Sample records for eldfell volcano iceland

  1. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun


    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  2. Oskarssonite, AlF3, a new fumarolic mineral from Eldfell volcano, Heimaey, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Morten Jølnæs; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Mitolo, Donatella


    with anhydrite, bassanite, gypsum, jarosite, anatase, hematite, opal, ralstonite, jakobssonite and meniaylovite. Chemical analyses by energy-dispersive spectrometry with a scanning electronmicroscope produced the following mean elemental composition: Al, 31.70; F, 58.41; O, 9.22; total 99.33 wt.%. The empirical...... chemical formula is AlF2.6(OH)0.5 which suggests partial substitution of F by OH. Oskarssonite is rhombohedral, space group R3¯ c, with ah = 4.9817(4) A ˚ , c = 12.387(1) A ˚ , Vuc = 266.23(5) A ˚ 3, Z = 6. The five strongest lines in the powder diffraction diagram [d in A ˚ (I) (hkl)] are as follows: 3...

  3. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.


    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  4. Rhyolitic volcano-ice interactions in Iceland (United States)

    McGarvie, Dave


    Iceland contains an abundance and diversity of rhyolitic edifices produced during volcano-ice interactions (glaciovolcanism) that is unmatched by any other volcanic province, with an estimated 350 km 3 erupted during the past 0.8 Ma from at least fifteen volcanic systems. This review summarises research undertaken during the past decade and provides a new summary of the distribution of rhyolitic glaciovolcanic rocks erupted during the past 0.8 Ma. Descriptions of effusion-dominated edifices focus on the two best-studied edifices — the c.0.6 km 3 and 570 m high Prestahnúkur edifice and the smaller-volume (walls. A particular feature of Prestahnúkur is its sheet-like lava bodies which are interpreted as sills that intruded the ice-edifice interface. Rhyolitic tuyas are products of sustained eruptions into thick ice, and form distinctive steep-sided edifices with flat or broad dome-like tops. They are 300-700 m high with volumes up to 2 km 3 (though 0.5-1.0 km 3 is more typical). Initial vigorous phreatomagmatic eruptions within well-drained ice vaults build steep-sided piles of tephra confined by ice walls. Gradual upwards increases in inflated clasts point to the decreasing involvement of meltwater and the increasing ability of the magma to vesiculate. As the eruption progresses and terminates, non-explosive degassing produces lava caps up to 300 m thick. Öræfajökull is a stratovolcano illustrating complex volcano-ice interactions generated when rhyolitic lavas erupt onto steeper slopes and encounter ice of variable thickness and properties (e.g. fracturing). Eruptive units record dramatic ice thickness fluctuations of up to 500 m in valley glaciers between eruptions, which emphasises that useful palaeoenvironmental information can be gleaned from detailed studies of volcano-ice interactions. Considerable value is added when palaeoenvironmental information is combined with Ar-Ar dating. For example Ar-Ar dating of two rhyolitic tuyas at Torfajökull reveal

  5. Eldfellite, NaFe(SO4)2, a new fumarolic mineral from Eldfell volcano, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, A.; Acquafredda, P.


    )3. Along with opal and tamarugite, eldfellite forms soft and fragile aggregates built of thin, platy crystals of micrometre size. The mineral is yellowish-green to greenish-white, with a white streak. The calculated density is 3.062 g/cm3. Eldfellite is monoclinic, C2/m, a 8.043(4) Å, b 5.139(2) Å, c 7.......115(4) Å, ß 92.13(2)°, Vuc 293.9(2) Å3, Z = 2 and is isostructural with yavapaiite[KFe(SO4)2]. The strongest lines in the powder diffraction diagram are [d (Å), I (relative to 10)]: 3.72, 8; 3.64, 5; 3.43, 5; 2.77, 10; 2.72, 6; 2.57, 3; 2.370, 6; 1.650, 3. The chemical analysis and the X-ray diffraction...

  6. Jakobssonite, CaAlF5, a new mineral from fumaroles at the Eldfell and Hekla volcanoes, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, A.; Mitolo, D.


    dispersive spectrometry on a scanning electron microscope produced a mean elemental composition as follows: Ca, 18.99; Al, 18.55; Mg, 1.33; Na, 0.33; F, 50.20; O, 10.39; total 99.79 wt.%. The empirical chemical formula, calculated on the basis of 7 atoms per formula unit with all of the oxygen as OH, is (Ca0......-2-2 ), 1.957 (21) (400), 1.814 (20) (1-3-2), 1.805 (22) (20-4 ). The chemical and crystal-structure analyses of jakobssonite are similar to synthetic CaAlF5 with minor substitutions of light elements (e.g. Na) or vacancies for Ca, and OH for F....... (IMA2011-059), ralstonite, heklaite, anhydrite, gypsum, jarosite, hematite, opal and several fluoride minerals that have not been fully characterized. Jakobssonite occurs as soft white fragile crusts of acicular crystals Chemical analyses by energy...

  7. New Proposed Drilling at Surtsey Volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Jackson, Marie D.


    Surtsey, an isolated oceanic island and a World Heritage Site of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, is a uniquely well-documented natural laboratory for investigating processes of rift zone volcanism, hydrothermal alteration of basaltic tephra, and biological colonization and succession in surface and subsurface pyroclastic deposits. Deposits from Surtsey's eruptions from 1963 to 1967 were first explored via a 181-meter hole drilled in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey and Icelandic Museum of Natural History.

  8. Geophysical Observations Supporting Research of Magmatic Processes at Icelandic Volcanoes (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín. S.; Hjaltadóttir, Sigurlaug; Roberts, Matthew J.


    Magmatic processes at volcanoes on the boundary between the European and North American plates in Iceland are observed with in-situ multidisciplinary geophysical networks owned by different national, European or American universities and research institutions, but through collaboration mostly operated by the Icelandic Meteorological Office. The terrestrial observations are augmented by space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images of the volcanoes and their surrounding surface. Together this infrastructure can monitor magma movements in several volcanoes from the base of the crust up to the surface. The national seismic network is sensitive enough to detect small scale seismicity deep in the crust under some of the voclanoes. High resolution mapping of this seismicity and its temporal progression has been used to delineate the track of the magma as it migrates upwards in the crust, either to form an intrusion at shallow levels or to reach the surface in an eruption. Broadband recording has also enabled capturing low frequency signals emanating from magmatic movements. In two volcanoes, Eyjafjallajökull and Katla, just east of the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ), seismicity just above the crust-mantle boundary has revealed magma intruding into the crust from the mantle below. As the magma moves to shallower levels, the deformation of the Earth‘s surface is captured by geodetic systems, such as continuous GPS networks, (InSAR) images of the surface and -- even more sensitive to the deformation -- strain meters placed in boreholes around 200 m below the Earth‘s surface. Analysis of these signals can reveal the size and shape of the magma as well as the temporal evolution. At near-by Hekla volcano flanking the SISZ to the north, where only 50% of events are of M>1 compared to 86% of earthquakes in Eyjafjallajökull, the sensitivity of the seismic network is insufficient to detect the smallest seismicity and so the volcano appears less

  9. Ambient-noise tomography of Katla volcano, south Iceland (United States)

    Jeddi, Zeinab; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Tryggvason, Ari


    A shear-wave velocity model of subglacial Katla volcano, southern Iceland, has been developed using ambient seismic noise tomography based on data from a temporary network operating between May 2011 and August 2013 and permanent stations around the volcano. Phase-velocity dispersion curves were obtained using cross-correlations of vertical components of 136 station pairs and non-linearly inverted for phase-velocity maps between 1.7 and 7.5 s. Local dispersion curves were inverted for shear-velocity variation with depth using a grid search imposing a fixed ice layer at the top. The resulting one-dimensional (1-D) velocity models were combined to obtain a pseudo three-dimensional (3-D) model with estimated lateral resolution of 8 km and depth resolution varying from close to 1 km near the surface to about 8 km at 10 km depth. Shear wave velocities are generally higher within the Katla central volcano than in its surroundings. The most striking feature of the model is a high-velocity anomaly beneath the caldera at > 6 km depth interpreted to be due to cumulates resulting from differentiation of shallower magma intrusions and remelting of subsiding upper crust. No shallow low-velocity anomaly is resolved beneath the central caldera, but a low-velocity region is found at 2-4 km depth beneath the western half of the caldera. VP/VS ratios, estimated from average velocity-depth profiles from surface-wave data and higher frequency P-wave data, are anomalously high (> 1.9) compared to average Icelandic crust, particularly in the top 2-3 km. This is argued not to be an artifact due to lateral refraction or topography. Instead, this anomaly could be explained as an artifact caused by velocity dispersion due to attenuation and a difference in frequency content, and possibly to a degree by the compositional difference between the transalkalic Fe-Ti basalts of Katla and average tholeiitic Icelandic crust.

  10. Extending permanent volcano monitoring networks into Iceland's ice caps (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Bergsson, Bergur H.; Kjartansson, Vilhjálmur; Jónsson, Thorsteinn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Roberts, Matthew J.; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Pálsson, Finnur; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Erlendsson, Pálmi; Ingvarsson, Thorgils; Pálssson, Sighvatur K.


    The goals of the FUTUREVOLC project are the establishment of a volcano Supersite in Iceland to enable access to volcanological data from the country's many volcanoes and the development of a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. However, the location of some of Iceland's most active volcanoes inside the country's largest ice cap, Vatnajökull, makes these goals difficult to achieve as it hinders access and proper monitoring of seismic and deformation signals from the volcanoes. To overcome these obstacles, one of the developments in the project involves experimenting with extending the permanent real-time networks into the ice cap, including installation of stations in the glacier ice. At the onset of the project, only one permanent seismic and GPS site existed within Vatnajökull, on the caldera rim of the Grímsvötn volcano. Two years into the project both seismic and GPS stations have been successfully installed and operated inside the glacier; on rock outcrops as well as on the glacier surface. The specific problems to overcome are (i) harsh weather conditions requiring sturdy and resilient equipment and site installations, (ii) darkness during winter months shutting down power generation for several weeks, (iii) high snow accumulation burying the instruments, solar panels and communication and GPS antennae, and in some locations (iv) extreme icing conditions blocking transmission signals and connection to GPS satellites, as well as excluding the possibility of power generation by wind generators. In 2013, two permanent seismic stations and one GPS station were installed on rock outcrops within the ice cap in locations with 3G connections and powered by solar panels and enough battery storage to sustain operation during the darkest winter months. These sites have successfully operated for over a year with mostly regular maintenance requirements, transmitting data in real-time to IMO for analysis. Preparations for two permanent seismic

  11. Inside the volcano: The how and why of Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland (United States)

    LaFemina, Peter; Hudak, Michael; Feineman, Maureen; Geirsson, Halldor; Normandeau, Jim; Furman, Tanya


    The Thrihnukagigur volcano, located in the Brennisteinsfjöll fissure swarm on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, offers a unique exposure of the upper magmatic plumbing system of a monogenetic volcano. The volcano formed during a dike-fed strombolian eruption ~3500 BP with flow-back leaving an evacuated conduit, elongated parallel to the regional maximum horizontal stress. At least two vents were formed above the dike, as well as several small hornitos south-southwest of the main vent. In addition to the evacuated conduit, a cave exists 120 m below the vent. The cave exposes stacked lava flows and a buried cinder cone. The unconsolidated tephra of the cone is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to the vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~3500 BP fissure eruption. We present geochemical, petrologic and geologic observations, including a high-resolution three-dimensional scan of the system that indicate the dike intersected, eroded and assimilated unconsolidated tephra from the buried cinder cone, thus excavating a region along the dike, allowing for future slumping and cave formation. Two petrographically distinct populations of plagioclase phenocrysts are present in the system: a population of smaller (maximum length 1 mm) acicular phenocrysts and a population of larger (maximum length 10 mm) tabular phenocrysts that is commonly broken and displays disequilibrium sieve textures. The acicular plagioclase crystals are present in the dike and lavas while the tabular crystals are in these units and the buried tephra. An intrusion that appears not to have interacted with the tephra has only acicular plagioclase. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single acicular population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the tabular population of phenocrysts from the cone. Petrographic thin-sections of lavas sampled near the vent show undigested fragments of tephra from

  12. Multiple ways of producing intermediate and silicic rocks within Thingmúli and other Icelandic volcanoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charreteur, Gilles; Tegner, Christian; Haase, Karsten


    Major and trace element compositions of rocks and coexisting phenocrysts of the ThingmA(0)li volcano suggest a revision of the existing models for the formation of intermediate and silicic melts in Iceland. The new data define two compositional tholeiitic trends with a significant gap between the...

  13. Leonardsenite, MgAlF5(H2O)2, a new mineral species from Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey Island, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitolo, Donatella; Garavelli, Anna; Balic Zunic, Tonci


    microscope produced a mean elemental composition as follows (wt.: Mg 14.66, Al 16.16, F 52.98, 0 15.88, H 1.78, total 101.46. The corresponding empirical formula, calculated on the basis of 2 cations pfu, is Mgi.00Ali 004.64(011)0.361E5.00(1420)1 29. On the basis of chemical analyses and X-ray diffraction...

  14. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Ruch, Joël; Acocella, Valerio; Thordarson, Thor; Urbani, Stefano


    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja's calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  15. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele


    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja’s calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  16. Ambient noise tomography of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Benediktsdóttir, Ásdís; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís; Tryggvason, Ari


    We present a shear-velocity model for the Eyjafjallajökull stratovolcano, based on ambient seismic noise tomography applied to seven months of data from six permanent stations and 10 temporary seismic stations, deployed during and after the 2010 volcanic unrest. Vertical components of noise were cross correlated resulting in 30 robust phase-velocity dispersion curves between 1.6 and 6.5 s in period, displaying a ± 20% variation in phase velocity beneath the volcano. The uneven distribution of noise sources, evaluated using signal-to-noise ratios, was estimated to cause less than 2% error in most curves. Sensitivity kernels showed resolution down to 10 km and the lateral resolution of the resulting phase-velocity maps was about 5 km. The model reveals east-west oriented high-velocity anomalies due east and west of the caldera. Between these a zone of lower velocity is identified, coinciding with the location of earthquakes that occurred during the summit eruption in April 2010. A shallow, southwest elongated low-velocity anomaly is located 5 km southwest of the caldera. The limited depth resolution of the shear-velocity model precludes detection of melt within the volcano.

  17. Temporal redox variation in basaltic tephra from Surtsey volcano (Iceland) (United States)

    Schipper, C. Ian; Moussallam, Yves


    The oxidation state of magma controls and/or tracks myriad petrologic phenomena, and new insights into oxidation are now made possible by high-resolution measurements of Fe3+/∑Fe in volcanic glasses. We present new μ-XANES measurements of Fe3+/∑Fe in a time series of basaltic tephra from the 1963-1967 eruption of Surtsey (Iceland), to examine if the magma mixing between alkalic and tholeiitic basalts that is apparent in the major and trace elements of these glasses is also represented in their oxidation states. Raw Fe3+/∑Fe data show a temporal trend from oxidized to reduced glasses, and this is accompanied by decreasing indices of mantle enrichment (e.g., La/Yb, Zr/Y). When expressed as composition- and temperature-corrected fO2, the trend has a similar magnitude ( 0.3 log units) to the variation in fO2 due to ridge-plume interaction along the Reykjanes Ridge. These data indicate that the oxidation state of mixed magmas can be retained through fractionation and degassing processes, and that matrix glass Fe3+/∑Fe in tephras can be used to make inferences about the relative oxidation states of parental magmas during nuanced magma mixing.

  18. Deep crustal melt plumbing of Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Hudson, T. S.; White, R. S.; Greenfield, T.; Ágústsdóttir, T.; Brisbourne, A.; Green, R. G.


    Understanding magmatic plumbing within the Earth's crust is important for understanding volcanic systems and improving eruption forecasting. We discuss magma plumbing under Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland, over a 4 year period encompassing the largest Icelandic eruption in 230 years. Microseismicity extends through the usually ductile region of the Earth's crust, from 7 to 22 km depth in a subvertical column. Moment tensor solutions for an example earthquake exhibits opening tensile crack behavior. This is consistent with the deep (>7 km) seismicity being caused by the movement of melt in the normally aseismic crust. The seismically inferred melt path from the mantle source is offset laterally from the center of the Bárðarbunga caldera by 12 km, rather than lying directly beneath it. It is likely that an aseismic melt feed also exists directly beneath the caldera and is aseismic due to elevated temperatures and pervasive partial melt under the caldera.

  19. Infrasound network implementation in Iceland - examples of volcano monitoring in an extreme environment (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Ripepe, Maurizio; Barsotti, Sara; Björnsson, Halldór; Del Donne, Dario; Vogfjörð, Kristín


    The installation of a network of infrasound arrays for volcano monitoring has been initiated in Iceland. In collaboration with the University of Florence (UNIFI), The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) has been operating infrasound arrays since the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010. An important support came through the 26 partner FP7 FUTUREVOLC project which runs from 2012 - 2016. This project which is relevant to the EU "Supersite concept" for long term monitoring in geologically active regions of Europe, is led by the University of Iceland together with IMO which leads long-term monitoring of geohazards in Iceland and is responsible for maintaining instrument networks for this purpose. As a part of the ground based FUTUREVOLC network, infrasound arrays, are used to monitor volcanic eruptive activity. The arrays are composed of 4 elements with a triangular geometry and an aperture of 120 m where each element has a differential pressure transducer with a sensitivity of 25 mV/Pa in the frequency band 0.001-50 Hz and a noise level of 10-2 Pa. Infrasound is recorded on site at 100 Hz and 24 bits and transmitted via Internet link both to the IMO and UNIFI. Three arrays are installed in South Iceland, one in Gunnarsholt, one in Þjórsárdalur and one in Kirkjubæjarklaustur. These places were chosen with the aim to optimize wind noice reduction (onsite bushes and trees) and close proximity to volcanoes such as Hekla, Katla, Torfajökull, Eyjafjallajökull, Vestmannaeyjar and the Vatnajökull ice cap which covers four central volcanoes known for explosive eruptions. In September 2014, the fourth array was installed a few km north of Vatnajökull glacier, just north of the large effusive eruption in Holuhraun which started on 29 August 2014 and is still ongoing in January 2015. The eruption is associated with the ongoing Bárðarbunga volcanic unrest and caldera collapse which is being monitored closely by the IMO and FUTUREVOLC partners. The new array has the

  20. Iceland. (United States)


    This issue of Background Notes examines the country of Iceland. In the profile section, the geography, people, government, economy, and membership in international organizations are briefly examined. An island located in the North Atlantic Ocean east of Greenland, almost 80% of Iceland's land mass is relative wasteland (glaciers, lakes, a mountainous lava desert, and others). Literature is the heritage that Iceland has given the world, especially in the forms of poetry and the Sagas. Iceland is governed by a president who is elected to a 4-year term and who has limited powers as well as a Prime Minister and the Cabinet with most of the executive functions. The current party coalition is committed to Iceland's continued membership in NATO and to maintaining the presence of US forces at the Keflavik NATO Base. Mainly, the coalition has attempted to adopt economic measures to counter Iceland's economic difficulties. Its economic backbone is the fishing industry and the US is the major overseas market for fish products. There is currently an effort underway to spur greater GNP growth rates. Iceland maintains diplomatic and commercial relations with the most important nations of the East and West but its ties with other Nordic countries and the US are especially lose. Also included in this Background Notes issue is a section on travel notes, principal Iceland related US officials, principal, Iceland government officials, and history of the country.

  1. The FUTUREVOLC Supersite's e-Infrastructure - A multidisciplinary data hub and data service for Icelandic Volcanoes (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Sverrisson, Sverrir Th.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur F.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Arnarsson, Ólafur S.; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna Ýr; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi Th.; Hjartansson, Kristján R.


    The FUTUREVOLC volanological supersite will establish a data hub and dataservice, where researchers, hazard managers and other stake holders can freely obtain access to multidisciplinary data and products on activity, unrest and eruptions at Icelandic volcanoes. The supersite is firmly founded on close interaction between the main Icelandic volcanological research and monitoring institutions, in coordination with expertise from European researchers participating in FUTUREVOLC. The hub is located at the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), an institution responsible for monitoring and archiving data on all natural hazards in Iceland and, which also has a mandate as the state volcano observatory. This association will ensure a long-term sustainable data service. The data accessible at the hub include in-situ and space-based observations, products and models from all the relevant disciplines contributing to volcanological research and local as well as cross-border hazard management, i.e. Earth sciences, atmospheric science, hydrology, remote sensing and space science. Access to the data will be in compliance with the access policy of the GEO (Group on Earth Observations), providing registered users with easy and timely access to data and products of documented quality. This commitment has already led to the acceptance of FUTUREVOLC as a permanent geohazard supersite by CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites), which will ensure access to additional satellite data and products on Icelandic volcanoes. To facilitate services to seismological data at the supersite hub, the IMO is reconstructing its existing data base and utilizing the SeisComp3 software to manage waveform and parameter data. The accompanying ArcLink component will be used to provide access to event data and waveforms. Access to GPS data will be provided by the GSAC web service which has been installed at the IMO through collaboration with UNAVCO. If appropriate, the format and data base

  2. Crustal movements due to Iceland's shrinking ice caps mimic magma inflow signal at Katla volcano. (United States)

    Spaans, Karsten; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Hooper, Andrew; Ófeigsson, Benedikt Gunnar


    Many volcanic systems around the world are located beneath, or in close proximity to, ice caps. Mass change of these ice caps causes surface movements, which are typically neglected when interpreting surface deformation measurements around these volcanoes. These movements can however be significant, and may closely resemble movements due to magma accumulation. Here we show such an example, from Katla volcano, Iceland. Horizontal movements observed by GPS on the flank of Katla have led to the inference of significant inflow of magma into a chamber beneath the caldera, starting in 2000, and continuing over several years. We use satellite radar interferometry and GPS data to show that between 2001 and 2010, the horizontal movements seen on the flank can be explained by the response to the long term shrinking of ice caps, and that erratic movements seen at stations within the caldera are also not likely to signify magma inflow. It is important that interpretations of geodetic measurements at volcanoes in glaciated areas consider the effect of ice mass change, and previous studies should be carefully reevaluated.

  3. Origin of a rhyolite that intruded a geothermal well while drilling at the Krafla volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Elders, W.A.; Fridleifsson, G.O.; Zierenberg, R.A.; Pope, E.C.; Mortensen, A.K.; Gudmundsson, A.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Marks, N.E.; Owens, L.; Bird, D.K.; Reed, M.; Olsen, N.J.; Schiffman, P.


    Magma flowed into an exploratory geothermal well at 2.1 km depth being drilled in the Krafla central volcano in Iceland, creating a unique opportunity to study rhyolite magma in situ in a basaltic environment. The quenched magma is a partly vesicular, sparsely phyric, glass containing ~1.8% of dissolved volatiles. Based on calculated H2O-CO2 saturation pressures, it degassed at a pressure intermediate between hydrostatic and lithostatic, and geothermometry indicates that the crystals in the melt formed at ~900 ??C. The glass shows no signs of hydrothermal alteration, but its hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios are much lower than those of typical mantle-derived magmas, indicating that this rhyolite originated by anhydrous mantle-derived magma assimilating partially melted hydrothermally altered basalts. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  4. Geologic mapping of the Hekla volcano (Iceland) using integrated data sets from optic and radar sensors (United States)

    Wever, Tobias; Loercher, Gerhard


    During the MAC-Europe campaign in June/July 1991 different airborne data sets (AIRSAR, TMS and AVIRIS) were collected over Iceland. One test site is situated around the Hekla-volcano in South Iceland. This area is characterised by a sequence of lava flows of different ages together with tuffs and ashes. This case study shall contribute to demonstrate the potential of MAC-Europe data for geological mapping. The optical- and the SAR data was analysed separately to elaborate the preferences of the different sensors. An approach was carried out to process an image representing the advantages of the respective sensors in only one presentation. The synergetic approach improves the separation of geological units clearly by combination of two completely different data sets due to the utilisation of spectral bands in the visible and infrared region on one side and on the other side in the microwave region. Beside the petrographical information extracted from optical data using spectral signatures the combination includes physical information like roughness and dielectricity of a target. The geologic setting of the test area is characterised by a very uniform petrography hence the spectral signatures are showing only little variations. Due to this fact, the differentiation of geological units using optical data is limited. The additional use of SAR data establishes the new dimension of the surface roughness which improves the discrimination clearly. This additional parameter presents a new information tool about the state of weathering, age and sequence of the different lava flows. The NASA/JPL AIRSAR system is very suitable for this kind of investigation due to its multifrequency and polarimetric capabilities. The three SAR frequencies (C-, L- and P-Band) enable the detection of a broad range of roughness differences. These results can be enhanced by comprising the full scattering matrix of the polarimetric AIRSAR data.

  5. Magma buoyancy and volatile ascent driving autocyclic eruptivity at Hekla Volcano (Iceland) (United States)

    Hautmann, Stefanie; Sacks, I. Selwyn; Linde, Alan T.; Roberts, Matthew J.


    Volcanic eruptions are typically accompanied by ground deflation due to the withdrawal of magma from depth and its effusion at the surface. Here, based on continuous high-resolution borehole strain data, we show that ground deformation was absent during the major effusion phases of the 1991 and 2000 eruptions of Hekla Volcano, Iceland. This lack of surface deformation challenges the classic model of magma intrusion/withdrawal as source for volcanic ground uplift/subsidence. We incorporate geodetic and geochemical observables into theoretical models of magma chamber dynamics in order to constrain quantitatively alternative co- and intereruptive physical mechanisms that govern magma propagation and system pressurization. We find the lack of surface deformation during lava effusion to be linked to chamber replenishment from below whilst magma migrates as a buoyancy-driven flow from the magma chamber towards the surface. We further demonstrate that intereruptive pressure build-up is likely to be generated by volatile ascent within the chamber rather than magma injection. Our model explains the persistent periodic eruptivity at Hekla throughout historic times with self-initiating cycles and is conceptually relevant to other volcanic systems.

  6. A Seismological Portrait of the Anomalous 1996 Bardarbunga Volcano, Iceland, Earthquake (Invited) (United States)

    Tkalcic, H.; Dreger, D. S.; Foulger, G. R.; Julian, B. R.; Fichtner, A.


    The Bardarbunga volcano lies beneath the 500-m-thick Vatnajokull icecap, the largest glacier in Europe. Earthquakes with atypical seismic radiation have occurred beneath the Bardarbunga caldera and have been routinely reported in the Global CMT catalog. An earthquake with Mw 5.6 and a strong non-double-couple (NDC) radiation pattern occurred beneath the caldera on 29 September, 1996. A peculiarity of that earthquake was that it was the first in a sequence of seismic and magmatic events and that it was followed, not preceded or accompanied, by a major eruption which ultimately led to a breakout flood from the subglacial caldera lake. The earthquake was recorded well by the regional-scale Iceland Hotspot Project seismic experiment. One of the proposed hypotheses to explain the observed displacements and the sequence of events was the inflation of a shallow magma chamber that might have caused rupture on ring faults below the chamber. Iceland has a heterogeneous crust, with variable thickness, and thus a 1D structural model is not ideal for waveform modeling. We investigated the earthquake with a point-source complete moment-tensor (MT) inversion method using regional long-period seismic waveforms and a composite structural model of Iceland based on joint modeling of teleseismic receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion. When such a model is used, the waveform modeling yields a NDC solution with a strong, vertically oriented compensated linear vector dipole component and a statistically insignificant volumetric contraction. The absence of a volumetric component is surprising in the case of a large volcanic earthquake that cannot be explained by shear slip on a planar fault. A possible mechanism that can produce an earthquake without a volumetric component involves two offset sources with similar but opposite volume changes. We show that although such a model cannot be ruled out, it is unlikely. In order to investigate the hypothesis of a rupture occurring on a

  7. Volcanic Ash and Daily Mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic Volcano Eruption of May 2011 (United States)

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K.; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer


    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn’s eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24–31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study

  8. Habitat mapping using hyperspectral images in the vicinity of Hekla volcano in Iceland (United States)

    Vilmundardóttir, Olga K.; Sigurmundsson, Friðþór S.; Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Falco, Nicola; Rustowicz, Rose; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Benediktsson, Jón A.


    Hekla, one of the most active volcanoes in Iceland, has created a diverse volcanic landscape with lava flows, hyaloclastite and tephra fields. The variety of geological formations and different times of formation create diverse vegetation within Hekla's vicinity. The region is subjected to extensive loss of vegetation cover and soil erosion due to human utilization of woodlands and ongoing sheep grazing. The eolian activity and frequent tephra deposition has created vast areas of sparse vegetation cover. Over the 20th century, many activities have centered on preventing further loss of vegetated land and restoring ecosystems. The benefit of these activities is now noticeable in the increased vegetation and woodland cover although erosion is still active within the area. For mapping and monitoring this highly dynamic environment remote sensing techniques are extremely useful. One of the principal goals of the project 'Environmental Mapping and Monitoring of Iceland with Remote Sensing' (EMMIRS) is to use hyperspectral images and LiDAR data to classify and map the vegetation within the Hekla area. The data was collected in an aerial survey in summer 2015 by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), UK. The habitat type classification, currently being developed at the Icelandic Institute of Natural History and follows the structure of the EUNIS classification system, will be used for classifying the vegetation. The habitat map created by this new technique's outcome will be compared to the existent vegetation maps made by the conventional vegetation mapping method and the multispectral image classification techniques. In the field, vegetation cover, soil properties and spectral reflectance were measured within different habitat types. Special emphasis was on collecting data on vegetation and soil in the historical lavas from Hekla for assessing habitats forming over the millennia. A lava-chronosequence was established by measuring vegetation and soil in lavas

  9. Hydrothermal Alteration and Seawater Exchange at Surtsey Volcano, Iceland: New results from 1979 Surtsey Drill Core. (United States)

    Rhodes, M.; Bryce, J. G.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Fahnestock, M. F.; Jackson, M. D.


    The archetypal volcano Surtsey erupted spectacularly out of the North Atlantic Ocean from November 1963 to June 1967, on the southern submarine extension of the E. Icelandic Rift Zone. Twelve years later, in 1979, the eastern cone (Surtur I) was drilled to a depth of 181 m to document the growth of the volcano and the interaction of basaltic tephra with seawater [1]. The present study is a pilot project for the International Continental Drilling Project on Surtsey, SUSTAIN, starting in August, 2017. The overall intent is to document the nature, extent and rates of hydrothermal and seawater reaction with tephra over the past 50 years. This work builds on the 1979 drilling studies through new electron microprobe and laser ablation (LA- ICPMS) analyses to document varying degrees of palagonitic alteration of volcanic glass and primary phases to form authigenic minerals (smectite, zeolites, Al-tobermorite, anhydrite) in the intervening 12 years since the eruption. Combined with modal data and inferred phase densities, the data documents the mass balance of major and trace elements among the phases and the relationship of these changes to core depth, temperature and porosity. Although hydrothermal alteration is extensive, especially in the hotter submarine intervals from 60 to 120 m, detailed whole-rock major, trace and isotopic data (Sr, Nd, Pb), show that, apart from hydration and oxidation, there is only modest exchange of elements between tephra and seawater, or hydrothermal fluids, in the upper 140 m of the core prior to 1979. Below 140 m, in a cooler zone of coarse, more porous tephra, extensive exchange of elements, involving hydrothermal introduction of sulfur and growth of anhydrite, is associated with the loss of Ca, K, Rb, Sr and addition of MgO and Na and seawater isotopic signatures. It is surely no coincidence that this zone of elemental and isotopic exchange supports active microbial colonies [2]. Our results serve as an important baseline for the 2017

  10. Large explosive basaltic eruptions at Katla volcano, Iceland: Fragmentation, grain size and eruption dynamics (United States)

    Schmith, Johanne; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Holm, Paul Martin; Larsen, Guðrún


    Katla volcano in Iceland produces hazardous large explosive basaltic eruptions on a regular basis, but very little quantitative data for future hazard assessments exist. Here details on fragmentation mechanism and eruption dynamics are derived from a study of deposit stratigraphy with detailed granulometry and grain morphology analysis, granulometric modeling, componentry and the new quantitative regularity index model of fragmentation mechanism. We show that magma/water interaction is important in the ash generation process, but to a variable extent. By investigating the large explosive basaltic eruptions from 1755 and 1625, we document that eruptions of similar size and magma geochemistry can have very different fragmentation dynamics. Our models show that fragmentation in the 1755 eruption was a combination of magmatic degassing and magma/water-interaction with the most magma/water-interaction at the beginning of the eruption. The fragmentation of the 1625 eruption was initially also a combination of both magmatic and phreatomagmatic processes, but magma/water-interaction diminished progressively during the later stages of the eruption. However, intense magma/water interaction was reintroduced during the final stages of the eruption dominating the fine fragmentation at the end. This detailed study of fragmentation changes documents that subglacial eruptions have highly variable interaction with the melt water showing that the amount and access to melt water changes significantly during eruptions. While it is often difficult to reconstruct the progression of eruptions that have no quantitative observational record, this study shows that integrating field observations and granulometry with the new regularity index can form a coherent model of eruption evolution.

  11. Detecting magma bodies in the Icelandic crust: Constraints from Volcano Geodesy and Joint Interpretation with Other Data (United States)

    Sigmundsson, F.; Parks, M.; Hooper, A. J.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Halldorsson, S. A.; Einarsson, P.; Dumont, S.; Jonsdottir, K.; Sigmarsson, O.; Drouin, V.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Geirsson, H.; Brandsdóttir, B.; Vogfjord, K. S.; Heimisson, E. R.; Sturkell, E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Markusson, S.


    Detailed geodetic observations have been carried on a number of volcanoes in Iceland, including both GPS-measurements and interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar images acquired by satellites (InSAR), with observed surface deformation interpreted in terms of magmatic processes. Volcanoes where data has been interpreted in terms of persistent magma reservoirs (magma storage areas) include Krafla, Askja, Bárdarbunga, Grímsvötn, Hekla, Katla and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. Magma storage is inferred beneath the centers of these volcanoes, at depth ranging from 2-25 km, when deformation data is interpreted in terms of point sources of pressure (Mogi models), or alternatively as sills or spheroids. The lateral dimensions and volume of the sources are difficult to constrain from geodesy alone, but the geodetic data suggests though in all cases localized reservoirs under the center of the volcanoes (beneath calderas or maxima in volcanic production). In some cases, external constraints applied on geodetic models are crucial, such as for the study of 2014-2015 caldera collapse (>60 m), dyking and major eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system 2014-2015. Geobarometry from petrology and geochemistry provides independent constraints on depth of a magma reservoir, and together all data suggest a depth range of 10-12 km. Volume extracted from the reservoir was about 2 cubickilometers. For the case of caldera collapse, incorporation of slip on caldera into geodetic models is required to properly address the data. Geodetic data relating to a magma reservoir under Bárðarbunga and other volcanoes in Iceland will be reviewed and compared to other constraints from petrology, geochemistry and seismology, with joint models of interpretation presented, considering possibilities and resolution of each type of data. At one volcano (Krafla) inferred models of subsurface magma plumbing can be compared to results from drilling into a rhyolitic magma body at 2.1 km

  12. Morphology of the 1984 open-channel lava flow at Krafla volcano, northern Iceland (United States)

    Rossi, Matti J.


    An open-channel lava flow of olivine tholeiite basalt, 9 km long and 1-2 km wide, formed in a volcanic eruption that took place in the Krafla volcano, Iceland, on the 4-18 September 1984. The eruption started with emplacement of a pahoehoe sheet which was fed by a 8.5-km-long fissure. After two days of eruption, lava effusion from the fissure ceased but one crater at the northern end of the fissure continued to release lava for another twelve days. That crater supplied an open-channel flow that moved toward the north along the rift valley. The lava was emplaced on a slope of 1°. The final lava flow is composed of five flow facies: (1) the initial pahoehoe sheet; (2) proximal slab pahoehoe and aa; (3) shelly-type overflows from the channel; (4) distal rubbly aa lava; and (5) secondary outbreaks of toothpaste lava and cauliflower aa. The main lava channel within the flow is 6.4 km long. The mean width of this channel is 189 m (103 m S.D.). An initial lava channel that forms in a Bingham plastic substance is fairly constant in width. This channel, however, varies in width especially in the proximal part indicating channel erosion. Large drifted blocks of channel walls are found throughout the flow front area and on the top of overflow levees. This suggests that the channel erosion was mainly mechanical. The lava flow has a mean height of 6 m above its surroundings, measured at the flow margins. However, a study of the pre-flow topography indicates that the lava filled a considerable topographic depression. Combined surface and pre-flow profiles give an average lava-flow thickness of 11 m; the thickness of the initial sheet-flow is estimated as 2 m. The volume of the lava flow calculated from these figures is 0.11 km 3. The mean effusion rate was 91 m 3/s. When lava flow models are used to deduce the rheological properties of this type of lava flow, the following points must be considered: (1) when a lava flow is emplaced along tectonic lineaments, its depth and

  13. Magmatic emulsion texture formed by mixing during extrusion, Rauðafell composite complex, Breiðdalur volcano, eastern Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charreteur, Gilles; Tegner, Christian


    The Rauoafell composite complex is part of the Neogene Breiodalur volcano, eastern Iceland and is composed of a composite feeder dyke, a vent structure and a composite flow. The two end-members of the composite complex are rhyolite and basalt, and both are rich in plagioclase macrocrysts: bytownite...

  14. Warming, Sheep and Volcanoes: Land Cover Changes in Iceland Evident in Satellite NDVI Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Raynolds


    Full Text Available In a greening Arctic, Iceland stands out as an area with very high increases in the AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, 1982–2010. We investigated the possible sources of this anomalous greening in Iceland’s dynamic landscape, analyzing changes due to volcanism and warming temperatures, and the effects of agricultural and industrial land use changes. The analysis showed the increases were likely due to reductions in grazing in erosion-prone rangelands, extensive reclamation and afforestation efforts, as well as a response to warming climate, including glacial retreat. Like Scandinavia and much of the rest of the Arctic, Iceland has shown a recent reduction in NDVI since 2002, but still above pre-2000 levels. Theil-Sen robust regression analysis of MODIS NDVI trends from 2002 to 2013 showed Iceland had a slightly negative NDVI trend of 0.003 NDVI units/year (p < 0.05, with significant decreases in an area three times greater (29,809 km2 than that with increases (9419 km2. Specific areas with large decreases in NDVI during the last decade were due to the formation of a large reservoir as a part of a hydroelectric power project (Kárahnjúkar, 2002–2009, and due to ashfall from two volcanic eruptions (Eyjafjallajökull, 2010; Grímsvötn, 2011. Increases in NDVI in the last decade were found in erosion control areas, around retreating glaciers, and in other areas of plant colonization following natural disturbance. Our analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of MODIS NDVI for identifying the causes of changes in land cover, and confirms the reduction in NDVI in the last decade using both the AVHRR and MODIS satellite data.

  15. Time dependence of volcano inflation: mass influx or viscoelastic relaxation? Insights from Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Segall, P.


    Distinguishing magma chamber pressurization from relaxation of a viscoelastic aureole surrounding the chamber based on geodetic measurements has remained challenging. Elastic models with mass inflow proportional to the pressure difference between the chamber and a deep reservoir predict exponentially decaying flux. For a spherical chamber surrounded by a Maxwell viscoelastic shell with pressure dependent recharge, the surface deformation is the sum of two exponentials (Segall, 2016). GPS displacements following eruptions of Grímsvötn, Iceland in 2004 and 2011 exhibit rapid post-eruptive inflation (time scale of 0.1 yr), followed by inflation with a much longer time constant. Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion with the viscoelastic model shows the GPS time series can be fit with viscosity of 2e16 Pa-s, and a relatively incompressible magma, B = beta_c/ (beta_m + beta_c) > 0.6, where beta_m and beta_c are chamber and magma compressibility. The latter appears to conflict with the ratio of erupted volume to geodetically inferred source volume change, rv 10, obtained for the best fitting spherical (Mogi ) source (Hreinsdóttir, 2014). Since rv = 1/B, this implies a relatively compressible melt, B 0.1. Reexamination of the co-eruptive GPS and tilt data with the more general ellipsoidal model of Cervelli (2013), reveals that the best fitting sources are oblate (b/a 3), deeper, and with larger volume changes, rv 3, relative to spherical models. Oblate magma chambers are consistent with seismic tomography. FEM calculations including free surface effects lead to even larger co-eruptive volume changes, smaller rv and hence larger B. I conclude that the data are consistent with rapid post-eruptive inflation driven by viscoelastic relaxation with a relatively incompressible magma, although other interpretations will be discussed.

  16. Mental health effects following the eruption in Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland: A population-based study. (United States)

    Gissurardóttir, Ólöf Sunna; Hlodversdóttir, Heidrun; Thordardóttir, Edda Bjork; Pétursdóttir, Gudrún; Hauksdóttir, Arna


    Volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters may affect survivor's physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to examine the mental health effects of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption in Iceland on nearby residents, by exposure level and experience. This population-based study included 1615 residents living in an area close to the Eyjafjallajökull volcano at the time of the eruption and a sample of 697 residents from a non-exposed area. All participants received a questionnaire 6-9 months after the eruption assessing mental health (GHQ-12, PSS-4 and PC-PTSD). The exposed group also received questions related to the experience of the eruption. Replies were received from 1146 participants in the exposed group (71%) and 510 participants in the non-exposed group (73%). Compared to the non-exposed group, participants living in the high-exposed area were at increased risk of experiencing mental distress (GHQ) 6-9 months following the eruption (odds ratio (OR) 1.45%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.90). High-exposed participants were furthermore at increased risk of experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to those living in the low-exposed area (OR 3.71; 95% CI 1.34-15.41). We further found that those who had direct experience of the eruption were more likely to suffer from symptoms of mental distress, PTSD symptoms and perceived stress, compared to those less exposed. The findings indicate that screening for these factors (e.g. experience of the event) could potentially aid in identifying those most vulnerable to developing psychological morbidity after this unique type of disaster.

  17. An overview of the Icelandic Volcano Observatory response to the on-going rifting event at Bárðarbunga (Iceland) and the SO2 emergency associated with the gas-rich eruption in Holuhraun (United States)

    Barsotti, Sara; Jonsdottir, Kristin; Roberts, Matthew J.; Pfeffer, Melissa A.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Vögfjord, Kristin; Stefánsdóttir, Gerður; Jónasdóttir, Elin B.


    On 16 August, 2014, Bárðarbunga volcano entered a new phase of unrest. Elevated seismicity in the area with up to thousands of earthquakes detected per day and significant deformation was observed around the Bárðarbunga caldera. A dike intrusion was monitored for almost two weeks until a small, short-lived effusive eruption began on 29 August in Holuhraun. Two days later a second, more intense, tremendously gas-rich eruption started that is still (as of writing) ongoing. The Icelandic Volcano Observatory (IVO), within the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), monitors all the volcanoes in Iceland. Responsibilities include evaluating their related hazards, issuing warnings to the public and Civil Protection, and providing information regarding risks to aviation, including a weekly summary of volcanic activity provided to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center in London. IVO has monitored the Bárðarbunga unrest phase since its beginning with the support of international colleagues and, in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Environment Agency of Iceland, provides scientific support and interpretation of the ongoing phenomena to the local Civil Protection. The Aviation Color Code, for preventing hazards to aviation due to ash-cloud encounter, has been widely used and changed as soon as new observations and geophysical data from the monitoring network have suggested a potential evolution in the volcanic crisis. Since the onset of the eruption, IVO is monitoring the gas emission by using different and complementary instrumentations aimed at analyzing the plume composition as well as estimating the gaseous fluxes. SO2 rates have been measured with both real-time scanning DOASes and occasional mobile DOAS traveses, near the eruption site and in the far field. During the first month-and-a-half of the eruption, an average flux equal to 400 kg/s was registered, with peaks exceeding 1,000 kg/s. Along with these measurements the dispersal model CALPUFF has

  18. Volcanoes (United States)

    ... and ash reach the Earth's surface when a volcano erupts. An eruption can also cause earthquakes, mudflows and flash floods, rock falls and landslides, acid rain, fires, and even tsunamis. Volcanic gas and ash can damage the lungs of small ...

  19. Magma storage beneath Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, constrained by clinopyroxene-melt thermobarometry and volatiles in melt inclusions and groundmass glass (United States)

    Haddadi, B.; Sigmarsson, O.; Larsen, G.


    Basalt eruptions at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, are generally of low intensity; however, occasionally, an order of magnitude larger eruptions occur. In order to discuss the reasons for this difference, the degassing budget of S and Cl and crystallization conditions of the eruptive magma were determined from volatile concentration measured in melt inclusion (MI) and groundmass glass and thermobarometry, respectively. Tephra of two of the largest historical eruptions (2011 and 1873) and two much smaller eruptions (2004 and 1823) were investigated. Sulfur and Cl concentrations are higher in groundmass glass of the smaller eruptions due to incomplete outgassing caused by melt quenching in contact with glacial water. Sulfur concentration and degassing budget correlate with erupted magma volumes. Higher volatile concentrations of MI from the larger eruptions reflect important recharge of gas-rich magma from depth. The recharge causes a high-magnitude eruption followed by increased eruption frequency over the following decades. Pressure and temperature estimates of crystallization are obtained through equilibrium clinopyroxene-glass pairs, where crystals adjacent to, and in textural equilibrium with, both groundmass glass and that of MI were measured. An average crystallization pressure of 4 ± 1 kbar corresponding to approximately 15 ± 5 km depth was obtained together with a considerable temperature range, 1065-1175°C. Similar crystallization depths are obtained for the basalt of the 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga rifting event and to a low resistivity layer revealed by magnetotelluric surveys. Therefore, an important magma storage depth is inferred at lower crustal depth above the center of the Iceland mantle plume.

  20. Magmatic emulsion texture formed by mixing during extrusion, Rauðafell composite complex, Breiðdalur volcano, eastern Iceland (United States)

    Charreteur, Gilles; Tegner, Christian


    The Rauðafell composite complex is part of the Neogene Breiðdalur volcano, eastern Iceland and is composed of a composite feeder dyke, a vent structure and a composite flow. The two end-members of the composite complex are rhyolite and basalt, and both are rich in plagioclase macrocrysts: bytownite in basalt and oligoclase in rhyolite. The rhyolite also includes ferroaugite macrocrysts. The mixed rocks are separated in three textural groups related to mixing proportions. When the basaltic end-member is dominant, a hybrid texture with a homogeneous matrix is observed and the only evidence of mixing is the presence of antecrysts of both end-members. When the basaltic end-member represents c. 65 to 30 % of the mixture, we observe emulsion textures composed of finely co-mingled basalt and rhyolite. The difference between these two textural expressions of mixing is due to effects of diffusion. The third texture shows mafic enclaves suspended in a rhyolitic matrix. In these rocks, the proportion of the basaltic end-member is inferior to 30 %, implying that the basalt froze solid in contact with the rhyolite. Zoning of plagioclase shows that the mixing processes are driven initially by highly efficient micro-mingling; the emulsification is possibly a result of compositional gradient stresses (Korteweg stress) between miscible basalt and rhyolite. This is followed by chemical diffusion (hybridisation) and tend to protect antecrysts from reaction with the primitive magmas. When antecrysts originated in the evolved magma, they undergo dissolution due to thermal disequilibrium during mingling and chemical disequilibrium during hybridisation. We argue that such mixing processes are important in producing intermediate rocks in Iceland and elsewhere that shows only the chemical attributes of an origin by mixing. The preservation of emulsion textures is rare and highly dependent on cooling history.

  1. The formation of Helgafell, southwest Iceland, a monogenetic subglacial hyaloclastite ridge: Sedimentology, hydrology and volcano ice interaction (United States)

    Schopka, Herdís H.; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Tuffen, Hugh


    Helgafell, a little-eroded basaltic hyaloclastite ridge in southwest Iceland, formed in a single eruption under a Pleistocene ice sheet. The ice thickness at the eruption site was at least 500 m and it was probably located some 15 km from the glacier's snout. The eruption created a 2 km long, 0.8 km wide and initially 300 m high ridge. Gravity modelling indicates that Helgafell has a bulk density of 1800 kg m - 3 , and that Holocene lavas around it are 40-80 m thick. This confirms that Helgafell is predominantly made of hyaloclastite, with pillow lavas and intrusions only making up a few percent of the total volume. The southeast side is made of unsorted eruption-fed hyaloclastites considered to have been piled up against an ice wall, while moderately to well-sorted water-transported material is found on the northwest side. Glacier flow and meltwater drainage was towards the northwest. The absence of basal pillow lavas suggests that magma fragmentation occurred from the onset of the eruption until its end. The lithofacies preserved indicate a fully subglacial eruption, although a final subaerial eruptive phase may have taken place through an ice chimney. The volatile contents (H 2O: 0.26-0.37 wt.%) of several glass samples from the southeast side of the mountain indicate water pressures of ˜ 1 MPa throughout the eruption. Efficient syn-eruptive drainage of meltwater coupled with rapid ice subsidence probably led to partial dynamic support of the ice, causing water pressure in the vault to be much lower than the static load of the overlying ice. Observed lack of correlation between elevation and volatile content may be a consequence of gradual reduction in dynamic support as the eruption rate declined and the edifice grew higher. Helgafell demonstrates that explosive activity may occur under ˜ 500 m thick ice, and it may be an analogue to the ridge formed in the Gjálp eruption in 1996.

  2. Crustal movements at a divergent plate boundary: interplay between volcano deformation, geothermal processes, and plate spreading in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland since 2008. (United States)

    Drouin, Vincent; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Ofeigsson, Benedikt G.; Sturkell, Erik; Islam, Tariqul


    Iceland is a subaerial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where the divergent plate boundary between the North-American and Eurasian Plates can be studied. The Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland, comprised of several volcanic systems, is particularly well suited to study interplay between volcanoes, geothermal areas and plate spreading, as the zone is relatively simple and accommodates the full spreading of the plates (18.6 mm/yr in a direction of 105 degrees according to NUVEL-1A predictions). The most recent volcanic activity in the area was the Krafla rifting episode (1975-1984). In 2007-2008 two intrusive events were detected: one in Upptypingar and the other in Þeistareykir. Extensive crustal deformation studies have been carried out in the NVZ; we report the results of recent GPS and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) studies focusing on Krafla, Þeistareykir and Askja volcanic systems in the NVZ. An extensive GPS survey was undertaken in 2013, with over 135 stations occupied. This data was evaluated in conjunction with data acquired since 2008, to generate a velocity field spanning this entire time period. In addition to an existing continuous GPS (cGPS) station, three cGPS stations were installed in the area in 2011-2012. The 2008-2013 GPS velocities were compared to earlier GPS results, and complementary analysis of InSAR images was undertaken. Earlier studies have shown that the Krafla caldera underwent uplift during 1984-1989, followed by subsidence. Since 1995, the maximum subsidence in Krafla has shifted from directly above the shallow magma chamber towards an array of boreholes (geothermal exploitation) in Leirbotnar. Similar subsidence has been observed around another array of boreholes in Bjarnaflag, 7 km further south. The most significant signal on the velocities calculated from campaign GPS data over the 5 year period, is plate spreading with an E-W velocity of about 12 mm/yr over a 30 km wide area. However it also shows an

  3. Modulation of glacier ablation by tephra coverage from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland: an automated field experiment (United States)

    Möller, Rebecca; Möller, Marco; Kukla, Peter A.; Schneider, Christoph


    We report results from a field experiment investigating the influence of volcanic tephra coverage on glacier ablation. These influences are known to be significantly different from those of moraine debris on glaciers due to the contrasting grain size distribution and thermal conductivity. Thus far, the influences of tephra deposits on glacier ablation have rarely been studied. For the experiment, artificial plots of two different tephra types from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes were installed on a snow-covered glacier surface of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland. Snow-surface lowering and atmospheric conditions were monitored in summer 2015 and compared to a tephra-free reference site. For each of the two volcanic tephra types, three plots of variable thickness ( ˜ 1.5, ˜ 8.5 and ˜ 80 mm) were monitored. After limiting the records to a period of reliable measurements, a 50-day data set of hourly records was obtained, which can be downloaded from the Pangaea data repository (" target="_blank">; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.876656). The experiment shows a substantial increase in snow-surface lowering rates under the ˜ 1.5 and ˜ 8.5 mm tephra plots when compared to uncovered conditions. Under the thick tephra cover some insulating effects could be observed. These results are in contrast to other studies which depicted insulating effects for much thinner tephra coverage on bare-ice glacier surfaces. Differences between the influences of the two different petrological types of tephra exist but are negligible compared to the effect of tephra coverage overall.

  4. Multidisciplinary constraints of hydrothermal explosions based on the 2013 Gengissig lake events, Kverkfjöll volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Gudmundsson, Magnus Tumi; Vogfjörd, Kristín; Reynolds, Hannah Iona; Dürig, Tobias; Strehlow, Karen; Rott, Stefanie; Reuschlé, Thierry; Dingwell, Donald Bruce


    Hydrothermal explosions frequently occur in geothermal areas showing various mechanisms and energies of explosivity. Their deposits, though generally hardly recognised or badly preserved, provide important insights to quantify the dynamics and energy of these poorly understood explosive events. Furthermore the host rock lithology of the geothermal system adds a control on the efficiency in the energy release during an explosion. We present results from a detailed study of recent hydrothermal explosion deposits within an active geothermal area at Kverkfjöll, a central volcano at the northern edge of Vatnajökull. On August 15th 2013, a small jökulhlaup occurred when the Gengissig ice-dammed lake drained at Kverkfjöll. The lake level dropped by approximately 30 m, decreasing pressure on the lake bed and triggering several hydrothermal explosions on the 16th. Here, a multidisciplinary approach combining detailed field work, laboratory studies, and models of the energetics of explosions with information on duration and amplitudes of seismic signals, has been used to analyse the mechanisms and characteristics of these hydrothermal explosions. Field and laboratory studies were also carried out to help constrain the sedimentary sequence involved in the event. The explosions lasted for 40-50 s and involved the surficial part of an unconsolidated and hydrothermally altered glacio-lacustrine deposit composed of pyroclasts, lavas, scoriaceous fragments, and fine-grained welded or loosely consolidated aggregates, interbedded with clay-rich levels. Several small fans of ejecta were formed, reaching a distance of 1 km north of the lake and covering an area of approximately 0.3 km2, with a maximum thickness of 40 cm at the crater walls. The material (volume of approximately 104 m3) has been ejected by the expanding boiling fluid, generated by a pressure failure affecting the surficial geothermal reservoir. The maximum thermal, craterisation and ejection energies, calculated

  5. Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol. (United States)

    Horwell, C J; Baxter, P J; Hillman, S E; Calkins, J A; Damby, D E; Delmelle, P; Donaldson, K; Dunster, C; Fubini, B; Kelly, F J; Le Blond, J S; Livi, K J T; Murphy, F; Nattrass, C; Sweeney, S; Tetley, T D; Thordarson, T; Tomatis, M


    The six week eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 produced heavy ash fall in a sparsely populated area of southern and south eastern Iceland and disrupted European commercial flights for at least 6 days. We adopted a protocol for the rapid analysis of volcanic ash particles, for the purpose of informing respiratory health risk assessments. Ash collected from deposits underwent a multi-laboratory physicochemical and toxicological investigation of their mineralogical parameters associated with bio-reactivity, and selected in vitro toxicology assays related to pulmonary inflammatory responses. Ash from the eruption of Grímsvötn, Iceland, in 2011 was also studied. The results were benchmarked against ash from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, which has been extensively studied since the onset of eruptive activity in 1995. For Eyjafjallajökull, the grain size distributions were variable: 2-13 vol% of the bulk samples were <4 µm, with the most explosive phases of the eruption generating abundant respirable particulate matter. In contrast, the Grímsvötn ash was almost uniformly coarse (<3.5 vol%<4 µm material). Surface area ranged from 0.3 to 7.7 m2 g(-1) for Eyjafjallajökull but was very low for Grímsvötn (<0.6 m2 g(-1)). There were few fibre-like particles (which were unrelated to asbestos) and the crystalline silica content was negligible in both eruptions, whereas Soufrière Hills ash was cristobalite-rich with a known potential to cause silicosis. All samples displayed a low ability to deplete lung antioxidant defences, showed little haemolysis and low acute cytotoxicity in human alveolar type-1 like epithelial cells (TT1). However, cell-free tests showed substantial hydroxyl radical generation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for Grímsvötn samples, as expected for basaltic, Fe-rich ash. Cellular mediators MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-8 showed chronic pro-inflammatory responses in Eyjafjallajökull, Grímsvötn and Soufrière Hills samples

  6. Anatomy of a volcano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooper, A.; Wassink, J.


    The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull caused major disruption in European airspace last year. According to his co-author, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, the reconstruction published in Nature six months later by aerospace engineering researcher, Dr Andy Hooper, opens up a new direction in volcanology. “We

  7. Sulphur dioxide as a volcanic ash proxy during the April–May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Thomas


    Full Text Available The volcanic ash cloud from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April and May 2010 resulted in unprecedented disruption to air traffic in Western Europe causing significant financial losses and highlighting the importance of efficient volcanic cloud monitoring. The feasibility of using SO2 as a tracer for the ash released during the eruption is investigated here through comparison of ash retrievals from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI with SO2 measurements from a number of infrared and ultraviolet satellite-based sensors. Results demonstrate that the eruption can be divided into an initial ash-rich phase, a lower intensity middle phase and a final phase where considerably greater quantities both ash and SO2 were released. Comparisons of ash-SO2 dispersion indicate that despite frequent collocation of the two species, there are a number of instances throughout the eruption where separation is observed. This separation occurs vertically due to the more rapid settling rate of ash compared to SO2, horizontally through wind shear and temporally through volcanological controls on eruption style. The potential for the two species to be dispersed independently has consequences in terms of aircraft hazard mitigation and highlights the importance of monitoring both species concurrently.

  8. Icelandic Geopower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maguire, James

    into these discussions through an ethnographic and practice based approach to the study of renewable energy. It does so by examining the production of geothermal energy in the Hengill volcanic zone in the southwest of Iceland. The analysis that is produced is based upon an engagement with the practices, ideas...... with those who make geothermal energy (geologists) as well as those who protest against its production (residents living in the vicinity of the volcanic zone) allows me to understand how geothermal energy is produced and resisted through particular sets of practices and technologies. At the same time it also....... Carrying out ethnographic fieldwork with key actors allows me to examine how this complex techno-political work is carried out and to what effects. However, drilling deep in the subterranean of a highly active seismic area is dangerous and risky. In producing geothermal energy, other consequences...

  9. Ice-clad volcanoes (United States)

    Waitt, Richard B.; Edwards, B.R.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Huggel, C.; Carey, Mark; Clague, John J.; Kääb, Andreas


    An icy volcano even if called extinct or dormant may be active at depth. Magma creeps up, crystallizes, releases gas. After decades or millennia the pressure from magmatic gas exceeds the resistance of overlying rock and the volcano erupts. Repeated eruptions build a cone that pokes one or two kilometers or more above its surroundings - a point of cool climate supporting glaciers. Ice-clad volcanic peaks ring the northern Pacific and reach south to Chile, New Zealand, and Antarctica. Others punctuate Iceland and Africa (Fig 4.1). To climb is irresistible - if only “because it’s there” in George Mallory’s words. Among the intrepid ascents of icy volcanoes we count Alexander von Humboldt’s attempt on 6270-meter Chimborazo in 1802 and Edward Whymper’s success there 78 years later. By then Cotopaxi steamed to the north.

  10. Enamel erosion and mechanical tooth wear in medieval Icelanders. (United States)

    Richter, Svend; Eliasson, Sigfus Thor


    The Icelandic Sagas are an important source of information on the way of life and diet habits in Iceland and possibly other Nordic countries 1000 years ago. Archaeological human skull material worldwide has revealed extensive tooth wear, with the main cause believed to be coarse diet. From a graveyard near volcano Hekla, 66 skeletons dated from before 1104 were excavated. The purpose of this study was to determine the main causes of tooth wear in Icelanders 1000 years ago. Forty-nine skulls were available for research. Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear and seven for age estimation. An attempt was made to determine the main causes of tooth wear in the light of likely diet and beverage consumption according to a computer search on food and drink customs described in the Icelandic Sagas. Tooth wear was extensive in all groups, increasing with age. The highest score was on first molars, with no difference between sexes. It had all the similarities seen in wear from coarse diet. In some instances it had similar characteristics to those seen in erosion in modern Icelanders consuming excessive amounts of soft drinks. According to the Sagas, acidic whey was a daily drink and used for preservation of food in Iceland until recently. Since acidic whey has considerably high dental erosive potential, it is postulated that consumption of acidic drinks and food, in addition to a coarse and rough diet, played a significant role in the dental wear of ancient Icelanders.

  11. [Phenylketonuria (PKU) in Iceland]. (United States)

    Oddason, Karl Erlingur; Eiriksdóttir, Lilja; Franzson, Leifur; Dagbjartsson, Atli


    PKU is a metabolic disorder caused by a mutation in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Icelandic neonatal screening for PKU started in 1972. The mutation causes a variable [corrected] dysfunction in PAH, that metabolizes phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine (Tyr) with the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Accumulation of Phe causes mental retardation and seizures. Current therapy focuses on Phe-restrictive diet and newer methods like BH4 in large doses. The primary aim was to collect data about PKU in Iceland and evaluate therapy and screening. Additional focus was on BH4 therapy. Information was gathered from Landspitali medical charts retrospectively. Serum-Phe (S-Phe) measurements, age at initiation of therapy, PAH mutation types and information on current therapy was collected. RESULTS from BH4 loading tests were collected. 27 patients have been diagnosed with PKU in Iceland since 1947. Incidence 1972-2008 is 1/8400 living births. Classic PKU is the most common presentation in Iceland. Patients diagnosed after screening started have normal intelligence. Age at initiation of therapy and S-Phe average values lower with time. 12 PAH mutation types have been found in Iceland. A novel Icelandic mutation, Y377fsdelT, did not respond to BH4 loading test. Two patients responded to a BH4 loading test and four other patients are likely to respond to BH4 loading test. PKU incidence in Iceland is slightly higher than in neighboring countries. Therapy compliance is adequate and international consensuses regarding therapy are met. PKU patients in Iceland are generally in good health. Screening is efficient and save. BH4 therapy is a an optional alternative therapy in Iceland.

  12. Iceland country update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmason, G.; Gudmundsson, A.


    This paper provides information on geothermal energy utilization in Iceland. Topics include: the present and planned production of electricity in Iceland, from all primary sources, the present and planned utilization of geothermal energy for electricity generation, the use of geothermal energy in all public district heating systems, high temperature geothermal localities, high-temperature wells drilled for electrical utilization and wells drilled for the combined use for district heating and power production, and wells drilled for direct use

  13. Latin Hagiography in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensson, Gottskálk


    I. INTRODUCTION A. Latin literacy in Iceland and the cult of saints B. Icelandic quasi-hagiography and the Christian monarchs of Norway II. THE ICELANDIC SAINTS AND THEIR LATIN TEXTS A. S. Thorlacus Scalotensis episcopus. – 1. The texts: the Latin hagiography about St Þorlákur. – 2. The historical...

  14. The Language Situation in Iceland (United States)

    Hilmarsson-Dunn, Amanda; Kristinsson, Ari Pall


    Purist language policies in Iceland have preserved and modernized Icelandic up until the present time. However, the impact of globalization and global English has led to the perception that the language is less secure than in the past and has prompted efforts by policy makers towards greater protection of Icelandic. This monograph presents the…

  15. The Icelandic ITQ System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sofie; Hegland, Troels Jacob; Oddsson, Geir


    volume of landings is constituted by pelagic species. Cod, which is mainly caught in the Icelanders’ own exclusive economic zone, is the economically most important fish. The aim of this chapter is to evaluate the Icelandic individual transferable quota shares system with its management innovations, e.......g. harvest control rule for cod, cod equivalents, temporary closed areas, community quotas and features for regulation of quota concentration. The evaluation considers four possible fisheries management objectives, namely biological robustness, cost-effectiveness of management, economic efficiency......ABSTRACT: The fisheries sector is tremendously important for Iceland: the export of fish products accounts for a large part of the value of exported goods. Fisheries policy in Iceland is, consequently, of national importance to a degree that is not comparable to any of the EU member states...

  16. Cultural Policy in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur


    The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...... institutions and relying heavily on civic society enterprise. After national independence in 1918 there are growing conflicts in the cultural field and during the Cold War such conflicts take the form of an alliance of nationlism and socialism against NATO-oriented anti-communism. However, there is consensus...... on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation....

  17. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland. (United States)

    Ívarsson, Ómar


    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  18. Field Comparisons of Three Biomarker Detection Methods in Icelandic Mars Analogue Environments (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Jacobsen, M.; Murusekan, G.; Schwieterman, E.; Stevens, A.; Stockton, A.; Yin, C.; Cullen, D.; Geppert, W.


    The ability to estimate the spatial and temporal distributions of biomarkers has been identified as a key need for planning life detection strategies. In a typical planetary exploration scenario, sampling site selection will be informed only by remote sensing data; however, if a difference of a few tens of meters, or centimeters, makes a significant difference in the results, science objectives may not be met. We conducted an analogue planetary expedition to test the correlation of three common biomarker detection methods -- cell counts through fluorescence microscopy, ATP quantification, and quantitative PCR with universal primer sets (bacteria, archaea, and fungi) -- and their spatial scale representativeness. Sampling sites in recent Icelandic lava fields (Fimmvörđuháls and Eldfell) spanned four nested spatial scales: 1 m, 10 m, 100 m, and > 1 km. Each site was homogeneous at typical 'remote sampling' resolution (overall temperature, apparent moisture content, and regolith grain size). No correlation between cell counts and either ATP or qPCR data was significant at any distance scale; ATP quantification and the archaeal and fungal qPCR data showed a marginal negative correlation at the 1 m level. Visible cell count data was statistically site-dependent for sites 10 m and 100 m apart, but not for sites > 1 km apart, whereas ATP results and qPCR data showed site dependence at all four scales. Distance had no significant effect on variability in cell counts and qPCR data, but was positively correlated with ATP variability. These results highlight the difficulty of choosing a 'good' biomarker: not only may different methods yield conflicting results, but they may also be differentially representative of the overall area. We intend to expand on this work with a follow-up campaign using comprehensive assays of physicochemical site properties to better distinguish between effects of environmental variability and intrinsic biomarker variability.

  19. MABEL Iceland 2012 Flight Report (United States)

    Cook, William B.; Brunt, Kelly M.; De Marco, Eugenia L.; Reed, Daniel L.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Markus, Thorsten


    In March and April 2012, NASA conducted an airborne lidar campaign based out of Keflavik, Iceland, in support of Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) algorithm development. The survey targeted the Greenland Ice Sheet, Iceland ice caps, and sea ice in the Arctic Ocean during the winter season. Ultimately, the mission, MABEL Iceland 2012, including checkout and transit flights, conducted 14 science flights, for a total of over 80 flight hours over glaciers, icefields, and sea ice.

  20. Onychomycosis in Icelandic children. (United States)

    Sigurgeirsson, B; Kristinsson, K G; Jonasson, P S


    Onychomycosis is a rare disorder in children. Few studies exist on the incidence or prevalence of onychomycosis in children. To examine the epidemiology of childhood onychomycosis in Iceland during the period 1982-2000. Results from all mycological samples taken from children in Iceland from 1982 to 2000 were examined. Information about the requesting physician, unique social security number, date of birth, sex, results of culture and microscopy were registered. Growth of a dermatophyte was taken as an indication of a case of onychomycosis. During the period 1982-2000 a total of 493 samples from 408 Icelandic children, aged 0-17 years, were examined. Dermatophytes were cultured from 148 (30.0%) samples. During the period 1982-85, the mean annual incidence of positive cultures was 1.65 per 100,000, increasing to 21.30 per 100,000 for the years 1996-2000. Trichophyton rubrum was the dominating organism and was found in 102/148 cases positive for the growth of a dermatophyte. The incidence of positive dermatophyte cultures increased with age and was found in eight children aged 0-4, and in 57 children aged 10-14 years. Onychomycosis is rare in children, but increases with age. It seems that onychomycosis increased during the study period, but it is not clear if this was due to a true increase in the prevalence of onychomycosis or an increased awareness of onychomycosis, or both.

  1. Collapsing volcanoes (United States)

    Francis, Peter; Self, Stephen


    A series of studies has been conducted which examined Landsat images of volcanoes in the central Andes in order to identify previously unknown avalanche deposits, with attention to the Socompa volcano in Chile. The occasional, massive collapse of an unstable volcanic cone may be seen as a normal event in the life cycle of a volcano; this is especially true in the case of large 'stratovolcanoes', of which there are many hundreds in the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific rim. Stratovolcanoes are susceptible to collapse because of their association with subduction zones. Three kinds of collapse can be distinguished among stratovolcanoes.

  2. Aeolian Environments of Iceland (United States)

    Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson Waldhauserová, Pavla


    Iceland has the largest area of volcaniclastic sandy desert on Earth or 22,000 km2. The sand has been mostly produced by glacio-fluvial processes, leaving behind fine-grained unstable sediments which are later re-distributed by repeated aeolian events. Volcanic eruptions add to this pool of unstable sediments, often from subglacial eruptions. Icelandic desert surfaces are divided into sand fields, sandy lavas and sandy lag gravel, each with separate aeolian surface characteristics such as threshold velocities. Storms are frequent due to Iceland's location on the North Atlantic Storm track. Dry winds occur on the leeward sides of mountains and glaciers, in spite of the high moisture content of the Atlantic cyclones. Surface winds often move hundreds to more than 1000 kg m-1 per annum, and more than 10,000 kg m-1 have been measured in a single storm. Desertification occurs when aeolian processes push sand fronts and have thus destroyed many previously fully vegetated ecosystems since the time of the settlement of Iceland in the late ninth century. There are about 135 dust events per annum, ranging from minor storms to >300,000 t of dust emitted in single storms. Dust can be generated from all the major sandy areas of Iceland; however the amount of finer particles that become dust varies with the surfaces. There are areas that produce more dust by far compared to the general sandy deserts; they have therefore been termed "dust plume areas" or "dust hot-spots". They are characterized by repeated charging of fine sediments with a relatively high proportion of finer (silty) materials which, upon repeated wind erosion become sorted downwind from the sources with loss of silt (dust) and an increasing saltation component (sand). Dust production is on the order of 30-40 million tons annually, some travelling over 1000 km and deposited on land and sea. Dust deposited on deserts tends to be re-suspended during subsequent storms. High PM10 concentrations occur during major dust

  3. Iceland: a postcolonial literary landscape?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Liet, H.; Kroonen, G.; Langbroek, E.; Perridon, H.; Roeleveld, A.


    How does Iceland appear in postcolonial literary texts by writers from Denmark, the former colonial power? Three texts from modern Danish literature were chosen, with Iceland as their main theme and based on first hand knowledge of the country gathered through sojourns and travels by the authors:

  4. Morphometry of terrestrial shield volcanoes (United States)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu


    Shield volcanoes are described as low-angle edifices built primarily by the accumulation of successive lava flows. This generic view of shield volcano morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (Hawaii, Galápagos). Here, the morphometry of 158 monogenetic and polygenetic shield volcanoes is analyzed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution SRTM DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 24 lava-dominated 'shield-like' volcanoes, considered so far as stratovolcanoes, are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes from 0.1 to > 1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width (H/WB) ratios mostly from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients (average slopes mostly from 1° to 15°), elongation and summit truncation. Although there is no clear-cut morphometric difference between shield volcanoes and stratovolcanoes, an approximate threshold can be drawn at 12° average slope and 0.10 H/WB ratio. Principal component analysis of the obtained database enables to identify four key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Hierarchical cluster analysis of these descriptors results in 12 end-member shield types, with intermediate cases defining a continuum of morphologies. The shield types can be linked in terms of growth stages and shape evolution, related to (1) magma composition and rheology, effusion rate and lava/pyroclast ratio, which will condition edifice steepness; (2) spatial distribution of vents, in turn related to the magmatic feeding system and the tectonic framework, which will control edifice plan shape; and (3) caldera formation, which will condition edifice truncation.

  5. Assessment of the potential respiratory hazard of volcanic ash from future Icelandic eruptions: A study of archived basaltic to rhyolitic ash samples (United States)

    Damby, David; Horwell, Claire J.; Larsen, Gudrun; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Donaldson, Ken


    BackgroundThe eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011), Iceland, triggered immediate, international consideration of the respiratory health hazard of inhaling volcanic ash, and prompted the need to estimate the potential hazard posed by future eruptions of Iceland’s volcanoes to Icelandic and Northern European populations. MethodsA physicochemical characterization and toxicological assessment was conducted on a suite of archived ash samples spanning the spectrum of past eruptions (basaltic to rhyolitic magmatic composition) of Icelandic volcanoes following a protocol specifically designed by the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network. ResultsIcelandic ash can be of a respirable size (up to 11.3 vol.% ambient PM concentrations. This particularly applies to highly explosive silicic eruptions, but can also hold true for explosive basaltic eruptions or discrete events associated with basaltic fissure eruptions.

  6. Moral panic in Icelandic society: Arrival of ecstasy to Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónas Orri Jónasson


    Full Text Available The use of illegal drugs has often been shown to ignite fear and insecurity in society. When a new drug appears the media typically reports on this drug and the risk it poses. Soon after ecstasy appeared in Iceland in the 1990s its use created a major public uproar and insecurity in Icelandic society. In the article the theory of moral panic will be used to examine if the arrival of ecstasy to Iceland ignited a moral panic. Media reports on ecstasy, public reactions, interest groups and government institutions will be analysed. Discourse analysis is employed on newspaper reporting on ecstasy between 1985 and 1997 to detect signs of moral panic. The main conclusion is that evidence suggests that a moral panic existed in Iceland as described in well-known theories on the subject.

  7. Klyuchevskaya Volcano (United States)


    The Klyuchevskaya Volcano on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula continued its ongoing activity by releasing another plume on May 24, 2007. The same day, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image, at 01:00 UTC. In this image, a hotspot marks the volcano's summit. Outlined in red, the hotspot indicates where MODIS detected unusually warm surface temperatures. Blowing southward from the summit is the plume, which casts its shadow on the clouds below. Near the summit, the plume appears gray, and it lightens toward the south. With an altitude of 4,835 meters (15,863 feet), Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) is both the highest and most active volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula. As part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Klyuchevskaya is estimated to have experienced more than 100 flank eruptions in the past 3,000 years. Since its formation 6,000 years ago, the volcano has seen few periods of inactivity. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC. The Rapid Response Team provides daily images of this region.

  8. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale


    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  9. Plume-driven plumbing and crustal formation in Iceland (United States)

    Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Vogfjord, K.; Nettles, M.; Ekstrom, G.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Foulger, G.R.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Julian, B.R.; Pritchard, M.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.


    Through combination of surface wave and body wave constraints we derive a three-dimensional (3-D) crustal S velocity model and Moho map for Iceland. It reveals a vast plumbing system feeding mantle plume melt into upper crustal magma chambers where crustal formation takes place. The method is based on the partitioned waveform inversion to which we add additional observations. Love waves from six local events recorded on the HOTSPOT-SIL networks are fitted, Sn travel times from the same events measured, previous observations of crustal thickness are added, and all three sets of constraints simultaneously inverted for our 3-D model. In the upper crust (0-15 km) an elongated low-velocity region extends along the length of the Northern, Eastern and Western Neovolcanic Zones. The lowest velocities (-7%) are found at 5-10 km below the two most active volcanic complexes: Hekla and Bardarbunga-Grimsvotn. In the lower crust (>15 km) the low-velocity region can be represented as a vertical cylinder beneath central Iceland. The low-velocity structure is interpreted as the thermal halo of pipe work which connects the region of melt generation in the uppermost mantle beneath central Iceland to active volcanoes along the neovolcanic zones. Crustal thickness in Iceland varies from 15-20 km beneath the Reykjanes Peninsula, Krafla and the extinct Snfellsnes rift zone, to 46 km beneath central Iceland. The average crustal thickness is 29 km. The variations in thickness can be explained in terms of the temporal variation in plume productivity over the last ~20 Myr, the Snfellsnes rift zone being active during a minimum in plume productivity. Variations in crustal thickness do not depart significantly from an isostatically predicted crustal thickness. The best fit linear isostatic relation implies an average density jump of 4% across the Moho. Rare earth element inversions of basalt compositions on Iceland suggest a melt thickness (i.e., crustal thickness) of 15-20 km, given passive

  10. Iceland's Language Technology: Policy versus Practice (United States)

    Hilmarsson-Dunn, Amanda M.; Kristinsson, Ari P.


    Iceland's language policies are purist and protectionist, aiming to maintain the grammatical system and basic vocabulary of Icelandic as it has been for a thousand years and to keep the language free of foreign (English) borrowings. In order to use Icelandic in the domain of information technology, there has been a major investment in language…

  11. Amphipod family distributions around Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Brix


    Full Text Available Amphipod crustaceans were collected at all 55 stations sampled with an epibenthic sledge during two IceAGE expeditions (Icelandic marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology in 2011 and 2013. In total, 34 amphipod families and three superfamilies were recorded in the samples. Distribution maps are presented for each taxon along with a summary of the regional taxonomy for the group. Statistical analyses based on presence/absence data revealed a pattern of family distributions that correlated with sampling depth. Clustering according to the geographic location of the stations (northernmost North Atlantic Sea and Arctic Ocean can also be observed. IceAGE data for the Amphilochidae and Oedicerotidae were analysed on species level; in case of the Amphilochidae they were compared to the findings from a previous Icelandic benthic survey, BIOICE (Benthic Invertebrates of Icelandic waters, which also identified a high abundance of amphipod fauna.

  12. Global Volcano Model (United States)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.


    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  13. Hydrogeology of the Krafla geothermal system, northeast Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Bird, D. K.; Arnórsson, S.


    The Krafla geothermal system is located in Iceland's northeastern neovolcanic zone, within the Krafla central volcanic complex. Geothermal fluids are superheated steam closest to the magma heat source, two-phase at higher depths, and sub-boiling at the shallowest depths. Hydrogen isotope ratios...... of geothermal fluids range from -87‰, equivalent to local meteoric water, to -94‰. These fluids are enriched in 18O relative to the global meteoric line by +0.5-3.2‰. Calculated vapor fractions of the fluids are 0.0-0.5 wt% (~0-16% by volume) in the northwestern portion of the geothermal system and increase...... the benefits of combining phase segregation effects in two-phase systems during analysis of wellhead fluid data with stable isotope values of hydrous alteration minerals when evaluating the complex hydrogeology of volcano-hosted geothermal systems....

  14. [Tuberculosis in Iceland. 1976]. (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur


    ray examination was made in all cases where tuberculin examination had not been made or was incomplete. The negative reactors were not X rayed. The tuberculin tests were percutaneous, cutaneous and intracutaneous. The X ray examination during the first years was performed by means of fluoroscopy and roentgenograms were made in all doubtful cases. In 1945 when the survey of the capital city of Reykjavík was made and comprised a total of 43,595 persons photoroentgenograms were made. After 1948 only this method together with tuberculin testing was used in all the larger towns in the country. During the period 1940-1945 such surveys were carried out in 12 medical districts, or parts thereof and included 58,837 persons or 47 percent of the entire population. The attendance in these surveys ranged from 89.3 percent to 100 percent of those considered able to attend. In the capital city, Reykjavík, the attendance was 99.32 percent. The course and prevalence of tuberculosis in Iceland from 1911 to 1970 are traced on the basis of tuberculosis reporting registers, mortality records which were ordered by law in 1911, tuberculin surveys and post mortem examinations. The deficiencies of these sources are pointed out. Since 1939 the morbidity rates are accurate. The number of reported cases of tuberculosis increases steadily up to the year 1935, when 1.6 percent of the population is reported to have active tuberculosis at the end of that year. Thereafter it begins to decline gradually the first years but abruptly in 1939, then without doubt because of the revision of the tuberculosis legislation and more exact reporting regulations. After that year the fall is almost constant with rather small fluctuations as regards new cases, relapses and total number of reported cases remaining on register at the end of each year. In 1950 the new cases are down to 1.6 per thousand and at the end of the year the rate for those remaining on register is 6.9 per thousand. In the year 1954 there is

  15. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson E


    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  16. Iceland’s Financial Crisis (United States)


    which relies heavily on trade, a sharp depreciation in its currency increases the costs of its imports and adds to domestic inflationary pressures... finance debts in the interbank market. In addition, Iceland’s Landsbanki and Kaupthing Bank experienced a sharp rise in the cost of private deposit...The takeover of the banks was orchestrated in an attempt to quell a sharp depreciation in the exchange value of the Icelandic krona. The krona

  17. Global Volcano Locations Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  18. Quantifying Variability and Correlation in Biomarker and Mineralogical Measurements: Lessons from Five Astrobiological Mars Analogue Expeditions in Iceland (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Duca, Z. A.; Jacobsen, M. B.; Kirby, J.; McCaig, H. C.; Murukesan, G.; Rader, E.; Cullen, T.; Rennie, V.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Stevens, A. H.; Sutton, S. A.; Tan, G.; Yin, C.; Cullen, D.; Geppert, W.; Stockton, A. M.


    Studies in planetary analogue sites correlating remote imagery, mineralogy, and biomarker assay results help predict biomarker distribution and preservation. The FELDSPAR team has conducted five expeditions (2012-2017) to Icelandic Mars analogue sites with an increasingly refined battery of physicochemical measurements and biomarker assays. Two additional expeditions are planned; here we report intermediate results.The biomarker assays performed represent a diversity of potential biomarker types: ATP, cell counts, qPCR with domain-level primers, and DNA content. Mineralogical, chemical, and physical measurements and observations include temperature, pH, moisture content, and Raman, near-IR reflectance, and X-ray fluorescence spectra. Sites are geologically recent basaltic lava flows (Fimmvörðuháls, Eldfell, Holuhraun) and barren basaltic sand plains (Mælifellssandur, Dyngjusandur). All samples were 'homogeneous' at the 1 m to 1 km scale in apparent color, morphology, and grain size.[1]Sample locations were arranged in hierarchically nested grids at 10 cm, 1 m, 10 m, 100 m, and >1 km scales. Several measures of spatial distribution and variability were derived: unbiased sample variance, F- and pairwise t-tests with Bonferroni correction, and the non-parametric H- and u-tests. All assay results, including preliminary mineralogical information in the form of notable spectral bands, were then tested for correlation using the non-parametric Spearman's rank test.[2] For Fimmvörðuháls, four years of data were also examined for temporal trends.Biomarker quantification (other than cell count) was generally well correlated, although all assays showed notable variability even at the smallest examined spatial scale. Pairwise comparisons proved to be the most intuitive measure of variability; non-parametric characterization indicated trends at the >100 m scale, but required more replicates than were feasible at smaller scales. Future work will integrate additional

  19. Origin and population structure of the Icelanders. (United States)

    Williams, J T


    The Norse and Celtic contributions to the founding population of Iceland have been estimated previously on a pan-Icelandic basis using gene frequency data for the entire island. Accounts of the settlement of Iceland, however, suggest that different regions received different proportions of Norse and Celtic settlers, indicating the need to incorporate geographic variation into Icelandic admixture studies. A formal likelihood ratio test rejects the null hypothesis of regional homogeneity in admixture proportions. Here, regional admixture estimates for Iceland are reported; they are in agreement with the settlement pattern inferred from historical accounts. The western, northern, and southern regions of Iceland exhibit a moderate Celtic component, consistent with historical indications that these regions were settled by Norse Vikings from the British Isles, accompanied by Celtic wives and slaves. Eastern Iceland, believed to have been settled chiefly by Vikings from Scandinavia, is characterized by a large Norse component of admixture. The northwestern peninsula is also found to be predominantly Norse. Regional genetic data are used to elucidate the contemporary population structure of Iceland. The observed structure correlates well with patterns of Icelandic geography, history, economy, marriage, urbanization, and internal migration. The northeastern region is strongly isolated, the urbanized areas of the north and southwest are representative of the overall population, and the remaining regions exhibit small-scale variation about the genetic central tendency. A high level of genetic homogeneity is indicated (RST = 0.0005), consistent with the high internal migration rate of the Icelanders. A regression of mean per-locus heterozygosity on distance from the gene frequency centroid reveals a greater than average external gene flow into the eastern region, whereas the northwestern peninsula has received less than average external gene flow. Iceland is compared with

  20. Volcano seismology (United States)

    Chouet, B.


    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  1. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.


    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  2. Epidemiology of Primary Immunodeficiency in Iceland. (United States)

    Ludviksson, Bjorn R; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T; Johannsson, Johann Heidar; Haraldsson, Asgeir; Hardarson, Thorgeir O


    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are rare heterogeneous diseases. Little is known about the prevalence of PID in Iceland and no national registry exists. The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology of PID in Iceland. Using The European Society's for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) criteria for PID, information about individuals with a known PID between 1990 and 2010 in Iceland were collected from inpatient registries of the National University Hospital of Iceland, the Department of Immunology and from clinical immunologists. Selective IgA deficiency, mannan binding lectin deficiency and secondary immunodeficiencies were excluded Sixty six individuals met the study criteria, 35 of them (53%) were females. Four patients died during the study period from PID- or treatment related complications and two moved abroad. In the beginning of 2011 there were 60 individuals living in Iceland with a known PID diagnosis meeting ESID's criteria. Estimated prevalence for PID in the Icelandic population of 318.452 habitants was 18.8 for 100.000 inhabitants. Predominantly antibody disorders comprised the largest category of PID in Iceland. The prevalence of PID is high in Iceland compared to reports from other nations. Our patient data are easily accessible and a central laboratory measures the immune parameters. This high prevalence may indicate that PID is more common than generally recognized.

  3. Holocene marine tephrochronology on the Iceland shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guomundsdottir, Esther Ruth; Eiriksson, Jón; Larsen, Guorun


    Currently the Late-glacial and Holocene marine tephrochronology on the shelf around Iceland comprises 130 tephra layers from 30 sediment cores ranging in age from 15,000 years cal. BP to AD 1947. A vast majority of the cores and tephra layers are from the North Iceland shelf Much fewer tephra...... layers have been found on the South and West Iceland shell The early Holocene Saksunarvatn ash and Vedde Ash are the only tephra layers identified on all investigated shelf areas. For the last 15,000 years correlated tephra layers from the shelf sediments around Iceland to their terrestrial counterparts...... both in Iceland and overseas are 40 of which 26 are terrestrially dated tephra markers. Thirty correlations are within the last 7050 years. The terrestrially dated tephra markers found on the shelf have been used to constrain past environmental variability in the region, as well as marine reservoir age...

  4. Iceland's Economic Eruption and Meltdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsson, Ulf; Torfason, Bjarni K.


    background that lead to an initially flourishing banking sector. In doing so, the paper elaborates on the economic oversights that were made during the financial build-up of the country and how such mistakes contributed to the crash. The focus is thus on identifying the main factors that contributed...... that any fast growing market may be exposed to. It concludes that the economic collapse was primarily home-brewed and a consequence of an unbound, risk-seeking banking sector and ineffective (or non-existent) actions of the Icelandic authorities....

  5. Antarctic volcanoes: A remote but significant hazard (United States)

    Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Alex; Folch, Arnau; Giralt, Santiago


    Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions can be dispersed over massive areas of the globe, posing a threat to both human health and infrastructures, such as the air traffic. Some of the last eruptions occurred during this decade (e.g. 14/04/2010 - Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland; 24/05/2011-Grímsvötn, Iceland; 05/06/2011-Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile) have strongly affected the air traffic in different areas of the world, leading to economic losses of billions of euros. From the tens of volcanoes located in Antarctica, at least nine are known to be active and five of them have reported volcanic activity in historical times. However, until now, no attention has been paid to the possible social, economical and environmental consequences of an eruption that would occur on high southern latitudes, perhaps because it is considered that its impacts would be minor or local, and mainly restricted to the practically inhabited Antarctic continent. We show here, as a case study and using climate models, how volcanic ash emitted during a regular eruption of one of the most active volcanoes in Antarctica, Deception Island (South Shetland Islands), could reach the African continent as well as Australia and South America. The volcanic cloud could strongly affect the air traffic not only in the region and at high southern latitudes, but also the flights connecting Africa, South America and Oceania. Results obtained are crucial to understand the patterns of volcanic ash distribution at high southern latitudes with obvious implications for tephrostratigraphical and chronological studies that provide valuable isochrones with which to synchronize palaeoclimate records. This research was partially funded by the MINECO grants VOLCLIMA (CGL2015-72629-EXP)and POSVOLDEC(CTM2016-79617-P)(AEI/FEDER, UE), the Ramón y Cajal research program (RYC-2012-11024) and the NEMOH European project (REA grant 34 agreement n° 289976).

  6. Self Censorship among Icelandic Journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Guðmundsson


    Full Text Available The discussion on media self-censorship has flourished in Iceland after the attacks on the Charlie Hebdo editorial offices in January 2015 and after some dramatic changes in the top management and owner-groups of some of the media firms. But what is this experience that journalists describe as self censorship? This paper attempts to answer two main research questions. On the one hand the question how journalists understand the concept of selfcensorship. On the other hand the question: what is the experience of Icelandic journalist of self-censorship? The approach is the one of a qualitative research and is based on interviews with six experienced journalists. The main findings suggest important influence of the social discourse on news and news values of journalists and their tendency for self-censorship. This discourse is partly directed by politicians and influential bloggers and also by a massive discussion by active social media users. Furthermore the findings suggest, that ownership and the location of the particular medium where a journalist works in the lineup of different commercial-political blocks in the media market, is important for self-censorship. Finally it seems that journalists understand the concept selfcensorship in a different manner and that it is important to define the term carefully if it is to be used as an analytical tool.

  7. Deep Drilling into a Mantle Plume Volcano: The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Thomas


    Full Text Available Oceanic volcanoes formed by mantle plumes, such as those of Hawaii and Iceland, strongly influence our views about the deep Earth (Morgan, 1971; Sleep, 2006. These volcanoes are the principal geochemical probe into the deep mantle, a testing ground for understanding mantle convection, plate tectonics and volcanism, and an archive of information on Earth’s magnetic field and lithospheredynamics. Study of the petrology, geochemistry, and structure of oceanic volcanoes has contributed immensely to our present understanding of deep Earth processes, but virtually all of this study has been concentrated on rocks available at the surface. In favorable circumstances, surface exposures penetrate to a depth of a few hundred meters, which is a small fraction of the 10- to 15-kilometer height of Hawaiian volcanoes above the depressed seafloor (Moore, 1987; Watts, 2001.

  8. Magma reflection imaging in Krafla, Iceland, using microearthquake sources (United States)

    Kim, Doyeon; Brown, Larry D.; Árnason, Knútur; Águstsson, Kristján.; Blanck, Hanna


    The details of magma plumbing beneath active volcanoes remain a major challenge in geochemistry, geophysics, and volcanic hazard evaluation. Here we apply a relatively novel variation of seismic interferometry, which we call Virtual Reflection Seismic Profiling, to produce a high-resolution image of a known crustal magma body. The technique takes advantage of recent advances in both seismic instrumentation (dense arrays) and seismic analysis (seismic interferometry). We have applied this technique to data recently acquired at an iconic volcanic system, Krafla, which lies on the mid-Atlantic ridge as exposed in northern Iceland. What make this particular site exceptional are encounters with rhyolitic magma in two drill holes, K-39 and Iceland Deep Drilling Project-1 (IDDP-1). These known magma bodies represent a unique calibration opportunity for surface geophysical measurements of magma distribution at depth. In this study, we produced a stacked, seismic reflection section by applying common depth point processing techniques to virtual shot gathers derived from interferometry of P waves from microearthquakes generated by tectonic, magmatic, and/or geothermal activity. We observe a strong, coherent reflection on the seismic section at a travel time corresponding to the depth at which magma was encountered in the IDDP-1 wellbore. We interpret this reflection to be from magma or magma-related fluids. Additional coherent reflections may correspond to other components of the magma plumbing beneath Krafla. These results represent a promising new technique for structural imaging with natural sources that can be applied to a wide array of geologic and energy problems that involve natural or induced seismic clusters.

  9. Microbial diversity on Icelandic glaciers and ice caps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eLutz


    Full Text Available Algae are important primary colonizers of snow and glacial ice, but hitherto little is known about their ecology on Iceland’s glaciers and ice caps. Due do the close proximity of active volcanoes delivering large amounts of ash and dust, they are special ecosystems. This study provides the first investigation of the presence and diversity of microbial communities on all major Icelandic glaciers and ice caps over a three year period. Using high-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 18S, we assessed the snow community structure and complemented these analyses with a comprehensive suite of physical-, geo- and biochemical characterizations of the aqueous and solid components contained in snow and ice samples. Our data reveal that a limited number of snow algal taxa (Chloromonas polyptera, Raphidonema sempervirens and two uncultured Chlamydomonadaceae support a rich community comprising of other micro-eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacterial phyla. Archaea were also detected in sites where snow algae dominated and they mainly belong to the Nitrososphaerales, which are known as important ammonia oxidizers. Multivariate analyses indicated no relationships between nutrient data and microbial community structure. However, the aqueous geochemical simulations suggest that the microbial communities were not nutrient limited because of the equilibrium of snow with the nutrient-rich and fast dissolving volcanic ash. Increasing algal secondary carotenoid contents in the last stages of the melt seasons have previously been associated with a decrease in surface albedo, which in turn could potentially have an impact on the melt rates of Icelandic glaciers.

  10. Laryngeal Chondritis in Sheep in Iceland. (United States)

    Sigurðardóttir, Ó G; Jörundsson, E; Friðriksdóttir, V


    Laryngeal chondritis is a chronic disease in sheep with low morbidity, high mortality and unresolved pathogenesis. The disease has been recognized recently in Iceland and affects both ewes and rams. Animals of different ages are affected, but lambs and yearlings predominate. The disease is seen in housed animals and most cases occur during the late winter months. We report the gross and microscopical findings in 45 cases of laryngeal chondritis in Icelandic sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Individualistic Vikings: Culture, Economics and Iceland


    Már Wolfgang Mixa; Vlad Vaiman


    Icelandic culture has generally been considered to share many similarities to the Nordic cultures. However, the financial crisis in 2008 painted a completely different picture, with the Nordic nations faring much less worse than Iceland, which saw its banking system becoming almost entirely worthless. Looking at traditional cultural yardsticks in the vein of the most commonly used research in the field of business and organizational management, generally linked to Hofstede´s dimensional studi...

  12. Volcano infrasound: A review (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Bruce; Ripepe, Maurizio


    Exploding volcanoes, which produce intense infrasound, are reminiscent of the veritable explosion of volcano infrasound papers published during the last decade. Volcano infrasound is effective for tracking and quantifying eruptive phenomena because it corresponds to activity occurring near and around the volcanic vent, as opposed to seismic signals, which are generated by both surface and internal volcanic processes. As with seismology, infrasound can be recorded remotely, during inclement weather, or in the dark to provide a continuous record of a volcano's unrest. Moreover, it can also be exploited at regional or global distances, where seismic monitoring has limited efficacy. This paper provides a literature overview of the current state of the field and summarizes applications of infrasound as a tool for better understanding volcanic activity. Many infrasound studies have focused on integration with other geophysical data, including seismic, thermal, electromagnetic radiation, and gas spectroscopy and they have generally improved our understanding of eruption dynamics. Other work has incorporated infrasound into volcano surveillance to enhance capabilities for monitoring hazardous volcanoes and reducing risk. This paper aims to provide an overview of volcano airwave studies (from analog microbarometer to modern pressure transducer) and summarizes how infrasound is currently used to infer eruption dynamics. It also outlines the relative merits of local and regional infrasound surveillance, highlights differences between array and network sensor topologies, and concludes with mention of sensor technologies appropriate for volcano infrasound study.

  13. Visions of Volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Pyle


    Full Text Available The long nineteenth century marked an important transition in the understanding of the nature of combustion and fire, and of volcanoes and the interior of the earth. It was also a period when dramatic eruptions of Vesuvius lit up the night skies of Naples, providing ample opportunities for travellers, natural philosophers, and early geologists to get up close to the glowing lavas of an active volcano. This article explores written and visual representations of volcanoes and volcanic activity during the period, with the particular perspective of writers from the non-volcanic regions of northern Europe. I explore how the language of ‘fire’ was used in both first-hand and fictionalized accounts of peoples’ interactions with volcanoes and experiences of volcanic phenomena, and see how the routine or implicit linkage of ‘fire’ with ‘combustion’ as an explanation for the deep forces at play within and beneath volcanoes slowly changed as the formal scientific study of volcanoes developed. I show how Vesuvius was used as a ‘model’ volcano in science and literature and how, later, following devastating eruptions in Indonesia and the Caribbean, volcanoes took on a new dimension as contemporary agents of death and destruction.

  14. Volcanic Lightning in Eruptions of Sakurajima Volcano (United States)

    Edens, Harald; Thomas, Ronald; Behnke, Sonja; McNutt, Stephen; Smith, Cassandra; Farrell, Alexandra; Van Eaton, Alexa; Cimarelli, Corrado; Cigala, Valeria; Eack, Ken; Aulich, Graydon; Michel, Christopher; Miki, Daisuke; Iguchi, Masato


    In May 2015 a field program was undertaken to study volcanic lightning at the Sakurajima volcano in southern Japan. One of the main goals of the study was to gain a better understanding of small electrical discharges in volcanic eruptions, expanding on our earlier studies of volcanic lightning at Augustine and Redoubt volcanoes in Alaska, USA, and Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland. In typical volcanic eruptions, electrical activity occurs at the onset of an eruption as a near-continual production of VHF emissions at or near to the volcanic vent. These emissions can occur at rates of up to tens of thousands of emissions per second, and are referred to as continuous RF. As the ash cloud expands, small-scale lightning flashes of several hundred meters length begin to occur while the continuous RF ceases. Later on during the eruption larger-scale lightning flashes may occur within the ash cloud that are reminiscent of regular atmospheric lightning. Whereas volcanic lightning flashes are readily observed and reasonably well understood, the nature and morphology of the events producing continuous RF are unknown. During the 2015 field program we deployed a comprehensive set of instrumentation, including a 10-station 3-D Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) that operated in 10 μs high time resolution mode, slow and fast ΔE antennas, a VHF flat-plate antenna operating in the 20-80 MHz band, log-RF waveforms within the 60-66 MHz band, an infra-red video camera, a high-sensitivity Watec video camera, two high-speed video cameras, and still cameras. We give an overview of the Sakurajima field program and present preliminary results using correlated LMA, waveforms, photographs and video recordings of volcanic lightning at Sakurajima volcano.

  15. Public opinion on childhood immunisations in Iceland. (United States)

    Óskarsson, Ýmir; Guðnason, Þórólfur; Jónsdóttir, Guðbjörg A; Kristinsson, Karl G; Briem, Haraldur; Haraldsson, Ásgeir


    In recent years, vaccine preventable diseases such as measles and pertussis have been re-emerging in Western countries, maybe because of decreasing participation in childhood vaccination programs in some countries. There is clear evidence for vaccine efficacy and the risk of adverse effects is low. This needs to be communicated to the general public. The aim of the study was to evaluate the public opinion on childhood vaccinations in Iceland. An internet based study was used to evaluate the opinion on childhood immunisations in Iceland. The cohort was divided in three groups: (a) general public (b) employees of the University Hospital Iceland and (c) employees (teachers and staff) of the University of Iceland. The cohorts could be stratified according to age, gender, education, household income, parenthood and residency. Responses were received from 5584 individuals (53% response rate). When asked about childhood vaccinations in the first and second year of life, approximately 95% of participants were "positive" or "very positive", approximately 1% were "negative" or "very negative". When participants were asked whether they would have their child immunized according to the Icelandic childhood vaccination schedule, 96% were "positive" or "very positive", 1.2% were "negative" or "very negative". Similarly, 92% trust Icelandic Health authorities to decide on childhood vaccination schedule, 2.3% did not. In total, 9.3% "rather" or "strongly" agreed to the statement "I fear that vaccinations can cause severe adverse effects", 17.5% were undecided and 66.9% "disagreed" or "strongly disagreed". Individuals with higher education were more likely to disagree with this statement (OR=1.45, CI95=1.29-1.64, p<0.001) as did males (OR=1.22, CI95=1.087-1.379, p=0.001). This study shows a very positive attitude towards vaccinations raising expectations for an ongoing success in preventing preventable communicable diseases in childhood in Iceland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  16. Developments in Icelandic Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J.K. Bailes


    Full Text Available Iceland has been slow in developing a national security concept, for reasons that include a long period of reliance on US protection post-World War Two, and divided internal views over this defence solution. Since the withdrawal of all US stationed forces in 2006, Iceland’s security partnerships have diversified and attempts have been made to frame security in more multi-functional terms. The Risk Assessment Report of 2009 made important progress in itemizing non-military threats and risks. On this basis, a cross-party parliamentary committee was invited to start work in 2012 on guidelines for a security strategy. Its report, published in March 2014, establishes a large area of consensus on ‘softer’ security issues and on remaining in NATO, with a few dissenting voices on the latter. Its main omission is a proper treatment of economic and financial security, still tied to the divisive issue of EU membership. Meanwhile, Iceland’s recent security experience in 2014 has helped to highlight the reality of both harder and softer security challenges. The government can now proceed to draft a full official security strategy, to be laid before parliament possibly in 2015.

  17. Individualistic Vikings: Culture, Economics and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Már Wolfgang Mixa


    Full Text Available Icelandic culture has generally been considered to share many similarities to the Nordic cultures. However, the financial crisis in 2008 painted a completely different picture, with the Nordic nations faring much less worse than Iceland, which saw its banking system becoming almost entirely worthless. Looking at traditional cultural yardsticks in the vein of the most commonly used research in the field of business and organizational management, generally linked to Hofstede´s dimensional studies, one would at first glance conclude that Icelanders would have behaved in a similar manner as people in the Nordic nations. By focusing on savings ratio, it is shown that Icelanders were much more risk-seeking during the prelude of the crisis. Many nations badly hit during the 2008 financial crisis have a high level of individualism inherent in their culture. Iceland fits this scenario. Thus while general cultural characteristics may lack explanatory power regarding economic behavior of people between cultures, the individual/collective cultural dimension may provide clues of what dangers (and possible strengths lurk within societies from a financial point of view. Such developments may affect the financial stability of nations, especially those with a high level of individualism where financial liberalization with possible abuses is occurring.

  18. Examining Teaching Practices in Design and Craft Education in Iceland (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Olafsson, Brynjar


    This article reports a survey which aimed to examine the present situation in Design and Craft Education (D&C) in Iceland in terms of teachers' general standing and their teaching inside the Icelandic elementary schools. A questionnaire was sent to 170 D&C teachers in Icelandic elementary schools. The questionnaire was completed by 101…

  19. Icelandic: A Lesser-Used Language in the Global Community. (United States)

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.


    States that despite the country's relatively small population and the globalization pressures from the international community, the Icelandic language and culture have remained strong. Reports that Iceland's language policy comes from the government's and official institutions' commitment to the people of Iceland, who are determined to preserve…

  20. What Are Volcano Hazards? (United States)

    ... 000 square miles in the Western United States. Heavy ash fall can collapse buildings, and even minor ash fall can damage crops, electronics, and machinery. Volcanic Gases Volcanoes emit gases during eruptions. Even ...

  1. Psychotropic drug use among Icelandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Baldursson, Gísli; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. METHODS: A nationwide population-based drug use study covering the total pediatric population (ages 0-17) in Iceland. Information was obtained from the National Medicines...... Registry to calculate prevalence of use by year and psychotropic drug group; incidence by year, psychotropic drug group, child's age and sex, and medical specialty of prescriber; the most commonly used psychotropic chemical substances, off-label and unlicensed use and concomitant psychotropic drug use....... RESULTS: The overall prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 48.7 per 1000 Icelandic children in 2007. Stimulants and antidepressants increased in prevalence from 2003 to 2007 and were the two most prevalent psychotropic drug groups, respectively, 28.4 and 23.4 per 1000 children in 2007. A statistically...

  2. Building Information Modelling in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Jóhannesson, Elvar Ingi


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of building information modelling (BIM) in the Nordic countries of Europe with particular focus on the Danish building industry with the aim of making use of its experience for the Icelandic building industry. Design....../methodology/aptroach – The research is based on two separate analyses. In the first part, the deployment of information and communication technology (ICT) in the Icelandic building industry is investigated and compared with the other Nordic countries. In the second part the experience in Denmark from implementing and working...... for making standards and guidelines related to BIM. Public building clients are also encouraged to consider initiating projects based on making simple building models of existing buildings in order to introduce the BIM technology to the industry. Icelandic companies are recommended to start implementing BIM...

  3. Plague and landscape resilience in premodern Iceland. (United States)

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J; Vésteinsson, Orri


    In debates on societal collapse, Iceland occupies a position of precarious survival, defined by not becoming extinct, like Norse Greenland, but having endured, sometimes by the narrowest of margins. Classic decline narratives for late medieval to early modern Iceland stress compounding adversities, where climate, trade, political domination, unsustainable practices, and environmental degradation conspire with epidemics and volcanism to depress the Icelanders and turn the once-proud Vikings and Saga writers into one of Europe's poorest nations. A mainstay of this narrative is the impact of incidental setbacks such as plague and volcanism, which are seen to have compounded and exacerbated underlying structural problems. This research shows that this view is not correct. We present a study of landscape change that uses 15 precisely dated tephra layers spanning the whole 1,200-y period of human settlement in Iceland. These tephras have provided 2,625 horizons of known age within 200 stratigraphic sections to form a high-resolution spatial and temporal record of change. This finding shows short-term (50 y) declines in geomorphological activity after two major plagues in A.D. 15th century, variations that probably mirrored variations in the population. In the longer term, the geomorphological impact of climate changes from the 14th century on is delayed, and landscapes (as well as Icelandic society) exhibit resilience over decade to century timescales. This finding is not a simple consequence of depopulation but a reflection of how Icelandic society responded with a scaling back of their economy, conservation of core functionality, and entrenchment of the established order.

  4. Plague and landscape resilience in premodern Iceland (United States)

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.; Vésteinsson, Orri


    In debates on societal collapse, Iceland occupies a position of precarious survival, defined by not becoming extinct, like Norse Greenland, but having endured, sometimes by the narrowest of margins. Classic decline narratives for late medieval to early modern Iceland stress compounding adversities, where climate, trade, political domination, unsustainable practices, and environmental degradation conspire with epidemics and volcanism to depress the Icelanders and turn the once-proud Vikings and Saga writers into one of Europe's poorest nations. A mainstay of this narrative is the impact of incidental setbacks such as plague and volcanism, which are seen to have compounded and exacerbated underlying structural problems. This research shows that this view is not correct. We present a study of landscape change that uses 15 precisely dated tephra layers spanning the whole 1,200-y period of human settlement in Iceland. These tephras have provided 2,625 horizons of known age within 200 stratigraphic sections to form a high-resolution spatial and temporal record of change. This finding shows short-term (50 y) declines in geomorphological activity after two major plagues in A.D. 15th century, variations that probably mirrored variations in the population. In the longer term, the geomorphological impact of climate changes from the 14th century on is delayed, and landscapes (as well as Icelandic society) exhibit resilience over decade to century timescales. This finding is not a simple consequence of depopulation but a reflection of how Icelandic society responded with a scaling back of their economy, conservation of core functionality, and entrenchment of the established order. PMID:22371601

  5. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland (United States)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik


    While Iceland has an abundant wind energy resource, its use for electrical power production has so far been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated primarily from hydro- and geothermal sources, and adding wind energy has so far not been considered practical or even necessary. However, wind energy is becoming a more viable option, as opportunities for new hydro- or geothermal power installations become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland, a wind atlas has been developed as part of the joint Nordic project 'Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing' (IceWind). Downscaling simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0 - 5.5. In any season, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 - 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 - 1500 W m-2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations of 500 - 1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds is higher by 100 - 700 W m-2 than that of offshore winds. The regions with the highest average wind speeds are impractical for wind farms, due to the distances from road

  6. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  7. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)


    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  8. Cost containment of pharmaceutical use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Morgall, J M; Grímsson, A


    OBJECTIVES: Iceland was the first Nordic country to liberalise its drug distribution system, in March 1996. Subsequent regulation in January 1997 increased patients' share of drug costs. The objectives of this study were to test the assumptions that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership would...... in March 1996 or from the regulatory intervention in January 1997. CONCLUSIONS: The main argument used for liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland was built on false assumptions regarding the effect on drug reimbursement costs to the state. It will be necessary to find more promising...

  9. Nation in a sheep’s coat: The Icelandic sweater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Helgadottir


    Full Text Available The Icelandic sweater is presented and received as being traditional—even ancient—authentically Icelandic and hand made by Icelandic women from the wool of Icelandic sheep. Even so, the sweater type, the so-called ‘Icelandic sweater’ in English, only dates back to the mid-20th century and is not necessarily made in Iceland nor from indigenous wool. Nevertheless, the sweater is a successful invention of a tradition (Hobsbawm & Ranger, 1983, popular among Icelanders and tourists alike since its introduction in the mid-20th century. It has gained ground as a national symbol, particularly in times of crisis for example in the reconstruction of values in the aftermath of the Icelandic bank collapse of 2008. I traced the development of the discourse about wool and the origins of the Icelandic sweater by looking at publications of the Icelandic National Craft Association, current design discourse in Iceland and its effect on the development of the wool industry. I then tied these factors to notions of tradition, authenticity, national culture, image and souvenirs.

  10. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  11. Childhood in early Icelandic society : representations of children in the Icelandic Sagas


    Hansen, Anna


    Drawing especially on the research of the past decade, including works such as Shulamith Shahar’s 'Childhood in the Middle Ages' (1992) and Sally Crawford’s 'Childhood in Anglo-Saxon England' (1999), I have come to the conclusion that representations of children in the Icelandic sagas suggest that the thirteenth century Icelanders acknowledged an early phase of life, childhood, which was distinct from the latter phases of life, adulthood. Unlike Western twentieth century attitudes towards chi...

  12. Energy economy without fossil fuels: Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigfusson, T.I. [Iceland Univ., Reykjavik (Iceland); Iceland New Energy Ltd., Reykjavik (Iceland)


    From the time of the settlement of Iceland in the 9th century AD the use of wood and peat for fuel has put this resource in danger of exhaustion. For over two centuries the Icelandic industrial society has relied heavily on imported fossil fuels, coal, coke and petroleum. The abundant potential of Iceland regarding green power like hydroelectric and geothermal has led to two major changes of energy infrastructure in the past century. This was the introduction of hydroelectricity at the turn of the century and the geothermal space heating of major municipalities in the post World War II period. Today, Iceland is facing a third major energy infrastructure revolution within a hundred years with the advent of hydrogen economy. (orig.) [German] Seit Beginn der Besiedlung Islands im 9. Jahrhundert n. Chr. hat die Nutzung von Holz und Torf als Brennstoff diese Ressourcen nahezu erschoepft. Mehr als zwei Jahrhunderte hat sich die islaendische Industriegesellschaft auf den Import fossiler Brennstoffe wie Kohle, Koks und Erdoel gestuetzt. Die Einfuehrung der Stromerzeugung aus Wasserkraft zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts und die Fernwaermeversorgung der groesseren Gemeinden mit Erdwaerme nach dem 2. Weltkrieg haben das Szenario veraendert. (orig.)

  13. Recent saltmarsh foraminiferal assemblages from Iceland (United States)

    Lübbers, Julia; Schönfeld, Joachim


    This study reports for the first time boreal to subarctic intertidal foraminiferal assemblages from saltmarshes at Borgarnes and Faskrudsfjördur on Iceland. The composition of living and dead foraminiferal assemblages was investigated along transects from the tidal flat to the highest reach of halophytic plants. The foraminiferal assemblages from Borgarnes showed 18 species in the total foraminiferal assemblage of which only 7 species were recorded in the living fauna. The assemblages were dominated by agglutinated taxa, whereas 3 calcareous species were recorded, of which only Haynesina orbicularis was found in the living fauna. The distribution limit of calcifying species corresponds to the lower boundary of the lower saltmarsh vegetation zone. Furthermore, calcareous tests showed many features of dissolution, which is an indication of a carbonate corrosive environment. The species forming the dead assemblages were mainly derived from the ambient intertidal areas and were displaced by tidal currents into the saltmarsh. The foraminiferal assemblages from Faskrudsfjördur showed two species, of which only one species was recorded in the living fauna. The assemblage was dominated by the agglutinated foraminifer Trochaminita irregularis. The foraminiferal species recorded on Iceland were the same as commonly found elsewhere in Europa. Since no species was found which is endemic to North America, Iceland is considered part of the European bio province. The foraminiferal could have been immigrated to Iceland from Europe through warm water currents, migratory birds or marine traffic since the last Ice Age.

  14. Esperanto and Icelandic: Two Contrasting Lexical Systems (United States)

    Gutmans, Theodore


    The article comprises a table listing Esperanto words conveying international concepts, accompained by equivalents in English, French, German, Russian, Hungarian, Hebrew and Icelandic, representing various language groups. The comparison shows that although the world language would opt for international terms, a language making no claims on…

  15. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England (United States)

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna


    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  16. Professional Learning outside the Classroom: Expedition Iceland (United States)

    Jordan, Julie; Bull, Sue


    A bunch of intrepid teachers spent a week in Iceland in a quest to learn more about the country's challenging landscape, by engaging in a unique and inspiring professional development opportunity to learn about innovative ways to teach science and mathematics outside of a classroom setting. A 2008 Ofsted report highlighted the benefits of learning…

  17. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland (United States)

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós


    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  18. Broiler Contamination and Human campylobacteriosis in Iceland (United States)

    To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic briler chicken carcasses and human disease, 1617 isolates from 327 individual product lots were genetically matched (using flaA Short Variable Region) to 289 isol...

  19. Multicultural Education in Iceland: Vision or Reality? (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Elsa Sigriour; Ragnarsdottir, Hanna


    In this paper, the development of educational policy and curricula in relation to the development of a multicultural society in Iceland are critically discussed. Neither policy nor national curriculum guides refer particularly to multicultural society, multicultural or intercultural education. Implementations of equity principles are not clear in…

  20. Physical properties of suspended dust in Iceland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Olafsson, H.; Arnalds, O.; Škrabalová, L.; Sigurdardottir, G.; Braniš, M.; Hladil, Jindřich; Chadimová, Leona; Navrátil, Tomáš; von Lowis of Menar, S.; Thorsteinsson, T.


    Roč. 16, - (2014), s. 8565-8565 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 27.04.2014-02.05.2014, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : dust * volcanology * Iceland

  1. Late Pleistocene geomagnetic excursion in Icelandic lavas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, S.; Audunsson, H.; Duncan, R.A.; Kristjansson, L.; Jakobsson, S.P.


    In 1980 Kristjansson and Gudmundsson reported a late glacial geomagnetic excursion in three hills in the Reykjanes peninsula, Iceland, with shallow negative inclinations and westerly declinations. They named it the Skalamaelifell excursion. More extensive field work has identified the same excursional paleomagnetic direction (declination = 258deg, inclination = -15deg) at four additional outcrops in a 10x10 km area in the Reykjanes peninsula. The excursion lavas are olivine tholeiites with similar petrography and chemical compositions. Paleointensity determinations by the Thellier method average 4.2±0.2 μT for 8 samples, more than an order of magnitude weaker than the present geomagnetic field in Iceland. Together, these results suggest extrusion of the excursion lavas in a very brief span of time, probably less than a few hundred years. K-Ar dating of the excursion lavas gives a mean age for 19 determinations of 42.9±7.8 ka (2σ). Compilation of thirty K-Ar ages of the Laschamp and Olby flows by three laboratories yield a new age for the Laschamp excursion in France of 46.6±2.4 ka (2σ). The age of the excursion in southwestern Iceland is statistically indistinguishable from the Laschamp excursion at the 95% confidence level, and both have very low paleointensities. Therefore, we suggest that the Laschamp and Olby flows in France and the Skalamaelifell units of Iceland recorded essentially the same geomagnetic excursion. Differences in the virtual paleomagnetic poles (VGPs) of these excursions may be due to (1) the probable non-dipole character of the geomagnetic field during the excursion, (2) rapid geomagnetic secular variation and possible small age differences of the extrusive rocks in France and Iceland, and/or (3) crustal magnetic anomalies which might dominate the local geomagnetic field during the excursion at either or both locations. (orig.)

  2. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes (United States)

    Gordon, David W.


    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  3. Long-term variability of dust-storms in Iceland (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Pavla; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Ólafur


    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland are volcanic sandy deserts. Natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect not only regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze") but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean > 1000 km at times. The study places Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long term frequency of dust storm events in NE Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in NE Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the NE erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the NE deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust is not only a substantial source for regional air pollution, but may be considered to contribute to the Arctic haze phenomena and Arctic air pollution.

  4. Automatic seismic event detection using migration and stacking: a performance and parameter study in Hengill, southwest Iceland (United States)

    Wagner, F.; Tryggvason, A.; Roberts, R.; Lund, B.; Gudmundsson, Ó.


    We investigate the performance of a seismic event detection algorithm using migration and stacking of seismic traces. The focus lies on determining optimal data dependent detection parameters for a data set from a temporary network in the volcanically active Hengill area, southwest Iceland. We test variations of the short-term average to long-term average and Kurtosis functions, calculated from filtered seismic traces, as input data. With optimal detection parameters, our algorithm identified 94 per cent (219 events) of the events detected by the South Iceland Lowlands (SIL) system, that is, the automatic system routinely used on Iceland, as well as a further 209 events, previously missed. The assessed number of incorrect (false) detections was 25 per cent for our algorithm, which was considerably better than that from SIL (40 per cent). Empirical tests show that well-functioning processing parameters can be effectively selected based on analysis of small, representative subsections of data. Our migration approach is more computationally expensive than some alternatives, but not prohibitively so, and it appears well suited to analysis of large swarms of low magnitude events with interevent times on the order of seconds. It is, therefore, an attractive, practical tool for monitoring of natural or anthropogenic seismicity related to, for example, volcanoes, drilling or fluid injection.

  5. Tachylyte in Cenozoic basaltic lavas from the Czech Republic and Iceland: contrasting compositional trends (United States)

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Krmíček, Lukáš; Teschner, Claudia; Řanda, Zdeněk; Skála, Roman; Jonášová, Šárka; Fediuk, Ferry; Adamovič, Jiří; Pokorný, Richard


    Tachylytes from rift-related volcanic rocks were recognized as: (i) irregular veinlets in host alkaline lava flows of the Kozákov volcano, Czech Republic, (ii) (sub)angular xenoliths in alkaline lava of the feeding channel of the Bukovec volcano, Czech Republic, and (iii) paleosurface of a tholeiitic lava flow from Hafrafell, Iceland. The tachylyte from Kozákov is phonotephrite to tephriphonolite in composition while that from Bukovec corresponds to trachyandesite to tephriphonolite. Both glass and host rock from Hafrafell are of tholeiitic basalt composition. The tachylyte from Kozákov, compared with the host rock, revealed a substantial enrichment in major elements such as Si, Al and alkalis along with Rb, Sr, Ba, Nb, Zr, REE, Th and U. The tachylyte from Bukovec displays contrasting trends in the incompatible element contents. The similarity in composition of the Hafrafell tachylyte paleosurface layer and parental tholeiitic basalt is characteristic for lavas. The host/parent rocks and tachylytes have similar initial Sr-Nd characteristics testifying for their co-magmatic sources. The initial ɛNd values of host/parent rocks and tachylytes from the Bohemian Massif (+3.4 to +3.9) and those from Iceland (+6.3) are interpreted as primary magma values. Only the tachylyte from Bukovec shows a different ɛNd value of -2.1, corresponding to a xenolith of primarily sedimentary/metamorphic origin. The tachylyte from Kozákov is a product of an additional late magmatic portion of fluids penetrating through an irregular fissure system of basaltic lava. The Bukovec tachylyte is represented by xenoliths originated during the interaction of ascending basaltic melt with granitoids or orthogneisses, whereas the Hafrafell tachylyte is a product of a rapid cooling on the surface of a basalt flow.

  6. Spying on volcanoes (United States)

    Watson, Matthew


    Active volcanoes can be incredibly dangerous, especially to those who live nearby, but how do you get close enough to observe one in action? Matthew Watson explains how artificial drones are providing volcanologists with insights that could one day save human lives

  7. Dimmuborgir: a rootless shield complex in northern Iceland (United States)

    Skelton, Alasdair; Sturkell, Erik; Jakobsson, Martin; Einarsson, Draupnir; Tollefsen, Elin; Orr, Tim R.


    The origin of Dimmuborgir, a shield-like volcanic structure within the Younger Laxá lava flow field near Lake Mývatn, in northern Iceland, has long been questioned. New airborne laser mapping (light detection and ranging (LiDAR)), combined with ground-penetrating radar results and a detailed field study, suggests that Dimmuborgir is a complex of at least two overlapping rootless shields fed by lava erupting from the nearby Lúdentarborgir crater row. This model builds upon previous explanations for the formation of Dimmuborgir and is consistent with observations of rootless shield development at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii. The larger rootless shields at Dimmuborgir, 1–1.5 km in diameter, elliptical in plan view, ∼30 m in height, and each with a 500-m-wide summit depression, were capable of storing as much as 2–3 × 106 m3 of lava. They were fed by lava which descended 30–60 m in lava tubes along a distance of 3 km from the crater row. The height difference generated pressure sufficient to build rootless shields at Dimmuborgir in a timescale of weeks. The main summit depressions, inferred to be drained lava ponds, could have emptied via a 30-m-wide × 5-m-deep channel, with estimated effusion rates of 0.7–7 m3 s−1 and minimum flow durations of 5–50 days. We argue that the pillars for which Dimmuborgir is famed are remnants of lava pond rims, at various stages of disintegration that formed during pond drainage.

  8. Tracing Paths - A Study of Combs from Viking Age ICeland


    Eckhoff, Nicolai Andreas


    The present study is a technological and comparative analysis of combs from Viking Age Iceland. Recent research suggests that it was important for people in the Viking Age that the comb they caried was affiliated with their own culture; hence combs seem to have an inherent ability to portray cultural patterns. Such patterns are difficult to find in Iceland as few artefact studies have been completed in Icelandic archaeology. This thesis focuses on this fact, as the regional variations in the ...

  9. Cost containment of pharmaceutical use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Morgall, J M; Grímsson, A


    OBJECTIVES: Iceland was the first Nordic country to liberalise its drug distribution system, in March 1996. Subsequent regulation in January 1997 increased patients' share of drug costs. The objectives of this study were to test the assumptions that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership would...... reimbursement costs before and after the legislation and regulation took effect. A control variable (the number of office visits to general practitioners) was tested to assess other events in the health care arena. Monthly data on these variables were provided by the Icelandic State Social Security Institute...... for January 1993 to August 1998 for reimbursement costs and to December 1998 for office visits to general practitioners. RESULTS: Reimbursement costs have risen steadily throughout the period under study. The interrupted time series analysis did not show a substantial effect from the legislative change...

  10. Maximizing industrial infrastructure efficiency in Iceland (United States)

    Ingason, Helgi Thor; Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I.


    As a consequence of the increasing aluminum production in Iceland, local processing of aluminum skimmings has become a feasible business opportunity. A recycling plant for this purpose was built in Helguvik on the Reykjanes peninsula in 2003. The case of the recycling plant reflects increased concern regarding environmental aspects of the industry. An interesting characteristic of this plant is the fact that it is run in the same facilities as a large fishmeal production installation. It is operated by the same personnel and uses—partly—the same equipment and infrastructure. This paper reviews the grounds for these decisions and the experience of this merger of a traditional fish melting industry and a more recent aluminum melting industry after 6 years of operation. The paper is written by the original entrepreneurs behind the company, who provide observations on how the aluminum industry in Iceland has evolved since the starting of Alur’s operation and what might be expected in the near future.

  11. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn


    the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D......Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed...... was 26-29%, and assessment of Type D personality was not confounded by severity of underlying coronary artery disease. Regarding risk markers, Type D patients reported more psychopharmacological medication use and smoking, but frequency of previous mental problems was similar across groups. Type D...

  12. Forest diseases and rot fungi in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roll-Hansen, F.; Roll-Hansen, H.


    Fluoride damage near ISAL has been investigated. Armillariella mellea, Chondrostereum purpureum, Coriolus hirsutus, C. zonatus, Cystostereum murraii, Lophodermium pinastri, Phellinus igniarius f. nigricans, Ph. cfr. laevigatus, Polyporous brumalis, P. varius, Potebniamyces coniferarum, Scleroderris lagerbergii, Stereum hirsutum, S. rugosum, S. sanguinolentum, Tyromyces albellus, and the saprophytic Lachnellula willkommii var. hahniana have all been found. Important fungi as Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis annosa, Inonotus obliqus, Lachnellula willkommii var. willkommii, Phacidium infestans, and Piptoporus betulinus have not been found in Iceland.

  13. [Gallbladder carcinoma in Iceland 2004-2013]. (United States)

    Baldvinsdottir, Bryndis; Hauksson, Haraldur; Haraldsdóttir, Kristin Huld


    Gallbladder carcinoma is about 0.5% of all cancer. The outcome of patients with gallbladder carcinoma is overall bad and the only potentially curative treatment is surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the disease's prevalence in Iceland and outcome of the patients diagnosed in the study period. This was a retrospective study of all diagnosed patients with gallbladder carcinoma during the years 2004-2013. A list of patients was obtained from the Icelandic Cancer Registry. Information was gathered from the patient's charts in Landspitali University Hospital and the Hospital in Akureyri. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the results. Median follow-up time was 6 years. Twenty-four patients were diagnosed with gallbladder carci-noma in Iceland during the study period, 16 women and 8 men. Eighteen patients were diagnosed in Landspitali and six in the Hospital in Akureyri. The average age at diagnosis was 73 years. Eighteen patients have died, on average 5 months after the time of diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma was the most common cancer type (n=19). Three patients (3/24, 12.5%) underwent extended operation following the diagnosis of the gallbladder carcinoma. Nine patients (9/24, 37.5%) had advanced disease at the time of diagnosis and died within two months after being diagnosed with gallbladder carcinoma. Gallbladder carcinoma is a rare cancer type in Iceland and has a bad prognosis. One third of the patients had no connection with Landspitali University Hospital following the diagnosis. Extended surgery following the diagnosis was seldom performed. Key words: gallbladder carcinoma, gastrointestinal cancer, adenocarcinoma, extended cholecystectomy. Correspondence: Kristin Huld Haraldsdottir,

  14. Icelandic: A Lesser-Used Language in the Global Community (United States)

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.


    A small nation in the middle of the North Atlantic, Iceland currently has a population of 265,000 (1996). The Iceland language has changed very little since the island was settled some 11 centuries ago. Despite the relatively small number of people who speak the language and irrespective of the globalisation efforts by the international community, which includes the ever-increasing influence of English worldwide, the Icelandic language and culture are stronger than ever. The current volume and variety of publications of Icelandic works in all areas have never been as great. Icelandic is a living and growing language. Growth in vocabulary, in response to recent phenomena like the introduction of new technology, has primarily come about with the development of new words from the language's roots. The near absence of Latin, Greek and, more recently, English or Danish words in Icelandic, is striking. Iceland's language policy is not only a governmental policy. It is a policy that comes from the grassroots with the government and official institutions viewing their job as one of service to the people of Iceland. Icelanders are very proud of their language and are extremely determined to continually develop and preserve it for future generations.

  15. Corporate taxation in Iceland and the international challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnarsdóttir Fjóla


    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the development in the field of corporate tax law in Iceland, from both legal and economic point of view, with a focus on measures taken to protect the tax base and in order to try to make Iceland an attractive place for investment and establishment companies. First, there will be a brief general description of the development of the corporate tax rate in Iceland since 2004 and an overview of new taxes that have been introduced for companies over the past ten years. Second, there will be an analysis of how the Icelandic legal framework provides for incentives for investment and establishment of companies in Iceland. Third, this discussion is to be followed by a section on the steps Iceland has taken in order to combat tax avoidance. Fourth, there is a general description of the economic development for the corporate taxation in Iceland since 1990 and fifth, there is brief discussion of the development of revenues from the corporate tax. Sixth, a short overview of the real investment in the Icelandic economy is given, and finally, the main conclusions of this article will be summed up with a short discussion on the main challenges Iceland is currently facing in the field of corporate taxation in today’s globalised economy.

  16. Forecasting deflation, intrusion and eruption at inflating volcanoes (United States)

    Blake, Stephen; Cortés, Joaquín A.


    A principal goal of volcanology is to successfully forecast the start of volcanic eruptions. This paper introduces a general forecasting method, which relies on a stream of monitoring data and a statistical description of a given threshold criterion for an eruption to start. Specifically we investigate the timing of intrusive and eruptive events at inflating volcanoes. The gradual inflation of the ground surface is a well-known phenomenon at many volcanoes and is attributable to pressurised magma accumulating within a shallow chamber. Inflation usually culminates in a rapid deflation event caused by magma escaping from the chamber to produce a shallow intrusion and, in some cases, a volcanic eruption. We show that the ground elevation during 15 inflation periods at Krafla volcano, Iceland, increased with time towards a limiting value by following a decaying exponential with characteristic timescale τ. The available data for Krafla, Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes show that the duration of inflation (t*) is approximately equal to τ. The distribution of t* / τ values follows a log-logistic distribution in which the central 60% of the data lie between 0.99 deflation event starting during a specified time interval to be estimated. The time window in which there is a specified probability of deflation starting can also be forecast, and forecasts can be updated after each new deformation measurement. The method provides stronger forecasts than one based on the distribution of repose times alone and is transferable to other types of monitoring data and/or other patterns of pre-eruptive unrest.

  17. The passive of reflexive verbs in Icelandic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlíf Árnadóttir


    Full Text Available The Reflexive Passive in Icelandic is reminiscent of the so-called New Passive (or New Impersonal in that the oblique case of a passivized object NP is preserved. As is shown by recent surveys, however, speakers who accept the Reflexive Passive do not necessarily accept the New Passive, whereas conversely, speakers who accept the New Passive do also accept the Reflexive Passive. Based on these results we suggest that there is a hierarchy in the acceptance of passive sentences in Icelandic, termed the Passive Acceptability Hierarchy. The validity of this hierarchy is confirmed by our diachronic corpus study of open access digital library texts from Icelandic journals and newspapers dating from the 19th and 20th centuries (tí Finally, we sketch an analysis of the Reflexive Passive, proposing that the different acceptability rates of the Reflexive and New Passives lie in the argument status of the object. Simplex reflexive pronouns are semantically dependent on the verbs which select them, and should therefore be analyzed as syntactic arguments only, and not as semantic arguments of these verbs.

  18. Pressure sources versus surface loads : Analyzing volcano deformation signal composition with an application to Hekla volcano, Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grapenthin, R.; Ófeigsson, B.G.; Sigmundsson, F.; Sturkell, E.; Hooper, A.J.


    The load of lava emplaced over periods of decades to centuries induces a gradual viscous response of the Earth resulting in measurable deformation. This effect should be considered in source model inversions for volcanic areas with large lava production and flow emplacement in small centralized

  19. Volcano-hazard zonation for San Vicente volcano, El Salvador (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Howell, M.M.


    San Vicente volcano, also known as Chichontepec, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. This composite volcano, located about 50 kilometers east of the capital city San Salvador, has a volume of about 130 cubic kilometers, rises to an altitude of about 2180 meters, and towers above major communities such as San Vicente, Tepetitan, Guadalupe, Zacatecoluca, and Tecoluca. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and major transportation routes are located near the lowermost southern and eastern flanks of the volcano. The population density and proximity around San Vicente volcano, as well as the proximity of major transportation routes, increase the risk that even small landslides or eruptions, likely to occur again, can have serious societal consequences. The eruptive history of San Vicente volcano is not well known, and there is no definitive record of historical eruptive activity. The last significant eruption occurred more than 1700 years ago, and perhaps long before permanent human habitation of the area. Nevertheless, this volcano has a very long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions, and at least once a large section of the volcano collapsed in a massive landslide. The oldest rocks associated with a volcanic center at San Vicente are more than 2 million years old. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers that have migrated roughly eastward with time. Future eruptions of this volcano will pose substantial risk to surrounding communities.

  20. Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes (United States)


    A distance of about 80 kilometers (50 miles) separates Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Despite this distance, however, the two acted in unison on April 26, 2007, when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite caught them both erupting simultaneously. ASTER 'sees' a slightly different portion of the light spectrum than human eyes. Besides a portion of visible light, ASTER detects thermal energy, meaning it can detect volcanic activity invisible to human eyes. Inset in each image above is a thermal infrared picture of the volcano's summit. In these insets, dark red shows where temperatures are coolest, and yellowish-white shows where temperatures are hottest, heated by molten lava. Both insets show activity at the crater. In the case of Klyuchevskaya, some activity at the crater is also visible in the larger image. In the larger images, the landscapes around the volcanoes appear in varying shades of blue-gray. Dark areas on the snow surface are likely stains left over from previous eruptions of volcanic ash. Overhead, clouds dot the sky, casting their shadows on the snow, especially southeast of Shiveluch and northeast of Klyuchevskaya. To the northwest of Klyuchevskaya is a large bank of clouds, appearing as a brighter white than the snow surface. Shiveluch (sometimes spelled Sheveluch) and Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) are both stratovolcanoes composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and rocks from earlier eruptions. Both volcanoes rank among Kamchatka's most active. Because Kamchatka is part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Large-scale plate tectonic activity causing simultaneous volcanic eruptions in Kamchatka is not uncommon.

  1. Volcanoes can generate devastating waves (United States)


    Explosions. Noxious gases. Lava fountains and flows. Avalanches of superheated pyroclastics. Although volcanic eruptions can cause all these frightening phenomena, it is often the power of the sea that causes many volcano-related deaths. this destruction comes from tsunamis (huge volcano-generated waves) Roughly one-fourth of the deaths occurring during volcanic eruptions have been the result of tsunamis. Moreover a tsunami can transmit the volcano's energy to areas well outside the reach of the eruption itself. 

  2. Galactic Super-volcano in Action (United States)


    A galactic "super-volcano" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic volcano is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a volcano in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's location, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small volcano can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic

  3. Plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.


    In 2011, northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from Iceland were used to test the hypothesis that plastic debris decreases at northern latitudes in the Atlantic when moving away from major human centres of coastal and marine activities. Stomach analyses of Icelandic fulmars confirm that plastic

  4. Upper mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness under Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, A.; Wal, W. van der; Drury, M.R.


    Deglaciation during the Holocene on Iceland caused uplift due to glacial isostatic adjustment. Relatively low estimates for the upper mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness result in rapid uplift responses to the deglaciation cycles on Iceland. The relatively high temperatures of the upper

  5. The Mathematical Content Knowledge of Prospective Teachers in Iceland (United States)

    Johannsdottir, Bjorg


    This study focused on the mathematical content knowledge of prospective teachers in Iceland. The sample was 38 students in the School of Education at the University of Iceland, both graduate and undergraduate students. All of the participants in the study completed a questionnaire survey and 10 were interviewed. The choice of ways to measure the…

  6. Explaining Gender Inequality in Iceland: What Makes the Difference? (United States)

    Heijstra, Thamar M.; O'Connor, Pat; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda


    This article examines the explanations offered by men and women, at different academic ranks, for the scarcity of women in full professorial positions in Icelandic universities. Data derive from interviews and a survey involving the total Icelandic academic population. We test three hypotheses: Firstly, academics will not see family…

  7. Culture and the Early Childhood Curriculum in Iceland. (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Tryggvadottir, Jonina


    Presents the relationship between Iceland's early childhood curriculum and important elements of its culture, such as population size, weather, terrain, language, literature, and cultural celebrations. Discusses the influence of foreign ideas on Icelandic educational thought and provides information on college curriculum for early childhood…

  8. Iceland. OECD Reviews of National Policies for Education. (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Three general concerns of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) examiners in preparing this first review of Iceland's educational system were that: (1) education contribute to the broader social and economic culture; (2) it differentiate itself from the educational forms of other countries in response to Iceland's…

  9. Strength and deformation properties of volcanic rocks in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Andreassen, Katrine Alling


    Tunnelling work and preinvestigations for road traces require knowledge of the strength and de-formation properties of the rock material involved. This paper presents results related to tunnel-ling for Icelandic water power plants and road tunnels from a number of regions in Iceland. The volcanic......) and Landsvirkjun (The National Power Company of Iceland). These projects involve engineering geological properties of volcanic rock in Iceland, rock mechanical testing and parameter evaluation. Upscaling to rock mass properties and modelling using Q- or GSI-methods have been studied by the students...... and are available in their MSc-theses, but will not be covered here. The present contribution gives a short engineering geological overview of the volcanic rock for-mations in Iceland. Furthermore, the results of a number of unconfined, Brazilian, and a limited number of triaxial compression tests are presented...

  10. Should Iceland engage in policy dialogue with developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson


    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of the current status of Icelandic development cooperation, bilaterally and multilaterally, and argues that it is time for Iceland to become more engaged in policy dialogue with developing countries on issues related to public sector reform and economic policy. Iceland should also in the authors view take more advantages of the extensive knowledge that Icelandic experts possess, and the experience they have gained, both in Iceland and internationally. Iceland should be more active in offering exerts in the public service, in the academia, as well as in the private sector to provide policy advise and technical assistance to developing countries that are implementing complex economic and public sector reforms. A number of those exerts have also gained considerable international experience in implementing policy reform programs. The article then discusses two cases: (i the case of Latvia where Iceland rushed to recognize its independence, but did little to assist the country in the post independence period, and (ii, the case of Vietnam where a country like Iceland could provide valuable assistance to a country that is achieving remarkable progress in poverty reduction, implementing important public sector reforms and creating a better business environment for foreign investors. This article is based on the authors experience as chairman of the Board of the Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA and as Special Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Affairs in Iceland from 1995 to 1999, and as World Bank specialist at the Bank’s Head Quarters in Washington DC from 1990 to 1995, in Latvia from 1999 to 2003 and in Vietnam from 2003 to 2006.

  11. The Relevance of English Language Instruction in a Changing Linguistic Environment in Iceland: The L2 Self of Young Icelanders (United States)

    Jeeves, Anna


    In this study perceptions of post-compulsory school studies in Iceland were investigated through semi-structured interviews. While colloquial English suffices for entertainment, hobbies and Internet use in Iceland, a high level of proficiency is required for employment and tertiary study. School learners and young people in tertiary study and…

  12. Os-He Isotope Systematics of Iceland Picrites: Evidence for a Deep Origin of the Iceland Plume (United States)

    Brandon, Alan D.; Graham, David W.; Waight, Tod; Gautason, Bjarni


    Recent work on the origin of the Iceland hotspot suggests that it may result from upwelling upper mantle material rather than a deep plume. To constrain the depths of origins of Iceland mantle sources, Os and He isotope systematics were obtained on a suite picrites that span the compositional range observed within the neovolcanic zones.

  13. Icelandic: Linguistic Maintenance or Change? The Role of English. Occasional Paper. (United States)

    Hilmarsson-Dunn, Amanda

    The Icelandic language has a long and stable history, and Old Icelandic is still accessible to modern day Icelanders. This is despite being ruled from Denmark, with influence by the Danish language, for about 500 years. Icelandic may now be under a more serious threat from the onslaught of English. This paper evaluates the linguistic situation in…

  14. 'Taming Violently Erupting Volcanoes;' Volcanoes which Erupt Violently, need to be Tamed to Reduce their Destructive Capabilities (United States)

    Cimorelli, S. A.


    After witnessing the deadly forces of volcanic eruptions as occurred from Mount Saint Helen in the U.S. and Mount Eyjofjallajokull in Iceland, which can cause so much death and destruction, it became obvious that, 'If we could reduce the forces involved we could reduce the catastrophic results significantly.' Typically, most of the volcanoes in Hawaii do not erupt as violently because they seem to be erupting and flowing on a somewhat regularly continuous basis or schedule. Our paper is suggesting a method, or many methods, by which the pressure buildup will be limited to substantially lower levels, than those which occur at present, by various procedures, before the actual eruption. We are suggesting that when we tame the highly destructive volcanoes' eruptions, we can reduce the effects which can ground more than a 100,000 flights; as occurred by Mount Eyjofjallajokull, back in 2010. It is critically important to be able to sense, measure, record and analyze the various conditions leading to the volcanic eruption.

  15. ‘New’ Antarctic volcanos (United States)

    Two previously unknown volcanos that show evidence o f recent eruptions were discovered in March on the east side of the Antarctic Peninsula, according to the National Science Foundation. The discovery brings to five the number of known active volcanos on the continent.Volcanic debris still covers a large swath of the adjacent Larsen Ice Shelf, pointing to very recent activity. In addition, one of the volcanos was steaming when the discovery was made, reports Oscar Gonzalez-Ferran of the University of Chile at Santiago. He made the discovery while doing a geophysical survey by helicopter of the Antarctic Peninsula. The two volcanos constitute the southernmost extension of the eastern side of the ‘ring of fire,’ a ring of volcanos that is believed to mark the active subduction zone on the periphery of the Pacific Ocean.

  16. [Mediastinoscopy in Iceland: indications and surgical outcome]. (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Thora Sif; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Bjornsson, Johannes; Gudbjartsson, Tomas


    Mediastinoscopy is an important tool for staging lung cancer and evaluating mediastinal pathology. The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the indications and safety of mediastinoscopy in a well defined cohort of patients. All patients that underwent mediastinoscopy in Iceland between 1983-2007 were included. Clinical information was obtained from patient charts and pathology reports rewied. The study-period was divided into 5-year periods for comparison. Altogether 278 operations were performed but in 17 cases data was missing, leaving 261 patients for analysis (mean age 59 yrs, range 11-89, 159 males). A steady increase was seen in the number of operations, or from 16 to 85 during the first and last periods, respectively (p500 ml hemorrhage (1.1%). There were two operative deaths (<30 days), one due to major intraoperative bleeding. The number of mediastinoscopies is increasing in Iceland, especially as a part of lung cancer staging. Mediastinoscopy is a safe procedure with low mortality and morbidity, where a specific diagnosis is obtained in most cases.

  17. Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow. (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Magnús T; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hooper, Andrew; Holohan, Eoghan P; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G; Cesca, Simone; Vogfjörd, Kristín S; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Einarsson, Páll; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Jarosch, Alexander H; Jónasson, Kristján; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Bagnardi, Marco; Parks, Michelle M; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Pálsson, Finnur; Walter, Thomas R; Schöpfer, Martin P J; Heimann, Sebastian; Reynolds, Hannah I; Dumont, Stéphanie; Bali, Eniko; Gudfinnsson, Gudmundur H; Dahm, Torsten; Roberts, Matthew J; Hensch, Martin; Belart, Joaquín M C; Spaans, Karsten; Jakobsson, Sigurdur; Gudmundsson, Gunnar B; Fridriksdóttir, Hildur M; Drouin, Vincent; Dürig, Tobias; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Riishuus, Morten S; Pedersen, Gro B M; van Boeckel, Tayo; Oddsson, Björn; Pfeffer, Melissa A; Barsotti, Sara; Bergsson, Baldur; Donovan, Amy; Burton, Mike R; Aiuppa, Alessandro


    Large volcanic eruptions on Earth commonly occur with a collapse of the roof of a crustal magma reservoir, forming a caldera. Only a few such collapses occur per century, and the lack of detailed observations has obscured insight into the mechanical interplay between collapse and eruption. We use multiparameter geophysical and geochemical data to show that the 110-square-kilometer and 65-meter-deep collapse of Bárdarbunga caldera in 2014-2015 was initiated through withdrawal of magma, and lateral migration through a 48-kilometers-long dike, from a 12-kilometers deep reservoir. Interaction between the pressure exerted by the subsiding reservoir roof and the physical properties of the subsurface flow path explain the gradual, near-exponential decline of both collapse rate and the intensity of the 180-day-long eruption. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. The development of the suffix –erni in Icelandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Ellert Þór

    stages to establish a clear derivational pattern that is productively used in the language to form new words. Having access to continuous written material in Icelandic from ca. 1200 to 2011 gives us the possibility to track this process through time and follow each step in the development.......This paper investigates the suffix –erni in Icelandic, its origin, and development from the period of Old Norse to Modern Icelandic. This suffix is most often used to derive a neuter noun from nouns and adjectives with the meaning ‘belonging to’ e.g. faðir ‘father’ => faðerni ‘fatherhood...

  19. Time Series Periodicity for Lava Compositions of Shield Volcanoes Above Hot Spots (United States)

    Sharapov, V.; Zhmodik, A.


    Thoileitic sheets for the Siberian Platform trapps and basalts of Hawaii and Iceland have similar time series for lava profiles in the following respects: 1. periodicity 2. interruption of distribution functions both at the suit boundaries and within continuous discharge of active volcanoes 3. presence or absence of time trends 4. substantial difference in distribution function types for profiles resulted from fissure conduit located at 30-40 km distance from each other. Wavelet analysis shows the functions for tholeiitic shield volcanoes are similar for the time intervals form 20 to 20000 years. Spectral characteristics of petrogenous and trace components as well as isotope ratios show coherent and incoherent values for frequency spectra. The main tendencies for evolution of compositions in completed sequences are similar. The spatial zoning depends on structural and geodynamic conditions of a lava sheet formation and its size. The trapps of the Siberian Platform can be regarded as unique structures from this viewpoint. The most various are time and spatial series for the Hawaiian Island. Two types of time series evolution can be distinguished: `Icelandic' and `Hawaiian'. It is interesting to note, that for the Western Siberian Slab the former type is typical, and for the Siberian Platform - the latter. The reasons for this phenomenon are still not clear. This work was supported by the RFBR (Grants No. 04-05-64276, No. 04-05-64107, and No. 04-05-64332).

  20. Home birth constructed as a safe choice in Iceland: A content analysis on Icelandic media. (United States)

    Gottfredsdottir, Helga; Magnúsdóttir, Herdís; Hálfdánsdóttir, Berglind


    The rate of home birth in Iceland increased from 0.1% in the 90's, to 2.2% in 2012. As the media contributes to the development and public perceptions, engagement and use of health care, it is of interest to explore the media representation of planned home birth in Iceland. The aim of this study was to explore the way in which the constructions of planned home birth are represented in the Icelandic media; the frequency with which planned home birth was discussed and by whom it was discussed; whether the discourse was congruent with practice development in the country; and if so, how such congruency was effected. Data from the main newspapers in Iceland published from the beginning of 1990 until the end of 2011 were explored using content analysis. In total, 127 items were summarized and we identified five themes: approach to safety, having a choice, the medicalization of childbirth, the relationship between women and midwives, and the reaction of the pregnant woman's local community. Central in the analysis were the importance of being able to choose a safe place of birth and the need for woman-centred care. Overall planned home birth was not discussed with much intensity or frequency, but in general the discussion was shaped by a positive attitude. There was a distinction in the public media discourse among midwives and physicians or obstetricians who do not argue against planned home birth but who nevertheless speak with caution. The pregnant women who chose home birth found their own home to be safe and similar views were identified among women and midwives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Volcano spacing and plate rigidity (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.


    In-plane stresses, which accompany the flexural deformation of the lithosphere under the load of adjacent volcanoes, may govern the spacing of volcanoes in hotspot provinces. Specifically, compressive stresses in the vicinity of a volcano prevent new upwelling in this area, forcing a new volcano to develop at a minimum distance that is equal to the distance in which the radial stresses change from compressional to tensile (the inflection point). If a volcano is modeled as a point load on a thin elastic plate, then the distance to the inflection point is proportional to the thickness of the plate to the power of 3/4. Compilation of volcano spacing in seven volcanic groups in East Africa and seven volcanic groups of oceanic hotspots shows significant correlation with the elastic thickness of the plate and matches the calculated distance to the inflection point. In contrast, volcano spacing in island arcs and over subduction zones is fairly uniform and is much larger than predicted by the distance to the inflection point, reflecting differences in the geometry of the source and the upwelling areas.

  2. Assessing the long-term probabilistic volcanic hazard for tephra fallout in Reykjavik, Iceland: a preliminary multi-source analysis (United States)

    Tonini, Roberto; Barsotti, Sara; Sandri, Laura; Tumi Guðmundsson, Magnús


    Icelandic volcanism is largely dominated by basaltic magma. Nevertheless the presence of glaciers over many Icelandic volcanic systems results in frequent phreatomagmatic eruptions and associated tephra production, making explosive eruptions the most common type of volcanic activity. Jökulhlaups are commonly considered as major volcanic hazard in Iceland for their high frequency and potentially very devastating local impact. Tephra fallout is also frequent and can impact larger areas. It is driven by the wind direction that can change with both altitude and season, making impossible to predict a priori where the tephra will be deposited during the next eruptions. Most of the volcanic activity in Iceland occurs in the central eastern part, over 100 km to the east of the main population centre around the capital Reykjavík. Therefore, the hazard from tephra fallout in Reykjavík is expected to be smaller than for communities settled near the main volcanic systems. However, within the framework of quantitative hazard and risk analyses, less frequent and/or less intense phenomena should not be neglected, since their risk evaluation depends on the effects suffered by the selected target. This is particularly true if the target is highly vulnerable, as large urban areas or important infrastructures. In this work we present the preliminary analysis aiming to perform a Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) for tephra fallout focused on the target area which includes the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík international airport. This approach reverts the more common perspective where the hazard analysis is focused on the source (the volcanic system) and it follows a multi-source approach: indeed, the idea is to quantify, homogeneously, the hazard due to the main hazardous volcanoes that could pose a tephra fallout threat for the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík airport. PVHA for each volcanic system is calculated independently and the results

  3. Soufriere Hills Volcano (United States)


    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  4. Inventory of gas flux measurements from volcanoes of the global Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) (United States)

    Galle, B.; Arellano, S.; Norman, P.; Conde, V.


    NOVAC, the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change, was initiated in 2005 as a 5-year-long project financed by the European Union. Its main purpose is to create a global network for the monitoring and research of volcanic atmospheric plumes and related geophysical phenomena by using state-of-the-art spectroscopic remote sensing technology. Up to 2012, 64 instruments have been installed at 24 volcanoes in 13 countries of Latin America, Italy, Democratic Republic of Congo, Reunion, Iceland, and Philippines, and efforts are being done to expand the network to other active volcanic zones. NOVAC has been a pioneer initiative in the community of volcanologists and embraces the objectives of the Word Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). In this contribution, we present the results of the measurements of SO2 gas fluxes carried out within NOVAC, which for some volcanoes represent a record of more than 7 years of continuous monitoring. The network comprises some of the most strongly degassing volcanoes in the world, covering a broad range of tectonic settings, levels of unrest, and potential risk. We show a global perspective of the output of volcanic gas from the covered regions, specific trends of degassing for a few selected volcanoes, and the significance of the database for further studies in volcanology and other geosciences.

  5. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Björnsson, Halldór


    of 500 e1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds......, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 and 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 and 1500 W m_2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations...... is higher by 100 e700 W m_2 than that of offshore winds. Based on these results, 14 test sites were selected for more detailed analyses using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license...

  6. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter


    Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...... of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... enzymes AluI and BsuRI. The sequenced clones from this solfatara belonged to Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales or were most closest related to sequences from uncultured Archaea. Sequences related to group I.1b were not found in the neutral hot spring or the hyperthermophilic solfatara (90 degrees C)....

  7. The development of the suffix –erni in Icelandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Ellert Þór

    This paper investigates the suffix –erni in Icelandic, its origin, and development from the period of Old Norse to Modern Icelandic. This suffix is most often used to derive a neuter noun from nouns and adjectives with the meaning ‘belonging to’ e.g. faðir ‘father’ => faðerni ‘fatherhood’. By tak......This paper investigates the suffix –erni in Icelandic, its origin, and development from the period of Old Norse to Modern Icelandic. This suffix is most often used to derive a neuter noun from nouns and adjectives with the meaning ‘belonging to’ e.g. faðir ‘father’ => faðerni ‘fatherhood...

  8. Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NODC Accession 0112824) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas (GINS), NODC developed a new set...

  9. Multigenerational information: the example of the Icelandic Genealogy Database. (United States)

    Tulinius, Hrafn


    The first part of the chapter describes the Icelandic Genealogical Database, how it was created, what it contains, and how it operates. In the second part, an overview of research accomplished with material from the database is given.

  10. Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    Founded in 1912 at the edge of the caldera of Kīlauea Volcano, HVO was the vision of Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., a geologist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, whose studies of natural disasters around the world had convinced him that systematic, continuous observations of seismic and volcanic activity were needed to better understand—and potentially predict—earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Jaggar summarized the aim of HVO by stating that “the work should be humanitarian” and have the goals of developing “prediction and methods of protecting life and property on the basis of sound scientific achievement.” These goals align well with those of the USGS, whose mission is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage natural resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.

  11. Macroeconomic conditions and population health in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristín Helga Birgisdóttir


    Full Text Available Background: Results from recent research on the impact of economic cycles and population health have been mixed, with results appearing to be context-sensitive. Objective: We examine the long-term relationship between economic conditions and population health in Iceland, which has experienced some economically turbulent times in the last years and decades. Methods: We use aggregate annual data for 1981‒2014. We use three aggregate indicators of economic activity to proxy the economic cycle: unemployment rate, real GDP per capita, and real GDP. Life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, and total mortality as well as four cause-specific mortality rates were used as outcome measures. Results: Our results do not suggest a statistically significant relationship between economic conditions and total mortality, infant mortality, or life expectancy. Different responses between causes of death are found, and in some instances between genders, although statistical significance is low. We do, however, find a consistent and statistically significant relationship for females aged 45‒64, where economic downturns are associated with lower all-cause mortality. Conclusions: For the time period studied we do not find a significant relationship between economic cycles and population health, where health is proxied by mortality rates, life expectancy at birth, and infant mortality. Further studies using less extreme health outcomes, such as morbidity rates, are warranted. Contribution: This type of study has not been performed using Icelandic data before and provides a comparison to research from other countries where the relationship has been explored more. Additionally, one of the contributions of this paper is to use a variety of economic indicators as proxies for economic cycles in a study examining their relationship with population health.

  12. Icelandic Journalists & the Question of Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Guðmundsson


    Full Text Available The question whether journalism constitutes a profession or not has been widely discussed in the literature in recent decades without a definite conclusion. Indeed some suggest that much of the contradictory views on professionalism and the professionalization of journalism may be traced to the unclear meaning of the very term “professionalism” or “professionalization” (Nolan 2008. Thus it is possible to put simultaneously forth plausible arguments suggesting de-professionalization of journalism on the one hand, and further professionalization of journalism on the other, based on different interpretations of the term “professionalism”. The terms “professional” and “professionalism” can refer to different social phenomena in different contexts. Thus an ongoing professionalization of journalism can be taking place in one sense at the same time as de-professionalization in a different sense, and of course, these different trends can also be taking place simultaneously in different parts of the media environment (Nolan, 2008; Hallin&Mancini, 2004; Witschge&Nygren, 2009; Schudson, 2001. In determining an approach to the concept of a profession it is helpful to establish some general criteria, against which journalistic practice may be measured. In finding these criteria, guidelines are given by the discussion of traditional professions - doctors, lawyers – and on that basis some characteristics can been said to signify a profession. To what extent is the work of Icelandic journalists characterised by professionalism, and to what extent do they, as an occupational group, exhibit the features normally associated with professions? The following analysis suggests that Icelandic journalists fulfil many of the key conditions associated with professions and their development in recent decades has been one of increased professionalism.

  13. Icelandic experience with water safety plans. (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, M J; Gardarsson, S M; Bartram, J


    The aim of this study was to investigate accumulated experience with water safety plans in one of the first countries to adopt systematic preventive management for drinking-water safety. Water utilities in Iceland have had a legal obligation since 1995 to implement a systematic preventive approach to secure safety of drinking water and protect public health. The water utilities responded by implementing either an adapted HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) model for larger water utilities or a simpler five step model for smaller water utilities. The research was carried out at 16 water utilities that serve about two-thirds of the population of Iceland. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used with the aim of analysing if and what benefits water safety plans bring for water utilities and what is needed for successful implementation and operation of such systems. The results of the study show that numerous benefits and even the process of going through the implementing process were considered to be of advantage and change the attitude of the staff and the utility culture. Some obstacles and shortcomings came to light, such as lack of documentation and lack of regular internal and external audit. There was little communication with the public, although some mentioned that good public relations are important to succeed with water safety plans. Many important elements of success were revealed of which intensive training of staff and participation of staff in the whole process are deemed the most important. It is also important to have simple and well-structured guidelines, and good cooperation with the health authorities.

  14. Historical and social context for birth planning in Iceland. (United States)

    Swanson, J M


    Iceland is a rugged subarctic island 600 miles from Norway and 500 miles from Scotland. From the mid-14th to the end of the 18th century the island was virtually isolated. Isolation and sociocultural factors interacted to delay the fertility transition in Iceland until late in the 20th century. In 1983 Iceland had the highest crude birth rate of any developed country -- 18.4/1000. Between 1890-1982, the population almost tripled, to 235,501 inhabitants. The total fertility rate is 2.2, down from 4.17 in 1960. Combined with a high birth rate was a low mortality rate of 7.0/1000 of the population and a life expectancy of 79.5 years for women and 73.9 years for men -- the highest in the world. Infant mortality is only 6.2/1000 live births. This combination of high fertility, low mortality, and low emigration caused the high population growth. By the end of the 18th century, Iceland had achieved near universal literacy, and education through university is free, but not until 1960 did a woman receive a doctorate from the University of Iceland. By 198, 2/3 of women in Iceland participated in the labor force, but their earnings were only 2/3 those of men. In 1983 a Women's Party was formed, and women now hold 15% of the seats in the Althing (Parliament). Marriage rates have declined to 5.22/1000 of the population. The unique marital pattern of Iceland contributes to the high (41%) illegitimacy rate. Icelandic couples cohabit and have a child or 2 before they marry. They therefore tend to marry late (25.5 for men, 23.3 for women). Health care, including family planning services, is free in Iceland; and there is a medical school, a school of pharmacy, and 2 nursing schools. 35% of Icelandic women 20-40 years of age use either the pill or the IUD. Over-the-counter contraceptives are also available, and an average of 358 women are sterilized each year. The abortion rate is only 10.6/1000 females 15-49 years of age. The Birth Control Act of 1975 calls for the provision of sex

  15. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grimsson, A


    The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine.......The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine....

  16. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on human health in Iceland. Review]. (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Larsen, Guðrun


    Volcanic eruptions are common in Iceland and have caused health problems ever since the settlement of Iceland. Here we describe volcanic activity and the effects of volcanic gases and ash on human health in Iceland. Volcanic gases expelled during eruptions can be highly toxic for humans if their concentrations are high, irritating the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract at lower concentrations. They can also be very irritating to the skin. Volcanic ash is also irritating for the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. The smalles particles of volcanic ash can reach the alveoli of the lungs. Described are four examples of volcanic eruptions that have affected the health of Icelanders. The eruption of Laki volcanic fissure in 1783-1784 is the volcanic eruption that has caused the highest mortality and had the greatest effects on the well-being of Icelanders. Despite multiple volcanic eruptions during the last decades in Iceland mortality has been low and effects on human health have been limited, although studies on longterm effects are lacking. Studies on the effects of the Eyjafjallajökul eruption in 2010 on human health showed increased physical and mental symptoms, especially in those having respiratory disorders. The Directorate of Health in Iceland and other services have responded promptly to recurrent volcanic eruptions over the last few years and given detailed instructions on how to minimize the effects on the public health. Key words: volcanic eruptions, Iceland, volcanic ash, volcanic gases, health effects, mortality. Correspondence: Gunnar Guðmundsson,

  17. Icelandic Inland Wetlands: Characteristics and Extent of Draining


    Gudmundsson, Jon; Brink, Sigmundur H.; Arnalds, Olafur; Gisladottir, Fanney O.; Oskarsson, Hlynur


    Iceland has inland wetland areas with soils exhibiting both Andosol and Histosol properties which are uncommon elsewhere on Earth. They are generally fertile, with higher bird-nest densities than in similar wetlands in the neighboring countries, with nutrients released by rapid weathering of aeolian materials of basaltic nature. Icelandic inland wetlands cover about 9000 km2 constituting 19.4 % of the vegetated surfaces of the island. The wetland soils are often 1–3 m thick and store 33 to >1...

  18. Rural tourism retail : Tourism retail in the rural Westfjords (Iceland)


    Olafsdottir, Viktoria Ran


    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Rural tourism and service quality of Icelandic retailers is of focal attention in this research. The catapulting rise of the Icelandic tourism industry, is forcing rural retailers to rapidly adapt new managerial strategies. A better understanding of perceived service quality is required, and especially the differences of the two target markets, local and tourist customer. Plus, whether there is a relationship between perceived s...

  19. Learning from Bjartur About Today's Icelandic Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Paganelli


    Full Text Available Economies are complex systems resulting from human action but not from human design. The economic success of Iceland in recent decades was the result of the development of good institutions combined with a positive global economic climate. The recent economic downturn, not just in Iceland but around the world, should be a reminder that good institutions matter and should serve as an exhortation to continue building good institutions rather than dismissing them in favor of institutions that generate poverty.

  20. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 2 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  1. Volcano warning systems: Chapter 67 (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ewert, John W.


    Messages conveying volcano alert level such as Watches and Warnings are designed to provide people with risk information before, during, and after eruptions. Information is communicated to people from volcano observatories and emergency management agencies and from informal sources and social and environmental cues. Any individual or agency can be both a message sender and a recipient and multiple messages received from multiple sources is the norm in a volcanic crisis. Significant challenges to developing effective warning systems for volcanic hazards stem from the great diversity in unrest, eruption, and post-eruption processes and the rapidly advancing digital technologies that people use to seek real-time risk information. Challenges also involve the need to invest resources before unrest to help people develop shared mental models of important risk factors. Two populations of people are the target of volcano notifications–ground- and aviation-based populations, and volcano warning systems must address both distinctly different populations.

  2. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 1 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  3. [Infection risks associated with importation of fresh food in Iceland]. (United States)

    Kristinsson, Karl G; Georgsson, Franklín


    Access to safe food is a privilege for people living in Iceland. Rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance, related to factory farming and antimicrobial use in agriculture, is a major threat to public health. Increasing food trade between countries and continents facilitates global spread of pathogens and resistance. Icelandic agriculture has benefitted from its isolation and small size. After interventions to reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella at poultry farms, the incidence of human campylobacteriolsis is 17-43/100.000, of which about half is domestically acquired and Salmonella infections 10-15/100.000 mainly acquired abroad. Since Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) has not been detected in domestic cattle, the low incidence of infections is not surprising (0-0.6/100.000/year). A recent outbreak due to a multiresistant EHEC strain was traced to imported lettuce. Antimicrobial use in Icelandic agriculture is among the lowest in Europe and domestic infections caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter are rarely caused by resistant strains. Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae have not been found in Iceland. Low use of antimicrobials in Icelandic agriculture and actions to limit the spread of Campylobacter and Salmonella have been successful. The public should be informed of the importance of the origin of food and that Icelandic food products are among the safest.

  4. Chiliques volcano, Chile (United States)


    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U

  5. "Mediterranean volcanoes vs. chain volcanoes in the Carpathians" (United States)

    Chivarean, Radu


    Volcanoes have always represent an attractive subject for students. Europe has a small number of volcanoes and Romania has none active ones. The curricula is poor in the study of volcanoes. We want to make a parallel between the Mediterranean active volcanoes and the old extinct ones in the Oriental Carpathians. We made an comparison of the two regions in what concerns their genesis, space and time distribution, the specific relief and the impact in the landscape, consequences of their activities, etc… The most of the Mediterranean volcanoes are in Italy, in the peninsula in Napoli's area - Vezuviu, Campi Flegrei, Puzzoli, volcanic islands in Tirenian Sea - Ischia, Aeolian Islands, Sicily - Etna and Pantelleria Island. Santorini is located in Aegean Sea - Greece. Between Sicily and Tunisia there are 13 underwater volcanoes. The island called Vulcano, it has an active volcano, and it is the origin of the word. Every volcano in the world is named after this island, just north of Sicily. Vulcano is the southernmost of the 7 main Aeolian Islands, all volcanic in origin, which together form a small island arc. The cause of the volcanoes appears to be a combination of an old subduction event and tectonic fault lines. They can be considered as the origin of the science of volcanology. The volcanism of the Carpathian region is part of the extensive volcanic activity in the Mediterranean and surrounding regions. The Carpathian Neogene/Quaternary volcanic arc is naturally subdivided into six geographically distinct segments: Oas, Gutai, Tibles, Calimani, Gurghiu and Harghita. It is located roughly between the Carpathian thrust-and-fold arc to the east and the Transylvanian Basin to the west. It formed as a result of the convergence between two plate fragments, the Transylvanian micro-plate and the Eurasian plate. Volcanic edifices are typical medium-sized andesitic composite volcanoes, some of them attaining the caldera stage, complicated by submittal or peripheral domes

  6. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes (United States)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. A systematic aircraft program to monitor changes in the thermal emission from volcanoes of the Cascade Range has been initiated and is being carried out in conjunction with ERTS-1 thermal surveillance experiments. Night overflights by aircraft equipped with thermal infrared scanners sensitive to terrestrial emission in the 4-5.5 and 8-14 micron bands are currently being carried out at intervals of a few months. Preliminary results confirm that Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Mount Saint Helens, Mount Shasta, and the Lassen area continue to be thermally active, although with the exception of Lassen which erupted between 1914 and 1917, and Mount Saint Helens which had a series of eruptions between 1831 and 1834, there has been no recent eruptive activity. Excellent quality infrared images recorded over Mount Rainier, as recently as April, 1972, show similar thermal patterns to those reported in 1964-1966. Infrared images of Mount Baker recorded in November 1970 and again in April 1972 revealed a distinct array of anomalies 1000 feet below the crater rim and associated with fumaroles or structures permitting convective heat transfer to the surface.

  7. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.


    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  8. An unusual volcano on Venus (United States)

    Moore, H. J.; Plaut, J. J.; Schenk, P. M.; Head, J. W.


    Materials that issued from an unusual Venusian volcano produced (1) a complex domical structure about 100 km across with thick, broad flow lobes up to 41 wide, (2) an extensive sheet of thick flows, and (3) radar-bright surfaces that extend to 360-400 km from the volcano. Altimetry indicates that the relief of the domical structure is about 0.5-1.1 km. The lobes and flows have prominant regularly spaced ridges about 686-820 m apart. Thick flows with large ridge separations and broad lobes are rare on Venus. The viscosities of these flows were larger than those of most lava flows on Venus. Comparisons of the dimensions of the volcano's lobes with lava flows on earth suggest that the Venusian lavas may have large silica contents. Radar-bright surfaces around the volcano may represent the result of an explosive eruption or very thin deposits of low-viscosity lavas. Thus, the radar-bright surfaces and lavas of the volcano were derived from a magma that differentiated within the crust or mantle of Venus. The differentiation produced (1) a gas-rich low-viscosity phase, (2) high-viscosity lavas, and (3) a residual primary magma.

  9. Lifespans of Cascade Arc volcanoes (United States)

    Calvert, A. T.


    Compiled argon ages reveal inception, eruptive episodes, ages, and durations of Cascade stratovolcanoes and their ancestral predecessors. Geologic mapping and geochronology show that most Cascade volcanoes grew episodically on multiple scales with periods of elevated behavior lasting hundreds of years to ca. 100 kyr. Notable examples include the paleomag-constrained, few-hundred-year-long building of the entire 15-20 km3 Shastina edifice at Mt. Shasta, the 100 kyr-long episode that produced half of Mt. Rainier's output, and the 30 kyr-long episode responsible for all of South and Middle Sister. Despite significant differences in timing and rates of construction, total durations of active and ancestral volcanoes at discrete central-vent locations are similar. Glacier Peak, Mt. Rainier, Mt. Adams, Mt. Hood, and Mt. Mazama all have inception ages of 400-600 ka. Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Jefferson, Newberry Volcano, Mt. Shasta and Lassen Domefield have more recent inception ages of 200-300 ka. Only the Sisters cluster and Mt. Baker have established eruptive histories spanning less than 50 kyr. Ancestral volcanoes centered 5-20 km from active stratocones appear to have similar total durations (200-600 kyr), but are less well exposed and dated. The underlying mechanisms governing volcano lifecycles are cryptic, presumably involving tectonic and plumbing changes and perhaps circulation cycles in the mantle wedge, but are remarkably consistent along the arc.

  10. Global Volcano Hazard Frequency and Distribution (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Hazard Frequency and Distribution is a 2.5 minute gridded data set based upon the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) Volcano Database spanning...

  11. Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid representing global volcano mortality risks. The data set was constructed using historical...

  12. Global Volcano Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of volcano hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  13. Global Volcano Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global volcano total economic loss risks. First, subnational distributions of Gross Domestic...

  14. [House dust mites at Icelandic farms]. (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Sigurdarson, Sigurdur Thór; Tómasson, Kristinn; Gíslason, Davíd; Hallas, Thorkill


    Sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus) occurs in 9% of the Reykjavik population, despite the fact that no Der p 1 antigen has been found in the area. A recent study revealed that sensitized persons more often had a childhood history of work or holiday stay in rural areas than controls. As a follow up we studied the risk of exposure to mites in farmland dwellings. In a survey of work-related lung disorders among farmers in the south and west of Iceland, 80 samples of house dust, representing 42 farms, were collected from bedroom mattresses and the floors in living rooms and examined for mites. Treatment of samples was identical with the method used earlier in the Reykjavik investigation (ECRHS II). In contrast to the Reykjavik results, dust from farm dwellings showed a large diversity of mites. Seventeen taxons were found, with Acarus siro and D. pteronyssinus in 13 and 8 farms respectively, but the samples did not show signs that any of the taxons actually had lived or reproduced where they were collected. The finding of D. pteronyssinus in farmland dwellings provides a possible explanation of why some Reykjavik citizens might have developed sensitization to this mite, even though cross sensitization to other species of mites could give a false positive reaction to D. pteronyssinus in at least some of those cases. Our observations did not support the idea that the mites were living in the dwellings and an explanation for their occurrence must be sought in the outdoor environment.

  15. [Effective dose from pediatric CT in Iceland]. (United States)

    Gudjonsdottir, Jonina; Jonsdottir, Arna Bjork


    It is important to know the effective dose from computed tomography (CT) examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effective dose from pediatric CT examinations in Iceland. For all pediatric CT exams (children examination type and dose length product was retrospectively collected from the Landspitali University Hospital's archives, as was the total number of CT examinations. The ratio of pediatric CT exams and the frequency of examination types were calculated and, for the three most common examinations, the effective dose and mean dose length product were calculated for five age groups. The total number of pediatric CT examinations was 662, 3,6% of all the CT examinations performed. The three most common pediatric CT examinations were head (40,3%), abdomen (15,6%) and thorax (10,3%). The mean effective dose in those was, in the above order: for children dose length product was above European diagnostic reference levels in most examination types and age groups. Possibilities for lower effective doses from pediatric CT examinations should be explored. For that purpose, the use of size specific dose estimates is recommended.

  16. Magmatic Densities Control Erupted Volumes in Icelandic Volcanic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Hartley


    Full Text Available Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ. By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallization under Iceland.

  17. Distribution of dust during two dust storms in Iceland (United States)

    Ösp Magnúsdóttir, Agnes; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Ólafur; Ólafsson, Haraldur


    Particulate matter mass concentrations and size fractions of PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, and PM15 measured in transversal horizontal profile of two dust storms in southwestern Iceland are presented. Images from a camera network were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. Numerical simulations were used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources as 180,000 and 280,000 tons for each storm. The mean PM15 concentrations inside of the dust plumes varied from 10 to 1600 ?g?m?3 (PM10 = 7 to 583 ?g?m?3). The mean PM1 concentrations were 97-241 ?g?m?3 with a maximum of 261 ?g?m?3 for the first storm. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios of >0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34-0.63 show that suspension of volcanic materials in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations, similar to polluted urban areas in Europe or Asia. Icelandic volcanic dust consists of a higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. Both dust storms occurred in relatively densely inhabited areas of Iceland. First results on size partitioning of Icelandic dust presented here should challenge health authorities to enhance research in relation to dust and shows the need for public dust warning systems.

  18. [Change in attitude towards antibiotic prescriptions among Icelandic general practitioners]. (United States)

    Matthíasdóttir, Anna Mjöll; Guðnason, Thórólfur; Halldórsson, Matthías; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Kristinsson, Karl G


    Antibiotic use is a leading cause of antibiotic resistance and it is therefore important to reduce unnecessary prescribing in Iceland where antibiotic use is relatively high. The purpose of this study was to explore antibiotic prescribing practices among Icelandic physicians and compare the results with results of comparable studies from 1991 and 1995 conducted by the Directorate of Health, Iceland. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among all general practitioners registered in Iceland in 1991 and 1995 and all physicians registered in March 2014. Data was collected with questionnaires regarding diagnosis and treatment of simple urinary tract infection, acute otitis media and pharyngitis. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed and level of significance p≤0.05. Response rates were 85% and 93% in 1991 and 1995 but 31% in 2014. Proportion of physicians who consider themselves prescribing antibiotics more than 10 times per week was 36% in 1991, 32% in 1995 and 21% in 2014. Proportion of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as first choice for simple urinary tract infection reduced from 43% and 45% to 8% in 2014. In 2014, general practitioners considered themselves 87% less likely to prescribe an antibiotic for acute otitis media than in 1991 (pAntibiotic prescribing practices have changed significantly in the past two decades in Iceland becoming more in line with clinical guidelines. Improvements are still needed to further reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.

  19. Incidence of first stroke: a population study in Iceland. (United States)

    Hilmarsson, Agust; Kjartansson, Olafur; Olafsson, Elias


    Iceland is an island in the North Atlantic with ≈319 000 inhabitants. The study determines the incidence of first stroke in the adult population of Iceland during 12 months, which has not been previously reported in the entire Icelandic population. The study population consisted of all residents of Iceland, aged ≥ 18 years, during the 12-month study period. Cases were identified by multiple overlapping approaches. Medical records were reviewed to verify diagnosis, to determine stroke subtype and to determine selected risk factors. A total of 343 individuals, aged ≥ 18 years, had a first stroke during the study period. Incidence was 144 per 100 000 person years; 81% ischemic infarction; 9% intracerebral hemorrhage; 7% subarachnoid hemorrhage; and 3% unknown. Fifty percent of the individuals were men. Mean age for ischemic infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage was 71 years for men and 73 years for women. Atrial fibrillation was previously known in 18% with first ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage and another 6% were diagnosed on routine admission ECG. Long-term ECG study (24 hours) found that 12% (18/154) of the remaining individuals had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Incidence of first stroke in Iceland is similar to other Western countries. The high number of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation found during the 24-hour ECG suggests that atrial fibrillation may be underdiagnosed in patients with stroke.

  20. The psychometric testing of the Nursing Teamwork Survey in Iceland. (United States)

    Bragadóttir, Helga; Kalisch, Beatrice J; Smáradóttir, Sigríður Bríet; Jónsdóttir, Heiður Hrund


    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Nursing Teamwork Survey-Icelandic (NTS-Icelandic), which was translated from US English to Icelandic. The Nursing Teamwork Survey, with 33 items, measures overall teamwork and five factors of teamwork: trust, team orientation, backup, shared mental models, and team leadership. The psychometric testing of the NTS-Icelandic was carried out on data from a pilot study and a national study. The sample for a pilot study included 123 nursing staff from five units, and the sample for a national study included 925 nursing staff from 27 inpatient units. The overall test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient in the pilot study was 0.693 (lower bound = 0.498, upper bound = 0.821) (p teamwork. The NTS-Icelandic tested valid and reliable in this study. Study findings support further use of the Nursing Teamwork Survey internationally. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Re-Thinking Sustainable Education Systems in Iceland: The Net-University Project (United States)

    Rennie, Frank; Johannesdottir, Sigurbjorg


    The recent economic crisis in Iceland has raised issues of the sustainability of Icelandic higher education to new levels of importance. A key strategy in relation to this economic crisis is to consider the merger of the four public universities in Iceland and to introduce a much higher engagement with online and open delivery methods of higher…

  2. Additional Workload or a Part of the Job? Icelandic Teachers' Discourse on Inclusive Education (United States)

    Gunnþórsdóttir, Hermína; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir


    The aim of this article is to examine the discourse of Icelandic compulsory school teachers on inclusive education. From 1974 and onwards, the education policy in Iceland has been towards inclusion, and Iceland is considered to be an example of a highly inclusive education system with few segregated resources for students with special educational…

  3. Volcano Hazards - A National Threat (United States)



    When the violent energy of a volcano is unleashed, the results are often catastrophic. The risks to life, property, and infrastructure from volcanoes are escalating as more and more people live, work, play, and travel in volcanic regions. Since 1980, 45 eruptions and 15 cases of notable volcanic unrest have occurred at 33 U.S. volcanoes. Lava flows, debris avalanches, and explosive blasts have invaded communities, swept people to their deaths, choked major riverways, destroyed bridges, and devastated huge tracts of forest. Noxious volcanic gas emissions have caused widespread lung problems. Airborne ash clouds have disrupted the health, lives, and businesses of hundreds of thousands of people; caused millions of dollars of aircraft damage; and nearly brought down passenger flights.

  4. Melt inclusion constraints on petrogenesis of the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption, Iceland (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret E.; Bali, Enikö; Maclennan, John; Neave, David A.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.


    The 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption, on the Bárðarbunga volcanic system in central Iceland, was one of the best-monitored basaltic fissure eruptions that has ever occurred, and presents a unique opportunity to link petrological and geochemical data with geophysical observations during a major rifting episode. We present major and trace element analyses of melt inclusions and matrix glasses from a suite of ten samples collected over the course of the Holuhraun eruption. The diversity of trace element ratios such as La/Yb in Holuhraun melt inclusions reveals that the magma evolved via concurrent mixing and crystallization of diverse primary melts in the mid-crust. Using olivine-plagioclase-augite-melt (OPAM) barometry, we calculate that the Holuhraun carrier melt equilibrated at 2.1 ± 0.7 kbar (7.5 ± 2.5 km), which is in agreement with the depths of earthquakes (6 ± 1 km) between Bárðarbunga central volcano and the eruption site in the days preceding eruption onset. Using the same approach, melt inclusions equilibrated at pressures between 0.5 and 8.0 kbar, with the most probable pressure being 3.2 kbar. Diffusion chronometry reveals minimum residence timescales of 1-12 days for melt inclusion-bearing macrocrysts in the Holuhraun carrier melt. By combining timescales of diffusive dehydration of melt inclusions with the calculated pressure of H2O saturation for the Holuhraun magma, we calculate indicative magma ascent rates of 0.12-0.29 m s-1. Our petrological and geochemical data are consistent with lateral magma transport from Bárðarbunga volcano to the eruption site in a shallow- to mid-crustal dyke, as has been suggested on the basis of seismic and geodetic datasets. This result is a significant step forward in reconciling petrological and geophysical interpretations of magma transport during volcano-tectonic episodes, and provides a critical framework for the interpretation of premonitory seismic and geodetic data in volcanically active regions.

  5. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.


    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  6. Of Rings and Volcanoes (United States)


    show it. The bright spot close to the equator is the remnant of a giant storm in Saturn's extended atmosphere that has lasted more than 5 years. The present photo provides what is possibly the sharpest view of the ring system ever achieved from a ground-based observatory . Many structures are visible, the most obvious being the main ring sections, the inner C-region (here comparatively dark), the middle B-region (here relatively bright) and the outer A-region, and also the obvious dark "divisions", including the well-known, broad Cassini division between the A- and B-regions, as well as the Encke division close to the external edge of the A-region and the Colombo division in the C-region. Moreover, many narrow rings can be seen at this high image resolution , in particular within the C-region - they may be compared with those seen by the Voyager spacecraft during the flybys, cf. the weblinks below. This image demonstrates the capability of NAOS-CONICA to observe also extended objects with excellent spatial resolution. It is a composite of four short-exposure images taken through the near-infrared H (wavelength 1.6 µm) and K (2.2 µm) filters. This observation was particularly difficult because of the motion of Saturn during the exposure. To provide the best possible images, the Adaptive Optics system of NAOS was pointed towards the Saturnian moon Tethys , while the image of Saturn was kept at a fixed position on the CONICA detector by means of "differential tracking" (compensating for the different motions in the sky of Saturn and Tethys). This is also why the (faint) image of Tethys - visible south of Saturn (i.e., below the planet in PR Photo 04a/02 ) - appears slightly trailed. Io - volcanoes and sulphur ESO PR Photo 04b/02 ESO PR Photo 04b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 478 pix - 39k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 955 pix - 112k] ESO PR Photo 04c/02 ESO PR Photo 04c/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 469 pix - 58k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 937 pix - 368k] Caption : PR Photo 04b/02 shows

  7. The Role of Business Schools in Ethics Education in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Vaiman, Vlad; Arnardottir, Audur Arna


    should not be held responsible for employees’ unethical behavior. Nevertheless, managers believe that business schools should assist future employees in understanding ethics by including business ethics in teaching curricula. Second, managers believe that the workplace is not where ethics are learned......This article explores managers’ views on various ways in which business schools can contribute to providing solid ethics education to their students, who will ultimately become the next generation of business leaders. One thousand top level managers of Icelandic firms were approached and asked...... a number of questions aimed at establishing their view on the relationship between ethics education and the role of business schools in forming and developing business ethics education. Icelandic businesses were badly hurt by the 2008 crisis, and therefore Iceland provides an interesting foundation...

  8. Tracking Iceland Plume Motion Using Trace Element Geochemistry (United States)

    Fitton, J. G.; Walters, R. L.; Jones, S. M.


    The Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is a hotspot track built by interaction between the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Iceland mantle plume. Unlike most other hotspot tracks built by ridge-plume interaction, the GSR is 2 to 3 times wider than the plume conduit in the upper mantle. (This unusual wide morphology arises because Icelandic crust changes significantly in thickness within a few million years of accretion, probably mainly by viscous flow in the hot lower crust). The upshot is that the GSR cannot be compared directly with theoretical plume tracks from hotspot reference frame models. However, it is possible to track the position of the Iceland plume conduit using the trace element geochemistry of basaltic lavas. Away from the plume conduit, plate spreading drives upwelling of mantle through the melting region. Above the plume conduit, plume-driven flow forces mantle through the lower part of the melting region faster than the plate-driven upwelling rate. The average depth of melting is therefore greater directly above the plume conduit than away from the plume conduit, and this difference in average melting depth means that melts generated directly above the plume conduit are relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Joint modelling of trace element compositions and crustal thickness can also be used to establish location of melting relative to the plume conduit. To date, these concepts have been used only to explain compositional variations in modern (post-glacial) Icelandic lavas; in this study we show that the same concepts can be applied to map the location of the plume conduit throughout the onshore Icelandic geological record (since the middle Miocene, c. 16 Ma). The plume track thus determined is in reasonable agreement with theoretical tracks calculated under the assumption that the Iceland Plume has remained fixed relative to other Indo-Atlantic hotspots. This result also supports the idea that episodic relocations of the onshore part of

  9. Edible wild plant use in the Faroe Islands and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of wild edible plants in the Faroe Islands and Iceland from the times of the first settlement of Norse people in the Viking age until today, with a special emphasis on the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Animal products have been an important source of nutrients for the islanders of northern Atlantic. Cultivation of cereals on the other hand has played a minor role, and had already been abandoned by late medieval times in Iceland and by the early 20th century on the Faroes. Crops such as potatoes, turnips and other roots were only grown in the small patches of cultivated soil. Wild plants have therefore been of some importance for the Faroese people and the Icelanders; in the last centuries especially for the rural poor and during times of recessions. The native Angelica archangelica L. was gathered in the wild and also cultivated in gardens for centuries. A few species have been part of the regular food staple. Some plants are still gathered and made into food products by small companies, especially in Iceland. In the Faroes, the economic aspect of edible wild plant taxa is mostly of historical interest, although a few products of A. archangelica are sometimes available. Two taxa have been exploited as regular food exclusively in Iceland: Cetraria islandica (L. Arch. and Elymus arenarius L. Icelanders have used C. islandica from the early settlement days and continue to do so today, E. arenarius became obsolete as a food plant a century ago.

  10. Superhot Drilling in Iceland, the Experience of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project. (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Friðleifsson, G. Ó.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Fowler, A. P.


    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project aims to improve geothermal economics by producing supercritical fluids ( Supercritical wells could yield an order of magnitude more usable energy than that from conventional geothermal wells because of higher enthalpy and enhanced flow properties. In 2009, the IDDP-1 well failed to reach supercritical conditions in the Krafla caldera in NE Iceland, after encountering rhyolite magma at only 2.1 km depth. The completed geothermal well became the world's hottest and produced superheated steam with a wellhead temperature of 452°C and flow sufficient to generate 35 MWe. The IDDP next moved SW to the Reykjanes Peninsula, the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where it is possible to study an analog of the roots of a black smoker. Reykjanes is unique among Icelandic geothermal systems in being recharged by seawater, which has a critical point of 406°C at 298 bars. Drilling began by deepening an existing 2.5 km deep production well to 3 km depth, and then angling it towards the main upflow zone of the system, for a total slant depth of 4,659 m. Total circulation losses were encountered below 3 km that could not be cured by lost circulation materials or by multiple cement jobs. Accordingly, drilling continued to total depth without return of drill cuttings. We attempted 13 core runs below 3 km depth, only half of which recovered core. The cores are basalts and dolerites with alteration ranging from lower greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies, suggesting formation temperatures >450°C. After the end of drilling in January 2017, following only six days of heating, supercritical conditions (426°C at 340 bars) were measured in the well at a depth of 4.5 km. The well has not yet been allowed to equilibrate to full in situ temperature. A perforated liner was inserted to 4,570 m, depth to facilitate temperature cycling to enhance permeability at depth through thermal cracking. In 2018 this will be followed by a

  11. Research on human genetics in Iceland. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Records of the Icelandic Population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characters and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  12. Progress report on research on human genetics in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Records of the Icelandic population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characteristics and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period from 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  13. Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea, 2007-2009 (United States)

    Nína Petersen, Guðrún


    The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) conducted meteorological buoy measurements in the central Iceland Sea in the time period 2007-2009, specifically in the northern Dreki area on the southern segment of the Jan Mayen Ridge. Due to difficulties in deployment and operations, in situ measurements in this region are sparse. Here the buoy, deployment and measurements are described with the aim of giving a future user of the data set information that is as comprehensive as possible. The data set has been quality-checked, suspect data removed and the data set made publicly available from PANGAEA Data Publisher (

  14. What Happened to Our Volcano? (United States)

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva


    In this article, the author presents an investigative approach to "understanding Earth changes." The author states that students were familiar with earthquakes and volcanoes in other regions of the world but never considered how the land beneath their feet had experienced changes over time. Here, their geology unit helped them understand…

  15. [Scrapie of sheep and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Iceland]. (United States)

    Georgsson, Gudmundur; Olafsson, Elías; Gudmundsson, Gunnar


    Scrapie of sheep and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are both classified as prion diseases. The infectious agents of both diseases are closely related. The objectives of the study was to explore, whether sheep scrapie could be transmitted to humans and cause CJD. The occurrence of CJD was studied in a period of 40 years, 1960 to 2000. The first part of the study, which was started in 1980, was retrospective. Hospital records from the Department of Neurology of the National Hospital from the years 1960-1980 were scrutinised and paraffin blocks from the collection of the Department of Pathology from cases with the diagnosis CJD and some suspect cases were obtained and analysed. The latter part of the study was prospective, which gave the possibility to study codon 129 of PRNP gene and characterise the strain of the infectious agent. Information on the epidemiology of scrapie in Iceland and of the diet of Icelanders was collected. Four cases of CJD were detected in the 40 years studied, which corresponds to an incidence of 0.44 per million inhabitants, which is less than half the average incidence in 18 other European countries in the years 1997-2004. The low incidence of CJD in Iceland does not indicate that sheep scrapie can be transmitted to humans and cause CJD. If this were the case, we would have expected an higher incidence of CJD and possibly atypical cases, as the Icelandic population has been exposed to scrapie for 130 years.

  16. Interventions to curb rising pharmaceutical costs in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn


    . The cancellation of reimbursement for antibiotics in 1991 resulted in a slight decrease in sales. The change in the list of "hospital only" medicines caused massive protests from pharmacists and physicians. The pharmaceutical policy in Iceland has been problematic in its formulations and implementations...

  17. Island connections: Icelandic spatiality in the wake of worldly linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bjarnason


    Full Text Available The notions and materiality of connections, through electronic networks as well as modes of mobility, play an ever-increasing role in how we define, understand, engage and experience the world we live in and the islands we live on. This article presents an account of Icelandic encounters with technologies of telecommunication and explores how electronic connections have participated in formulating a particularly connected, island spatiality. It is argued that an island can be regarded as a kind of connected laboratory suitable for studying how associations form around technologies of connections, which can be traced through various actors. For this purpose, the historical genealogy of connections and telecommunication in Iceland is analyzed, as well as more contemporary ideas and representations of mobile phone usage and network connectivity. It is maintained that connections have fundamentally altered the spatiality as well as representations of Iceland. While still an island in a geographical sense, and in that manner remote and isolated, the social space of the island now denies such connotations in many respects, valorizing the connectivity of Iceland and its people.

  18. Primitive off-rift basalts from Iceland and Jan Mayen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debaille, Vinciane; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Brandon, Alan D.


    New measurements of Os, He, Sr and Nd isotopes, along with major and trace elements, are presented for basalts from the three volcanic flank zones in Iceland and from Jan Mayen Island. The 187Os/188Os ratios in lavas with <30 ppt Os (n = 4) are elevated compared to ratios in coexisting olivine an...

  19. Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland. (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Agustsdóttir, Elfa; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Oström, Inga-Lena Örde; Berndtsson, Louise Treiberg; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Wensman, Jonas Johansson


    In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered.

  20. Foreign citizen mortality in Iceland January 2006 - December 2016. (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Bingert, Rebecca

    In recent years, tourism has become the number one account for foreign exchange income in Iceland, overtaking the fisheries industry and aluminium production. The rise of tourism has strongly affected Icelandic society in various sectors. With the increase of tourists visiting Iceland, the number of foreign citizens that died and were autopsied also rose. Data were collected from the Department of Forensic Pathology at Landspitali University Hospital in Reykjavik for the period January 2006 - December 2016. During this time there were 109 autopsies performed on foreign citizens of which 58 died from natural causes, 49 were injury deaths and in 2 cases no certain cause of death could be determined. Most represented were citizens from North America, United Kingdom and Germany (each 11%). The main causes of death were cardiovascular events (41%) followed by unintentional injuries (34%). The research at hand shows the significant influence of tourism on Forensic Medicine and provides an update on deaths of overseas travellers. Furthermore this study points out variable risks of travel-related injuries and deaths in Iceland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Students' Attitudes towards Craft and Technology in Iceland and Finland (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Gísli; Ólafsson, Brynjar; Autio, Ossi


    Craft education in both Finland and Iceland originated over 140 years ago and was influenced by the Scandinavian Sloyd pedagogy. Since then, the subject has moved away from craft and towards technology, with the aim being to increase students' technological abilities. In the beginning, the subject largely focused on the students copying artefacts,…

  2. Curriculum Analysis and Education for Sustainable Development in Iceland (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Norodahl, Kristin; Oskarsdottir, Gunnhildur; Palsdottir, Auour; Petursdottir, Bjorg


    The article explores how the Icelandic public school curriculum for early childhood, compulsory and upper secondary school deals with education for sustainable development. As the curriculum does not often mention the term sustainability, a key with which to investigate signs of education for sustainable development in the three curricula was…

  3. The effect of silica in washing with geothermal water, Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindal, B.


    Industrial washing operation using geothermal water in Iceland are reported and testing designed to explain the beneficial effect of geothermal water for washing described. The findings indicate, that the silica content of the water may be the principal component for a superior washing quality

  4. Broadcasting in Iceland: Cultural Protectionism and U.S. Influence. (United States)

    Hudson, Tim

    Icelanders are a highly literate people, their culture tied together by perhaps the most complete written tradition of any modern nation. No wonder, then, that the tiny island country seemed in no rush to develop a television broadcasting system. Indeed, it is questionable whether television would have been in demand at all if not for outside…

  5. Iceland's Central Highlands: Nature conservation, ecotourism, and energy resource utilization (United States)

    Bjorn Gunnarsson; Maria-Victoria Gunnarsson


    Iceland’s natural resources include an abundance of geothermal energy and hydropower, of which only 10 to 15 percent is currently being utilized. These are clean, renewable sources of energy. The cost to convert these resources to electricity is relatively low, making them attractive and highly marketable for industrial development, particularly for heavy industry....

  6. Pressure Algometry in Icelandic Horses : Interexaminer and Intraexaminer Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Eveline S.; Blom, Guy; van Loon, Johannes P A M; Back, Willem


    Reliability of pressure algometry as an outcome measure in equine research and therapy needs to be studied. The aim of the present study was to establish interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability of pressure algometry in Icelandic horses and to determine reference mechanical nociceptive threshold

  7. [Tablets and tablet production - with special reference to Icelandic conditions]. (United States)

    Skaftason, Jóhannes F; Jóhannesson, Thorkell


    Modern tablet compression was instituted in England in 1844 by William Brockedon (1787-1854). The first tablets made according to Brockedon´s procedures contained watersoluble salts and were most likely compressed without expedients. In USA a watershed occurred around 1887 when starch (amylum maydis) was introduced to disperse tablets in aqueous milieu in order to corroborate bioavailability of drugs in the almentary canal. About the same time great advances in tablet production were introduced by the British firm Burroughs Wellcome and Co. In Denmark on the other hand tablet production remained on low scale until after 1920. As Icelandic pharmacies and drug firms modelled themselves mostly upon Danish firms tablet production was first instituted in Iceland around 1930. The first tablet machines in Iceland were hand-driven. More efficent machines came after 1945. Around 1960 three sizeable tablet producers were in Iceland; now there is only one. Numbers of individual tablet species (generic and proprietary) on the market rose from less than 10 in 1913 to 500 in 1965, with wide variations in numbers in between. Tablets have not wiped out other medicinal forms for peroral use but most new peroral drugs have been marketed in the form of tablets during the last decades.

  8. The Case of Iceland in PISA: Girls' Educational Advantage (United States)

    Halldorsson, Almar M.; Olafsson, Ragnar F.


    Among 41 participating countries in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003, the gender difference in favour of females was greatest in Iceland in the three subjects tested: mathematics, science and reading. The aims of this article are to put these findings in national and international context, and report on a number of…

  9. Transition to School Practices: Comparisons from Iceland and Australia (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob; Dockett, Sue


    This paper is the result of collaboration among early childhood education researchers from different cultures on opposite sides of the globe. The project sought to identify what practitioners in both preschool and primary school settings in Iceland and Australia regarded as successful transition to school practices. Independently developed surveys…

  10. Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for Redoubt Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Dorava, Joseph M.; Miller, Thomas P.; Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.


    Redoubt Volcano is a stratovolcano located within a few hundred kilometers of more than half of the population of Alaska. This volcano has erupted explosively at least six times since historical observations began in 1778. The most recent eruption occurred in 1989-90 and similar eruptions can be expected in the future. The early part of the 1989-90 eruption was characterized by explosive emission of substantial volumes of volcanic ash to altitudes greater than 12 kilometers above sea level and widespread flooding of the Drift River valley. Later, the eruption became less violent, as developing lava domes collapsed, forming short-lived pyroclastic flows associated with low-level ash emission. Clouds of volcanic ash had significant effects on air travel as they drifted across Alaska, over Canada, and over parts of the conterminous United States causing damage to jet aircraft. Economic hardships were encountered by the people of south-central Alaska as a result of ash fallout. Based on new information gained from studies of the 1989-90 eruption, an updated assessment of the principal volcanic hazards is now possible. Volcanic hazards from a future eruption of Redoubt Volcano require public awareness and planning so that risks to life and property are reduced as much as possible.

  11. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains point locations of active volcanoes as compiled by Motyka et al., 1993. Eighty-nine volcanoes with eruptive phases in the Quaternary are...

  12. Venus - Volcano With Massive Landslides (United States)


    This Magellan full-resolution mosaic which covers an area 143 by 146 kilometers (89 by 91 miles) is centered at 55 degrees north latitude, 266 degrees east longitude. The bright feature, slightly south of center is interpreted to be a volcano, 15-20 kilometers (9.3 to 12.4 miles) in diameter with a large apron of blocky debris to its right and some smaller aprons to its left. A preferred explanation is that several massive catastrophic landslides dropped down steep slopes and were carried by their momentum out into the smooth, dark lava plains. At the base of the east-facing or largest scallop on the volcano is what appears to be a large block of coherent rock, 8 to 10 kilometers (5 to 6 miles) in length. The similar margin of both the scallop and block and the shape in general is typical of terrestrial slumped blocks (masses of rock which slide and rotate down a slope instead of breaking apart and tumbling). The bright lobe to the south of the volcano may either be a lava flow or finer debris from other landslides. This volcanic feature, characterized by its scalloped flanks is part of a class of volcanoes called scalloped or collapsed domes of which there are more than 80 on Venus. Based on the chute-like shapes of the scallops and the existence of a spectrum of intermediate to well defined examples, it is hypothesized that all of the scallops are remnants of landslides even though the landslide debris is often not visible. Possible explanations for the missing debris are that it may have been covered by lava flows, the debris may have weathered or that the radar may not be recognizing it because the individual blocks are too small

  13. Surveillance of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Iceland. (United States)

    Alfredsson, Matthias; Olafsson, Erling; Eydal, Matthias; Unnsteinsdottir, Ester Rut; Hansford, Kayleigh; Wint, William; Alexander, Neil; Medlock, Jolyon M


    Ixodes ricinus is a three-host tick, a principal vector of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) and one of the main vectors of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus. Iceland is located in the North Atlantic Ocean with subpolar oceanic climate. During the past 3-4 decades, average temperature has increased, supporting more favourable conditions for ticks. Reports of I. ricinus have increased in recent years. If these ticks were able to establish in a changing climate, Iceland may face new threats posed by tick-borne diseases. Active field surveillance by tick flagging was conducted at 111 sites around Iceland from August 2015 to September 2016. Longworth mammal traps were used to trap Apodemus sylvaticus in southwestern and southern Iceland. Surveillance on tick importation by migratory birds was conducted in southeastern Iceland, using bird nets and a Heligoland trap. Vulpes lagopus carcasses from all regions of the country were inspected for ticks. In addition, existing and new passive surveillance data from two institutes have been merged and are presented. Continental probability of presence models were produced. Boosted Regression Trees spatial modelling methods and its predictions were assessed against reported presence. By field sampling 26 questing I. ricinus ticks (7 males, 3 females and 16 nymphs) were collected from vegetation from three locations in southern and southeastern Iceland. Four ticks were found on migratory birds at their arrival in May 2016. A total of 52 A. sylvaticus were live-trapped but no ticks were found nor on 315 V. lagopus carcasses. Passive surveillance data collected since 1976, reports further 214 I. ricinus ticks from 202 records, with an increase of submissions in recent years. The continental probability of presence model correctly predicts approximately 75% of the recorded presences, but fails to predict a fairly specific category of recorded presence in areas where the records are probably opportunistic and not likely to lead to

  14. Patterns in the Physical, Chemical, and Biological Composition of Icelandic Lakes and the Dominant Factors Controlling Variability Across Watersheds (United States)

    Greco, A.; Strock, K.; Edwards, B. R.


    Fourteen lakes were sampled in the southern and western area of Iceland in June of 2017. The southern systems, within the Eastern Volcanic Zone, have minimal soil development and active volcanoes that produce ash input to lakes. Lakes in the Western Volcanic Zone were more diverse and located in older bedrock with more extensively weathered soil. Physical variables (temperature, oxygen concentration, and water clarity), chemical variables (pH, conductivity, dissolved and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and dissolved organic carbon concentration), and biological variables (algal biomass) were compared across the lakes sampled in these geographic regions. There was a large range in lake characteristics, including five to eighteen times higher algal biomass in the southern systems that experience active ash input to lakes. The lakes located in the Eastern Volcanic Zone also had higher conductivity and lower pH, especially in systems receiving substantial geothermal input. These results were analyzed in the context of more extensive lake sampling efforts across Iceland (46 lakes) to determine defining characteristics of lakes in each region and to identify variables that drive heterogeneous patterns in physical, chemical, and biological lake features within each region. Coastal systems, characterized by high conductivity, and glacially-fed systems, characterized by high iron concentrations, were unique from lakes in all other regions. Clustering and principal component analyses revealed that lake type (plateau, valley, spring-fed, and direct-runoff) was not the primary factor explaining variability in lake chemistry outside of the coastal and glacial lake types. Instead, lakes differentiated along a gradient of iron concentration and total nitrogen concentration. The physical and chemical properties of subarctic lakes are especially susceptible to both natural and human-induced environmental impacts. However, relatively little is known about the

  15. Long-term dust aerosol production from natural sources in Iceland. (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur


    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times. The aim of this paper is to place Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long-term frequency of dust storm events in northeast Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in northeast Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the northeastern erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the northeastern deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and Aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland, which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust may contribute to the Arctic air pollution. Long-term records of meteorological dust observations from Northeast Iceland indicate the frequency of dust events from Icelandic deserts. The research involves a 60-year period and

  16. [Changes in myocardial infarction incidence and mortality in Iceland.]. (United States)

    Sigfússon, N; Sigurðsson, G; Agnarsson, U; Guðmundsdóttir, I I; Stefánsdóttir, I; Sigvaldason, H; Guðnason, V


    According to public health reports ischaemic heart disease was an uncommon cause of death in Iceland at the beginning of the last century. This death rate increased steadily until the ninety-eighties whereafter it leveled off and started to decline. The objective of the present study is to assess in detail the changes in myocardial infarction attack, incidence and death rate as well as case fatality. Crude death rate from ischaemic heart disease is available from the Statistical Bureau of Iceland from 1911 to 1996 and age and sex standardized death rate from 1951. In this paper, however, the material is mainly from the MONICA Project, a multinational study of myocardial infarction under the auspices of the World Health Organization. The study, in which Iceland has participated since 1981, registers all myocardial infarctions in people aged 25-74 years in the whole country. The registration is performed according to standardized criteria and external quality control was applied throughout by WHO designated quality control centers. The registration now covers the period 1981-1998. The crude death rate in ischaemic heart disease in both sexes combined increased steadily until about 1980 when it accounted for about 30% of deaths. Age and sex specific death rate from these diseases increased from 1951 to about 1970, leveled off for the next 10 years and has since decreased. The MONICA data show a decline of death rate from myocardial infarction of 57% in men aged 25-74 during 1981-1998 and a 51% decline in women. Incidence rate has declined by 40% and 34% in men and women respectively and attack rate by 49% and 44%. Incidence, death rate and case fatality in myocardial infarction in Iceland compares favorably with other European countries. Myocardial infarction incidence and death rates have been declining in Iceland during the last two decades. Case fatality is now among the lowest compared to other countries. Preventive measures are most likely to further reduce

  17. People living under threat of volcanic hazard in southern Iceland: vulnerability and risk perception (United States)

    Jóhannesdóttir, G.; Gísladóttir, G.


    Residents in the village of Vík and in the farming community of Álftaver in southern Iceland are living with the threat of volcanic hazards. The highly active subglacial volcano Katla has erupted approximately twice per century since the beginning of settlement around 874 AD. The last major eruption was in 1918 and Katla has recently entered an agitated stage. The purpose of this research was to (1) review residents' responses in relation to vulnerability, (2) examine their risk perception, preparedness and mitigation in relation to an eruption of Katla, and (3) investigate the public and the representative of the local authorities and emergency manager's knowledge of the official evacuation plan. In 2004, we conducted in-depth, face-to-face interviews with local residents using a snowball sample technique. All participants were permanent residents of the two communities, between the ages of 25-95 and most had lived in the area their entire lives. Regardless of the residents' knowledge about past volcanic activity of Katla and the associated future risk, many residents were doubtful about the imminent eruption forecast by scientists and they believed that the volcano is no longer active. In both communities, different social, cultural and economic factors played a central role in how people perceived natural hazards and how they dealt with the fact that their lives and livelihoods could be at risk. The participants had good knowledge about the existing evacuation plan and had participated in evacuation exercises. However, they had not made personal mitigation or preparedness plans in the event of a future eruption. In contrast to the residents of Vík, the inhabitants in Álftaver are concerned about the evacuation process and found it very confusing; they neither found the emergency plan nor the proposed methods for risk communication relevant for their farming community. The perception of the inhabitants, especially in Álftaver, does not correspond to those

  18. Thermal surveillance of Cascade Range volcanoes using ERTS-1 multispectral scanner, aircraft imaging systems, and ground-based data communication platforms (United States)

    Friedman, J. D.; Frank, D. G.; Preble, D.; Painter, J. E.


    A combination of infrared images depicting areas of thermal emission and ground calibration points have proved to be particularly useful in plotting time-dependent changes in surface temperatures and radiance and in delimiting areas of predominantly convective heat flow to the earth's surface in the Cascade Range and on Surtsey Volcano, Iceland. In an integrated experiment group using ERTS-1 multispectral scanner (MSS) and aircraft infrared imaging systems in conjunction with multiple thermistor arrays, volcano surface temperatures are relayed daily to Washington via data communication platform (DCP) transmitters and ERTS-1. ERTS-1 MSS imagery has revealed curvilinear structures at Lassen, the full extent of which have not been previously mapped. Interestingly, the major surface thermal manifestations at Lassen are aligned along these structures, particularly in the Warner Valley.

  19. Icelandic National Culture compared to National Cultures of 25 OECD member states using VSM94


    Svala Guðmundsdóttir; Þórhallur Guðlaugsson; Gylfi Dalmann Aðalsteinsson


    Researchers such as Hofstede (2002) and House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman and Gupta, (2004) have defined well-known cultural clusters such as, Anglo, Germanic, and Nordic cultural clusters. However, Iceland was not incorporated in these studies and therefore the research question of this paper is: In relation to Hofstede´s five cultural dimensions where does Iceland differ in relation to 25 of the OECD member states using VSM94? A questionnaire was sent to students at the University of Iceland,...

  20. Experience of vaccination with inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines in Iceland. (United States)

    Gudnadóttir, M


    Iceland, as a few other European countries, has used inactivated vaccine against poliomyelitis from the beginning in 1956. No cases of paralytic polio occurred since 1960. For 17 years neither isolations of poliovirus nor suspected cases of the clinical disease have been recorded. Studies on neutralizing antibodies in sera of vaccinees were not too encouraging after 4 injections. A 5th vaccination of IPV was therefore given to those children who lacked antibodies to any type of poliovirus. One month after the 5th injection 70% had antibodies against all 3 types of poliovirus and only 2% lacked antibodies against both types 1 and 3. In countries where no virus to boost immunity exists any longer during the life of an individual it may be necessary to secure booster effects at regular intervals after primary vaccination and later in life. This will be included in the vaccination schedule against polio in Iceland.

  1. Magma chamber processes in central volcanic systems of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Tegner, Christian


    New field work and petrological investigations of the largest gabbro outcrop in Iceland, the Hvalnesfjall gabbro of the 6-7 Ma Austurhorn intrusive complex, have established a stratigraphic sequence exceeding 800 m composed of at least 8 macrorhythmic units. The bases of the macrorhythmic units......3 of clinopyroxene and magnetite indicative of magma replenishment. Some macrorhythmic units show mineral trends indicative of up-section fractional crystallisation over up to 100 m, whereas others show little variation. Two populations of plagioclase crystals (large, An-rich and small, less An...... olivine basalts from Iceland that had undergone about 20% crystallisation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene and that the macrorhythmic units formed from thin magma layers not exceeding 200-300 m. Such a "mushy" magma chamber is akin to volcanic plumbing systems in settings of high magma supply...

  2. Icelandic Public Pensions: Why time is running out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the Icelandic public sector pension system enjoying a third party guarantee. Defined benefit funds fundamentally differ from defined contribution pension funds without a third party guarantee as is the case with the Icelandic general labour market pension funds. We probe the special nature of the public sector pension funds and make a comparison to the defined contribution pension funds of the general labour market. We explore the financial and economic effects of the third party guarantee of the funds, their investment performance and other relevant factors. We seek an answer to the question why time is running out for the country’s largest pension fund that currently faces the prospect of becoming empty by the year 2022.

  3. Some impressions after a quick visit to Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mejía


    Full Text Available When I write a title such as the one you have just read, I cannot help remembering the severe critique I once wrote on an article from a colleague of mine (and certainly not of secondary importance who, after travelling through all of Latin America during a fortnight wrote and published an extensive article on the continent, its problems and even possible solutions to those problems. I have only been for little more than ten days in Iceland. I am not aware of the problems of the place and I have of course no solutions whatever to suggest. The following pages only intend to express what the title says. “some impressions” and nothing more. However I dare say that perhaps some impressions at least may be interesting to other readers and also to a certain extent also useful to the Icelanders themselves.

  4. K-Ar ages of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukui, Masashi; Nishido, Hirotsugu; Nagao, Keisuke.


    Seventeen volcanic rocks of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano, in southwest Japan, were dated by the K-Ar method to clarify the age of volcanic activity in this region and the evolution of these composite volcanoes. The eruption ages of the Hiruzen volcano group were revealed to be about 0.9 Ma to 0.5 Ma, those of the Daisen volcano to be about 1 Ma to very recent. These results are consistent with geological and paleomagnetic data of previous workers. Effusion of lavas in the area was especially vigorous at 0.5+-0.1 Ma. It was generally considered that the Hiruzen volcano group had erupted during latest Pliocene to early Quaternary and it is older than the Daisen volcano, mainly from their topographic features. However, their overlapping eruption ages and petrographical similarities of the lavas of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano suggest that they may be included in the Daisen volcano in a broad sense. The aphyric andesite, whose eruption age had been correlated to Wakurayama andesite (6.34+-0.19 Ma) in Matsue city and thought to be the basement of the Daisen volcano, was dated to be 0.46+-0.04 Ma. It indicates that petrographically similar aphyric andesite erupted sporadically at different time and space in the San'in district. (author)

  5. Meteorological Situations Favouring the Development of Dust Plumes over Iceland (United States)

    Schepanski, K.; Szodry, K.


    The knowledge on mineral dust emitted at high latitudes is limited, but its impact on the polar environments is divers. Within a warming climate, dust emitted from regions in cold climates is expected to increase due to the retreat of the ice sheet and increasing melting rates. Therefore, and for its extensive impacts on different aspects of the climate system, a better understanding of the atmospheric dust life-cycle at high latitudes/cold climates in general, and the spatio-temporal distribution of dust sources in particular, are essential. At high-latitudes, glacio-fluvial sediments as found on river flood plains e.g. supplied by glaciers are prone to wind erosion when dry and bare. In case of the occurrence of strong winds, sediments are blown out and dust plumes develop. As dust uplift is controlled by soil surface characteristics, the availability of suitable sediments, and atmospheric conditions, an interannual variability in dust source activity is expected. We investigated atmospheric circulation patterns that favour the development of dust plumes over Iceland, which presents a well-known dust source at high latitudes. Using the atmosphere model COSMO (COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling), we analysed the wind speed distribution over the Iceland region for identified and documented dust cases. As one outcome of the study, the position of the Icelandic low, the anticyclones located over Northern Europe, and the resulting pressure gradients are of particular relevance. The interaction of the synoptic-scale winds with the Icelandic orography may locally enhance the wind speeds and thus foster local dust emission. Results from this study suggest that the atmospheric circulation determined by the pressure pattern is of particular relevance for the formation of dust plumes entering the North Atlantic.

  6. Religion, modernity and foreign nurses in Iceland 1896-1930. (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Kristin; Malchau, Susanne


    This paper describes the influence of foreign nurses upon the development of modern healthcare services and the nursing profession in Iceland in the first three decades of the twentieth century. It represents a case study of how new ideas, traditions and practices migrated between countries and cultures in the twentieth century. Icelandic society was, at that time, still premodern in many ways. Healthcare institutions were almost nonexistent and the means of production were undeveloped. It was into this context that the idea of nursing as a professional activity was introduced. Groups of nurses, the Catholic Sisters of St Joseph of Chambéry and secular nurses, mainly from Denmark, came to the country to organize and provide healthcare services, of which nursing was of central importance. These groups were diasporas, in that they brought traditions and practices from other cultures. The Sisters of St Joseph built, owned and ran the first modern hospital in the country. The Danish nurses introduced nursing as a specialized field of work, in leprosy and tuberculosis nursing and by initiating public health nursing services. They were instrumental in promoting education as an important condition to becoming a nurse, and the development of an Icelandic nursing profession. These nurses were generally respected by the Icelandic people for their contributions and were received with interest and appreciation. The healthcare services introduced by these different groups of nurses reflected modern ways of living and a commitment to professionalism, which involved providing assistance to patients based on the best knowledge available and a philosophy of respect and care.

  7. Aeolian transport of Icelandic dust: a look from Space (United States)

    Smejda, Ladislav; Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Hejcman, Michal


    Iceland represents a unique type of Arctic environment where glaciers capture the precipitation, consequently forming large deserts on the leeward side. Deserts are subject to strong winds and dust is reported to be suspended at least 135 days a year. Icelandic dust has seven major dust sources in extensive deserts, consisting mainly of volcanic glass. In this paper, we address a new approach to the question of the island's contribution to atmospheric dust transport in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. We explore the strengths and limitations of satellite imagery for the study of high altitude dust storm phenomenon, and more specifically the potential of freely available set of tools for remote sensing and spatial data analysis, the Earth Engine provided by Google. This cloud-based geospatial processing platform requires only a web browser on the side of a user, and it allows writing powerful and versatile algorithms for scientific analysis of spatial data. We demonstrate how this approach can be applied to mapping of Icelandic dust sources and studying the wind erosion and transport of particles in the atmosphere in high latitudes.

  8. The involvement of family in child protection cases in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Haugen


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the involvement of families in child protection cases in Iceland, as well as to shed light on the attitudes of child protection workers on the importance of including families while working on child protection cases. The study is part of an international comparative analysis called: Social Work with Families: Social Workers’ Constructions of Family in Professional Practice. This article only addresses the Icelandic segment of the research. In the study, qualitative methods were used and three focus groups were conducted, in which the same three-step vignette about a child protection case was presented. The findings highlighted how difficult child protection workers found it to define the family. The main element is that family are those individuals closest to the child and connected to them through emotional ties, as Icelandic child protection workers seem to strive to involve family in child protection cases. However, there are signs which show that when working with more complicated cases the definition of a family becomes narrower, and involvement is restricted mostly to parents and grandparents. The findings also show that attitudes toward fathers differ from those toward mothers. The mother is expected to support and create security for the child, while the father is judged mostly on his violent behaviour and is not automatically regarded as providing support or actively taking responsibility for his child.

  9. [Attitudes to food and eating in an Icelandic cohort]. (United States)

    Sigurbjornsdottir, Olof Drofn; Torfadottir, Johanna Eyrun; Olafsdottir, Anna Sigridur; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey


    Few studies exist on eating attitudes and well-being of adults in Iceland. In most Western societies great emphasis is placed on a lean and fit body, nevertheless the number of people gaining weigt keeps increasing. Such circumstances may cause discomfort related to food and food choice. The aim of this study was to examine attitudes towards food and eating among Icelandic adults. We used data from the Icelandic national health survey of 5,861 adults, age 18-79, conducted in 2007. A numerical assessment tool for measuring eating attitude was established, based on answers to questions on eating attitude. We used binary regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for unhealthy eating attitude according to different demographic factors. The prevalence of unhealthy eating attitude according to the measurement tool used in the study was 17% among participants, 22% for women and 11% for men. Unhealthy eating attitude was most prevalent in the age-group 18-29 years (36% of women, 15% of men), among those dissatisfied with their body weight (35% of women, 22% of men) and among those defined as obese (38% of women, 23% of men). Our data show that women are more prone to express unhealthy eating attitude compared to men. Those of younger age, with weight dissatisfaction and with high body mass index are positively associated with unhealthy eating attitude, irrespective of gender. Diet, Dietary restraint, Public Health, Eating attitude, Body weight satisfaction. Correspondence: Laufey Steingrimsdottir,

  10. Cutaneous melanoma in Iceland: changing Breslow's tumour thickness. (United States)

    Stefansson, H; Tryggvadottir, L; Olafsdottir, E J; Mooney, E; Olafsson, J H; Sigurgeirsson, B; Jonasson, J G


    The incidence of cutaneous melanoma increased dramatically in Iceland during the last two decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to investigate the trend in Breslow's tumour thickness during the years 1980-2009. The population-based Icelandic Cancer Registry provided information on all cutaneous melanomas diagnosed in the country during the study period, a total of 854 cases. Incidence rates were stratified according to gender, age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis and Breslow's tumour thickness. When stratified by gender and age, the incidence of thin (≤1.0 mm) melanomas increased dramatically in all subgroups. The increase in thin (≤1.0 mm) melanomas was more apparent in women or 2.6 per 100,000 in 1980-1989 to 13.3 in 2000-2009 and especially in young (4 mm) did not increase. The median Breslow's thickness declined from 2.15 mm in 1980-1989 to 0.9 mm in 2000-2009 in males and from 1.0 to 0.6 mm in females for the same period (P Iceland should be directed at older individuals, and that older men may need special attention regarding suspicious nevi. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Midwifery in Iceland: From vocational training to university education. (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Olof A; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Gottfredsdottir, Helga


    Midwifery education is a foundation for health professionals' competence in providing quality healthcare for the benefit of women, their families and society. This paper describes midwifery and the development of midwifery education in Iceland. It examines policy and extensive reforms, from hospital-based vocational training in midwifery to an academic university education, and the impact on the scope of midwifery practice in Iceland. The university-based programme, with its emphasis on autonomy of the midwife, seems to have affected the context of home birth and strengthened midwives' role in primary healthcare. Education reform with a focus on evidence-based practice and midwife-led continuity of care has had limited influence within the hospital system, where the structure of care is fragmented and childbirth is under threat of increasing interventions. Research is needed on the role of education in supporting evidence-based practice, normal childbirth and reproductive health in the Icelandic context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia (United States)


    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  13. Volcano Flank Terraces on Mars (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Murray, J. B.; Troll, V. R.


    Flank terraces are bulge-like structures that occur on the slopes of at least nine large shield volcanoes on Mars, and three on Earth. Terraces have a convex-upward, convex-outward morphology, with an imbricate "fish scale" stacking pattern in plan. They occur at all elevations, are scale-invariant structures, and have similar proportions to thrust faults on Earth. Suggested mechanisms of formation include elastic self-loading, lithospheric flexure, magma chamber tumescence, flank relaxation, and shallow gravitational slumping. Terrace geometries predicted by most of these mechanisms do not agree with our observations, however. Only lithospheric flexure can fully account for terrace geometry on Mars and Earth, and so is the most likely candidate mechanism for flank terrace formation. To verify this hypothesis, we conducted scaled analogue modelling experiments, and investigated the structures formed during flexure. Cones of a sand-gypsum mix were placed upon a deep layer of silicone gel, to simulate volcanic loads upon viscoelastic Martian crust. Key parameters were varied across our experimental program. In all cases convex topographic structures developed on the cones' flanks, arranged in an imbricate, overlapping plan-view pattern. These structures closely resemble flank terraces observed on Mars, and our results provide for a basic kinematic model of terrace formation. Analogue volcanoes experienced a decrease in upper surface area whilst volume was conserved; the contractional surface strain was accommodated by outward verging, circumferentially striking thrusts. The morphology of experimental structures suggests an orientation of the principal stress axes of σ1 = radial, σ2 = concentric, and σ3 = vertical. Elsewhere (J. B. Murray et al., this volume) we detail the relationship between flank terraces and other structures such as pit craters and gräben, using Ascraeus Mons as a case study. We suggest that terraces may influence the distribution and location

  14. Volcanic Hazard Education through Virtual Field studies of Vesuvius and Laki Volcanoes (United States)

    Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.


    Volcanic eruptions pose significant hazards to human populations and have the potential to cause significant economic impacts as shown by the recent ash-producing eruptions in Iceland. Demonstrating both the local and global impact of eruptions is important for developing an appreciation of the scale of hazards associated with volcanic activity. In order to address this need, Web-based virtual field exercises at Vesuvius volcano in Italy and Laki volcano in Iceland have been developed as curriculum enhancements for undergraduate geology classes. The exercises are built upon previous research by the authors dealing with the 79 AD explosive eruption of Vesuvius and the 1783 lava flow eruption of Laki. Quicktime virtual reality images (QTVR), video clips, user-controlled Flash animations and interactive measurement tools are used to allow students to explore archeological and geological sites, collect field data in an electronic field notebook, and construct hypotheses about the impacts of the eruptions on the local and global environment. The QTVR images provide 360o views of key sites where students can observe volcanic deposits and formations in the context of a defined field area. Video sequences from recent explosive and effusive eruptions of Carribean and Hawaiian volcanoes are used to illustrate specific styles of eruptive activity, such as ash fallout, pyroclastic flows and surges, lava flows and their effects on the surrounding environment. The exercises use an inquiry-based approach to build critical relationships between volcanic processes and the deposits that they produce in the geologic record. A primary objective of the exercises is to simulate the role of a field volcanologist who collects information from the field and reconstructs the sequence of eruptive processes based on specific features of the deposits. Testing of the Vesuvius and Laki exercises in undergraduate classes from a broad spectrum of educational institutions shows a preference for the

  15. Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows (United States)

    Robinson, Joel E.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.


    Most of Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows are found within the Newberry National Volcanic Monument in central Oregon. Established November 5, 1990, the monument is managed by the U.S. Forest Service as part of the Deschutes National Forest. Since 2011, a series of aerial surveys over the monument collected elevation data using lidar (light detection and ranging) technology, which uses lasers to directly measure the ground surface. These data record previously unseen detail in the volcano’s numerous lava flows and vents. On average, a laser return was collected from the ground’s surface every 2.17 feet (ft) with ±1.3 inches vertical precision.

  16. Karymsky volcano eruptive plume properties based on MISR multi-angle imagery and the volcanological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. B. Flower


    Full Text Available Space-based operational instruments are in unique positions to monitor volcanic activity globally, especially in remote locations or where suborbital observing conditions are hazardous. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR provides hyper-stereo imagery, from which the altitude and microphysical properties of suspended atmospheric aerosols can be derived. These capabilities are applied to plumes emitted at Karymsky volcano from 2000 to 2017. Observed plumes from Karymsky were emitted predominantly to an altitude of 2–4 km, with occasional events exceeding 6 km. MISR plume observations were most common when volcanic surface manifestations, such as lava flows, were identified by satellite-based thermal anomaly detection. The analyzed plumes predominantly contained large (1.28 µm effective radius, strongly absorbing particles indicative of ash-rich eruptions. Differences between the retrievals for Karymsky volcano's ash-rich plumes and the sulfur-rich plumes emitted during the 2014–2015 eruption of Holuhraun (Iceland highlight the ability of MISR to distinguish particle types from such events. Observed plumes ranged from 30 to 220 km in length and were imaged at a spatial resolution of 1.1 km. Retrieved particle properties display evidence of downwind particle fallout, particle aggregation and chemical evolution. In addition, changes in plume properties retrieved from the remote-sensing observations over time are interpreted in terms of shifts in eruption dynamics within the volcano itself, corroborated to the extent possible with suborbital data. Plumes emitted at Karymsky prior to 2010 display mixed emissions of ash and sulfate particles. After 2010, all plumes contain consistent particle components, indicative of entering an ash-dominated regime. Post-2010 event timing, relative to eruption phase, was found to influence the optical properties of observed plume particles, with light absorption varying in a consistent

  17. Volcano geodesy: The search for magma reservoirs and the formation of eruptive vents (United States)

    Dvorak, J.J.; Dzurisin, D.


    Routine geodetic measurements are made at only a few dozen of the world's 600 or so active volcanoes, even though these measurements have proven to be a reliable precursor of eruptions. The pattern and rate of surface displacement reveal the depth and rate of pressure increase within shallow magma reservoirs. This process has been demonstrated clearly at Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Long Valley caldera, California; Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy; Rabaul caldera, Papua New Guinea; and Aira caldera and nearby Sakurajima, Japan. Slower and lesser amounts of surface displacement at Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming, are attributed to changes in a hydrothermal system that overlies a crustal magma body. The vertical and horizontal dimensions of eruptive fissures, as well as the amount of widening, have been determined at Kilauea, Hawaii; Etna, Italy; Tolbachik, Kamchatka; Krafla, Iceland; and Asal-Ghoubbet, Djibouti, the last a segment of the East Africa Rift Zone. Continuously recording instruments, such as tiltmeters, extensometers, and dilatometers, have recorded horizontal and upward growth of eruptive fissures, which grew at rates of hundreds of meters per hour, at Kilauea; Izu-Oshima, Japan; Teishi Knoll seamount, Japan; and Piton de la Fournaise, Re??union Island. In addition, such instruments have recorded the hour or less of slight ground movement that preceded small explosive eruptions at Sakurajima and presumed sudden gas emissions at Galeras, Colombia. The use of satellite geodesy, in particular the Global Positioning System, offers the possibility of revealing changes in surface strain both local to a volcano and over a broad region that includes the volcano.

  18. The 2014 eruptions of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Haney, Matthew M.; Wallace, Kristi; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Schneider, David J.


    Pavlof Volcano is one of the most frequently active volcanoes in the Aleutian Island arc, having erupted more than 40 times since observations were first recorded in the early 1800s . The volcano is located on the Alaska Peninsula (lat 55.4173° N, long 161.8937° W), near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. The towns and villages closest to the volcano are Cold Bay, Nelson Lagoon, Sand Point, and King Cove, which are all within 90 kilometers (km) of the volcano (fig. 1). Pavlof is a symmetrically shaped stratocone that is 2,518 meters (m) high, and has about 2,300 m of relief. The volcano supports a cover of glacial ice and perennial snow roughly 2 to 4 cubic kilometers (km3) in volume, which is mantled by variable amounts of tephra fall, rockfall debris, and pyroclastic-flow deposits produced during historical eruptions. Typical Pavlof eruptions are characterized by moderate amounts of ash emission, lava fountaining, spatter-fed lava flows, explosions, and the accumulation of unstable mounds of spatter on the upper flanks of the volcano. The accumulation and subsequent collapse of spatter piles on the upper flanks of the volcano creates hot granular avalanches, which erode and melt snow and ice, and thereby generate watery debris-flow and hyperconcentrated-flow lahars. Seismic instruments were first installed on Pavlof Volcano in the early 1970s, and since then eruptive episodes have been better characterized and specific processes have been documented with greater certainty. The application of remote sensing techniques, including the use of infrasound data, has also aided the study of more recent eruptions. Although Pavlof Volcano is located in a remote part of Alaska, it is visible from Cold Bay, Sand Point, and Nelson Lagoon, making distal observations of eruptive activity possible, weather permitting. A busy air-travel corridor that is utilized by a numerous transcontinental and regional air carriers passes near Pavlof Volcano. The frequency of air travel

  19. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    association between the mud volcanoes suggests different nature and depth of parent layers and fluids feeding the mud volcanoes in gulf of Cadiz. Key word: Mud volcano, clay mineralogy, geochemistry, mud breccias, North Moroccan Atlantic margin. INTRODUCTION. The study of marine mud volcanoes is of large interest ...

  20. Ash generation and distribution from the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Gudrún; Björnsson, Halldór; Prata, Fred J.; Oddsson, Björn; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Hayward, Chris L.; Stevenson, John A.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg


    The 39-day long eruption at the summit of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April–May 2010 was of modest size but ash was widely dispersed. By combining data from ground surveys and remote sensing we show that the erupted material was 4.8±1.2·1011 kg (benmoreite and trachyte, dense rock equivalent volume 0.18±0.05 km3). About 20% was lava and water-transported tephra, 80% was airborne tephra (bulk volume 0.27 km3) transported by 3–10 km high plumes. The airborne tephra was mostly fine ash (diameter Iceland with the remainder carried towards south and east, detected over ~7 million km2 in Europe and the North Atlantic. Of order 1010 kg (2%) are considered to have been transported longer than 600–700 km with <108 kg (<0.02%) reaching mainland Europe. PMID:22893851

  1. Geophysical Exploration on the Structure of Volcanoes: Two Case Histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumoto, A. S.


    Geophysical methods of exploration were used to determine the internal structure of Koolau Volcano in Hawaii and of Rabaul Volcano in New Guinea. By use of gravity and seismic data the central vent or plug of Koolau Volcano was outlined. Magnetic data seem to indicate that the central plug is still above the Curie Point. If so, the amount of heat energy available is tremendous. As for Rabaul Volcano, it is located in a region characterized by numerous block faulting. The volcano is only a part of a large block that has subsided. Possible geothermal areas exist near the volcano but better potential areas may exist away from the volcano.

  2. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System (United States)

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.


    As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at

  3. Low-Ti basalts from the Faroe Islands constrain the early Iceland depleted plume component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    -Toft, J, Kingsley, R., Schilling, J.G., 2000: Depleted Iceland mantle plume geochemical signature: Artifact of multicomponent mixing? Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems vol.1. Thirlwall, M.F., Gee, M.A.M., Taylor, R.N., Murton, B.J., 2004: Mantle components in Iceland and adjecent ridges investigated...

  4. Pb isotope evidence for contributions from different Iceland mantle components to Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David; Stecher, Ole


    to the most radiogenic values found in recent Icelandic basalts. Furthermore, the main volume of lavas in East Greenland is displaced away from the NAEM towards this radiogenic Pb component. Thus, this ‘Iceland radiogenic Pb end-member’ component was a significant contributor to the break-up-related magmatism...

  5. Icelandic National Culture compared to National Cultures of 25 OECD member states using VSM94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svala Guðmundsdóttir


    Full Text Available Researchers such as Hofstede (2002 and House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman and Gupta, (2004 have defined well-known cultural clusters such as, Anglo, Germanic, and Nordic cultural clusters. However, Iceland was not incorporated in these studies and therefore the research question of this paper is: In relation to Hofstede´s five cultural dimensions where does Iceland differ in relation to 25 of the OECD member states using VSM94? A questionnaire was sent to students at the University of Iceland, School of Social Sciences by e-mail in October 2013. The five dimensions of national culture were measured using scales developed by Hofstede called VSM 94. The results indicated that Iceland differs considerably from nations such as Slovakia, Japan, India, Thailand and China, which were found high in PDI and the MAS dimension while Iceland was found to be high in IDV and low in PDI. When considering the 25 OECD countries, Iceland is more similar to the Anglo cluster, C3, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdon, Australia and United States than the Nordic cluster, C1 i.e. Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Iceland is similar to those countries in relation to high IDV, low PDI but differs in the dimensions MAS and UAI where Iceland scores higher.

  6. U.S. and Icelandic College Student Attitudes toward Relationships/Sexuality (United States)

    Freysteinsdóttir, Freydís Jóna; Skúlason, Sigurgrímur; Halligan, Caitlin; Knox, David


    Seven hundred and twenty-two undergraduates from a large southeastern university in the U.S. and 368 undergraduates from The University of Iceland in the Reykjavik, Iceland completed a 100 item Internet questionnaire revealing their (mostly white and 20-24 years old) attitudes on various relationship and sexual issues. Significant differences…

  7. Internationally Educated Teachers and Student Teachers in Iceland: Two Qualitative Studies (United States)

    Ragnarsdottir, Hanna


    This article draws upon two qualitative studies with internationally educated teachers and teacher assistants in preschools in Iceland as well as ethnic minority student teachers at the Iceland University of Education. The common research question in both studies is whether the experiences of these teachers reveal barriers to integration within…

  8. Holland in Iceland Revisited: An Emic Approach to Evaluating U.S. Vocational Interest Models (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sif; Rounds, James; Su, Rong


    An emic approach was used to test the structural validity and applicability of Holland's (1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) model in Iceland. Archival data from the development of the Icelandic Interest Inventory (Einarsdottir & Rounds, 2007) were used in the present investigation. The data…

  9. Educational Leadership and Market Values: A Study of School Principals in Iceland (United States)

    Lárusdóttir, Steinunn Helga


    This article reports on the findings of a larger case study about the impact of values on educational leaders in Iceland. The environment of Icelandic schools has changed considerably in recent years. These changes have affected schools and changed the nature and scope of principals' work. Scholars have argued that these changes are primarily…

  10. Provenance variation in subalpine fir grown as an exotic tree species in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skúlason, Brynjar

    In Denmark and Iceland, there has been increasing interest in the use of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) as an exotic species; in Denmark as a niche product for the Christmas tree market and in Iceland as the main Christmas tree species. A field test with 26 provenances of subalpine...

  11. Volcanoes (United States)

    ... About . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Are You Prepared? Information for Specific Groups Disaster Evacuation Centers Infection Control Infection Control Guidance for Community ...

  12. Iceland as a demonstrator for a transition to low carbon economy? (United States)

    Asbjornsson, Einar Jon; Stefansson, Hlynur; Finger, David Christian


    The energy supply in Iceland is quite unique, about 85% of the total primary energy is coming from renewable resources. Nevertheless, the ecological footprint of an average Icelander is with 6.5 worlds, one of the highest worldwide and the energy consumption per capita is about 7 times higher than the European average. Recent developments have shown that there is a great potential to reduce the footprint and develop towards low carbon economy. With its small population, well educated and governed society and clear system boundaries to the outside world, Iceland is a good research laboratory and an ideal demonstrator for a transition towards a low carbon economy. This presentation will outline how several innovative research projects at Reykjavik University could lead Iceland towards a sustainable and low carbon economy. The presentations will conclude with a visionary outlook how Iceland can become a demonstration nation towards a prosperous, low carbon and sustainable economy, helping stabilize global warming at an acceptable level.

  13. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot (United States)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.


    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  14. [Fluctuations in unemployment and disability in Iceland 1992-2006]. (United States)

    Thorlacius, Sigurdur; Olafsson, Stefán


    To examine and explain the effect of unemployment on the number of disability pensioners in Iceland by examining changes in this relationship from 1992 to 2006. Information on gender and place of residence of new recipients of disability pension in Iceland and corresponding information on unemployment for each year in the period 1992 to 2006. The variables were correlated and disaggregated by gender and regions within Iceland. Two big fluctuations occurred in the rate of new disability pension receivers during the study period, with significant increases in disability from 1993 to 1995 and again from 2003 onwards. Both of these fluctuations are associated with considerable increases in the unemployment rate. The extent of new disability pensioners declined again when the level of unemployment went down, even though not to the same relative extent. In the upswing from 2003 a delay of about a year in the increase of disability pensioners' numbers, following the rise in unemployment rate, became more prominent and the overall rate of new disability pensioners reached new highs. The relationship applies equally to the capital area as well as the provincial areas as a whole. There is though a small deviation in three of the seven provincial areas, with less decline of the disability rate on the downswing. Health and capability condition determine the overall disability rate, but fluctuations over time are related to environmental conditions in the labour market, especially the unemployment rate. The features of the welfare system, especially the benefit and rehabilitation system, as well as the extent and character of activation measures in the labour market also influence the number of disability pensioners. A new method of disability assessment from late 1999 may have had some influence on the relationship during the latter part of the period and increasing applications from people with mental and psychiatric deficiencies seems to have had a significant influence on

  15. [Outcomes of acute type A aortic dissection repairs in Iceland]. (United States)

    Geirsson, Arnar; Melvinsdottir, Inga Hlif; Arnorsson, Thorarinn; Myrdal, Gunnar; Gudbjartsson, Tomas


    Acute type A aortic dissection is a life-threatening disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment is challenging and requires emergency surgery. This study presents for the first time the short- and long-term outcome of acute type A aortic dissection repairs in Iceland. A retrospective review of 45 patients (mean age 60.7 ± 13.9 years, 68.9% male) treated for type A aortic dissection at Landspitali University Hospital between 1992 and 2014. Data was gathered from medical records about known risk factors, presenting symptoms, type of procedure, complications and operative mortality. Out of 45 operations the majority (73.3%) was performed in the second half of the study period. Nearly all patients presented with chest pain and 46.7% were in shock on arrival. Malperfusion syndrome was apparent in 26.7% of cases. A variety of operative methods were used, including hypothermic circulatory arrest in 31.1% of the cases and one-third of patients needed aortic root replacement. Reoperation rate for postoperative bleeding was 29.3% and perioperative stroke occurred in 14.6% of patients. The 30-day mortality rate was 22.2% (10 patients) and 5- and 10-year survival was 71.4 ± 8.2% and 65.4 ± 9.4%, respectively. The short-term outcomes of surgical repair for acute type A aortic dissection in Iceland is comparable to neighbouring countries, including 30-day mortality and long-term survival. Complications, however, are common, especially reoperations for bleeding. 1Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Landspitali University Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland. Aortic dissection type A, aortic aneurysm, open heart surgery, complications, operative mortality, survival. Correspondence: Arnar Geirsson,

  16. [Outcome of surgical treatment for Pancoast lung carcinoma in Iceland]. (United States)

    Fridriksson, Björn Már; Jónsson, Steinn; Oskarsdottir, Gudrún Nína; Orrason, Andri Wilberg; Ísaksson, Helgi J; Gudbjartsson, Tomas


    Pancoast tumors are lung carcinomas that invade the apical chest wall and surrounding structures. Treatment is complex and often involves surgery together with radio- and chemotherapy. We studied the outcome of surgical resection for Pancoast tumors in Iceland. A retrospective study including all patients that underwent resection of a Pancoast tumor with curative intent in Iceland in the years 1991-2010. Data on symptoms, complications, TNM-stage, relapse and survival were analyzed. Twelve patients were operated on; 7 on the right lung. Shoulder pain (n=5) and/or chest pain (n=3), cough (n=6) and weight loss (n=5) were the most common presenting symptoms. Adenocarcinoma (n=5) and squamous cell carcinoma (n=4) were the most frequent histological types. Average tumor size was 5,9 cm (range: 2,8-15). Five cases were stage IIB and 7 stage IIIA according to operative staging. In 10 cases (83%) the surgical margins were free of tumor. All patients survived surgery and only one patient suffered a major operative complication, an intraoperative bleeding. In one case induction chemo-radiation prior to surgery was administrated, and 8 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. Recurrent disease was diagnosed in 9 patients; four had local or regional recurrence, four had distant metastases and one patient was diagnosed with both local and distant recurrences simultaneously. Survival at 5 years was 33% and median survival was 27,5 months (range: 4-181). Operative and short-term outcomes for patients with Pancoast tumors in Iceland are excellent. However, long-term outcomes are not as favorable and recurrence rate is high compared to other studies, possibly due to incomplete preoperative staging and less use of chemo-radiation therapy prior to surgery among these patients.

  17. Family dynamics in the United States, Finland and Iceland. (United States)

    White, Marjorie A; Elder, Jennifer H; Paavilainen, Eija; Joronen, Katja; Helgadóttir, Helga L; Seidl, Ann


    Understanding the dynamics of contemporary, postmodern families and how these relate to health is critically important to nurses and other health care providers throughout the world. Much can be learned by studying not only one's own culture but also other countries. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare family dynamics of families in the United States, Finland and Iceland. To date relatively little has been published related to families in these Nordic countries. Six family dimensions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle served as the theoretical framework. Adult respondents (n = 567) purposively selected from varied community groups, completed the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Main findings from the three countries were positive family dynamics, with mutuality contributing the strongest factor to partially confirm the theoretical propositions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle. Respondents from all countries reported (1) clear communication and flexibility that contribute to mutuality; (2) younger age of respondents and increased education that were associated with more positive family dynamics; and (3) larger families associated with more negative dynamics. Mixed reports occurred according to gender, with Nordic men tending to perceive some negative dimensions. Marriage was important for more positive family dynamics only in the United States. Families in the United States and in Iceland had in common more negative family dynamics during illnesses. Problems and changes affected mostly families in the United States. In general, families in Finland and Iceland had greater strengths than in the United States. This benchmark study offers information for health practitioners to assist families, as well as contribute to the improvement of family social policies, especially in the United States.

  18. Money Talks: Gender Budgeting in the University of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finnborg S. Jónasdóttir


    Full Text Available The article addresses the financial framework, decision-making and budgeting processes of the University of Iceland from a gender perspective. The newly appointed rector of the University of Iceland (elected 2015 together with the university council is currently revising the UI system of the distribution formula of budget allocation. This provides an opportunity to examine the system which is inspired by New Public Management, with emphasis on global competition and performance based indicators. The aim of the article is to scrutinize the current system of budget allocation and distribution and its significance when it comes to gender. We ask how the, allegedly gender neutral, system plays out for different schools and disciplines and for academics in different ranks, when the gender dimension is taken into account. We draw on empirical data collected as part of the GARCIA research project, Gendering the Academy and Research combating Career Instability and Asymmetries, which is supported by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union. To shed a light on the process we focus on the male-dominated School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (SENS and the more feminised School of Social Sciences (SSS. The exploration shows that the financial framework, decision-making and budgeting processes at the University of Iceland are rather non-transparent, and biased in favour of the natural sciences. This applies to funding from the state; third party funding; the allocation of funding in the teaching part of the budgeting, as well as the research part. From the article it can be concluded that the current system contains an internal, though unintended, gender bias that needs to be corrected.

  19. Earthquake sources near Uturuncu Volcano (United States)

    Keyson, L.; West, M. E.


    Uturuncu, located in southern Bolivia near the Chile and Argentina border, is a dacitic volcano that was last active 270 ka. It is a part of the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex, which spans 50,000 km2 and is comprised of a series of ignimbrite flare-ups since ~23 ma. Two sets of evidence suggest that the region is underlain by a significant magma body. First, seismic velocities show a low velocity layer consistent with a magmatic sill below depths of 15-20 km. This inference is corroborated by high electrical conductivity between 10km and 30km. This magma body, the so called Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) is the likely source of volcanic activity in the region. InSAR studies show that during the 1990s, the volcano experienced an average uplift of about 1 to 2 cm per year. The deformation is consistent with an expanding source at depth. Though the Uturuncu region exhibits high rates of crustal seismicity, any connection between the inflation and the seismicity is unclear. We investigate the root causes of these earthquakes using a temporary network of 33 seismic stations - part of the PLUTONS project. Our primary approach is based on hypocenter locations and magnitudes paired with correlation-based relative relocation techniques. We find a strong tendency toward earthquake swarms that cluster in space and time. These swarms often last a few days and consist of numerous earthquakes with similar source mechanisms. Most seismicity occurs in the top 10 kilometers of the crust and is characterized by well-defined phase arrivals and significant high frequency content. The frequency-magnitude relationship of this seismicity demonstrates b-values consistent with tectonic sources. There is a strong clustering of earthquakes around the Uturuncu edifice. Earthquakes elsewhere in the region align in bands striking northwest-southeast consistent with regional stresses.

  20. Isotope heterogeneity of Pre-Holocene groundwater in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E.; Arnorsson, S.; Heinemeier, Jan


    climate at that time. However, most often Pre-Holocene water components cannot be detected based on the water isotopes alone due to mixing with younger and isotopically heavier water. The Cl concentration in relation to the water isotopes in specific areas has proved to be a good indicator of a Pre......-Holocene component in the groundwater. The deuterium excess value may also help to identify water from a different climate regime, if no oxygen shift has occurred. The relative abundance of a Pre-Holocene water component of the Icelandic groundwater has led to the understanding that combined interpretation of water-isotopes...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojtyńska


    Full Text Available Migration, living in another country exposes one to culture contact and initiates the integration process. The integration of migrants is usually discussed using an acculturation model in the form proposed for example by John Berry. Instead, in this article, I take the concept of intercultural communication as it better renders integration as a dynamic practice of reconstructing and redefining culture forms in the culturally diverse environment, where different lifestyles and values coexist. Importantly, as I try to show, taking the example of Polish migrants in Iceland, changing patterns of celebrations are not only influenced by the receiving culture but also by global images.

  2. Households' position in the financial crisis in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Vignisdottir, Karen Aslaug

    We utilise a unique nationwide household-level database to analyse how households’ financial position evolved in the run-up to and aftermath of the financial crisis in Iceland. The main focus of our analysis is to assess how the share of indebted households in financial distress evolved and how...... in distress grew from 12½ per cent in early 2007 to 23½ per cent on the eve of the banking collapse in the autumn of 2008, when the lion’s share of the balance sheet shocks had already taken place. The extent of acute distress nearly quadrupled over the same period. Forbearance efforts provided temporary...

  3. The thirteenth-century runic revival in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Tarrin Jon


    alphabet. This paper examines a number of runic phenomenon from the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries in Denmark and Iceland to argue that they belong to a cultural revival movement rather than forming part of a continuous runic tradition stretching back into the early Middle Ages. Some...... of these runic texts show some connection with the Danish royal court, and should rather be seen as forming part of the changes in literary culture emanating from continental Europe from the late twelfth century and onwards: they all show a combined interest in Latin learning and vernacular literary forms....

  4. Primitive off-rift basalts from Iceland and Jan Mayen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debaille, Vinciane; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Brandon, Alan D.


    and appear to be contaminated at a shallow level. The 187Os/188Os ratios in the remaining lavas with >30 ppt Os (n = 17) range between 0.12117 and 0.13324. These values are surprisingly low for oceanic island basalts and include some samples that are less than putative present-day primitive upper mantle (PUM....... Material from the Iceland mantle plume likely migrates at depth until it reaches the tensional setting of the Jan Mayen Fracture Zone, where it undergoes low-degree partial melting. At a first-order, isotopic co-variations can be interpreted as broadly binary mixing curves between two primary end...

  5. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.


    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  6. Eruption of Alaska volcano breaks historic pattern (United States)

    Larsen, Jessica; Neal, Christina A.; Webley, Peter; Freymueller, Jeff; Haney, Matthew; McNutt, Stephen; Schneider, David; Prejean, Stephanie; Schaefer, Janet; Wessels, Rick L.


    In the late morning of 12 July 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) received an unexpected call from the U.S. Coast Guard, reporting an explosive volcanic eruption in the central Aleutians in the vicinity of Okmok volcano, a relatively young (~2000-year-old) caldera. The Coast Guard had received an emergency call requesting assistance from a family living at a cattle ranch on the flanks of the volcano, who reported loud "thunder," lightning, and noontime darkness due to ashfall. AVO staff immediately confirmed the report by observing a strong eruption signal recorded on the Okmok seismic network and the presence of a large dark ash cloud above Okmok in satellite imagery. Within 5 minutes of the call, AVO declared the volcano at aviation code red, signifying that a highly explosive, ash-rich eruption was under way.

  7. Moessbauer Spectroscopy study of Quimsachata Volcano materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, A.G.B.


    It has been studied volcanic lava from Quimsachata Volcano in Pem. Moessbauer Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electronic and optical microscopy allowed the identification of different mineralogical phases. (A.C.AS.) [pt

  8. Eruption of Alaska Volcano Breaks Historic Pattern (United States)

    Larsen, Jessica; Neal, Christina; Webley, Peter; Freymueller, Jeff; Haney, Matthew; McNutt, Stephen; Schneider, David; Prejean, Stephanie; Schaefer, Janet; Wessels, Rick


    In the late morning of 12 July 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) received an unexpected call from the U.S. Coast Guard, reporting an explosive volcanic eruption in the central Aleutians in the vicinity of Okmok volcano, a relatively young (˜2000-year-old) caldera. The Coast Guard had received an emergency call requesting assistance from a family living at a cattle ranch on the flanks of the volcano, who reported loud “thunder,” lightning, and noontime darkness due to ashfall. AVO staff immediately confirmed the report by observing a strong eruption signal recorded on the Okmok seismic network and the presence of a large dark ash cloud above Okmok in satellite imagery. Within 5 minutes of the call, AVO declared the volcano at aviation code red, signifying that a highly explosive, ash-rich eruption was under way.

  9. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes (United States)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph


    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  10. Volcano Inflation prior to Gas Explosions at Semeru Volcano, Indonesia (United States)

    Nishimura, T.; Iguchi, M.; Kawaguchi, R.; Surono, S.; Hendrasto, M.; Rosadi, U.


    Semeru volcano in east Java, Indonesia, is well known to exhibit small vulcanian eruptions at the summit crater. Such eruptive activity stopped on April 2009, but volcanic earthquakes started to occur in August and a lava dome was found in the summit crater on November. Since then, lava sometimes flows downward on the slope and small explosions emitting steams from active crater frequently occur every a few to a few tens of minutes. Since the explosions repeatedly occur with short intervals and the active crater is located close to the summit with an altitude of 3676m, the explosions are considered to originate from the gas (steams) from magma itself in the conduit and not to be caused by interactions of magma with the underground water. We installed a tiltmeter at the summit on March 2010 to study the volcanic eruption mechanisms. The tiltmeter (Pinnacle hybrid type, accuracy of measurement is 1 nrad ) was set at a depth of about 1 m around the summit about 500 m north from the active crater. The data stored every 1 s in the internal memory was uploaded every 6 hours by a small data logger with GPS time correction function. More than one thousand gas explosion events were observed for about 2 weeks. We analyze the tilt records as well as seismic signals recorded at stations of CVGHM, Indonesia. The tilt records clearly show uplift of the summit about 20 to 30 seconds before each explosion. Uplifts before large explosions reach to about 20 - 30 n rad, which is almost equivalent to the volume increase of about 100 m^3 beneath the crater. To examine the eruption magnitude dependence on the uplift, we classify the eruptions into five groups based on the amplitudes of seismograms associated with explosions. We stack the tilt records for these groups to reduce noises in the signals and to get general characteristics of the volcano inflations. The results show that the amplitudes of uplifts are almost proportional to the amplitudes of explosion earthquakes while the

  11. New voices in Iceland young adults with disabilities in Iceland: The importance of relationships and natural supports


    Bjarnason, Dóra S.


    This paper deals with young adults’ perspectives and experiences of growing up with a variety of impairments in Iceland, and how they impact the young disabled adults’ approach to the status of adulthood. The paper is based on a qualitative study that explored perspectives and experiences of 36 young disabled adults (16–24 years old), their parents, friends and teachers. The purpose of this paper is to share themes related to the way that choices made by and for disabled children and young pe...

  12. PFAAs in Fish and Other Seafood Products from Icelandic Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrönn Jörundsdóttir


    Full Text Available Perfluorinatedalkyl acids (PFAAs are of growing concern due to possible health effects on humans. Exposure assessments indicate that fish consumption is one of the major sources of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS exposure to humans, one of the major PFASs, whereas concerns of overestimation of this exposure source have been raised. Therefore, PFAAs concentrations in fish from the North Atlantic (Icelandic fishing grounds in the flesh of different fish species were investigated along with more detailed analyses of tissue concentrations in cod (Gadus morhua and lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus. Further, fish feed was investigated as a possible source of PFAAs in aquaculture by examining fish meal as feed ingredient. No PFAAs were detected in the edible part of all fish samples, except for PFOS in pollock (Pollachius virens, 0,05 ng/g wet weight. PFOS was the only PFAA detected in the fish meal samples with the exception of PFOSA in blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou meal (0,45 ng/g dry weight (d.w., where the PFOS concentration was 1,3–13 ng/g d.w. in the capelin (Mallotus villosus and mackerel (Scomber scombrus meal samples. The conclusions of the study are that fish commonly consumed from the Icelandic fishing grounds are unlikely to be an important source of PFAAs exposure.

  13. Two Phenotypes of Traditional Serrated Adenomas Nationwide Survey in Iceland. (United States)

    Rubio, Carlos A; Jónasson, Jón G


    Iceland has a total population of 300,000 inhabitants. All patients consulting for symptoms of the lower digestive tract during a four-year period (2003-2006) were subjected to a colonoscopic examination; all polyps were endoscopically removed. Out of the total 3,037 colorectal adenomas (CRAs), 308 (10.2%) were traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs). TSAs were divided according the predominant histological phenotype (>50%) into those with ectopic crypt formations (ECF), and those with unlocked serrations (US). ECF-TSA accounted for 5.9% (178/3037) and US-TSA for 4.3% (130/3037). The majority of patients with ECF-TSA and US-TSA were ≥ 60 years of age (74.1% and 76.2%, respectively). Notwithstanding, when patients having advanced adenomas (with high-grade dysplasia, with or without intramucosal carcinoma) were listed by age, those with ECF-TSA were significantly younger than those with US-TSA (pIceland than in Sweden or in Italy (p<0.05). Genetic and putative epigenetic (environmental) factor(s) might account for the high incidence rate/year of ECF-TSA and US-TSA in this country. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Molybdenum isotope behaviour in groundwaters and terrestrial hydrothermal systems, Iceland (United States)

    Neely, Rebecca A.; Gislason, Sigurdur R.; Ólafsson, Magnus; McCoy-West, Alex J.; Pearce, Christopher R.; Burton, Kevin W.


    Molybdenum (Mo) isotopes have proved useful in the reconstruction of paleoredox conditions. Their application generally relies upon a simplified model of ocean inputs in which rivers dominate Mo fluxes to the oceans and hydrothermal fluids are considered to be a minor contribution. To date, however, little attention has been paid to the extent of Mo isotope variation of hydrothermal waters, or to the potential effect of direct groundwater discharge to the oceans. Here we present Mo isotope data for two Icelandic groundwater systems (Mývatn and Þeistareykir) that are both influenced by hydrothermal processes. Relative to NIST 3134 = +0.25‰, the cold (Icelandic rivers. In contrast, waters that are hydrothermally influenced (>10 °C) possess isotopically heavy δ98/95MoHYDROTHERMAL values of +0.25‰ to +2.06‰ (n = 18) with the possibility that the high temperature endmembers are even heavier. Although the mechanisms driving this fractionation remain unresolved, the incongruent dissolution of the host basalt and both the dissolution and precipitation of sulfides are considered. Regardless of the processes driving these variations, the δ98Mo data presented in this study indicate that groundwater and hydrothermal waters have the potential to modify ocean budget calculations.

  15. Food appearances in children's television programmes in Iceland. (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Berg, Christina


    Exposure to advertisements cannot fully explain the associations between young children's dietary intake and the time they spend in front of the television. It is therefore of importance to study television content other than advertisements in this aspect. The present study aimed to examine the nature and extent of verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages in children's television programmes on Icelandic public service television. A total of 27 h of children's programmes (domestic and internationally produced) were watched. All verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages were coded, as well as the context in which the foods/beverages were discussed or appeared. Children's programmes on Icelandic public service television. Two food groups were of special interest for their importance from a public health perspective: high-calorie and low-nutrient (HCLN) foods and fruits and vegetables (F&V). The χ 2 test and logistic regression were performed to analyse if the occurrence of the two groups was associated with the context where foods/beverages appeared. Of the 125 different programmes, a food or beverage appeared in 86 %. Of the total food appearances (n 599), HCLN foods accounted for 26 % and F&V for 23 %. HCLN foods were presented as desirable by appearing more frequently with child characters (Pservice television has the potential to improve the way food and eating is presented in children's programmes, as young childhood is a critical period for founding healthy habits for later life.

  16. Changes in groundwater chemistry before two consecutive earthquakes in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Skelton, Alasdair


    Groundwater chemistry has been observed to change before earthquakes and is proposed as a precursor signal. Such changes include variations in radon count rates1, 2, concentrations of dissolved elements3, 4, 5 and stable isotope ratios4, 5. Changes in seismic wave velocities6, water levels in boreholes7, micro-seismicity8 and shear wave splitting9 are also thought to precede earthquakes. Precursor activity has been attributed to expansion of rock volume7, 10, 11. However, most studies of precursory phenomena lack sufficient data to rule out other explanations unrelated to earthquakes12. For example, reproducibility of a precursor signal has seldom been shown and few precursors have been evaluated statistically. Here we analyse the stable isotope ratios and dissolved element concentrations of groundwater taken from a borehole in northern Iceland between 2008 and 2013. We find that the chemistry of the groundwater changed four to six months before two greater than magnitude 5 earthquakes that occurred in October 2012 and April 2013. Statistical analyses indicate that the changes in groundwater chemistry were associated with the earthquakes. We suggest that the changes were caused by crustal dilation associated with stress build-up before each earthquake, which caused different groundwater components to mix. Although the changes we detect are specific for the site in Iceland, we infer that similar processes may be active elsewhere, and that groundwater chemistry is a promising target for future studies on the predictability of earthquakes.

  17. Crustal Structure of the Iceland Region from Spectrally Correlated Free-air and Terrain Gravity Data (United States)

    Leftwich, T. E.; vonFrese, R. R. B.; Potts, L. V.; Roman, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.


    Seismic refraction studies have provided critical, but spatially restricted constraints on the structure of the Icelandic crust. To obtain a more comprehensive regional view of this tectonically complicated area, we spectrally correlated free-air gravity anomalies against computed gravity effects of the terrain for a crustal thickness model that also conforms to regional seismic and thermal constraints. Our regional crustal thickness estimates suggest thickened crust extends up to 500 km on either side of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge with the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge crust being less extended and on average 3-5 km thinner than the crust of the Greenland-Iceland Ridge. Crustal thickness estimates for Iceland range from 25-35 km in conformity with seismic predictions of a cooler, thicker crust. However, the deepening of our gravity-inferred Moho relative to seismic estimates at the thermal plume and rift zones of Iceland suggests partial melting. The amount of partial melting may range from about 8% beneath the rift zones to perhaps 20% above the plume core where mantle temperatures may be 200-400 C above normal. Beneath Iceland, areally limited regions of partial melting may also be compositionally and mechanically layered and intruded. The mantle plume appears to be centered at (64.6 deg N, 17.4 deg W) near the Vatnajokull Glacier and the central Icelandic neovolcanic zones.

  18. Spreading and collapse of big basaltic volcanoes (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Peltier, Aline; Poland, Michael


    Among the different types of volcanoes, basaltic ones usually form the most voluminous edifices. Because volcanoes are growing on a pre-existing landscape, the geologic and structural framework of the basement (and earlier volcanic landforms) influences the stress regime, seismicity, and volcanic activity. Conversely, the masses of these volcanoes introduce a morphological anomaly that affects neighboring areas. Growth of a volcano disturbs the tectonic framework of the region, clamps and unclamps existing faults (some of which may be reactivated by the new stress field), and deforms the substratum. A volcano's weight on its basement can trigger edifice spreading and collapse that can affect populated areas even at significant distance. Volcano instability can also be driven by slow tectonic deformation and magmatic intrusion. The manifestations of instability span a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from slow creep on individual faults to large earthquakes affecting a broad area. In the frame of MED-SVU project, our work aims to investigate the relation between basement setting and volcanic activity and stability at three Supersite volcanoes: Etna (Sicily, Italy), Kilauea (Island of Hawaii, USA) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France). These volcanoes host frequent eruptive activity (effusive and explosive) and share common features indicating lateral spreading and collapse, yet they are characterized by different morphologies, dimensions, and tectonic frameworks. For instance, the basaltic ocean island volcanoes of Kilauea and Piton de la Fournaise are near the active ends of long hotspot chains while Mt. Etna has developed at junction along a convergent margin between the African and Eurasian plates and a passive margin separating the oceanic Ionian crust from the African continental crust. Magma supply and plate velocity also differ in the three settings, as to the sizes of the edifices and the extents of their rift zones. These

  19. Present kinematics of the Tjornes Fracture Zone, North Iceland, from campaign and continuous GPS measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Metzger, S.


    The Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ), North Iceland, is a 120 km transform offset of the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge that accommodates 18 mm yr−1 plate motion on two parallel transform structures and connects the offshore Kolbeinsey Ridge in the north to the on-shore Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) in the south. This transform zone is offshore except for a part of the right-lateral strike-slip Húsavík-Flatey fault (HFF) system that lies close to the coastal town of Húsavík, inducing a significant seismic risk to its inhabitants. In our previous work we constrained the locking depth and slip-rate of the HFF using 4 yr of continuous GPS measurements and found that the accumulated slip-deficit on the fault is equivalent to a Mw6.8 ± 0.1 earthquake, assuming a complete stress release in the last major earthquakes in 1872 and a steady accumulation since then. In this paper we improve our previous analysis by adding 44 campaign GPS (EGPS) data points, which have been regularly observed since 1997. We extract the steady-state interseismic velocities within the TFZ by correcting the GPS data for volcanic inflation of Theistareykir—the westernmost volcano of the NVZ—using a model with a magma volume increase of 25 × 106 m3, constrained by InSAR time-series analysis results. The improved velocity field based on 58 GPS stations confirms the robustness of our previous model and allows to better constrain the free model parameters. For the HFF we find a slightly shallower locking depth of ∼6.2 km and a slightly higher slip-rate of ∼6.8 mm yr−1 that again result in the same seismic potential equivalent to a Mw6.8 earthquake. The much larger number of GPS velocities improves the statistically estimated model parameter uncertainties by a factor of two, when compared to our previous study, a result that we validate using Bayesian estimation.

  20. Intercomparison of Metop-A SO2 measure- ments during the 2010- 2011 Icelandic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elissavet Koukouli


    Full Text Available The European Space Agency project Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Avi­ ation Hazards, was introduced after the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in the spring of 2010 to facilitate the development of an optimal End­to­End System for Volcanic Ash Plume Monitoring and Predic­ tion. The Eyjafjallajökull plume drifted towards Europe and caused major disruptions of European air traffic for several weeks affecting the everyday life of millions of people. The limitations in volcanic plume monitoring and prediction capabilities gave birth to this observational system which is based on comprehensive satellite­derived ash plume and sulphur dioxide [SO2] level estimates, as well as a widespread validation using supplementary satellite, aircraft and ground­based measurements. Inter­comparison of the volcanic total SO2 column and plume height observed by GOME­2/Metop­A and IASI/Metop­A are shown before, during and after the Eyjaf­ jallajökull 2010 eruptions as well as for the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption. Co­located ground­based Brewer Spectro­ photometer data extracted from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre for de Bilt, the Nether­ lands, are also compared to the different satellite estimates. Promising agreement is found for the two different types of instrument for the SO2 columns with linear regression coefficients ranging around from 0.64 when comparing the different instruments and 0.85 when comparing the two different IASI algorithms. The agree­ ment for the plume height is lower, possibly due to the major differences between the height retrieval part of the GOME2 and IASI algorithms. The comparisons with the Brewer ground­based station in de Bilt, The Nether­ lands show good qualitative agreement for the peak of the event however stronger eruptive signals are required for a longer quantitative comparison. 

  1. Effects of Accelerated Deglaciation on Chemical Characteristics of Sub-arctic Lakes and Rivers in South and West Iceland (United States)

    Ritter, M.; Strock, K.; Edwards, B. R.


    Glaciers and their associated paraglacial landscapes have changed rapidly over the past century, and may see increased rates of melt as temperatures increase in high latitude environments. As glaciers recede, glacial meltwater subsidies increase to inland freshwater systems, influencing their structure and function. Evidence suggests melting ice influences the chemical characteristics of systems by providing nutrient subsidies, while inputs of glacial flour influence their physical structure by affecting temperature, reducing water clarity and increasing turbidity. Together, changes in physical and chemical structure of these systems have subsequent effects on biota, with the potential to lower taxonomic richness. This study characterized the chemistry of rivers and lakes fed by glacial meltwater in sub-arctic environments of Iceland, where there is limited limnological data. The survey characterized nutrient chemistry, dissolved organic carbon, and ion chemistry. We surveyed glacial meltwater from six glaciers in south and west Iceland, using the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier along the southern coast as a detailed study area to examine the interactions between groundwater and surface runoff. The southern systems, within the Eastern Volcanic Zone, have minimal soil development and active volcanoes produce ash input to lakes. Lakes in the Western Volcanic Zone were more diverse, located in older bedrock with more extensively weathered soil. Key differences were observed between aquatic environments subsidized with glacial meltwater and those without. This included physical effects, such as lower temperatures and chemical effects such as lower conductivity and higher pH in glacially fed systems. In the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier, lakes formed after the former lagoon was emptied and then partly refilled with debris from jokulhlaups during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. These newly formed lakes resembled non-glacial melt systems despite receiving

  2. Growth History of Kaena Volcano, the Isolated, Dominantly Submarine, Precursor Volcano to Oahu, Hawaii (United States)

    Sinton, J. M.; Eason, D. E.


    The construction of O'ahu began with the recently recognized, ~3.5-4.9 Ma Ka'ena Volcano, as an isolated edifice in the Kaua'i Channel. Ka'ena remained submarine until, near the end of its lifetime as magma supply waned and the volcano transitioned to a late-shield stage of activity, it emerged to reach a maximum elevation of ~1000 m above sea level. We estimate that Ka'ena was emergent only for the last 15-25% of its lifespan, and that subaerial lavas make up < 5% of the total volume (20-27 x 103 km3). O'ahu's other volcanoes, Wai'anae (~3.9-2.85 Ma) and Ko'olau (~3.0-1.9 Ma), were built at least partly on the flanks of earlier edifices and both were active subaerial volcanoes for at least 1 Ma. The constructional history of Ka'ena contrasts with that of Wai'anae, Ko'olau, and many other Hawaiian volcanoes, which likely emerge within a few hundred kyr after inception, and with subaerial lavas comprising up to 35 volume % of the volcano. These relations suggest that volcano growth history and morphology are critically dependent on whether volcanic initiation and growth occur in the deep ocean floor (isolated), or on the flanks of pre-existing edifices. Two other volcanoes that likely formed in isolation are West Moloka'i and Kohala, both of which have long submarine rift zones, and neither attained great heights above sea level despite having substantial volume. The partitioning of volcanism between submarine and subaerial volcanism depends on the distance between volcanic centers, whether new volcanoes initiate on the flanks of earlier ones, and the time over which neighboring volcanoes are concurrently active. Ka'ena might represent an end-member in this spectrum, having initiated far from its next oldest neighbor and completed much of its evolution in isolation.

  3. An experimental study of the volcano-sagging to volcano-spreading transition (United States)

    Holohan, Eoghan; Poppe, Sam; Kervyn, Matthieu; Delcamp, Audray; Byrne, Paul; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin


    Volcanoes on Earth and other planets undergo gravitational deformation on a variety of timescales. Two end-member modes of gravity-driven deformation are volcano sagging (or volcano flexure) and volcano spreading. It has been long known that the mechanical and geometric properties of the basement rocks below the volcano strongly influence such gravitational deformation modes. One key mechanical property is the presence of a zone or layer that is sufficiently widespread and that has an effective viscosity low enough to produce ductile behavior in response to the load of the overlying volcanic edifice. Key geometric properties include the ratios between (1) volcano height and ductile basement thickness and (2) volcano height and brittle basement thickness. Despite such longstanding knowledge, a thorough parametric exploration of these properties has hitherto not been carried out experimentally. Consequently, the circumstances under which one gravitational deformation mode transitions to the other (i.e. the recently proposed spreading-sagging continuum) is imprecisely defined. To address this issue, we conducted a series of scaled analogue experiments involving a sand-plaster cone overlying a simple basement structure that comprises a single sand-plaster (brittle) layer and a single silicone (ductile) layer. By systematically varying the above-mentioned geometric ratios, we comprehensively define the transition from volcano-spreading through to volcano-sagging for a simple conically-loaded two-layer basement system. These results form a more robust experimental basis for distinguishing and interpreting the structural and morphological features of volcanoes subject to combined gravitational deformation processes, as observed in the field or in remote sensing data.

  4. Classification of Martian Volcanoes on Basis of Volcano Ground Ice Interaction (United States)

    Helgason, J.


    Most Martian volcanoes have common morphological features indicating mass wasting and erosion compatible with large scale break down of ground ice. While some features suggest the ground ice melted rapidly resulting in catastrophic erosive events, other features indicate a slow melting process (e.g sublimation) resulting in collapse structures. To determine relative volcano age and activity on Mars it is suggested that volcano interactions with an overlying ice sheet may be helpful. Examples of the various morphological features indicating volcano-ice interaction are drawn from the literature: (1) valley formation that probably formed in response to joekulhlaups and subglacial volcanism, (2) isolated thermocarst depressions probably formed by geothermal melting of ground ice, (3) large scale sublimation of distal strata, (4) small fluvial valleys, (5) large scale failure of volcano flanks through aureole development, (6) rimless craters without ash collars, (7) rampart craters on volcanoes, (8) channels, (9) mud flows or lahars. A Viking Orbiter image showing possible thermocarst landscape on the flank of the volcano Hadriaca Patera (Dao Vallis). Although various other explanations can account for some of these features they are all compatible with a ground ice-volcano interaction. These features suggests that to an extent most Martian volcanoes are covered with sheet of ground ice of variable thickness. Over a vast time interval this ground ice layer (or ice sheet) has been failing to a variable extent and in a number of ways depending on different volcano characteristics. As a result it is suggested that Martian volcanoes can be classified or assigned an evolutionary status depending on how widespread their interaction is with the ground ice layer. Thus, for example, within the Tharsis region the volcanoes Olympus Mons and Arsia Mons can be regarded as two evolutionary end points. Volcanism in the former has completely built up through and destroyed the ice sheet

  5. Effects of Volcanoes on the Natural Environment (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.


    The primary focus of this project has been on the development of techniques to study the thermal and gas output of volcanoes, and to explore our options for the collection of vegetation and soil data to enable us to assess the impact of this volcanic activity on the environment. We originally selected several volcanoes that have persistent gas emissions and/or magma production. The investigation took an integrated look at the environmental effects of a volcano. Through their persistent activity, basaltic volcanoes such as Kilauea (Hawaii) and Masaya (Nicaragua) contribute significant amounts of sulfur dioxide and other gases to the lower atmosphere. Although primarily local rather than regional in its impact, the continuous nature of these eruptions means that they can have a major impact on the troposphere for years to decades. Since mid-1986, Kilauea has emitted about 2,000 tonnes of sulfur dioxide per day, while between 1995 and 2000 Masaya has emotted about 1,000 to 1,500 tonnes per day (Duffel1 et al., 2001; Delmelle et al., 2002; Sutton and Elias, 2002). These emissions have a significant effect on the local environment. The volcanic smog ("vog" ) that is produced affects the health of local residents, impacts the local ecology via acid rain deposition and the generation of acidic soils, and is a concern to local air traffic due to reduced visibility. Much of the work that was conducted under this NASA project was focused on the development of field validation techniques of volcano degassing and thermal output that could then be correlated with satellite observations. In this way, we strove to develop methods by which not only our study volcanoes, but also volcanoes in general worldwide (Wright and Flynn, 2004; Wright et al., 2004). Thus volcanoes could be routinely monitored for their effects on the environment. The selected volcanoes were: Kilauea (Hawaii; 19.425 N, 155.292 W); Masaya (Nicaragua; 11.984 N, 86.161 W); and Pods (Costa Rica; 10.2OoN, 84.233 W).

  6. Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in general practice: Comparison between Denmark and Iceland. (United States)

    Rún Sigurðardóttir, Nanna; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Munck, Anders; Bjerrum, Lars


    To compare the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in two countries with different prevalence of antimicrobial resistance: Denmark and Iceland. A cross-sectional study. General practitioners (GPs) in Denmark (n = 78) and Iceland (n = 21) registered all patients with URTI according to the Audit Project Odense (APO) method during a three-week period in the winter months of 2008 and 2009. Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in patients with URTI in Denmark and Iceland. A total of 1428 patients were registered (Denmark: n = 1208; Iceland: n = 220). A majority of patients in both countries were prescribed antibiotics, and only a minority of the prescriptions could be classified as appropriate prescribing. In general, Icelandic GPs more often prescribed antibiotics (Iceland = 75.8% vs. Denmark = 59.3%), but Danish GPs had a higher percentage of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for sinusitis, and Icelandic GPs for pharyngotonsillitis. No differences were found for acute otitis media (AOM). The different antibiotic prescribing patterns between Denmark and Iceland could not fully be explained by different symptoms and signs among patients. Icelandic GPs have a higher antibiotic prescribing rate compared with Danish GPs, but the percentage of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is highest in Denmark for sinusitis, and in Iceland for pharyngotonsillitis. Key points Within the Nordic countries there are marked differences in antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic use. Iceland differs from Denmark by a higher antibiotic prescribing rate and a higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. The majority of antibiotics are prescribed in primary care and most often for upper respiratory infections (URTIs). Only a minor amount of antibiotic prescriptions for URTIs can be classified as appropriate; inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is higher in Denmark than in Iceland for sinusitis and the opposite for

  7. Photosynthesis within Mars' volcanic craters?: Insights from Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua (United States)

    Rogers, K. L.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.


    Discrete locales of sulfate-rich bedrocks exist on Mars and in many cases represent the products of acid-sulfate alteration of martian basalt. In some places, the products have been attributed to hydrothermal processes from local volcanism. In order to evaluate the habitability of such an environment, we are investigating the geochemical and biological composition of active fumaroles at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where fresh basaltic cinders similar in composition to martian basalts are altered by acidic, sulfur-bearing gases. Temperatures at active fumaroles can reach as high as 400°C and the pH of the steam ranges from Cyanobacteria and Ktedonobacteria, however Actinobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were also identified. Many of the cyanobacterial sequences were similar to those of the eukaryotic Cyanidiales, red algae that inhabit acidic, geothermal environments. Many of sequences related to Ktedonobacteria and Actinobacteria have also been found in acid mine drainage environments. The Archaeal community was far less diverse, with sequences matching those of unclassified Desulfurococcales and unclassified Thermoprotei. These sequences were more distant from isolated species than the bacterial sequences. Similar bacterial and archaeal communities have been found in hot spring environments in Yellowstone National Park, Greenland, Iceland, New Zealand and Costa Rica. Some of Mars' volcanoes were active for billions of years and by analogy to Cerro Negro, may have hosted photosynthetic organisms that could have been preserved in alteration mineral assemblages. Even on a generally cold and dry Mars, volcanic craters likely provided long-lived warm and wet conditions and should be a key target for future exploration assessing habitability.

  8. Drilling Magma for Science, Volcano Monitoring, and Energy (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Lavallée, Y.; Blankenship, D.


    Magma chambers are central to understanding magma evolution, formation of continental crust, volcanism, and renewal of hydrothermal systems. Information from geology, petrology, laboratory experiments, and geophysical imagery has led to little consensus except a trend to see magma systems as being crystal-dominant (mush) rather than melt dominant. At high melt viscosities, crystal-liquid fractionation may be achieved by separation of melt from mush rather than crystals from liquid suspension. That the dominant volume has properties more akin to solid than liquid might explain the difficulty in detecting magma geophysically. Recently, geothermal drilling has intersected silicic magma at the following depths and SiO2 contents are: Puna, Hawaii, 2.5 km, 67 wt%; Menengai, Kenya 2.1 km, 67 wt%; Krafla, Iceland, 2.1 km, 75 wt%. Some similarities are: 1) Drillers encountered a "soft", sticky formation; 2) Cuttings or chips of clear quenched glass were recovered; 3) The source of the glass flowed up the well; 4) Transition from solid rock to recovering crystal-poor glass occurred in tens of meters, apparently without an intervening mush zone. Near-liquidus magma at the roof despite rapid heat loss there presents a paradox that may be explained by very recent intrusion of magma, rise of liquidus magma to the roof replacing partially crystallized magma, or extremely skewed representation of melt over mush in cuttings (Carrigan et al, this session). The latter is known to occur by filter pressing of ooze into lava lake coreholes (Helz, this session), but cannot be verified in actual magma without coring. Coring to reveal gradients in phase composition and proportions is required for testing any magma chamber model. Success in drilling into and controlling magma at all three locations, in coring lava lakes to over 1100 C, and in numerical modeling of coring at Krafla conditions (Su, this session) show this to be feasible. Other unprecedented experiments are using the known

  9. Family counts: deciding when to murder among the Icelandic Vikings. (United States)

    Palmstierna, Markel; Frangou, Anna; Wallette, Anna; Dunbar, Robin


    In small scale societies, lethal attacks on another individual usually invite revenge by the victim's family. We might expect those who perpetrate such attacks to do so only when their own support network (mainly family) is larger than that of the potential victim so as to minimise the risk of retaliation. Using data from Icelandic family sagas, we show that this prediction holds whether we consider biological kin or affinal kin (in-laws): on average, killers had twice as many relatives as their victims. These findings reinforce the importance of kin as a source of implicit protection even when they are not physically present. The results also support Hughes' (1988) claim that affines are biological kin because of the shared genetic interests they have in the offspring generation.

  10. Fractionation of Boron Isotopes in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, J.K.; Palmer, M.R.


    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to adsorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems.

  11. Effective mechanism of "savings - investment": Experience of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukhtarova Evgeniia Khasanovna


    Full Text Available In modern conditions of deficiency of investment resources in the Russian economy is of particular practical importance of the analysis of the successful economic model to attract domestic savings of the population, as one of the major sources of investment. In article on the basis of comparative and econometric methods, analyzes the factors and prerequisites for creation of reliable and effective mechanism of "savings - investment by the example of the economy of Iceland. The aim of this study is the understanding of the prerequisites and conditions which create successful policy of attraction of population's savings in the economy. The conclusion is that in the conditions of growing crisis developments, the establishment of a sustainable mechanism savings - investments" is possible only if the implementation of an effective social policy in conjunction with the development of the financial system.

  12. Inflection of modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives and adverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik


    Full Text Available The present paper is a list of Modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, analysed into their respective stems and endings; the declension of the suffixed definite article is also included. Under each item it is stated which rules, if any, apply in the derivation of its grammatical forms. The following items of the list should be consulted for new phonological rules: (3, (11, (12, and (133. A grammatical innovation has been implemented in the list, namely the so-called REPLACING ENDINGS. These are not added after the last segment of the stem, as endings usually are, but replace the last segment(s of the stem. More is said on replacing endings in the Introduction.

  13. Effects of handling on fear reactions in young Icelandic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg; Christensen, Janne Winther


    To investigate the effect of a short-term standardised handling procedure on reactions of young horses in 2 types of fear tests (including and excluding human handling). Study design An experimental study with 3-year-old Icelandic horses (n = 24). Methods Handled horses (n = 12) were trained according...... to a standardised handling procedure whereas controls (n = 12) remained untrained. Behavioural and heart rate responses in a novel object test and 2 handling fear tests (HFTs) were measured. The HFTs were conducted with both an unknown (HFT-unknown) and a known handler (HFT-known). Results There was no effect...... correlated significantly between tests. Conclusions Previous handling may affect the behavioural fear response of horses when handled by their usual handler, whereas this effect did not apply to an unknown handler. Heart rates appeared unaffected by handling and may be a more reliable indicator...

  14. Geographical variation of the furanocoumarin composition of the fruits of Icelandic Angelica archangelica. (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur


    Angelica archangelica fruits were collected from 64 locations around Iceland and analysed for furanocoumarins by high-performance liquid chromatography. The average furanocoumarin content was found to be 22.5 mg/g, ranging from 14.0 to 31.6 mg/g. Whereas imperatorin was the main compound in all samples, the order of other compounds was highly diverse. Considerable differences were observed between individuals from the same location and between neighbouring locations. However, strong geographical impact was observed on the composition, with isoimperatorin and bergapten being more pronounced in South Iceland, and oxypeucedanin and an unidentified compound being more pronounced in North Iceland and absent in many samples from South Iceland.

  15. Body image trends among Icelandic adolescents: a cross-sectional national study from 1997 to 2010. (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Ingolfsdottir, Gudrun; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora


    The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in body image among Icelandic adolescents from 1997 to 2010. Data from five cross-sectional surveys conducted among national samples of 9th and 10th graders in Iceland using five time points (1997, 2000, 2006, 2009, and 2010) were compared to examine changes in body image. In total, 32,397 adolescents participated in the study. Body image among 14-15-year-old adolescents in Iceland improved significantly over the 13-year period. Girls reported more negative body image than boys at all time points. However, the positive change in body image from 1997 to 2010 was more pronounced for girls than boys, resulting in a narrower gap between the genders. The current results are encouraging and indicate that in an age of increased overweight and obesity, the body image of Icelandic adolescents is becoming more positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cultural Diffusion: The Role of U.S. TV in Iceland (United States)

    Payne, David E.; Peake, Christy A.


    Examines the effects of exposure to United States television programs on Icelandic respondents aged 11 through 14, with regard to respondents' attitudes toward the United States and knowledge of United States culture. (GW)

  17. [Trends in COPD mortality in Iceland 1951-1990]. (United States)

    Gislason, T; Tomasson, K


    We collected information about mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in Iceland during the time period 1951-1990. During these 40 years only nine individuals younger than 45 years died of bronchial asthma (7 women and 2 men). The mean population during that time period was 149,921 and the mean asthma mortality ratio was 0.15/100,000/year in the age group 0-44 years. The mean mortality ratio in asthma was during the time period 1981-1990: 4.7/ 100,000/year for women and 2.4/100,000/year for men. Compared to the time period 1951-1960 there was a threefold increase in the total mortality in chronic bronchitis in 1981-1990 when the mean mortality ratio was 8.7/100,000/year among men and 7.6/ 100,000/year among women. There was even a greater increase in mortality in emphysema during the 40 years time period and during 1981-1990 the mean mortality ratio was 13.0/100,000/year among men and 11.5 for women. There has been a substantial change in age distribution of the Icelandic population during the time period 1951-1990. Examination of standardized mortality ratio (SMR) shows a tenfold increase in SMR among women in emphysema and a threefold increase in mortality in chronic bronchitis. Among men the SMR for both asthma and chronic bronchitis varied during the time period but there was almost a threefold increase in SMR for emphysema. Thus, there was a relatively greater increase in SMR in COPD among women than men.

  18. Approximal caries and sugar consumption in Icelandic teenagers. (United States)

    Arnadóttir, I B; Rozier, R G; Saemundsson, S R; Sigurjóns, H; Holbrook, W P


    The aim of this study, conducted in 1994, was to examine the association between approximal caries and sugar consumption in teenagers residing in three fluoride-deficient areas in Iceland while controlling for a number of behavioral, residential and microbiological factors. One hundred and fifty subjects (mean age 14 years) selected from the Icelandic Nutritional Survey (INS) were examined radiographically and they completed questionnaires about sugar consumption frequency. Total grams of sugar intake were obtained from the INS for each subject. Caries experience on approximal surfaces, diagnosed from radiographs, was used as the dependent variable in the analyses. Altogether 45.2% of subjects were caries free on approximal surfaces. The overall sample was found to have a mean DFS on approximal surfaces of 2.73 (s=4.36) per subject. Average daily total sugar intake was 170 g per subject and the mean number of sugar-eating occasions between meals was 5.32 (s=6.29) per subject. The regression model indicated that the frequency of between-meal sugar consumption was associated with approximal caries, with frequency of candy consumption being the most important of the sugar variables. In multivariate analysis, no relationship was found between dental caries and total daily intake of sugar, although a significant relationship between total sugar consumption and presence of caries was seen in bivariate analysis. Between-meal consumption of sugar remains a risk factor for the occurrence of dental caries, especially in populations with moderate-to-high levels of dental caries experience.

  19. [Outcome of gastric bypass surgery in Iceland 2001-2015]. (United States)

    Thorarinsdottir, Rosamunda; Palmason, Vilhjalmur; Leifsson, Bjorn Geir; Gislason, Hjortur


    Laparoscopic roux-en-y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has been performed at Landspitali University Hospital (LSH) since 2001. The procedure represents an important treatment option for morbidly obese patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term results of these operations in Iceland. All 772 consecutive patients undergoing LRYGB at LSH during 2001-2015 were included. Information was collected from a prospective database. Successful weight loss was defined as body mass index (BMI) less than 33 kg/m2 or excess body mass index loss (EBMIL) more than 50%. Mean age of patients was 41 years and 83% were females. Mean pre-operative weight was 127 kg (±20) and mean BMI was 44 (±6). Mean %EBMIL was 80% after 1.5 year, 70% after 5 years and 64% after 10-13 years. 85% of patients had successful weight loss with a mean follow-up time of 7.4 years. Pre-operatively patients on average had 2.8 obesity related comorbid diseases. 71% of patients with type 2 diabetes were in full remission after surgery. One third of patients with hypertension and one third of patients with hyperlipidemia achieved full remission after surgery. 37 patients (5%) had an early complication and 174 (25%) had a late complication that frequently needed surgical solution. Most patients (78%) needed repeated adjustment of vitamins and minerals often many years after surgery. Majority of patients achieved a successful weight loss and most obesity related comorbidities are still in remission 7.4 years after surgery. Early complications were rare but one fourth of patients had late complications. Life long follow-up is of utmost importance after gastric bypass surgery. Key words: gastric bypass surgery in Iceland 2001-2015. Correspondence: Hjörtur Gíslason,

  20. A Saga for Dinner: Landscape and Nationality in Icelandic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Hennig


    Full Text Available Iceland’s attempted industrialisation through an expansion of hydropower andaluminium smelters can lead to a significant reshaping of the country’slandscapes. There has been considerable resistance against such plans since the1970s, culminating in the debate about the Kárahnjúkar project between 2001and 2006. The book Draumalandið. Sjálfshjálparbók handa hræddri þjóð[Dreamland. A Self-Help Manual for a Frightened Nation] by the writer AndriSnær Magnason has been particularly influential. It combines ecologicalconsciousness with an appreciation of Iceland‘s literary tradition and history.Thus it displays a view of landscape which connects nature preservation closelyto cultural achievements and to national sovereignty. This perception oflandscape originates from the assumption that Iceland experienced a golden agefrom the beginning of colonisation in the Viking age until the subordinationunder the Norwegian and later Danish kings in the 13th century, which led to anall-embracing degeneration. Nationalist poets such as Jónas Hallgrímsson inthe 19th century based their demands for independence on Iceland‘s medievalsaga literature and the country‘s landscapes. These seemed to provide evidencefor a high culture in unity with nature during the time of the Commonwealth.Although the historical reliability of the sagas is doubtful, they are still used asan important argument in Draumalandið. Now the narratives as such are put inthe foreground, as they can give value and meaning to the landscapes and placesthey describe. Thus a turn from a realistic to a more constructivist perception oflandscape can be observed in contemporary Icelandic environmental literature.

  1. Houses and households in early Icelandic society: geoarchaeology and the interpretation of social space


    Milek, Karen Beatrice


    This thesis contributes new archaeological evidence to the debate about how early Icelandic society was constituted and organised, and how it developed over the course of its first 200 year,s. It examines Viking Age residential architecture in Iceland at new levels of detail and with new methods, including geoarchaeological techniques to enhance the interpretation of activity areas in individual buildings, and space syntax analysis to facilitate the comparison of houses and the detection o...

  2. Guðrún Johnsen: Bringing Down the Banking System: Lessons from Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Conrad


    Full Text Available Considering the myths that have been spun not only on the causes of the crisis, but maybe more importantly on the democratic awakening in Icelandic society in the aftermath, it is evident that a much broader audience – especially outside Iceland – should have a keen interest in understanding the political and societal climate that facilitated the emergence of the phenomenon that has also been termed "Viking Capitalism".

  3. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit. (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  4. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano (United States)

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole


    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  5. Living with Volcanoes: Year Eleven Teaching Resource Unit. (United States)

    Le Heron, Kiri; Andrews, Jill; Hooks, Stacey; Larnder, Michele; Le Heron, Richard


    Presents a unit on volcanoes and experiences with volcanoes that helps students develop geography skills. Focuses on four volcanoes: (1) Rangitoto Island; (2) Lake Pupuke; (3) Mount Smart; and (4) One Tree Hill. Includes an answer sheet and resources to use with the unit. (CMK)

  6. Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaiten Volcano, Chile (United States)

    John S. Pallister; Jon J. Major; Thomas C. Pierson; Richard P. Hoblitt; Jacob B. Lowenstern; John C. Eichelberger; Lara. Luis; Hugo Moreno; Jorge Munoz; Jonathan M. Castro; Andres Iroume; Andrea Andreoli; Julia Jones; Fred Swanson; Charlie Crisafulli


    There was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaiten volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which...

  7. Deformation derived from GPS geodesy associated with Bárðarbunga 2014 rifting event in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ofeigsson, Benedikt Gunnar


    On August 16, 2014 an intense seismic swarm started below the eastern part of Bárðarbunga Caldera in the north-western corner of Vatnajökull ice-cap, Iceland, marking the onset of the first rifting event in Iceland since the Krafla fires (1975-1984). The migration of the seismicity was corroborated by ground deformation in areas outside the ice cap and on nunataks within the ice cap suggesting a lateral propagation of magma, from the Bárðabunga system. The sesimicity migrated out of the caldera forming a dyke with roughly three segments, changing direction each time until August 28 when the migration stopped around 10 km south of Askja Volcano, eventually leading to a short lived eruption in Holuhraun north of Dyngjujökull. A second fissure eruption started in Holuhraun on August 31 which is still ongoing at the time of this writing. In the months prior to the onset of the activity, subtle signs of inflation where observed on continuous GPS sites around the Bárðarbunga indicating a volume increase in the roots of the volcanic system. When the activity started on August 16, the deformation pattern indicated a simultaneous deflation centered within the caldera and a lateral growth of a dyke also reflected in the migration of seismicity along segments of variable strike. A maximum widening of 1.3 m occurred between stations on opposite sides of the dyke spaced 25 km apart. Significant movements where detected on GPS site more then 80 km away from the tip of dyke. Displacements indicated the fastest rate of widening at any time in the most distal segment of the dyke throughout its evolution. After the dyke stopped propagating, the inflation continued, decaying exponentialy with time. On September 4, five days into the second fissure eruption, the movements associated with the dyke where no longer significant. As the fissure eruption continues, a slowly decaying contraction is observed around the Bárðarbunga central volcano, both shown in the piston like

  8. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, O. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Del Santo, M., E-mail: [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Pareschi, G. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)


    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  9. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.


    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  10. Glacier outburst floods (jökulhlaups) from Kverkfjöll, Iceland: flood routeways, flow characteristics and sedimentary impacts (United States)

    Carrivick, J. L.; Russell, A. J.; Tweed, F. S.; Knudsen, Ó.


    Jökulhlaups with peak discharges of 10^5 -- 10^6m^3s-1 have occurred during the Holocene along the Jökulsá á Fjöllum river in north-eastern Iceland. Controversy surrounds their source, cause, frequency and characteristics. Kverkfjöll is a glaciated volcano on the northern margin of the Vatnajökull and is a discrete source of meltwater into the Jökulsá á Fjöllum. This study presents evidence of jökulhlaup flows from Kverkfjöll and methods used in their reconstruction. Flow reconstructions will be used to quantify the spatial and temporal variation in jökulhlaup flow characteristics (depth, velocity, shear stress, energy and stream power). Jökulhlaup routeways are distinguished from non-flood surfaces by identifying landforms and sediments diagnostic of jökulhlaups and alternative processes. The geologically controlled topography of the area has significantly influenced the routing of floods from Kverkfjöll. In some localities flows were of a magnitude sufficient to spill over low divides into neighbouring valleys, producing an anastomosing complex of flow routeways. Within channel evidence of jökulhlaups includes erosional features such as dry waterfalls and cataracts, linear grooves, sculpted bedrock bedforms, obstacle scour marks and streamlined hills. Depositional evidence includes bars, terraces and slackwater deposits. Several pits excavated into slackwater deposits reveal multiple floods differentiated by tephra horizons. Differential flood surface weathering and the presence of flood-washed surfaces intercalated with lava flows again suggest multiple jökulhlaups from Kverkfjöll. Imbricated boulder clusters and matrix-supported boulder-rich sedimentary units reflect fluid sedimentation and non-Newtonian flows respectively. Such turbulent and complex flows are partly due to flood generation mechanisms, flood routeway characteristics and variations in sediment availability between and within jökulhlaups. Our study of jökulhlaup flows within

  11. Public and Media Communication of Volcanic Hazard Before and During the 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland (United States)

    Gylfason, A. G.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Reynisson, V.


    The 39 day long explosive eruption in Eyjafjallajökull was the largest natural hazard event in Iceland for decades. It began with a small flank eruption in March, but the main event was the explosive summit eruption. The flooding that resulted from melting of ice at the eruption site posed considerable danger for the local population, fallout of ash made conditions south of the volcano difficult for several weeks, threatening the future of farming in this rural area, and lead to unprecedented disruption to air traffic in Europe and the North Atlantic. About 800 people were evacuated in a hurry three times during these events because of imminent flood hazard, but fortunately no dwellings were damaged and people could usually return to their homes the same day. These events called for extensive media coverage, both locally and internationally. Some staff at research institutes had for several days to devote their time exclusively to giving interviews to the international media. Scientific communication with the local population was mainly conducted through four channels: (1) the web pages of institutions, (2) the national media; (3) indirectly at meetings on the status of the eruption with local and national officials, and (4) public meetings in the affected areas. In addition the scientific community issued daily status reports to the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, these reports served both national and local Civil Protection officials when preparing their statements on the eruption and answer basic questions from the media. During media communication, it is important to stick to facts, avoid speculation and use plain language without scientific jargon. However, the most critical part of the communication occurred in the years before the eruption through meetings with the local inhabitants. At these meetings the results of a detailed hazard assessment on eruptions in Eyjafjallajökull and the neighboring ice-filled Katla caldera where

  12. Do body weight and gender shape the work force? The case of Iceland. (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey


    Most studies of the relationship between body weight - as well as its corollary, beauty - and labor-market outcomes have indicated that it is a function of a gender bias, the negative relationship between excess weight or obesity and labor-market outcomes being greater for women than for men. Iceland offers an exceptional opportunity to examine this hypothesis, given that it scores relatively well on an index of gender equality comprising economic, political, educational, labor-market, and health-based criteria. Equipped with an advanced level of educational attainment, on average, women are well represented in Iceland's labor force. When it comes to women's presence in the political sphere, Iceland is out of the ordinary as well; that Icelanders were the first in the world to elect a woman to be president may suggest a relatively gender-blind assessment in the labor market. In the current study, survey data collected by Gallup Iceland in 2002 are used to examine the relationship between weight and employment within this political and social setting. Point estimates indicate that, despite apparently lesser gender discrimination in Iceland than elsewhere, the bias against excess weight and obesity remains gender-based, showing a slightly negative relationship between weight and the employment rate of women, whereas a slightly positive relationship was found for men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene


    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi......, and that owners tend to underestimate the BCS of their Icelandic horses. The GC:HW ratio might indicate overweight or obesity, however, the ratio for Icelandic horses is different than reported for horses and ponies of other breeds.......Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body...... condition score (BCS) based on owner perception with that of an experienced person and to correlate the BCS to body weight (BW) and morphometric measures in a group of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark. A total of 254 Icelandic horses (≥4 years; 140 geldings, 105 mares, 9 stallions) from 46 different farms...

  14. Seasonal sea ice cover during the warm Pliocene: Evidence from the Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907) (United States)

    Clotten, Caroline; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; De Schepper, Stijn


    Sea ice is a critical component in the Arctic and global climate system, yet little is known about its extent and variability during past warm intervals, such as the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Ma). Here, we present the first multi-proxy (IP25, sterols, alkenones, palynology) sea ice reconstructions for the Late Pliocene Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907). Our interpretation of a seasonal sea ice cover with occasional ice-free intervals between 3.50-3.00 Ma is supported by reconstructed alkenone-based summer sea surface temperatures. As evidenced from brassicasterol and dinosterol, primary productivity was low between 3.50 and 3.00 Ma and the site experienced generally oligotrophic conditions. The East Greenland Current (and East Icelandic Current) may have transported sea ice into the Iceland Sea and/or brought cooler and fresher waters favoring local sea ice formation. Between 3.00 and 2.40 Ma, the Iceland Sea is mainly sea ice-free, but seasonal sea ice occurred between 2.81 and 2.74 Ma. Sea ice extending into the Iceland Sea at this time may have acted as a positive feedback for the build-up of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), which underwent a major expansion ∼2.75 Ma. Thereafter, most likely a stable sea ice edge developed close to Greenland, possibly changing together with the expansion and retreat of the GIS and affecting the productivity in the Iceland Sea.

  15. The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 in two remote island nations: Iceland and New Zealand. (United States)

    Summers, Jennifer A; Wilson, Nick; Baker, Michael G; Gottfredsson, Magnus


    Nations varied in their experience of, and response to, the 1918-19 influenza pandemic. Island communities can provide unique opportunities to study the epidemiology of infectious diseases. We aimed to compare the epidemiology and public health response to this pandemic in two remote island nations, on opposite sides of the globe: Iceland and New Zealand (NZ). Historical accounts in both nations were reviewed, along with recent analysis of the pandemics impact and course. Marked similarities were noted in epidemic timing, failure of border control, shape of epidemic curves, and delayed use of public health interventions. However, amongst the exposed European populations, Iceland experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (830 vs 550 per 100,000) compared to NZ (rate ratio: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.4-1.6). There is evidence that some public health measures in specific areas of both nations resulted in lower mortality rates. In particular, Iceland's use of travel restrictions and ship quarantining, appeared to protect 36% of the population. The epidemiology of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic was fairly similar for the exposed European populations of Iceland and NZ. Nevertheless, major differences were the significantly higher overall mortality rate in Iceland and the success of Iceland's use of travel restrictions.

  16. Molecular evidence of the survival of subterranean amphipods (Arthropoda) during Ice Age underneath glaciers in Iceland. (United States)

    Kornobis, Etienne; Pálsson, Snaebjörn; Kristjánsson, Bjarni K; Svavarsson, Jörundur


    A Two endemic groundwater arthropod crustacean species, Crangonyx islandicus and Crymostygius thingvallensis, were recently discovered on the mid-Atlantic volcanic island of Iceland. The extent of morphological differences from closest relatives, endemism, along with the geographic isolation of Iceland and its complete coverage by glaciers 21,000 years ago, suggests that these two species have survived glaciation periods in sub-glacial refugia. Here we provide strong support for this hypothesis by an analysis of mitochondrial genetic variation within Crangonyx islandicus. Our results show that the species is divided into several distinct monophyletic groups that are found along the volcanic zone in Iceland, which have been separated by 0.5 to around 5 million years. The genetic divergence between groups reflects geographic distances between sampling sites, indicating that divergence occurred after the colonization of Iceland. The genetic patterns, as well as the dependency of genetic variation on distances from the tectonic plate boundary and altitude, points to recent expansion from several refugia within Iceland. This presents the first genetic evidence of multicellular organisms as complex as crustacean amphipods which have survived glaciations beneath an ice sheet. This survival may be explained by geothermal heat linked to volcanic activities, which may have maintained favourable habitats in fissures along the tectonic plate boundary in Iceland during glaciations.

  17. Enucleation in Iceland 1992-2004: study in a defined population. (United States)

    Geirsdottir, Asbjorg; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Helgadottir, Gudleif; Sigurdsson, Haraldur


    To determine the incidence rate as well as causative diagnoses and surgical indications of enucleation in Iceland during the years 1992-2004. A retrospective population-based incidence study involving the entire population of Iceland. Medical records of all patients who underwent enucleation in Iceland from January 1992 through December 2004 were reviewed. The annually updated Icelandic census was used as a denominator data. Fifty-six eyes were enucleated during 1992-2004. No eviscerations were done, and the three exenterations performed were not included in the study. The mean annual age-adjusted incidence rate of enucleation in Iceland was 1.48 enucleations per 100 000 population in comparison with 2.66 enucleations per 100 000 for the time period 1964-1991. With advancing age, a significant increasing linear trend existed (p Iceland is continually decreasing, although the incidence of severe ocular trauma and ocular malignancy is fairly stable. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  18. Weathering The Storm – Icelandic Municipalities’ Handling of an Unprecedented Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnús Árni Skjöld MAGNÚSSON


    Full Text Available Within a few days in October 2008, following serious turmoil on financial markets worldwide, some 85% of the Icelandic banking sector collapsed, together with the Icelandic currency, the króna. Almost all the rest followed early in 2009. The Icelandic stock market took a nosedive. The Republic of Iceland had entered the worst economic crisis of its history. Icelandic municipalities, which had taken on an increasing burden of running the welfare state, were hard hit financially, without the ability of the state to help out. In fact, some of the post-crisis actions of the state, under IMF direction, were difficult for the municipalities. It did not make things easier that the crisis had been precluded by an unprecedented period of growth, encouraging the municipalities to borrow in international markets and invest in infrastructure that turned out to be superfluous in the post-crisis period. This paper will look at the reactions of the Icelandic municipalities to the crisis, the political implications of it, where they are now and if there are lessons that can be learned from the difficult years in the last decade.

  19. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, John


    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  20. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin


    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  1. Ionospheric "Volcanology": Ionospheric Detection of Volcano Eruptions (United States)

    Astafyeva, E.; Shults, K.; Lognonne, P. H.; Rakoto, V.


    It is known that volcano eruptions and explosions can generate acoustic and gravity waves. These neutral waves further propagate into the atmosphere and ionosphere, where they are detectable by atmospheric and ionospheric sounding tools. So far, the features of co-volcanic ionospheric perturbations are not well understood yet. The development of the global and regional networks of ground-based GPS/GNSS receivers has opened a new era in the ionospheric detection of natural hazard events, including volcano eruptions. It is now known that eruptions with the volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of more than 2 can be detected in the ionosphere, especially in regions with dense GPS/GNSS-receiver coverage. The co-volcanic ionospheric disturbances are usually characterized as quasi-periodic oscillations. The Calbuco volcano, located in southern Chile, awoke in April 2015 after 43 years of inactivity. The first eruption began at 21:04UT on 22 April 2015, preceded by only an hour-long period of volcano-tectonic activity. This first eruption lasted 90 minutes and generated a sub-Plinian (i.e. medium to large explosive event), gray ash plume that rose 15 km above the main crater. A larger second event on 23 April began at 04:00UT (01:00LT), it lasted six hours, and also generated a sub-Plinian ash plume that rose higher than 15 km. The VEI was estimated to be 4 to 5 for these two events. In this work, we first study ionospheric TEC response to the Calbuco volcano eruptions of April 2015 by using ground-based GNSS-receivers located around the volcano. We analyze the spectral characteristics of the observed TEC variations and we estimate the propagation speed of the co-volcanic ionospheric perturbations. We further proceed with the normal mode summation technique based modeling of the ionospheric TEC variations due to the Calbuco volcano eruptions. Finally, we attempt to localize the position of the volcano from the ionospheric measurements, and we also estimate the time of the

  2. The Vikings are coming! A modern Icelandic self-image in the light of the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Nielsen Gremaud


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the connection between the economic crisis in Iceland in 2008 and the role of Viking imagery in the collective self-image of Iceland. This connection is informed by Iceland’s status as a Danish dependency for centuries – a condition that deeply affected the development of Icelandic self-perception and its cultural life. In recent years, the Viking has appeared as an image of central cultural significance in Iceland’s international relations with both Denmark and Great Britain in recent years. This article explores the connection between the sensational rise and fall of the so-called útrásarvíkingar (ex-pansion Vikings, or Icelandic businessmen, and the effect of Iceland being a former dependency of Denmark on the general function of the Viking image in Iceland’s collective identity. Thus, a postcolonial approach sheds light on how imagological representations of Vikings have affected modern Icelandic identity conceptualizations.

  3. Abundance of grey seals in Icelandic waters, based on trends of pup-counts from aerial surveys


    Erlingur Hauksson


    Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus Fabricius, 1791) are distributed all around the Icelandic coast. The majority of the population breeds on the west- and northwest shores, with a second high density in the breeding distribution on the southeast coast of Iceland. During the last 5 decades the Icelandic grey seals have dispersed from the west- to the northwest-, the north- and the northeast-coast. The breeding period occurs from the middle of September to early November, with a maximum in mid Octo...

  4. The changing shapes of active volcanoes: History, evolution, and future challenges for volcano geodesy (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Newman, Andrew V.


    At the very heart of volcanology lies the search for the 'plumbing systems' that form the inner workings of Earth’s active volcanoes. By their very nature, however, the magmatic reservoirs and conduits that underlie these active volcanic systems are elusive; mostly they are observable only through circumstantial evidence, using indirect, and often ambiguous, surficial measurements. Of course, we can infer much about these systems from geologic investigation of materials brought to the surface by eruptions and of the exposed roots of ancient volcanoes. But how can we study the magmatic processes that are occurring beneath Earth’s active volcanoes? What are the geometry, scale, physical, and chemical characteristics of magma reservoirs? Can we infer the dynamics of magma transport? Can we use this information to better forecast the future behavior of volcanoes? These questions comprise some of the most fundamental, recurring themes of modern research in volcanology. The field of volcano geodesy is uniquely situated to provide critical observational constraints on these problems. For the past decade, armed with a new array of technological innovations, equipped with powerful computers, and prepared with new analytical tools, volcano geodesists have been poised to make significant advances in our fundamental understanding of the behavior of active volcanic systems. The purpose of this volume is to highlight some of these recent advances, particularly in the collection and interpretation of geodetic data from actively deforming volcanoes. The 18 papers that follow report on new geodetic data that offer valuable insights into eruptive activity and magma transport; they present new models and modeling strategies that have the potential to greatly increase understanding of magmatic, hydrothermal, and volcano-tectonic processes; and they describe innovative techniques for collecting geodetic measurements from remote, poorly accessible, or hazardous volcanoes. To provide

  5. Growth and degradation of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 3 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Clague, David A.; Sherrod, David R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    The 19 known shield volcanoes of the main Hawaiian Islands—15 now emergent, 3 submerged, and 1 newly born and still submarine—lie at the southeast end of a long-lived hot spot chain. As the Pacific Plate of the Earth’s lithosphere moves slowly northwestward over the Hawaiian hot spot, volcanoes are successively born above it, evolve as they drift away from it, and eventually die and subside beneath the ocean surface.

  6. Of volcanoes, saints, trash, and frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    , at the same time as political elections and economic hardship. During one year of ethnographic fieldwork volcanoes, saints, trash and frogs were among the nonhuman entities referred to in conversations and engaged with when responding to the changes that trouble the world and everyday life of Arequipans...

  7. Carbonate assimilation at Merapi volcano, Java Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadwick, J.P; Troll, V.R; Ginibre,, C.


    Recent basaltic andesite lavas from Merapi volcano contain abundant, complexly zoned, plagioclase phenocrysts, analysed here for their petrographic textures, major element composition and Sr isotope composition. Anorthite (An) content in individual crystals can vary by as much as 55 mol% (An40^95...

  8. Biological Studies on a Live Volcano. (United States)

    Zipko, Stephen J.


    Describes scientific research on an Earthwatch expedition to study Arenal, one of the world's most active volcanoes, in north central Costa Rica. The purpose of the two-week project was to monitor and understand the past and ongoing development of a small, geologically young, highly active stratovolcano in a tropical, high-rainfall environment.…

  9. The reawakening of Alaska's Augustine volcano (United States)

    Power, John A.; Nye, Christopher J.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Wessels, Rick L.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Dehn, Jon; Wallace, Kristi L.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Doukas, Michael P.


    Augustine volcano, in south central Alaska, ended a 20-year period of repose on 11 January 2006 with 13 explosive eruptions in 20 days. Explosive activity shifted to a quieter effusion of lava in early February, forming a new summit lava dome and two short, blocky lava flows by late March (Figure 1).

  10. Probing magma reservoirs to improve volcano forecasts (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Hurwitz, Shaul


    When it comes to forecasting eruptions, volcano observatories rely mostly on real-time signals from earthquakes, ground deformation, and gas discharge, combined with probabilistic assessments based on past behavior [Sparks and Cashman, 2017]. There is comparatively less reliance on geophysical and petrological understanding of subsurface magma reservoirs.

  11. Muons reveal the interior of volcanoes

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi


    The MU-RAY project has the very challenging aim of providing a “muon X-ray” of the Vesuvius volcano (Italy) using a detector that records the muons hitting it after traversing the rock structures of the volcano. This technique was used for the first time in 1971 by the Nobel Prize-winner Louis Alvarez, who was searching for unknown burial chambers in the Chephren pyramid.   The location of the muon detector on the slopes of the Vesuvius volcano. Like X-ray scans of the human body, muon radiography allows researchers to obtain an image of the internal structures of the upper levels of volcanoes. Although such an image cannot help to predict ‘when’ an eruption might occur, it can, if combined with other observations, help to foresee ‘how’ it could develop and serves as a powerful tool for the study of geological structures. Muons come from the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. They are able to traverse layers of ro...

  12. Seismicity at Baru Volcano, Western Panama, Panama (United States)

    Camacho, E.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Tapia, A.; Rodriguez, A.


    The Baru volcano in Western Panama (8.808°N, 82.543°W) is a 3,475 m high strato volcano that lies at about 50 km from the Costa Rican border. The last major eruptive event at this volcano occurred c.1550 AD and no further eruptive activity from that time is known. Since the 1930´s, approximately every 30 years a series of seismic swarms take place in the surroundings of the volcanic edifice. Theses swarms last several weeks alarming the population who lives near the volcano. The last of these episodes occurred on May 2006 and lasted one and a half months. More than 20,000 people live adjacent to the volcano and any future eruption has the potential to be very dangerous. In June 2007, a digital seismic monitoring network of ten stations, linked via internet, was installed around the volcano in a collaborative project between the University of Panama and the Panamanian Government. The seismic data acquisition at the sites is performed using LINUX-SEISLOG and the events are recorded by four servers at different locations using the Earth Worm system. In this work we analyze the characteristics of the volcano seismicity recorded from May 4th, 2006 to July 31st, 2008 by at least 4 stations and located at about 15 km from the summit. To determine the seismic parameters, we tested several crustal velocity models and used the seismic analysis software package SEISAN. Our final velocity model was determined using seismic data for the first four km obtained from a temporal seismic network deployed in 1981 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) as part of geothermal studies conducted at Cerro Pando, Western Panama Highlands. Our results indicate that all the events recorded in the quadrant 8.6-9.0°N and 82.2-82.7°W are located in the depth range of 0.1 to 8 km. Cross sections show vertical alignments of hypocenters below the summit although most of the seismicity is concentrated in its eastern flank reaching the town of Boquete. All the calculated focal mechanisms are of

  13. COTHERM: Modelling fluid-rock interactions in Icelandic geothermal systems (United States)

    Thien, Bruno; Kosakowski, Georg; Kulik, Dmitrii


    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced geothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. We model the mineralogical and porosity evolution of Icelandic geothermal systems with 1D and 2D reactive transport models. These geothermal systems are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. The shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. We investigate two contrasting geothermal systems: Krafla, for which the water recharge consists of meteoritic water; and Reykjanes, for which the water recharge mainly consists of seawater. The initial rock composition is a fresh basalt. We use the GEM-Selektor geochemical modeling package [1] for calculation of kinetically controlled mineral equilibria between the rock and the ingression water. We consider basalt minerals dissolution kinetics according to Palandri & Kharaka [2]. Reactive surface areas are assumed to be geometric surface areas, and are corrected using a spherical-particle surface/mass relationship. For secondary minerals, we consider the partial equilibrium assuming that the primary mineral dissolution is slow, and the secondary mineral precipitation is fast. Comparison of our modeling results with the mineralogical assemblages observed in the

  14. Human induced impacts on soil organic carbon in southwest Iceland (United States)

    Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Erlendsson, Egill; Lal, Rattan


    The Icelandic environment has been strongly influenced by natural processes during the Holocene. Since settlement in AD 874, the introduction of grazing animals and other land use has drastically affected the natural environment. This includes the diminishing of vegetative cover, which has led to soil exposure and accelerated erosion over large areas, especially when in conjunction with harsh climate. This has specifically impacted processes and properties of volcanic soils (Andosols), which are subject to accelerated erosion by wind and water. While approximately 46% of the land surface in Iceland has sustained continuous vegetation cover, large areas have lost some or all of their soil cover formed during the postglacial era. Elsewhere, remaining soils have sparse or no vegetation cover, thus impairing soil carbon (C) sequestration. Among their multifunctional roles, soils support plant growth, increase soil biotic activity, enhance nutrient storage and strengthen the cycling of water and nutrients. In contrast, soil degradation by accelerated erosion and other processes impairs soil quality, reduces soil structure and depletes the soil organic matter (SOM) pool. Depletion of the SOM pool has also global implications because the terrestrial C pool is the third largest pool and strongly impacts the global C cycle. Erosional-depositional processes may deplete soil organic C (SOC) by erosion and increase by deposition. Some SOC-enriched sediments are redistributed over the landscape, while others are deposited in depression sites and transported into aquatic ecosystems. SOC decomposition processes are severely constrained in some environmental settings and any SOC buried under anaerobic conditions is protected against decomposition. Yet, the impact of the SOC transported by erosional processes and redistributed over the landscape is not fully understood because the variability in its turnover characteristics has not been widely studied. Thus, the fate of C

  15. Iceland as the largest source of natural air pollution in the Arctic (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Meinander, Outi; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur


    Arctic aerosols are often attributed to the Arctic Haze and long-range transport tracers. There is, however, an important dust source in the Arctic/Sub-arctic region which should receive more attention. The largest desert in the Arctic as well as in the Europe is Iceland with > 40,000 km2 of desert areas. The mean dust suspension frequency was 135 dust days annually in 1949-2012 with decreasing numbers in 2013-2015. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 31-40 million tons yr-1 affecting the area of > 500,000 km2. Satelite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes traveling > 1000 km at times. The physical properties of Icelandic dust showed differences in mineralogy, geochemical compositions, shapes, sizes, and colour, compared to the crustal mineral dust. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin, dark in colour with sharp-tipped shards and large bubbles. About 80% of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals, such as iron and titanium. Suspended dust measured at the glacial dust source consisted of such high number of close-to-ultrafine particles as concentrations during active eruptions. Generally, about 50% of the suspended PM10 are submicron particles in Iceland. Contrarily, suspended grains > 2 mm were captured during severe dust storm after the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption when the aeolian transport exceeded 11 t m-1 of materials and placed this storms among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. Our reflectance measurements showed that Icelandic dust deposited on snow lowers the snow albedo and reduces the snow density as much as Black Carbon. Icelandic volcanic dust tends to act as a positive climate forcing agent, both directly and indirectly, which is different to what generally concluded for crustal dust in the 2013 IPCC report. The high frequency, severity and year-round activity of volcanic dust emissions suggest that Icelandic dust may contribute to Arctic warming.

  16. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland (United States)

    Ingimundardóttir, G. V.; Weibull, H.; Cronberg, N.


    The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963-1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972: the number of observed species doubled, with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as the presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis). Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata) while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum). Some species (especially Bryum spp.) benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and are unlikely to have been dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments or dispersal agents

  17. Technical progress report of biological research on the Volcanic Island Surtsey and environment for the year 1976. [Recovery of terrestrial ecosystem on volcanic island following volcano eruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridriksson, S.


    The study involves the terrestrial biological research on the volcanic island, Surtsey, off the coast of Iceland and the neighbouring islands and environs of the Westman Islands, which are situated on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. An eruption of the volcano in 1973 is studied. The topographical changes on Surtsey were studied in August 1976. It is evident that the southwestern side is constantly being eroded and that the island decreases in area of some 7.5 hectares per year. Results are reported from studies of microorganisms, algae, lichens, moss, vascular plants, insects, birds, and soil, and the nitrogen cycle. Emphasis was placed on revegetation and recolonization of plants, insects, and sea birds.

  18. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano (United States)


    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of

  19. Monitoring remote volcanoes: The 2010-2012 unrest at Sotará volcano (Colombia) (United States)

    Alpala, Jorge; Alpala, Rosa; Battaglia, Maurizio


    Sotará is a little known andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano in southern Colombia (Central Cordillera, Cauca Department). Its remote location and the lack of accessible roads make studying and monitoring Sotará volcano difficult. No historical eruptions are known, though there is current geothermal activity. Between the fall of 2010 and the fall of 2012 a small magma intrusion (depth 1 km, ΔV 105 m3) triggered surface deformation and volcano-tectonic earthquakes but failed to reach the surface. This episode of unrest started with the volcano-tectonic earthquake of September 2010 (ML 4.4). Although one electronic tiltmeter recorded significant deformation between Jan 2011 and July 2012 (137 ± 7 μrad), seismic activity remained at background levels until May 2012. Between June and September 2012, seismicity increased dramatically with an average of 120 volcano-tectonic events per day of magnitude up to 2.2. The epicenters of these events were initially located 6 km NE of the volcano but then migrated along a linear fracture towards the NW summit of the volcano. At the same time, the hypocenters moved closer to the surface as well: from a depth of 3-6 km for the initial events to a depth of 1-4 km for the events at the end of the summer. Although the dike intrusion did not culminate in an eruption, and seismicity and deformation returned close to background levels by January 2013, this episode of unrest is a reminder that Sotará is an active volcano and should be carefully monitored.

  20. Asymmetric seafloor spreading on the Reykjanes Ridge - influence of the Iceland anomaly? (United States)

    Benediktsdóttir, Ásdís; Hey, Richard; Martinez, Fernando; Höskulddson, Ármann


    Recently it has been shown that the crustal accretion on the Reykjanes Ridge (RR) is asymmetric with more lithosphere being consistently transferred from the Eurasian Plate to the North American Plate. In Iceland, the center of spreading has moved to the east, creating an age-asymmetry on Iceland, with more lithosphere on the North American side than the Eurasian side. The eastward movement of the spreading center is likely explained by the presence of the Iceland anomaly; if the anomaly is fixed with respect to the plate movements then the ridge system is drifting to the west and therefore the shift of the system is to the east, toward the Iceland anomaly. The shift of the center of spreading in Iceland must somehow be observed in the ridge systems off shore. We argue that the asymmetry on the RR south of Iceland, as observed in the magnetic data, is a result of the spreading center movements in Iceland. The RR extends down to the 15 km long right-lateral Bight Transform Fault (BTF) 1000 km south of south Iceland. Although it is short, it is a a sturdy and long lived offset, dating back to at least 37 Ma when spreading ceased in the Labrador Sea, and before that it was a triple junction between the North America-Greenland-Eurasia plates. Just south of the BTF, asymmetries in the magnetic data have been documented. The asymmetry is consistent to what is occurring in Iceland. Lithosphere is being transferred from the Eurasia Plate to the North America Plate. The question arises whether this is an influence of the Iceland anomaly? How far from Iceland do the influence of its anomaly reach and how to we quantify them? The off-shore asymmetries discussed here are not continuous, but seen in the magnetic fabric as if the ridge center was transferred a few kilometers, consistently to the east. A continuous asymmetry would have a different magnetic signature. The best documented asymmetry producing mechanism is a propagating rift (e.g. the Galapagos propagator). The

  1. Gender Bias in the Media: The Case of Iceland

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    Valgerður Jóhannsdóttir


    Full Text Available The news media are the most influential sources of information, ideas and opinion for most people around the world. Who appears in the news and who is left out, what is covered and what is not and how people and events are portrayed matter. Research has consistently shown that women are underrepresented in the news and that gender stereotypes are reinforced in and through the media. The 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action recognised the relationship between women and media as a major area of concern in achieving gender equality in contemporary societies. This article presents Nordic findings from the 2015 Global Media Monitoring Project (GMMP, which is the largest and longest-running study on gender in the world’s media. The findings show that women account for only 1 in 5 of the people interviewed or reported on by Icelandic news media and that women’s overall presence in the news has declined compared to the last GMMP study in 2010. The proportion of women as news subjects is also considerably lower than in other Nordic countries. We argue that the number of women who are journalists, managers in the media industry and decision makers in society has increased, but this shift has not automatically changed the representation of women in the news, either in numbers or in their portrayal. This discrepancy indicates that the relationship between gender and the news media is complicated and needs to be approached from different perspectives.

  2. Travel time seismic tomography on Reykjanes, SW Iceland (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Ágústsson, Kristjan; Blanck, Hanna; Metz, Malte; Franke, Steven; Pàll Hersir, Gylfi; Bruhn, David; Flovenz, Ólafur; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur


    We present updated tomographic results obtained using seismic data recorded around geothermal reservoirs located both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 234 seismic stations (including 24 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and August 2015. In order to determine the orientation of the OBS stations, we used Rayleigh waves planar particle motions from large magnitude earthquakes. This method proved suitable using the on-land stations: orientations determined using this method with the orientations measured using a giro-compass agreed. We focus on the 3D velocity images using local earthquakes to perform travel time tomography. The processing includes first arrival picking of P- and S- phases using an automatic detection and picking technique based on Akaike Information Criteria. We locate earthquakes by using a non-linear localization technique, as a priori information for deriving a 1D velocity model. We then computed 3D velocity model by joint inversion of each earthquake's location and velocity lateral anomalies with respect to the 1D model. Our models confirms previous models obtained in the area, with enhanced details. In a second step, we performed inversion of the Vp/Vs ratio. Results indicate a low Vp/Vs ratio anomaly at depth suggesting the absence of large magmatic body under Reykjanes, unlike results obtained at other geothermal field, sucha as Krafla and Hengill. We discuss implications of those results in the light of recent IDDP drilling in Reykjanes.

  3. Satisfaction among ambulatory surgery patients in two hospitals in Iceland. (United States)

    Sigurthardottir, A K


    This study aims to investigate the level of satisfaction of care received among patients undergoing ambulatory surgery in two hospitals in Iceland, using the Patient Satisfaction Instrument (PSI). The PSI consists of 25 items, broken down into three sub-scales which measure the patients' attitude towards nursing care. The sample consisted of ambulatory patients undergoing orthopaedic, urological, hernia or varicose veins operations. The patients were 16 years or older and we enlisted 70 individuals from each hospital. Overall, the results show that patients are generally satisfied with the level of care they have received. The patients in group I are more satisfied than the patients in group II; however, only four out of the 25 items which were scored attracted a significance level of nurses as satisfactory but felt they did not receive enough information about their operation from the nurses. Although the patients were generally satisfied with the level of care received, they also identified instances where they felt that the level of care was inadequate; however, as results from other studies show, patients often experience difficulties articulating something negative about their nurses and the care they have received.

  4. Political control and perceptions of corruption in Icelandic local government

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    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson


    Full Text Available Political control is an important value of democratic governance and without it democratic accountability can hardly mean much. This is why a number of authors have seen politicization of public service appointments and greater control by the centre as a potential counterweight against trends in recent decades towards more networked and less hierarchical organizational forms of directing public policy. It may help to reassert democratic control. The option of strengthening political control, however, has not been much studied with regard to its likely effects on corruption. Power has the potential to corrupt unless adequately controlled and strengthening political power in a networked environment may create a structure of temptation which conventional deterrents to corruption are unable to curb. The impact of strong political leadership on corruption is here studied in the context of Icelandic local government, making use of institutional variations in the office of Mayor, which provide a unique opportunity for testing the effects of strong political control on corruption. The analysis indicates that municipalities with strong political mayors are likely to be associated with perceptions of corruption even when other factors, such as the structure of temptation and deterrents, are accounted for.

  5. [Lung volume reduction surgery for severe pulmonary emphysema in Iceland]. (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir I; Johannsson, Kristinn B; Guðjónsdóttir, Marta; Jónsson, Steinn; Beck, Hans J; Magnusson, Bjorn; Gudbjartsson, Tomas


    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can benefit patients with severe emphysema. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of LVRS performed in Iceland. A prospective study of 16 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral LVRS through median sternotomy between January 1996 and December 2008. All patients had disabling dyspnea, lung hyperinflation, and emphysema with upper lobe predominance. Preoperatively all patients underwent pulmonary rehabilitation. Spirometry, lung volumes, arterial blood gases and exercise capacity were measured before and after surgery. Mean follow-up time was 8.7 years. Mean age was 59.2 ± 5.9 years. All patients had a history of heavy smoking. There was no perioperative mortality and survival was 100%, 93%, and 63% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) improved significantly after surgery by 35% (plung capacity, residual volume and partial pressure of CO2 also showed statistically significant improvements but exercise capacity, O2 consumption and diffusing capacity of the lung for CO did not change. Prolonged air leak (≥ 7 days) was the most common complication (n=7). Five patients required reoperation, most commonly for sternal dehiscence (n=4). In this small prospective study, FEV1 and FVC increased and lung volumes and PaCO2 improved after LVRS. Long term survival was satisfactory although complications such as reoperations for sternal dehiscence were common and hospital stay therefore often prolonged.

  6. Possible Icelandic Tephra Found in European Colle Gnifetti Glacier (United States)

    Luongo, M. T.; Kurbatov, A. V.; Erhardt, T.; Mayewski, P. A.; McCormick, M.; More, A. F.; Spaulding, N. E.; Wheatley, S. D.; Yates, M. G.; Bohleber, P. D.


    Volcanic ash (tephra) provides unique time markers (isochrons) that are often used as an independent age-control tool for stratigraphic correlations of paleoclimate archives from ice cores. However, little credence has been given to the notion of finding tephra in ice cores collected in the European Alps because of the relatively large distance from volcanic sources and the presumed nature of regional atmospheric circulation patterns. We filtered particles from melted ice core drilling chips gathered roughly every meter during a 2013 drilling operation at Colle Gnifetti glacier in the Swiss-Italian Alps (45°55.74'N, 7°52.58'E, 4450 m asl). One filter, preliminarily dated to the nineteenth century by annual layer counting, contained a group of six visually similar tephra particles. Analyzing their chemistry using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer established that the six particles were volcanic in origin and are very similar in composition (a distinctive geochemical signature), pointing to a single volcanic eruption source. We proposed that one of several massive nineteenth century Eastern Icelandic eruptions is a potential source given eruption timing, size, tephra dispersion area, and similarities in chemical composition. This first finding of tephra in an Alpine ice core contributes to a regional tephrochronological framework that can be adapted for future correlation among different paleoclimate sequences.

  7. Icelandic herring-eating killer whales feed at night. (United States)

    Richard, Gaëtan; Filatova, Olga A; Samarra, Filipa I P; Fedutin, Ivan D; Lammers, Marc; Miller, Patrick J


    Herring-eating killer whales debilitate herring with underwater tail slaps and likely herd herring into tighter schools using a feeding-specific low-frequency pulsed call ('herding' call). Feeding on herring may be dependent upon daylight, as the whales use their white underside to help herd herring; however, feeding at night has not been investigated. The production of feeding-specific sounds provides an opportunity to use passive acoustic monitoring to investigate feeding behaviour at different times of day. We compared the acoustic behaviour of killer whales between day and night, using an autonomous recorder deployed in Iceland during winter. Based upon acoustic detection of underwater tail slaps used to feed upon herring we found that killer whales fed both at night and day: they spent 50% of their time at night and 73% of daytime feeding. Interestingly, there was a significant diel variation in acoustic behaviour. Herding calls were significantly associated with underwater tail slap rate and were recorded significantly more often at night, suggesting that in low-light conditions killer whales rely more on acoustics to herd herring. Communicative sounds were also related to underwater tail slap rate and produced at different rates during day and night. The capability to adapt feeding behaviour to different light conditions may be particularly relevant for predator species occurring in high latitudes during winter, when light availability is limited.

  8. The Impact of Amalgamations on Services in Icelandic Municipalities

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    Grétar Thór Eythórsson


    Full Text Available This article deals with answering the question whether municipal amalgamations can meet the wishes at the root of the most common motives behind them: to gain cost-efficiency and more quality in the municipal services. The analysis is partly based on a survey among Icelandic local leaders in 2015 and partly on survey among citizens in 8 recently amalgamated municipalities collected with a snowball method through Facebook in the spring and summer 2013. The main results are that the impact of amalgamations on municipal services seems to depend on whether we look at the central or peripheral parts of the municipality. Both leaders and citizens seem to perceive developments of services differently depending on the position in the municipality. In the peripheries, they have significantly more negative view than in the service centres. This has to do with both their evaluation of specific services and their general evaluation of service development. However, in the general evaluation the difference is significantly larger.

  9. Common processes at unique volcanoes - a volcanological conundrum (United States)

    Cashman, Katharine; Biggs, Juliet


    An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or “personality”). In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption “styles” referenced to “type” volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian); this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1). The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  10. Subglacial hydrothermal alteration minerals in Jökulhlaup deposits of Southern Iceland, with implications for detecting past or present habitable environments on Mars. (United States)

    Warner, Nicholas H; Farmer, Jack D


    Jökulhlaups are terrestrial catastrophic outfloods, often triggered by subglacial volcanic eruptions. Similar volcano-ice interactions were likely important on Mars where magma/lava may have interacted with the planet's cryosphere to produce catastrophic floods. As a potential analogue to sediments deposited during martian floods, the Holocene sandurs of Iceland are dominated by basaltic clasts derived from the subglacial environment and deposited during jökulhlaups. Palagonite tuffs and breccias, present within the deposits, represent the primary alteration lithology. The surface abundance of palagonite on the sandurs is 1-20%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of palagonite breccias confirms a mineral assemblage of zeolites, smectites, low-quartz, and kaolinite. Oriented powder X-ray diffractograms (temperature (100-140 degrees C) hydrothermal alteration of basaltic material within the subglacial environment. These results suggest that potential martian analog sites that contain a similar suite of hydrated minerals may be indicative of past hydrothermal activity and locations where past habitable environments for microbial life may be found.

  11. Icelandic basaltic geothermal field: A natural analog for nuclear waste isolation in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, G.C.; Grandstaff, D.E.


    Analog studies of Icelandic geothermal fields have shown that the design of nuclear waste repositories in basalt can benefit by comparison to the data base already available from the development of these geothermal fields. A high degree of similarity exists between these two systems: their petrology, groundwater geochemistry, mineral solubilities, hydrologic parameters, temperature ranges, water-rock redox equilibria, hydrothermal pH values, and secondary mineralogies all show considerable overlap in the range of values. The experimentally-simulated hydrothermal studies of the basaltic nuclear waste repository rocks have, at this time, produced a data base that receives a strong confirmation from the Icelandic analog. Furthermore, the Icelandic analog should eventually be employed to extrapolate into higher and lower temperatures, into longer time-base chemical comparisons, and into more realistic mineral deposition studies, than have been possible in the laboratory evaluations of the nuclear waste repository designs. This eventual use of the Icelandic analog will require cooperative work with the Icelandic Geological Survey. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Legalizing altruistic surrogacy in response to evasive travel? An Icelandic proposal

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    Sigurður Kristinsson


    Full Text Available Surrogate motherhood has been prohibited by Icelandic law since 1996, but in recent years, Icelandic couples have sought transnational surrogacy in India and the United States despite uncertainties about legal parental status as they return to Iceland with infants born to surrogate mothers. This reflects global trends of increased reproductive tourism, which forces restrictive regimes not only to make decisions concerning the citizenship and parentage of children born to surrogate mothers abroad, but also to confront difficult moral issues concerning surrogacy, global justice, human rights and exploitation. In March 2015, a legislative proposal permitting altruistic surrogacy, subject to strict regulation and oversight, and prohibiting the solicitation of commercial surrogacy abroad, was presented in the Icelandic Parliament. The proposal aims to protect the interest of the child first, respect the autonomy of the surrogate second, and accommodate the intended parents’ wishes third. After a brief overview of the development of the surrogacy issue in Iceland, this article describes the main features of this legislative proposal and evaluates it from an ethical and global justice perspective. It concludes that the proposed legislation is a response to problems generated by cross-border surrogacy in the context of evolving public attitudes toward the issue, and constitutes a valid attempt to reduce the moral hazards of surrogacy consistent with insights from current bioethical literature. Although the proposed legislation arguably represents an improvement over the current ban, however, difficult problems concerning evasive travel and global injustice are likely to persist until effective international coordination is achieved.


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    Claudia Gabriela Baicu


    Full Text Available The novelty of this paper is the comparative analysis of the Romanian and Icelandic banking systems. The study results reveal that despite the fact that Romania and Iceland are two different worlds, there are several similarities between the banking systems of these countries. They include a late development of banking systems, foreigners contributing a great deal to the development of the banking systems in the early stage of evolution. After the Second World War until the 1990s specialized banks operated in both countries. The banking systems of both countries prior to the 1990s were dominated by politics. Liberalization of banking and capital occurred both in Romania and Iceland after 1990; the bank privatization process took place during a similar period (1999-2006, Romania; 1998-2002, Iceland. Before privatization, banks in both countries lacked experience in a new banking “arena”. The global financial crisis greatly affected the two banking systems. Despite similarities, the evolution of the two banking systems was also marked by differences, notably the ownership origin of banks after privatization (foreign dominance in Romania; domestic owners in Iceland and different business models developed by banks in the pre-crisis period.

  14. Antibacterial use in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark 1999-2011. (United States)

    Magnussen, Marita Debess; Gudnason, Thorolfur; Jensen, Ulrich Stab; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Kristinsson, Karl G


    The Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark are neighbouring Nordic countries with great ethnic, cultural, and political similarities and are relatively homogeneous. Important information about prescribing practices can be obtained by comparing the antibacterial use in these countries. The objective was to describe, compare, and analyse the use of systemic antibacterial agents in these countries during the y 1999-2011. Data were obtained from the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark on systemic antibacterial use and expressed in defined daily dosages (DDD). Prescription data were also obtained for specific age groups. The total antibacterial use for the y 1999-2011 varied markedly between the 3 countries, with a mean use of 21.8 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day (DID) in Iceland, 17.7 in the Faroe Islands, and 16.3 in Denmark. The total use remained fairly constant over the years in the Faroe Islands and Iceland, whereas in Denmark it increased gradually from 13.5 DID in 1999 to 19.5 DID in 2011. The higher use in Iceland can be explained by much higher consumption of tetracyclines. There was also considerable variation in the use of individual penicillins and macrolides between the countries. Despite the great ethnic and cultural similarities of these 3 countries, we found marked differences in total antibacterial use and important differences in the use of individual antibacterials.

  15. The Impact of Divergence Time on the Nature of Population Structure: An Example from Iceland (United States)

    Price, Alkes L.; Helgason, Agnar; Palsson, Snaebjorn; Stefansson, Hreinn; St. Clair, David; Andreassen, Ole A.; Reich, David; Kong, Augustine; Stefansson, Kari


    The Icelandic population has been sampled in many disease association studies, providing a strong motivation to understand the structure of this population and its ramifications for disease gene mapping. Previous work using 40 microsatellites showed that the Icelandic population is relatively homogeneous, but exhibits subtle population structure that can bias disease association statistics. Here, we show that regional geographic ancestries of individuals from Iceland can be distinguished using 292,289 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We further show that subpopulation differences are due to genetic drift since the settlement of Iceland 1100 years ago, and not to varying contributions from different ancestral populations. A consequence of the recent origin of Icelandic population structure is that allele frequency differences follow a null distribution devoid of outliers, so that the risk of false positive associations due to stratification is minimal. Our results highlight an important distinction between population differences attributable to recent drift and those arising from more ancient divergence, which has implications both for association studies and for efforts to detect natural selection using population differentiation. PMID:19503599

  16. Present and future costs of COPD in Iceland and Norway: results from the BOLD study (United States)

    Nielsen, R.; Johannessen, A.; Benediktsdottir, B.; Gislason, T.; Buist, A.S.; Gulsvik, A.; Sullivan, S.D.; Lee, T.A.


    The Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) initiative provides standardised estimates of the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) worldwide. We estimate the current and future economic burden of COPD in Reykjavik, Iceland and Bergen, Norway using data from the BOLD initiative. Data on utilisation of healthcare resources were gathered from the BOLD survey, existing literature and unit costs from national sources. Economic data were applied to a Markov model using transition probabilities derived from Framingham data. Sensitivity analyses were conducted varying unit costs, utilisation and prevalence of disease. The cost of COPD was €478 per patient per yr in Iceland and €284 per patient per yr in Norway. The estimated cumulative costs of COPD for the population aged ≥40 yrs, were €130 million and €1,539 million for the following 10 yrs in Iceland and Norway, respectively. Costs of COPD accounted for 1.2 and 0.7% of healthcare budgets in Iceland and Norway, respectively. Sensitivity analyses showed estimates were most sensitive to changes in exacerbation frequency. COPD has a significant economic burden in both Iceland and Norway and will grow in the future. Interventions aimed at avoiding exacerbations will have the most impact on costs of COPD over the next 20 yrs. PMID:19357148

  17. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.


    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence = 75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  18. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement. (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S; Magnusdottir, Ellen; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean W; Dusek, Robert J


    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence=75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Re-Thinking Sustainable Education Systems in Iceland: The Net-University Project

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    Frank Rennie


    Full Text Available The recent economic crisis in Iceland has raised issues of the sustainability of Icelandic higher education to new levels of importance. A key strategy in relation to this economic crisis is to consider the merger of the four public universities in Iceland and to introduce a much higher enegagement with online and open delivery methods of higher education. The Net-University Project was an EU Leonardo-funded initiative to compare approaches to open and distance education in Iceland, Sweden, and Scotland, with additional lessons from Atlantic Canada. In particular, it sought to focus on the transfer of innovation in continuing university education, with particular emphasis on the development and delivery of online higher education courses throughout rural Iceland (i.e., outside of Reykjavik. The partners concentrated on how knowledge and experience about distributed and distance learning models could be transferred between the partner countries and how such models can be integrated into the education system to better support higher education and lifelong learning. There was a particular interest in the practical use of open educational resources (OER for course design and in the sharing of these course modules among university partners. Some good practice and lessons from OER use in course creation are listed.

  20. Iceland as a western country. How to classify medieval church law in the vernacular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lára Magnúsardóttir


    Full Text Available Iceland’s subjection to the king of Norway in 1262-64 was followed by a legislation in which a law book for Church and spiritual matters was composed in the vernacular for each country. Such law was implemented in Iceland in 1275 along with a separate secular law book in 1281. Both books remained in force until the middle of the 16th century. A church law that was separate, both from the secular law and that of Roman Church appears to set Iceland apart from other Western European countries where spiritual matters were governed according to the Latin law of the Roman Church. This has been viewed as an indication of constant rivalry between the religious and secular authorities, usually presenting the Church as an overreaching and even oppressive institution against which laity struggled. But a comparison of Icelandic Church law with the Latin Canon law shows that the Church in Iceland submitted entirely to the authority of the Roman Church and thus shows that the Icelandic Church law was, despite its obscure language, a specific representation of the law of the Roman Church. A Norwegian concordat from 1277 shows the king’s recognition of separate spiritual and temporal jurisdictions. This cooperation is readily apparent in later court cases.

  1. The Spatial Variation of Dust Particulate Matter Concentrations during Two Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova


    Full Text Available Particulate matter mass concentrations and size fractions of PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, and PM15 measured in transversal horizontal profile of two dust storms in southwestern Iceland are presented. Images from a camera network were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. Numerical simulations were used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources as 180,000 and 280,000 tons for each storm. The mean PM15 concentrations inside of the dust plumes varied from 10 to 1600 µg·m−3 (PM10 = 7 to 583 µg·m−3. The mean PM1 concentrations were 97–241 µg·m−3 with a maximum of 261 µg·m−3 for the first storm. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios of >0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34–0.63 show that suspension of volcanic materials in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations, similar to polluted urban areas in Europe or Asia. Icelandic volcanic dust consists of a higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. Both dust storms occurred in relatively densely inhabited areas of Iceland. First results on size partitioning of Icelandic dust presented here should challenge health authorities to enhance research in relation to dust and shows the need for public dust warning systems.



    This picture is a composite of a black and white near infrared image of Jupiter and its satellite Io and a color image of Io at shorter wavelengths taken at almost the same time on March 5, 1994. These are the first images of a giant planet or its satellites taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since the repair mission in December 1993. Io is too small for ground-based telescopes to see the surface details. The moon's angular diameter of one arc second is at the resolution limit of ground based telescopes. Many of these markings correspond to volcanoes that were first revealed in 1979 during the Voyager spacecraft flyby of Jupiter. Several of the volcanoes periodically are active because Io is heated by tides raised by Jupiter's powerful gravity. The volcano Pele appears as a dark spot surrounded by an irregular orange oval in the lower part of the image. The orange material has been ejected from the volcano and spread over a huge area. Though the volcano was first discovered by Voyager, the distinctive orange color of the volcanic deposits is a new discovery in these HST images. (Voyager missed it because its cameras were not sensitive to the near-infrared wavelengths where the color is apparent). The sulfur and sulfur dioxide that probably dominate Io's surface composition cannot produce this orange color, so the Pele volcano must be generating material with a more unusual composition, possibly rich in sodium. The Jupiter image, taken in near-infrared light, was obtained with HST's Wide Field and Planetary Camera in wide field mode. High altitude ammonia crystal clouds are bright in this image because they reflect infrared light before it is absorbed by methane in Jupiter's atmosphere. The most prominent feature is the Great Red Spot, which is conspicuous because of its high clouds. A cap of high-altitude haze appears at Jupiter's south pole. The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced

  3. Darwin's triggering mechanism of volcano eruptions (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil


    Charles Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…' and ‘…a power, I may remark, which acts in paroxysmal upheavals like that of Concepcion, and in great volcanic eruptions,…'. Darwin reports that ‘…several of the great chimneys in the Cordillera of central Chile commenced a fresh period of activity ….' In particular, Darwin reported on four-simultaneous large eruptions from the following volcanoes: Robinson Crusoe, Minchinmavida, Cerro Yanteles and Peteroa (we cite the Darwin's sentences following his The Voyage of the Beagle and researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). Let us consider these eruptions taking into account the volcano shape and the conduit. Three of the volcanoes (Minchinmavida (2404 m), Cerro Yanteles (2050 m), and Peteroa (3603 m)) are stratovolcanos and are formed of symmetrical cones with steep sides. Robinson Crusoe (922 m) is a shield volcano and is formed of a cone with gently sloping sides. They are not very active. We may surmise, that their vents had a sealing plug (vent fill) in 1835. All these volcanoes are conical. These common features are important for Darwin's triggering model, which is discussed below. The vent fill material, usually, has high level of porosity and a very low tensile strength and can easily be fragmented by tension waves. The action of a severe earthquake on the volcano base may be compared with a nuclear blast explosion of the base. It is known, that after a underground nuclear explosion the vertical motion and the surface fractures in a tope of mountains were observed. The same is related to the propagation of waves in conical elements. After the explosive load of the base. the tip may break and fly off at high velocity. Analogous phenomenon may be generated as a result of a

  4. Understanding Drama Teaching in Compulsory Education in Iceland: A Micro-Ethnographic Study of the Practices of Two Drama Teachers (United States)

    Thorkelsdóttir, Rannveig Björk


    The rationale for this study is that drama was included in the national curriculum framework in Iceland for the first time in 2013. As a result, there were considerable tensions connected with how Icelandic schools could or should embrace this newcomer to the curriculum, whether the necessary competence existed to teach the subject and what kind…

  5. Imaging of bone spavin. A radiographic and scintigraphic study of degenerative joint disease in the distal tarsus in Icelandic horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eksell, P.


    Radiography and scintigraphy are commonly used for the diagnosis of skeletal disorders in horses. Icelandic Horses have a high prevalence of degenerative joint disease of the distal tarsus, generally known as bone spavin (BS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and develop the use of radiography and scintigraphy for the detection of BS in Icelandic Horses

  6. Early Childhood Education in Iceland: A Response to the Welfare System, the Natural Environment, the Cultural Heritage and Foreign Influences. (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna

    This paper discusses early childhood education in Iceland and its in relation to the country's cultural heritage, the family welfare system, and legislation and influences from abroad. Because Iceland has been isolated for centuries from the rest of the world, the country has developed its own culture and maintained its native language. The need…

  7. Seismic tomography and ambient noise reflection interferometry on Reykjanes, SW Iceland (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Verdel, Arie; Ágústsson, Kristján; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, Malte; Ryberg, Trond; Weemstra, Cornelius; Hersir, Gylfi; Bruhn, David


    Recent advances in volcano-seismology and seismic noise interferometry have introduced new processing techniques for assessing subsurface structures and controls on fluid flow in geothermal systems. We present tomographic results obtained from seismic data recorded around geothermal reservoirs located both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 234 seismic stations (including 24 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and August 2015. In order to determine the orientation of the OBS stations, we used Rayleigh waves planar particle motions from large magnitude earthquakes. This method proved suitable using the on-land stations: orientations determined using this method with the orientations measured using a giro-compass agreed. We obtain 3D velocity images from two fundamentally different tomography methods. First, we used local earthquakes to perform travel time tomography. The processing includes first arrival picking of P- and S- phases using an automatic detection and picking technique based on Akaike Information Criteria. We locate earthquakes by using a non-linear localization technique, as a priori information for deriving a 1D velocity model. We then computed 3D velocity models of velocities by joint inversion of each earthquake's location and lateral velocity anomalies with respect to the 1D model. Our models confirms previous models obtained in the area, with enhanced details. Second, we performed ambient noise cross-correlation techniques in order to derive an S velocity model, especially where earthquakes did not occur. Cross-correlation techniques involve the computation of cross- correlation between seismic records, from which Green's functions are estimated. Surface wave inversion of the Green's functions allows derivation of an S wave velocity model. Noise correlation theory furthermore shows that zero-offset P-wave reflectivity at selected station locations can be

  8. Volcano hazard mitigation program in Indonesia (United States)

    Sudradjat, A.


    Volcanological investigations in Indonesia were started in the 18th century, when Valentijn in 1726 prepared a chronological report of the eruption of Banda Api volcno, Maluku. Modern and intensive volcanological studies did not begin until the catastrophic eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, in 1919. The eruption took 5,011 lives and destroyed thousands of acres of coffee plantation. An eruption lahar generated by the crater lake water mixed with volcanic eruptions products was the cause of death for a high number of victims. An effort to mitigate the danger from volcanic eruption was first initiated in 1921 by constructing a tunnel to drain the crater lake water of Kelut volcano. At the same time a Volcanological Survey was established by the government with the responsibility of seeking every means for minimizing the hazard caused by volcanic eruption. 

  9. Bubble mobility in mud and magmatic volcanoes (United States)

    Tran, Aaron; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael


    The rheology of particle-laden fluids with a yield stress, such as mud or crystal-rich magmas, controls the mobility of bubbles, both the size needed to overcome the yield stress and their rise speed. We experimentally measured the velocities of bubbles and rigid spheres in mud sampled from the Davis-Schrimpf mud volcanoes adjacent to the Salton Sea, Southern California. Combined with previous measurements in the polymer gel Carbopol, we obtained an empirical model for the drag coefficient and bounded the conditions under which bubbles overcome the yield stress. Yield stresses typical of mud and basaltic magmas with sub-mm particles can immobilize millimeter to centimeter sized bubbles. At Stromboli volcano, Italy, a vertical yield stress gradient in the shallow conduit may immobilize bubbles with diameter ≲ 1 cm and hinder slug coalescence.

  10. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories (United States)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.


    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  11. Geographical, and seasonal variation in the diet of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in Icelandic coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gísli A Víkingsson


    Overall capelin (Mallotus villosus comprised the predominant prey, followed by sandeel (Ammodytidae sp., then gadids, cephalopods and redfish (Sebastes marinus, while other taxa were of less importance. Differences were detected in diet composition among 5 areas around Iceland with redfish and gadids more prominent in the northern areas. Off SW Iceland there was considerable seasonal variation in the porpoise diet, where capelin appeared to be dominant in late winter and spring and sandeel in the summer through early winter. Predominance of capelin in the diet coincided with the spawning migration of capelin from northern waters along the east, south and west coasts of Iceland. Mature females appeared to have a more diverse diet than other reproductive classes. The length distributions of fish consumed by the porpoises ranged from 1 to 51 cm although most fish prey were less than 30 cm.

  12. Summer eczema in exported Icelandic horses: influence of environmental and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broström Hans


    Full Text Available Abstract A cross sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of summer eczema (a chronic, recurrent seasonal dermatitis in exported Icelandic horses and the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the development of the disease. Among 330 horses, which had been exported to Germany, Denmark and Sweden, 114 (34.5% were found to have clinical signs of summer eczema. The prevalence was highest 2 years after export and the exposure to the biting midges Culicoides spp., was found to be the main risk factor for developing the disease. Genetic influence on the sensitivity for the disease was not established. It was concluded that exported Icelandic horses are predisposed for summer dermatitis and the fact that they are not introduced to the antigens of the biting midges early in live, due to it's absence in Iceland, is likely to explain the high prevalence of the disease after export.

  13. Antibacterial use in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark 1999-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Marita Debess; Gudnason, Thorolfur; Jensen, Ulrich Stab


    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark are neighbouring Nordic countries with great ethnic, cultural, and political similarities and are relatively homogeneous. Important information about prescribing practices can be obtained by comparing the antibacterial use in these countries....... The objective was to describe, compare, and analyse the use of systemic antibacterial agents in these countries during the y 1999-2011. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark on systemic antibacterial use and expressed in defined daily dosages (DDD). Prescription data were also...... obtained for specific age groups. RESULTS: The total antibacterial use for the y 1999-2011 varied markedly between the 3 countries, with a mean use of 21.8 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day (DID) in Iceland, 17.7 in the Faroe Islands, and 16.3 in Denmark. The total use remained fairly constant over the years...

  14. Electrical structure of Newberry Volcano, Oregon (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Stanley, W.D.; Bisdorf, R.J.


    From the interpretation of magnetotelluric, transient electromagnetic, and Schlumberger resistivity soundings, the electrical structure of Newberry Volcano in central Oregon is found to consist of four units. From the surface downward, the geoelectrical units are 1) very resistive, young, unaltered volcanic rock, (2) a conductive layer of older volcanic material composed of altered tuffs, 3) a thick resistive layer thought to be in part intrusive rocks, and 4) a lower-crustal conductor. This model is similar to the regional geoelectrical structure found throughout the Cascade Range. Inside the caldera, the conductive second layer corresponds to the steep temperature gradient and alteration minerals observed in the USGS Newberry 2 test-hole. Drill hole information on the south and north flanks of the volcano (test holes GEO N-1 and GEO N-3, respectively) indicates that outside the caldera the conductor is due to alteration minerals (primarily smectite) and not high-temperature pore fluids. On the flanks of Newberry the conductor is generally deeper than inside the caldera, and it deepens with distance from the summit. A notable exception to this pattern is seen just west of the caldera rim, where the conductive zone is shallower than at other flank locations. The volcano sits atop a rise in the resistive layer, interpreted to be due to intrusive rocks. -from Authors

  15. Geothermal Exploration of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waibel, Albert F. [Columbia Geoscience, Pasco, WA (United States); Frone, Zachary S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Blackwell, David D. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)


    Davenport Newberry (Davenport) has completed 8 years of exploration for geothermal energy on Newberry Volcano in central Oregon. Two deep exploration test wells were drilled by Davenport on the west flank of the volcano, one intersected a hydrothermal system; the other intersected isolated fractures with no hydrothermal interconnection. Both holes have bottom-hole temperatures near or above 315°C (600°F). Subsequent to deep test drilling an expanded exploration and evaluation program was initiated. These efforts have included reprocessing existing data, executing multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical programs, deep exploration test well drilling and shallow well drilling. The efforts over the last three years have been made possible through a DOE Innovative Exploration Technology (IET) Grant 109, designed to facilitate innovative geothermal exploration techniques. The combined results of the last 8 years have led to a better understanding of the history and complexity of Newberry Volcano and improved the design and interpretation of geophysical exploration techniques with regard to blind geothermal resources in volcanic terrain.

  16. The EVER-EST Virtual Research Environment for the European Volcano Supersites (United States)

    Salvi, S.; Trasatti, E.; Rubbia, G.; Romaniello, V.; Marelli, F.


    EVER-EST (European Virtual Environment for Research - Earth Science Themes) is an European H2020 project (2015-2018) aimed at the creation of a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) for the Earth Sciences. The VRE is intended to enhance the ability to collaborate and share knowledge and experience among scientists. One of the innovations of the project is the exploitation of the "Research Object" concept ( Research Objects encapsulate not only data and publications, but also algorithms, codes, results, and workflows that can be stored, shared and re-used. Four scientific communities are involved in the EVER-EST project: land monitoring, natural hazards, marine biology, and the GEO Geohazard Supersites community ( The latter is represented in the project by INGV and the University of Iceland, and has provided user requirements to tailor the VRE to the common needs of the worldwide Supersite communities. To develop and test the VRE we have defined user scenarios and created Research Objects embedding research activities and workflows on the Permanent Supersites Campi Flegrei, Mount Etna and Icelandic Volcanoes ( While these Supersites are test sites for the platform, during the last year of the project other Supersites may also be involved to demonstrate the added value of the collaborative environment in research activities aiming to support Disaster Risk Reduction. Using the VRE, scientists are able to collaborate with colleagues located in different parts of the world, in a simple and effective way. This includes being able to remotely access and share data, research results and ideas, to carry out training sessions and discussions, to compare different results and models, and to synthesize many different pieces of information in a single consensus product to be disseminated to end-users. In particular, a further need of the Supersite scientists, which can be

  17. Nationwide study on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in Iceland: evidence of a MYBPC3 founder mutation. (United States)

    Adalsteinsdottir, Berglind; Teekakirikul, Polakit; Maron, Barry J; Burke, Michael A; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Holm, Hilma; Stefansson, Kari; DePalma, Steven R; Mazaika, Erica; McDonough, Barbara; Danielsen, Ragnar; Seidman, Jonathan G; Seidman, Christine E; Gunnarsson, Gunnar T


    The geographic isolation and homogeneous population of Iceland are ideally suited to ascertain clinical and genetic characteristics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) at the population level. Medical records and cardiac imaging studies obtained between 1997 and 2010 were reviewed to identify Icelandic patients with HCM. Surviving patients were recruited for clinical and genetic studies. A previously identified Icelandic mutation, MYBPC3 c.927-2A>G, was genotyped, and mutation-negative samples were sequenced for HCM genes and other hypertrophic genes. Record review identified 180 patients with HCM. Genetic analyses of 151 patients defined pathogenic mutations in 101 (67%), including MYBPC3 c.927-2A>G (88 patients, 58%), 4 other MYBPC3 or MYH7 mutations (5 patients, 3.3%), and 2 GLA mutations (8 patients, 5.3%). Haplotype and genetic genealogical data defined MYBPC3 c.927-2A>G as a founder mutation, introduced into the Icelandic population in the 15th century, with a current population prevalence of 0.36%. MYBPC3 c.927-2A>G mutation carriers exhibited phenotypic diversity but were younger at diagnosis (42 versus 49 years; P=0.001) and sustained more adverse events (15% versus 2%; P=0.02) than mutation-negative patients. All-cause mortality for patients with HCM was similar to that of an age-matched Icelandic population (hazard ratio, 0.98; P=0.9). HCM-related mortality (0.78%/y) occurred at a mean age of 68 compared with 81 years for non-HCM-related mortality (P=0.02). A founder MYBPC3 mutation that arose >550 years ago is the predominant cause of HCM in Iceland. The MYBPC3 c.927-2A>G mutation is associated with low adverse event rates but earlier cardiovascular mortality, illustrating the impact of genotype on outcomes in HCM. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland (United States)


    The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1) How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2) Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3) Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4) Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5) Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive). Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland’s highlands and mountain areas. PMID:26844017

  19. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wasowicz


    Full Text Available The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1 How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2 Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3 Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4 Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5 Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive. Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland’s highlands and mountain areas.

  20. Trends in teenage fertility, abortion, and pregnancy rates in Iceland compared with other Nordic countries, 1976-99. (United States)

    Bender, Sóley; Geirsson, Reynir T; Kosunen, Elise


    Iceland is often considered very similar to the other Nordic countries. The purpose of this study was to explore trends in teenage fertility, abortion, and pregnancy rates in Iceland, compare these trends with corresponding rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden during the period 1976-99, and to evaluate similarities and dissimilarities. The study is based on data about fertility, abortion, and pregnancy rates obtained from the Icelandic and Nordic national population and abortion registers for the age group 15-19 years years. Teenage fertility and pregnancy rates in the five Nordic countries declined over the study period by 57-67% and 31-50%, respectively, and in Iceland they remained significantly higher than in the Nordic countries. In 1999 almost every other teenage pregnancy in Iceland (45.9/1000) resulted in a childbirth (24.4/1000). Regional fertility rates were highest in the countryside. While the abortion rate has been declining in the four Nordic countries by 20-41%, they have concurrently been rising in Iceland by 133% (9.4/1000 in 1976-80, 21.9/1000 in 1996-99) and are presently higher than in the other Nordic countries. Regionally, abortion rates in Iceland were highest in the Capital area. The teenage pregnancy rate is higher in Iceland than in the other Nordic countries. This may be explained by cultural norms in Iceland's society regarding childbearing, early initiation of sexual intercourse, more limited sex education, and less effective delivery and use of contraceptive methods. There is a need to promote sexual and reproductive health to young people in Iceland by combining diverse preventive approaches.

  1. Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010 (United States)

    Schumann, U.; Weinzierl, B.; Reitebuch, O.; Schlager, H.; Minikin, A.; Forster, C.; Baumann, R.; Sailer, T.; Graf, K.; Mannstein, H.; Voigt, C.; Rahm, S.; Simmet, R.; Scheibe, M.; Lichtenstern, M.; Stock, P.; Rüba, H.; Schäuble, D.; Tafferner, A.; Rautenhaus, M.; Gerz, T.; Ziereis, H.; Krautstrunk, M.; Mallaun, C.; Gayet, J.-F.; Lieke, K.; Kandler, K.; Ebert, M.; Weinbruch, S.; Stohl, A.; Gasteiger, J.; Olafsson, H.; Sturm, K.


    Airborne measurements of Lidar backscatter, aerosol concentrations (particle diameters of 4 nm to 50 μm), trace gas mixing ratios (SO2, CO, O3, H2O), single particle properties, and meteorological parameters have been performed in volcanic ash plumes with the Falcon aircraft operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR). A series of 17 flights was performed over Europe between Southern Germany and Iceland during the eruption period of the Eyjafjalla1 volcano between 19 April and 18 May 2010. Flight planning and measurement analyses were supported by a refined Meteosat ash product and trajectory model analysis. The volcanic ash plume was observed with Lidar directly over the volcano and up to a distance of 2700 km downwind. Lidar and in-situ measurements covered plume ages of 7 h to 120 h. Aged ash layers were between a few 100 m to 3 km deep, occurred between 1 and 7 km altitude, and were typically 100 to 300 km wide. Particles collected by impactors had diameters up to 20 μm diameter, with size and age dependent composition. Ash mass concentration was evaluated for a material density of 2.6 g cm-3 and for either weakly or moderately absorbing coarse mode particles (refractive index 1.59+0i or 1.59+0.004i). In the absorbing case, the ash concentration is about a factor of four larger than in the non-absorbing limit. Because of sedimentation constraints, the smaller results are the more realistic ones for aged plumes. The Falcon flew in ash clouds up to about 1 mg m-3 for a few minutes and in an ash cloud with more than 0.2 mg m-3 mean-concentration for about one hour without engine damages. In fresh plumes, the SO2 concentration was correlated with the ash mass concentration. Typically, 0.5 mg m-3 ash concentration was related to about 100 nmol mol-31 SO2 mixing ratio and 70 nmol mol-1 CO mixing ratio increases for this volcano period. In aged plumes, layers with enhanced coarse mode particle concentration but without SO2 enhancements occurred. To

  2. Petrogenesis of a voluminous Quaternary adakitic volcano: the case of Baru volcano (United States)

    Hidalgo, Paulo J.; Rooney, Tyrone O.


    The origin of adakite magmas remains controversial because initially the term adakite had petrogenetic significance implying an origin by direct melting of the eclogitized subducting oceanic crust. Many models have been produced for their origin, and until now there has not been a straightforward method to discriminate between these models in a given adakite suite. Here, we use detailed chronological and geochemical studies of selected adakitic edifices that allows for the determination of the magmatic output rate parameter (Qe), which has been correlated with the rates of magma generation deep within subduction zones. By providing temporal and eruption rate estimates, we provide constraints on the possible petrogenetic processes involved in the generation of adakite-like signatures. Adakite magmas derived from the melting of the subducting slab should be volumetrically insignificant when compared to the adakite-like magmas produced by typical arc magma generation processes. In this study, we use this observation and the extraordinary stratigraphic exposure from Miocene to present in an adakitic volcano in Panama and to study the temporal and chemical variation in erupted magmas to estimate rates of magma generation. Detailed chemical and geochronological analyses of Baru volcano indicate that the volcanic edifice was constructed in its entirety during the Quaternary and magmas display adakite-like features such as steep rare earth elements patterns, pronounced depletions in the heavy rare earth elements, low Y, high Sr, and high Sr/Y. The magmatic output rates (Qe) that we have calculated show that compared to other typical adakitic volcanoes, most of the volcanic edifice of Baru volcano was constructed extremely rapidly (Baru volcano is more representative of a typical arc volcano than a small-volume melt of the subducting oceanic crust. The technique we outline may have broader application in determining the petrogenetic conditions of other adakite suites.

  3. Efficient inversion of volcano deformation based on finite element models : An application to Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Charco, María; González, Pablo J.; Galán del Sastre, Pedro


    The Kilauea volcano (Hawaii, USA) is one of the most active volcanoes world-wide and therefore one of the better monitored volcanoes around the world. Its complex system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of magma transport and supply. Geodetic techniques, as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are being extensively used to monitor ground deformation at volcanic areas. The quantitative interpretation of such surface ground deformation measurements using geodetic data requires both, physical modelling to simulate the observed signals and inversion approaches to estimate the magmatic source parameters. Here, we use synthetic aperture radar data from Sentinel-1 radar interferometry satellite mission to image volcano deformation sources during the inflation along Kilauea's Southwest Rift Zone in April-May 2015. We propose a Finite Element Model (FEM) for the calculation of Green functions in a mechanically heterogeneous domain. The key aspect of the methodology lies in applying the reciprocity relationship of the Green functions between the station and the source for efficient numerical inversions. The search for the best-fitting magmatic (point) source(s) is generally conducted for an array of 3-D locations extending below a predefined volume region. However, our approach allows to reduce the total number of Green functions to the number of the observation points by using the, above mentioned, reciprocity relationship. This new methodology is able to accurately represent magmatic processes using physical models capable of simulating volcano deformation in non-uniform material properties distribution domains, which eventually will lead to better description of the status of the volcano.

  4. Post-partum reproductive performance of the Icelandic dairy cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldon, J.; Olafsson, T.; Thorsteinsson, T.


    The aim of the studies was to monitor the reproductive performance of Icelandic dairy cow herds with and without histories of fertility problems under normal farming conditions. Artificial inseminations and calvings were recorded, pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation, and progesterone concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in sequential samples of milk. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals and the concentrations of glucose, urea, calcium and magnesium were determined. Clinical ketosis and low glucose were found in one third of the cows on problem farms. The mean time of first post-partum ovulation was 49 days for cows with ketosis, compared with 34 days for cows free of ketosis. Cows in the normal herds ovulated considerably later than is reported for many other breeds of dairy cows; however, the time of first post-partum AI, the time of conception and the conception rate were similar to those reported for other breeds. The effects of season and herd were statistically significant for the time of first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception; the effect of area was highly significant for the time of ovulation. Progesterone profiles showed that over 50% of the first post-partum ovarian cycles were short and had low progesterone concentrations. Season had significant effects on the length of the interval from calving to first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception, on the conception rate to first AI and consequently on the number of AIs per conception, and on the blood levels of glucose, urea and calcium. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Broiler Campylobacter contamination and human campylobacteriosis in Iceland. (United States)

    Callicott, Kenneth A; Harğardóttir, Hjördís; Georgsson, Franklín; Reiersen, Jarle; Friğriksdóttir, Vala; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Michel, Pascal; Bisaillon, Jean-Robert; Kristinsson, Karl G; Briem, Haraldur; Hiett, Kelli L; Needleman, David S; Stern, Norman J


    To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic broiler chicken carcasses and the incidence of human disease, 1,617 isolates from 327 individual product lots were genetically matched (using the flaA short variable region [SVR[) to 289 isolates from cases of human campylobacteriosis whose onset was within approximately 2 weeks from the date of processing. When there was genetic identity between broiler isolates and human isolates within the appropriate time frame, a retail product lot was classified as implicated in human disease. According to the results of this analysis, there were multiple clusters of human disease linked to the same process lot or lots. Implicated and nonimplicated retail product lots were compared for four lot descriptors: lot size, prevalence, mean contamination, and maximum contamination (as characterized by direct rinse plating). For retail product distributed fresh, Mann-Whitney U tests showed that implicated product lots had significantly (P = 0.0055) higher mean contamination than nonimplicated lots. The corresponding median values were 3.56 log CFU/carcass for implicated lots and 2.72 log CFU/carcass for nonimplicated lots. For frozen retail product, implicated lots were significantly (P = 0.0281) larger than nonimplicated lots. When the time frame was removed, retail product lots containing Campylobacter flaA SVR genotypes also seen in human disease had significantly higher mean and maximum contamination numbers than lots containing no genotypes seen in human disease for both fresh and frozen product. Our results suggest that cases of broiler-borne campylobacteriosis may occur in clusters and that the differences in mean contamination levels may provide a basis for regulatory action that is more specific than a presence-absence standard.

  6. Mud volcanoes of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela (United States)

    Aslan, A.; Warne, A. G.; White, W. A.; Guevara, E. H.; Smyth, R. C.; Raney, J. A.; Gibeaut, J. C.


    Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins.

  7. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.


    Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks - ground-based as well space-based - has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions) are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA) in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines) in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-ofthe-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  8. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling


    Full Text Available Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks – ground-based as well space-based – has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. elens (Washington, USA in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-of-the-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  9. Mud volcanoes of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela (United States)

    Aslan, A.; Warne, A.G.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Smyth, R.C.; Raney, J.A.; Gibeaut, J.C.


    Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation in the United States, 2008 (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Diefenbach, Angela K.; Ewert, John W.; Ramsey, David W.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Schilling, Steven P.


    The United States is one of the most volcanically active countries in the world. According to the global volcanism database of the Smithsonian Institution, the United States (including its Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) is home to about 170 volcanoes that are in an eruptive phase, have erupted in historical time, or have not erupted recently but are young enough (eruptions within the past 10,000 years) to be capable of reawakening. From 1980 through 2008, 30 of these volcanoes erupted, several repeatedly. Volcano monitoring in the United States is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program, which operates a system of five volcano observatories-Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). The observatories issue public alerts about conditions and hazards at U.S. volcanoes in support of the USGS mandate under P.L. 93-288 (Stafford Act) to provide timely warnings of potential volcanic disasters to the affected populace and civil authorities. To make efficient use of the Nation's scientific resources, the volcano observatories operate in partnership with universities and other governmental agencies through various formal agreements. The Consortium of U.S. Volcano Observatories (CUSVO) was established in 2001 to promote scientific cooperation among the Federal, academic, and State agencies involved in observatory operations. Other groups also contribute to volcano monitoring by sponsoring long-term installation of geophysical instruments at some volcanoes for specific research projects. This report describes a database of information about permanently installed ground-based instruments used by the U.S. volcano observatories to monitor volcanic activity (unrest and eruptions). The purposes of this Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation Database (VMID) are to (1) document the Nation's existing

  11. The Effectiveness of Herbion Iceland Moss Syrup in the Treatment of Dry Cough in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Niankovskyi


    Full Text Available The article presents the etiologic and pathogenetic aspects of the appearance of dry cough in children. Personal experience of using Herbion Iceland moss syrup in the treatment of post-infectious dry cough in children aged 4–10 years is described. Application of the drug has significantly reduced the intensity of dry cough, quickly stopped night coughing, improved the quality of life of children. Herbion Iceland moss syrup is well tolerated by children and does not cause adverse reactions when used.

  12. Radiographic closure time of appendicular growth plates in the Icelandic horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huse-Olsen Lisel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Icelandic horse is a pristine breed of horse which has a pure gene pool established more than a thousand years ago, and is approximately the same size as living and extinct wild breeds of horses. This study was performed to compare the length of the skeletal growth period of the "primitive" Icelandic horse relative to that reported for large horse breeds developed over the recent centuries. This information would provide practical guidance to owners and veterinarians as to when the skeleton is mature enough to commence training, and would be potentially interesting to those scientists investigating the pathogenesis of osteochondrosis. Interestingly, osteochondrosis has not been documented in the Icelandic horse. Methods The radiographic closure time of the appendicular growth plates was studied in 64 young Icelandic horses. The results were compared with previously published closure times reported for other, larger horse breeds. The radiographs were also examined for any signs of developmental orthopaedic diseases. In order to describe further the growth pattern of the Icelandic horse, the total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined and the height at the withers was measured. Results Most of the examined growth plates were fully closed at the age of approximately three years. The horses reached adult height at this age; however ALP activity was still mildly increased over baseline values. The growth plates in the digits were the first to close at 8.1 to 8.5 months of age, and those in the regions of the distal radius (27.4 to 32.0 months, tuber olecrani (31.5 to 32.2 months, and the stifle (27.0 to 40.1 months were the last to close. No horse was found to have osteochondrosis type lesions in the neighbouring joints of the evaluated growth plates. Conclusion The Icelandic horse appears to have similar radiographic closure times for most of the growth plates of its limbs as reported for large new breeds of

  13. Environmental Uncertainty, Performance Measure Variety and Perceived Performance in Icelandic Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    hypotheses difficult. Possible explanations of the high number of performance measures in use in Icelandic companies could be the recent period of high environmental turbulence forcing them to adopt more measures focusing on a variety of performance areas. This should be researched further....... measurement frameworks, and management characteristics. This paper reports the results of a study carried out at year end 2013 of the use of performance measures by Icelandic companies and the links to perceived environmental uncertainty, management satisfaction with the performance measurement system...

  14. Mapping Offshore Winds Around Iceland Using Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar and Mesoscale Model Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Nawri, Nikolai


    The offshore wind climate in Iceland is examined based on satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR), coastal meteorological station measurements, and results from two atmospheric model data sets, HARMONIE and NORA10. The offshore winds in Iceland are highly influenced by the rugged coastline. Lee...... effects, gap flow, coastal barrier jets, and atmospheric gravity waves are not only observed in SAR, but are also modeled well from HARMONIE. Offshore meteorological observations are not available, but wind speed and wind direction measurements from coastal meteorological masts are found to compare well...

  15. Data assimilation strategies for volcano geodesy (United States)

    Zhan, Yan; Gregg, Patricia M.


    Ground deformation observed using near-real time geodetic methods, such as InSAR and GPS, can provide critical information about the evolution of a magma chamber prior to volcanic eruption. Rapid advancement in numerical modeling capabilities has resulted in a number of finite element models targeted at better understanding the connection between surface uplift associated with magma chamber pressurization and the potential for volcanic eruption. Robust model-data fusion techniques are necessary to take full advantage of the numerical models and the volcano monitoring observations currently available. In this study, we develop a 3D data assimilation framework using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) approach in order to combine geodetic observations of surface deformation with geodynamic models to investigate volcanic unrest. The EnKF sequential assimilation method utilizes disparate data sets as they become available to update geodynamic models of magma reservoir evolution. While the EnKF has been widely applied in hydrologic and climate modeling, the adaptation for volcano monitoring is in its initial stages. As such, our investigation focuses on conducting a series of sensitivity tests to optimize the EnKF for volcano applications and on developing specific strategies for assimilation of geodetic data. Our numerical experiments illustrate that the EnKF is able to adapt well to the spatial limitations posed by GPS data and the temporal limitations of InSAR, and that specific strategies can be adopted to enhance EnKF performance to improve model forecasts. Specifically, our numerical experiments indicate that: (1) incorporating additional iterations of the EnKF analysis step is more efficient than increasing the number of ensemble members; (2) the accuracy of the EnKF results are not affected by initial parameter assumptions; (3) GPS observations near the center of uplift improve the quality of model forecasts; (4) occasionally shifting continuous GPS stations to

  16. Antisana volcano : a representative andesitic volcano of the eastern cordillera of Ecuador : petrography, chemistry, tephra and glacial stratigraphy


    Hall, M. L.; Mothes, P. A.; Samaniego, Pablo; Militzer, A.; Beate, B.; Ramon, P.; Robin, Claude


    Antisana volcano is representative of many active andesitic strato-volcanoes of Pleistocene age in Ecuador's Eastern Cordillera. This study represents the first modern geological and volcanological investigation of Antisana since the late 1890's; it also summarizes the present geochemical understanding of its genesis. The volcano's development includes the formation and destruction of two older edifices (Antisana I and II) during some 400 + ka. Antisana II suffered a sector collapse about 15,...

  17. Geochemical provincialism in ocean islands: Unlinking the leaden double chain on Iceland (United States)

    Shorttle, O. C.; Maclennan, J.; Piotrowski, A. M.


    Bilateral spatial structure in the chemical composition of mantle plumes has been observed in a number of settings, notably Hawaii. This has led to models proposing a role for plume-lithosphere interaction, or deep mantle low velocity domains, in controlling the spatial distribution of chemical components in the shallow mantle. However, volcanism on most ocean islands provides a highly processed sample of the mantle's spatial structure, as melt is focused, mixed and erupted at a limited number of dominant volcanic edifices. In contrast, Iceland, with 500 km of rift zones and unparallelled sampling density, offers a high resolution spatially continuous sample of the Earth's mantle. This coverage enables us to constrain the progressive nature of the geochemical shifts that occur in the Icelandic mantle, providing a guide to interpreting the spatial structure in other ocean island settings. Here we present new Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element data on a group of basalts from central Iceland. We combined this new data with existing datasets and interrogated the data using explicitly spatial statistical methods. We identify three types of spatial structure, all of which are most strongly observed in the Pb isotopes. Firstly, the mean Pb-isotopic composition of basalts shifts from south to north Iceland to become progressively more depleted, with our central Iceland dataset falling at intermediate compositions. Secondly, there is a shift in the binary mixing array that samples fall along, both in Pb-Pb isotope space and in Pb-Sr or Pb-Nd isotope space, that occurs as the volcanic zones are stepped through south to north. Lastly, there is a shift in the Pb isotopic variability across Iceland, with neovolcanic zones in the southwest exhibiting a greater variance in Pb isotopes than those in the north and east. This offset in variance persists across the full range of Mg# of the basalts, indicating that it originates in the mantle, rather than by crustal processing

  18. In situ measurement of the Icelandic Holuhraun/ Bárðarbunga volcanic plume in an early "young state" using a LOAC (United States)

    Vignelles, Damien; Roberts, Tjarda; Carboni, Elisa; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Dagsson Waldhauserovà, Pavla; Berthet, Gwenael; Jegou, Fabrice; Baptiste Renard, Jean; Olafsson, Haraldur; Bergsson, Baldur; Yeo, Richard; Fannar Reynisson, Njall; Grainger, Roy; Pfeffer, Melissa; Lurton, Thibaut; Duverger, Vincent; Coute, Benoit


    Volcanic eruptions have huge societal and economic consequences. In Iceland, one of the best known examples is the Laki eruption (1783-84 CE) (Thordarson and Self, 2003) which caused the death of > 20% of the Icelandic populations and likely increased European levels of mortality through air pollution (Witham and Oppenheimer, 2004). The recent fissure eruption at Holuhraun (31 August 2014 - 27 February 2015) was a major source of sulfur gases and aerosols and caused also both local and European-wide deteriorations to air quality (Gislason et al. 2015; Schmidt et al. 2015). The capability of atmospheric models to predict volcanic plume impacts is limited by uncertainties in the near-source plume state. Most in-situ measurements of the elevated plume involve interception of aged plumes that have already chemically or physically evolved. Small portable sensors airborne drone or balloon platforms offer a new possibility to characterize volcano plumes near to source. We present the results of a balloon flight through the plume emitted by Baugur the main vent during the night of the January 22th 2015. The balloon carrying a LOAC (Renard et al. 2015) has intercepted the plume at 8km distance downwind from the crater which represents a plume age of approximately 15 minutes. The plume was located in altitude between 2 and 3.1km above the sea level. Two layers were observed, a non-condensed lower layer and a condensed upper layer. The lower layer of 400m thick was characterized by a mode of fine particles centered on 0.2μm in diameter and a second mode centered on 2.3μm in diameter and a total particle concentration around 100 particles per cubic centimeter. The upper layer of 800m thick was a cloud-like signature with droplets centered on 20 μm in diameter and a fine mode, the total particles concentrations was 10 times higher than the first layer. The plume top height was determined between 2.7 and 3.1 km, the plume height is in good agreement with an estimate made by

  19. Volcano art at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park—A science perspective (United States)

    Gaddis, Ben; Kauahikaua, James P.


    Long before landscape photography became common, artists sketched and painted scenes of faraway places for the masses. Throughout the 19th century, scientific expeditions to Hawaiʻi routinely employed artists to depict images for the people back home who had funded the exploration and for those with an interest in the newly discovered lands. In Hawaiʻi, artists portrayed the broad variety of people, plant and animal life, and landscapes, but a feature of singular interest was the volcanoes. Painters of early Hawaiian volcano landscapes created art that formed a cohesive body of work known as the “Volcano School” (Forbes, 1992). Jules Tavernier, Charles Furneaux, and D. Howard Hitchcock were probably the best known artists of this school, and their paintings can be found in galleries around the world. Their dramatic paintings were recognized as fine art but were also strong advertisements for tourists to visit Hawaiʻi. Many of these masterpieces are preserved in the Museum and Archive Collection of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, and in this report we have taken the opportunity to match the artwork with the approximate date and volcanological context of the scene.

  20. Evolution of deep crustal magma structures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV) intraplate volcano in northeast Asia (United States)

    Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Tkalcic, H.; Baag, S. Y.


    Heterogeneous features of magmatic structures beneath intraplate volcanoes are attributed to interactions between the ascending magma and lithospheric structures. Here, we investigate the evolution of crustal magmatic stuructures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV), which is one of the largest continental intraplate volcanoes in northeast Asia. The result of our seismic imaging shows that the deeper Moho depth ( 40 km) and relatively higher shear wave velocities (>3.8 km/s) at middle-to-lower crustal depths beneath the volcano. In addition, the pattern at the bottom of our model shows that the lithosphere beneath the MBV is shallower (interpret the observations as a compositional double layering of mafic underplating and a overlying cooled felsic structure due to fractional crystallization of asthenosphere origin magma. To achieve enhanced vertical and horizontal model coverage, we apply two approaches in this work, including (1) a grid-search based phase velocity measurement using real-coherency of ambient noise data and (2) a transdimensional Bayesian joint inversion using multiple ambient noise dispersion data.

  1. Understanding cyclic seismicity and ground deformation patterns at volcanoes: Intriguing lessons from Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador (United States)

    Neuberg, Jürgen W.; Collinson, Amy S. D.; Mothes, Patricia A.; Ruiz, Mario C.; Aguaiza, Santiago


    Cyclic seismicity and ground deformation patterns are observed on many volcanoes worldwide where seismic swarms and the tilt of the volcanic flanks provide sensitive tools to assess the state of volcanic activity. Ground deformation at active volcanoes is often interpreted as pressure changes in a magmatic reservoir, and tilt is simply translated accordingly into inflation and deflation of such a reservoir. Tilt data recorded by an instrument in the summit area of Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador, however, show an intriguing and unexpected behaviour on several occasions: prior to a Vulcanian explosion when a pressurisation of the system would be expected, the tilt signal declines significantly, hence indicating depressurisation. At the same time, seismicity increases drastically. Envisaging that such a pattern could carry the potential to forecast Vulcanian explosions on Tungurahua, we use numerical modelling and reproduce the observed tilt patterns in both space and time. We demonstrate that the tilt signal can be more easily explained as caused by shear stress due to viscous flow resistance, rather than by pressurisation of the magmatic plumbing system. In general, our numerical models prove that if magma shear viscosity and ascent rate are high enough, the resulting shear stress is sufficient to generate a tilt signal as observed on Tungurahua. Furthermore, we address the interdependence of tilt and seismicity through shear stress partitioning and suggest that a joint interpretation of tilt and seismicity can shed new light on the eruption potential of silicic volcanoes.

  2. Instability of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 4 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Denlinger, Roger P.; Morgan, Julia K.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    Hawaiian volcanoes build long rift zones and some of the largest volcanic edifices on Earth. For the active volcanoes on the Island of Hawai‘i, the growth of these rift zones is upward and seaward and occurs through a repetitive process of decades-long buildup of a magma-system head along the rift zones, followed by rapid large-scale displacement of the seaward flank in seconds to minutes. This large-scale flank movement, which may be rapid enough to generate a large earthquake and tsunami, always causes subsidence along the coast, opening of the rift zone, and collapse of the magma-system head. If magma continues to flow into the conduit and out into the rift system, then the cycle of growth and collapse begins again. This pattern characterizes currently active Kīlauea Volcano, where periods of upward and seaward growth along rift zones were punctuated by large (>10 m) and rapid flank displacements in 1823, 1868, 1924, and 1975. At the much larger Mauna Loa volcano, rapid flank movements have occurred only twice in the past 200 years, in 1868 and 1951.

  3. Volcano monitoring with an infrared camera: first insights from Villarrica Volcano (United States)

    Rosas Sotomayor, Florencia; Amigo Ramos, Alvaro; Velasquez Vargas, Gabriela; Medina, Roxana; Thomas, Helen; Prata, Fred; Geoffroy, Carolina


    This contribution focuses on the first trials of the, almost 24/7 monitoring of Villarrica volcano with an infrared camera. Results must be compared with other SO2 remote sensing instruments such as DOAS and UV-camera, for the ''day'' measurements. Infrared remote sensing of volcanic emissions is a fast and safe method to obtain gas abundances in volcanic plumes, in particular when the access to the vent is difficult, during volcanic crisis and at night time. In recent years, a ground-based infrared camera (Nicair) has been developed by Nicarnica Aviation, which quantifies SO2 and ash on volcanic plumes, based on the infrared radiance at specific wavelengths through the application of filters. Three Nicair1 (first model) have been acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile in order to study degassing of active volcanoes. Several trials with the instruments have been performed in northern Chilean volcanoes, and have proven that the intervals of retrieved SO2 concentration and fluxes are as expected. Measurements were also performed at Villarrica volcano, and a location to install a ''fixed'' camera, at 8km from the crater, was discovered here. It is a coffee house with electrical power, wifi network, polite and committed owners and a full view of the volcano summit. The first measurements are being made and processed in order to have full day and week of SO2 emissions, analyze data transfer and storage, improve the remote control of the instrument and notebook in case of breakdown, web-cam/GoPro support, and the goal of the project: which is to implement a fixed station to monitor and study the Villarrica volcano with a Nicair1 integrating and comparing these results with other remote sensing instruments. This works also looks upon the strengthen of bonds with the community by developing teaching material and giving talks to communicate volcanic hazards and other geoscience topics to the people who live "just around the corner" from one of the most active volcanoes

  4. The causes and characteristics of July 2002 Skaftarhlaup, Tungnaarjokull, Iceland (United States)

    Roberts, M. J.; Russell, A. J.; Tweed, F. S.; Harris, T. D.; Fay, H.


    Recent research has demonstrated that some jokulhlaups exhibit a linear rise to peak discharge, the processes responsible for which are improperly understood. In July 2002, a linearly rising jokulhlaup exited Tungnaarjokull, an outlet glacier of Vatnajokull, southern Iceland. The aims of this paper are to use rare observations of the glacier surface and ice margin to reconstruct the dynamics of a complex jokulhlaup, and to explain its causes and characteristics. Aerial reconnaissance in July 2002 showed the growth of an ice-surface cauldron suggesting the rapid evacuation of subglacially stored meltwater at a site of known geothermal activity. Repeated overflights confirmed the rapid release of meltwater from the Western Skafta cauldron to the margin of Tungnaarjokull, 35km south-west, where a jokulhlaup drained into the river Skafta. Observations and photographic evidence were used to calculate ice cauldron dimensions in order to approximate the volumes of drained meltwater. Repeated observations of two main flood outlets at the margin of Tungnaarjokull, allowed flood discharges to be estimated at intervals. Peak discharge estimates from each outlet were calculated using fountain outlet and standing wave dimensions. These observations augment existing knowledge gained from downstream river gauging. Evidence suggests that the jokulhlaup outlets at Tungnaarjokull developed sequentially. The western tunnel outlet was observed during its waning stage whilst the eastern fountain outlet was still rising, resulting in a double flood peak. Frazil ice development around the eastern fountain outlet at Tungnaarjokull implies that glaciohydraulic supercooling contributed to the development of flood outlets. Discharge reconstructed at the glacier snout was approximately 2-3 times greater than the downstream gauged value, pointing to a rapid rate of peak discharge attenuation during the jokulhlaup. The July 2002 jokulhlaup from Tungnaarjokull was characterized by a double flood

  5. Rapid Downstream Discharge Attenuation During Recent Icelandic Jokulhlaups (United States)

    Russell, A. J.; Roberts, M. J.; Tweed, F. S.; Knudsen, O.; Harris, T. D.; Rushmer, E. L.; Marren, P. M.; Carrivick, J. L.


    Little attention has been paid to downstream discharge attenuation during glacier outburst floods (jokulhlaups). In non-glacial environments, floods resulting from dam failure exhibit major downstream reduction of peak discharge. Transmission losses within ephemeral rivers are also well-known for generating large reductions in peak discharge. We report on three recent jokulhlaups associated with major downstream discharge attenuation: (1) Solheimajokull July 1999; (2) Kverkjokull January 2002; and (3) Tungnaarjokull July 2002. Peak discharges calculated using slope area techniques showed that the 1999 Solheimahlaup decreased in discharge from 4400 m3s-1 to 1700 m3s-1 over a downstream distance of less than 7 km. The Kverkhlaup was gauged at 400 m3s-1, 40 km downstream of the glacier snout. By contrast, less than 1 km from the glacier snouta peak discharge of 2000 m3s-1 was reconstructed using slope-area techniques. The July 2002 jokulhlaup from Tungnaarjokull had a gauged peak discharge of 600 m3s-1 23 km downstream of the glacier snout. Discharge reconstructed at the glacier snout was ~2-3 times greater than the downstream gauged value. The degree of downstream attenuation of these jokulhlaups reflects a number of factors. The rapidity of rising stage water release. The drainage of warm water during these three jokulhlaups is thought to have resulted in a characteristic sudden, short-lived, rise to peak discharge. In the case of the 1999 Solheimahlaup the hydrograph peak was enhanced by a wave-like burst from a flood-filled ice-dammed lake basin. Flow through high resistance complex bedrock (lava) and braided channels is effective in damping j”kulhlaup peak discharge. Transmission loss into highly permeable substrate materials such as lava flows and alluvium visibly reduce peak discharge under normal flow conditions will also be significant during jokulhlaups which flow through wide reaches. Our study of three recent Icelandic jokulhlaups illustrates the

  6. Environmental Education. University Level. 10 Years Development; Recommendations. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden. (United States)

    Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    The Nordic countries have worked together over the last decade to enhance the efforts of environmental educators. This document details: (1) the history and activities of the group responsible for the coordination of efforts at the university level; (2) the types of environmental education occurring in Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, and…

  7. Was it for walrus? Viking Age settlement and medieval walrus ivory trade in Iceland and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Karin M.; Coutu, Ashley N.; Smiarowski, Konrad


    Walrus-tusk ivory and walrus-hide rope were highly desired goods in Viking Age north-west Europe. New finds of walrus bone and ivory in early Viking Age contexts in Iceland are concentrated in the south-west, and suggest extensive exploitation of nearby walrus for meat, hide and ivory during the ...

  8. Interaction of the Faroe Bank Channel overflow with Iceland Basin intermediate waters (United States)

    Ullgren, Jenny E.; Fer, Ilker; Darelius, Elin; Beaird, Nicholas


    The narrow and deep Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) is an important pathway for cold, dense waters from the Nordic Seas to flow across the Iceland-Scotland ridge into the North Atlantic. The swift, turbulent FBC overflow is associated with strong vertical mixing. Hydrographic profiles from a shipboard survey and two Slocum electric gliders deployed during a cruise in May-June 2012 show an intermediate water mass characterized by low salinity and low oxygen concentration between the upper waters of Atlantic origin and the dense overflow water. A weak low-salinity signal originating north-east of Iceland is discernible at the exit of the FBC, but smeared out by intense mixing. Further west (downstream) marked salinity and oxygen minima are found, which we hypothesize are indicators of a mixture of Labrador Sea Water and Intermediate Water from the Iceland Basin. Water mass characteristics vary strongly on short time scales. Low-salinity, low-oxygen water in the stratified interface above the overflow plume is shown to move along isopycnals toward the Iceland-Faroe Front as a result of eddy stirring and a secondary, transverse circulation in the plume interface. The interaction of low-salinity, low-oxygen intermediate waters with the overflow plume already at a short distance downstream of the sill, here reported for the first time, affects the final properties of the overflow waters through entrainment and mixing.

  9. In the Land of Ice and Fire: Stressful Events in the Lives of Icelandic Children. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; And Others


    A total of 244 students from 4 locations in Iceland responded to a questionnaire about upsetting life events and their experiences. Children converged in their perceptions of stressful events, and their ideas were in close agreement with those of U.S. children. Findings suggest how many events are stressful to children. (SLD)

  10. [Scientific articles in the Icelandic Medical Journal 2004-2008: an overview]. (United States)

    Gudbjartsson, Tómas; Sigurdsson, Engilbert


    In the past 5 years the Icelandic Medical Journal has undergone many changes during a period of flourishing research in Iceland. The process of reviewing and editing scientific articles has been revised since the Journal joined the Medline database in 2005 and the proportion of rejected articles has risen. New columns have been launched covering medical history, professionalism, ethics and hobbies of the medical profession. We categorized all scientific articles from the period 2004-2008, that is research articles, review articles, case reports and clinical guidelines, according to types of articles and to which medical speciality or subspeciality the publication should belong. The number of scientific articles rose during the period but the number of research articles remained around 20 most years during the period. The relative proportion of research articles therefore fell whereas the number and proportion of review articles and case reports increased. Clinical guidelines ceased to appear in the Journal. The contribution of individual specialities to the Journal varied widely. Researchers amongst doctors and related professions need be encouraged to submit scientific articles to the Journal. The publication of scientific articles in English in the web-based form of the Journal may prove to be stimulating in this regard for Icelandic doctors abroad as well as for some researchers in Iceland.

  11. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir


    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 , have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  12. Manifestations of Heterosexism in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools and the Responses of LGBT Students (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir


    How does institutionalized heterosexism manifest itself in Icelandic upper secondary schools and how do lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students respond to these manifestations? In addressing these questions, interviews were conducted with six current and former LGBT upper secondary school students, using queer theory and thematic…

  13. Schooling Sexualities and Gendered Bodies. Experiences of LGBT Students in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Kristinsdóttir, Guðrún


    In this paper, we study how Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender people (LGBT) students in Icelandic upper secondary schools interpret their experience of heteronormative environment and how they respond to it. The aim is to explore how sexualities and gendered bodies are constructed through "schooling". The article draws on interview…

  14. Information Behaviour, Health Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Health Behaviour in Icelanders' Everyday Life (United States)

    Palsdottir, Agusta


    Introduction: The aim of this study is to gather knowledge about how different groups of Icelanders take advantage of information about health and lifestyle in their everyday life. Method: A random sample of 1,000 people was used in the study and data was gathered as a postal survey. Response rate was 50.8%. Analysis: K-means cluster analysis was…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Sebastian Konefał


    Full Text Available Since its inception the Icelandic film industry has used the strategy of combining telluric elements with national- istic narratives. In many films one may also find visual structures that can be linked with the ‘tourist gaze’ – the term as we know it from the texts of John Urry. Despite a focus on some unique qualities of Icelandic nature and its cultural heritage (that can be attractive to foreign viewers the specificity of cinematic production processes on the island belong to the structure of local, national cinema. Moreover, the 1980s, considered as the time of the rebirth of the Icelandic film industry and its rapid modernization, are full of films containing conservative or leftist telluric topics which are difficult for foreign audiences to understand. A new, transnational quality of Icelandic film features began with the film debut of Friðrik Þór Friðriksson in 1987. His fusion of modernist and postmodernist plots has encouraged other filmmakers to start the process of re-interpretation of the classic narrative structures, and to render the ironic demystification of some nationalistic themes.

  16. The Role of Choral Singing in the Lives of Amateur Choral Singers in Iceland (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sigrun Lilja; Gudmundsdottir, Helga Rut


    The purpose of this study was to investigate what motivates people to sing in choirs as a leisure activity. Subjects were retrieved from members of 10 amateur choirs of various types in Iceland through a paper-based survey. Results indicated that participants gain both personal and social benefits from singing in a choir. Findings revealed…

  17. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland (United States)

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan


    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  18. Possibilities in the Boy Turn? Comparative Lessons from Australia and Iceland (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Lingard, Bob; Mills, Martin


    Recognising that there is now a globalised educational discourse about "failing boys" circulating in the privileged nations of the global north, this article provides a comparative perspective on educational policy responses to the "boy turn" in Australia and Iceland. Specificities of the responses to the boy turn in the two…

  19. "Framed": Terminating the Parenting Rights of Parents with Intellectual Disability in Iceland (United States)

    Sigurjónsdóttir, Hanna Björg; Rice, James Gordon


    Background: The aim was to investigate the role of measured intellectual function in framing parents as 'unfit' in child custody deprivation cases. Method: Grounded theory was used to analyse a national sample of custody deprivation cases in Iceland 2002-2014. Results: The terminology used to evaluate and describe the intellectual and…

  20. Leading the Small Rural School in Iceland and Australia: Building Leadership Capacity (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Siguräardóttir, Sigríäur Margrét; Faulkner, Robert


    This study builds on a set of Australian case studies exploring the impact of Place on the work of principals and of the importance of Place in the preparation and development of principals. The project compares the ways that principals in Iceland and Australia build leadership capacity in small rural schools. Leaders of small schools in both…

  1. [Endocarditis in Iceland 2000-2009, a national survey incidence, microbiology and prognosis]. (United States)

    Tryggvadóttir, Elin Björk; Agnarsson, Uggi Thordur; Sverrisson, Jón Thor; Thorsteinsson, Sigurdur B; Högnason, Jön Vilberg; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur


    The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence, clinical features, microbiology and prognosis of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in Iceland, and to compare the results with a previous study made in Iceland 1976-85. A retrospective study including all patients diagnosed with IE in Iceland 2000-2009. Information was obtained from medical records. A total of 88 cases (71% men, mean age 59 years) were diagnosed and the incidence of IE was calculated 2.97/100.000 person-years. The mitral valve was infected in 35 patients (40%), aortic in 27 (31%) and tricuspid in 9 (10%). In 19 cases a prosthetic valve was infected (22%), one early (Iceland is still low compared to other countries. The clinical profile of the disease has changed since 1976-85, patients with prosthetic heart valves and intravenous drug users were more prominent than before. The microbiological spectrum has not changed much, streptococcus is still the most common pathogen, contrary to what is seen in other industrial countries where S. aureus is more frequent. Death rate is lower than before and one year survival good compared to other reports.

  2. From Play to School: Are Core Values of ECEC in Iceland Being Undermined by "Schoolification"? (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Bryndis


    Iceland has a strong tradition of universal public early childhood education and care (ECEC) services for children. The traditional pedagogy is founded on play-based learning with the holistic view of the development of the child is central to practice. With increased interest in education following the 2008 financial crisis, there are signs that…

  3. Meaningful Education for Returning-to-School Students in a Comprehensive Upper Secondary School in Iceland (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir; Bjarnadóttir, Valgerður S.


    Dropout from upper secondary education in Iceland is higher than in the neighboring countries, but varied options to re-enter school have also been on offer. This article focuses on how students, who had returned to a selected upper secondary school after having quit in one or more other schools, benefited from an innovative pedagogical approach…

  4. An Icelandic Heritage: The Frame for One Teacher's Service (1946-2006) (United States)

    Crippen, Carolyn


    This qualitative research manuscript details a biographical study, which documents the life story of one female teacher, Sylvia May Peiluck, of Gimli, Manitoba, an educator of 45 years. Her Icelandic heritage and her commitment to teach the children of Manitoba created a strong bond, a nexus. What educational changes did she witness during her…

  5. Learning Icelandic Language and Culture in Virtual Reykjavik: Starting to Talk (United States)

    Bédi, Branislav; Arnbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Vilhjálmsson, Hannes Högni; Helgadóttir, Hafdís Erla; Ólafsson, Stefán; Björgvinsson, Elías


    This paper describes how beginners of Icelandic as a foreign and second language responded to playing the first scene in Virtual Reykjavik, a video game-like environment where learners interact with virtual characters--Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). This game enables learners to practice speaking and listening skills, to learn about the…

  6. Design and Craft Education in Iceland, Pedagogical Background and Development: A Literature Review (United States)

    Olafsson, Brynjar; Thorsteinsson, Gisli


    Sloyd pedagogy was introduced towards the close of the 18th century to Icelandic educators. Subsequently craft was established as a specific subject aimed at general education. In the beginning craft was called "school industry," to distinguish it from "home industry" whose aim was to help homes to be self-sufficient for…

  7. Glacio-meteorological investigations on Vatnajökull, Iceland, summer 1996: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Björnsson, H.; Kuhn, M.; Obleitner, F.; Palsson, F.; Smeets, C.J.P.P.; Vugts, H.F.; Wolde, J. de


    We give an overview of a glacio-meteorological experiment carried out in the summer (melt season) of 1996 on the largest European ice cap, Vatnajökull, Iceland (area 8000 km2; altitude range: from sea level to about 2000 m). The main goal was to understand how the energy used in the melting of snow

  8. Long-distance impact of Iceland plume on Norway's rifted margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koptev, Alexander; Cloetingh, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069161836; Burov, E.; François, T.; Gerya, Taras


    Results of a 3D modeling study inspired by recent seismic tomography of the Northern Atlantic mantle suggest that a complex pattern of hot mantle distribution with long horizontal flows originating from the Iceland mantle plume has been the norm in the geological past. In the Northern Atlantic the

  9. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic-Type Berm Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.


    strategies and possible failure with corresponding downtime have been taken into account, as well as actual market prices (in Iceland and Norway) for rack material and construction. Calculations show that low stability numbers for the largest rock armour layer give the optimal safety level....

  10. Climate-driven vertical acceleration of Icelandic crust measured by continuous GPS geodesy

    KAUST Repository

    Compton, Kathleen


    © 2015 The Authors. Earth\\'s present-day response to enhanced glacial melting resulting from climate change can be measured using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. We present data from 62 continuously operating GPS instruments in Iceland. Statistically significant upward velocity and accelerations are recorded at 27 GPS stations, predominantly located in the Central Highlands region of Iceland, where present-day thinning of the Iceland ice caps results in velocities of more than 30mm/yr and uplift accelerations of 1-2mm/yr2. We use our acceleration estimates to back calculate to a time of zero velocity, which coincides with the initiation of ice loss in Iceland from ice mass balance calculations and Arctic warming trends. We show, through a simple inversion, a direct relationship between ice mass balance measurements and vertical position and show that accelerated unloading is required to reproduce uplift observations for a simple elastic layer over viscoelastic half-space model.

  11. Behavioral Self-Regulation and Relations to Emergent Academic Skills among Children in Germany and Iceland (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Ragnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur


    The present study investigated a direct assessment of behavioral self-regulation (the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders; HTKS) and its contribution to early academic achievement among young children in Germany and Iceland. The authors examined the psychometric properties and construct validity of the HTKS, investigated gender differences in young…

  12. Do Red Knots (Calidris canutus Islandica) routinely skip Iceland during southward migration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, M.; Spaans, B.; Dekinga, A.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Van Leeuwen, C.H.A.; Piersma, T.


    Subspecies Calidris canutus islandica of the Red Knot breeds on the arctic tundra of northeastern Canada and northern Greenland and winters along the coasts of northwestern Europe. During northward migration, it stops over in either Iceland or northern Norway. It has been assumed that it does the

  13. Do Red Knots (Calidris canutus islandica) routinely skip Iceland during southward migration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Maurine W.; Spaans, Bernard; Dekinga, Anne; Klaassen, Marcel; Korthals, Harry; van Leeuwen, Casper; Piersma, Theunis

    Subspecies Calidris canutus islandica of the Red Knot breeds on the arctic tundra of northeastern Canada and northern Greenland and winters along the coasts of northwestern Europe. During northward migration, it stops over in either Iceland or northern Norway. It has been assumed that it does the

  14. Iceland rising : Solid Earth response to ice retreat inferred from satellite radar interferometry and visocelastic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auriac, A.; Spaans, K.H.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A.; Schmidt, P.; Lund, B.


    A broad uplift occurs in Iceland in response to the retreat of ice caps, which began circa 1890. Until now, this deformation signal has been measured primarily using GPS at points some distance away from the ice caps. Here, for the first time we use satellite radar interferometry (interferometric

  15. Internet Gambling and Problem Gambling among 13 to 18 Year Old Adolescents in Iceland (United States)

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.


    This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…

  16. American and Icelandic parents' perceptions of the health status of their young children with chronic asthma. (United States)

    Svavarsdóttir, Erla Kolbrun; Rayens, Mary Kay


    To identify factors that influence American and Icelandic parents' health perceptions among families of infants or young children with asthma. A cross-sectional research design of 76 American families and 103 Icelandic families. Data were collected mainly in the Midwest of the United States (US) and in Iceland from August 1996 through January 2000. Parents in these two countries who had children aged 6 or younger with chronic asthma completed questionnaires regarding family demands, caregiving demands, family hardiness, sense of coherence, and health perceptions. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and t tests were compiled. Multiple regression analysis was used to test path models and for mediation. American parents differed from their Icelandic counterparts in family hardiness. In both countries, significant differences were found in caregiving demands and health perceptions between mothers and fathers. Illness severity and caregiving demands affected health perceptions of both mothers and fathers. Sense of coherence mediated the relationship between family demands and parents' perceptions for both parents. For mothers only, family hardiness mediated the relationship between family demands and health perceptions. The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation was useful for building knowledge on parents' health perceptions in two Western cultures for families of young children with asthma. Interventions emphasizing family and individual resiliency and strengths have the potential to affect parents' views of their children's health.

  17. Septic arthritis in Iceland 1990-2002: increasing incidence due to iatrogenic infections. (United States)

    Geirsson, A J; Statkevicius, S; Víkingsson, A


    To assess the impact of increased number of diagnostic and therapeutic joint procedures on the incidence and type of septic arthritis (SA). All cases of SA in Iceland from 1990-2002 were identified by thorough review of the available medical information. The results of synovial fluid cultures from every microbiology department in Iceland were checked and positive culture results reviewed, as well as patient charts with a discharge diagnosis of septic arthritis (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) code M009). A total of 253 cases of SA (69 children and 184 adults) were diagnosed in Iceland in 1990-2002, giving an average incidence of 7.1 cases/100,000 inhabitants. The incidence of SA increased from 4.2 cases/100,000 in 1990 to 11.0 cases/100,000 in 2002. This rise in SA was primarily observed in adults where the incidence rose by 0.61 cases/100,000 per year (pIceland and the incidence of SA (p<0.01). The frequency of post-arthroscopy SA was 0.14% and post-arthrocentesis SA 0.037%. The incidence of SA has increased in recent years due to an increased number of arthroscopies and joint injections. Although the frequency of SA per procedure has not changed, these results emphasise the importance of sterile technique and firm indications for joint procedures.

  18. An Inevitable Progress? Educational Restructuring in Finland, Iceland, and Sweden at the Turn of the Millennium. (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Lindblad, Sverker; Simola, Hannu


    Discusses how current changes in the system of reasoning about education in Finland, Iceland, and Sweden are characterized by culturally woven patterns in high marketization strategies are introduced as technically effective devices both for educating the best and to increase inclusion. The system of reason presupposes that the neo-liberalist…

  19. Formation and Cultural Use of Wetland Areas in Vatnsfjörður, Northwest Iceland (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca; Simpson, Ian; Tisdall, Eileen


    Because of their development in-situ over extended time periods, Histosols are an important record of the intimate relationship between societal and environmental change. In this paper we offer new insights into land management adaptations as Norse settlers arrived and colonised the previously pristine landscapes of Iceland. Our Histosol record from Vatnsfjörður, NW Iceland is chronologically constrained through a combination of tephrochronology and radiocarbon measurement, and is associated with a tenth century long house and subsequent settlement into the medieval period as the locality emerged as one of the richest by the late Icelandic middle ages. Integration of field survey, thin section micromorphology and pollen analyses of histosols together with documentary records indicates the first evidence of artificially created wet meadows in Iceland, developed to give sustained fodder production for over-wintering livestock in an environment that inherently had a short growing season and lacked soil fertility. The findings have wider implications for understanding the emergence of resilient and sustainable communities in agriculturally marginal environments.

  20. Inclusion, Exclusion and the Queering of Spaces in Two Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir


    The concept of space is gaining increased attention in studies of sexuality and gender, not least those focusing on heterosexism and heteronormativity. Such studies have demonstrated that space is sexualised, gendered and actively produced. In this article, we present the findings from an ethnographic study of two Icelandic upper secondary…

  1. Borderline Personality-Disordered Alcoholics in Iceland: Descriptions on Demographic, Clinical, and MMPI Variables. (United States)

    Jonsdottir-Baldursson, Thuridur; Horvath, Peter


    Replicated, in an Icelandic sample of alcoholics, research on the clinical and demographic characteristics of borderline patients. Used Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Gunderson's Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines, and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. A particular MMPI high point configuration characterized alcoholics…

  2. The association between lifting an administrative restriction on antidepressant dispensing and treatment patterns in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thengilsdottir, G; Gardarsdottir, H; Almarsdottir, A B


    st 2006 and March 1st 2010 were selected from the Icelandic Prescriptions Database. The study population was split into one intervention cohort (2009) and three comparison cohorts (2006, 2007, and 2008). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and odds ratios (OR) were used to compare incidence rates and early...

  3. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (a...

  4. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic ...

  5. Using Google Earth to Study the Basic Characteristics of Volcanoes (United States)

    Schipper, Stacia; Mattox, Stephen


    Landforms, natural hazards, and the change in the Earth over time are common material in state and national standards. Volcanoes exemplify these standards and readily capture the interest and imagination of students. With a minimum of training, students can recognize erupted materials and types of volcanoes; in turn, students can relate these…

  6. Volcano ecology: Disturbance characteristics and assembly of biological communities (United States)

    Volcanic eruptions are powerful expressions of Earth’s geophysical forces which have shaped and influenced ecological systems since the earliest days of life. The study of the interactions of volcanoes and ecosystems, termed volcano ecology, focuses on the ecological responses of organisms and biolo...

  7. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of. Cadiz (North Atlantic ...

  8. Global data collection and the surveillance of active volcanoes (United States)

    Ward, P.L.


    Data relay systems on existing earth-orbiting satellites provide an inexpensive way to collect environmental data from numerous remote sites around the world. This technology could be used effectively for fundamental monitoring of most of the world's active volcanoes. Such global monitoring would focus attention on the most dangerous volcanoes that are likely to significantly impact the geosphere and the biosphere. ?? 1990.

  9. Fuego Volcano eruption (Guatemala, 1974): evidence of a tertiary fragmentation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes-Andre, Jose


    Values for mode and dispersion calculated from SFT were analyzed using the SFT (Sequential Fragmentation/Transport) model to Fuego Volcano eruption (Guatemala, 1974). Analysis results have showed that the ideas initially proposed for Irazu, can be applied to Fuego Volcano. Experimental evidence was found corroborating the existence of tertiary fragmentations. (author) [es

  10. Volcanic risk and tourism in southern Iceland: Implications for hazard, risk and emergency response education and training (United States)

    Bird, Deanne K.; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Dominey-Howes, Dale


    This paper examines the relationship between volcanic risk and the tourism sector in southern Iceland and the complex challenge emergency management officials face in developing effective volcanic risk mitigation strategies. An early warning system and emergency response procedures were developed for communities surrounding Katla, the volcano underlying the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. However, prior to and during the 2007 tourist season these mitigation efforts were not effectively communicated to stakeholders located in the tourist destination of Þórsmörk despite its location within the hazard zone of Katla. The hazard zone represents the potential extent of a catastrophic jökulhlaup (glacial outburst flood). Furthermore, volcanic risk mitigation efforts in Þórsmörk were based solely on information derived from physical investigations of volcanic hazards. They did not consider the human dimension of risk. In order to address this gap and provide support to current risk mitigation efforts, questionnaire surveys were used to investigate tourists' and tourism employees' hazard knowledge, risk perception, adoption of personal preparedness measures, predicted behaviour if faced with a Katla eruption and views on education. Results indicate that tourists lack hazard knowledge and they do not adopt preparedness measures to deal with the consequences of an eruption. Despite a high level of risk perception, tourism employees lack knowledge about the early warning system and emergency response procedures. Results show that tourists are positive about receiving information concerning Katla and its hazards and therefore, the reticence of tourism employees with respect to disseminating hazard information is unjustified. In order to improve the tourism sector's collective capacity to positively respond during a future eruption, recommendations are made to ensure adequate dissemination of hazard, risk and emergency response information. Most importantly education campaigns

  11. Ensemble methods for Etna volcano warning system (United States)

    Scandura, Danila; Cannavò, Flavio; Aliotta, Marco; Cassisi, Carmelo; Montalto, Placido


    The large amount of signals used for volcanic monitoring allow detecting volcano criticalities with unprecedented reliability. At the same time, the use of different monitoring networks makes essential the development of a system that synthesizes into a single information the overall state of the volcano. In this context, the ensemble learning techniques can play a useful role accepting different nature inputs and synthesizing the information in a single output. In broad terms, these techniques use many weak learning algorithms to achieve the best predictive performance compared to any obtained from classical learning algorithms. By averaging the results of each weak learner, the ensemble algorithms reduce the risk of using a single non-discriminative weak learning algorithm and allows for a more accurate classification. Here we used the ensemble techniques to classify three different states of Etna volcano: 1) Quiet; 2) Strombolian activity; 3) Lava fountain. We carried out several simulations using a large data set spanning the 2011-2015 time interval, including the records of most part of monitored geophysical parameters and the corresponding volcanic state. Simulations were performed subdividing the available data into training and test sets. We checked the ability of the proposed method to recognize automatically the lava fountain episodes. To this purpose, we tested different ensemble techniques changing associated parameters and weak learners. The found system was able to identify the lava fountain episode with a reliability over 70% and to detect the beginning of lava fountain episode in the totality of the test cases. Results suggest that the proposed system can be seen as a promising tool for civil protection purposes.

  12. Copahue volcano and its regional magmatic setting (United States)

    Varekamp, J C; Zareski, J E; Camfield, L M; Todd, Erin


    Copahue volcano (Province of Neuquen, Argentina) has produced lavas and strombolian deposits over several 100,000s of years, building a rounded volcano with a 3 km elevation. The products are mainly basaltic andesites, with the 2000–2012 eruptive products the most mafic. The geochemistry of Copahue products is compared with those of the main Andes arc (Llaima, Callaqui, Tolhuaca), the older Caviahue volcano directly east of Copahue, and the back arc volcanics of the Loncopue graben. The Caviahue rocks resemble the main Andes arc suite, whereas the Copahue rocks are characterized by lower Fe and Ti contents and higher incompatible element concentrations. The rocks have negative Nb-Ta anomalies, modest enrichments in radiogenic Sr and Pb isotope ratios and slightly depleted Nd isotope ratios. The combined trace element and isotopic data indicate that Copahue magmas formed in a relatively dry mantle environment, with melting of a subducted sediment residue. The back arc basalts show a wide variation in isotopic composition, have similar water contents as the Copahue magmas and show evidence for a subducted sedimentary component in their source regions. The low 206Pb/204Pb of some backarc lava flows suggests the presence of a second endmember with an EM1 flavor in its source. The overall magma genesis is explained within the context of a subducted slab with sediment that gradually looses water, water-mobile elements, and then switches to sediment melt extracts deeper down in the subduction zone. With the change in element extraction mechanism with depth comes a depletion and fractionation of the subducted complex that is reflected in the isotope and trace element signatures of the products from the main arc to Copahue to the back arc basalts.

  13. Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors (United States)

    Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.


    Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.

  14. Locking depth and slip-rate of the Húsavík Flatey fault, North Iceland, derived from continuous GPS data 2006-2010

    KAUST Repository

    Metzger, Sabrina


    Located at the northern shore of Iceland, the Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) is a 120 km offset in the mid-Atlantic Ridge that connects the offshore Kolbeinsey Ridge to the on-land Northern Volcanic Zone. This transform zone is seismically one of the most active areas in Iceland, exposing the population to a significant risk. However, the kinematics of the mostly offshore area with its complex tectonics have not been adequately resolved and the seismic potential of the two main transform structures within the TFZ, the Grímsey Oblique Rift (GOR) and the Húsavík Flatey Fault (HFF) in particular, is not well known. In summer 2006, we expanded the number of continuous GPS (CGPS) stations in the area from 4 to 14. The resulting GPS velocities after four years of data collection show that the TFZ accommodates the full plate motion as it is predicted by the MORVEL plate motion model. In addition, ENVISAT interferograms reveal a transient uplift signal at the nearby Theistareykir central volcano with a maximum line-of-sight uplift of 3 cm between summers of 2007 and 2008. We use a combination of an interseismic backslip and a Mogi model in a homogeneous, elastic half-space to describe the kinematics within the TFZ. With a non-linear optimization approach we fit the GPS observations and estimate the key model parameters and their uncertainties, which are (among others) the locking depth, the partition of the transform motion between the two transform structures within the TFZ and the slip rate on the HFF. We find a shallow locking depth of 6.3+1.7- 1.2 km and transform motion that is accommodated 34 ± 3 per cent by the HFF and 66 ± 3 per cent by the GOR, resulting in a slip velocity of 6.6 ± 0.6 mm yr-1 for the HFF. Assuming steady accumulation since the last two large M6.5 earthquakes in 1872 the seismic potential of the fault is equivalent to a Mw6.8 ± 0.1 event.

  15. Radiocaesium (Cs-137) fallout in Iceland and its behaviour in subarctic volcanic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurgeirsson, M.A.; Palsson, S.E.; Gudnason, K.; Arnalds, O.


    In the autumn of 2000 the Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute began systematic analysis of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils. The main objectives of the study are to investigate the spatial variation of radiocaesium concentration in Iceland and make estimates of the retention of Cs-137 in major soil types. Soil samples from 17 sampling sites were collected. Soils were sampled with a 17 mm sampling probe. Twenty cores were collected at each site at even intervals along a 20 m on line. The concentration of Cs-137 was measured using HPGe spectrometry. The main results gained so far are the following: a) Total activity per unit area of Cs-137 was found to be 900-4700 Bglm 2 . b) In all cases > 85 % of Cs-137 in soils is fixed in the uppermost 15 cm of the soil cover. c) In loam and sandy loam 60-95 % of Cs-137 is fixed in the top layer of the soil (i.e. 0-5 cm interval). In sandy loam and loamy sand (Vitric Andosols) considerable amount of Cs is fixed in deeper layers, i.e. below 5 cm depth, indicating that mobility of Cs-137 is dependent on grain size distribution and clay content of the soil. Former studies indicate that Cs is rather mobile in Icelandic soils. d) In pieat (Histosols) 80-85% of Cs-137 is bound in the top layer of the soil (0-5 cm) and 10-15% within the 5-10 cm depth range. e) Comparison of samples obtained form undisturbed hayfield and uncultivated land at the same site (i.e. MYR) showed lower concentration of Cs-137 in the top layer of the hayfield but on the other hand higher total activity per unit area. Sample from GRI, collected in a hayfield, shows similar behaviour of Cs-137 as in MYRa. f) Good correlation was obtained between precipitation and total activity of radiocaesium in soils. In the autumn of 2000 the Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute began systematic analysis of radiocaesium in Icelandic Soils. The main objectives of the study are to investigate the spatial variation of radiocaesium concentration in Iceland and make

  16. Radionuclides in sediment in Icelandic waters and their use for the determination of sedimentation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E.; Olafsdottir, E.D. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Iceland); Danielsen, M. [Marine Res. Inst. (Iceland)


    The sea bottom around Iceland has a very uneven topology. This is understandable with Iceland being a part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland is also at the junction of different ocean currents. These factors contribute to create rich fishing grounds around Iceland. Over the years there has been considerable oceanographic research in Iceland and there has been some research concerning sediments. But there had been no studies of radionuclides in sediments prior to the start of the EKO-1 project. Sampling of sediment cores was attempted at 35 stations around Iceland, repeatedly at most of them. The conditions proved however to be very difficult and only 5 good quality sediment cores were obtained. These cores were analysed for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra. The sedimentation rates were determined using regression analysis of the unsupported {sup 210}Pb profile. The obtained fit was very good in all cases (R{sup 2} ranging from 0.94 to 0.99) which indicates that the results are of good quality. Interpretation of the {sup 137}Cs profiles was also consistent with the interpretation based on the {sup 210}Pb data. The shallower depths (106 m - 215 m) gave sedimentation rates of 0.1 - 0.3 g cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} (3-4 mm y{sup -1}) while the cores from 256 m and 972 m gave considerably lower rates (0.06 g cm{sup -2} y{sup -1} and 0.03 g cm{sup -2} y{sup 1} respectively). Two of the sediment cores were taken in the same areas, but a different times. These are the cores sampled at depths 210 m and 215 m. The difference in the exact position of these two sites is approximately 100 m. The difference in the obtained results illustrates clearly the variability that can be expected within an area. The project has been important for research in this field in Iceland. Not only has data for the area been obtained, but also valuable experience gained in sampling under these difficult conditions and in the subsequent interpretation of results. (EHS)

  17. Radiocaesium (Cs-137) fallout in Iceland and its behaviour in subarctic volcanic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurgeirsson, M.A.; Palsson, S.E.; Gudnason, K. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst., Reykjavik (Iceland); Arnalds, O. [Agricultural Research Inst. (Iceland)


    In the autumn of 2000 the Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute began systematic analysis of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils. The main objectives of the study are to investigate the spatial variation of radiocaesium concentration in Iceland and make estimates of the retention of Cs-137 in major soil types. Soil samples from 17 sampling sites were collected. Soils were sampled with a 17 mm sampling probe. Twenty cores were collected at each site at even intervals along a 20 m on line. The concentration of Cs-137 was measured using HPGe spectrometry. The main results gained so far are the following: a) Total activity per unit area of Cs-137 was found to be 900-4700 Bglm{sup 2}. b) In all cases > 85 % of Cs-137 in soils is fixed in the uppermost 15 cm of the soil cover. c) In loam and sandy loam 60-95 % of Cs-137 is fixed in the top layer of the soil (i.e. 0-5 cm interval). In sandy loam and loamy sand (Vitric Andosols) considerable amount of Cs is fixed in deeper layers, i.e. below 5 cm depth, indicating that mobility of Cs-137 is dependent on grain size distribution and clay content of the soil. Former studies indicate that Cs is rather mobile in Icelandic soils. d) In pieat (Histosols) 80-85% of Cs-137 is bound in the top layer of the soil (0-5 cm) and 10-15% within the 5-10 cm depth range. e) Comparison of samples obtained form undisturbed hayfield and uncultivated land at the same site (i.e. MYR) showed lower concentration of Cs-137 in the top layer of the hayfield but on the other hand higher total activity per unit area. Sample from GRI, collected in a hayfield, shows similar behaviour of Cs-137 as in MYRa. f) Good correlation was obtained between precipitation and total activity of radiocaesium in soils. In the autumn of 2000 the Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute began systematic analysis of radiocaesium in Icelandic Soils. The main objectives of the study are to investigate the spatial variation of radiocaesium concentration in Iceland and make

  18. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.


    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  19. Magmatic gas scrubbing: Implications for volcano monitoring (United States)

    Symonds, R.B.; Gerlach, T.M.; Reed, M.H.


    Despite the abundance of SO2(g) in magmatic gases, precursory increases in magmatic SO2(g) are not always observed prior to volcanic eruption, probably because many terrestrial volcanoes contain abundant groundwater or surface water that scrubs magmatic gases until a dry pathway to the atmosphere is established. To better understand scrubbing and its implications for volcano monitoring, we model thermochemically the reaction of magmatic gases with water. First, we inject a 915??C magmatic gas from Merapi volcano into 25??C air-saturated water (ASW) over a wide range of gas/water mass ratios from 0.0002 to 100 and at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Then we model closed-system cooling of the magmatic gas, magmatic gas-ASW mixing at 5.0 MPa, runs with varied temperature and composition of the ASW, a case with a wide range of magmatic-gas compositions, and a reaction of a magmatic gas-ASW mixture with rock. The modeling predicts gas and water compositions, and, in one case, alteration assemblages for a wide range of scrubbing conditions; these results can be compared directly with samples from degassing volcanoes. The modeling suggests that CO2(g) is the main species to monitor when scrubbing exists; another candidate is H2S(g), but it can be affected by reactions with aqueous ferrous iron. In contrast, scrubbing by water will prevent significant SO2(g) and most HCl(g) emissions until dry pathways are established, except for moderate HCl(g) degassing from pH 100 t/d (tons per day) of SO2(g) in addition to CO2(g) and H2S(g) should be taken as a criterion of magma intrusion. Finally, the modeling suggests that the interpretation of gas-ratio data requires a case-by-case evaluation since ratio changes can often be produced by several mechanisms; nevertheless, several gas ratios may provide useful indices for monitoring the drying out of gas pathways. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Volcano deformation and subdaily GPS products (United States)

    Grapenthin, Ronni

    Volcanic unrest is often accompanied by hours to months of deformation of the ground that is measurable with high-precision GPS. Although GPS receivers are capable of near continuous operation, positions are generally estimated for daily intervals, which I use to infer characteristics of a volcano’s plumbing system. However, GPS based volcano geodesy will not be useful in early warning scenarios unless positions are estimated at high rates and in real time. Visualization and analysis of dynamic and static deformation during the 2011 Tohokuoki earthquake in Japan motivates the application of high-rate GPS from a GPS seismology perspective. I give examples of dynamic seismic signals and their evolution to the final static offset in 30 s and 1 s intervals, which demonstrates the enhancement of subtle rupture dynamics through increased temporal resolution. This stresses the importance of processing data at recording intervals to minimize signal loss. Deformation during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, suggested net deflation by 0.05 km³ in three distinct phases. Mid-crustal aseismic precursory inflation began in May 2008 and was detected by a single continuous GPS station about 28 km NE of Redoubt. Deflation during the explosive and effusive phases was sourced from a vertical ellipsoidal reservoir at about 7-11.5 km. From this I infer a model for the temporal evolution of a complex plumbing system of at least 2 sources during the eruption. Using subdaily GPS positioning solutions I demonstrate that plumes can be detected and localized by utilizing information on phase residuals. The GPS network at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, records network wide subsidence at rapid rates between 8 and 12 mm/yr from 2005-2010. I hypothesize this to be caused by continuous deflation of a ˜30 km deep sill under Kluchevskoy Volcano. Interestingly, 1-2 explosive events per year cause little to no deformation at any site other than the summit site closest to the vent. I

  1. The deep structure of Axial Volcano (United States)

    West, Michael Edwin

    The subsurface structure of Axial Volcano, near the intersection of the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain in the northeast Pacific, is imaged from an active source seismic experiment. At a depth of 2.25 to 3.5 km beneath Axial lies an 8 km x 12 km region of very low seismic velocities that can only be explained by the presence of magma. In the center of this magma storage chamber at 2--3.5 km below sea floor, the crust is at least 10--20% melt. At depths of 4--5 km there is evidence of additional low concentrations of magma (a few percent) over a larger area. In total, 5--11 km3 of magma are stored in the mid-crust beneath Axial. This is more melt than has been positively identified under any basaltic volcano on Earth. It is also far more than the 0.1--0.2 km3 emplaced during the 1998 eruption. The implied residence time in the magma reservoir of a few hundred to a few thousand years agrees with geochemical trends which suggest prolonged storage and mixing of magmas. The large volume of melt bolsters previous observations that Axial provides much of the material to create crust along its 50 km rift zones. A high velocity ring-shaped feature sits above the magma chamber just outside the caldera walls. This feature is believed to be the result of repeated dike injections from the magma body to the surface during the construction of the volcanic edifice. A rapid change in crustal thickness from 8 to 11 km within 15 km of the caldera implies focused delivery of melt from the mantle. The high flux of magma suggests that melting occurs deeper in the mantle than along the nearby ridge. Melt supply to the volcano is not connected to any plumbing system associated with the adjacent segments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. This suggests that, despite Axial's proximity to the ridge, the Cobb hot spot currently drives the supply of melt to the volcano.

  2. Cataloging tremor at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Thelen, W. A.; Wech, A.


    Tremor is a ubiquitous seismic feature on Kilauea volcano, which emanates from at least three distinct sources. At depth, intermittent tremor and earthquakes thought to be associated with the underlying plumbing system of Kilauea (Aki and Koyanagi, 1981) occurs approximately 40 km below and 40 km SW of the summit. At the summit of the volcano, nearly continuous tremor is recorded close to a persistently degassing lava lake, which has been present since 2008. Much of this tremor is correlated with spattering at the lake surface, but tremor also occurs in the absence of spattering, and was observed at the summit of the volcano prior to the appearance of the lava lake, predominately in association with inflation/deflation events. The third known source of tremor is in the area of Pu`u `O`o, a vent that has been active since 1983. The exact source location and depth is poorly constrained for each of these sources. Consistently tracking the occurrence and location of tremor in these areas through time will improve our understanding of the plumbing geometry beneath Kilauea volcano and help identify precursory patterns in tremor leading to changes in eruptive activity. The continuous and emergent nature of tremor precludes the use of traditional earthquake techniques for automatic detection and location of seismicity. We implement the method of Wech and Creager (2008) to both detect and localize tremor seismicity in the three regions described above. The technique uses an envelope cross-correlation method in 5-minute windows that maximizes tremor signal coherency among seismic stations. The catalog is currently being built in near-realtime, with plans to extend the analysis to the past as time and continuous data availability permits. This automated detection and localization method has relatively poor depth constraints due to the construction of the envelope function. Nevertheless, the epicenters distinguish activity among the different source regions and serve as

  3. High Proportions of Sub-micron Particulate Matter in Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015 (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur; Magnusdottir, Agnes


    Iceland is extremely active dust region and desert areas of over 44,000 km2 acknowledge Iceland as the largest Arctic and European desert. Frequent dust events, up to 135 dust days annually, transport dust particles far distances towards the Arctic and Europe. Satellite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes exceeding 1,000 km. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 40.1 million tons yr-1. Two dust storms were measured in transverse horizontal profile about 90 km far from different dust sources in southwestern Iceland in the summer of 2015. Aerosol monitor DustTrak DRX 8533EP was used to measure PM mass concentrations corresponding to PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10 and the total PM15 at several places within the dust plume. Images from camera network operated by the Icelandic Road and Coastal Administration were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. A numerical simulation of surface winds was carried out with the numerical model HIRLAM with horizontal resolution of 5 km and used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources. The in situ measurements inside the dust plumes showed that aeolian dust can be very fine. The study highlights that suspended volcanic dust in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations comparable to the polluted urban stations in Europe or Asia rather than reported dust event observations from around the world. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios are generally low during dust storms outside of Iceland, much lower than > 0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34-0.63 found in our study. It shows that Icelandic volcanic dust consists of higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. The submicron particles are predicted to travel long distances. Moreover, such submicron particles pose considerable health risk because of high potential for entering the lungs. Icelandic volcanic glass has often fine pipe-vesicular structures known from asbestos and high content of heavy metals. Previous

  4. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V.; Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M.; Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.


    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  5. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein


    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  6. Seasonal rural residence of Icelandic children Sendur í sveit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónína Einarsdóttir


    Full Text Available Research that focuses on children who migrate without a parent or legal guardian is most often carried out in low-income countries. Such migration is increasingly associated with child trafficking. In this article the Icelandic custom to send children to the country during the summer months in the last century will be examined. It is based on secondary documents such as journals, magazines, documents and reports from child protection authorities. The Icelandic population shared the opinion that seasonal rural residence for urban children was beneficial for the nation, the family and the child. In the country, the children would enjoy unspoiled nature, clean mountain air and nutritious food. In addition, they would learn to attend animals and proper work. Individuals, associations, charities and child protection authorities collaborated in an effort to organise rural residence for children during the summer months, either at farms or particular summer camps. Rural residence was considered to be particularly important for delinquent children, but also those who suffered from poverty, irresponsible parental behaviour and poor health. Data is lacking on the number of children sent to the country and their experiences however it is known to have varied greatly. Likewise, little is known about the considerations of the farmers who hosted the children and the children’s parents. This custom is typically per definition child migration without a parent or legal guardian. Care should be taken not to classify such customs routinely as child trafficking wherever they are practiced.Rannsóknir á búferlaflutningi barna til lengri eða skemmri tíma án samfylgdar foreldris eða löggilds forráðamanns beinast oftast að börnum sem flytja úr einum stað í annan innan eða milli lágtekjulanda. Slíkur flutningur er oft bendlaður við mansal. Hér er skoðaður siðurinn að senda íslensk börn í sveit þar sem þau dvöldu að sumri til hjá venslaf

  7. Local food in Iceland: identifying behavioral barriers to increased production and consumption (United States)

    Ósk Halldórsdóttir, Þórhildur; Nicholas, Kimberly A.


    Increased production and consumption of local food may reduce the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts of industrialized and globalized food production. Here we examined potential barriers to increasing production and consumption of food produced in Iceland. First, we developed a new framework to address the behaviors of production and consumption simultaneously, to comprehensively analyze their potential barriers. We examined structural barriers by estimating the food production capacity of Iceland, and cultural and personal barriers through survey data on cultural norms and purchasing behavior from Matís, a research and development company. We found no structural barriers preventing Iceland from increasing production of local cereals, which would compliment current local production of meat and dairy and reduce reliance on imports, currently at 50% of the daily caloric intake. However, if food production became entirely local without changing the current mix of crops grown, there would be a 50% reduction in diversity (from 50 to 25 items in eight out of ten food categories). We did not identify any cultural barriers, as survey results demonstrated that consumers hold generally positive worldviews towards local food, with 88% satisfied with local food they had purchased. More than two-thirds of consumers regarded supporting the local farmer and considerations such as environmentally friendly production, fewer food miles, lower carbon footprint as important. However, they rated the local food they have access to as lower in meeting sustainability criteria, showing that they make justifications for not choosing local food in practice. This is a personal barrier to increased consumption of local food, and implies that marketing strategies and general knowledge connected to local food in Iceland might be improved. Although the results apply to the case of Iceland, the method of identifying behavioral barriers to change is applicable to other countries

  8. Towards an extreme value analysis of observed wind speed in the complex terrain of Iceland (United States)

    Petersen, Gudrun Nina; Bjornsson, Halldór; Jónasson, Kristján; Nawri, Nikolai


    Due to its location adjacent to the North Atlantic Storm track, Iceland is a fairly windy country. The orography of Iceland, with in general increased elevation from the coast to the highlands and numerous steep mountains in the lowlands, impacts the synoptic winds resulting in a wind pattern where winds may be enhanced locally, and regions where gustiness can be problematic. Extreme winds in Iceland are a problem for built up environments, transportation and infrastructure, and must to be taken into consideration for planning purposes when constructing roads, buildings and other structures such as wind turbines. Lately, through the Nordic project Icewind, a wind atlas has been constructed for Iceland, mapping the wind resource from simulations of mean winds. Here we present the first step towards an extreme value analysis of the observed wind speed in Iceland, based on 61 automatic weather station, that will complement the wind atlas. The time series include at least 10 years of data that has been quality checked, both automatically and manually. We apply the Peak Over Threshold technique to the maximum daily mean wind speed and the maximum daily wind gust, with the threshold chosen as the 0.9 quantile of wind speed or gust at each stations and a declustering period of 5 days to ensure independent events. For each station a General Pareto Distribution function is fitted and the scale and shape parameters found. The results can then be visualised for all stations on a map giving a good picture of spatial differences. One interesting result is the different behaviour of the wind gust in comparison to the mean wind speed that clearly emphasises how local orography affects the gust component of the wind speed more than the mean component.

  9. Social correlates of cigarette smoking among Icelandic adolescents: A population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegrante John P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that between 80 and 90 percent of adult smokers report having started smoking before 18 years of age. Several studies have revealed that multiple social factors influence the likelihood of smoking during adolescence, the period during which the onset of smoking usually occurs. To better understand the social mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking, we analyzed the relationship and relative importance of a broad spectrum of social variables in adolescent smoking in Iceland, a Nordic country with high per-capita income. Methods We used cross-sectional data from 7,430 14- to 16 year-old students (approximately 81% of all Icelanders in these age cohorts in the 2006 Youth in Iceland study. The Youth in Iceland studies are designed to investigate the role of several cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in the lives of adolescents, and the data collected are used to inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs that are being developed by Icelandic social scientists, policy makers, and practitioners. Results Our analysis revealed that friends' smoking behavior and attitude toward smoking were strongly associated with adolescent smoking and other tobacco use, as well as alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days. Main protective factors were parent's perceived attitude toward smoking, the quantity of time spent with parents, absence of serious verbal conflict between parents and adolescents, and participation in physical activity. Family structure was related to adolescent smoking to a small extent, but other background factors were not. Conclusion We conclude that multiple social factors are related to adolescent smoking. Parents and other primary preventive agents need to be informed about the complicated nature of the adolescent social world in order to maximize their impact.

  10. Holland in Iceland revisited: an emic approach to evaluating U.S. vocational interest models. (United States)

    Einarsdóttir, Sif; Rounds, James; Su, Rong


    An emic approach was used to test the structural validity and applicability of Holland's (1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) model in Iceland. Archival data from the development of the Icelandic Interest Inventory (Einarsdóttir & Rounds, 2007) were used in the present investigation. The data included an indigenous pool of occupations and work-task items representing Iceland's world of work that had been administered to a sample of 597 upper secondary school students. Multidimensional scaling analysis and property vector fitting using Prediger's (1981) work-task dimensions were applied to the item responses to test if the RIASEC model could be identified. The results indicated that a 4-dimensional solution better explains the interest space in Iceland than Holland's 2-dimensional RIASEC representation. The work-task dimension of People-Things and the Sex-Type and Prestige dimensions were located in the 1st and 2nd dimensions of the multidimensional scaling solution, but Data-Ideas, a dimension critical to the RIASEC model, was not. The 3rd and 4th dimensions did not correspond to any dimensions previously detected in structural studies in the United States and seem to be related to specific ecological, cultural, and political forces in Iceland. These results demonstrate the importance of selecting representative indigenous occupations and work tasks when evaluating the RIASEC model. The present study is an example of the next step in a comprehensive cross-cultural research program on vocational interests, an emic investigation. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. The First Historical Eruption of Kambalny Volcano in 2017 . (United States)

    Gordeev, E.


    The first historical eruption at Kambalny volcano began about 21:20 UTC on March 24, 2017 with powerful ash emissions up to 6 km above sea level from the pre-summit crater. According to tephrochronological data, it is assumed that the strong eruptions of the volcano occurred 200 (?) and 600 years ago. KVERT (Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team) of the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS has been monitoring Kambalny volcano since 2002. KVERT worked closely with AMC Elizovo and Tokyo VAAC during the eruption at Kambalny volcano in 2017. The maximum intensity of ash emissions occurred on 25-26 March: a continuous plume laden with ash particles spread over several thousand kilometers, changing the direction of propagation from the volcano from the south-west to the south and south-east. On 27-29 March, the ash plume extended to the west, on 30 March - to the southeast of the volcano. On March 31 and April 01, the volcano was relatively quiet. The resumption of the volcano activity after two days of rest was expressed in powerful ash emissions up to 7 km above sea level. Gas-steam plumes containing some amount of ash were noted on 02-05 April, and powerful ash emissions up to 7 km above sea level occurred on 09 April. The explosive activity at the volcano ended on 11 April. The area of ash deposits was about 1500 km2, the total area covered by ash falls, for example, on 25 March, was about 650 thousand km2. To monitor and study the Kambalny volcano eruption we mainly used satellite images of medium resolution available in the information system "Monitoring volcanic activity in Kamchatka and Kurile Islands" (VolSatView). This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project No. 16-17-00042.

  12. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.


    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  13. The feeder system for the 2014 fissure eruption at Holuhraun, Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland: Geodetic and seismic constraints on subsurface activity in the area north of the Vatnajökull ice cap (United States)

    Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andy; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrun; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Spaans, Karsten; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hensch, Martin; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Rafn Heimisson, Elias; Drouin, Vincent; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Pedersen, Rikke; Rut Hjartardóttir, Ásta; Magnússon, Eyjólfur


    An intense earthquake swarm began on 16 August 2014 at Bárðarbunga volcano under the Vatnajökull ice cap in Central Iceland. It marked the beginning of an intrusive activity, with a dyke propagating over 45 km northward. Such major magmatic activity has not been observed for the last three decades in Iceland, since the Krafla rifting episode 1975-1984. The dyke propagation stopped 15 days after the onset of the seismic activity, with the dyke distal end in the Holuhraun plain north of the Vatnajökull ice cap. A small 4 hour eruption marked the beginning of extrusive activity. A new fissure eruption opened up on 31 August at the northern dyke tip, with lava fountaining and feeding extensive lava flows. In January 2014 the surface covered by the lava had exceeded 80 km2, and the eruption activity does not show significant decline. We have carried out interferometric analysis of SAR data (InSAR) since the onset of the unrest. X-band satellite images from COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X satellites were acquired and analyzed to map ground surface deformation associated with the dyke emplacement. Despite most of the dyke propagation occurring under several hundreds meters of ice, the last 10 km were outside the ice cap, allowing better characterisation of the dyke-induced deformation. Here we focus on the deformation in the Holuhraun plain, in order to better understand the link between the surface deformation detected in the vicinity of the dyke by InSAR as well as GPS measurements, and the eruptive activity. The regular SAR acquisitions made over the Holuhraun area since the beginning of the unrest offer a unique opportunity to better understand the evolution of the intrusion feeding the fissure eruption. For that purpose, we focus on the faults and fissures forming the graben borders on the glacier as well as in the Holuhraun plain, initially mapped using high-resolution radar images, acquired by airborne radar. We extract movement along and perpendicular to these

  14. Monitoring volcano activity through Hidden Markov Model (United States)

    Cassisi, C.; Montalto, P.; Prestifilippo, M.; Aliotta, M.; Cannata, A.; Patanè, D.


    During 2011-2013, Mt. Etna was mainly characterized by cyclic occurrences of lava fountains, totaling to 38 episodes. During this time interval Etna volcano's states (QUIET, PRE-FOUNTAIN, FOUNTAIN, POST-FOUNTAIN), whose automatic recognition is very useful for monitoring purposes, turned out to be strongly related to the trend of RMS (Root Mean Square) of the seismic signal recorded by stations close to the summit area. Since RMS time series behavior is considered to be stochastic, we can try to model the system generating its values, assuming to be a Markov process, by using Hidden Markov models (HMMs). HMMs are a powerful tool in modeling any time-varying series. HMMs analysis seeks to recover the sequence of hidden states from the observed emissions. In our framework, observed emissions are characters generated by the SAX (Symbolic Aggregate approXimation) technique, which maps RMS time series values with discrete literal emissions. The experiments show how it is possible to guess volcano states by means of HMMs and SAX.

  15. Common characteristics of paired volcanoes in northern Central America (United States)

    Halsor, Sid P.; Rose, William I.


    Four pairs of active volcanoes along the northern Central American volcanic front have erupted basalt-andesite magmas that show consistent intrapair behavioral and compositional differences. These differences are found in records of volcanic activity and complete major and minor element data on over 200 samples. From northwest to southeast along the volcanic front the four volcano pairs are Cerro Quemado-Santa María, Tolimán-Atitlán, Acatenango-Fuego, and Santa Ana-Izalco. The volcano pair relations help explain compositional differences, apart from those reflecting variation in crustal thickness of about 15 km along the volcanic front, providing insight into across-arc variations and closely spaced subvolcanic plumbing systems. Intravolcano pair spacing is less than 5 km compared with an average intervolcano spacing of 25 km along the entire volcanic front. Within each volcano pair, the seaward volcano has had more frequent historic activity, erupting magmas that are generally more mafic, lower in large ion lithophile elements and higher in Na2O/K2O than magmas erupted from its landward counterpart. Each paired volcano site lies in close proximity to a rhyolitic caldera, situated north or northeast of the volcano pair. However, rare earth element data at the Tolimán-Atitlán volcano pair imply that mixing between caldera rhyolite and the mafic magma of the paired volcanoes does not occur. Petrographie, isotopic, and other geochemical data from the Tolimán-Atitlán volcano pair suggest that separate but contemporaneous magma bodies beneath each volcano evolve and pass through the crust at different rates. Atitlán magmas are processed through the crust more efficiently and with greater frequency than Tollman magmas, which undergo longer periods of stagnation interrupted by mafic injection and rapid eruption. This relation appears to hold at the other paired volcano sites and is further evidence that closely spaced volcanoes, with similar subcrustal magma

  16. Kristjan Ahronson, Into the Ocean. Vikings, Irish, and Environmental Change in Iceland and the North (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Tagliaferri


    Full Text Available Book review of: Kristjan Ahronson, Into the Ocean. Vikings, Irish, and Environmental Change in Iceland and the North, (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2015, pp. 264, ISBN 9781442646179.

  17. Chemical compositions of lavas from Myoko volcano group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenaka, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Hayatsu, Kenji.


    In the volcanic rocks produced in island arc and continental margin arc, the phenomena of magma mixing is observed considerably generally. The research on these phenomena has been carried out also in Japan, and the periodically refilled magma chamber model has been proposed. In this report, the results of the photon activation analysis for the volcanic rock samples of Myoko volcano, for which the magma chamber model that the supply of basalt magma is periodically received was proposed, and of which the age of eruption and the stratigraphy are clearly known, are shown, and the above model is examined together with the published data of fluorescent X-ray analysis and others. The history of activities and the rate of magma extrusion of Myoko volcano group are described. The modal compositions of the volcanic rock samples of Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, for which photon activation analysis was carried out, are shown and discussed. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of 39 volcanic rock samples from Myoko, Kurohime and Iizuna volcanos are shown. The primary magma in Myoko volcano group, the crystallization differentiation depth and moisture content of magma in Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, the presumption of Felsic and Mafic end-members in R type andesite in Myoko volcano group, and the change of magma composition with lapse of time are described. (K.I.)

  18. Microtremor study of Gunung Anyar mud volcano, Surabaya, East Java (United States)

    Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan


    The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.

  19. Lava tube shatter rings and their correlation with lava flux increases at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i (United States)

    Orr, T.R.


    Shatter rings are circular to elliptical volcanic features, typically tens of meters in diameter, which form over active lava tubes. They are typified by an upraised rim of blocky rubble and a central depression. Prior to this study, shatter rings had not been observed forming, and, thus, were interpreted in many ways. This paper describes the process of formation for shatter rings observed at Kīlauea Volcano during November 2005–July 2006. During this period, tilt data, time-lapse images, and field observations showed that episodic tilt changes at the nearby Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone, the shallow magmatic source reservoir, were directly related to fluctuations in the level of lava in the active lava tube, with periods of deflation at Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō correlating with increases in the level of the lava stream surface. Increases in lava level are interpreted as increases in lava flux, and were coincident with lava breakouts from shatter rings constructed over the lava tube. The repetitive behavior of the lava flux changes, inferred from the nearly continuous tilt oscillations, suggests that shatter rings form from the repeated rise and fall of a portion of a lava tube roof. The locations of shatter rings along the active lava tube suggest that they form where there is an abrupt decrease in flow velocity through the tube, e.g., large increase in tube width, abrupt decrease in tube slope, and (or) sudden change in tube direction. To conserve volume, this necessitates an abrupt increase in lava stream depth and causes over-pressurization of the tube. More than a hundred shatter rings have been identified on volcanoes on Hawai‘i and Maui, and dozens have been reported from basaltic lava fields in Iceland, Australia, Italy, Samoa, and the mainland United States. A quick study of other basaltic lava fields worldwide, using freely available satellite imagery, suggests that they might be even more common than previously thought. If so, this confirms that episodic

  20. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Iceland: Early introductions, transmission dynamics and recent outbreaks among injection drug users. (United States)

    Sallam, Malik; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Baldvinsdóttir, Guðrún; Indriðason, Hlynur; Björnsdóttir, Thora Björg; Widell, Anders; Gottfreðsson, Magnús; Löve, Arthur; Medstrand, Patrik


    The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Iceland has not been described so far. Detailed analyses of the dynamics of HIV-1 can give insights for prevention of virus spread. The objective of the current study was to characterize the genetic diversity and transmission dynamics of HIV-1 in Iceland. Partial HIV-1 pol (1020bp) sequences were generated from 230 Icelandic samples, representing 77% of all HIV-1 infected individuals reported in the country 1985-2012. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were reconstructed for subtype/CRF assignment and determination of transmission clusters. Timing and demographic growth patterns were determined in BEAST. HIV-1 infection in Iceland was dominated by subtype B (63%, n=145) followed by subtype C (10%, n=23), CRF01_AE (10%, n=22), sub-subtype A1 (7%, n=15) and CRF02_AG (7%, n=15). Trend analysis showed an increase in non-B subtypes/CRFs in Iceland over the study period (p=0.003). The highest proportion of phylogenetic clustering was found among injection drug users (IDUs; 89%), followed by heterosexuals (70%) and men who have sex with men (35%). The time to the most recent common ancestor of the oldest subtype B cluster dated back to 1978 (median estimate, 95% highest posterior density interval: 1974-1981) suggesting an early introduction of HIV-1 into Iceland. A previously reported increase in HIV-1 incidence among IDUs 2009-2011 was revealed to be due to two separate outbreaks. Our study showed that a variety of HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs were prevalent in Iceland 1985-2012, with subtype B being the dominant form both in terms of prevalence and domestic spread. The rapid increase of HIV-1 infections among IDUs following a major economic crisis in Iceland raises questions about casual associations between economic factors, drug use and public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.