anhui Province, to improve the prediction accuracy of industrial electric energy consumption in Anhui province. By comparing experiment of GA-BP prediction model and BP neural network model, the GA-BP model is more accurate with smaller number of neurons in the hidden layer.

  17. Industrial structure at research reactor suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roegler, H.-J.; Bogusch, E.; Friebe, T.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the recent joining of the forces of Framatome S. A. from France and the Nuclear Division of Siemens AG Power Generation (KWU) from Germany to a Joint Venture named Framatome Advanced Nuclear Power S.A.S., the issue of the necessary and of the optimal industrial structure for nuclear projects as a research reactor is, was discussed internally often and intensively. That discussion took place also in the other technical fields such as Services for NPPs but also in the field of interest here, i. e. Research Reactors. In summarizing the statements of this presentation one can about state that: Research Reactors are easier to build than NPPs, but not standardised; Research Reactors need a wide spectrum of skills and experiences; to design and build Research Reactors needs an experienced team especially in terms of management and interfaces; Research Reactors need background from built reference plants more than from operating plants; Research Reactors need knowledge of suitable experienced subsuppliers. Two more essential conclusions as industry involved in constructing and upgrading research reactors are: Research Reactors by far are more than a suitable core that generates a high neutron flux; every institution that designs and builds a Research Reactor lacks quality or causes safety problems, damages the reputation of the entire community

  18. Industrial entrepreneurial network: Structural and functional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, M. A.; Davletbaev, R. H.; Berg, D. B.; Nazarova, J. J.; Parusheva, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Structure and functioning of two model industrial entrepreneurial networks are investigated in the present paper. One of these networks is forming when implementing an integrated project and consists of eight agents, which interact with each other and external environment. The other one is obtained from the municipal economy and is based on the set of the 12 real business entities. Analysis of the networks is carried out on the basis of the matrix of mutual payments aggregated over the certain time period. The matrix is created by the methods of experimental economics. Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods and instruments were used in the present research. The set of basic structural characteristics was investigated: set of quantitative parameters such as density, diameter, clustering coefficient, different kinds of centrality, and etc. They were compared with the random Bernoulli graphs of the corresponding size and density. Discovered variations of random and entrepreneurial networks structure are explained by the peculiarities of agents functioning in production network. Separately, were identified the closed exchange circuits (cyclically closed contours of graph) forming an autopoietic (self-replicating) network pattern. The purpose of the functional analysis was to identify the contribution of the autopoietic network pattern in its gross product. It was found that the magnitude of this contribution is more than 20%. Such value allows using of the complementary currency in order to stimulate economic activity of network agents.

  19. EC interior energy market - legal bases and implications for the Austrian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremuth, W.

    1989-01-01

    The author begins by outlining what 'internal energy market' means and Austria's relationship to it and to the EC and describes the present state of cooperation in electricity supply between European countries. He discusses amongst other things: distortions to competition, cost structures, responsibility for a Europe-wide network, the effects of setting up a central European load distributor on Austria's electricity industry, the economic consequences of the common-carrier in Austria, monopolies and exclusive rights, cross-border exchanges, reliability and quality of supply, and savings in costs. He hopes that efforts towards further integration in Europe do not upset the already close cooperation between supply networks by introducing unreal, counter-productive objectives. (T.J.R.A.)

  20. 76 FR 70166 - Electrical Standards for Construction and General Industry; Extension of the Office of Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ...] Electrical Standards for Construction and General Industry; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget... contained in the Electrical Standards for Construction (29 CFR part 1926, Subpart K) and for General... maintenance of electric utilization equipment that prevent death and serious injuries among construction and...

  1. Industry will meet productivity goals, but can it hold the line on prices: electrical Canada, 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-01-01

    The Canadian electrical industry can expect to grow more muscle in 1967. Demand for electricity increases across the country and the big power projects will be the Nelson Columbia, Peace, Manicouagan, Outardes and Churchill Falls. With more promotion by utilities scheduled better electrical living will get a record shot in the arm.

  2. The Effects of Competition Policy on TFP Growth: Some Evidence from the Malaysian Electricity Supply Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kok Fong See; Tim Coelli

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are to measure total factor productivity (TFP) growth in the electricity supply industry in Peninsular Malaysia from 1975 to 2005 and to assess the impact of private entry reforms upon TFP in this industry. Prior to 1995, a government-linked, vertically-integrated electricity utility, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), was essentially the sole operator. However, since 1995 privately-owned Independent Power Producers (IPPs) have also begun generating electricity, a...

  3. Standardized Cost Structure for the Environmental Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, B.; Melamed, D.; Guevara, K.; Mallick, P.; Bierman, G.; Marshall, H.E.

    2006-01-01

    The underlying key to developing successful estimates, tracking project costs, and utilizing historical project cost information is the development of standardized and well-defined hierarchical listing of cost categories. Committees within the U.S. Federal agencies have pioneered efforts toward developing the Environmental Cost Element Structure (ECES), which is key in achieving these goals. The ECES was developed using an iterative process with input from federal agencies and industry. Experts from several disciplines participated including engineers, cost estimators, project/program managers, and contract personnel. The ECES benefits from an intense analytical effort, the knowledge gained from the maturation of the environmental industry, and incorporation of past user's experiences. Building upon this foundation, the E06 committee of the ASTM International has now fully developed and published a standard (ASTM 2150-04) that provides standardized cost categories with complete cost category definitions. This standard affords environmental and nuclear D and D project managers the opportunity to have a well defined hierarchical listing of their estimates and actual costs, readily adapted to performing summations and roll-ups, supported by a multi-level dictionary specifically defining the content of the cost elements as well as the summations. Owing to the dynamic nature of the environmental technologies, efforts need to be made to continue to update this standard by adding new technologies and methods as they are developed and employed in the field. Lastly, the Environmental Cost Element Structure that is embodied in this standard also presents opportunities to develop historical cost databases and comprehensive life cycle cost estimates and standardized cost estimating tools. (authors)

  4. Situational analysis for the current status of the electric vehicle industry : a report for presentation to the Electric Vehicle Industry Steering Committee of Natural Resources Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleet, B.; Li, J.K.; Gilbert, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlined the status of the electric vehicle industry in Canada. While the low energy density of electric batteries has prevented the widespread adoption of electric-powered vehicles, new developments in nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have provided a 3- to 4-fold increase in energy density than lead-acid batteries. The Ni-MH batteries have enabled the emergence of hybrid automobiles that use electric motors to supplement or provide traction with internal combustion engine (ICE) generators that power the motors or charge batteries. Plug-in hybrids use batteries that can be charged from the electricity grid or by on-board generators. Lithium-based batteries contain twice the amount of energy density as Ni-MH batteries, and are now being upscaled for use in plug-in hybrids. Canada has many assets that favour the development of electric vehicle technology as it has a high degree of urbanization, and a widely diversified electric supply. Canada is also a major player in EV technology, and a world leader in renewable electricity generation. However, considerable investment and leadership is needed in order to foster EV technology in Canada. It was concluded that an EV industry can be developed by facilitating collaboration among organizations currently promoting sustainable transportation, identifying potential centres of engineering and technological excellence, and defining markets relevant to a Canadian EV industry. 32 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Electricity demand and conservation potential in the Chinese nonmetallic mineral products industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    As the high energy-consuming manufacturing industry, electricity consumption of nonmetallic mineral products in China accounted for 7.93% of industrial, 5.84% of national and 1.33% of global electricity consumption in 2010. This study attempts to specify the determinants of sectoral electricity demand, forecast future electricity consumption by creating a model using the Johansen cointegration methodology and estimate the sectoral electricity conservation potential. Results indicate that GDP per capita is the leading force explaining the sectoral electricity consumption increase, while value-added per worker, R and D intensity and electricity price are the main factors contributing to the sectoral electricity consumption decrease. Results demonstrate that sectoral electricity consumption in 2020 will be 369.79–464.83 billion kWh under the low-growth scenario and 530.14–666.39 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario. Moreover, under the low-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 33.72–95.03 billion kWh, accounting for 0.45–1.26% of China's total electricity demand in 2020; under the high-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh, accounting for 0.26–0.74% of world's total electricity consumption in 2010 respectively. Finally, we provide some policy recommendations for encouraging energy conservation in China's nonmetallic mineral products industry. - Highlights: • A long-term relationship of electricity demand in nonmetallic minerals industry is established. • Determinants of the sectoral electricity consumption are specified. • The sectoral electricity demand and saving potential are analyzed using scenarios analysis. • Electricity saving potential will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario

  6. Electricity market deregulation and its impact on the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.E.; Alfors, G.

    2000-01-01

    Electricity has traditionally been supplied in OECD countries by state-owned facilities, or state-protected monopolies with regulated pricing. More recently, however, several countries have deregulated their electricity markets, thus opening the door to competitive supply and pricing. Deregulation of electricity markets is a trend that is expected to be followed by many countries, and can have a significant impact on the future of nuclear power programmes. (authors)

  7. Electric Power Consumption Coefficients for U.S. Industries: Regional Estimation and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-21

    Economic activity relies on electric power provided by electrical generation, transmission, and distribution systems. This paper presents a method developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to estimate electric power consumption by different industries in the United States. Results are validated through comparisons with existing literature and benchmarking data sources. We also discuss the limitations and applications of the presented method, such as estimating indirect electric power consumption and assessing the economic impact of power outages based on input-output economic models.

  8. Electrical structure of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Stanley, W.D.; Bisdorf, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    From the interpretation of magnetotelluric, transient electromagnetic, and Schlumberger resistivity soundings, the electrical structure of Newberry Volcano in central Oregon is found to consist of four units. From the surface downward, the geoelectrical units are 1) very resistive, young, unaltered volcanic rock, (2) a conductive layer of older volcanic material composed of altered tuffs, 3) a thick resistive layer thought to be in part intrusive rocks, and 4) a lower-crustal conductor. This model is similar to the regional geoelectrical structure found throughout the Cascade Range. Inside the caldera, the conductive second layer corresponds to the steep temperature gradient and alteration minerals observed in the USGS Newberry 2 test-hole. Drill hole information on the south and north flanks of the volcano (test holes GEO N-1 and GEO N-3, respectively) indicates that outside the caldera the conductor is due to alteration minerals (primarily smectite) and not high-temperature pore fluids. On the flanks of Newberry the conductor is generally deeper than inside the caldera, and it deepens with distance from the summit. A notable exception to this pattern is seen just west of the caldera rim, where the conductive zone is shallower than at other flank locations. The volcano sits atop a rise in the resistive layer, interpreted to be due to intrusive rocks. -from Authors

  9. Industrial and institutional restructuring of the Russian electricity sector: Status and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engoian, Alda

    2006-01-01

    The reform of the Russian electricity industry represents one of the largest and most technically complex post-Soviet era industrial restructurings. This paper presents the framework, status, and perspectives for the Russian electricity sector liberalisation. Uncertainties regarding the effective implementation of the reform are specifically examined. Ultimately the critical analysis of the reform questions the feasibility and adequacy of the recommended measures in the specific Russian context. Current theories fail to answer a fundamental issue, namely how to promote investment in an obsolete electrical infrastructure and, more generally, whether a pure free market model is compatible with physical constraints posed by the electricity sector. A careless deregulation of the Russian electricity system could hinder the country's stable and sustainable development, as its economy and the population's service have traditionally been closely linked to the electricity industry

  10. Industrial and institutional restructuring of the Russian electricity sector: status and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engoian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The reform of the Russian electricity industry represents one of the largest and most technically complex post-Soviet era industrial restructurings. This paper presents the framework, status, and perspectives for the Russian electricity sector liberalisation. Uncertainties regarding the effective implementation of the reform are specifically examined. Ultimately the critical analysis of the reform questions the feasibility and adequacy of the recommended measures in the specific Russian context. Current theories fail to answer a fundamental issue, namely how to promote investment in an obsolete electrical infrastructure and, more generally, whether a pure free market model is compatible with physical constraints posed by the electricity sector. A careless deregulation of the Russian electricity system could hinder the country's stable and sustainable development, as its economy and the population's service have traditionally been closely linked to the electricity industry. (author)

  11. Passive elimination of static electricity in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaćanović Mićo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  12. Renewable Electricity Use by the U.S. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gorham, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-20

    The information and communication technology (ICT) sector continues to witness rapid growth and uptake of ICT equipment and services at both the national and global levels. The electricity consumption associated with this expansion is substantial, although recent adoptions of cloudcomputing services, co-location data centers, and other less energy-intensive equipment and operations have likely reduced the rate of growth in this sector. This paper is intended to aggregate existing ICT industry data and research to provide an initial look at electricity use, current and future renewable electricity acquisition, as well as serve as a benchmark for future growth and trends in ICT industry renewable electricity consumption.

  13. Regulatory reform in the Spanish electricity industry: a missed opportunity for competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arocena, P.; Kuhn, Kai-Uwe; Regibeau, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the reform of the Spanish electricity industry, and argues that the reform is a lost opportunity for the rapid introduction of competition. The evolution of the Spanish electrical power industry is traced, and the basic characteristics of the Spanish electricity market, the regulatory regime before liberalisation, and the liberalisation process and its shortcomings are discussed. Some policy suggestions are raised including the facilitating of competitive entry in generation, the liberalisation of supply activities, the regulation of distribution, and increasing the power, independence and transparency of the regulator. The capacity, generation, and distribution shares of Spanish electric companies as of 1996 are tabulated. (UK)

  14. Incorporating network effects in a competitive electricity industry. An Australian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outhred, H.; Kaye, J.

    1996-01-01

    The role of an electricity network in a competitive electricity industry is reviewed, the nation's experience with transmission pricing is discussed, and a 'Nodal Auction Model' for incorporating network effects in a competitive electricity industry is proposed. The model uses a computer-based auction procedure to address both the spatial issues associated with an electricity network and the temporal issues associated with operation scheduling. The objective is to provide a market framework that addresses both network effects and operation scheduling in a coordinated implementation of spot pricing theory. 12 refs

  15. The impact of the government policy on the Chinese electric gehicle industry and business strategy management : Case of FAW

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background: The electric vehicle industry is an emerging industry worldwide. In China the development of the electric vehicle industry is rapid. The government policy is of great influence on the economy in the Chinese context. The Chinese electric vehicle company has to design the right business strategy to maintain and enhance its competitive advantages in order to respond to challenges. Aim: This study analyzes the five competitive forces of the Chinese electric vehicle industry and the ef...

  16. The impact of ICT investment and energy price on industrial electricity demand: Dynamic growth model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Youngsang; Lee, Jongsu; Kim, Tai-Yoo [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Shillim-Dong San56-1, Gwanak-Ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

    2007-09-15

    The authors investigate the effects of information and communications technology (ICT) investment, electricity price, and oil price on the consumption of electricity in South Korea's industries using a logistic growth model. The concept electricity intensity is used to explain electricity consumption patterns. An empirical analysis implies that ICT investment in manufacturing industries that normally consume relatively large amounts of electricity promotes input factor substitution away from the labor intensive to the electricity intensive. Moreover, results also suggest that ICT investment in some specific manufacturing sectors is conducive to the reduction of electricity consumption, whereas ICT investment in the service sector and most manufacturing sectors increases electricity consumption. It is concluded that electricity prices critically affect electricity consumption in half of South Korea's industrial sectors, but not in the other half, a finding that differs somewhat from previous research results. Reasons are suggested to explain why the South Korean case is so different. Policymakers may find this study useful, as it answers the question of whether ICT investment can ultimately reduce energy consumption and may aid in planning the capacity of South Korea's national electric power. (author)

  17. The impact of ICT investment and energy price on industrial electricity demand: Dynamic growth model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngsang; Lee, Jongsu; Kim, Tai-Yoo

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigate the effects of information and communications technology (ICT) investment, electricity price, and oil price on the consumption of electricity in South Korea's industries using a logistic growth model. The concept electricity intensity is used to explain electricity consumption patterns. An empirical analysis implies that ICT investment in manufacturing industries that normally consume relatively large amounts of electricity promotes input factor substitution away from the labor intensive to the electricity intensive. Moreover, results also suggest that ICT investment in some specific manufacturing sectors is conducive to the reduction of electricity consumption, whereas ICT investment in the service sector and most manufacturing sectors increases electricity consumption. It is concluded that electricity prices critically affect electricity consumption in half of South Korea's industrial sectors, but not in the other half, a finding that differs somewhat from previous research results. Reasons are suggested to explain why the South Korean case is so different. Policymakers may find this study useful, as it answers the question of whether ICT investment can ultimately reduce energy consumption and may aid in planning the capacity of South Korea's national electric power. (author)

  18. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathopoulos, V.N., E-mail: vasta@teihal.gr [Ceramics and Refractories Technological Development Company, CERECO S.A., 72nd km Athens Lamia National Road, P.O. Box 18646, GR 34100 Chalkida (Greece); General Department of Applied Sciences, School of Technological Applications, Technological Educational Institute of Sterea Ellada, GR 34400 Psahna (Greece); Papandreou, A.; Kanellopoulou, D.; Stournaras, C.J. [Ceramics and Refractories Technological Development Company, CERECO S.A., 72nd km Athens Lamia National Road, P.O. Box 18646, GR 34100 Chalkida (Greece)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Zn is stabilized due to formation of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and/or willemite type phases. • EAFD/clay fired mixtures exhibit improved mechanical properties. • Hollow bricks were successfully fabricated from the mixtures studied. • Laboratory articles and scaled up bricks found as environmentally inert materials. -- Abstract: In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in

  19. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, V N; Papandreou, A; Kanellopoulou, D; Stournaras, C J

    2013-11-15

    In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an increase of mechanical strength. Moreover, leaching tests performed according to the Europeans standards on the EAFD-block samples showed that the quantities of heavy metals leached from crushed blocks were within the regulatory limits. Thus the EAFD-blocks can be regarded as material of no environmental concern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  20. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathopoulos, V.N.; Papandreou, A.; Kanellopoulou, D.; Stournaras, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Zn is stabilized due to formation of ZnAl 2 O 4 spinel and/or willemite type phases. • EAFD/clay fired mixtures exhibit improved mechanical properties. • Hollow bricks were successfully fabricated from the mixtures studied. • Laboratory articles and scaled up bricks found as environmentally inert materials. -- Abstract: In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an

  1. Electricity in lieu of nautral gas and oil for industrial thermal energy: a preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-02-01

    In 1974, industrial processors accounted for nearly 50% of the nation's natural gas consumption and nearly 20% of its consumption of petroleum. This report is a preliminary assessment of the potential capability of the process industries to substitute utility-generated electricity for these scarce fuels. It is tacitly assumed that virtually all public utilities will soon be relying on coal or nuclear fission for primary energy. It was concluded that the existing technology will permit substitution of electricity for approximately 75% of the natural gas and petroleum now being consumed by industrial processors, which is equivalent to an annual usage of 800 million barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas at 1974 levels. Process steam generation, used throughout industry and representing 40% of its energy usage, offers the best near-term potential for conversion to electricity. Electric boilers and energy costs for steam are briefly discussed. Electrically driven heat pumps are considered as a possible method to save additional low-grade energy. Electrical reheating at high temperatures in the primary metals sector will be an effective way to conserve gas and oil. A wholesale shift by industry to electricity to replace gas and oil will produce impacts on the public utilities and, perhaps, those of a more general socio-economic nature. The principal bar to large-scale electrical substitution is economics, not technology. 174 references.

  2. A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert Frank, III

    1998-12-01

    The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific

  3. CUEPRA-Clemson University electric power research association: An industry/university partnership for excellence in power engineering education and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, A.A.; Makram, E.B.; Cline, M.L.; Fortson, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    A unique structure for the Clemson University Electric Power Research Association (CUEPRA) has been established to promote electric power system research and to meet the need for a working communication link between the power industry and the academic community. This paper presents the power industries involvement in the power program at Clemson University and the strategic improvements that have been accomplished in research and education

  4. Electric power economy in industry and commerce II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamede Filho, J.

    1988-01-01

    The acts of electric power economy in Brazil are studied, including the improvement of load factor, maintain a high power-factor and use of monthly consumption method and medium powers method. (author)

  5. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  7. Affairs of power: Restructuring California's electric utility industry, 1968-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Allan

    This dissertation studies the process of change in the political economy of electric utilities. Following two decades of continual growth during the nation's post-World War Two economic and population boom, the electric power industry confronted increasing challenges to its traditional operating practices and cultural values, nowhere with greater intensity than in California. Pressure for change came from outside forces who opposed utilities' business practices, assailed their traditional vertically-integrated structure, questioned the political assumptions that sustained their monopoly status, and ultimately wrested away access to the once tightly controlled technology of electric generation and transmission. Because managers of both investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities continued to rely upon long-standing economic and technical assumptions derived from deeply held cultural values sustained by decades of business success, they were rendered unable to comprehend and unwilling to accommodate change. Persistent mistrust between the publicly-owned and privately-owned sectors further weakened the industry's ability to work cooperatively in the face of crucial challenges. Thus encumbered by endemic structural jealousy, technological path dependency, and organizational stasis, the industry did not respond with sufficient innovation to new social values and altering economic conditions, ultimately resulting in the discarding of the old political economy of regulated monopolism. Five precepts of economic history are identified as crucial elements of the process of change. First, the tension between protection and entry, and the related issue of access to technology, contributes to creation and modification of the political economy in which economic institutions function. Second, submission to governmental regulatory powers allows certain industries to control entry, restrict access, and protect themselves from the dynamics of competitive change. Third, an

  8. Industrial structural transformation and carbon dioxide emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Junpeng

    2013-01-01

    Using provincial panel data from the period 1995–2009 to analyze the relationship between the industrial structural transformation and carbon dioxide emissions in China, we find that the first-order lag of industrial structural adjustment effectively reduced the emissions; technical progress itself did not reduce the emissions, but indirectly led to decreasing emissions through the upgrading and optimization of industrial structure. Foreign direct investment and intervention by local governments reduced carbon dioxide emissions, but urbanization significantly increased the emissions. Thus, industrial structural adjustment is an important component of the development of a low-carbon economy. In the context of industrial structural transformation, an effective way to reduce a region’s carbon dioxide emissions is to promote the upgrading and optimization of industrial structure through technical progress. Tighter environmental access policies, selective utilization of foreign direct investment, and improvements in energy efficiency can help to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. - Highlights: ► Relationship between the transformation of industrial structure and CO 2 emissions in China. ► Dynamic panel data model. ► Industrial structural adjustments can effectively reduce current CO 2 emissions. ► Technical progress leads to decreasing CO 2 emissions through upgrading of industrial structure

  9. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacaster, A.J.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Nuclear fuel cycle bringing about opportunity for industrial structure conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Taiki

    1991-01-01

    Three facilities of nuclear fuel cycle, that is, uranium enrichment, fuel reprocessing and low level radioactive waste storage and burying, are being constructed by electric power industry in Rokkasho Village, Kamikita County, Aomori Prefecture. These are the large scale project of the total investment of 1.2 trillion yen. It is expected that the promotion of this project exerts not a little effect to the social economy of the surrounding districts. Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, carried out the social environment survey on the location of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. In this report, the outline of the economical pervasive effect due to the construction and operation of the three facilities in the report of this survey is described. The method of survey and the organization, the outline of three nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the economical pervasive effect, the effect to the local social structure, and the direction of arranging occupation, residence and leisure accompanying the location of three nuclear fuel cycle facilities are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  12. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T.E. [Pacific Energy Group, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  13. The nuclear electricity generating industry in England and Wales post-privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the new legal framework within which the nuclear generating industry has operated in England and Wales since 31 March 1990. It describes the formation of Nuclear Electric plc and the licensing arrangements, including the various obligations which have been placed upon Nuclear Electric by virtue of its Generation Licence. The impact of competition law is outlined, together with the commercial arrangements including electricity pooling and some of the other more important agreements which Nuclear Electric has entered into. Finally, the Paper discusses some of the constraints under which Nuclear Electric operates, and summarises Government policy towards nuclear power and its future prospects in the United Kingdom. (author)

  14. Economic structure and performance of forest-based industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Laughlin, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the economic structure, conduct, and performance of industries dependent on the nation's forests that are topics of special importance for research. A major challenge to research involving industrial organization of forest-based industries is to link descriptions of structure, conduct, and industrial performance in ways that facilitate public and private policy making. Not to be overlooked is the need to continue efforts to monitor changes in structure and conduct dimensions at the national level and to conduct baseline studies of industry structure-conduct-performance at regional, state, and local levels. Specifically needed is research that will improve understanding of restructuring within the wood-based industry; definitions of the wood-based industry and segments thereof; linkages between structure and regional economic development; timberland as a managerial and economic variable; structural consequences of technological innovations; corporate strategies as related to performance; structural dimensions in an international setting; and structure and performance of nonwood-based forest industries. Economics research focused in such directions will go far toward improving the manner in which the nation's many forest industries organize and conduct their activities

  15. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  16. A deterministic model for the growth of non-conducting electrical tree structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, S J

    2003-01-01

    Electrical treeing is of interest to the electrical generation, transmission and distribution industries as it is one of the causes of insulation failure in electrical machines, switchgear and transformer bushings. In this paper a deterministic electrical tree growth model is described. The model is based on electrostatics and local electron avalanches to model partial discharge activity within the growing tree structure. Damage to the resin surrounding the tree structure is dependent on the local electrostatic energy dissipation by partial discharges within the tree structure and weighted by the magnitudes of the local electric fields in the resin surrounding the tree structure. The model is successful in simulating the formation of branched structures without the need of a random variable, a requirement of previous stochastic models. Instability in the spatial development of partial discharges within the tree structure takes the role of the stochastic element as used in previous models to produce branched tree structures. The simulated electrical trees conform to the experimentally observed behaviour; tree length versus time and electrical tree growth rate as a function of applied voltage for non-conducting electrical trees. The phase synchronous partial discharge activity and the spatial distribution of emitted light from the tree structure are also in agreement with experimental data for non-conducting trees as grown in a flexible epoxy resin and in polyethylene. The fact that similar tree growth behaviour is found using pure amorphous (epoxy resin) and semicrystalline (polyethylene) materials demonstrate that neither annealed or quenched noise, representing material inhomogeneity, is required for the formation of irregular branched structures (electrical trees). Instead, as shown in this paper, branched growth can occur due to the instability of individual discharges within the tree structure

  17. Severity of electrical accidents in the construction industry in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Cebador, Manuel; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; López-Arquillos, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    This paper analyzes the severity of workplace accidents involving electricity in the Spanish construction sector comprising 2,776 accidents from 2003 to 2008. The investigation considered the impact of 13 variables, classified into 5 categories: Personal, Business, Temporal, Material, and Spatial. The findings showed that electrical accidents are almost five times more likely to have serious consequences than the average accident in the sector and it also showed how the variables of age, occupation, company size, length of service, preventive measures, time of day, days of absence, physical activity, material agent, type of injury, body part injured, accident location, and type of location are related to the severity of the electrical accidents under consideration. The present situation makes it clear that greater effort needs to be made in training, monitoring, and signage to guarantee a safe working environment in relation to electrical hazards. This research enables safety technicians, companies, and government officials to identify priorities and to design training strategies to minimize the serious consequences of electrical accidents for construction workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  18. Activities for the privatisation of the electricity supply industry in Great Britain. Electricity changing from public ownership to administrative, regulatory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, H P

    1988-11-01

    According to Great Britain's energy policy, the electricity industry is going to be denationalised, so that the electricity sector will be governed by the principles of free competition, releaved from governmental intervention and political constraints, and supervised by the Director General of Electricity Supply. This restructurisation is intended to improve Britain's electricity industry in terms of dynamics, creativity, supply quality, and efficiency. A major goal is to strengthen the competitiveness of the British industry, and to enhance electricity supply to private consumers by way of more favourable electricity rates.

  19. Service to the Electric Utility Industry by the Ford Nuclear Reactor, University of Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, R.R.; Simpson, P.A.; Cook, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1977, the staff of the University of Michigan's Ford Nuclear Reactor has been providing irradiation, testing, analytical, and training services to electric utilities and to suppliers of the nuclear electric utility industry. This paper discusses the reactor's irradiation facilities; reactor programs and utilization; materials testing programs; neutron activation analysis activities; and training programs conducted

  20. Structured Mathematical Modeling of Industrial Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Abdullah Nur; Nazaruddin, Yul Yunazwin; Siregar, Parsaulian; Bindar, Yazid

    2014-01-01

    As a major utility system in industry, boilers consume a large portion of the total energy and costs. Significant reduction of boiler cost operation can be gained through improvements in efficiency. In accomplishing such a goal, an adequate dynamic model that comprehensively reflects boiler characteristics is required. This paper outlines the idea of developing a mathematical model of a water-tube industrial boiler based on first principles guided by the bond graph method in its derivation. T...

  1. Analysis of the Potential Impacts on China’s Industrial Structure in Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushen Tian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial structure is one of the main factors that determine energy consumption. Based on China’s energy consumption in 2015 and the goals in 13th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development of the People’s Republic of China (The 13th Five-Year Plan, this paper established an input–output fuzzy multi-objective optimization model to estimate the potential impacts of China’s industrial structure on energy consumption in 2015. Results showed that adjustments to industrial structure could save energy by 19% (1129.17 million ton standard coal equivalent (Mtce. Second, China’s equipment manufacturing industry has a large potential to save energy. Third, the development of several high energy intensive and high carbon intensive sectors needs to be strictly controlled, including Sector 25 (electricity, heat production, and supply industry, Sector 11 (manufacture of paper and stationery, printing, and Sector 14 (non-metallic mineral products industry. Fourth, the territory industry in China has a great potential for energy saving, while its internal structure still needs to be upgraded. Finally, we provide policy suggestions that may be adopted to reduce energy consumption by adjusting China’s industrial structure.

  2. Restructuring in the Electricity Markets and Structural Transformation in Turkish Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan ÇETİNTAŞ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Electricity markets are changed over from monopolistic to competitive structure. In many countries liberalization process in electricity markets began after 1980. In this study models for restructuring the electricity markets are explained with the natural monopoly and its regulation which is discussed in economic theory over many years. Then structural transformation in Turkish Electricity Market is explained within the legal arrangament framework and in liberalization process of electricity markets current state of Turkey is evaluated. In Turkey, the reform process in electricity market began with the liberalization of production and ıt is contiuned to change the design of the wholesale market. There has been significant progress for energy exchange by the establishment of EPİAŞ with the Electricity Market Law Numbered 6446 in 2013.

  3. The impact of electricity price changes on industrial prices and the general price level in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seul-Ye; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Electricity has played an important role in the economic development of Korea and, thus, has become a critical factor in sustaining the well-being of the Korean people. This study attempts to investigate the impact of electricity price changes on industrial prices and the general price level using input–output (I–O) analysis. To this end, we apply the I–O price model to the 2011 I–O table recently produced by the Bank of Korea, paying particular attention to the electricity sector by considering it as exogenous and then investigating its impacts. The impacts of the electricity price changes on each industrial sector's prices and the general price level are quantitatively derived. For example, the overall impact of a 10% increase in electricity price on the Korean national economy is estimated to be 0.4367%. We also report the results from the model with the electricity sector endogenous and the model with endogenous electricity and labor sectors. This information can be usefully utilized in decision-making regarding price management for electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of electricity price changes on the Korean economy. • We use the input–output (I–O) analysis specifying the electricity sector as exogenous. • We apply the I–O price model to 2010 I–O table produced by the Bank of Korea. • The impact of a 10% increase in electricity price on the Korean economy is 0.2176%

  4. Structural and behavioural foundations of competitive electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents a basic introduction to price formation in the new electricity markets and examines power system economics and electricity market liberalisation. Topics discussed include wholesale electricity prices, the case of gas, the effect of the instantaneous nature of the electricity product, spot markets for electricity, and the ability of industrial companies to influence prices. Market fundamentals are reviewed, and institutional reform and strategic evolution are explored. British daily average power and gas prices, monthly forward prices on the British power and gas markets, seasonal demand profile, electricity demand UK 98/00, annual cost of each plant, price formation in 1997, and monthly demand and wholesale prices in England and Wales 1990-1998 are among the graphs provided

  5. Long-term water demand for electricity, industry and households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, David L.; Bogaart, Patrick W.; Kram, Tom; de Vries, Bert J M; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-01-01

    Better water demand projections are needed in order to better assess water scarcity. The focus in this paper is on non-agricultural water demand, as this is the fastest-growing and least well-modelled demand component. We describe an end use-oriented model for future water demand in the electricity,

  6. Life cycle inventory of electricity cogeneration from bagasse in the South African sugar industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashoko, L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African sugar industry has a potential for cogeneration of steam and electricity using bagasse. The sugar industry has the potential to generate about 960 MW per year from bagasse based on the average of 20 million tons of sugar cane...

  7. The new economics of the electric power industry and some implication for the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The current restructuring of the natural gas industry and its regulation have important implications for the natural gas industry. Some of these implications are positive, some negative. As in all situations of change and uncertainty, look before you leap, is good advice to those in the natural gas industry seeking to take advantage of the opportunities created by the startling changes that are occurring

  8. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  9. Investigation of the Use of Ecodesign Methods and Tools in the Electrical and Electronics Industries of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This investigation strives to determine the level of ecodesign awareness as well as to map the use of methods and tools for this concept in the electrical and electronics industries of Thailand. The foundation of the thesis is eight semi-structured qualitative research interviews performed with various people at Thai organisations, an electronics manufacturer in Thailand, and experts from Swedish, Danish and Thai universities. The research method has yielded the following results: The level o...

  10. Aggregate industrial energy consumer response to wholesale prices in the restructured Texas electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnikau, Jay; Hallett, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The aggregate response of consumers to wholesale price signals is very limited in the restructured Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market. An overall average own-price elasticity of demand of - 0.000008 for industrial energy consumers served at transmission voltage is estimated using a Symmetric Generalized McFadden cost function model. To date, ERCOT has sought to promote demand response to price signals without reliance on 'stand alone' demand response programs, but with a market structure that is designed to facilitate economic demand response. This very limited responsiveness to wholesale price signals may prove problematic in light of policy decisions to pursue an 'energy only' resource adequacy mechanism for ERCOT. (author)

  11. Structured Mathematical Modeling of Industrial Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nur Aziz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As a major utility system in industry, boilers consume a large portion of the total energy and costs. Significant reduction of boiler cost operation can be gained through improvements in efficiency. In accomplishing such a goal, an adequate dynamic model that comprehensively reflects boiler characteristics is required. This paper outlines the idea of developing a mathematical model of a water-tube industrial boiler based on first principles guided by the bond graph method in its derivation. The model describes the temperature dynamics of the boiler subsystems such as economizer, steam drum, desuperheater, and superheater. The mathematical model was examined using industrial boiler performance test data.It can be used to build a boiler simulator or help operators run a boiler effectively.

  12. Greening of Nordic electricity industry: policy convergence and diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midttun, Atle; Gundersen, Mari Hegg; Koefoed, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    With a comparative focus on policy similarity and diversity, this article gives an overview of the main elements of electricity-related environmental policy in the Nordic countries, following the launching of a common electricity market in the 1990s. The article points out that the electricity related environmental policy positions of the Nordic countries showed a noticeable lack of coordination in the 1990s. Nordic divergence is observed both in terms of general policy orientations and at the instrument and incentive levels, in spite of the pioneering development of a common integrated electricity market and ambitious environmental policy goals. The article then highlights how the recent Swedish 'green' certificate market model has created a new momentum for market-based 'greening' with a potential for stronger convergence in Nordic renewable energy policy. In spite of signs of convergence, the article shows how the development of Nordic electricity-related environmental policy still contains considerable ambiguity: Unequal resource endowments, subject to simple resource-based interest formation, should indicate that there is little room for convergence in Nordic renewable energy policy. Shifting the environmental policy focus from existing technologies and resources to potential innovations, however provides a more open arena where the Nordic countries may see themselves served by the dynamic scope of a broader Nordic market based on a common policy approach, such as a green certificate market. In explaining why the Nordic arena may be an interesting locus for common renewable energy policy, the article points out that small countries may need an 'intermediary' arena to aggregate size and scope in order to generate a European momentum in regulatory competition with larger European states. Similarly, Nordic companies may consider the opportunity to gain first mover advantages by partnering with government as local experimentation may be seen as useful pilot

  13. From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Keith Alan

    1997-09-01

    Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4

  14. Generating capital: improving investor confidence in Ontario's electricity industry to induce new generation investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a critical discussion on improving investor confidence in Ontario's electricity industry to induce new generation investment. The reason that investor confidence is critical in the electric power industry is due to the fact that the industry is capital intensive, the asset life is long, it is impossible to model political/regulatory risk and political action is virtually inevitable. The paper concludes that ultimately private sector investors will bear little risk, the tax payer will be on the hook for almost all risk

  15. Super-sensing technology: industrial applications and future challenges of electrical tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kent Hsin-Yu; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Primrose, Ken

    2016-06-28

    Electrical tomography is a relatively new imaging technique that can image the distribution of the passive electrical properties of an object. Since electrical tomography technology was proposed in the 1980s, the technique has evolved rapidly because of its low cost, easy scale-up and non-invasive features. The technique itself can be sensitive to all passive electrical properties, such as conductivity, permittivity and permeability. Hence, it has a huge potential to be applied in many applications. Owing to its ill-posed nature and low image resolution, electrical tomography attracts more attention in industrial fields than biomedical fields. In the past decades, there have been many research developments and industrial implementations of electrical tomography; nevertheless, the awareness of this technology in industrial sectors is still one of the biggest limitations for technology implementation. In this paper, the authors have summarized several representative applications that use electrical tomography. Some of the current tomography research activities will also be discussed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Human networks in the European electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjot, Dominique; Kurgan-van Hentenryk, Ginette

    2004-01-01

    Behind electrical systems, we should not forget the human networks. The European case is interesting for that matter. There were major players involved, from the pioneers up to the conceivers of national and international systems. More particularly, the engineers should be considered for their technical as well as organizational performance. Attitudes must also be stressed: in Europe, electricity has constantly been developed with both nationalist and internationalist considerations, as shown by the passage from Unternehmergeschaeft to Bankgeschaeft after 1918. Neither should we forget the role played by institutions in the formation of networks: schools, holdings, cartels, and also those frontier zones formed by small countries like Belgium and Switzerland. The human networks, finally, left long term results such as: interconnection, inter-firm cooperation, technocracy, and the growing intervention of the State

  17. Expert system reasoning techniques applicable to the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchton, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the applicability of three problem solving paradigms adopted from the artificial intelligence discipline of computer sciences, which have been used in developing nuclear plant expert systems. Each technique is briefly defined and an example is presented that shows how that technique was used in developing an expert system application prototype. The three paradigms and their associated example systems are: (1) rule-based reasoning: reactor emergency action level monitor (REALM) for the Electric Power Research Institute, (2) object-oriented programming: accident diagnosis and prognosis aid for the US Department of Energy, and (3) model-based reasoning: knowledge-based monitoring and control system for the Electric Power Research Institute

  18. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.Rose

    2000-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift om the traditional business model of utilities. This paper will focus on deregulation in thc United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  19. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift from the traditional utility business model. This paper will focus on deregulation in the United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  20. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  1. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Song; Huang, Shiyong; Zhou, Meng; Ni, Binbin; Deng, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  2. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection. In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg. Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  3. Local Design & Global Dreams - Emerging Business Models creating the Emergent Electric Vehicle Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Andersen, Poul Houman; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    Electric cars hold the potential to completely alter the interrelationship among actors in the automobile industry architecture. As such they may not only be able to alleviate environmental externalities but also revolutionise the automobile industry as such. This paper is concerned...... with the processes of industry creation for the electric car industry, which is a particular fascinating topic matter as it allows the analysis to provide an understanding of the processes of innovation and of some of its inventors in concert. In continuation of this, the aim of this paper is to describe and analyse...... which emergent business models and corresponding value capturing capabilities can be found in the emerging market for electric cars....

  4. Japan's electric power industry: responding to the challenges of the 3Es

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.

    1999-01-01

    With the rapid push toward deregulation in the power markets of North America, the European Union, and emerging economies, the business environment of the global power market has been dramatically altered in recent years. Profit margins, strategic overseas investments, and shareholder equity have replaced stability and predictability as the new business paradigm in the international electric power industry. Although Japan's electric power industry has not undergone the same degree of market liberalization experienced by its counterparts in North America and the European Union, this does not mean that Japan has escaped the challenges of the 3Es (economic, energy, and environmental changes), which have transformed the international electric power industry in recent years. With companies and consumers in Japan paying the highest price for electricity in the industrialized world, the high price of electricity represents an important business competitiveness issue for firms in energy - and export-intensive industries. This is particularly true now that Japan is desperately trying to end the economic turmoil caused by over regulation and a weak banking system. What remains to be seen is if Japan will be able to deregulate its electric power industry and at the same time, comply with the Kyoto climate change pledge of reducing the country's greenhouse emissions by 6% (compared to 1990 levels) in the next 10 years and continue to meet its energy security objective of expanding the use of nuclear power in the national energy supply. The complex interplay of domestic and international pressures on the national power market need to be explored in order to fully understand the policy challenges facing Japan's electric power industry. (author)

  5. Using the Financial Instruments for Electric Energy Industry Modernization: the Experience of European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnedina Kateryna V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the financial instruments used in the European countries to modernize the electric energy industry has been undertaken. A review of the European practices indicates that financial support for the electric energy industry modernization projects is financed by such instruments, mechanisms and incentives as «green» tariff, «green» certificates and «quota obligations», «green» bonds, auctions, concessional lending, grants, investment subsidies. Venture capital investment is a common form of financing for electric energy industry modernization in the European countries. It has been determined that «green» bonds are an effective instrument that allows to accumulate significant amounts of funds and direct them to the renewable energy industry. Nowadays a significant number of renewable energy industry projects in the EU countries have already been implemented at the expense of the funds obtained from the «green» bonds issue. «Green» bonds are a pivotal promising financial instrument for the modernization of electric energy industry in the European countries. Formation of the mechanism for their issue in Ukraine, taking account of the foreign practice of creating a market of «green bonds», will allow to accumulate the financial resources that are necessary for development of the renewable energy industry.

  6. Network investments and the integration of distributed generation: Regulatory recommendations for the Dutch electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, Eva

    2010-01-01

    An increase in the distributed generation of electricity necessitates investments in the distribution network. The current tariff regulation in the Dutch electricity industry, with its ex post evaluation of the efficiency of investments, average benchmarking and a frontier shift in the x-factor, delays these investments. In the unbundled electricity industry, the investments in the network need to be coordinated with those in the distributed generation of electricity to enable the system operators to build enough network capacity. The current Dutch regulations do not provide for a sufficient information exchange between the generators and the system operators to coordinate the investments. This paper analyses these two effects of the Dutch regulations, and suggests improvements to the regulation of the network connection and transportation tariffs to allow for sufficient network capacity and coordination between the investments in the network and in the generation of electricity. These improvements include locally differentiated tariffs that increase with an increasing concentration of distributed generation.

  7. Core business concentration vs. corporate diversification in the US electric utility industry: Synergy and deregulation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika; Shang, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Many economists such as Wilson (2002) [Wilson, R., 2002. Architecture of power market, Econometrica, 70, 1299-1340] have considered that there are similarities between electricity and gas services in the US electric utility industry. Hence, they expect a synergy effect between them. However, the two businesses do not have technology similarities at the level that the gas service produces a synergy effect with electricity. To examine whether there is a synergy effect of corporate diversification in the industry, we compare electricity-specialized firms with diversified utility firms in terms of their financial performance and corporate value. The comparison indicates that core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification under the current US deregulation policy.

  8. Electricity conflicts. Self-conception and strategic action of the electricity industry between politics, industry, the environment and the public (1970-1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhardt, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    The energy industry has undergone a fundamental transformation process over the past 50 years. The author examines in this study the beginnings and challenges of this process since the 1970s on the basis of previously unevaluated corporate and association sources. For the areas of energy demand, industry and the environment and the public, the author analyzes the behavior of the electricity industry, which since the 1970s has been moving between persistence and change pressure. What leeway did the companies have in these three areas? How did the energy suppliers' actions shape the German energy system? And how did their actions change their image in public? These questions the changes in the energy industry have so far neither been scientifically adequately investigated nor adequately reflected by the actors themselves. The results of the work thus make an important contribution to the analysis of the beginnings the energy transition. [de

  9. Semiconductor industry: a survey of structure, conduct, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webbink, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    The study describes the structure, conduct, and performance of the semiconductor industry. The industry is characterized by a high rate of innovation and technological change, rapidly falling costs and prices, and rapidly rising sales in boom periods as well as large declines in sales in recession periods. These desirable performance characteristics take place in an industry that has moderately high domestic levels of concentration. However, there are many features that cause this industry to have behavior and performance that is markedly different from such highly concentrated industries as automobiles and steel. These features were investigated and are reported

  10. Structural, dielectric and electrical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Detailed studies of dielectric properties of the compound as a function of temperature at ... Microscope (Jeol, JSM-840), operated at 20 kV. The sin- tered pellet was .... grain boundaries, and provides the true picture of the electrical properties of ...

  11. Structural, dielectric and electrical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tric and ferroelectric memory devices at room temperature,. (Choudhary et al 1999; ... is both due to short- and long-range motions of charge carriers. Though a lot of ... (electric field = 12 kV/cm, time = 8 h) at different tempera- tures using a ...

  12. Understanding inter-industry wage structures in the euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Genre, Véronique; Momferatou, Daphne; Kohn, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the euro area wage structure and its potential determinants from a sectoral viewpoint. Merging information from the OECD Structural Analysis database with data from the EU Labour Force Survey, we construct a cross-country panel of 22 industries in 8 euro area countries for 1991-2002. Data inspection confirms the existence of a fairly stable inter- industry wage structure that is similar across countries. We then apply panel data techniques to identify factors explaining ...

  13. Applications of Expert Systems within the Scottish Electricity Supply Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWhirter, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the areas of application of Expert Systems within the South of Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB). The SSEB interest in Expert Systems was initiated by a fault in a conventional power station however the paper describes how the development associated with that work, has resulted in applications for the Nuclear Power Stations. The paper contrasts the cost benefits and project risks associated with the uses of probabilistic systems and concludes that the cost benefits of these are at present too low to justify their use in on-line applications

  14. Environmental exposures in the US electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, R.; Henderson, J.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of 47 US investor-owned electric utilities' environmental exposures to impending air quality and climate policies shows potentially material and highly differentiated financial impacts. For many companies the minimized compliance costs of a four-pollutant cap-and-trade regulatory regime would be less than those of a three-pollutant regime that omitted controls on carbon dioxide emissions. Fragmented regulatory requirements would have the highest compliance costs. The companies studied vary considerably in the adequacy of their financial reporting of these potential impacts. Greater transparency would benefit investors and the most favorably positioned companies. (author)

  15. Testing Header Component of Electricity Power Industry Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo, S.A; Andryansyah, B; Artahari, Dewi; Natsir, Muhammad; Triyadi, Ari; Farokhi

    2000-01-01

    Testing of header component of Suralaya Unit II electricity power by replication method has been carried out. That header component is cross over pipe which interconnection between Primary and Superheater Outlet Header Secondary Superheater Outlet Header with the operation time over 14 years. The main composition of cross over pipe is 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo or frequently specified as ferritique steel. The replication testing shown that the damage classification on those cross over pipe in A class based on failure classification from Neubauer and Wedel. Simple calculation in favor of cross over pipe remaining lifetime is about 16.5 years moreover

  16. Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael T.

    This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional

  17. Green pricing: Customer-oriented marketing of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, T.

    1998-01-01

    There are at present about 15 established projects launched by energy suppliers in Germany which deserve to be called ''green pricing'' marketing strategies, and about an equal number of further projects at various stages of development which also offer as a ''green'' incentive for customers electricity from renewable energy sources. Worldwide, there are about 50 established green pricing projects, offered primarily in the USA, Switzerland and the Netherlands, and in Germany. The targeted customers of these projects for the time being are exclusively households that cannot easily switch over to other than their local suppliers. It can be expected that with progressive market liberalisation in Great Britain, the USA and, finally, in Germany, competition for this customer group will rapidly increase the number of green pricing marketing projects in these countries. This is why the article here presents a thorough analysis of the specific features of green pricing contracts, their impact on enhanced development and application of the technology for electricity generation from renewables, and a forecast on future developments. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Critique of the electricity industry. Research report ERG 013. [In United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The studies described in this report were begun in October 1975 and had the aim of examining the future role of the electricity industry in the light of the changes in fuel prices and the government's ''Save It'' campaign. As the study proceeded, it became obvious that the electricity industry was facing a crisis which threatened a number of government policies. The essence of this crisis is a declining demand for electricity coupled with an installed capacity 55 percent greater than required to meet peak demand. The most obvious solution to the electricity industry's problems is to promote vigorously electricity sales so as to improve its revenue and maintain the growth in number of power stations. This is clearly in conflict with the ''Save It'' campaign and likely to increase the U.K.'s consumption of oil. The alternative solution, namely to raise the price of electricity and drastically reduce orders for new power stations, is in conflict with the government's policies aimed at curbing inflation and unemployment. Thus the study was enlarged to encompass not only the role of electricity in a national fuel policy but also to examine policies which would alleviate the worst effects of the immediate crisis without prejudicing either short-term economic objectives or longer-term fuel policies. Part 2, Technical Factors, explains technical issues involved in the discussions. Part 3, Industry Problems, sets out the problems as seen by the industry and the explanation of how the industry came to its present position. Part 4, Consumer Problems, explains the nature of customers problems and how government services and pricing policies could be used to alleviate these. Part 5, Government Policy, shows the need for an integrated fuel policy and the general direction that the studies suggest this policy should take. Conclusions are summarized in Part 6. (MCW)

  19. The electricity industry in cross fire of public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeglin, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    This is a study of the relations of the public in a modern high technology state to the advances in technology. On one hand the achievements of technology in making life easier and enabling larger numbers of people to benefit from those achievements are generally appreciated, on the other there is growing criticism arising from environmental considerations. As regards work in industry and commerce a way of measuring competence vs. trustworthiness is suggested by adopting a scale of five units for both these parameters. It appears that these two values are related by a straight line. This relationship is called 'The acceptence model'. 1 figure. (G.R.S.)

  20. Decentralized energy supply and electricity market structures

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Christoph; Vogel, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Small decentralized power generation units (DG) are politically promoted because of their potential to reduce GHG-emissions and the existing dependency on fossil fuels. A long term goal of this promotion should be the creation of a level playing field for DG and conventional power generation. Due to the impact of DG on the electricity grid infrastructure, future regulation should consider the costs and benefits of the integration of decentralized energy generation units. Without an adequate c...

  1. Current and future prospects for the use of pulsed electric field in the meat industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Zuhaib F; Morton, James D; Mason, Susan L; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2018-02-02

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) is a novel non-thermal technology that has recently attracted the attention of meat scientists and technologists due to its ability to modify membrane structure and enhance mass transfer. Several studies have confirmed the potential of pulsed electric field for improving meat tenderness in both pre-rigor and post-rigor muscles during aging. However, there is a high degree of variability between studies and the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. While some studies have suggested physical disruption as the main cause of PEF induced tenderness, enzymatic nature of the tenderization seems to be the most plausible mechanism. Several studies have suggested the potential of PEF to mediate the tenderization process due to its membrane altering properties causing early release of calcium ions and early activation of the calpain proteases. However, experimental research is yet to confirm this postulation. Recent studies have also reported increased post-mortem proteolysis in PEF treated muscles during aging. PEF has also been reported to accelerate curing, enhance drying and reduce the numbers of both pathogens and spoilage organisms in meat, although that demands intense processing conditions. While tenderization, meat safety and accelerated curing appears to be the areas where PEF could provide attractive options in meat processing, further research is required before the application of PEF becomes a commercial reality in the meat industry. It needs to deal with carcasses which vary biochemically and in composition (muscle, fat, and bones). This review critically evaluates the published reports on the topic with the aim of reaching a clear understanding of the possible applications of PEF in the meat sector in addition to providing some insight on critical issues that need to be addressed for the technology to be a practical option for the meat industry.

  2. Proceedings of Wireless Technology in the Electric Power Industry Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A one-day workshop was conducted at EPRI Charlotte to identify technology issues related to wireless technology in nuclear power plants. The meeting concluded with a roundtable discussion to determine what projects could be conducted to address opportunities and gaps in this technology; the three projects recommended for further investigation were a risk analysis, development of a technology strategy, and development of guidelines for reliable implementation of wireless technologies. The Proceedings CD includes workshop presentations in PowerPoint format. The presentations cover the following topics: (1) Wireless Project at TXU: Integration of Voice, Data, and Video; (2) Radio Upgrade Project at Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE and G) of New Jersey; and (3) Operational Experience with Wireless Communication at Nuclear Plants

  3. Citizen Advisory Council use in the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElfresh, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Many electric utility companies have come to realize the Importance of seeking public input before launching corporate resources into major construction projects. One way to organize this input is to establish a Citizen Advisory Council (CAC). This paper describes the purpose of such a group, its advantages and limitations, and how it might be organized. This paper also describes the results of a survey of CAC use for facility siting purposes. Fifty large utility companies were contacted, eleven of which use CACs for siting purposes. Six of these were questioned in greater detail as to their success in using CACs on specific projects. All companies were positive about the use of CACs for public participation because the groups were able to bring valuable information to light and company credibility was enhanced. Most importantly, the responding companies believed they were able to save time in the siting and licensing process

  4. Organizational human factors as barriers to energy efficiency in electrical motors systems in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, Antonio Vanderley Herrero; Augusto de Paula, Xavier Antonio

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study accomplished in the State of Parana in Southern Brazil, aiming at verifying the correlation between organizational human factors (OHF) and the level of energy losses in organizations. The purpose is to subsidize the formularization of institutional policies in organizations to improve the energy efficiency in the productive sector. The research was carried out in ten industries of the following sectors: pulp and paper; food; wood and chemical products. The losses of electric energy were determined in motor systems with the aid of a mathematical model and the evaluation of 27 OHF identified in the literature review was made with the supervisors in the industries by means of a structurized questionnaire. Seven OHF had presented significant correlation with energy losses and six of them are inversely proportional to the losses, in accordance with linear regression analysis. The inversely proportional factors to the losses also with significant correlation are considered determinative OHF and constitute barriers for energy efficiency in organizations. These barriers are linked with the following organizational areas: management system; education of employees; strategical vision. The study recommends the implementation of the determinative OHF in organizations as a way to transpose the human barriers for energy efficiency

  5. Measuring corporate social responsibility using composite indices: Mission impossible? The case of the electricity utility industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Paredes-Gazquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is a multidimensional concept that is often measured using diverse indicators. Composite indices can aggregate these single indicators into one measurement. This article aims to identify the key challenges in constructing a composite index for measuring corporate social responsibility. The process is illustrated by the construction of a composite index for measuring social outcomes in the electricity utility industry. The sample consisted of seventy-four companies from twenty-three different countries, and one special administrative region operating in the industry in 2011. The findings show that (1 the unavailability of information about corporate social responsibility, (2 the particular characteristics of this information and (3 the weighting of indicators are the main obstacles when constructing the composite index. We highlight than an effective composite index should has a clear objective, a solid theoretical background and a robust structure. In a practical sense, it should be reconsidered how researchers use composite indexes to measure corporate social responsibility, as more transparency and stringency is needed when constructing these tools.

  6. Structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited nonstoichiometric copper ... One of these compounds, CuInSe2, with its optical absorption .... is clear from SEM images that the number of grains goes on increasing with the ...

  7. Electrical conductivity of metal–carbon nanotube structures: Effect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The electrical properties of asymmetric metal–carbon nanotube (CNT) structures have been studied using ... The models with asymmetric metal contacts and carbon nanotube bear resemblance to experimental ... ordinary mechanical strength.

  8. Surface morphology, structural and electrical properties of RF ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-19

    May 19, 2018 ... ITO thin films; sputtering; structure; electrical properties; AFM; Hall effect. 1. Introduction ... ness range (61–768 nm) and to see if this system present properties that .... using the Bragg equation, and the relation linking the inter-.

  9. Deregulation of the California electric power industry: An analysis of electric and natural gas corporate mergers and their effect on the California electric power market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, James Dixon

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry in California is moving in a direction that places greater reliance on the market forces of competition. Investor owned utilities (IOU's) are using mergers and acquisitions to improve their ability to compete in this new environment. Two large mergers were proposed in 1996 that could affect the California market. The first is between Enron Corporation, a large power marketer and Portland General Corporation, owner of Portland General Electric. The second is between Pacific Enterprises Inc., owner of Southern California Gas Company, the largest natural gas utility in the U. S., and Enova Corporation, owner of San Diego Gas and Electric Company. Understanding the impact of these mergers on the California electric power market is the focus of this study. This study examines hypotheses dealing with: (1) Merger Strategy, (2) Efficiency, and (3) Market Power. Using the Miles and Snow (1978) typology, I develop a strategic orientation model for the merger participants and their competitors. The results suggest a two-stage strategic orientation: (1) regulated core business stage, where the firms follow a Defender strategy, and (2) unregulated business stage, where the firms follow a Prospector strategy. Further, the results show the mergers are consistent with the strategy of Enron and Pacific Enterprises. Event study methodology, dollar gains/losses and market value weighted returns are used to determine if the mergers support the efficiency hypothesis. The evidence suggests the mergers lead to increased competitive advantage through improved efficiency for the participants. The results also suggest the mergers do not harm the rivals. The results of structural changes made by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) in deregulation of the California market and analysis of the mergers by the CPUC and the Public Utility Commission of Oregon suggest that the exercise of market power is not a significant issue. Finally

  10. Trends and prospects for the energy industry and electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Dr. Bupp notes that income redistribution is the major issue in the energy problem, with energy producers the current winners and consumers the big losers as money in the US flows from the northeast to the south and southwest. Also, the relative political success of allocating gas and oil income is offset by disappointment in the synthetic-fuels, nuclear, and fossil-fuels industries. He feels that some compromise is needed between the free-market advocates and the regulators so that cooperation between the private and public sectors can replace the current stalemate that is creating unacceptable financial burdens. Finally, he observes that serious thought and planning is particularly called for to overcome the inertia in nuclear power policy and to reorder energy budget priorities

  11. Capital structure in the global shipping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis emerged from a particular financial crisis that started in the United States and being rapidly propagated all over the world. It did not affect a limited region or a limited economic sector. This crisis induced significant changes in all management areas, including financial management. This study is focused on financing strategies adopted by shipping companies during the crisis, analyzing relevant factors for a specific issue - the capital structure. The research methodology proposed for this analysis on relevant factors that could explain the capital structure of shipping is OLS regression applied on selected variables derived from the financial statements of the major shipping companies. The dependent variables reflecting capital structure are book value to total liabilities ratio and book value to total debt ratio. The explanatory variables are derived from the theory of capital structure. This study empirically illustrates the relevance of the capital structure theory for the studied economic sector and is a useful tool for the shipping companies, providing relevant information about the optimal capital structure adopted by shipping companies and about factors that influence this decision during a crisis period.

  12. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fu; S. Huang; M. Zhou; B. Ni; X. Deng

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplit...

  13. Recent Trends in the Structure of the Cable Television Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Martin

    After a brief review of the growth of cable television from 1948 to 1965, the paper examines in more detail trends in the structure of the industry since 1965. Specifically, interest revolves around the apparent trends of concentration and vertical integration within the industry. Corporate histories of the leading firms are then used to…

  14. Research on industrialization of electric vehicles with its demand forecast using exponential smoothing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanglin Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Electric vehicles industry has gotten a rapid development in the world, especially in the developed countries, but still has a gap among different countries or regions. The advanced industrialization experiences of the EVs in the developed countries will have a great helpful for the development of EVs industrialization in the developing countries. This paper seeks to research the industrialization path & prospect of American EVs by forecasting electric vehicles demand and its proportion to the whole car sales based on the historical 37 EVs monthly sales and Cars monthly sales spanning from Dec. 2010 to Dec. 2013, and find out the key measurements to help Chinese government and automobile enterprises to promote Chinese EVs industrialization. Design/methodology: Compared with Single Exponential Smoothing method and Double Exponential Smoothing method, Triple exponential smoothing method is improved and applied in this study. Findings: The research results show that:  American EVs industry will keep a sustained growth in the next 3 months.  Price of the EVs, price of fossil oil, number of charging station, EVs technology and the government market & taxation polices have a different influence to EVs sales. So EVs manufacturers and policy-makers can adjust or reformulate some technology tactics and market measurements according to the forecast results. China can learn from American EVs polices and measurements to develop Chinese EVs industry. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is to use the triple exponential smoothing method to forecast the electric vehicles demand and its proportion to the whole automobile sales, and analyze the industrial development of Chinese electric vehicles by American EVs industry.

  15. Electrical power industry restructuring in Latin America: towards a new mode of organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira, A.; Pinto, H.Q.

    1995-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1990s the restructuring of the industrial organization and the regulatory regimes are probably the most important economic and institutional phenomenon in electricity supply industries Latin America countries. This paper analyses the main characteristics of the restructuring in Chili and Brazil. Two major problems are driving this changes: the financial constraints and economic inefficiencies. Despite institutional barriers to privatization initiatives, the participation of new private companies in electricity supply industrial, specially in generation side, is becoming the common aspect of restructuring. This solution requires new regulatory options and new coordination mechanisms. In this context, the electricity companies may promote innovative strategies and adapt their long-term decisions. (authors). 2 tabs., 30 refs

  16. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Habib Hussain; Ahmad, Rubi Binit; Gee, Chan Sok

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995–2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership), and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies. PMID:27490847

  17. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Habib Hussain; Ahmad, Rubi Binit; Gee, Chan Sok

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995-2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership), and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies.

  18. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Hussain Khan

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995-2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership, and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies.

  19. Inter- and intra-industry variations of capital structure in the Czech manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Pinková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to investigate the existence of inter-industry variations in the capital structure of enterprises of the Czech manufacturing industry and to identify the intra-industry causes of these differences. Three measures of capital structure are employed to determine the inter-industry variations. These are total debt ratio, long-term debt and short-term debt ratios. The set of explanatory variables is included to clarify the intra-industry variations. These explanatory variables are size, asset structure, asset utilization, profitability, non-debt tax shield and growth. The paper reports the analysis of capital structure of five distinctive industrial branches, namely the manufacture of beverages, the manufacture of textiles, the manufacture of paper and paper products, the manufacture of chemicals and chemical products, and the manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products. The data come from the financial statements of selected companies and cover a period from 2008 to 2012. The analysis of variance, correlation and regression analyses are used to develop the statistical framework. The paper aims to study the impact of industry and firm characteristics on capital structure choice.

  20. ASPECTS REGARDING THE STRUCTURE OF GRADUATION PAPERS IN INDUSTRIAL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLOŞ Codruţa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding the structure, themes and content of graduation papers in the specialization of Industrial Design within Petru Maior University of Târgu Mures.

  1. Industry structure and the performance of the Global System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    telecommunication operators in Nigeria. ... This study investigates industry structure and its relationship with the performance of GSM network operators in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey research design was adopted with the use of primary data, ...

  2. Estimating customer electricity savings from projects installed by the U.S. ESCO industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-25

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering substantial energy and dollar savings in the public and institutional facilities sector, typically through the use of energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) (Larsen et al. 2012; Goldman et al. 2005; Hopper et al. 2005, Stuart et al. 2013). This ~$6.4 billion industry, which is expected to grow significantly over the next five years, may play an important role in achieving demand-side energy efficiency under local/state/federal environmental policy goals. To date, there has been little or no research in the public domain to estimate electricity savings for the entire U.S. ESCO industry. Estimating these savings levels is a foundational step in order to determine total avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from demand-side energy efficiency measures installed by U.S. ESCOs. We introduce a method to estimate the total amount of electricity saved by projects implemented by the U.S. ESCO industry using the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) /National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO) database of projects and LBNL’s biennial industry survey. We report two metrics: incremental electricity savings and savings from ESCO projects that are active in a given year (e.g., 2012). Overall, we estimate that in 2012 active U.S. ESCO industry projects generated about 34 TWh of electricity savings—15 TWh of these electricity savings were for MUSH market customers who did not rely on utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs (see Figure 1). This analysis shows that almost two-thirds of 2012 electricity savings in municipal, local and state government facilities, universities/colleges, K-12 schools, and healthcare facilities (i.e., the so-called “MUSH” market) were not supported by a utility customer-funded energy efficiency program.

  3. Electric ignition energy evaluation and the energy distribution structure of energy released in electrostatic discharge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingming; Huang Jinxiang; Shao Huige; Zhang Yunming

    2017-01-01

    Ignition energy is one of the important parameters of flammable materials, and evaluating ignition energy precisely is essential to the safety of process industry and combustion science and technology. By using electric spark discharge test system, a series of electric spark discharge experiments were conducted with the capacitor-stored energy in the range of 10 J, 100 J, and 1000 J, respectively. The evaluation method for energy consumed by electric spark, wire, and switch during capacitor discharge process has been studied respectively. The resistance of wire, switch, and plasma between electrodes has been evaluated by different methods and an optimized evaluation method has been obtained. The electric energy consumed by wire, electric switch, and electric spark-induced plasma between electrodes were obtained and the energy structure of capacitor-released energy was analyzed. The dynamic process and the characteristic parameters (the maximum power, duration of discharge process) of electric spark discharge process have been analyzed. Experimental results showed that, electric spark-consumed energy only accounts for 8%–14% of the capacitor-released energy. With the increase of capacitor-released energy, the duration of discharge process becomes longer, and the energy of plasma accounts for more in the capacitor-released energy. The power of electric spark varies with time as a damped sinusoids function and the period and the maximum value increase with the capacitor-released energy. (paper)

  4. Software for industrial consumers electrical energy tariff optimal selection

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Ardelean; A. Ceclan; L. Czumbil; D. D. Micu; E. Simion

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly presents someelectrical energy management techniques andproposes a software product dedicated forautomatic choose of the optimal tariff structure forindustrial consumers. The optimal choose ofelectrical energy invoicing model proves to be anefficient way to bring quality and economies in anycompanies administration. Advanced description ofthe proposed software is also presented.

  5. Electric Field Structures in Thin Films: Formation and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, Andrew; Plekan, Oksana; Balog, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A newly discovered class of molecular materials, so-called “spontelectrics”, display spontaneous electric fields. Here we show that the novel properties of spontelectrics can be used to create composite spontelectrics, illustrating how electric fields in solid films may be structured on the nanoscale...... by combining layers of different spontelectric materials. This is demonstrated using the spontelectric materials nitrous oxide, toluene, isoprene, isopentane, and CF2Cl2. These yield a variety of tailored electric field structures, with individual layers harboring fields between 107 and 108 V/m. Fields may...

  6. Dual education and industrial cooperation in electrical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradiné Szarka, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dual education in higher education is a new system in Hungary introduced by Mercedes Benz with cooperation of Kecskemet College. In the new system companies support certain number of students and provide them strong practical education in their field. Students applying successfully for dual education study together with non-dual students at the university, so they go through the same university courses as their non-dual colleagues, but while non-dual students’ academic year includes 2×14 weeks active semester and 2×6 weeks exam session, all over 40 weeks, dual students have 48 working weeks including study at the university and practicing at the company. The main question of the success which one is the most effective model to be applied. This paper summarises 2 models of dual education with their advantages and disadvantages and also it presents practical realization at the University of Debrecen with special attention to measurement and instrumentation. Dual education in BSc level electrical engineering course cooperates with 6 multinational companies of the region in four specialization. Dual education also has great impact to the modernisation of engineering education. Detailed study of dual education in field of instrumentation and measurement is provided in the paper.

  7. The gas industry in Britain: future structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a summary of the kind of structural changes to British Gas that can be considered in order to enable effective competition to develop in the gas market. It draws on an extensive analysis undertaken by the Office of Gas Supply (OFGAS) of recent developments in the gas market, the need to ensure the safety, efficiency and security of gas supplies under different structures and how regulation may change with different structures. Many of these issues covered are complex, and can each be discussed at length, but the intention of this paper is to provide an overview of the key options for a restructured gas market. OFGAS has also examined the regulatory environment within which competitors to British Gas who have emerged or who are likely to emerge in the future may be expected to operate. This paper describes the range of structural options we see. At one end of the spectrum there is the option of continuing with a vertically integrated but more heavily regulated monopoly; at the other end is a fully competitive structure with no or much reduced regulation. In between, there are various combinations between the degree of regulation and the extent of competition that can be considered. In analysing future structural options, we believe it necessary to consider the complete gas supply chain. The analysis therefore considers the offshore production or importation of gas, its purchase at the beach, its reception and processing at terminals, its transportation from terminal meters to customers' meters, its storage and sale to final customers. (author)

  8. Decarbonising the energy intensive basic materials industry through electrification – Implications for future EU electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenböhmer, Stefan; Nilsson, Lars J.; Åhman, Max; Schneider, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    The need for deep decarbonisation in the energy intensive basic materials industry is increasingly recognised. In light of the vast future potential for renewable electricity the implications of electrifying the production of basic materials in the European Union is explored in a what-if thought-experiment. Production of steel, cement, glass, lime, petrochemicals, chlorine and ammonia required 125 TW-hours of electricity and 851 TW-hours of fossil fuels for energetic purposes and 671 TW-hours of fossil fuels as feedstock in 2010. The resulting carbon dioxide emissions were equivalent to 9% of total greenhouse gas emissions in EU28. A complete shift of the energy demand as well as the resource base of feedstocks to electricity would result in an electricity demand of 1713 TW-hours about 1200 TW-hours of which would be for producing hydrogen and hydrocarbons for feedstock and energy purposes. With increased material efficiency and some share of bio-based materials and biofuels the electricity demand can be much lower. Our analysis suggest that electrification of basic materials production is technically possible but could have major implications on how the industry and the electric systems interact. It also entails substantial changes in relative prices for electricity and hydrocarbon fuels. - Highlights: • Energy intensive basic materials industry has a high share in EU greenhouse gas emissions. • Decarbonising these industries is very important, but still relatively unexplored. • Electrification is possible regarding renewable energy resources and technologies. • Combination with energy and materials efficiency, biofuels and CCS is crucial. • Electrification needs very high amounts of electricity and strong policies.

  9. New structural changes in Kazakhstan petroleum and gas industry management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Konaev, Eh.N.

    1998-01-01

    The basic stags of structural changes in Kazakhstan petroleum and gas industry management are considered. It is shown, that in new economic situation the traditional branch scheme of management became out date and does not meet demands up the times. The spent structural changes in petroleum and gas industry management will promote to strengthening of strategic role of hydrocarbon raw material production and processing in prospect. (author)

  10. Review of Industrial Applications of Structural Reliability Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    For the last two decades we have seen an increasing interest in applying structural reliability theory to many different industries. However, the number of real practical applications is much smaller than what one would expect.......For the last two decades we have seen an increasing interest in applying structural reliability theory to many different industries. However, the number of real practical applications is much smaller than what one would expect....

  11. Estimating and decomposing productivity growth of the electricity generation industry in Malaysia: A stochastic frontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See, Kok Fong; Coelli, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the total factor productivity (TFP) growth of the Malaysian electricity generation industry over the 1998 to 2005 period. The stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) approach is used to measure TFP change and decompose TFP growth into efficiency change and technical progress. We find that it achieved average annual TFP growth of 2.34%, with technical change contributing the most to the TFP growth over the eight year period. We hence hypothesise that the new power plants with their newer capital-embodied technologies commencing during the sample period are likely to be the main reason for this strong technical change. In addition, it is also noted that this estimate for the Malaysian electricity generation industry is larger than the estimate obtained for the electricity sector as a whole, where we obtain 1.34% per year for a comparable period. -- Highlights: •This is the first empirical study that examines the TFP growth of the Malaysian electricity generation industry using the SFA method. •An average annual TFP change of the Malaysian electricity generation industry over eight years (1998-2005) has been achieved at 2.34% per year. •The technical progress contributing the most to the TFP growth and technical efficiency change and scale change making small contributions over the sample period

  12. Describing Long-Term Electricity Demand Scenarios in the Telecommunications Industry: A Case Study of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kishita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid expansion of information and communication technology (ICT usage, the telecommunications industry is faced with a challenge to promote green ICT toward achieving a low-carbon society. One critical obstacle in planning long-term strategies for green ICT is the uncertainty of various external factors, such as consumers’ lifestyle and technological advancement. To tackle this issue, this paper employs a scenario planning method to analyze electricity consumption in the telecommunications industry, where both changes in various external factors and energy-saving measures are assumed. We propose a model to estimate future electricity consumption of the telecommunications industry using a statistical approach. In a case study, we describe four scenarios that differ in the diffusion of ICT and the technological advancement of ICT equipment in order to analyze the electricity consumption in Japan’s telecommunications industry to 2030. The results reveal that the electricity consumption in 2030 becomes 0.7–1.6-times larger than the 2012 level (10.7 TWh/year. It is also shown that the most effective measures to reduce the electricity consumption include improving the energy efficiency of IP (Internet Protocol communication equipment and mobile communication equipment.

  13. The long-run price sensitivity dynamics of industrial and residential electricity demand: The impact of deregulating electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the demand-side of Ghana's electricity sector. We test two important related hypotheses: (1) deregulation of electricity price does not promote energy conservation, and (2) demand-price relationship is not an inverted U-shaped. The Stock and Watson dynamic OLS is used to address the so-called second-order bias. The result showed that, deregulation of electricity price in Ghana has induced behaviours that are more consistent with energy conservation improvements. The demand-price relationship is an inverted U, which suggests that there is a price range that end-users can tolerate further price rise and still increase their consumption of electricity. However, the degree of price tolerability is higher for residential consumers than industrial consumers. The simulation results showed that, further economic growth is likely to compromise energy conservation but more in the industrial sector than the residential sector. On the other hand, future crude oil price is likely to deteriorate energy conservation in the initial years after 2016, but this trend is likely to reverse after the year 2020. Pricing mechanisms are potent to induce energy conservation but inadequate. The results suggest that they should be complemented with other stringent policies such as a mandatory energy reduction policy, investment in renewables, and personalization of energy efficiency programs. - Highlights: • Studies the demand-side of the electricity sector • Deregulating electricity price promotes energy conservation • Demand-price relationship is an inverted U-shaped • Pricing policies should be combined with other energy mandatory reduction policies

  14. Profitability primer: a guide to profitability analysis in the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Lloyd-Zannetti, D.; Martin, J.; Price, S.

    1996-06-01

    As the electric power industry is opened to forces of competition, increased attention must be focused to develop products and services that deliver good value to customers and to identify customer segments that are profitable to serve. This primer introduces the concept of profitability analysis and its application to the electric power industry. The primer recognizes that some segments of the business will remain monopolistic and subject to regulations, while other segments will become competitive. The primer also recognizes that customer profitability is critically dependent on a host of related issues such as how internal costs are allocated to various functions and how revenues are collected and allocated

  15. How to design electrical systems with central control capability for industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigolini, S.; Galati, G.; Lionetto, P.F.; Stiz, M. (Siemens, Milan (Italy) Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano, Milan (Italy))

    1991-12-01

    The modern centralized control system, incorporating microprocessors, constitutes an extremely efficacious instrument for the management of an industrial plant's electrical system and provides the performance, reliability, flexibility and safety features required by today's technologically advanced plant processes. The use of intelligent centralized control systems, capable of autonomous operation and dialoguing with industrial plant electrical systems, simplifies the design of the overall plant. This paper reviews the main design criteria for the automated systems and gives examples of some suitable commercially available intelligent systems.

  16. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  17. An analysis of the Spanish electrical utility industry. Economies of scale, technological progress and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, Angel; De Toledo, Pablo Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to explain the behaviour of the Spanish electrical utility industry during the period 1987-1997, under the then existing regulatory system (Marco Legal Estable). The paper will study the presence of economies of scale, the effect of technological progress and the differences in the efficiency of the different companies within the market. The paper concludes that the Spanish electrical utility industry was not, in fact, characterized by economies of scale during this period, but witnessed a great improvement in efficiency within that period. All the critical market factors remind stable. (author)

  18. The regulatory treatment of adverse outcomes: Empirical evidence from the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two essays, both of them empirical studies using data from the US electric utility industry. Part I focuses on utilities' investment behavior, while Part II examines regulatory policy toward the industry. The first paper presents an analysis of utilities' decisions about whether to continue or cancel nuclear construction projects. During the seventies and eighties, changes in economic conditions and regulatory policy radically altered the costs and benefits of nuclear power. This study seeks to determine whether regulators pursued policies which induced utilities to employ socially efficient criteria in re-evaluating ongoing projects. The analysis also yields insights into regulators' distributional goals. Results based on data for 1978-84 are consistent with the capture theory hypothesis, which holds that regulators weigh industry interests more heavily than consumer interests. A test for structural change provides no support for the contention that the relative importance of consumer interests increased over this period. These empirical findings are inconsistent with a standard (and essential) assumption of theoretical principal-agent models of rate-of-return regulation, that regulators value consumers' payoffs more than utility profits. The second paper examines regulatory policy toward generating facilities that entered commercial service during the years 1983-88. In a significant departure from past practice, state public utility commissions often denied utilities full recovery of their investments in new plants. Although such ex post disallowances have an important efficiency rationale, they also provide a means for opportunistic regulators to effect transfers between utilities' ratepayers and shareholders. A probit model was used to assess the impact on the probability of a disallowance of firm and project characteristics as well as attributes of a state's political and institutional environment

  19. Development trends in the Rhineland-Palatinate electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.; Luettringhaus, G.; Schiffer, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    After a few introductory remarks on changes taking place on the world energy market, and their effects on the FRG, a historical survey is given on the energy and economic development of Rhineland-Palatinate during the last decade. Based on these facts, and in close connection with the development of the FRG the development of the power industry in Rhineland-Palatinate is described as projected until 1985. This plan envisages a strong development of the utilization of nuclear energy. The per capita consumption of primary energy with 5.67 tons CE per inhabitant was below the Federal average of 5.9 tons CE even later than 1974. It is to achieve the FRG-level with 8.1 tons CE in 1985, and is even to surpass it with 9.2 tons CE, according to a forecast variant. The increase in energy consumption, particularly in primary energy consumption, is mainly due to a strong increase in conversion processes taking place within the state itself, and to a pushback of supplies with secondary energy sources from other Federal states or from abroad. Resulting from a thorough analysis crucial points of regional energy policy in Rhineland-Palatinate are determined and discussed. (UA) [de

  20. Ownership and environmental regulation: Evidence from the European electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Ferraris, Matteo; Florio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates how ownership affects the environmental performance in developed countries where environmental regulation is introduced in the form of market-based instrument. By looking at a cross-country panel dataset of 29 power markets around Europe over the period 1990–2012, we find empirical evidence that an increase of public ownership, as measured by the OECD ETCR index, is associated with a reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon intensity. We also find that the implementation of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to lax allocation of allowances. The positive effect of public ownership on environmental performance has been significant even after the introduction of the ETS, giving additional incentives to mitigate emissions when the ETS cap was not stringent enough. This evidence suggests that government control over power companies in Europe can has created idiosyncratic incentives to improve environmental quality, complementing environmental regulation in the achievement of environmental goals when the latter was absent or sub-optimal. - Highlights: • We analyse the power industry's environmental performance in 29 European countries. • Public ownership is associated with lower emissions than private ownership. • Mixed oligopoly is superior to private oligopoly in environmental terms. • The ETS had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to over-allocation. • Public ownership mitigates the effects of sub-optimal environmental regulation.

  1. The Early Diffusion of Smart Meters in the US Electric Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Derek Ryan

    The impact of new technologies within and across industries is only felt through their widespread diffusion, yet studies of technology diffusion are scarce compared to other aspects of the innovation process. The electric power industry is one industry that is currently undergoing substantial change as a result of both technological and institutional innovations. In this dissertation I examine the economic rationale for the adoption of smart meters by electric power utilities and the relationship between smart meters and the evolving electric power industry. I contribute to empirical research on technology diffusion by studying the early diffusion of smart meters in the US electric power industry. Using a panel dataset and econometric models, I analyze the determinants of both the interfirm and intrafirm diffusion of smart meters in the United States. The empirical findings suggest multiple drivers of smart meter diffusion. Policy and regulatory support have had a significant, positive impact on adoption but have not been the only relevant determinants. The findings also suggest that utility characteristics and some combination of learning, cost reductions, and technology standards have been important determinants affecting smart meter diffusion. I also explore the policy implications resulting from this analysis for enhancing the diffusion of smart meters. The costs and benefits of adopting smart meters have been more uncertain than initially thought, suggesting that some policy support for adoption was premature. The coordination of policies is also necessary to achieve the full benefits of using smart meters.

  2. Competition in the electricity supply industry. Experiences from Europe and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, O.J.

    1995-01-01

    Introducing competition in the electricity industry is a major social experiment. Historically, the industry has been heavily regulated, however, this is no longer the case. Production and sales are being opened for competition and separated from the network services, transmission and distribution. This book includes papers from a Nordic Conference held in September 1994 in Copenhagen. The conference was planned as a part of the Energy Research Programme under the Nordic Council of Ministers and the object was to discuss the Nordic experience of competition in the electricity industry in comparison with other Western countries. The U.K. was the first European country to introduce competition in its electricity industry. Norway came next and two other Nordic countries - Sweden and Finland - have decided to follow suit. The U.S. started earlier than the European countries opening for limited competition in power production. However, the background of the reforms and its approach in the U.S. is different from Europe and far less radical. The experience of two Central European countries - Germany and The Netherlands - is also included in this book. Both countries have many institutional similarities to the Nordic countries, but they are - together with Denmark - more hesitant about introducing competition in their electricity industries. (au)

  3. Class I structures license renewal industry report; revision 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, D.; Renfro, J.; Statton, J.

    1994-07-01

    The U.S. nuclear power industry, through coordination by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), and sponsorship by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has evaluated age-related degradation effects for a number of major plant systems, structures, and components, in the license renewal technical Industry Reports (IRs). License renewal applicants may choose to reference these IRs in support of their plant-specific license renewal applications, as an equivalent to the integrated plant assessment provisions of the license renewal rule (10 CFR Part 54). This IR provides the technical basis for license renewal for U.S. nuclear power plant Class I structures, with the IR evaluating which structures are Class I. Seventeen structures are explicitly described and evaluated in this IR. These structures are not necessarily classified as Class I at all plants, therefore the license renewal applicant should consult this IR for correct identification

  4. The development of the Czech Republic electric industry - Reliable, safe and responsible source mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, Miroslav; Jez, Jiri; Ptacek, Jiri

    2010-09-15

    The paper focuses on the development of the Czech Republic electric industry in close perspective and the prediction of its expected future in period up to 2030. The goal of the paper is to specify methods and procedures applied within periodic assessment of Czech electric power sector balance outlook for the State authorities. A necessity to respect economic recession and politicization of the issue of power sector development has invoked that these items are added to commonly used procedures. A key criterion is the reliable and safe electricity supply by adequate source mix for acceptable prices and environmental aspects.

  5. Application of modern SHM methods in electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasior, Pawel; Kaleta, Jerzy [Wroclaw Univ. of Technolgy (Poland); Przygoda, Aleksander [RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper an application of up-to-date Structural Health Monitoring systems based mainly on optical fibre sensors for various applications in power plants is presented. Real working solutions and ideas of the SHM systems were applied to fluid power boilers, installations of environmental protection (the so called desulphurisation systems) and main frames of construction (130m high). The measured values were compared with the design ones, as well as with the calculated values. It enabled evaluation of the inhomogeneous loads distribution and increased safety of the construction during its repair and operation. (orig.)

  6. Basic strategies in the electric power industry in the new competitive environment; Estrategias basicas na industria de energia eletrica no novo ambiente competitivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro Filho, Ary Pinto [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: arypinto@aneel.gov.br; Moraes, Walter Fernando Araujo de [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: wfam@npd.ufpe.br

    1999-07-01

    This work identifies the probable strategic characteristics of the interconnected North-Northeast Brazilian electricity industry, after the current restructuring and privatization process has been implemented. It is a 15.0 thousand MW generation industry supplying more than 33.5 million consumers. The normative scenery for analysis of the electricity industry takes into consideration the premises that the government establishes the vertical separation of generation, transmission, distribution and retailing, and introduces the regulation to a competitive industrial structure in generation and retailing. It is assumed that free access to transmit and distribute electricity and broad choices for consumers are the main features for competition in both generation and retailing. The essence of formulating strategy is to relate a company with its environment, considering the industrial structure. The probable generic strategies and industrial trends are presented, and considerations are made concerned with the future expansion capacity. Finally, in the new industrial structure which will settle after the deregulation and privatization, the main strategic issues of the companies will likely focus on: profitability, cost control, managerial competence, consumer behavior, and new technologies, in special the ones related to modern thermal power plants. (author)

  7. Risk Reduction Methods for Managing the Development of Regional Electric Power Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Kozhevnikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of the regional electric power industry has come to the forefront due to the changing scale, quality, and configuration of electric power infrastructure, and the spread of distributed generation. This gives rise to more stringent requirements regarding the reliability, safety, and environmental impact of electric power supply. This article aims to justify a package of methods that make it possible to identify and minimize investment, production, financial, and environmental risks in order to ensure sustainable development of the regional electric power industry that performs anti-crisis functions, and of individual energy companies. The key method to be employed is integrated resource planning (IRP. As a part of the method, energy conservation, renewable energy sources, and combined heat and power production are considered as equally valid ways of meeting future demand. The authors have designed a methodology for taking into account uncertainty and risk when implementing IRP. The methodology includes analysis of scenarios and decision making processes by calculating past and projected values of profit indicators. When conducting the environmental and economic assessment of an investment project in the electric power industry, the authors suggest using an aggregate indicator of environmental and economic effectiveness that is calculated on the basis of a combination of locally significant positive and negative environmental and economic impacts of the project. The authors formulate conceptual provisions that serve as the foundation for a promising model of the regional electric power industry and which contain recommendations for managing the development of the industry while minimizing organizational, market, and technological risks.

  8. Privatization and re-structuration processes of electric monopolies: the case of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smida, S.

    2002-11-01

    In the new context of financial sources contraction from the eighties, the developing countries had to accept and engage a series of reform. Besides the well advanced re-structuration of the industries known as competitive, the public utilities have not been ignored. Privatization and the development of private participation in electric industries are, since the beginning of the nineties, in the centre of this evolution. In order to understand this change, we started with the following question. Is public ownership really inefficient? In other words, is privatization an actual alternative as it is implied by some economic development? Our aim in this thesis is to verify empirically if the ownership and/or private management in electric monopolies are preferable to the public form. The first part of this work deals with the theoretical and conceptual aspects. It primarily deals with operation, regulation and by and large with the traditional electric industries organisation. There is also a quotation of the failure of the first reforms as the contracts of performance ('contrats de plan'). The second part is essentially factual. It deals with the analysis and valuation of electric privatization and re-structuration in some developing countries. It appears from this study, that if privatization remains 'impossible' to avoid, it's widely because of public organisation and management failure. Nevertheless, the idea that private form is higher and more efficient than the public form is not necessarily justified. Indeed, other considerations seem to be more important as the type of regulation and the competitive intensity. (author)

  9. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarzynska, Karolina, E-mail: ksafarzy@wu.ac.at [Institute for the Environment and Regional Development, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business, Nordbergstrasse 15 (UZA4, 4B), A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den, E-mail: jeroen.bergh@uab.es [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology and Department of Economics and Economic History, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn-Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, and the Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fellow of Tinbergen Institute and NAKE (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological change, where energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. In each model version, we look at the causal relations between price and output setting mechanisms, fuel and labour use, and investment decisions for different institutional arrangements. We quantify model parameters on data for the United Kingdom. We find that the version of the model with rational investors is capable of replicating well core features of UK electricity history. This includes a rapid diffusion of gas in electricity production, the evolution of the average size of newly installed plants, and a high percentage of electricity sales covered by (forward) contracts-for-difference. In this model setting, nuclear and renewable energies have no chance to diffuse on the market. In the version of the model with boundedly rational investors, nuclear power typically dominates electricity production. We discuss implications of our modelling results for making a transition to low carbon electricity in the future. - Highlights: > We propose a model of a transition from coal to gas in electricity production. > Energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. > We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. > We quantify model parameters on data for the UK for the period 1990-2002. > We draw policy conclusions for guiding a transition to low carbon electricity.

  10. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarzynska, Karolina; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2011-01-01

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological change, where energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. In each model version, we look at the causal relations between price and output setting mechanisms, fuel and labour use, and investment decisions for different institutional arrangements. We quantify model parameters on data for the United Kingdom. We find that the version of the model with rational investors is capable of replicating well core features of UK electricity history. This includes a rapid diffusion of gas in electricity production, the evolution of the average size of newly installed plants, and a high percentage of electricity sales covered by (forward) contracts-for-difference. In this model setting, nuclear and renewable energies have no chance to diffuse on the market. In the version of the model with boundedly rational investors, nuclear power typically dominates electricity production. We discuss implications of our modelling results for making a transition to low carbon electricity in the future. - Highlights: → We propose a model of a transition from coal to gas in electricity production. → Energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. → We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. → We quantify model parameters on data for the UK for the period 1990-2002. → We draw policy conclusions for guiding a transition to low carbon electricity.

  11. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  12. The decision concerning the nuclear investment: influence of the industrial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerminet, M.L.

    2000-10-01

    This report aims to analyze the investment behavior of an enterprise producing nuclear origin electric power in an european market opening to the competition. In this context, the industrial structure controlled by the governor decides the investment in a marginal equipment: either an integrated monopole structure which leads to a regulation at the cost price rate of return; or a pool structure in which the governor intervene to fix the cost price at the marginal cost level given by the main technology of the gas combined cycles. (A.L.B.)

  13. Service quality and asymmetric information in the regulation of monopolies: The Chilean electricity distribution industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Oscar Alfredo

    This study is an enquiry about the role that service quality, asymmetric information, scope of regulation and regulator's preferences play in the regulation of monopolies, with an application to the case of the Chilean electricity distribution industry. In Chapter 1, I present the problem of regulating a monopolist and introduce the special conditions that the electricity sector has. Later I discuss the main characteristics of the electricity system that operates in Chile. The literature on regulation is reviewed in Chapter 2. A special emphasis is given to the problems of quality and information, and the lack of its proper joint treatment. In Chapter 3, I develop four theoretical models of regulation that explicitly consider the regulation of price and quality versus price-only regulation, and a symmetric versus asymmetric information structure where only the regulator knows its true costs. In these models, I also consider the effect of a regulator that may have a preference between consumers and the regulated monopolistic firms. I conclude that with symmetric information and independent of the scope of regulation, having a regulator that prefers consumers or producers does not affect the efficiency of the outcome. I also show that the regulator's inability to set quality, thus regulating only price, leads to an inefficient outcome, away from the first best solution that can be achieved by regulating both price and quality, even with asymmetric information, as long as the regulator does not have a "biased" preference for consumers or the monopolistic producers. If the regulator has a "bias," then the equilibrium will be inefficient with asymmetric information. But the effect on equilibrium price and quality depends on the direction of the effect of quality on the marginal effect of price in demand. More importantly, no closed-form solution can be derived unless drastic simplifications are made. To further investigate the outcome of the models, I use numerical

  14. Annual electricity consumption forecasting by neural network in high energy consuming industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Sohrabkhani, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for annual electricity consumption in high energy consumption industrial sectors. Chemicals, basic metals and non-metal minerals industries are defined as high energy consuming industries. It is claimed that, due to high fluctuations of energy consumption in high energy consumption industries, conventional regression models do not forecast energy consumption correctly and precisely. Although ANNs have been typically used to forecast short term consumptions, this paper shows that it is a more precise approach to forecast annual consumption in such industries. Furthermore, the ANN approach based on a supervised multi-layer perceptron (MLP) is used to show it can estimate the annual consumption with less error. Actual data from high energy consuming (intensive) industries in Iran from 1979 to 2003 is used to illustrate the applicability of the ANN approach. This study shows the advantage of the ANN approach through analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, the ANN forecast is compared with actual data and the conventional regression model through ANOVA to show its superiority. This is the first study to present an algorithm based on the ANN and ANOVA for forecasting long term electricity consumption in high energy consuming industries

  15. Remaining Life Estimation Of Secondary Superheater Outlet On Industrial Electrical Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo; Andryansyah; Arhatari, B.D.; Natsir, Muhammad; Triyadi, Ari; Farokhi

    2001-01-01

    Remaining life estimation of secondary superheater header outlet (SSHO) on industrial electrical boiler has been carried out. Estimation conducted by the observation of microstructure cavitation development based on Neubauer and Wedel theory. The result is available for isolated cavitation development present yet. That Secondary Superheater Outlet component is in good condition after 14 years operated and predicted could be operated for 36 years again

  16. Application of static electricity radioisotope eliminators in oil-processing and petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, V.S.; Evmenov, A.K.; Bondarev, L.M.; Kharlamov, O.V.

    1977-01-01

    Examples are discussed of the use of radioisotope eliminators of the static electricity on the basis of the 239 Pu apha radiation sources in the technological processes of the production and processing synthetic caoutchoucs, rubbers and film materials. The efficiency of different types of eliminators is testified; prospects of their application in the industry are outlined

  17. Hearing of Francois Loos, ministry delegated to the Industry, on the electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The ministry answers questions relative to the electricity price: the position of the tariffs in Europe, the tariffs for the industry, the margins, EDF, the energy policy and the part of the nuclear, the fight against the CO 2 . (A.L.B.)

  18. Evaluation of conventional electric power generating industry quality assurance and reliability practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.T.; Lauffenburger, H.A.

    1981-03-01

    The techniques and practices utilized in an allied industry (electric power generation) that might serve as a baseline for formulating Quality Assurance and Reliability (QA and R) procedures for photovoltaic solar energy systems were studied. The study results provide direct near-term input for establishing validation methods as part of the SERI performance criteria and test standards development task.

  19. Negative Effects of Antimonopoly Regulation on the Russian Electric Power Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena NEPRINTSEVA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the antimonopoly regulation in the domestic economy getting more stringent an analysis of the current measures of antimonopoly regulation in terms of their efficiency is now becoming ever more relevant. The aim of the study - analyze how the measures of antimonopoly regulation affect competitive relationships in the electric power industry. The following methods have been used in this work: empirical method, cause-effect method and scientific abstraction method. The article sets out an analysis of the antimonopoly regulation measures that the antimonopoly authority applies. It also provides an assessment of consequences that follow from such methods being applied for the promotion of competitive relationships on the market of electric power and capacity. A conclusion has been reached that the antimonopoly regulation measures being applied impede the progress of competitive relationships on the market of electric power and capacity. The continuing process of reformation in electric power industry aims to liberalize relationships in the area of electric power production. Yet, as a result of this process, generating capacities are becoming increasingly more concentrated mainly around state companies. This is mainly caused by the lack of certainty regarding the results of the industry reformation and a more stringent state regulation over the last years of the reforms. At the same time, for the purposes of limiting the market force, measures of antimonopoly regulation are being applied to generating companies. Such measures have an adverse effect on competitive relationships and stimulate further concentration.

  20. R and D strategy of the Korean electric industry using a Technology Roadmap(Trm) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.E.

    2005-01-01

    The proper allocation of the limited R and D resources under the restructuring of the electric industry is a primary motivator for this electricity technology roadmap (eTRM) initiative. Because the major interests of CEOs could be the short term profit of their company under the competitive electric industry, it would wrong of them to cut back on the long term R and D budgets which make it impossible to develop all the technologies. Therefore, we should select and support only the favorable and competitive technologies to meet the future market needs using the TRM approach with the concept of ''selection and concentration.'' This study aims at defining the key technologies basis from the forecasts of what is possible or likely to happen in the future and planning the course of action for the technology development in the electricity field in Korea. The selected technologies could be the candidates for the mid and long term R and D program supported concentrically by the Electricity Industry Infrastructure Fund. (orig.)

  1. Ethics on the TEPCO bankruptcy, nuclear power plants and regulatory reform in the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Shigeaki

    2013-01-01

    Although regulatory reform in the electric power industry had been considered as part of social system reform like in the finance and communications to liberalize the market, there still continued to exist regional monopoly, integrated system for power generation, transmission and distribution, and lack of competition. The Fukushima accident showed such electric power system was unethical as social system compared to ordinary industries, because electric power company getting profit could not be prepared for nuclear damage liability and would burden third unrelated parties with risk. Electric power company should be forced to insure nuclear power plants for nuclear accidents. Otherwise restart of nuclear power plant operation should not be allowed. Nuclear power had been justified to be entitled grant or subsidy from the government for public good, which would be unfair to people. This article presented speeding-up scheme of Fukushima accident treatment leading to TEPCO bankruptcy and discussed measures against concerns or comments about bankruptcy procedures, major part of which might be mitigation of fund-raising fear by government support. At the proceeding of bankruptcy procedure including spinning off of separate companies, regulatory reform in the electric power industry could be taken in advanced. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Prediction of pollutant emission through electricity consumption by the hotel industry in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, W.W.; Lam, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper estimates the quantity of pollutants produced by the hotel industry through its electricity consumption. A survey of 17 hotels in Hong Kong was carried out to collect 3 years of energy consumption data. Regression analysis indicated that gross floor area was a major and statistically accepted factor in explaining the electricity consumption in hotels. It was found that the average electricity consumption was about 342 kW h/m 2 /year. Then, based on some established pollutant emission factors of coal and natural gas, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, carbon dioxides and particulates created by the hotel industry's electricity usage during a 10-year period from 1988 to 1997 was estimated. The study further predicts the increase in these amounts in 1998 - 2003 accompanying the rise in the number of hotel properties. The findings indicate that the existing green measures and devices are inadequate to cope with the increase in pollution emission in the near future. We believe that the hotel industry should adopt a more proactive approach to reduce electricity usage and propose the inclusion of environmental reporting in trade journals. (author)

  3. Prediction of pollutant emission through electricity consumption by the hotel industry in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, W.W. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, (China). School of Hotel and Tourism Management; Lam, J.C. [City University of Hong Kong (China). Department of Building and Construction

    2002-12-01

    This paper estimates the quantity of pollutants produced by the hotel industry through its electricity consumption. A survey of 17 hotels in Hong Kong was carried out to collect 3 years of energy consumption data. Regression analysis indicated that gross floor area was a major and statistically accepted factor in explaining the electricity consumption in hotels. It was found that the average electricity consumption was about 342 kW h/m{sup 2}/year. Then, based on some established pollutant emission factors of coal and natural gas, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, carbon dioxides and particulates created by the hotel industry's electricity usage during a 10-year period from 1988 to 1997 was estimated. The study further predicts the increase in these amounts in 1998 - 2003 accompanying the rise in the number of hotel properties. The findings indicate that the existing green measures and devices are inadequate to cope with the increase in pollution emission in the near future. We believe that the hotel industry should adopt a more proactive approach to reduce electricity usage and propose the inclusion of environmental reporting in trade journals. (author)

  4. Analysing Changes in Electricity Industries Against Actors and Technologies: Utility to Business Transformations in Denmark, Germany, Finland and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Ratinen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Liberalization of electricity markets, governmental policies for renewable electricity and technology development are transforming national electricity industries. However, there are considerable national differences in how these industries have changed and which businesses have been developed. We propose a typology for comparing changes in electricity industry based on the changes in the actors and technologies. Wind power and solar photovoltaic are used here as technology examples. A qualitative analysis of the changes in electricity industries in four EU member states is presented. Based on the preliminary findings, we conclude that if the industry consists of many, small firms with relatively loose ties with the government the industry is more likely to change than if it consists of few large firms with strong relations with the government.

  5. Reliability of structural materials in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard Legry, G.

    1996-01-01

    The reliability of nuclear installations is a fundamental point for the exploitation of nuclear energy. It requires an extensive knowledge of the behaviour of materials in the operating conditions and during the expected service life of the installations. In nuclear power plants multiple risks of failure can exist and are expressed by corrosion and deformation phenomena or by modification in the mechanical characteristics of materials. The knowledge of the evolution with time of a given material requires to take into account the data relative to the material itself, to its environment and to the physical conditions of this environment. The study of materials aging needs a more precise knowledge of the kinetics of phenomena at any scale and of their interactions, and a micro- or macro-modeling of their behaviour during long periods of time. This paper gives an overview of the aging phenomena that occur in the structural materials involved in PWR and fast neutron reactors: thermal aging, generalized corrosion, corrosion under constraint, intergranular corrosion, crack growth under loading, wear, irradiation etc.. (J.S.)

  6. An Industrial Control System for the Supervision of the CERN Electrical Distribution Network

    CERN Document Server

    Poulsen, S

    1999-01-01

    CERN operates a large distribution network for the supply of electricity to the particle accelerators, experiments and the associated infrastructure. The distribution network operates on voltage levels from 400 V to 400 kV with a total yearly consumption of near to 1000 GWh. In the past, the laboratory has developed an in-house control system for this network, using the technologies applied to the accelerator control system. However, CERN is now working on a project to purchase, configure and install an industrial Electrical Network Supervisor (ENS). This is a state-of-the-art industrial control system completely developed and supported by an external contractor. The system - based on a scalable and distributed architecture - will allow the installation to be performed gradually, and will be tested while the existing system is fully operational. Ultimately, the complete electrical distribution network will be supervised with this new system, the maintenance and further development of which will be the complet...

  7. Optimal energy exchange of an industrial cogeneration in a day-ahead electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusta, J.M.; De Oliveira-De Jesus, P.M.; Khodr, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses an optimal strategy for the daily energy exchange of a 22-MW combined-cycle cogeneration plant of an industrial factory operating in a liberalized electricity market. The optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming Problem (MILP) that maximizes the profit from energy exchange of the cogeneration, and is subject to the technical constraints and the industrial demand profile. The integer variables are associated with export or import of electricity whereas the real variables relate to the power output of gas and steam turbines, and to the electricity purchased from or sold to the market. The proposal is applied to a real cogeneration plant in Spain where the detailed cost function of the process is obtained. The problem is solved using a large-scale commercial package and the results are discussed and compared with different predefined scheduling strategies. (author)

  8. Industrial Photovoltaic Systems: An Economic Analysis in Non-Subsidized Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems are becoming a relevant electricity source, characterised by a growing trend in the last years. This paper analyses the economic feasibility of investments in industrial PV systems of different sizes (200 kW, 400 kW, 1 MW, and 5 MW, in the absence of subsidies, and in a mature market (Italy. The selected indicators for this kind of assessment are net present value (NPV and discounted payback time (DPBT. Furthermore, the environmental advantage in comparison to fossil sources of energy is evaluated through the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions (ERcd. Finally, a sensitivity analysis on critical variables (percentage of self-consumed energy, average annual insolation rate, annual electricity purchase price, annual electricity sale price, unitary investment cost and opportunity cost is conducted. Results highlight the strategic role of self-consumption in a market characterised by an absence of public policy incentives and the presence of interesting economic opportunities for industrial applications.

  9. Green paper with green electricity? Greening strategies of Nordic pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkanen, Jyrki

    2003-01-01

    The article studies the opinions of paper producers in Finland and Norway and Finnish power producers about the eco-labelling of electricity and its possible effects on pulp and paper industry. The point of departure in the study is how large industrial consumers mediate concerns of environmental issues to the producers. Based on interviews of environmental, energy/power and marketing sector representatives of the companies the article analyses different views related to the criteria of green labelling, green electricity and papermaking, energy sources as image sources, environmental image of papermaking and the threats and opportunities the companies face in the changing international context. The analysis of the interviews is contextualised in the endogenous market based regulation framework of electricity market regulation

  10. The convergence of electric power and natural gas industries. Mergers and acquisitions in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, S.

    2000-01-01

    Deep transformations have taken place in the US electric power industry, in terms of organisation and competition. The reforms of the regulation of this sector have changed the operation rules and, as an answer, the companies have adapted their behaviour. The reorganization is characterized by the combination between new competitive markets with new occupations. The deregulation and the technical progress accelerate the reconfiguration of the industry with the convergence of the natural gas and electric power activities. Since 1996, the numerous mergers-acquisitions between companies are representative of the tight links existing between the two energy sources. In this work, the convergence of the natural gas and power industries in the US is examined. The study of the reconciliation between power and gas companies (mainly the utilities) stresses on the improvement of the combined companies efficiency. The first part deals with the reconfiguration of the US power industry. The second part analyzes the consequences of the gas-electricity mergers and acquisitions. It includes the exploitation of financial data and a classical econometric test about the 'size-scale-spread' relation. The re-composition of the value chain is at the center of the industrial economy problem: it gives the opportunity for new forms of markets and firms. (J.S.)

  11. Electric industry governance. Reconciling competitive power markets and the physics of complex transmission interconnections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalon, Charles G. [Energy Regulation, Cape Girardeau, MO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Creating efficient, competitive power markets in an electric industry composed of interconnected control areas requires the existence of some agency with authority to define, impose and enforce rules for the operation of all control areas so interconnected. It has been noted that `the pursuit of self-interest, unrestrained by suitable institutions, carries no guarantee of anything except chaos`. In no part of the economy is this lesson more relevant than in the North American electric industry. As the industry evolves from one dominated by vertically-integrated utilities into one with competitive power markets and unregulated generators, the system of coordinating institutions that has worked acceptably well to restrain and guide self-interested decision makers of economically regulated firms must now be reconstructed to restrain and guide self-interested decision makers of unregulated generating companies (gencos), power merchants and brokers

  12. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, P. [CEZ, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  13. Static electric field enhancement in nanoscale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.lepetit@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Lemoine, Didier, E-mail: didier.lemoine@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Márquez-Mijares, Maykel, E-mail: mmarquez@instec.cu [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas, Avenida Salvador Allende 1110, Quinta de los Molinos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2016-08-28

    We study the effect of local atomic- and nano-scale protrusions on field emission and, in particular, on the local field enhancement which plays a key role as known from the Fowler-Nordheim model of electronic emission. We study atomic size defects which consist of right angle steps forming an infinite length staircase on a tungsten surface. This structure is embedded in a 1 GV/m ambient electrostatic field. We perform calculations based upon density functional theory in order to characterize the total and induced electronic densities as well as the local electrostatic fields taking into account the detailed atomic structure of the metal. We show how the results must be processed to become comparable with those of a simple homogeneous tungsten sheet electrostatic model. We also describe an innovative procedure to extrapolate our results to nanoscale defects of larger sizes, which relies on the microscopic findings to guide, tune, and improve the homogeneous metal model, thus gaining predictive power. Furthermore, we evidence analytical power laws for the field enhancement characterization. The main physics-wise outcome of this analysis is that limited field enhancement is to be expected from atomic- and nano-scale defects.

  14. A Structured Light Scanner for Hyper Flexible Industrial Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kent; Pedersen, Jeppe; Sølund, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A current trend in industrial automation implies a need for doing automatic scene understanding, from optical 3D sensors, which in turn imposes a need for a lightweight and reliable 3D optical sensor to be mounted on a collaborative robot e.g., Universal Robot UR5 or Kuka LWR. Here, we empirically...... contribute to the robustness of the system. Hereby, we demonstrate that structured light scanning is a technology well suited for hyper flexible industrial automation, by proposing an appropriate system....

  15. Structural transformations in amorphous electrical steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakonova, N.B.; Molotilov, B.V.; Vlasova, E.N.; Lyasotskij, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    The sequence of structural reactions at initial sages of crystallization of Fe-B-Si and Fe-B-Si-P amorphous ribbons is studied in the bulk and near the surface. It is shown that partial substitution of boron with phosphorus in Fe-Si-B-P alloys retards the surface crystallization a rising on annealing at temperatures typical for heat treatments applied to enhance magnetic properties. In spite of lower temperature of a bulk crystallization onset in phosphorus bearing alloys the beginning of surface crystallization shifts to high temperatures or to more long-term holding at given temperatures. This fact alloys varying annealing temperature and time in a wide range to attain needed magnetic properties as well as using retarded heating and cooling. It is of special importance when massive magnetic cores are heat treated [ru

  16. Electricity-saving measures for electrical drives - Market analysis; Massnahmen zum Stromsparen bei elektrischen Antrieben. Marktanalyse in der Industrie. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, W.; Ebert Bolla, O.; Puenzieux, P.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of work done on an empirical analysis of the results of a small-scale survey of industries as well as on various interviews with experts. Topics covered include the number of electrical motors in use in Switzerland, the number held in reserve, power consumption, part-load and over-dimensioning, operational factors, control strategies and the use of standardised motors. The data collected is presented in tabular and graphical form. Possibilities of making savings are discussed, as are obstacles to such work. Finally, ideas for an efficiency campaign are presented.

  17. The UK electricity market and the wind industry - a perspective of 1998 proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batley, S.L.; Twidell, J.W.; Gibbons, C.

    1997-01-01

    After April 1st 1998, the Public Electricity Supplier monopoly ( in England, Wales and Scotland) over their local franchise market will cease and all customers, regardless of size, will be able to choose their supplier. These changes will have a major impact on the UK wind energy industry. An increased number of Second Tier Suppliers will compete with existing market players for electricity purchase from generators and sale of electricity to consumers. Market changes should improve possibilities for wind generators to obtain a Second Tier Supplier licence and serve the domestic, small demand, market. There may also be market opportunities to sell to specialist 'green' suppliers. The post 1998 changes are of importance to the European Union 'Guarantee of Result' project, which aims to promote small scale wind systems through guaranteed quality and performance of systems. For the Guarantee of Results to be utilised in the UK, all markets for the generated electricity from a wind system must be considered and evaluated. (Author)

  18. Renewable generation technology choice and policies in a competitive electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    Renewable energy generation technologies have lower externality costs but higher private costs than fossil fuel-based generation. As a result, the choice of renewables in the future generation mix could be affected by the industry's future market-oriented structure because market objectives based on private value judgments may conflict with social policy objectives toward better environmental quality. This research assesses how renewable energy generation choices would be affected in a restructured electricity generation market. A multi-period linear programming-based model (Resource Planning Model) is used to characterize today's electricity supply market in the United States. The model simulates long-range (2000-2020) generation capacity planning and operation decisions under alternative market paradigms. Price-sensitive demand is used to simulate customer preferences in the market. Dynamically changing costs for renewables and a two-step load duration curve are used. A Reference Case represents the benchmark for a socially-optimal diffusion of renewables and a basis for comparing outcomes under alternative market structures. It internalizes externality costs associated with emissions of sulfur dioxide (SOsb2), nitrous oxides (NOsbx), and carbon dioxide (COsb2). A Competitive Case represents a market with many generation suppliers and decision-making based on private costs. Finally, a Market Power Case models the extreme case of market power: monopoly. The results suggest that the share of renewables would decrease (and emissions would increase) considerably in both the Competitive and the Market Power Cases with respect to the Reference Case. The reduction is greater in the Market Power Case due to pricing decisions under existing supply capability. The research evaluates the following environmental policy options that could overcome market failures in achieving an appropriate level of renewable generation: COsb2 emissions tax, SOsb2 emissions cap, renewable

  19. Research on structure and electrical parameters of indium antimonide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhametniyazova, A.; Konyaeva, V.F.; Sukhanov, S.; Ashirov, A.; Aleksanyan, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    Results of investigations into the effect of conditions of formation of indium antimonide films prepared by thermal vacuum spraying on their structure, phase composition and electric parameters, are presented. The method of studying the synthesized semiconductor layers on the DRON-0.5 X-ray device with CoKsub(α)-radiation is tested. The dependence of structure, phase composition and electric properties of InSb layers 1+3 μm thick sprayed on ferrite substrates on condensation temperature, is established. Hexagonal InSb modification is found

  20. Research on structure and electrical parameters of indium antimonide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhametniyazova, A; Konyaeva, V F; Sukhanov, S; Ashirov, A; Aleksanyan, S N [AN Turkmenskoj SSR, Ashkhabad. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskii Inst.

    1980-01-01

    Results of investigations into the effect of conditions of formation of indium antimonide films prepared by thermal vacuum spraying on their structure, phase composition and electric parameters, are presented. The method of studying the synthesized semiconductor layers on the DRON-0.5 X-ray device with CoKsub(..cap alpha..)-radiation is tested. The dependence of structure, phase composition and electric properties of InSb layers 1+3 ..mu..m thick sprayed on ferrite substrates on condensation temperature, is established. Hexagonal InSb modification is found.

  1. Enablers towards establishing and growing South Africa's waste to electricity industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Heinrich; Thopil, George Alex

    2017-10-01

    In South Africa the electricity generation mix is relatively un-diverse whereas globally the transformation of the sector is advancing rapidly. Coal remains the predominant fuel source and limited success has to date been achieved in the renewable energy sector. The electricity generation sector is therefore hindered from moving towards an electricity generation landscape where alternative fuel sources is utilised. This research is aimed at gaining insight into the enablers that led towards an increasing trend (observed globally) in exploiting waste as a fuel for electricity generation, and to outline the presence of obstacles that hinder separation of waste for electricity use in the South African context. Furthermore it is an attempt at informing what appropriate interventions (operational and policy) may be considered suitable for South Africa to overcome these barriers in order to enable a sustainable South African waste to electricity (WTE) Industry. Findings show that numerous barriers to a WTE exists in the South African context, however overcoming these barriers is not as simple as adopting the European model with the aim to modify the electricity generation mix and waste management landscape. Selected enablers deemed appropriate in the South African context are adapted from the European model, and are greatly influenced by the prevailing socio-economic status of South Africa. Primary enablers identified were, (i) government support is needed especially in the form of subsidisation for green energy, (ii) increase landfill costs through the implementation of a landfill tax, (iii) streamline the process for Independent Private Power Producers (IPPPs) to connect to the national grid with off-take guaranteed and the inclusion of WTE into an electricity roadmap (effectively government's strategy). The proposed enabling interventions would help in overcoming the barriers for a South African WTE industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, Iain; Outhred, Hugh; Nolles, Karel

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches

  3. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGill, Iain [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)] e-mail: i.macgill@unsw.edu.au; Outhred, Hugh [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Nolles, Karel [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches.

  4. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iain MacGill; Hugh Outhred; Karel Nolles [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. It then describes the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, some key design lessons are drawn for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Determinants of Electricity Demand in Nonmetallic Mineral Products Industry: Evidence from a Comparative Study of Japan and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity intensity is an important indicator for measuring production efficiency. A comparative study could offer a new perspective on investigating determinants of electricity demand. The Japanese non-metallic mineral products industry is chosen as the object for comparison considering its representative position in production efficiency. By adopting the cointegration model, this paper examines influencing factors of electricity demand in Japanese and Chinese non-metallic mineral products industries under the same framework. Results indicate that although economic growth and industrial development stages are different between the two countries, major factors that affect the sectoral energy consumption are the same. Specifically, economic growth and industrial activity contribute to the growth of sectoral electricity consumption, while R&D intensity, per capita productivity and electricity price are contributors to the decline of sectoral electricity consumption. Finally, in order to further investigate the development trend of sectoral electricity demand, future electricity consumption and conservation potential are predicted under different scenarios. Electricity demand of the Chinese non-metallic mineral products industry is predicted to be 680.53 TWh (terawatt-hours in 2020 and the sectoral electricity conservation potentials are estimated to be 118.26 TWh and 216.25 TWh under the moderate and advanced electricity-saving scenarios, respectively.

  6. NEDO report (April, 1995). Restructuring California's electric services industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Recognizing nationwide changes in the electric utilities industry, Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The purpose is to foster competition and a basis on market mechanisms as the preferred means to develop and deliver energy services. The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) hoped to better understand this change while emphasizing efforts to maintain safe, reliable, and reasonably priced electric service. According to the report in February, 1993, CPUC was considering reform of its regulatory program in view of technological change, competitive pressures and emerging market forces. Further, new electric service providers have entered the industry, intensifying competition and producing the opportunity and pressure for consumer choice. Consequently, CPUC are asking the industry to adopt strategic measures to deal with the regulation such as reduced costs and development of efficient innovative services. Hearings have been repeated for the revision of the law; however, the confusion will continue for the time being. Some kind of revision will be concluded within 1995; however, no deregulation will be implemented for the power industry probably until 1996. (NEDO)

  7. Accelerating the introduction of HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Russell

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, is successfully pursuing the development of electric power and industrial devices, incorporating significant high-temperature superconducting (HTS) components or subsystems, through its innovative Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI). The objective of the SPI is to accelerate the commercial introduction of the HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications. DOE's approach to accomplishing the SPI objective is to support cost shared projects carried out by industry led teams. DOE will fund projects to develop HTS devices that are either in (1) the research and development stage (Phase 1), (2) the pre-commercialization stage (Phase II), or (3) the commercial entry stage (Phase III). DOE's industry partners must contribute at least half a project's costs. These teams will include capabilities needed to develop the device as well as to develop the business plan for the commercial product introduction. DOE's partners consist of vertically integrated teams consisting of equipment manufacturers, HTS wire and coil suppliers, national laboratories, and end users, primarily utilities. These partners carry out the multi-year technology development efforts, consisting generally of design, construction, and testing of the HTS system. Finally, commercialization of HTS products will be discussed primarily in terms of benefits these products will have over competing products based upon conventional conductors and the critical need for affordable, practical HTS materials and conductors for these applications. .

  8. FDI spillovers at different levels of industrial and spatial aggregation: Evidence from the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bo, Chiara F.

    2013-01-01

    The European electricity sector has undergone significant reforms in recent years, in the direction of market opening, integration and privatization. National and regional markets are now characterized by the presence of domestic and foreign firms, both privately and publicly owned. Did foreign entry induce positive productivity spillovers to domestic firms in the electricity sector, both at the aggregate and disaggregated level, while also controlling for domestic firms' ownership? This paper examines this issue by focusing on regional foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers in the aggregated electricity sector and in the disaggregated sub-sectors of generation and distribution. The results show the importance of industry aggregation in determining the existence and sign of regional FDI spillovers for domestic firms. FDI spillovers are then calculated based on a purely geographic scale, by considering the distance between each firm's city of location and firms in neighboring cities. The importance and sign of FDI spillovers is different with respect to the analysis based on regional administrative boundaries, suggesting that spatial aggregation, along with industrial aggregation, is relevant in accounting for productivity spillover effects of foreign presence in the EU electricity sector. - Highlights: • Has the post-reform entry of foreign firms in the EU electricity sector induced spillover effects? • Spatial and industrial disaggregation are important when evaluating foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers. • Positive horizontal spillovers are found only in the distribution segment of the industry. • Vertical spillovers in generation are negative; positive in distribution. • Spillover intensity in distribution decreasing with distance; regional dimension relevant in generation

  9. Synthesis and characterization of electrical conducting nanoporous carbon structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mir, L.; Kraiem, S.; Bengagi, M.; Elaloui, E.; Ouederni, A.; Alaya, S.

    2007-01-01

    Nanoporous organic xerogel compounds were prepared by sol-gel method from pyrogallol-formaldehyde (PF) mixtures in water using perchloric acid as catalyst. The preparation conditions of electrical conducting carbon (ECC) structures were explored by changing the pyrolysis temperature. The effect of this preparation parameters on the structural and electrical properties of the obtained ECCs were studied, respectively, by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nitrogen adsorption isotherms, IR spectroscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. The analysis of the obtained results revealed that, the polymeric insulating phase was transformed progressively with pyrolysis temperature into carbon conducting phase; this means the formation of long continuous conducting path for charge carriers when the carbon microparticles inside the structure agglomerated with thermal treatment and the samples exhibited tangible percolation behaviour where the percolation threshold can be determined by pyrolysis temperature. The temperature-dependent conductivity and the I(V) characteristics of the obtained ECC structures show a non-ohmic behaviour. The results obtained from TGA and differential thermal analyser (DTA) thermograms, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs, IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that, the obtained ECC structures consist of amorphous and nanoporous electrical conducting carbon materials

  10. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  11. Dynamics of competitive strategies in de-regulated industries: the case of the electricity industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cateura, O.

    2007-11-01

    This research work is focused on the competitive dynamics approach and rivalry studies between competitors. It develops theses recent perspectives and particularly multi-market competition (also called multipoint competition) in de-regulated industries (network utilities). Indeed, competitive behaviours in liberalized industries are still badly-known. To conduct this research, we decided to analyze a selection of companies (EDF, Electrabel, Endesa, Enel, Gaz de France, Poweo, Direct Energie..) settled on the French electricity market presently in the course of liberalization (1996 - 2006). This qualitative research, through longitudinal case studies, has been developed thanks to a CIFRE agreement (between the French Ministry of Research and the firm Electrabel France) including action research and participant observation. Using multidimensional strategic sequences, we identified two periods, the first one characterized by a confrontation movement and a second one by mutual forbearance. We argue that after learning the rules of a newly liberalized market (confrontation, diversification, internationalization), competitors rapidly and collectively shift there positions towards a focused European strategy based on the gas-electricity convergence. The development of multi-market competition has conducted to mutual forbearance, which was particularly profitable to the major participants. Integrated strategy (market and non-market) appears as an important driver for legitimizing theses behaviours. (author)

  12. Ontario electricity industry restructuring : preliminary asset valuation and calculation of stranded debt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for restructuring Ontario's electricity industry was restated. Financial elements of the Government's White Paper on the electrical industry included the following: (1) establishing a level playing field on taxes and regulation, (2) restructuring Ontario Hydro into new companies with clear business mandates, and (3) taking action to put the new companies on solid financial ground. To achieve these objectives requires valuation of the new companies as a key part in the restructuring process. This Ministry of Finance document contains preliminary estimates of the total debt and liabilities of Ontario Hydro ($ 39.1 billion), the value of the new generation and service companies ($ 15.8 billion), and the stranded debt ($ 23.3 billion, less the value of dedicated revenue streams of $ 15.4 billion, equal to the residual stranded debt of $ 7.9 billion). The method by which the stranded debt was calculated is also described. It is stressed that the overriding principles governing the financial restructuring plan are to achieve restructuring without increasing electricity rates, to retain maximum value in the electricity sector until stranded debt is retired, and to recover stranded debt from the electricity sector and not from taxpayers. Ministry advisors indicate that these preliminary valuations would allow the new companies to operate as commercial companies in a competitive market and receive investment grade credit ratings. 44 figs

  13. Perspectives of the electric power industry amid the transforming global power generation markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, A. A.; Mitrova, T. A.; Veselov, F. V.; Galkina, A. A.; Kulagin, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    A scenario-based prognosis of the evolution of global power generation markets until 2040, which was developed using the Scaner model-and-information complex, was given. The perspective development of fuel markets, vital for the power generation industry, was considered, and an attempt to predict the demand, production, and prices of oil, gas, coal, and noncarbon resources across various regions of the world was made. The anticipated decline in the growth of the global demand for fossil fuels and their sufficiency with relatively low extraction expenses will maintain the fuel prices (the data hereinafter are given as per 2014 prices) lower than their peak values in 2012. The outrunning growth of demand for electric power is shown in comparison with other power resources by regions and large countries in the world. The conditions of interfuel competition in the electric power industry considering the changes in anticipated fuel prices and cost indicators for various power generation technologies were studied. For this purpose, the ratios of discounted costs of electric power production by new gas and coal TPPs and wind and solar power plants were estimated. It was proven that accounting the system effects (operation modes, necessary duplicating and reserving the power of electric power plants using renewable energy sources) notably reduces the competitiveness of the renewable power industry and is not always compensated by the expected lowering of its capital intensity and growth of fuel for TPPs. However, even with a moderate (in relation to other prognoses) growth of the role of power plants using renewable energy sources, they will triple electric power production. In this context, thermal power plants will preserve their leadership covering up to 60% of the global electric power production, approximately half using gas.

  14. Regional Institutional Structure in the Context of Innovative Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Y. Nikitaeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves that successful innovation-oriented development of the industrial complex of the region can be ensured through the creation of adequate institutional structure. As a theoretical and conceptual platform for this task the use of regional institutionalism is suggested. It is reasoned that integration component plays an important role in providing of the innovative development of the industry in modern economic realities and the potential effects of integration on meso- and micro-levels of economy are provided. Integration of industrial structures potential at the same time assumes expansion of a partner segment of the entities relations in the market environment on the basis of network, cluster, and integration approaches convergence to management in the industrial development. On the basis of the international experience analysis it is illustrated that forming of multichannel partnership of actors in the industrial sphere with a vector on an innovatization requires creation of the corresponding institutional conditions. It is established that the main objectives of the relevant institutes consist in legitimization of various forms and technologies of partnership and stimulation of economic entities interactions. The first problem is solved by means of legal support of integration and partners’ interactions, the second one - with the use of a program and project approach. The basic structural elements and functional areas of regional institutional structure in the context of innovative industry development are determined. It is shown that the institutions of the partnership and monitoring of the obligations implementation by integration formations participants can have formal and informal nature, at the same time the trust institution is especially important. In work significant influence of regional specifics on institutional structure and integration of economic entities is proved.

  15. Facilitating wind development: the importance of electric industry structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Brendan; Milligan, Michael

    2008-04-15

    ISOs and RTOs, with their day-ahead and real-time markets, large geographies to aggregate diverse wind resources, large loads to aggregate with wind, large generation pools that tap conventional-generator flexibility, and regional transmission planning efforts, offer the best environments for wind generation to develop. (author)

  16. The bright and dark sides of the electric power industry in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn von Seelen, U.

    1989-01-01

    Although a self-contained concept for a single market for energy is not yet at hand, the EC Commission estimates the cost saving effect at an annual 40 to 60 billion DM. However, liberalization presupposes the harmonization of the different energy policies within the EC. The German electricity rates are too high compared internationally, and this situation could be aggrevated by the expiration in 1995 of the Century Contract with the hard coal mining industry. The volume of electricity trade between EC member states meanwhile amounts to 90 billion kilowatt hours and will continue to increase. (orig.) [de

  17. Competition and regulation in the European network industries. From general case to the case of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonquieres, F.

    1995-01-01

    The paper focuses on the institutional arrangements present situation in the European Electricity Supply Industry, which is characterized by its diversity. There is unquestionably, a trend to put pressure on the national electricity systems by the European Union organisms to accept the unbundling, Third Party Access to the network, deregulation etc. An opposing reaction appears, trying to underline the potential important drawbacks of such a trend. The conclusion of the author can be summarised as follows: Competition at the generation level? Yes[ Access to the network ? No[ (author)

  18. Characterization of hybrid lighting systems of the Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, D.; Exposito, C.; Osma, G.; Amado, L.; Ordóñez, G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of hybrid lighting systems of Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander, which is a pilot of green building for warm- tropical conditions. Analysis of lighting performance of inner spaces is based on lighting curves obtained from characterization of daylighting systems of these spaces. A computation tool was made in Excel-Visual Basic to simulate the behaviour of artificial lighting system considering artificial control system, user behaviour and solar condition. Also, this tool allows to estimate the electrical energy consumption of the lighting system for a day, a month and a year.

  19. The electricity supply industry in the German Federal Republic in the year 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The present report continues the series of the annual reports issued so far, in the same form and arrangement of the available statistical material, which have been published in 'Elektrizitaetswirtschaft' since 1950 and as special publication. On the basis of official data the report gives a statistical review of public electricity supply, the industrial private undertakings and the power supply to the German Federal Railways. By combining these three groups - after omitting any overlap of the available data - an overall review of the development of electricity supply in the whole of the German Federal Republic is made possible. (orig.) [de

  20. U.S. and Chinese experts perspectives on IGCC technology for Chinese electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, B.C.B.; Wang Yingshi

    1997-11-01

    Although China is a very large and populous nation, and has one of the longest known histories in the world, it has only lately begun to seek its place among modern industrial nations. This move, precipitated by the government's relatively recently adopted strategic goals of economic development, societal reform and promotion of engagement with other industrial nations, has brought to the fore the serious situation in which the Chinese electric power industry finds itself. Owing to the advanced average age of generation facilities and the technology used in them, serious expansion and modernization of this industry needs to take place, and soon, if it is to support the rapid industrial development already taking place in China. While China does have some oil and gas, coal constitutes its largest indigenous energy supply, by far. Coal has been mined and utilized for years in China. It is used directly to provide heat for homes, businesses and in industrial applications, and used to raise steam for the generation of electricity. The presently dominant coal utilization methods are characterized by low or marginal efficiencies and an almost universal lack of pollution control equipment. Because there is so much of it, coal is destined to be China's predominant source of thermal energy for decades to come. Realizing these things--the rapidly increasing demand for more electric power than China presently can produce, the need to raise coal utilization efficiencies, and the corresponding need to preserve the environment--the Chinese government moved to commission several official working organizations to tackle these problems

  1. Consequence and impact of electric utility industry restructuring on transient stability and small-signal stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittal, V.

    2000-01-01

    The electric utility industry is undergoing unprecedented changes in its structure worldwide. With the advent of an open market environment and competition in the industry, and restructuring of the industry into separate generation, transmission, and distribution entities, new issues in power system operation and planning are inevitable. One of the major consequences of this new electric utility environment is the greater emphasis on reliability and secure operation of the power system. This paper examines the impact of restructuring on power system dynamic analysis. It specifically addresses issues related to transient stability analysis and small-signal stability analysis. Four major topics to examine the effect on the nature of studies conducted are considered. These topics are (1) system adequacy and security, (2) system modeling data requirements, (3) system protection and control, and (4) system restoration. The consequences and impact of each of these topics on the nature of the studies conducted are examined and discussed. The emphasis on greater reliability has led to a clearer enunciation of standards, measurements, and guides in some countries. These requirements will result in: (1) more measurements on existing systems, (2) rigorous analysis of transient stability and small-signal stability to determine operating limits and plan systems, (3) greater emphasis on studies to verify coordination and proper performance of protection and controls, and (4) development of a detailed plan for system restoration in the case of wide-spread outages

  2. Innovation Networks: the Contribution of Partnerships to Innovative Performance of Firms in the Brazilian Electrical-Electronics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvye Ane Massaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation networks have been identified in the literature as a way to complement firms’ innovative capabilities through collaboration with other partners. To provide empirical evidence for this assertion, this paper investigates the contribution of partners established in innovation networks for innovative performance of firms in the Brazilian electricalelectronics industry. For this purpose, we carried out an exploratory and descriptive survey among 185 companies. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM. As the main findings, we observed that the establishment of collaborative relationships with customers, competitors and universities/research institutions can contribute to organizational and process innovation. However, despite obtaining some significant results concerning the contribution of different partners in the network, electrical-electronics industry companies also attach great importance to internal activities to develop their innovations.

  3. Regulatory reforms and productivity: An empirical analysis of the Japanese electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Makiko; Managi, Shunsuke

    2008-01-01

    The Japanese electricity industry has experienced regulatory reforms since the mid-1990s. This article measures productivity in Japan's steam power-generation sector and examines the effect of reforms on the productivity of this industry over the period 1978-2003. We estimate the Luenberger productivity indicator, which is a generalization of the commonly used Malmquist productivity index, using a data envelopment analysis approach. Factors associated with productivity change are investigated through dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation of panel data. Our empirical analysis shows that the regulatory reforms have contributed to productivity growth in the steam power-generation sector in Japan

  4. Variable structure unit vector control of electric power generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variable structure Automatic Generation Control (VSAGC) scheme is proposed in this paper for the control of a single area power system model dominated by steam powered electric generating plants. Unlike existing, VSAGC scheme where the selection of the control function is based on a trial and error procedure, the ...

  5. Complex Colloidal Structures by Self-assembly in Electric Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vutukuri, H.R.

    2012-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is exploiting the directed self-assembly of both isotropic and anisotropic colloidal particles to achieve the fabrication of one-, two-, and three-dimensional complex colloidal structures using external electric fields and/or a simple in situ thermal annealing

  6. Electrical conductivity of metal–carbon nanotube structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical properties of asymmetric metal–carbon nanotube (CNT) structures have been studied using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method with Atomistix tool kit. The models with asymmetric metal contacts and carbon nanotube bear resemblance to experimental set-ups. The study ...

  7. Determinants of Market Structure and the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raduchel, W.

    1972-01-01

    The general economic determinants of market structure are outlined with special reference to the airline industry. Included are the following facets: absolute size of firms; distributions of firms by size; concentration; entry barriers; product and service differentiation; diversification; degrees of competition; vertical integration; market boundaries; and economies of scale. Also examined are the static and dynamic properties of market structure in terms of mergers, government policies, and economic growth conditions.

  8. Genetic modification and its impact on industry structure and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, P.W.L.; van Beek, P.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic modification has led to fierce debates around the world. Nevertheless, scientific evidence for its potential effects on the structure and performance of industries has hitherto remained rather meagre. In this article, we take some preliminary steps towards closing this gap by exploring the

  9. Measuring structural (un)safety in the Dutch building industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, K.C.; Waarts, P; E Rademaeker, de

    2010-01-01

    The last 10 years the Dutch Building Industry was shocked by several major accidents. In 2001 the steel structure of a theatre in Hoorn collapsed during erection. No one was hurt, because it collapsed during the night. In 2002 part of the parking deck of a hotel collapsed just some time after a

  10. Studies on the structure of industrial high methoxyl pectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kravtchenko, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical structure of three industrial high methoxyl pectins (one extracted from apple pomace and two from lemon peels) has been extensively investigated. The apple pectin differs from the lemon ones by having a higher apparent molecular size, a higher neutral-sugar content, present

  11. Learning without experience: Understanding the strategic implications of deregulation and competition in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomi, A. [School of Economics, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Larsen, E.R. [Dept. of Managements Systems and Information, City University Business School, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    As deregulation of the electricity industry continues to gain momentum around the world, electricity companies face unprecedented challenges. Competitive complexity and intensity will increase substantially as deregulated companies find themselves competing in new industries, with new rules, against unfamiliar competitors - and without any history to learn from. We describe the different kinds of strategic issues that newly deregulated utility companies are facing, and the risks that strategic issues implicate. We identify a number of problems induced by experiential learning under conditions of competence-destroying change, and we illustrate ways in which companies can activate history-independent learning processes. We suggest that Micro worlds - a new generation of computer-based learning environments made possible by conceptual and technological progress in the fields of system dynamics and systems thinking - are particularly appropriate tools to accelerate and enhance organizational and managerial learning under conditions of increased competitive complexity. (au)

  12. Dynamic analysis on market structure of China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    According to industrial organization theory, market structure is a crucial factor to market performance. Based on the VAR model and the data from 1994 to 2014, we revealed the dynamic response route of the market structure to these factors and the change process of contribution rate of these factors to the market structure. It shows that market structure is inertial adjustment; technology advance and industry policy have continuous effects on improvement of market concentration ratio; market size and production scale have sustained negative effects on market concentration ratio; fixed capital has barrier effect, which is mainly the entry barrier effect at the beginning, and then the exit barrier effect continues to play a leading role. Therefore, the government has no need to introduce special policies to encourage merger or expansion on the capacity as enterprises would do it spontaneously; it is necessary to make market access system stricter, to improve exit compensation mechanism and to promote technological innovation; all these policies need dynamic adjustment based on the stages of economic cycle. - Highlights: • The adjustment mechanism of China's coal market structure is revealed. • Technology and industry policy are significant factors to optimize the market structure. • The government need not introduce special policy to encourage merger. • The market access system should be stricter. • Policies strength should be dynamically adjusted based on the economic cycle.

  13. Reducing operating costs: A collaborative approach between industry and electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyers, B.; Sibbald, L.

    1993-01-01

    The unit cost of electricity to industrial consumers is expected to increase at a rate of 5% annually in the 1990s. The partnership that has been created between Amoco Canada Petroleum Company and TransAlta Utilities to control the cost of electricity is described. To allow the company to receive lower rates for interruptible power, a number of measures have been taken. The Amoco Whitecourt plant has standby generators in reserve that can be used when utility power is not available. A Pembina compressor can be turned off for up to 12 hours, at 30 minutes notice, without affecting field pressure. At the East Crossfield plant sales gas can be compressed using electricity or a gas-driven engine. Spot market energy is used in a number of plants allowing electric drive alternatives to plant operators and offering short term energy markets. TransAlta invests in electrical equipment such as switchgear as well as transmission lines and transformers. New rate alternatives offered by TransAlta Utilities include review of the need for a demand ratchet, additional time of use rates, unbundling of rates allowing power purchase from alternative sources, rates that follow product costs, reduced rates for conversion of gas to electric drives certain circumstances, energy audits, and power factor credits. 5 figs

  14. Antitrust Enforcement in the Electricity and Gas Industries: Problems and Solutions for the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    2006-01-01

    Antitrust enforcement in the electricity and gas industries raises specific problems that call for specific solutions. Among the issues: How can the anticompetitive effects of mergers be assessed in a changing regulatory environment? Should long-term agreements in energy purchasing be prohibited? What are the benefits of preventive action such as competition advocacy and market surveillance committees? Should Article 82 (a) of the EC Treaty be used to curb excessive pricing?. (author)

  15. The Brazilian electric power industry restructuring: an evaluation of the competition through the contestable market theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhaes, Elbia; Santana, Edvaldo de

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work is to evaluate the competition in the Brazilian electric power industry through the Contestable Market Theory proposed by Baumol

  16. The deregulation of network industries: is the electricity sector an exception?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, F.; Vivet, D.

    2006-01-01

    In view of their special characteristics, network industries have for quite a long time been considered as (natural) monopolies. Network externalities and economies of scale in particular justified this (natural) monopoly thesis. Since the last decade of the past century, however, a trend towards deregulation of such industries has been observed worldwide. This trend started with the successful introduction of competition in the telecommunications sector. The success in that sector is often used as an argument for opening up other network industries to competition as well. The study analyses whether this reasoning can be applied to the electricity sector. At first glance, the sectors electricity and telecommunications seem very similar, as both are network industries having been characterised for a long time by economies of scale, but for which technological progress may have put an end to this scale effect. However, the study points out that there are important differences. In the telecommunications sector, technological progress on the supply side has been accompanied by a strong growth in demand. There is no such demand side effect in the electricity branch. Moreover, due to physical characteristics, the electricity sector seems to be more complicated. In order to introduce competition, the sector has to be split up into sub-sectors (production, transmission, distribution and supply). Only two segments, production and supply, are considered as open markets; transmission and distribution, on the other hand, remain monopolies. This splitting up, however, entails a new kind of costs, the so-called transaction costs. As such the gains from the liberalization in certain segments might (partly) offset increase in the transaction costs resulting from vertical disintegration. (authors)

  17. Three Mile Island: Impact on electric rate structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    The historical significance of the March 28, 1979 accident at TMI-2 has not, can not and will not likely be fully appreciated by our generation. The nuclear industry, the financial community, regulator of electric utilities and the investor-owned electric utilities are beginning to understand this newly added complex dimension that has entered our daily work process. The degree of understanding that each possesses is a function of his involvement in the restoration process in evaluating whether the nuclear option is to survive. The body of material presented herein represents an effort to capsulize the significant associated with providing electricity at reasonable prices to all service classifications that followed in the wake of the March 29, 1979 TMI accident. Highlights of some of the oft-conflicting activities and cost implications are defined. An attempt is also made to quantify the rate changes, subsequent to the accident, as to TMI related and non-TMI related cost. Some of the cost allocation difficulties encountered are also enumerated. There are no classic textbooks, treatise, or manuals on the market that abridge the traditional approaches to ratemaking. Finally, a perspective comparison is made to demonstrate that GPU's rates are still reasonable considering other factors - namely overall inflation and regional electricity prices

  18. Energized CO{sub 2} dry ice blast cleaning firmly grounded in the Canadian electrical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, K.

    1999-02-01

    Development and use of energized carbon dioxide dry ice blast technology for cleaning electrical distribution system components by Oakville Hydro and Milton Hydro (both in Ontario) is discussed. The technology was developed by Alpheus Cleaning Technologies of California and Puget Sound Power and Light Company after a two-year study that commenced in 1991, and has been supplied in Canada by Wickens Industrial Ltd., since 1993 for cleaning various industrial and non-energized electrical applications in the automotive, printing , food processing and other manufacturing industries and hydro generating facilities. The unique cleaning dynamics of this technology allow for the removal of contaminants that are much more stubborn than those encountered in pad-mounted switchgear and other electrical apparatus. Dry ice pellets, by expanding to 400 times their solid state on impact, create a flushing action that helps to remove contaminants. No grit or solvents are required and the process is non-toxic. In using the process workers wear fire retardant clothing, 40 kV-Class 4 rubber gloves and full face shields. Dielectric tests are performed routinely to confirm the dielectric integrity of the spray wand components. A two stage inspection/trouble report is completed on every job. Use of this technology eliminates power interruptions to customers, improves system reliability and safety, reduces cleaning time to a minimum, and eliminated the need for reclamation of grit or solvent containment.

  19. Electricity production and SO{sub 2} emissions in Poland`s power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salay, J.

    1996-09-01

    The report analyzes how the Polish power industry`s electricity production and SO{sub 2} emissions have changed between 1988 and 1994. It examines to what extent the Polish government`s reform of air pollution control and its reorganization of the power industry affected power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions in the same period. SO{sub 2} emissions from Polish power plants fell by 37% in 1988-1994. The drop in emissions was partly a result of the fall in economic activity and electricity production in the early 1990s. The main reasons for the emission reduction were the introduction of hard budget constraints, increased coal prices, and stricter enforcement of air pollution control. These reforms created strong incentives for power plants to switch to high-quality coal with lower sulfur content and higher heating value. Improved efficiency of electricity generation also contributed to the fall in SO{sub 2} emissions. 32 refs, 15 figs, 1 tab

  20. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  1. The Methodical Aspects of Material Stimulation in the Motivation System at Enterprises of Electricity Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostіn Dmytro Yu.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article improves the methodical aspects of estimating material stimulation at enterprises of electricity industry. It has been determined that the provided taxonomy coefficients synthetically characterize changes in the values of attributes of the groups studied. Their most important advantage is that, in the course of analysis, we can now use only one indicator, which characterizes the direction and scope of changes in the processes described by the set of arbitrary numbers of incoming attributes. The level of material stimulation in the motivation system of enterprises of electricity in 2012–2015 was researched. It has been noted that during the outlined period there has been a general trend towards an increase in the integral indicator. This results from the economic crisis occurrences and the lack of a well-functioning organizational and economic mechanism for managing the motivation system at enterprises of this industry branch. The integrated assessment of enterprises extends the economic essence of the concept of material stimulation in the motivation system at enterprises of electricity industry, allowing it to be used to characterize the enterprise’s ability to return to its equilibrium status, preserve the parameters and move to a new stage of development in the conditions of accidental changes in the external and internal environment.

  2. Industry agreement on efficient electrical motors; Industrievereinbarung im Effizienzbereich Motoren (eff1, eff2, eff3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G. [Schnyder Ingenieure AG, Huenenberg (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report presents the results of a project carried out on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Swiss Automation Pool (SAP) concerning the efficiency of electrical drives. The main goal of the project was to conclude a target agreement between the federal government and the Swiss electric motors/drives industry. This involves the promotion of the highest, 'eff1' energy-efficiency category of the three categories defined by the European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (CEMP). The report presents the findings of the project and recommends the banning of the use of motors in the lowest, 'eff3' category. Comparisons are made between the CEMP standards and further standards and promotion programmes in the USA and in Great Britain. Associated measures to be taken to aid the promotion of the drive standard are discussed.

  3. Barriers to the sustainable development of electrical energy in the industrialized nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, M.; Leonardi, J.

    2003-01-01

    The liberalization of the electricity market in the industrialized nations may considered as an opportunity to bring about a diversification of the energy sector which could help overcome the economic barriers to a more sustainable development By allowing new companies to boost their market share, in many countries increases have been obtained in the supply of electricity based on renewable energy or energy services offering greater efficiency. It is now possible to reduce the cost of the measures which encourage the sustainable development of the sector, taking account of those barriers which prevent the expansion of ENR, hold back further gains in energy efficiency and block a reduction in demand An active energy policy will make it possible to overcome the difficulties encountered in various countries. This study highlights the main barriers to the sustainable development of electrical energy and outlines which solutions may be envisaged to overcome these barriers. (authors)

  4. Structural and electrical characterization of zinc oxide doped with antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Juárez Díaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the results of structural and electrical characterization realized on zinc oxide single crystal samples with (001 orientation, which were doped with antimony. Doping was carried out by antimony thermal diffusion at 1000 °C for periods of 1 and 2 hours under nitrogen environment from a solid source formed by antimony oxide. Electrical characterization by I-V curves and Hall effect shown an increase in acceptor concentration which demonstrates that doping is effective and create holes in zinc oxide samples.

  5. Investment and deregulation in the electricity generation industry; Investissement et dereglementation dans le secteur electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peluchon, B

    2007-12-15

    This work addresses the issue of investment in the electricity generation industry. As the analysis of many crisis which have affected electricity markets shows, there is a systematic under-investment in peak capacity. Electricity prices are not high enough to cover fixed costs of such generators, a phenomenon that has been dubbed 'missing money' in some recent papers (Stoft). The investment decisions of a duo-poly facing random demand are then compared to those of a public monopoly. The results are that no prices may be high enough to solve the 'missing money' problem, since the duo-poly is able to exercise market power in order to maximize his profit. This results systematically in fewer peak capacity in the duo-poly case than in the public monopoly case. This remains true in the case of a n-oligopoly. The necessity of designing a mechanism remunerating capacity is thus demonstrated. Capacity markets are then analysed in the light of those results. What appears is that operating reserves are a public good and, as such, prevents capacity markets to solve the 'missing money' problem. This casts a shadow on the pursuit of deregulation in the electricity industry. (author)

  6. Electricity consumption-GDP nexus in Pakistan: A structural time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among electricity consumption, real economic activity, real price of electricity and the UEDT (underlying energy demand trend) at the aggregate and sectoral levels, namely, for the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. To achieve this goal, an electricity demand function for Pakistan is estimated by applying the structural time series technique to annual data for the period from 1972 to 2012. In addition to identifying the size and significance of the price and income elasticities, this technique also uncovers UEDT for the whole economy as well as for sub-sectors. The results suggest that the nature of the trend is not linear and deterministic but stochastic in form. The UEDT for the electricity usage of the commercial, agricultural and residential sectors shows an upward slope. This upward slope of the UEDT suggests that either energy efficient equipment has not been introduced in these sectors or any energy efficiency improvements due to technical progress is outweighed by other exogenous factors. - Highlights: • Electricity demand function is estimated by applying the STSM approach. • The results suggest that nature of trend is stochastic in form. • Low price elasticity reflects weak link between the electricity price and demand. • Low price elasticity implies that demand did not react to changes in price

  7. New evidence on the impact of structural reforms on electricity sector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polemis, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of electricity industry over the last decades has shown substantial differences between OECD countries. This paper empirically investigates to what extent different structural forms of regulation, competition and privatisation explain these international differences. It distinguishes three modes of electricity performance: a) net generation per capita, b) installed capacity and c) labour productivity. The empirical model spans the period 1975–2011 and uses panel data econometric techniques. Our analysis reveals that there is a strongly significant interaction impact on the level of electricity performance between regulation and competition. The empirical findings do confirm that a robust independent regulatory scheme must be implemented in order to achieve a competitive electricity market. - Highlights: •We assess the impact of structural reforms on OECD electricity sector performance. •Regulation has stronger impact on performance when interaction terms are present. •Privatisation has unambiguous effect on the elements of performance. •The combined effect of reforms on performance is more aggressive in the long run.

  8. Industrial electricity demand and energy efficiency policy: The role of price changes and private R and D in the Swedish pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksson, Eva; Söderholm, Patrik; Wårell, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze electricity demand behaviour in the Swedish pulp and paper industry in the context of the increased interest in so-called voluntary energy efficiency programs. In these programs tax exemptions are granted if the participating firms carry out energy efficiency measures following an energy audit. We employ a panel data set of 19 pulp and paper firms, and estimate both the own- and cross-price elasticities of electricity demand as well as the impact of knowledge accumulation following private R and D on electricity use. The empirical results show that electricity use in the Swedish pulp and paper industry is relatively own-price insensitive, and the self-reported electricity savings following the voluntary so-called PFE program support the notion of important information asymmetries at the company level. However, the results display that already in a baseline setting pulp and paper firms tend to invest in private R and D that have electricity saving impacts, and our model simulations suggest that up to about one-third of the industry sector's self-reported electricity savings in PFE could be attributable to pure baseline effects. Future evaluations of voluntary energy efficiency programs must increasingly recognize the already existing incentives to reduce energy use in energy-intensive industries. - Highlights: ► We analyze electricity demand behaviour in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. ► An important context is the voluntary energy efficiency programs PFE. ► The electricity savings following PFE are significant, but price responses are low. ► Still, already in a baseline setting firms tend to invest in electricity-saving R and D. ► These baseline issues are not adequately addressed in PFE.

  9. Nash equilibrium strategy in the deregulated power industry and comparing its lost welfare with Iran wholesale electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing use of different types of auctions in market designing, modeling of participants' behaviors to evaluate the market structure is one of the main discussions in the studies related to the deregulated power industries. In this article, we apply an approach of the optimal bidding behavior to the Iran wholesale electricity market as a restructured electric power industry and model how the participants of the market bid in the spot electricity market. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept composed of large numbers of players having discrete and very large strategy spaces. Then, we compute and draw supply curve of the competitive market in which all generators' proposed prices are equal to their marginal costs and supply curve of the real market in which the pricing mechanism is pay-as-bid. We finally calculate the lost welfare or inefficiency of the Nash equilibrium and the real market by comparing their supply curves with the competitive curve. We examine 3 cases on November 24 (2 cases) and July 24 (1 case), 2012. It is observed that in the Nash equilibrium on November 24 and demand of 23,487 MW, there are 212 allowed plants for the first case (plants are allowed to choose any quantity of generation except one of them that should be equal to maximum Power) and the economic efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 2.77 times as much as the real market. In addition, there are 184 allowed plants for the second case (plants should offer their maximum power with different prices) and the efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 3.6 times as much as the real market. On July 24 and demand of 42,421 MW, all 370 plants should generate maximum energy due to the high electricity demand that the economic efficiency or social welfare of the Nash equilibrium is about 2 times as much as the real market.

  10. Electricity: the new millennium. A global gathering of the new electric industry -- an unparalleled conference... for a unique moment in time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-05-01

    'Electricity: The New Millennium' is a conference sponsored by four major industry associations -- Edison Electric Institute of the United States, the International Union of Producers of Electrical Energy in Europe, the Canadian Electricity Association and Japan's Federation of Electric Power Companies. The International Energy Agency and the host company, Hydro-Quebec, were also co-sponsors of this crucial and memorable event to provide company CEOs and other top executives of electric companies with opportunities to equip themselves with the facts and viewpoints essential to success in the restructured electrical business environment. The meeting and the accompanying exhibit took place in Montreal, Quebec, on June 18-21, 2000, and drew attendees and exhibitors from all over the world to discuss the radical changes that are affecting the industry in terms of the organization of production and delivery of electric power. Opportunities were also be provided to explore the challenges facing the industry on a global basis, including exploring ways to use emerging technologies for delivering the benefits of electric power to under-served regions of the world's population that has yet to enjoy the most basic quality of life improvements that electricity can afford. Critical issues sessions also explored issues such as building stronger customer relations, organizing and financing the industry's transition, mastering cultural change, the relationship between meeting society's goals and market forces, and transmission systems in transition. Commensurate with the vast range of topics, speakers and session leaders have been recruited from the ranks of chief executives of major energy companies from America to Zambia, government agencies, leaders of major power users, and industry associations. Also appended to this description of the conference are an exhibition floor plan,a directory of exhibitors, and a description of sponsoring organizations

  11. Structures of water molecules in carbon nanotubes under electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winarto,; Takaiwa, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Eiji; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising for water transport through membranes and for use as nano-pumps. The development of CNT-based nanofluidic devices, however, requires a better understanding of the properties of water molecules in CNTs because they can be very different from those in the bulk. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the effect of axial electric fields on the structure of water molecules in CNTs having diameters ranging from (7,7) to (10,10). The water dipole moments were aligned parallel to the electric field, which increases the density of water inside the CNTs and forms ordered ice-like structures. The electric field induces the transition from liquid to ice nanotubes in a wide range of CNT diameters. Moreover, we found an increase in the lifetime of hydrogen bonds for water structures in the CNTs. Fast librational motion breaks some hydrogen bonds, but the molecular pairs do not separate and the hydrogen bonds reform. Thus, hydrogen bonds maintain the water structure in the CNTs, and the water molecules move collectively, decreasing the axial diffusion coefficient and permeation rate

  12. R and D investment of electricity-generating firms following industry restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jihwan; Kim, Yeonbae; Flacher, David

    2012-01-01

    Since electricity market restructuring, questions over adequate levels of R and D investments persisted. Using an unbalanced panel data of 70 electricity-generating firms across 15 Organisations of Economic Co-operation and Development countries from 1990 to 2008, this paper empirically examines the impacts of entry liberalization (allowing third party access, establishing a wholesale market, and deregulating a retail market), vertical unbundling, privatization, and firm size on R and D investments. Entry liberalization is associated with a decline in R and D investment. Establishing a wholesale market exhibits the greatest negative effects on R and D investment. Regulated TPA and retail market deregulation also decrease R and D. The effect of privatization is not independently salient but interacts with a wholesale pool to lower R and D investments. Large firms spend more on R and D investment than small firms. Results indicate that the restructuring of the electricity industry reduces R and D investment, which may be detrimental to the reliability and the efficiency of the electricity system as well as to the creation and maintenance of the innovation capabilities necessary to address demand and environmental concerns. - Highlights: ► Entry liberalization decreases R and D outlays of electricity generating utilities. ► Establishment of a wholesale market leads to a substantial decline in R and D spending. ► Private ownership interacts with entry liberalization to lower R and D investment.

  13. Construction of Industrial Ecosystem of an Electric Company under Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Han

    2018-01-01

    Be confronted with more and more fierce competition environment, only by constantly integrating, constructing and restructuring internal and external resources as well as capabilities can enterprises adapt themselves to the rapidly changing environment and maintain the advantages of sustained competition. Business competition has changed from product competition of single enterprise to competition of bussiness ecosystem. Therefore, how to build a business system is the key to win competition. This paper draws lessons from business ecosystem and industrial ecosystem concept and takes the subordinate industry company of a large enterprise as the research object. On the the basis of combing its characteristics and organizational structure, an industrial ecosystem is tired to constructed.

  14. Stage structure and electrical properties of rubidium-doped pentacene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yasumitsu; Sasaki, Sachio; Ikehata, Seiichiro

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the structural and electrical properties on the molecular conductor based on pentacene doped with rubidium. It was found from the X-ray diffraction measurement that the rubidium-doped pentacene becomes a highly oriented film with a stage-1 structure, as seen in graphite intercalated compounds. It was also found from this result that the length between pentacene molecular layers increases from 1.51 nm of pure pentacene to 1.62 nm. Moreover, the result of the electrical conductivity measurement shows that by doping of rubidium electrical conductivity at room temperature increases above 10 8 times larger than that of pure pentacene. We have also found that the electrical conductivity along the a-b plane (parallel to the molecular layers) is 10 2 times larger than that along the c-axis which is perpendicular to the molecular layers. These results indicate that pentacene doped with rubidium becomes a molecular conductor and displays the quasi-two-dimensional conductivity

  15. Electrical production for domestic and industrial applications using hybrid PV-wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essalaimeh, S.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Abdullat, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modeling and building hybrid system of PV and wind turbine. ► Investigation of the electrical generation under Amman–Jordan’s climate. ► Configuration of theoretical and actual characteristics of the hybrid system. ► Testing effects of dust, inclination and load on the electrical generation. ► Financial analysis for various applications. - Abstract: The present work shows an experimental investigation of using a combination of solar and wind energies as hybrid system for electrical generation under the Jordanian climate conditions. The generated electricity has been utilized for different types of applications and mainly for space heating and cooling. The system has also integration with grid connection to have more reliable system. Measurements included the solar radiation intensity, the ambient temperature, the wind speed and the output power from the solar PV panels and wind turbine. The performance characteristic of the PV panels has been obtained by varying the load value through a variable resistance. Some major factors have been studied and practically measured; one of them is the dust effect on electrical production efficiency for photovoltaic panels. Another factor is the inclination of the PV panels, where varying the angle of inclination has a seasonal importance for gathering the maximum solar intensity. Through mathematical calculation and the collected and measured data, a simple payback period has been calculated of the hybrid system in order to study the economical aspects of installing such a system under Jordanian climate conditions and for different usages and local tariffs including domestic, industrial and commercial applications. It was found through this work that the generated electricity of hybrid system and under Jordanian climate conditions can be utilized for electrical heating and cooling through split units and resistive heaters.

  16. Identification of domestic needs of modular HTR for electric and heat process industry in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli, A.; Arbie, B.

    2000-01-01

    Identification of potential applications of the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in Indonesia has been carried out his was done by surveying and analysing the electric and industrial heat process which included captive power for household and industrial complexes in 13 regional operation areas covered by PT PLN National Electric Company. The area includes from the western Aceh to the eastern Irian Jaya, cities which are 6000 miles apart. Surveying was conducted for several parameters that electric and process heat demand in each region including captive power, geological characteristics of the region, distance of each region from conventional energy resources and the existence of petrochemical industries or other industries which use high temperatures (>500 deg C). In order to obtain a scale of priority in each region, credit points (1-3) and sensitivity factors (0-1) were applied to obtain the total significant value. The regions included are: the east cost of Sumatra, the north coast of Java, the west, south and east coat of Kalimantan as well as the south coast of Sulawesi, beyond which there are thousands of small islands that are safe from a geological and a tectonic point of view. In the preliminary survey, the analysation showed that Regions III, IV, XII and XIII have a high potential priority, followed by Regions I, II, VI, VIII and IX. The potential of domestic participation in the first and second unit was also investigated in relation to the possibility of implementing the HTGR project in Indonesia in the future, and it amounted to about 26% and 31% of the total cost for the first and second units, respectively. A summary of results is shown in Table 1. (authors)

  17. Structural fabrication quality as a factor of industrial facilities safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkov, E. V.; Kardaev, E. M.; Stolbova, S. Yu; Shishova, O. S.

    2018-04-01

    In the conditions of industrial facilities high wear degree, it is very important to ensure the possibility of their safe operation in order to avoid various kinds of accidents and catastrophes. As practice shows, industrial plant collapses can occur suddenly under normal operating conditions. Usually, such accidents can take place at different stages of structures life cycle. One of the reasons for this is the initially low quality of reinforced concrete structures fabrication. The article considers the factors contributing to the collapse of reinforced concrete structures of water purification tanks located on the territory of the Omsk Region. The main surveys results on tank structures after collapse with the use of ultrasonic and physical methods of investigation are presented. On the basis of the obtained data analysis, it was found that the main cause of the accidents was the insufficient load-bearing capacity of typical reinforced concrete structures, caused by defects in their fabrication in the factory conditions because of exceeding the standard displacement from the design position of the working reinforcement. Recommendations are given on the identification of defective structures and the prevention of similar accidents when operating similar tanks at manufacturing plants constructed from standard designs.

  18. Leadership skills for the California electric utility industry: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Michael

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the skills and knowledge necessary for leaders in the California electric utility industry in 2020. With rapid industry changes, skills to effectively lead and stay competitive are undetermined. Leaders must manage an increasingly hostile social and political environment, incorporate new technology, and deal with an aging workforce and infrastructure. Methodology. This study utilized a qualitative case study design to determine the factors that influence the skills leaders will require in 2020. It incorporated the perspectives of current electric utility leaders while looking with a future lens. Findings. Interviews were conducted with transmission and distribution (T&D) directors at 3 investor-owned public electric utilities headquartered in California. The questions followed an open-ended format to gather responses as perceived by electric utility leaders for each research question category: overall skills, aging workforce, regulation, technology, and leading younger generations. The research resulted in 18 major themes: 5 for overall skills, 3 for aging workforce, 4 for regulation, 3 for technology, and 3 for leading younger generations. Conclusions. The study identified leadership skills including the ability to embrace, leverage, and stay current with technology; understand and provide a clear vision for the future; increase creativity; manage the next set of workers; motivate during a time of great change; prepare for knowledge transfer and change in workforce culture; manage regulatory expectations; expand potential utility opportunities; leverage "big data"; allow worker collaboration; and understand what drives younger generations. Recommendations. California-based electric utility leaders can remain effective by implementing key strategies identified herein. Further research could examine perspectives of additional utility leaders who lead in organizational units outside of T&D, expand the research to

  19. Fault Diagnosis for Electrical Distribution Systems using Structural Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Blanke, Mogens; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    redundancies in large sets of equations only from the structure (topology) of the equations. A salient feature is automated generation of redundancy relations. The method is indeed feasible in electrical networks where circuit theory and network topology together formulate the constraints that define...... relations (ARR) are likely to change. The algorithms used for diagnosis may need to change accordingly, and finding efficient methods to ARR generation is essential to employ fault-tolerant methods in the grid. Structural analysis (SA) is based on graph-theoretical results, that offer to find analytic...... a structure graph. This paper shows how three-phase networks are modelled and analysed using structural methods, and it extends earlier results by showing how physical faults can be identified such that adequate remedial actions can be taken. The paper illustrates a feasible modelling technique for structural...

  20. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  1. Monopolistic structures and industrial analysis in Spain: the case of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, F

    1979-01-01

    This article seeks to illustrate the monopolistic structure of the Spanish pharmaceutical industry, focusing on its many dimensions. The basic conditions of technology and demand, product differentiation, effect of advertising, and barriers to entry are considered, as is financial and economic concentration. Although economic conditions are emphasized, the ways they affect public and private health, the quality of health services, and health education are also highlighted.

  2. Electricity Production and Characterization of High-Strength Industrial Wastewaters in Microbial Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Afsin Y; Ozdemir, Oguz Kaan; Demir, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Bestami

    2017-06-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert electrochemical energy into electrical energy immediately and have a big potential usage for the same time wastewater treatment and energy recovery via electro-active microorganisms. However, MFCs must be efficiently optimized due to its limitations such as high cost and low power production. Finding new materials to increase the cell performance and reduce cost for MFC anodes is mandatory. In the first step of this study, different inoculation sludges such as anaerobic gum industry wastewater, anaerobic brewery wastewater and anaerobic phosphate were tested, and MFC that was set up with anaerobic gum industry wastewater inoculation sludge exhibited the highest performance. In the second step of this study, various wastewaters such as chocolate industry, gum industry and slaughterhouse industry were investigated for anode bacteria sources. Several electrochemical techniques have been employed to elucidate how wastewaters affect the MFCs' performance. Among all the mentioned wastewaters, the best performance was achieved by the MFCs fed with slaughterhouse wastewater; this device produced a maximum power density of 267 mW·m -2 .

  3. Market size and vertical structure in the rail way industry

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Noriaki; Mizutani, Fumitoshi

    2011-01-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to discuss the relation between market size and vertical structure in the railway industry. The framework is based on a simple downstream monopoly model with two input suppliers, labor forces and the rail infrastructure firm. The operation of the downstream firm (i.e., the train operating firm) generates costs on the rail infrastructure firm. We show that the downstream firm with a larger market size is more likely to integrate with the rail infrastructure f...

  4. An empirical investigation of governance structures in the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlstrom, Robert; Haugland, Sven Arne; Nygaard, Arne; Rokkan, Aksel Ivar

    2002-01-01

    The study investigates alternative governance forms in the hotel industry. We analyze the choice among independently owned firms, voluntary chains, franchising, and vertically integrated chains. Based on agency theory, we argue that the need for control over service quality, financial risk, and the market environment affect the choice of governance form. Prior agency research emphasizes alternative governance structures employed by principals given local market conditions, agent incentives, a...

  5. Structural reasons for vertical integration in the international oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, G.

    1991-01-01

    Once upon a time, the international oil industry was vertically integrated. A small group of companies controlled a very substantial share of international oil flows, extending their operations from the oil well to the gas pump, and relying on intracorporate transfers for most in-between transactions. The historical reasons for vertical disintegration, the market role, and structural reasons for vertical reintegration are examined. (author)

  6. Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.

  7. Managing realities of the new market uncertainty : standards development in the North American electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.

    2003-01-01

    Standards for the electricity industry are developed to ensure quality and serve as a basis to which utilities should conform. Standards specify agreed upon properties for a manufactured product. They should be used for equipment specifications as well as operational procedures. Standardization is performed by regulators, transmission owners/operators, and organizations such as the National Electric Reliability Council (NERC), the Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB), and the Committee of Chief Risk Officers (CCRO). Before markets were opened to competition, operational standards were dictated by transmission owners and reliability issues were dealt with by NERC and NPCC. This presentation explained the process of standardization in the electric power industry in Canada, the derivation of standards, moving beyond NERC, and the transmission owners. Issues for Ontario Power Generation were highlighted. In contrast to the situation in the United States, there is no federal government backstop for developing Standards in Canada. There is no federal initiative toward open access. Canadian utilities participated in NERC, but compliance was voluntary. It is still questionable if Canadian utilities will implement NERC and NAESB Standards if they are codified

  8. Analysis of costs structure of the industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Kovtunenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Costs are an important factor that affects the economic activities of an industrial enterprise, because they affect the profits of the enterprise on production efficiency and competitiveness. The article aims to summarize approaches of the definition of “costs”, classification costs of the enterprise according to different characteristics and cost structure of industrial enterprises. Each scientist has his own opinion on the choice of the structure and classification of costs, which is based on his own experience and experience of other scientists. Economically justified classification of costs is an important factor for analysis and costs accounting. This paper examines the concept of “costs” in the interpretation of various authors based on research of scientists that highlight the main features of the classification of costs, give the cost structure of industrial enterprises. Based on the study it can be concluded that the standard classification of costs is not for all companies. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a classification of costs according to the main features of the company.

  9. Organizational culture and knowledge management in the electric power generation industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Robert D.

    Scarcity of knowledge and expertise is a challenge in the electric power generation industry. Today's most pervasive knowledge issues result from employee turnover and the constant movement of employees from project to project inside organizations. To address scarcity of knowledge and expertise, organizations must enable employees to capture, transfer, and use mission-critical explicit and tacit knowledge. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to examine the relationship between and among organizations within the electric power generation industry developing knowledge management processes designed to retain, share, and use the industry, institutional, and technical knowledge upon which the organizations depend. The research findings show that knowledge management is a business problem within the domain of information systems and management. The risks associated with losing mission critical-knowledge can be measured using metrics on employee retention, recruitment, productivity, training and benchmarking. Certain enablers must be in place in order to engage people, encourage cooperation, create a knowledge-sharing culture, and, ultimately change behavior. The research revealed the following change enablers that support knowledge management strategies: (a) training - blended learning, (b) communities of practice, (c) cross-functional teams, (d) rewards and recognition programs, (e) active senior management support, (f) communication and awareness, (g) succession planning, and (h) team organizational culture.

  10. Energy conservation and emission reduction policies for the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Tan Zhongfu; Wang Jianhui; Xu Jun; Cai Chengkai; Hou Yong

    2011-01-01

    Because of China's increasingly limited energy supplies and serious environmental pollution, much attention has been paid to conserving energy and reducing emissions to help the country's economy achieve sustainable development. As the electric power industry is the largest consumer of coal resources in China and also emits high levels of air pollutants each year, the Chinese government has enacted many technical and economic policies for energy conservation and emission reduction in the last few years. These policies are summarized in this paper, along with relevant laws and medium- and long-term plans, all of which address ideas such as adjusting the power generation mix, promoting demand-side management, introducing energy-efficient scheduling, and installing desulfurization units. The paper also assesses the results of these policies by analyzing several key indicators of energy consumption and emissions. The analysis shows that although some progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emissions, substantial work is still required for China to catch up with developed countries. Some suggestions for future work are provided. - Highlights: → China has made many policies for reducing the power industries' energy consumption and emissions. → Progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emission of the electric power industry. → Substantial works need to be done for China to catch up with the level of developed country. → Market mechanisms for conserving energy and reducing emission should be constructed in the future.

  11. Reduction of electricity use in Swedish industry and its impact on national power supply and European CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Dag; Trygg, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Decreased energy use is crucial for achieving sustainable energy solutions. This paper presents current and possible future electricity use in Swedish industry. Non-heavy lines of business (e.g. food, vehicles) that use one-third of the electricity in Swedish industry are analysed in detail. Most electricity is used in the support processes pumping and ventilation, and manufacturing by decomposition. Energy conservation can take place through e.g. more efficient light fittings and switching off ventilation during night and weekends. By energy-carrier switching, electricity used for heat production is replaced by e.g. fuel. Taking technically possible demand-side measures in the whole lines of business, according to energy audits in a set of factories, means a 35% demand reduction. A systems analysis of power production, trade, demand and conservation was made using the MODEST energy system optimisation model, which uses linear programming and considers the time-dependent impact on demand for days, weeks and seasons. Electricity that is replaced by district heating from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant has a dual impact on the electricity system through reduced demand and increased electricity generation. Reduced electricity consumption and enhanced cogeneration in Sweden enables increased electricity export, which displaces coal-fired condensing plants in the European electricity market and helps to reduce European CO 2 emissions. Within the European emission trading system, those electricity conservation measures should be taken that are more cost-efficient than other ways of reducing CO 2 emissions. The demand-side measures turn net electricity imports into net export and reduce annual operation costs and net CO 2 emissions due to covering Swedish electricity demand by 200 million euros and 6 Mtonne, respectively. With estimated electricity conservation in the whole of Swedish industry, net electricity exports would be larger and net CO 2 emissions would be

  12. Hardness and structure changes at surface in electrical discharge machined steel C 3840

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastojkovic, Z.; Janjusevic, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The electrical discharge machining (EDM) of both hard and soft materials became an important technique in industrial applications. This technique has an advantage in producing of structural/tool parts of complex geometry. The EDM is based on electrical phenomena, when the treated surface undergoes to erosion. The first step in EDM, the melting of thin surface layer, frequently is neglected. In this paper the changes of hardness and structure at surface layer, after EDM is applied on steel C 3840, will be discussed. The steel C- 3840 was quenched and tempered to hardness of 63 HRC, at surface, and than machined by electrical discharging. The changed, white, layer is just a product of melting and decarburization processes. The white layer is registered at surface by using a metallographic investigation. Hardness profile is measured from surface to the interior of material. The achievement of local high temperatures during EDM is resulting on melt and erosion of material. Besides of these effects, during EDM were happened some minor but not a neglectible effects, primary on structure changes on treated surface. It would be expected that melting, even an evaporation of melted metal, and further the phase transformation have an important influence on the starting structure. (Original)

  13. The impacts of voltage sags in industrial electric systems; Os impactos dos afundamentos de tensao em sistemas eletricos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Reinaldo Moreira [Moinhos Vera Cruz, Santa Luzia, MG (Brazil); Silva, Selenio Rocha [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The sensitiveness increasing of industrial equipment related to the perturbation of electric grid, resulting in losses to the productive chain, turns the energy quality in the subject more discussed by the electrical community. In this study case on the problems caused by voltage sags to equipment of an industrial plant from the food sector, it is presented the identification process and the adopted solutions. (author)

  14. Study on developing a business index using electric power demand for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, In Kang [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    In this study, it examined a business index using the amount of electric power used for industry and studied a method to distinguish business fluctuations. Using a measuring model, it applied a method to distinguish economy to the amount of electric power used. First of all it used a dynamic factor analysis of Stock-Watson(SW) for a multivariable analysis, and for a single variable analysis, it used Markov Switching method by Hamilton to verify the capability of distinguishing business situation by the amount of electric power used. As a result of using monthly amount of electric power used, it showed a big difference between the peak and low point of data from the National Statistical Office. Looking at the depression rate at the end of 1997, most of measuring models realized that depression started in December 1997 and expected to end in August 1998. This study aims to improve existing foreign measuring models to be adjusted in Korean situation. (author). 23 refs., 38 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Liberalisation of the European Electricity Industry: Internal Market or National Champions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanico, F.

    2007-07-01

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector. Considering the complexity of this industry, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration of incumbents in the sector as a result of the liberalisation process. The new trend toward the creation of ''national champions'' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raised serious concerns about abuses of market power and risks of future collusion. Taking account of investment in interconnection as well as other international and regional experiences, the internal market issue is investigated as the solution to the''risks'' from liberalisation. (auth)

  16. Cost and quality gains from diversification and vertical integration in the electricity industry: A DEA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arocena, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the degree of economies of vertical integration, diversification and scale in the electricity industry by means of Data Envelopment Analysis. We estimate the impact that alternative forms of unbundling would have on the cost and quality of supply, measured as the number and duration of supply interruptions, in a group of Spanish electric utilities. We find evidence of the existence of cost and quality gains from integrating power generation and distribution in the range of 1.1 to 4.9%, whereas diversifying the source of power generation saves between 1.3 and 4.3% of costs and quality. Finally, the scale efficiency of the largest utilities could be improved by dividing them into smaller units, provided that their current vertical scope and generation-mix are preserved. (author)

  17. Wright tariffs in the Spanish electricity industry: the case of residential consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Rodriguez, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a capacity price model is developed for the Spanish electricity industry which allows the presentation of the Spanish utilization level tariffs as an example of duration tariffs (Wright tariffs) when duration is approximated by the ratio of consumption to power used. Using this model and data on the residential consumption of electricity, several optimal two-part tariffs are computed, considering different hypothesis on the configuration of the generating equipment. It has been found that the optimal tariff maintaining universal service increases welfare if the generating equipment and the output assignment to the different technologies are taken as given. Furthermore, if the regulator is concerned not only with efficiency, but also with distributive issues, then welfare losses associated with the existing regulatory regime are even larger

  18. New trends for non-ferrous metals in the electrical engineering industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The non-ferrous metals copper, aluminium and nickel are of major importance to the electrical engineering industry. Copper is used for magnet wire, underground cable and overhead contact wire, and aluminium is important for overhead power transmission lines. Nickel alloys are employed as gas turbine blades in power generation. An important new trend in the conductor area is rapid solidification for improved combinations of strength and conductivity. Another new trend is the Conform continuous extrusion process which can decrease cost and increase quality. New high temperature superconductors might change the conductor market completely, but only on the long run. Nickel base blading materials will see considerable improvements from oxide dispersion strengthening and directional solidification. In summary, non-ferrous materials technology for electrical engineering applications is on the move and considerable improvements can be expected within the next decade. (orig.) [de

  19. Cost and quality gains from diversification and vertical integration in the electricity industry: A DEA approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arocena, Pablo [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Dpto. Gestion de Empresas, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    This paper analyzes the degree of economies of vertical integration, diversification and scale in the electricity industry by means of Data Envelopment Analysis. We estimate the impact that alternative forms of unbundling would have on the cost and quality of supply, measured as the number and duration of supply interruptions, in a group of Spanish electric utilities. We find evidence of the existence of cost and quality gains from integrating power generation and distribution in the range of 1.1 to 4.9%, whereas diversifying the source of power generation saves between 1.3 and 4.3% of costs and quality. Finally, the scale efficiency of the largest utilities could be improved by dividing them into smaller units, provided that their current vertical scope and generation-mix are preserved. (author)

  20. Assessing the value of wind generation in future carbon constrained electricity industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vithayasrichareon, Peerapat; MacGill, Iain F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs a novel Monte-Carlo based generation portfolio assessment tool to explore the implications of increasing wind penetration and carbon prices within future electricity generation portfolios under considerable uncertainty. This tool combines optimal generation mix techniques with Monte Carlo simulation and portfolio analysis methods to determine expected overall generation costs, associated cost uncertainty and expected CO 2 emissions for different possible generation portfolios. A case study of an electricity industry with coal, Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT), Open Cycle Gas Turbines (OCGT) and wind generation options that faces uncertain future fossil-fuel prices, carbon pricing, electricity demand and plant construction costs is presented to illustrate some of the key issues associated with growing wind penetrations. The case study uses half-hourly demand and wind generation data from South Eastern Australia, and regional estimates of new-build plant costs and characteristics. Results suggest that although wind generation generally increases overall industry costs, it reduces associated cost uncertainties and CO 2 emissions. However, there are some cases in which wind generation can reduce the overall costs of generation portfolios. The extent to which wind penetration affects industry expected costs and uncertainties depends on the level of carbon price and the conventional technology mix in the portfolios. - Highlights: ► A probabilistic portfolio analysis tool to assess generation portfolios with wind power. ► Explore the impacts of wind penetrations and carbon prices under uncertainties. ► Wind generation increases overall portfolio costs but reduces cost risks and emissions. ► The value of wind power depends on the carbon price and the technology mix. ► Complex interactions between wind penetration level and carbon pricing.