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Sample records for elastomer modified asphalt

  1. Improving Asphalt Mixture Performance by Partially Replacing Bitumen with Waste Motor Oil and Elastomer Modifiers

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    Sara Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental concern about waste generation and the gradual decrease of oil reserves has led the way to finding new waste materials that may partially replace the bitumens used in the road paving industry. Used motor oil from vehicles is a waste product that could answer that demand, but it can also drastically reduce the viscosity, increasing the asphalt mixture’s rutting potential. Therefore, polymer modification should be used in order to avoid compromising the required performance of asphalt mixtures when higher amounts of waste motor oil are used. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing the performance of an asphalt binder/mixture obtained by replacing part of a paving grade bitumen (35/50 with 10% waste motor oil and 5% styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS as an elastomer modifier. A comparison was also made with the results of a previous study using a blend of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis and ground tire rubber modifier as a partial substitute for usual PG64-22 bitumen. The asphalt binders were tested by means of Fourier infrared spectra and dynamic shear rheology, namely by assessing their continuous high-performance grade. Later, the water sensitivity, fatigue cracking resistance, dynamic modulus and rut resistance performance of the resulting asphalt mixtures was evaluated. It was concluded that the new binder studied in this work improves the asphalt mixture’s performance, making it an excellent solution for paving works.

  2. Modified asphalt; Kairyo asphalt ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarabe, A. [Mitsubishi Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-28

    Modified asphalt in the area of road pavement in the relation of measures against flow on a road surface was introduced. The condition of road damage includes the print of a wheel, crack, and wear and semi-blown asphalt whose deformation is difficult even if temperature is increased to approximately 60 {degree}C and asphalt with rubber and resin are used to prevent these. The semi-blown asphalt is obtained by adding cut-back material to the normal asphalt, heating it, blowing air into it, and then oxidizing and polymerizing it, is harder and is more elastic than the normal asphalt, and has smaller viscosity change due to temperature change. The viscosity at 60 {degree}C was determined to be 10000{plus_minus}2000 poise according to the relationship between viscosity and crack using a large-scale execution experiment. The asphalt with rubber and resin is formed by adding modified material of styrene - butadiene copolymer and by adding thermoplastic elastomer and the former is used for preventing slide and the latter is used for preventing flow and wear. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Modified asphalt for pavements; Hosoyo kaishitsu asufuaruto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, T. [Nippon Oil Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Modified asphalt has been used widely in such applications as countermeasure against rutting, countermeasure against wear caused by tire chains in snowy and cold areas, or bridge deck pavement. Features of various kinds of modified asphalt, standards, and standard properties are introduced. Modified asphalt containing natural asphalt is used for steel plate deck pavement. Semi-blown asphalt is used when emphasis must be given to the countermeasure for flowing resistance of asphalt pavement. Features and standards of asphalt containing rubber, thermoplastic elastomer, and thermoplastic resin are described. Asphalt containing heat-setting resin shows excellent characteristics, which other types of modified asphalt do not possess, in the laboratory resistance test for fatigue, flowing, and wear. Change in the history of modified asphalt in Japan from the initial stage to the present are explained and shown in a table together with time and phenomena, and the change in the production of modified asphalt is shown. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Preparation and rheological behavior of polymer-modified asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Ali Akbar

    1999-09-01

    Different materials and methods were used to prepare and stabilize polymer-modified asphalts. Addition of thermoplastic elastomers improved some technically important properties of asphalt. Due to inherent factors like large density difference between asphalt and polyethylene, many physical methods in which the structure of asphalt is unchanged, failed to stabilize this system. The effect of addition of copolymers and a pyrolytic oil residue derived from used tire rubber were also studied and found to be ineffective on the storage stability of the polymer-asphalt emulsions while high and moderate temperature properties of the asphalt were found to be improved. Finally, the technique of catalytic grafting of polymer on the surface of high-density particles (e.g. carbon black) was used to balance the large density difference between asphalt and polymer. The resulting polymer-asphalts were stable at high temperatures and showed enhanced properties at low and high temperatures.

  5. Introductory asphalt technology; Nyumon asphalt gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muroga, G. [Mitsubishi Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-28

    The type and applications, manufacturing method, characteristics, road pavement etc. of asphalt were introduced. Among the petroleum asphalts, straight asphalt is used for road pavement,industry, and combustion, while blown asphalt is mainly used for the waterproofness of a building. Also, the demand for modified asphalt where rubber or thermoplastic elastomer was mixed is increasing. Straight asphalt is obtained by allowing atmospheric distillation tower bottom oil to be subjected to reduced pressure distillation and drawing reduced pressure gas oil and lubrication oil cut. Blown asphalt is produced by the oxidation dehydrogeneration and condensation polymerization reaction of soft straight asphalt. Rheology characteristics of asphalt are expressed by stiffness, relaxation elastic modulus, complex elastic modulus, etc. Also, asphalt has high electrical dielectric properties. Asphalt pavement has functions for dispersing traffic load and then transferring it to a lower layer, for resisting wear and cracking, and for preventing penetration of rainwater. 30 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Properties of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue Modified Asphalt Mixture

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    Jie Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to use Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DLCR to modify the asphalt binders and mixtures and to evaluate the performance of modified asphalt mixtures. The dynamic modulus and phase angle of DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixture were analyzed, and the viscoelastic properties of these modified asphalt mixtures were compared to the base asphalt binder SK-90 and Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS modified asphalt mixtures. The master curves of the asphalt mixtures were shown, and dynamic and viscoelastic behaviors of asphalt mixtures were described using the Christensen-Anderson-Marasteanu (CAM model. The test results show that the dynamic moduli of DCLR and DCLR-composite asphalt mixtures are higher than those of the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. Based on the viscoelastic parameters of CAM models of the asphalt mixtures, the high- and low-temperature performance of DLCR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are obviously better than the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. In addition, the DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are more insensitive to the frequency compared to SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures.

  7. Fatigue Behavior of Modified Asphalt Concrete Pavement

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    saad I. Sarsam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is the most common distress in road pavement. It is mainly due to the increase in the number of load repetition of vehicles, particularly those with high axle loads, and to the environmental conditions. In this study, four-point bending beam fatigue testing has been used for control and modified mixture under various micro strain levels of (250 μƐ, 400 μƐ, and 750 μƐ and 5HZ. The main objective of the study is to provide a comparative evaluation of pavement resistance to the phenomenon of fatigue cracking between modified asphalt concrete and conventional asphalt concrete mixes (under the influence of three percentage of Silica fumes 1%, 2%, 3% by the weight of asphalt content, and (changing in the percentage of asphalt content by (0.5% ± from the optimum. The results show that when Silica fumes content was 1%, the fatigue life increases by 17%, and it increases by 46% when Silica fumes content increases to 2%, and that fatigue life increases to 34 % when Silica fumes content increases to 3% as compared with control mixture at (250 μƐ, 20°C and optimum asphalt content. From the results above, we can conclude the optimum Silica fumes content was 2%. When the asphalt content was 4.4%, the fatigue life has increased with the use of silica fumes by (50%, when asphalt content was 5.4%, the additives had led to increasing the fatigue life by (69%, as compared with the conventional asphalt concrete pavement.

  8. Effects of preparation process on performance of rubber modified asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbing; Luo, Guobao; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo

    2015-06-01

    The rational utilization of waste rubber tire is essential for the environmental protection. Utilizing rubber particles to modify asphalt can not only improve asphalt performance, but also help the recycling of waste materials. Considering the effect of different preparation process parameters on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, this paper analyzes the effects of the shear temperature, shear time and shear rate on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, and provided a reference for its preparation.

  9. Evaluation of rubber modified asphalt demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Ontario Government's medium-term scrap tire management strategy, 11 rubber modified asphalt demonstration projects were funded or completed, with 13 additional projects from small to large (1,500-65,000 passenger tire equivalents) approved for the 1993 paving season. This report presents the results of an August to November 1993 study of the 11 demonstration projects. The evaluation included a description of the technology; technical review of the projects; economic analysis; review of the environmental literature; environmental review of the projects; comparison of the projects with similar ones in other jurisdictions; and recommendations. Detailed information on asphalt technology is included in an appendix.

  10. Study of Antiultraviolet Asphalt Modifiers and Their Antiageing Effects

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    Jinxuan Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation causes serious ageing problems on pavement surface. In recent years, different UV blocking materials have been used as modifiers to prevent asphalt ageing during the service life of the pavement. In this study, three different materials have been used as modifiers in base asphalt to test their UV blocking effects: layered double hydroxides (LDHs, organomontmorillonite (OMMT, and carbon black (CB. UV ageing was applied to simulate the ageing process and softening point, penetration, ductility, DSR (Dynamic Shear Rheometer test, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR test were conducted to evaluate the anti-UV ageing effects of the three UV blocking modifiers. Physical property tests show that base asphalt was influenced more seriously by UV radiation compared to the modified asphalt. DSR test results indicate that the complex modulus of asphalt before UV ageing is increased because of modifiers, while the complex modulus of base asphalt after UV ageing is higher than that of the modified asphalt, which shows that the UV blocking modifiers promote the antiageing effects of asphalt. FTIR test reveals that the increment of carbonyl groups and sulfoxide groups of modified asphalt is less than that in base asphalt. Tests indicate the best UV blocking effect results for samples with LDHs and the worst UV blocking effect results for samples with CB.

  11. Practical experiences with new types of highly modified asphalt binders

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    Špaček, Petr; Hegr, Zdeněk; Beneš, Jan

    2017-09-01

    As a result of steadily increasing traffic load on the roads in the Czech Republic, we should be focused on the innovative technical solutions, which will lead to extending the life time of asphalt pavements. One of these ways could be the future use of bitumen with a higher degree of polymer modification. This paper discusses experience with comparison of new highly polymer modified asphalt binder type with conventional polymer modified asphalt binder and unmodified binder with penetration grade 50/70. There are compared the results of various types laboratory tests of asphalt binders, as well as the results of asphalt mixtures laboratory tests. The paper also mentions the experience with workability and compactability of asphalt mixture with highly polymer modified asphalt binder during the realization of the experimental reference road section by the Skanska company in the Czech Republic.

  12. Dynamic modulus of nanosilica modified porous asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, A. K.; Masri, K. A.; Ahmad, J.; Samsudin, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Porous asphalt (PA) is a flexible pavement layer with high interconnected air void contents and constructed using open-graded aggregates. Due to high temperature environment and increased traffic volume in Malaysia, PA may have deficiencies particularly in rutting and stiffness of the mix. A possible way to improve these deficiencies is to improve the asphalt binder used. Binder is normally modified using polymer materials to improve its properties. However, nanotechnology presently is being gradually used for asphalt modification. Nanosilica (NS), a byproduct of rice husk and palm oil fuel ash is used as additive in this study. The aim of this study is to enhance the rutting resistance and stiffness performance of PA using NS. This study focused on the performance of PA in terms of dynamic modulus with the addition of NS modified binder to produce better and more durable PA. From the result of Dynamic SPT Test, it shows that the addition of NS was capable in enhancing the stiffness and rutting resistance of PA. The addition of NS also increase the dynamic modulus value of PA by 50%.

  13. Plastic Bottles Waste Utilization as Modifier for Asphalt Mixture Production

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    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic Bottles was used as the polymeric waste to investigate performance of asphalt mixture Aggregates obtained from Margalla, Burhan and Karak quarries. 12 samples were prepared for conventional asphalt mixtures and 48 samples were prepared for PB modified asphalt mixture of each quarries at various proportions of PB waste. The PB used for modification according to wet process are 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC. OBC of 4.2 % was concluded for conventional asphalt mixtures. The stability and flow values of the conventional and modified Asphalt Mixture were compared. The average Stability of the modified Margalla asphalt mixtures when 15% PB was used was much higher as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures. But when PB was used beyond 15%, the Marshall stability showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates, increasing trend for Karak aggregates and decreasing trend for Burhan aggregates. This decline in stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking of aggregates due to lubricating effect. The corresponding flow for the Modified asphalt mixtures first showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates at 15% PB modification but beyond 15%, an increasing trend in flow as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures The decrease in flow or increase in Marshall Stability is attributed to improvement in interlocking and decline in flow or stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking offered by binder and PB coated aggregate particles in modified asphalt.

  14. Radiation cured and monomer modified silicon elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldred, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the production of a tear resistant silicone elastomer, which has improved elongation properties. This elastomer is the radiation induced reaction product of a noncured methyl vinyl silicone resin (VMQ) and uniformly dispersed therein a blend of a polyfunctional acrylic crosslinking monomer and a filler

  15. Thermal Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Conductive Fillers

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    Byong Chol Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the thermal properties of asphalt mixtures modified with conductive fillers used for snow melting and solar harvesting pavements. Two different mixing processes were adopted to mold asphalt mixtures, dry- and wet-mixing, and two conductive fillers were used in this study, graphite and carbon black. The thermal conductivity was compared to investigate the effects of asphalt mixture preparing methods, the quantity, and the distribution of conductive filler on thermal properties. The combination of conductive filler with carbon fiber in asphalt mixture was evaluated. Also, rheological properties of modified asphalt binders with conductive fillers were measured using dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer at grade-specific temperatures. Based on rheological testing, the conductive fillers improve rutting resistance and decrease thermal cracking resistance. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon black improve the thermal properties of asphalt mixes and the combined conductive fillers are more effective than the single filler.

  16. Physical and rheological properties of Titanium Dioxide modified asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhari, Rosnawati; Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Khairul Ahmad, Mohd; Chong, Ai Ling; Haini, Rosli; Khatijah Abu Bakar, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) has been known as a useful photocatalytic material that is attributed to the several characteristics includes high photocatalytic activity compared with other metal oxide photocatalysts, compatible with traditional construction materials without changing any original performance. This study investigates the physical and rheological properties of modified asphalt with TiO2. Five samples of asphalt with different concentration of TiO2 were studied, namely asphalt 2%, 4%, 6% 8% and 10% TiO2. The tests includes are penetration, softening point, ductility, rotational viscosity and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) test. From the results of this study, it is noted that addition of TiO2 has significant effect on the physical properties of asphalt. The viscosity tests revealed that asphalt 10% TiO2 has good workability among with reducing approximately 15°C compared to base asphalt. Based on the results from DSR measurements, asphalt 10% TiO2 has reduced temperature susceptibility and increase stiffness and elastic behaviour in comparison to base asphalt. As a result, TiO2 can be considered to be an additive to modify the properties of asphalt.

  17. Investigation of the use of recycled polymer-modified asphalt in asphaltic concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-30

    This report presents issues associated with recycling polymer modified asphalt cements (PMACs), particularly blending aged PMAC with new PMAC. A styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) PMAC was selected and graded using the Superpave Performance Grading (PG)...

  18. Evaluating The Performance of Asphalt Concrete Mixes by Utilizing Carbon Black as Asphalt Modifier

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    Aliaa Faleh Al.ani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black produced from several factories in Iraq is expected to provide a reinforcing agent for asphalt paving materials. Carbon black has many characteristics that distinguish  it from conventional mineral fillers, as well as their different function in pavement mixtures. Theory and exercise advanced  in the inclusive utilize of carbon black as a reinforcing agent for rubber has led to concept of asphalt reinforcement. The very fine particles of micro filler added in different contents will be dispersed in asphalt cement improving the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixes. In this Four percentages rates were utilized; 0, 3, 6, and 9 percent adding to asphalt grade (60-70. Mixes of asphalt concrete were destined at their optimum asphalt content (OAC then experienced to assess their engineering characteristics that contain moisture of damage, permanent deformation, modulus of resilient and characteristics of fatigue. These characteristics have been assessed utilizing indirect tensile strength, uniaxial repeated loading and repeated flexural beam tests. Mixtures improved with carbon black were existed to have amended permanent deformation and fatigue characteristics, else exhibited high resilient modulus and lower moisture susceptibility. Result showed that a rate changed from 3 to 9 percent has shown an increase in resilient modulus for increment of carbon black and modulus of resilient for mixes with 9 percent carbon black was 1.4 times that for mixes with 0 percent carbon black. The altering of carbon black from a range (3-9 percent has modified the fatigue property of the asphalt concrete mixes as determined by flexural test, Significantly, to modify the asphalt concrete manner taken the  percent of carbon black 6, and to produce the mixes more durable , higher resistance to distresses by adding the local knowledge.

  19. Influence of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on properties of different asphalts for a wearing course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komačka, J.; Remišová, E.; Liu, G.; Leegwater, G.; Nielsen, E.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was performed to study the effect of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on the properties describing asphalt performance. Three types of asphalts used for wearing courses in Europe (SMA 11, AC 11 and PA 8) were investigated. Five combinations of reclaimed

  20. THE FATIGUE DURABILITY OF THE MODIFIED ASPHALT CONCRETE UNDER THE EFFECT OF INTENSIVE TRAFFIC LOADS

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    Yuri KALGIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of prediction of the service life of asphalt concrete surface constructed with modified asphalt concrete application onto a traffic lane is examined. Asphalt concrete behaviour in road surface under the traffic loads was analysed. There were shown The results of experiments and their mathematical analysis of the assessment of standard and modified cold asphalt concrete fatigue life on road surface were shown. The service life of an asphalt concrete surface covered with standard and modified cold asphalt concrete is examined. The prediction has been received with an account of stress relaxation processes in asphalt concrete pavement and unevenness of traffic load application.

  1. Partial substitution of asphalt pavement with modified sulfur

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    E.R. Souaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of sulfur in pavement laying was developed in 1980 but it was restricted in the late 19th century due to its environmental problems and its high reactivity toward oxidation processes which give sulfuric acid products that are capable of destroying the asphalt mixture. The study involved the conversion of elemental sulfur to a more stable modified one using a combination of byproducts of olefin hydrocarbons that were obtained from petroleum fractional distillates and cyclic hydrocarbon bituminous residue at 145 °C. The changes in the structural characteristics and morphology of prepared modified sulfur were studied using XRD and SEM respectively. Also DSC curves help us to elucidate the changes in sulfur phases from α-orthorhombic to β-mono clinic structure. The technique of nanoindentation helps us to compare the mechanical properties of modified and pure sulfur including modulus of elasticity and hardness. The hot mixture asphalt designs were prepared according to the Marshall Method in which the asphalt binder content was partially substituted with 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% modified sulfur. The mechanical properties were measured including Marshall Stability, flow, air voids, and Marshall Stiffness. From the overall study, the results indicated that asphalt could partially be substituted with modified sulfur with no significant deleterious effect on performance and durability of hot mixed asphalt.

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Aging Behaviour of SBS Modified Asphalt

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    Jie Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of aging SBS modified asphalt on the performance of asphalt pavement, aging at various times and temperatures was conducted with thin film oven, and then tests were made about the penetration, softening point, ductility, viscosity, toughness, and fluorescence microscopy of modified asphalt with different aging levels. The results show that, with the increasing of aging time, the penetration and ductility of modified asphalt decrease while its softening point and viscosity increase, and the variation trend of the toughness and tenacity is related to the aging temperature; the aging dynamic model with viscosity as parameter can well characterize the aging process of modified asphalt; at microlevel, with the decreasing of SBS particle size, the uniformity of particle size is better. Analysis of macroscopic properties, microscopic characteristics, and significance shows that the SBS particle area ratio has a significant correlation with tenacity as the aging temperature changes. When the aging temperature is 163°C, the SBS particle area ratio still has a significant correlation with tenacity as the aging time changes.

  3. Active carbon production from modified asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhi, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    A granular activated carbons (GACs) have been prepared from some local raw materials such as Qiayarah asphalt (QA) after some modification treatments of this asphalt by various ratios of its original constituents (asphaltenes and maltens) at 180 degree C. Thermal carbonization method by sulfur and steam physical activation have been used for AC preparation. The carbons thus prepared were characterized in the term of iodine, methylene blue (MB), P-nitro phenol (PNP) and CCl4 adsorption. The BET surface area of the prepared ACs has been estimated via a calibration curve between iodine numbers and surface area determined from N2 adsorption isotherm from previous studies, also, the surface area of the prepared ACs were determined through another methods such as retention method by ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether (EGME), adsorption from vapor phase using acetone vapor and adsorption from solution method using PNP and MB as solutes. The results referred to the success of modification method for preparing ACs of good micro porosity as compared with the AC from the untreated asphalt as well as the commercial sample. (author)

  4. Preparation and Performance of Asphalt Compound Modified with Waste Crumb Rubber and Waste Polyethylene

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    Yuqiao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of modified asphalt were prepared by adding waste crumb rubber (WCR, waste polyethylene (WPE, and WCR/WPE to base asphalt, respectively. The influence of different doses on the performance of modified asphalt, such as 25°C penetration, softening point, 5°C ductility, and 135°C, 165°C viscosity, was studied, and the modification mechanism of modified asphalt was discussed through the fluorescence microscope. As the waterproofing materials, the waterproofness of WCR/WPE compound modified asphalt was tested. The results show that the WPE modified asphalt has excellent resistance to high temperature and WCR modified asphalt has good low temperature resistance. The resistance to deformation ability of WPE modified asphalt is better than that of the WCR modified asphalt. The 135°C viscosity of compound modified asphalt is better than that of WPE and WCR modified asphalt. In addition, the waterproofness of compound modified asphalt using waterproofing materials is better than that of common waterproofing materials.

  5. Asphalt concrete modified by rubber crumbs in transport construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhovny, G. S.; Karpenko, AV

    2018-03-01

    High-temperature and low-temperature characteristics of the rubber-bitumen binder and rubber asphalt concrete based on it are researched. The determination method of binder’s low-temperature characteristics is offered. The estimation of binder’s and pavement’s stability against technological and operational aging is evaluated. Estimation of environmental and economic aspects of using rubber crumbs is made. The possibility of using rubber crumbs as modifier of organic binder for production of asphalt concrete on its base is justified.

  6. Effect of Waste Plastic as Bitumen Modified in Asphalt Mixture

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    Abdullah Mohd Ezree

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the engineering properties of the asphalt mixtures containing waste plastic at different percentages i.e. 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% by weight of bitumen. The experimental tests performed in the study were stability, tensile strength, resilient modulus and dynamic creep test. Results showed that the mixture with 4% plastic has the highest stability (184kN. However, the stability slightly decreases with the increase of plastic additive. On the other hand, the highest tensile strength among the modified asphaltic concrete is 1049kPa (8% plastic added. The modified asphalt mixture with 8% plastic has the highest resilient modulus, which is 3422 MPa (25°C and 494Mpa (40°C. Where the highest creep modulus recorded is 73.30Mpa at 8% plastic added. It can be concluded that the addition of 8% plastic gave the highest value properties of asphalt mixture. Finally, it can be said that 8% plastic is the optimum value adding.

  7. Mechanical characterization of porous asphalt mixes modified with fatty acid amides -FAA-

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    Vanessa Senior Arrieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt mixes (PAM, form a special road surface for asphalt pavement structures, have a special particle size distribution that lets infiltrate to the runoff storm water through of it because of its voids content about 20 %. Many researchers conducted studies and have concluded that the use of modified asphalts is completely necessary to design PAM. Organic and chemical additives and special procedures as foamed asphalt have enhanced the performance of PAM, during their service life. This paper is focused on the mechanical characterization of PAM and how the asphalt modified with fatty acid amides, influenced on their behavior and performance. Based on an experimental methodology with laboratory tests aimed at establishing a comparison between porous asphalt mixes, using for its design and production a penetration 60-70 pure asphalt and another one asphalt modified with fatty acid amides.

  8. Rutting resistance of asphalt mixture with cup lumps modified binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffie, E.; Hanif, W. M. M. Wan; Arshad, A. K.; Hashim, W.

    2017-11-01

    Rutting is the most common pavement distress in pavement structures which occurs mainly due to several factors such as increasing of traffic volume, climatic conditions and also due to construction design errors. This failure reduced the service life of the pavement, reduced driver safety and increase cost of maintenance. Polymer Modified Binder has been observed for a long time in improving asphalt pavement performance. Research shows that the use of polymer in bituminous mix not only improve the resistance to rutting but also increase the life span of the pavement. This research evaluates the physical properties and rutting performance of dense graded Superpave-designed HMA mix. Two different types of dense graded Superpave HMA mix were developed consists of unmodified binder mix (UMB) and cup lumps rubber (liquid form) modified binder mix (CLMB). Natural rubber polymer modified binder was prepared from addition of 8 percent of cup lumps into binder. Results showed that all the mixes passed the Superpave volumetric properties criteria which indicate that these mixtures were good with respect to durability and flexibility. Furthermore, rutting results from APA rutting test was determined to evaluate the performance of these mixtures. The rutting result of CLMB demonstrates better resistance to rutting than those prepared using UMB mix. Addition of cup lumps rubber in asphalt mixture was found to be significant, where the cup lumps rubber has certainly improves the binder properties and enhanced its rutting resistance due to greater elasticity offered by the cup lumps rubber particles. It shows that the use of cup lumps rubber can significantly reduce the rut depth of asphalt mixture by 41% compared to the minimum rut depth obtained for the UMB mix. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cup lumps rubber is suitable to be used as a modifier to modified binder in order to enhance the properties of the binder and thus improves the performance of asphalt mixes.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Hot Mix Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Concrete Using Waste Tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak Seok; Lee, Woo Yeol [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea)

    1998-06-30

    Wheel tracking and ravelling tests were conducted on the hot mix crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete using waste tire to evaluate the mechanical properties in comparison with conventional asphalt concrete. According to the test results, the modified product was superior to the conventional one by 50% in the resistance of permanent deformation and by 15% in the resistance of durability. The experimental results should recommend that the waste tire is positively recycled for asphalt concrete. (author). 11 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Evaluation of permanent deformation and durability of epoxidized natural rubber modified asphalt mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.; Ismail, Amiruddin; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Nazri Borhan, Muhamad; Alsharef, Jamal M. A.; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Rehan Karim, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    The road distresses have caused too much in maintenance cost. However, better understandings of the behaviours and properties of asphalt, couples with greater development in technology, have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, modifiers such as polymers are the most popular modifiers used to improve the performance of asphalt mix. This study was conducted to investigate the use of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) to be mixed with asphalt mix. Tests were conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of ENR-asphalt mixes, where the mixes were prepared according to the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes have demonstrated that the asphalt mix permanent deformation performance at high temperature was found to be improved compared to the base mixes. However, the durability studies have indicated that ENR-asphalt mixes are slightly susceptible with the presence of moisture. The durability of the ENR-asphalt mixes were found to be enhanced in term of permanent deformation at high and intermediate temperatures compared to the base asphalt mixes. As conclusion, asphalt pavement performance can be enhanced by using ENR as modifier to face the major road distresses.

  11. Evaluation of rheological and thermic properties of neat and modified asphalt with a waste of LDPE

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    William Andrés Castro López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The asphalt technology and modified asphalt mixtures has been widely used and studied, worldwide. Adding polymers to asphalt modifies mechanical, chemical and rheological properties, trying to improve behavior of the mixtures subjected to different environmental and load conditions. The paper report results from rheological and thermal characterization on conventional 60-70 asphalt cement and 60-70 asphalt cement modified by introducing a waste of low density polyethylene (LDPE. Method: Modification of the asphalt was performed by wet way in a proportion of LDPE/CA=5% with respect to the mass. Rheological (using DSR, Thermogravimetry (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC techniques were performed. Results and Conclusions: The modified asphalt develops a remarkable increase in stiffness and improvement of the performance grade at high temperatures of service. Additionally, the modified asphalt is more resistant to oxidation and aging processes due to heat. However, the asphalt modified showed a decrease in crack resistance at low and intermediate temperatures of service.

  12. The effect of long-term oxidation on the rheological properties of polymer modified asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonghong Ruan; Richard R. Davison; Charles J. Glover [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-10-01

    The effect of long-term aging on rheological properties of polymer modified asphalt binders was studied. Modifiers included diblock poly(styrene-b-butadiene) rubber, triblock poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene), and tire rubber. Asphalt aging was carried out either at 60{sup o}C in a controlled environmental room or at 100{sup o}C in a pressure aging vessel (AASHTO Provisional Standards, 1993). Both dynamic shear properties and extensional properties were investigated. Polymer modification resulted in increased asphalt complex modulus at high temperatures, decreased asphalt complex modulus at low temperatures, broadened relaxation spectra, and improved ductility. Oxidative aging decreased asphalt temperature susceptibility, damaged the polymer network in binders, further broadened the relaxation spectrum, and diminished polymer effectiveness in improving asphalt ductility. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. A comparative analysis of modified binders : original asphalts and materials extracted from existing pavements : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The initial objective of this research was to develop procedures and standards for applying GPC as an analytical tool to define the percentage amounts of polymer modifiers in polymer modified asphalt cements soluble in eluting GPC solvents. Quantific...

  14. Laboratorium Study of Asphalt Starbit E-55 Polymer Modified Application on Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (Ac-Wc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damianus Kans Pangaraya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The conventional asphalt road has almost been considered fail to serve the transportation needs. It is indicated by the occurrence of premature damage which is caused by vehicle load and climate. Starbit E-55, the polymer modified bitumen, is formulated to meet the requirement of transport development. Considering those needs, it is important to investigate the feasibility level of that modified bitumen as alternate asphalt instead of the conventional one. This research began with the measurement of the properties of hard layered AC-WC Starbit E-55, then comparing the result to 60/70 penetration of Pertamina asphalt. The next step is then, to determine the converted value so as to be close to that of Pertamina (60/70 penetration. This step is conducted by applying durability and ITS tests on the mixture. Result of the tests showed that hard layered AC-WC Starbit E-55 has better characteristic at 5.7% optimum level asphalt and 6.4% of Pertamina asphalt (60/70 penetration. Starbit E-55 converted level within hard-layered ACWC is 5.6%. The performance test result on immersion with variance of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days shows that durability value of Starbit E-55 AC-WC has better performance. During the process, Starbit E-55 required 15.38% higher energy consumption.

  15. A Study of Moisture Damage in Plastomeric Polymer Modified Asphalt Binder Using Functionalized AFM Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Tarefder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture damage in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt binder is investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM with chemically functionalized AFM tips. Four different percentages of plastomeric polymers and two antistripping agents such as Kling Beta and Lime are used to modify a base asphalt binder. Chemical functional groups such as -COOH, -CH3, -NH3, and –OH, that are commonly present in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt system, are used to functionalize the AFM tips. The force distance mode of AFM is used to measure the adhesion forces between a modified asphalt sample surface and the functionalized AFM tips. This enables the measurement of adhesion within an asphalt binder system. It is shown that the adhesion force values in dry sample changed substantially from that in wet conditioned samples. It is evident from this study that plastomeric modification does not help reduce moisture damage in asphalt. The percentage change in adhesion forces due to moisture is about 20 nN for the lime modified samples, and about 50 nN for the Kling Beta modified samples. This indicates that lime is more effective than Kling Beta for reducing moisture damage in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt.

  16. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez A Al-Mansob

    Full Text Available Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR-asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR-asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress.

  17. Grade determination of crumb rubber-modified performance graded asphalt binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Due to particulates common in crumb rubber-modified asphalt binders, conventional PG grading using the Dynamic : Shear Rheometer (DSR) with a gap height of 1.0 mm may not be valid and in accordance with current specifications. : Asphalt binder testin...

  18. Effect of nanosilica particles on polypropylene polymer modified asphalt mixture performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nura Bala

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of nanosilica particles on the performance characteristics of polymer modified asphalt binders. In this study, control 80/100 binder were modified with polypropylene polymer and nanosilica particles at concentration of 0%–4%. Both nanosilica particles and polypropylene polymer were added by weight of total bitumen content. The asphalt performance tests flexural four point beam fatigue test, indirect tensile strength, indirect tensile stiffness modulus and draindown tests are conducted to evaluate the effect of nanosilica particles. The results of the study shows that nanosilica particles improves the fatigue properties of polypropylene polymer modified binder. This indicates that nanosilica particles have significant effect on improving the performance properties of polymer modified binders. Also, the result reveals that thermoplastic polymer polypropylene with nanosilica particles when used as bitumen modifiers improve the performance and durability of asphalt mixtures. Keywords: Polypropylene, Fatigue cracking, Stiffness modulus, Modified asphalt, Draindown

  19. Moisture Sensitivity of Crumb Rubber Modified Modifier Warm Mix Asphalt Additive for Two Different Compaction Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilema, Munder A.; Aman, Mohamad Y.; Hassan, Norhidayah A.; Ahmad, Kabiru A.; Elghatas, Hamza M.; Radwan, Ashraf A.; Shyaa, Ahmed S.

    2018-04-01

    Crumb rubber obtained from scrap tires has been incorporated with asphalt binder to improve the performance of asphalt mixtures in the past decades. Pavements containing crumb-rubber modified (CRM) binders present one major drawback: larger amounts of greenhouse gas emissions are produced as there is rise in the energy consumption at the asphalt plant due to the higher viscosity of these type of binders compared with a conventional mixture. The objective of this paper is to calculate the optimum bitumen content for each percentage and evaluate the moisture sensitivity of crumb rubber modified asphalt at two different compacting temperatures. In this study, crumb rubber modified percentages was 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% from the binder weight, with adding 1.5% warm mix asphalt additive (Sasobit) and crush granite aggregate of 9.5mm Nominal maximum size was used after assessing its properties. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) used by 2% from fine aggregate. The wet method was using to mix the CRM with bitumen, the CRM conducted at 177°C for 30 min with 700rpm and Sasobit conducted at 120°C for 10 min with 1000rpm. As a result, from this study the optimum bitumen content (OBC) was increased with increased crumb rubber content. For performance test, it was conducted using the AASHTO T283 (2007): Resistance of Compacted Bituminous Mixture to Moisture-Induced Damage. The result was as expected and it was within the specification of the test, the result show that the moisture damage increased with increased the crumb rubber content but it is not exceeding the limit of specification 80% for indirect tension strength ratio (ITSR). For the temperature was with lowing the temperature the moisture damage increased.

  20. Characterization of crumbe rubber and modified asphalt from brazilian petroleum; Caracterizacao de borracha de pneu moido e de asfalto modificado oriundo de petroleo brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Expedito F. dos; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br, expeditoflavio@uol.com.br; Soares, Jorge B. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Transporte; Leite, Leni F.M. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    Initially it was made an evaluation of the thermal behavior, grain composition and elastomer content of a crumb rubber sample. It was verified a thermal resistance of the crumb rubber and an elastomer content ranging from 56 to 68 %. The asphalt binders were obtained from Brazilian CAP (Fazenda Alegre, State of Espirito Santo) and blended with crumb rubber from 2 to 22 %. The asphalt binder presented smaller penetration than pure CAP. The pure asphalt and binder was aged by the RTFOT system. It was observed a C=O band due oxidation. In the asphalt binder with 2 and 5 % of crumb rubber was verified a smaller effect of the oxygen than in the pure asphalt, which suggests larger aging resistance. Apparent viscosity analysis showed that the pure asphalt has a Newtonian behavior in temperature higher than 150 deg C, while a pseudoplastic behavior of the asphalt binder increases with crumb rubber concentration. (author)

  1. Natural asphalt modified binders used for high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Marcin; Słowik, Mieczysław

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a set of test results supporting the possibility of replacing, in Polish climate conditions, hard road 20/30 penetration grade bitumen used in the binder course and/or base course made of high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete with binders comprising of 35/50 or 50/70 penetration grade bitumens and additives in the form of natural Gilsonite or Trinidad Epuré asphalts. For the purpose of comparing the properties of the discussed asphalt binders, values of the Performance Grade have been determined according to the American Superpave system criteria.

  2. Laboratory investigation of the performances of cement and fly ash modified asphalt concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suched Likitlersuang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of filler materials on volumetric and mechanical performances of asphalt concrete was investigated in this study. The AC60/70 asphalt binder incorporating with cement and fly ash as filler materials was mixed with limestone following the Marshall mix design method. The filler contents of cement and/or fly ash were varied. The non-filler asphalt concrete mixtures of the AC60/70 and the polymer modified asphalt were prepared for the purpose of comparison. The investigation programme includes the indirect tensile test, the resilient modulus test and the dynamic creep test. The tests are conducted under the humid temperate environments. All tests were then carried out under standard temperature (25 °C and high temperature (55 °C by using a controlled temperature chamber via the universal testing machine. The wet-conditioned samples were prepared to investigate the moisture susceptibility. Results show that cement and/or fly ash were beneficial in terms of improved strength, stiffness and stripping resistance of asphalt mixture. In addition, the combined use of cement and fly ash can enhance rutting resistance at wet and high temperature conditions. The results indicate that the strength, stiffness and moisture susceptibility performances of the asphalt concrete mixtures improved by filler are comparable to the performance of the polymer modified asphalt mixture. Keywords: Asphalt concrete, Filler, Resilient modulus, Dynamic creep test, Moisture susceptibility

  3. Preparation and Properties of Asphalt Binders Modified by THFS Extracted From Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the preparation and viscoelastic properties of asphalt binder modified by tetrahydrofuran soluble fraction (THFS extracted from direct coal liquefaction residue. The modified asphalt binders, which blended with SK-90 (control asphalt binder and 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% THFS (by weight of SK-90, were fabricated. The preparation process for asphalt binder was optimized in terms of the orthogonal array test strategy and gray correlation analysis results. The properties of asphalt binder were measured by applying Penetration performance grade and Superpave performance grade specifications. In addition, the temperature step and frequency sweep test in Dynamic Shear Rheometer were conducted to predict the rheological behavior, temperature and frequency susceptibility of asphalt binder. The test results suggested the optimal preparation process, such as 150 °C shearing temperature, 45 min shearing time and 4000 rpm shearing rate. Subsequently, the addition of THFS was beneficial in increasing the high-temperature properties but decreased the low-temperature properties and resistance to fatigue. The content analysis of THFS showed the percentage of 4~6% achieved a balance in the high-and-low temperature properties of asphalt binder. The asphalt binder with higher THFS content exhibited higher resistance to rutting and less sensitivity to frequency and temperature.

  4. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  5. A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Hot Mixes Asphalt Containing Bituminous Binder Modified with Waste and Virgin Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira dos Santos, Joao Miguel; Cerezo, Veronique; Soudani, Khedoudja; Bressi, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment undertaken to compare the potential environmental impacts associated with the use of asphalt surface mixtures produced with polymer modified bitumen with those of a conventional asphalt surface mixture. Seven types of hot mix asphalt

  6. Property Analysis of Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets Modified Asphalt Model Using Molecular Dynamics (MD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This Molecular Dynamics (MD simulation paper presents a physical property comparison study between exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGNP modified and control asphalt models, including density, glass transition temperature, viscosity and thermal conductivity. The three-component control asphalt model consists of asphaltenes, aromatics, and saturates based on previous references. The xGNP asphalt model was built by incorporating an xGNP and control asphalt model and controlling mass ratios to represent the laboratory prepared samples. The Amber Cornell Extension Force Field (ACEFF was used with assigned molecular electro-static potential (ESP charge from NWChem analysis. After optimization and ensemble relaxation, the properties of the control and xGNP modified asphalt models were computed and analyzed using the MD method. The MD simulated results have a similar trend as the test results. The property analysis showed that: (1 the density of the xGNP modified model is higher than that of the control model; (2 the glass transition temperature of the xGNP modified model is closer to the laboratory data of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP asphalt binders than that of the control model; (3 the viscosities of the xGNP modified model at different temperatures are higher than those of the control model, and it coincides with the trend in the laboratory data; (4 the thermal conductivities of the xGNP modified asphalt model are higher than those of the control asphalt model at different temperatures, and it is consistent with the trend in the laboratory data.

  7. Evaluation of Thermal Oxidative Aging Effect on the Rheological Performance of Modified Asphalt Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng

    Modified asphalt binder, which is combined by base binder and additive modifier, has been implemented in pavement industry for more than 30 years. Recently, the oxidative aging mechanism of asphalt binder has been studied for several decades, and appreciable finding results of asphalt binder aging mechanism were achieved from the chemistry and rheological performance aspects. However, most of these studies were conducted with neat binders, the research of aging mechanism of modified asphalt binder was limited. Nowadays, it is still highly necessary to clarify how the asphalt binder aging happens with the modified asphalt binder, what is the effect of the different modifiers (additives) on the binder aging process, how the rheological performance changes under the thermal oxidative aging conditions and so on. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of isothermal oxidative aging conditions on the rheological performance change of the modified and controlled asphalt binders. There were totally 14 different sorts of asphalt binders had been aged in the PAV pans in the air-force drafted ovens at 50°C, 60°C and 85°C for 0.5 day to 240 days. The Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) were used to perform the experiments. The analysis of rheological indices (Low shear viscosity-LSV, Crossover modulus-G*c, Glover-Rowe Parameter-G-R, DSR function-DSR Fn) as a function of carbonyl area (CA) was conducted. With the SBS modification, both of the hardening susceptibility of the rheological index-LSV and G-R decreases compared with the corresponding base binder. The TR increased the hardening susceptibility of all the rheological indexes. While for the G*c, SBS increases the slope of the most modified asphalt binders except A and B_TR_X series binders. The multiple linear regression statistical analysis results indicate that the oxidative aging conditions play an important role on the CA, and rheological performance

  8. Rutting and Fatigue Cracking Resistance of Waste Cooking Oil Modified Trinidad Asphaltic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rean Maharaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of waste cooking oil (WCO on the performance characteristics of asphaltic materials indigenous to Trinidad, namely, Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA, Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB, and TLA : TPB (50 : 50 blend, was investigated to deduce the applicability of the WCO as a performance enhancer for the base asphalt. The rheological properties of complex modulus (G∗ and phase angle (δ were measured for modified base asphalt blends containing up to 10% WCO. The results of rheology studies demonstrated that the incremental addition of WCO to the three parent binders resulted in incremental decreases in the rutting resistance (decrease in G∗/sinδ values and increases in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G∗sinδ value. The fatigue cracking resistance and rutting resistance for the TLA : TPB (50 : 50 blends were between those of the blends containing pure TLA and TPB. As operating temperature increased, an increase in the resistance to fatigue cracking and a decrease in the rutting resistance were observed for all of the WCO modified asphaltic blends. This study demonstrated the capability to create customized asphalt-WCO blends to suit special applications and highlights the potential for WCO to be used as an environmentally attractive option for improving the use of Trinidad asphaltic materials.

  9. Determination of the most favorable experimental conditions for obtaining asphalt emulsions modified with discarded polymers in the reconstruction of pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coward Ugalde, Hector Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The most favorable experimental conditions are determined for the production of asphalt emulsions modified with tire scrap rubber, petroleum material and recycled asphalt in the reconstruction of flexible pavements in a slow breaking process. Asphalt emulsions are made with 65% V/V of fluidized asphalt at different conditions of operation and composition of soap solution. The equipment of a centrifugal pump and a colloidal mill are used. Two different compositions are employed to make soap solutions. The best conditions to prepare the asphalt emulsions in the pilot plant have been: a stirring speed of 2100 rpm in the centrifugal pump and a speed of 3300 rpm of the colloidal mill. Asphaltic grouts made with asphalt emulsion modified to 1% m/m of rubber have shown the best coverage in the stripping test, evidencing little asphalt release, high adhesion of the asphalt on the aggregate and good stability. Asphalt emulsions with rubber are recommended with a granulometry that passes the No. 200 mesh for rubber and use the indicated equipment to carry out the process of asphalt modification to obtain better results in the performance of asphalt emulsion [es

  10. PROSPECTS FOR APPLICATION OF COMPLEX-MODIFIED SAND ASPHALT CONCRETE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Alexandrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to use sand asphalt concrete as a material for protection of asphalt concrete and cement concrete road pavements against affection of external destructive factors. Advantages and disadvantages of sand asphalt concrete road pavements have been determined in the paper. The paper provides recommendations on improvement of sand asphalt concrete properties and contains an analysis of possible variants for usage of complex-modified sand asphalt concrete in the road construction. It has been noted that according to its potentially possible physical and mechanical properties activated quartz sand being micro-reinforced by dispersive industrial wastes is considered as an efficient component for creation of constructive layers in road asphalt concrete pavements. The paper reveals only specific aspects of the efficient application of quartz sand in road asphalt concrete. The subject of the paper loоks rather interesting for regions where there are no rock deposits for obtaining broken-stone ballast but there is rather significant spreading of local quarts sand. Its successful application is connected with the necessity to develop special equipment for physical and chemical activation of sand grain surface that permits strongly to increase an adhesive strength in the area of phase separation within the “bitumen–SiO2” system. The considered problem is a topical one and its solution will make it possible to local sand in a maximum way and partially to exclude application of broken stone in road construction.

  11. Laboratory Study on Properties of Diatomite and Basalt Fiber Compound Modified Asphalt Mastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of asphalt mastic, some researchers have added diatomite or basalt fiber as a modifier to the asphalt mastic, and the results show that some properties of the asphalt mastic were improved. For the simultaneous addition of diatomite and basalt fiber, two kinds of modifier, compound modified asphalt mastic had not been reported; in this paper, thirteen groups of diatomite and basalt fiber (DBFCMAM compound modified asphalt mastic with different content were prepared to study the performance. Softening point, cone penetration, viscosity, and DSR tests were conducted, for the high temperature performance evaluation of DBFCMAM, whereas force ductility and BBR tests were used in the low temperature performance study of the DBFCMAM. The results demonstrated that the high temperature performance of DBFCMAM was increased; moreover, the low temperature performance of DBFCMAM improved by diatomite and basalt fiber according to the results of the force ductility test; however, the conclusion of the BBR test data was inconsistent with the force ductility test. In summary, the high temperature and low temperature properties of DBFCMAM had been improved.

  12. Fracture resistance of asphalt concrete modified with crumb rubber at low temperatures

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    A. Razmi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to obtain fracture toughness of asphalt concrete modified by Crumb Rubber (CR and Sasobit at low temperatures. First, Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR test was performed on unmodified binder (binder 60/70, binder 60/70 + 3%Sasobit and 20%CR + 3%Sasobit modified asphalt binder to find how each modifier affect asphalt binder stiffness and relaxation rate at low temperatures. Mixed mode I/II fracture tests were conducted by cracked Semi-Circular Bending (SCB specimens and the critical stress intensity factors were calculated for pure mode I, mixed mode I/II and pure mode II conditions. Results of BBR tests indicated that 20%CR + 3%Sasobit reduces stiffness and the m-value increase at low temperatures. As a result, 20%CR + 3%Sasobit has positive effect on low temperatures performance by improving thermal cracking resistance. Also, according to the fracture toughness test results, the Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA mixture containing 20% CR, shows higher resistance against crack growth than WMA mixture. It was found that mixed mode I/II can be more detrimental than pure mode I and II conditions. Keywords: Crumb rubber, Asphalt concrete, Bending Beam Rheometer, Fracture resistance, Semi-circular bending test

  13. Characterization of long term field aging of polymer modified bitumen in porous asphalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, D. van; Erkens, S.; Leegwater, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of long term field aging on different types of polymer modified binders used in two-layer porous asphalt is studied using different test methods. Chemical and rheological tests are performed on samples taken from road sections at different moments in time in search of trends in long term

  14. Marshall properties of asphalt concrete using crumb rubber modified of motorcycle tire waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the effect of Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) of motorcycle tire waste on Marshall properties of asphalt mix. Two types of aggregate gradation, asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC) and asphalt concrete base (ACB), and CRM passing #50 sieve size were used. Seven levels of CRM content were investigated in this study, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, and 6% by weight of aggregate. Marshall test is conducted on Marshall specimens. The specimens are tested in their optimum binder content (OBC). The results indicate that CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste increases the Marshall stability of the both mix, ACWC and ACB. In addition, 1% CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste of the total mix weight is the best mix.

  15. Modified composite material developed on the basis of no-fines asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhasek Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a composite material, asphalt concrete is widely used in hydraulic engineering and road construction. The paper proves one of asphalt concrete modification, which includes first creating a skeleton of no-fines concrete and then its washing-down with bituminous materials by a hot procedure, can be successfully used in hydraulic structures Modified composite material based on no-fines asphalt concrete has a harder skeleton because of links from cement stone and has a technological advantage, as through the proposed technology it allows to reduce the cost of filling porous spaces. This technology allows to conclude that concrete aggregate with size fractions of 120 mm or less and frost resistance of 50 cycles and less can be recommended for fastening of slopes.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Crumb Rubber Modified Stone Mastic Asphalt Pavement in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To prevent pavement distresses there are various solutions such as adopting new mix designs or utilisation of asphalt additives. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding crumb tyre rubber as an additive to SMA mixture performance properties. This study investigated the essential aspects of modified asphalt mixtures in order to better understand the influence of CRM modifiers on volumetric, mechanical, and stiffness properties of SMA mixture. In this study, virgin bitumen 80/100 penetration grade was used, modified with crumb rubber (CRM at five different modification levels, namely, 6%, 12%, 16%, and 20%, respectively, by weight of the bitumen. The appropriate amount of the added CRM was found to be 12% by weight of bitumen. This percentage results in the maximum level of stability. The resilient modulus (Mr of modified SMA samples including different percentages of CRM was obviously higher in comparison with that of unmodified samples.

  17. Effect of waste plastic bottles on the stiffness and fatigue properties of modified asphalt mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, Amir; Hamedi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PET reduced the mix stiffness at both temperatures of 5 and 25 °C. • PET improved the fatigue behavior at both testing temperatures. • At more than 210 microstrain, adding temperature resulted in higher fatigue life. • SBS modified mixes showed better fatigue behavior than PET modified ones. • Overall PET had comparable effects to SBS on the stiffness and fatigue behavior. - Abstract: Nowadays, the use of recycled waste materials as modifier additives in asphalt mixes could have several economic and environmental benefits. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the stiffness and specially fatigue properties of asphalt mixes at two different temperatures of 5 and 20 °C. Likewise, the effect of PET was compared to styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) which is a conventional polymer additive which has been vastly used to modify asphalt mixes. Different PET contents (2–10% by weight of bitumen) were added directly to mixture as the method of dry process. Then the resilient modulus and fatigue tests were performed on cylindrical specimens with indirect tensile loading procedure. Overall, the mix stiffness reduced by increasing the PET content. Although stiffness of asphalt mix initially increased by adding lower amount of PET. Based on the results of resilient modulus test, the stiffness of PET modified mix was acceptable and warranted the proper deformation characteristics of these mixes at heavy loading conditions. At both temperatures, PET improved the fatigue behavior of studied mixes. PET modified mixes revealed comparable stiffness and fatigue behavior to SBS at 20 °C. However, at 5 °C the fatigue life of SBS modified mixes was to some extent higher than that of PET modified ones especially at higher strain levels of 200 microstrain

  18. Research on the Microstructure and Property of an Anion Rubber Modified Asphalt

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    Wei Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anion rubber modified asphalt (ARMA mixture was first successfully developed with a unique process. In the development process, rubber and asphalt were mixed in the same proportion. Furthermore, the microstructure and modification mechanism of the material were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, TG, and XRD tests. The mechanical property of the mixture was also tested in accordance with the relevant standards. In the end, the material’s capacity of releasing anion was measured by DLY-6A232 atmospheric ion gauge. The results indicated that the addition of anion additive into the rubber modified asphalt (RMA was a mere physical mixture, and the anion additives and rubber particles uniformly dispersed in the ARMA. The addition of anion additive could improve the thermal stability of the RMA. Compared with the traditional asphalt pavement material, the ARMA material shows excellent mechanical properties as well as the ability of releasing anion. Moreover, the material has enormous economic and social benefits by taking full advantage of a large amount of waste tires, thus improving the road surrounding environment.

  19. Fatigue Properties of Layered Double Hydroxides Modified Asphalt and Its Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of layered double hydroxides (LDHs on the fatigue properties of asphalt mixture. In this paper, different aging levels (thin film oven test (TFOT and ultraviolet radiation aging (UV aging for short of bitumen modified with various mass ratios of the LDHs were investigated. The TFOT and UV aging process were used to simulate short-term field thermal-oxidative aging and long-term field light UV aging of bitumen, respectively. The influences of LDHs on the fatigue properties of LDHs were evaluated by dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and indirect tensile fatigue test. Results indicated that the introduction of LDHs could change the fatigue properties of bitumen under a stress control mode. The mixture with modified bitumen showed better fatigue resistance than the mixture with base bitumen. The results illustrated that the LDHs would be alternative modifiers used in the bitumen to improve the lifetime of asphalt pavements.

  20. Evaluation of the rheological behavior of asphaltic binder modified with zeolite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, E.M. da; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Sandra A.; Soares, Jorge B. [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Several new processes have been developed to reduce mixing and compaction temperatures of hot mix asphalt without sacrificing the quality of the resulting pavement. One of these processes utilizes the zeolite, a crystalline hydrated aluminum silicate. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the applicability of zeolite to improve the rheological and chemical behavior of an asphaltic binder. The synthetic asphaltic binder was produced with different zeolite contents (0,1; 0.3; and 0.5% w/w) by wet process. The rheological and chemical behavior was verified by Dynamic Shear Rheometer and Infrared Spectroscopy, respectively. The zeolite's chemical composition and morphology was studied by Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Additionally, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) was utilized to establish the zeolite elemental composition. The results showed that investigated zeolite was classified as a sodium aluminum silicate and it was able to modify the rheological properties of the neat asphalt binder. The G*/sin{delta} parameter was affected by the zeolite presence, indicating better performance for the binders with zeolite. The results show that synthetic binders can partly replicate the rheological properties of conventional AB. Comparable complex modulus values was obtained. No significant difference was found in viscoelastic response, given by the phase angles as a function of both temperature and frequency. (author)

  1. Existence of a tribo-modified surface layer of BR/S-SBR elastomers reinforced with silica or carbon black

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokhtari, Milad; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a modified surface layer on top of a rubber disk, in contact with a rigid counter-surface, is still a point of discussion. In this study, we show that a modified surface layer with different mechanical properties exists. Modification of the reinforced elastomers is discussed and the

  2. The Effect of SBS Polymer on the Dynamic Properties of Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ziari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer application for the improvement and modification of the bitumen used in roads surfaces has expanded in recent decades. The roads engineers and constructors, therefore, have used the modified bitumen in asphalts helping in this way to increase roads and pavements service life and improving the durability of the roads and asphalts. The bitumen used in asphalt mixture constitutes only a low percentage of the weight of this mixture (between 4% and 6%, but even this small amount has a significant effect on asphalt performance. The polymers that are mostly used in promoting the bitumen specifications are polymer modifiers including: styrenebutadiene- styrene (SBS, as well as similar polymers such as styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR, ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA and polyethylene (PE. Polymers as the most important family of bitumen modifiers are added to bitumen to improve bitumen performance and to increase its effectiveness. Among the existing polymers, SBS is considered as the best bitumen modifier. In this research, SBS as one of the elastomer-thermoplast modifiers was added in different weights (2%-5% to bitumen 60/70 in Isfahan Refinery and its effect on asphalt properties were investigated. Adding this polymer to bitumen improves the Marshall stability of sample asphalt, flow, module of rupture and asphalt content voids. However, it has a minor effect on asphalt special weight. Adding SBS would also lead to asphalt fatigue life.

  3. Investigation of γ-(2,3-Epoxypropoxypropyltrimethoxy Silane Surface Modified Layered Double Hydroxides Improving UV Ageing Resistance of Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canlin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-(2,3-Epoxypropoxypropyltrimethoxy silane surface modified layered double hydroxides (KH560-LDHs were prepared and used to improve the ultraviolet ageing resistance of asphalt. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS indicated that KH560 has been successfully grafted onto the surface of LDHs. The agglomeration of LDHs particles notably reduced after KH560 surface modification according to scanning electron microscopy (SEM, which implied that the KH560 surface modification was helpful to promote the dispersibility of LDHs in asphalt. Then, the influence of KH560-LDHs and LDHs on the physical and rheological properties of asphalt before and after UV ageing was thoroughly investigated. The storage stability test showed that the difference in softening point (ΔS of LDHs modified asphalt decreased from 0.6 °C to 0.2 °C at an LDHs content of 1% after KH560 surface modification, and the tendency became more pronounced with the increase of LDH content, indicating that KH560 surface modification could improve the stability of LDHs in asphalt. After UV ageing, the viscous modulus (G’’ of asphalt significantly reduced, and correspondingly, the elastic modulus (G’ and rutting factor (G*/sin δ rapidly increased. Moreover, the asphaltene increased and the amount of “bee-like” structures of the asphalt decreased. Compared with LDHs, KH560-LDHs obviously restrained performance deterioration of the asphalt, and helped to relieve the variation of the chemical compositions and morphology of asphalt, which suggested that the improvement of KH560-LDHs on UV ageing resistance of asphalt was superior to LDHs.

  4. Study on viscosity of conventional and polymer modified asphalt binders in steady and dynamic shear domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboo, Nikhil; Singh, Bhupendra; Kumar, Praveen; Vikram, Durgesh

    2018-02-01

    This study focuses on evaluating the flow behavior of conventional and polymer modified asphalt binders in steady- and dynamic-shear domain, for a temperature range of 20-70 °C, using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). Steady-shear viscosity and frequency sweep tests were carried out on two conventional (VG 10 and VG 30) and two polymer (SBS and EVA) modified asphalt binders. Applicability of the Cox-Merz principle was evaluated and complex viscosity master curves were analyzed at five different reference temperatures. Cross model was used to simulate the complex viscosity master curves at different temperatures. It was found that asphalt binders exhibited shear-thinning behavior at all the test temperatures. The critical shear rate increased with increase in temperature and was found to be lowest for plastomeric modified asphalt binder. The Cox-Merz principle was found to be valid in the zero-shear viscosity (ZSV) domain and deviated at higher frequency/shear rate for all the binders. Results from the study indicated that the ratio of ZSV can be successfully used as shift factors for construction of master curves at different reference temperatures. Cross model was found to be suitable in simulating the complex viscosity master curves at all the test temperatures. Analysis of model parameters indicated that a strong relationship exists between ZSV and the critical shear rate. ZSV and critical shear rate varied exponentially with temperature. This relationship was used to propose a simple equation for assessing the shift factors for construction of master curves.

  5. Rheological Characterization of Warm-Modified Asphalt Mastics Containing Electric Arc Furnace Steel Slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasetto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental sustainability of road materials and technologies plays a key role in pavement engineering. In this sense, the use of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA, that is, a modified asphalt concrete that can be produced and applied at lower temperature, is considered an effective solution leading to environmental and operational benefits. The environmental sustainability of WMA can be further enhanced with the inclusion of steel slag in partial substitution of natural aggregates. Nevertheless, such innovative material applied at lower temperatures containing warm additives and steel slag should be able to guarantee at least the same performance of traditional hot mix asphalts, thus assuring acceptable mechanical properties and durability. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the rheological behaviour of bituminous mastics obtained combining a warm-modified binder and a filler (material passing to 0.063 mm coming from electric arc furnace steel slag. To evaluate the influence of both warm additive and steel slag, a plain binder and limestone filler were also used for comparison purposes. Complex modulus and permanent deformation resistance of bitumens and mastics were assessed using a dynamic shear rheometer. Experimental results showed that steel slag warm mastics assure enhanced performance demonstrating promising applicability.

  6. Effects of Diatomite and SBS on Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt mixture is susceptible to moisture damage under the effect of freeze-thaw (F-T cycles. In this paper, crumb rubber (CR was used to modify stone mastic asphalt (SMA and the effects of diatomite and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS on antifreezing performances of crumb rubber modified SMA (CRSMA were investigated. Regression analysis and modified grey model (MGM were used to construct the prediction models for properties of modified mixtures. CRSMA, CR and diatomite modified SMA (CRDSMA, and CR and SBS modified SMA (CRSSMA were prepared in laboratory, respectively. Process of F-T cycles was designed. Air void, indirect tensile strength (ITS, and indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM were measured to evaluate the antifreezing performances of CRSMA, CRDSMA, and CRSSMA. Results indicate that air voids increase with the increasing of F-T cycles. ITS and ITSM all decrease with the increasing of F-T cycles. The addition of diatomite and SBS can reduce the air void and improve the ITS and ITSM of CRSMA. CRSSMA presents the lowest air void, highest tensile strength, and largest stiffness modulus, which reveals that CRSSMA has the best F-T resistance among three different kinds of mixtures. Moreover, MGM (1, 2 models present more favorable accuracy in prediction of air void and ITS compared with regression ones.

  7. Optimization of Nanocomposite Modified Asphalt Mixtures Fatigue Life using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, N.; Napiah, M.; Kamaruddin, I.; Danlami, N.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, modelling and optimization of materials polyethylene, polypropylene and nanosilica for nanocomposite modified asphalt mixtures has been examined to obtain optimum quantities for higher fatique life. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied for the optimization based on Box Behnken design (BBD). Interaction effects of independent variables polymers and nanosilica on fatique life were evaluated. The result indicates that the individual effects of polymers and nanosilica content are both important. However, the content of nanosilica used has more significant effect on fatique life resistance. Also, the mean error obtained from optimization results is less than 5% for all the responses, this indicates that predicted values are in agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, it was concluded that asphalt mixture design with high performance properties, optimization using RSM is a very effective approach.

  8. Stiffness modulus of Polyethylene Terephthalate modified asphalt mixture: A statistical analysis of the laboratory testing results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghaee Moghaddam, Taher; Soltani, Mehrtash; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of PET modification on stiffness property of asphalt mixture was examined. • Different temperatures and loading amounts were designated. • Statistical analysis was used to find interactions between selected variables. • A good agreement between experimental results and predicted values was obtained. • Optimal amount of PET was calculated to achieve the highest mixture performance. - Abstract: Stiffness of asphalt mixture is a fundamental design parameter of flexible pavement. According to literature, stiffness value is very susceptible to environmental and loading conditions. In this paper, effects of applied stress and temperature on the stiffness modulus of unmodified and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) modified asphalt mixtures were evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A quadratic model was successfully fitted to the experimental data. Based on the results achieved in this study, the temperature variation had the highest impact on the mixture’s stiffness. Besides, PET content and amount of stress showed to have almost the same effect on the stiffness of mixtures. The optimal amount of PET was found to be 0.41% by weight of aggregate particles to reach the highest stiffness value

  9. A Study on the Rheological Properties of Recycled Rubber-Modified Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Karacasu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using waste rubber in asphalt mixes has become a common practice in road construction. This paper presents the results of a study on the rheological characteristics of rubber-modified asphalt (RMA concrete under static and dynamic loading conditions. A number of static and dynamic creep tests were conducted on RMA mix specimens with different rubber sizes and contents, and a series of resonant column tests were conducted to evaluate the shear modulus and damping values. To simulate the stress-strain response of traffic-induced loading, the measurements were taken for different confining pressures and strain levels. The results of the study indicated that rubber modification increases stiffness and damping ratio, making it a very attractive material for use in road construction. However the grain size of the rubber is very important. Although RMA may cost up to 100% more than regular asphalt, the advantages it brings, such as an increased service life of the road and proper waste utilization contributing to a more sustainable infrastructure, may justify the added cost.

  10. The use of Crumb Rubber as Substitute of Fine Aggregate for Hot Asphalt Mixture using Polymer Modified Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Nugroho, S. K.; Irsyad, A. M.; Mutaqo, H. F.; Ramadhan, P.; Sumarsono, A.; Pramesti, F. P.

    2018-03-01

    The development of road pavement to fulfilled the need of modern life is not only focused on heavy duty road, but also a light duty road for the convenience of road users according to its function. For example the use of pavement on the jogging track, rail crossing, playground and so on. Due to the need of an alternative and the innovation of a comfortable pavement layer, but sufficiently strong in holding the load on the layer. The alternative innovation that can be used for the respective requirement is the utilization of waste old tires as substitute material in pavement construction. In this case the use of crumb rubber made from old tire rubber as an 100% fine aggregate substitute on the asphalt mixtures is investigated. To improve the strength and durability of the mixtures, the addition of polymer modified bitumen was incorporated. The two types of asphalt mixture selected in this study by using a continuous gradation of asphalt concrete and a gap gradation of hot roll asphalt. Testing to be implemented in this research is volumetric characteristics, Marshall characteristics, resistance to abrasion and impact and permeability. Replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber on asphalt concrete mixture with 60/70 penetration grade bitumen and polymer modified asphalt SBS E-55 in this research are expected to be an alternative in improving the quality of pavement and overcoming the environmental problems by reuse the waste materials.

  11. Preparation Parameter Analysis and Optimization of Sustainable Asphalt Binder Modified by Waste Rubber and Diatomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, crumb rubber and diatomite were used to modify asphalt binder. Wet process was adopted as a preparation method, and the corresponding preparation process was determined firstly. The effects of six preparation parameters (crumb rubber concentration, diatomite concentration, shear time, shear speed, shear temperature, and storing time on properties of modified asphalt binder (penetration at 25°C, softening point, ductility, viscosity at 135°C, elastic recovery, and penetration index were investigated, and multiresponse optimization was conducted using the response surface method. The results revealed that softening points, viscosity, elastic recovery, and penetration index increase, while penetration and ductility decrease with the increase of crumb rubber concentration. Softening points, viscosity, and penetration index increase, while penetration and ductility decrease with the increase of diatomite concentration, which presents little influence on elastic recovery of binder. Shear temperature presented significant effects on penetration, softening point, viscosity, and ductility. Shear speed, shear time, and storing time have similar effects on binder properties because of their similar mechanism of action. Based on the model obtained from the response surface method, optimized preparation parameters corresponding to specific criteria can be determined, which possess favorable accuracy compared with experimental results.

  12. Analytical approach for evaluating temperature field of thermal modified asphalt pavement and urban heat island effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiaqi; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Hongzhou

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Derive an analytical approach to predict temperature fields of multi-layered asphalt pavement based on Green’s function. • Analyze the effects of thermal modifications on heat output from pavement to near-surface environment. • Evaluate pavement solutions for reducing urban heat island (UHI) effect. - Abstract: This paper aims to present an analytical approach to predict temperature fields in asphalt pavement and evaluate the effects of thermal modification on near-surface environment for urban heat island (UHI) effect. The analytical solution of temperature fields in the multi-layered pavement structure was derived with the Green’s function method, using climatic factors including solar radiation, wind velocity, and air temperature as input parameters. The temperature solutions were validated with an outdoor field experiment. By using the proposed analytical solution, temperature fields in the pavement with different pavement surface albedo, thermal conductivity, and layer combinations were analyzed. Heat output from pavement surface to the near-surface environment was studied as an indicator of pavement contribution to UHI effect. The analysis results show that increasing pavement surface albedo could decrease pavement temperature at various depths, and increase heat output intensity in the daytime but decrease heat output intensity in the nighttime. Using reflective pavement to mitigate UHI may be effective for an open street but become ineffective for the street surrounded by high buildings. On the other hand, high-conductivity pavement could alleviate the UHI effect in the daytime for both the open street and the street surrounded by high buildings. Among different combinations of thermal-modified asphalt mixtures, the layer combination of high-conductivity surface course and base course could reduce the maximum heat output intensity and alleviate the UHI effect most.

  13. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Modified with Different Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate comprehensive performance of high modulus asphalt concrete (HMAC and propose common values for establishing evaluation system. Three gradations with different modifiers were conducted to study the high and low temperature performance, shearing behavior, and water stability. The laboratory tests for HMAC included static and dynamic modulus tests, rutting test, uniaxial penetration test, bending test, and immersion Marshall test. Dynamic modulus test results showed that modifier can improve the static modulus and the improvements were remarkable at higher temperature. Moreover, modulus of HMAC-20 was better than those of HMAC-16 and HMAC-25. The results of performance test indicated that HMAC has good performance to resist high temperature rutting, and the resistances of the HMAC-20 and HMAC-25 against rutting were better than that of HMAC-16. Then, the common values of dynamic stability were recommended. Furthermore, common values of HMAC performance were established based on pavement performance tests.

  14. Evaluation of permanent deformation characteristics of unmodified and Polyethylene Terephthalate modified asphalt mixtures using dynamic creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghaee Moghaddam, Taher; Soltani, Mehrtash; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste PET was utilized as modifier in asphalt mixture. • Deformation characteristics of asphalt mixtures were assessed. • Dynamic creep test was conducted at different temperatures and stress levels. • Permanent deformation models were introduced. - Abstract: One of the major types of plastics that can be found in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) which is a non-biodegradable semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer, and is considered as polyester material. Generating large amount of waste PET, mainly as bottles, would cause environmental hazards by disposing in landfills. This paper aims to evaluate effects of utilizing waste PET flakes as modifier in asphalt mixture as an alternative solution to overcome the potential risks arise from producing large amount of waste PET as well as evaluating the deformation characteristics of unmodified and PET modified asphalt mixtures. To achieve this aim, different percentages of PET were designated for this investigation, namely: 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1% by weight of aggregate particles, and dynamic creep test was performed at different stress levels (300 kPa and 400 kPa) and temperatures (10 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C). Consequently, Zhou three-stage model was developed. The results showed that permanent deformation characteristics of asphalt mixture were considerably improved by utilization of PET modification, when the permanent strain was remarkably decreased in PET modified mixture compared to the conventional mixture at all stress levels and temperatures. Besides, based on Zhou model, it was concluded that elastic and visco-elastic properties of asphalt mixture were improved by application of PET modification

  15. Bitumen modified with recycled polyurethane foam for employment in hot mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Salas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of modifiers have been applied to bitumen in order to enhance their properties and performance. Among them, polymers have been mainly used. The aim of this paper is to assess the use of polyurethane foam waste as a bitumen modifier for hot mix asphalts. The polyurethane foam is a by-product of the manufacturing of polyurethane for thermal insulation. From a bitumen with a penetration grade of 50/70, various samples with percentages of waste material in weight ranging from 1% to 5% were produced and tested. Samples with 5% of waste material or more became rough and were refused due to their poor workability. A bituminous mixture with modified bitumen with a 4% of polyurethane was manufactured and compared with a sample with the same aggregates and original bitumen. Results in Marshall test showed that a mix with polymer modified bitumen yielded improvements in stability and a lower deformability. This result suggests that the employment of polyurethane foam waste is a promising bitumen modifier, contributing also to recycle waste materials.

  16. Performance Evaluation and Improving Mechanisms of Diatomite-Modified Asphalt Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Xie, Jun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Liu, Quantao; Pang, Ling

    2018-04-27

    Diatomite is an inorganic natural resource in large reserve. This study consists of two phases to evaluate the effects of diatomite on asphalt mixtures. In the first phase, we characterized the diatomite in terms of mineralogical properties, chemical compositions, particle size distribution, mesoporous distribution, morphology, and IR spectra. In the second phase, road performances, referring to the permanent deformation, crack, fatigue, and moisture resistance, of asphalt mixtures with diatomite were investigated. The characterization of diatomite exhibits that it is a porous material with high SiO₂ content and large specific surface area. It contributes to asphalt absorption and therefore leads to bonding enhancement between asphalt and aggregate. However, physical absorption instead of chemical reaction occurs according to the results of FTIR. The resistance of asphalt mixtures with diatomite to permanent deformation and moisture are superior to those of the control mixtures. But, the addition of diatomite does not help to improve the crack and fatigue resistance of asphalt mixture.

  17. Influence of Compaction Temperature on Resistance Under Monotonic Loading of Crumb-Rubber Modified Hot-Mix Asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Rondón-Quintana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of compaction temperature on resistance under mono-tonic loading (Marshall of Crumb-Rubber Modified (CRM Hot-Mix As-phalt (HMA was evaluated. The emphasis of this study was the applica-tion in Bogotá D.C. (Colombia. In this city the compaction temperature of HMA mixtures decreases, compared to the optimum, in about 30°C. Two asphalt cements (AC 60-70 and AC 80-100 were modified. Two particle sizes distribution curve were used. The compaction temperatures used were 120, 130, 140 and 150°C. The decrease of the compaction tempera-ture produces a small decrease in resistance under monotonic loading of the modified mixtures tested. Mixtures without CRM undergo a lineal decrease in its resistance of up to 34%.

  18. Influence of Compaction Temperature on Resistance Under Monotonic Loading of Crumb-Rubber Modified Hot-Mix Asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Rondón-Quintana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of compaction temperature on resistance under monotonic loading (Marshall of Crumb-Rubber Modified (CRM Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA was evaluated. The emphasis of this study was the application in Bogotá D.C. (Colombia. In this city the compaction temperature of HMA mixtures decreases, compared to the optimum, in about 30°C. Two asphalt cements (AC 60-70 and AC 80-100 were modified. Two particle sizes distribution curve were used. The compaction temperatures used were 120, 130, 140 and 150°C. The decrease of the compaction temperature produces a small decrease in resistance under monotonic loading of the modified mixtures tested. Mixtures without CRM undergo a lineal decrease in its resistance of up to 34%.

  19. New insights into the effects of styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer modifier on the structure, properties, and performance of asphalt binder: The case of AP-5 asphalt and solvent deasphalting pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nciri, Nader, E-mail: nader.nciri@koreatech.ac.kr [Department of Energy, Materials, and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, 1600 Chungjeol-ro, Byeongcheon-myeon, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-City, Chungnam-Province 330-708 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Namho [Department of Architectural Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, 1600 Chungjeol-ro, Byeongcheon-myeon, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-City, Chungnam-Province 330-708 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Namjun, E-mail: njuncho@koreatech.ac.kr [Department of Energy, Materials, and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, 1600 Chungjeol-ro, Byeongcheon-myeon, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-City, Chungnam-Province 330-708 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    This paper deals with the poorly understood effects of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer on the bitumen performance. It focuses on determining the impact of various concentrations (e.g., 0, 4, 8, and 12 wt. %) of SBS on the attributes of two types of asphalt namely AP-5 asphalt and solvent deasphalting (SDA) pitch. The unmodified and modified binders were investigated in terms of their chemical compositions, microstructures, thermo-analytical behaviors, and physical properties. The intricate chemical compositions were evaluated by elemental analysis and thin layer chromatography-ionization detection (TLC-FID). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to examine the microstructures. Whereas, thermal characteristics were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physical behaviors were monitored through the softening point, penetration, viscosity, and ductility tests. The findings showed that the blending of asphalt with different amounts of SBS resulted into different rheological behaviors. This was reflected from the difference in the SARA (i.e., saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) compositions and colloidal instability indexes of the modified asphalts. SEM exhibited a continuous asphalt phase with distributed SBS particles, a continuous polymer phase with distributed asphalt globules, or two interconnected continuous phases. FT-IR, {sup 1}H {sup 13}C NMR, and XRD data revealed that the AP-5 asphalt and SDA pitch experienced a number of distinct structural changes. TGA/DSC studies determined the occurrence of diverse events during thermal treatment. It is concluded that the degree of SBS modification depends strongly on SARA composition and polymer content. If the polymers are molded at higher concentrations along with aromatics-rich SDA pitches, then the mixtures

  20. Elastomer modified polypropylene–polyethylene blends as matrices for wood flour–plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Blends of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) could potentially be used as matrices for wood–plastic composites (WPCs). The mechanical performance and morphology of both the unfilled blends and wood-filled composites with various elastomers and coupling agents were investigated. Blending of the plastics resulted in either small domains of the minor phase in a...

  1. Mathematical and experimental investigations of modeling, simulation and experiment to promote the life-cycle of polymer modified asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The formulation of constitutive equations for asphaltic pavement is based on rheological models which include the asphalt mixture, additives, and the bitumen. In terms of the asphalt, the rheology addresses the flow and permanent deformation in time,...

  2. Performance Evaluation and Improving Mechanisms of Diatomite-Modified Asphalt Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Yang; Jun Xie; Xiaojun Zhou; Quantao Liu; Ling Pang

    2018-01-01

    Diatomite is an inorganic natural resource in large reserve. This study consists of two phases to evaluate the effects of diatomite on asphalt mixtures. In the first phase, we characterized the diatomite in terms of mineralogical properties, chemical compositions, particle size distribution, mesoporous distribution, morphology, and IR spectra. In the second phase, road performances, referring to the permanent deformation, crack, fatigue, and moisture resistance, of asphalt mixtures with diato...

  3. Performance Evaluation and Improving Mechanisms of Diatomite-Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Diatomite is an inorganic natural resource in large reserve. This study consists of two phases to evaluate the effects of diatomite on asphalt mixtures. In the first phase, we characterized the diatomite in terms of mineralogical properties, chemical compositions, particle size distribution, mesoporous distribution, morphology, and IR spectra. In the second phase, road performances, referring to the permanent deformation, crack, fatigue, and moisture resistance, of asphalt mixtures with diatomite were investigated. The characterization of diatomite exhibits that it is a porous material with high SiO2 content and large specific surface area. It contributes to asphalt absorption and therefore leads to bonding enhancement between asphalt and aggregate. However, physical absorption instead of chemical reaction occurs according to the results of FTIR. The resistance of asphalt mixtures with diatomite to permanent deformation and moisture are superior to those of the control mixtures. But, the addition of diatomite does not help to improve the crack and fatigue resistance of asphalt mixture.

  4. Developing the elastic modulus measurement of asphalt concrete using the compressive strength test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Arief; Suparma, Latif Budi; Mulyono, Agus Taufik

    2017-11-01

    Elastic modulus is a fundamental property of an asphalt mixture. An analytical method of the elastic modulus is needed to determine the thickness of flexible pavement. It has a role as one of the input values on a stress-strain analysis in the finite element method. The aim of this study was to develop the measurement of the elastic modulus by using compressive strength testing. This research used a set of specimen mold tool and Delta Dimensi software to record strain changes occurring in the proving ring of compression machine and the specimens. The elastic modulus of the five types of aggregate gradation and 2 types of asphalt were measured at optimum asphalt content. Asphalt Cement 60/70 and Elastomer Modified Asphalt (EMA) were used as a binder. Manufacturing success indicators of the specimens used void-in-the-mix (VIM) 3-5 % criteria. The success rate of the specimen manufacturing was more than 76%. Thus, the procedure and the compressive strength test equipment could be used for the measurement of the elastic modulus. The aggregate gradation and asphalt types significantly affected the elastic modulus of the asphalt concrete.

  5. The effect of a tribo-modified surface layer on friction in elastomer contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari, Milad

    2015-01-01

    Friction between rubber and a counter surface has interested many researchers because of its huge practical importance. Rubber components are applied in various industrial applications such as tires, rubber seals, wiper blades, conveyor belts and syringes. The friction between a rubber surface in contact with a rigid surface is still not fully understood. The complexity lies partially in the viscoelastic nature of elastomers next to various parameters such as roughness, contact pressure and s...

  6. Nanosized carbon modifier used to control plastic deformations of asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskaya, M. A.; Shekhovtsova, S. Yu; Barkovsky, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    Aspects related to plastic track, the formation of which directly depends on the properties of the binder in the composition of asphalt concrete, are considered in this article. The effect of primary carbon nanomaterials on the quality of polymer and bitumen binder in comparison with the traditional binder including cross-linking agent is evaluated. The influence of binders on the resistance to the track formation of type B asphalt concrete is studied. To quantify the service life of surfacing, a calculation method based on the criteria for the resistance of surfacing material to plastic deformations is used.

  7. Thermal Characterization of Modified Tacca Leontopetaloides Starch and Natural Rubber Based Thermoplastic Elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainatul Mardhiah Mohd Amin; Nur Shahidah Ab Aziz; Nurul Shuhada Mohd Makhtar; Miradatul Najwa Mohd Rodhi; Suhaila Mohd Sauid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the potential of Tacca leontopetaloides starch as bio-based thermoplastic elastomers, TPEs. Starch based polymer had been recognized to have highly potential in replace existing source of conventional elastomeric polymer. The modification process of blending starch with natural rubber, plasticizers, additives, and filler contribute to the enhancement and improvement for the properties of starch in order to produce biopolymers by approaching the properties of TPEs. Thermal properties of starch based thermoplastic was studied to evaluate the decomposition and degradation of the samples by using Thermogravimetric Analysis, TGA while the properties of endothermic reactions of the samples were thermally analyzed via Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC. From the analysis, it was found that the thermal properties of samples were revealed by recognizing GM-2 (green materials, GM) has high thermal resistance towards high temperature up to 480.06 degree Celsius with higher amount of residue which is 4.97 mg compared to other samples. This indicates GM-2 comprises of superior combination of ratio between natural rubbers and glycerol (plasticizer) in purpose of approaching the properties of Thermoplastic Elastomers, TPEs. (author)

  8. Investigation of Low-Temperature Behavior of Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Paraffin and Crumb Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha Vural KÖK

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In hot mix asphalts at low temperatures, cracks occur due to thermal tension and these cracks cause water to leak inside the pavement and the pavement gets deformed sooner than expected. In order to improve the properties of bituminous mixtures, mostly polymer type additives are used in the modification of the bitumen. These types of improvements usually have positive effects on the high-temperature behavior of the mixture. In this study, semi-circular bending test, which is the most commonly used method in the literature to investigate the low-temperature behavior of bituminous mixtures, was performed. In the study, the resistance of stone mastic asphalt mixtures, which were prepared with modified bitumen with a constant 3% of paraffin and various amounts of crumb rubber, to crack formation and its movement was identified. As a result, it was concluded that the effects of additives on crack formation and its movement is varied and the relation between the fractured aggregate surface areas and the fracture toughness of the mixture can be determined by the image processing method.

  9. Evaluation of Moisture Damage and Stripping of Asphalt Concrete Prepared With New Additives of Polymer Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim H. Al-Humeidawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The moisture induced damage and stripping are two of common reasons of premature failure of flexible pavement. The current research involved an extensive experimental investigation on two types of polymers (Novolac and PVA as modifiers in order to produce Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB. Different ratios of both additives were investigated for rheological properties of binder and mechanical properties of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA. The rheological properties of PMB were evaluated by penetration, softening point, ductility and thin film oven tests. The mechanical properties of HMA were assessed by Marshall Stability test, Retained Marshall Stability test, indirect tensile strength test, Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR, and striping test. The results of tests showed that the Novolac modifier improves the cohesion properties of binder and the adhesion of binder to aggregate. The PVA modifier mainly improves the adhesion of binder to aggregate with less degree of that of using Novolac. Both modifiers significantly improve moisture sensitivity and decrease the stripping of HMA. Also, the results showed that the addition of 2% of Novolac to binder to produce PMB represents the optimum option. The HMA with PMB Novolac 2% improves the Marshall Stability, Retained Marshall Stability, and TSR by 45%, 14% and 44% respectively. The very small amount of these additives compared with mix components and their reasonable price make them a superior and practical solution for premature failure of flexible pavement.

  10. Nanosilica Modification of Elastomer-Modified VARTM Epoxy Resins for Improved Resin and Composite Toughness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinette, Jason; Bujanda, Andres; DeSchepper, Daniel; Dibelka, Jessica; Costanzo, Philip; Jensen, Robert; McKnight, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Recent publications have reported a synergy between rubber and silica in modified epoxy resins that results in significantly improved fracture toughness without reductions in other material properties...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 8-12 parts of butadiene/styrene elastomer... limitations are determined by an infrared spectro-photo-metric method titled “Infrared Spectro-photo-metric...

  12. Rubber Composites Based on Polar Elastomers with Incorporated Modified and Unmodified Magnetic Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kruželák

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubber magnetic composites were prepared by incorporation of unmodified and surface modified strontium ferrite into rubber matrices based on NBR and NBR/PVC. Strontium ferrite was dosed to the rubber matrices in concentration scale ranging from 0 to 100 phr. The main goal was to investigate the influence of the type of ferrite on the curing process, physical-mechanical and magnetic properties of composites. The mutual interactions between the filler and rubber matrices were investigated by determination of cross-link density and SEM analysis. The incorporation of magnetic fillers leads to the increase of cross-link density and remanent magnetic induction of composites. Moreover, the improvement of physical-mechanical properties was achieved in dependence on the content of magnetic fillers. Surface modification of ferrite contributed to the enhancement of adhesion on the interphase filler-rubber. It can be stated that ferrite exhibits reinforcing effect in the composite materials and this reinforcing behavior was emphasized with the increase in polarity of the rubber matrix.

  13. Evaluation of bitumen-rubber asphalt manufactured from modified binder at lower viscosity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Connell, Johannes S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, crumb tyre-modified bitumen commnly known as bitumen-rubber binder has viscosity limits specified by the current edition of TG1: The Use of Modified Bituminous Binders in Road Construction. As the crumb rubber is 'digested...

  14. The Properties of Polymer-Modified Asphalt Drived from Vacuum Bottom and Wastes of PE and SBR Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yousefi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The polymeric and non-polymeric petrochemical wastes are environmentally unfavorable materials. We have to found a way to reuse these wastes in a safe manner. In styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR production plant two major wastes are produced one is a fine rubber powder and the other is recycled N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP. In high-density polyethylene (HDPE production plant also a low molecular weight polymer waste is produced which does not degrade in environment easily. On the other hand, bitumen is usually blended with thermoplastics, rubbers and an oil to produce polymermodified bitumens. Effect of SBR, PE and NMP wastes on vacuum bottom residue of crude oil distillation was investigated. The results of penetration, softening point and Frass tests revealed the advantages of SBR and PE wastes at high temperatures and suggest NMP waste as a good bitumen extender. The results of the Marshal test on the prepared polymer-modified hot-mix asphalt of the optimum formulation highlight the superiority of its strength and its lower flow as compared with those of standard 60/70 penetration grade bitumen.

  15. Asphalt Mixture for the First Asphalt Concrete Directly Fastened Track in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hyeok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research has been initiated to develop the asphalt mixtures which are suitable for the surface of asphalt concrete directly fastened track (ADFT system and evaluate the performance of the asphalt mixture. Three aggregate gradations which are upper (finer, medium, and below (coarser. The nominal maximum aggregate size of asphalt mixture was 10 mm. Asphalt mixture design was conducted at 3 percent air voids using Marshall mix design method. To make impermeable asphalt mixture surface, the laboratory permeability test was conducted for asphalt mixtures of three different aggregate gradations using asphalt mixture permeability tester. Moisture susceptibility test was conducted based on AASHTO T 283. The stripping percentage of asphalt mixtures was measured using a digital camera and analyzed based on image analysis techniques. Based on the limited research results, the finer aggregate gradation is the most suitable for asphalt mixture for ADFT system with the high TSR value and the low stripping percentage and permeable coefficient. Flow number and beam fatigue tests for finer aggregate asphalt mixture were conducted to characterize the performance of asphalt mixtures containing two modified asphalt binders: STE-10 which is styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS polymer and ARMA which is Crum rubber modified asphalt. The performance tests indicate that the STE-10 shows the higher rutting life and fatigue life.

  16. Microstructure and magnetorheological properties of the thermoplastic magnetorheological elastomer composites containing modified carbonyl iron particles and poly(styrene-b-ethylene-ethylenepropylene-b-styrene) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Xiuying; Lu, Xiushou; Li, Wei; Sun, Kang; Li, Weihua; Chen, Jun; Gong, Xinglong; Yang, Tao; Chen, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Novel isotropic and anisotropic thermoplastic magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) were prepared by melt blending titanated coupling agent modified carbonyl iron (CI) particles with poly(styrene-b-ethylene-ethylene–propylene-b-styrene) (SEEPS) matrix in the absence and presence of a magnetic field, and the microstructure and magnetorheological properties of these SEEPS-based MRE were investigated in detail. The particle surface modification improves the dispersion of the particles in the matrix and remarkably softens the CI/SEEPS composites, thus significantly enhancing the MR effect and improving the processability of these SEEPS-based MRE. A microstructural model was proposed to describe the interfacial compatibility mechanism that occurred in the CI/SEEPS composites after titanate coupling agent modification, and validity of this model was also demonstrated through adsorption tests of unmodified and surface-modified CI particles. (paper)

  17. Performance Evaluation of Asphalt Modified with Municipal Wastes for Sustainable Pavement Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir Amin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The severe hot temperature and high traffic loadings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are causing distress in flexible pavements within a few years of service. Secondly, the conventional bitumen extracted from Saudi oil refineries have a performance grade of 64-10 (PG 64-10, which does not meet the SuperPave performance grade requirement for most of the KSA’s regions. In order to improve the performance grade of bitumen, different percentages of municipal wastes (plastic and crumb rubber were used as bitumen additives. The performance of bitumen at low, intermediate, and high temperatures was evaluated. This is important as the waste production is rising significantly due to the fast urbanization and high population growth in the KSA. Particularly, when there are very few ways of recycling these wastes (municipal, as well as industrial, which in fact have great impact on the environment. High-density polyethylene (HDP, low-density polyethylene (LDP, and crumb rubber (CR with 5%, 10%, and 15% by weight of bitumen, were mixed with the base bitumen (PG 64-10. Rotational viscometer (RV, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, and bending beam rheometer (BBR were used to evaluate the viscosity, rutting, fatigue, and low-temperature behavior of base and modified binders. The test results indicated that the rutting (permanent deformation and fatigue resistance were significantly improved in modified binders due to the improvement in the visco-elastic properties.

  18. Novel silicone elastomer formulations for DEAPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Benslimane, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the force output and work density of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based dielectric elastomer transducers can be significantly enhanced by the addition of high permittivity titanium dioxide nanoparticles which was also shown by Stoyanov et al[1] for pre-stretched elastomers...... and by Carpi et al for RTV silicones[2]. Furthermore the elastomer matrix is optimized to give very high breakdown strengths. We obtain an increase in the dielectric permittivity of a factor of approximately 2 with a loading of 12% TiO2 particles compared to the pure modified silicone elastomer with breakdown...

  19. Performance prediction of hot mix asphalt from asphalt binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, I.; Kamal, M.A.; Shahzad, Q.; Bashir, N.; Ahadi, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt binder being a high weight hydrocarbon contains asphaltene and maltene and is widely used as cementing materials in the construction of flexible pavements. Its performance in hot mix asphalt also depends on combining with different proportions of aggregates. The main objective of this study was to characterize asphalt cement rheological behavior and to investigate the influence of asphalt on asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared with virgin binders and using polymers. Binder rheology and mixtures stiffness were determined under a range of cyclic loadings and temperature conditions. Master curves were developed for the evaluation of relationship between parameters like complex modulus and phase angle at different frequencies. Horizontal shift factors were also computed to determine time and temperature response of binders and mixes. The results showed that the stiffness of both the binder and the mixes depends on temperature and frequency of load. Polymer modified binder is least susceptible to temperature variations as compared to other virgin asphalt cement. Performance of asphalt mixtures can be predicted from those of asphalt binders using the master curve technique. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the use of polymer modified bitumen in the production of high modulus asphalt for heavily-trafficked roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enrobé à Module Élevé (EME) technology, a High Modulus Asphalt (HiMA), has been introduced to South Africa to provide an optimum solution for the design and construction of heavily trafficked roads. Implementation of EME technology in South Africa...

  1. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich; Korolev Evgeniy Valer’evich

    2015-01-01

    In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III) and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physica...

  2. Bimodal condensation silicone elastomers as dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Lately, dielectric elastomers (DEs) which consist of an elastomer sandwiched between electrodes on both sides, have gained interest as materials for actuators, generators, and sensors. An ideal elastomer for DE uses is characterized by high extensibility, flexibility and good mechanical fatigue...... elastomers were prepared by mixing different mass ratios (9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6) between long polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chains and short PDMS chains. The resulting elastomers were investigated with respect to their rheology, dielectric properties, tensile strength, electrical breakdown, as well.......Moreover, a series of elastomers with the same mass ratio (7:3) between long and short PDMS chains were made at different humidity (90%, 70%, 50%, 30%, 10%) at 23oC. The dielectric and mechincal properties of the resulting elastomers were shown to depend strongly on the atmospheric humidity level.In addition...

  3. Rubber modification of asphalt binders and mixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.; Hesp, S.A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The physical properties of asphalt binders and concrete, modified with waste rubber tire, were examined. In an experiment designed to address the concern of waste disposal of scrap rubber, a control asphalt, devulcanized rubber modified asphalt and a crumb rubber modified asphalt were used to make asphalt concrete mixes. The three mixes were subjected to a thermal stress test to determine their low temperature fracture temperatures and strengths. Results were discussed in terms of the binder material used. At high service temperatures, the addition of 10% devulcanized rubber was found to have no beneficial effect, whereas the addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber produced a modest improvement in performance. At low temperatures, the addition of devulcanized rubber produced increased resistance to cracking up to 90%. The addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber increased fracture toughness by a factor of 3.3 times. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Experimental Study on Performance of EC-120 Wet-mixing Modified Asphalt Cementing Materials%EC-120温拌改性沥青胶结料性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周刚; 唐江; 谭昆华; 谭巍

    2012-01-01

    This paper carries out experimental study on rotational viscosity, normal performance indices and rheological properties, etc. of EC-120 organic viscosity reducing and wet-mixing modified asphalt, the experiment shows that EC-120 as an organic additive with the melting point at approximate 100 t is well compatible with asphalt and easy to prepare without problem of isolation. The experiment also shows EC-120 in wet-mixing modified asphalt can reduce high-temperature viscosity and increase medium and low-temperature viscosity of asphalt so as to decrease mixing and compacting temperature of asphalt mixtures; can reduce needle penetration and increase softening point and anti-rutting factor so as to improve high-temperature stability of asphalt remarkably; and will enable reduction of ductility, increase of fatigue factor, increase of creepage stiffness and reduction of deformation rate of wet-mixing modified asphalt, which slightly have negative influence on anti-fatigue and low-temperature cracking properties of asphalt.%对EC-120有机降粘温拌改性沥青进行旋转粘度、常规性能指标、流变特性等试验研究,试验表明,EC- 120作为一种熔点在100℃左右的有机添加剂,与沥青相容性好,制备容易,不存在离析问题.试验还表明在温拌改性沥青中,EC-120可降低沥青的高温粘度,提高中低温粘度,从而降低沥青混合料的拌和和压实温度;可降低沥青针入度,提高软化点和抗车辙因子,从而大幅改善沥青的高温稳定性;会使温拌改性沥青的延度降低,疲劳因子增大,蠕变劲度增大,变形速率减小,对沥青的抗疲劳和低温抗开裂性能略有消极影响.

  5. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  6. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  7. Latex improvement of recycled asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennon, C.

    1982-08-01

    The performance of a single unmodified milled recycled asphalt concrete was compared to milled asphalt concrete modified by addition of three types of rubber latex. Latex was added at 2, 3, 5, and 8 percent latex by weight of asphalt in the asphalt concrete. Lattices used were a styrene butadiene (SBR), a natural rubber (NR), an acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), and four varieties of out of specification SBR lattices. Marshall tests, while indecisive, showed a modest improvement in properties of SBR and NR added material at 3 and 5 percent latex. Addition of NBR latex caused deterioration in Marshall stability and flow over that of control. Repeated load tests were run using the indirect tensile test, analyzed by the VESYS program, which computes life of pavements. Repeated load tests showed improvement in asphalt concrete life when 3 and 5 percent SBR was added. Improvement was also shown by the out of specification SBR.

  8. Evaluación de las propiedades mecánicas de una mezcla densa en caliente modificada con asfaltita/Mechanical Properties Evaluation of a hot Asphalt Mixture Modified with Asphaltite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón Quintana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo evaluó en laboratorio la resistencia mecánica bajo carga monotónica, el módulo resiliente y la resistencia a la deformación permanente que experimenta una mezcla asfáltica cuando se modifica con una asfaltita. Adicionalmente, fue evaluada durante dos años, la influencia del medio ambiente de la ciudad de Bogotá D.C., sobre las propiedades mecánicas de la mezcla modificada. Se concluye que la resistencia mecánica de la mezcla asfáltica modificada incrementa en comparación con la convencional. La tendencia general de las mezclas con el tiempo de exposición al medio ambiente de Bogotá D.C., es experimentar un aumento en los valores de rigidez debido principalmente a procesos de endurecimiento por envejecimiento del ligante asfáltico. Sin embargo, para el caso de las mezclas modificadas y fabricadas con CA 60-70 en los primeros cinco meses de exposición, la rigidez disminuye.The strength under monotonic load, resilient modulus and rutting were evaluated on a hot-mix asphalt (HMAmodified with a natural sphaltite. Additionally, the influence of the environmental conditions of BogotáD.C., was evaluated during two years on the mechanical properties of a modified asphalt mixture. The results show that the mechanical properties evaluated were better for the HMA mixes modified in compared with those with neat asphalts. The asphaltite produces higher mechanical resistance in HMA. The general tendency of the mixtures is increase the modulus with time due to aging of the asphalt cement. However, modified mixtures with AC 60- 70, decrease in stiffness during the first months.

  9. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physical and mechanical properties and allows refusing from expensive stabilizing additive. Mineral filler was replaced by diatomite, which has been modified by iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Modified diatomite allows sorption of bitumen and increase the cohesive strength and resistance to shear at positive temperatures. The modified asphalt has higher resistance to rutting at high temperature, abrasion resistance at low temperature and impact of climatic factors: alternate freezing and thawing, wetting-drying, UV and IR radiations. It is achieved by formation of solid and dense bitumen film at the phase interface and controlling the content of light fractions of the bitumen. The modifier consists of sol of iron hydroxide, which blocks the oxidation and polymerization of bitumen during operation. The proposed material allows controlling the initial structure formation of stone mastic asphalt. It was shown that modern test methods allow assessing the durability of asphalt in the design phase compositions.

  10. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Higher traffic coupled with heavier loads led the asphalt industry to introduce polymer-modified binders to enhance the durability and strength of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. When the Superpave Performance Graded (PG) binder specification (AASHT...

  11. Estudo de misturas asfálticas com ligante modificado pelo polímero EVA para pavimentos urbanos de Manaus - AM Study of asphalt mixtures containing a binder modified with EVA polymer for use in urban pavements in Manaus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M. G. D'Antona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa buscou soluções com materiais alternativos visando à construção de pavimentos urbanos para Manaus (AM com maior vida útil e condizente com as suas condições de serviço, em particular, o seu desempenho mecânico frente às temperaturas regionais. Estudou-se o ligante regional, CAP 50/70, misturado com 4% do polímero EVA, e como partícipe em compósitos asfálticos. A incorporação do mencionado polímero teve como objetivo melhorar suas propriedades reológicas e, por conseguinte, o comportamento mecânico desse compósito - concreto asfáltico, empregado como revestimento nas vias urbanas da Capital do Estado do Amazonas. Os ligantes (virgem e modificado foram caracterizados conforme a especificação da ANP e a metodologia Superpave. As misturas asfálticas foram avaliadas pelo ensaio de fluência por compressão axial, com carregamento dinâmico à temperatura de 40 ºC. O material asfáltico modificado com EVA (AMP EVA demonstrou melhores propriedades reológicas ou equivalentes ao asfalto convencional (REMAN, ao longo de todos os ensaios de caracterização. As misturas alternativas compostas com o CAP modificado (SEVA obtiveram desempenho mecânico superior ao de misturas com cimento asfáltico habitualmente comercializado na região (SMAN.In this research we investigated alternative materials to build urban pavements in Manaus, seeking for pavements with longer lifetime for usage and suitable mechanical properties to withstand the local temperatures. The asphaltic mixtures contained a regional binder, namely CAP 50/70, mixed with 4% of EVA polymer. The incorporation of the latter polymer was aimed at improving the rheological properties of asphaltic concrete used in roads in the Amazonas' capital. The asphalt binders (original and modified were characterized in accordance with the ANP (National Petroleum Agency specification and the Superpave methodology. The asphalt mixtures had their mechanical properties

  12. Mechanical Design Handbook for Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, M.; Zorzi, E.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanical Design Handbook for Elastomers reviews state of art in elastomer-damper technology with particular emphasis on applications of highspeed rotor dampers. Self-contained reference but includes some theoretical discussion to help reader understand how and why dampers used for rotating machines. Handbook presents step-by-step procedure for design of elastomer dampers and detailed examples of actual elastomer damper applications.

  13. Nanoscale study on water damage for different warm mix asphalt binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefei Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the water damage to different warm mix asphalt binders from the micro scale, five kinds of asphalt binders, 70#A base asphalt, sasobit warm mix asphalt, energy champion 120 °C (EC120 warm mix asphalt, aspha-min warm mix asphalt, sulfur-extended asphalt modifier (SEAM warm mix asphalt, under different conditions (dry/wet, original/aging are prepared for laboratory tests. The atomic force microscope (AFM is used to observe the surface properties and measure the adhesion force between the asphalt and the mineral aggregate. The obtained results show that under the dry condition aspha-min warm mix asphalt and SEAM warm mix asphalt show stronger adhesive ability with the mineral aggregate compared with other asphalt binders, but also have relatively large dispersion and fluctuation in the tested results; under the wet condition, aspha-min warm mix asphalt and SEAM warm mix asphalt show stronger water damage resistance ability. The EC120 warm mix asphalt and aspha-min warm mix asphalt are less sensitive to moist, and their corresponding adhesion force is less susceptible to the change of external moisture conditions, leading to a better ability to resist water erosion. The aging process significantly lowers the moisture erosion resistance ability, which further impairs the water damage resistance ability. The base asphalt is more sensitive to moisture and more vulnerable to water damage, no matter whether it is under original or aging conditions. The aging aspha-min warm mix asphalt has the least loss of adhesion force, the smallest dispersion of the tested adhesion force, the strongest water damage resistance ability, no matter it is dry or wet. Keywords: Road engineering, Warm mix asphalt, Moisture damage, Atomic force microscope, Microcosmic

  14. Method of reprocessing radioactive asphalt solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Inagaki, Yuzo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain heat-stable solidification products and decrease the total volume thereof by modifying the solidified form by the reprocessing of existent radioactive asphalt solidification products. Method: Radioactive asphalt solidification products are heated into a fluidized state. Then, incombustible solvents such as perchloroethylene or trichloroethylene are added to a dissolving tank to gradually dissolve the radioactive asphalt solidification products. Thus, organic materials such as asphalts are transferred into the solvent layer, while inorganic materials containing radioactive materials remain as they are in the separation tank. Then, the inorganic materials containing the radioactive materials are taken out and then solidified, for example, by converting them into a rock or glass form. (Kawakami, Y.)

  15. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  16. Characteristics Buton Natural Asphalt-Rubber (BNA-R on the Performance Improvement of Warm Mix Asphalt Using Natural Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahjuningsih Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in the ability of service of pavement can be caused by the durability factor in the pavement layer in receiving heavy traffic load and the temperature of the pavement. Permanent deformation is one of the criteria of failure of asphalt mixture. Performance assessment of the asphalt mixture can be observed from the rheological properties of asphalt binder. The use of BNA-R in this study is intended to modify the characteristics of bitumen penetration grade 60 / 70 used in warm mix asphalt. Warm mix asphalt with lower temperatures of mixing and compaction than conventional asphalt mixtures was chosen because it is more environmentally friendly. To reduce the temperature in this warm asphalt technology is achieved by using natural zeolite. Both of these materials are local materials that are widely available in Indonesia. The rheology of asphalt 60/70 modified with BNA-R indicates that the addition of BNA-R in the base asphalt increase the complex modulus value and decrease the phase angle value. These values were related to the performance of mixture in the permanent deformation criteria. Reducing the temperature of mixing and compaction should be balanced with modifying the asphalt binder used. Rutting due to permanent deformation can resulted in inconvenience to the passengers and can lead to high costs of road maintenance. To determine the permanent deformation of asphalt mix with material combinations was performed through the wheel tracking test machine with 3,780 cycles for 3 hours. The results shows that after test track over 7 thousand passes have seen permanent deformation characteristics of asphalt concrete mixture with a variation of the characteristics of bitumen.

  17. Characteristics Buton Natural Asphalt-Rubber (BNA-R) on the Performance Improvement of Warm Mix Asphalt Using Natural Zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahjuningsih, Nurul; Pranowo Hadiwardoyo, Sigit; Jachrizal Sumabrata, R.

    2018-03-01

    The decrease in the ability of service of pavement can be caused by the durability factor in the pavement layer in receiving heavy traffic load and the temperature of the pavement. Permanent deformation is one of the criteria of failure of asphalt mixture. Performance assessment of the asphalt mixture can be observed from the rheological properties of asphalt binder. The use of BNA-R in this study is intended to modify the characteristics of bitumen penetration grade 60 / 70 used in warm mix asphalt. Warm mix asphalt with lower temperatures of mixing and compaction than conventional asphalt mixtures was chosen because it is more environmentally friendly. To reduce the temperature in this warm asphalt technology is achieved by using natural zeolite. Both of these materials are local materials that are widely available in Indonesia. The rheology of asphalt 60/70 modified with BNA-R indicates that the addition of BNA-R in the base asphalt increase the complex modulus value and decrease the phase angle value. These values were related to the performance of mixture in the permanent deformation criteria. Reducing the temperature of mixing and compaction should be balanced with modifying the asphalt binder used. Rutting due to permanent deformation can resulted in inconvenience to the passengers and can lead to high costs of road maintenance. To determine the permanent deformation of asphalt mix with material combinations was performed through the wheel tracking test machine with 3,780 cycles for 3 hours. The results shows that after test track over 7 thousand passes have seen permanent deformation characteristics of asphalt concrete mixture with a variation of the characteristics of bitumen.

  18. Induction healing of asphalt mixes with steel slag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Wang, H.; van de Ven, M.F.C.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2018-01-01

    Asphaltic mixes are self-healing materials since they have the capacity to close internal microcracks at higher temperatures or under external force. To trigger their self-healing, asphalt mixes modified with inductive agents can be heated and in that way healed through applying alternating magnetic

  19. Contributory Factors Related to Permanent Deformation of Hot Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Husein Abd

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Permanent deformation (Rutting of asphalt pavements which appears in many roads in Iraq, have caused a major impact on pavement performance by reducing the useful service life of pavement and creating services hazards for highway users. The main objective of this research is investigating the effect of some contributory factors related to permanent deformation of asphalt concrete mixture. To meet the objectives of this research, available local materials are used including asphalt binder, aggregates, mineral filler and modified asphalt binder. The Superpave mix design system was adopted with varying volumetric compositions. The Superpave Gyratory Compactor was used to compact 24 asphalt concrete cylindrical specimens. To collect the required data and investigate the development of permanent deformation in asphalt concrete under repeated loadings, Wheel-Tracking apparatus has been used in a factorial testing program during which 44 slab samples; with dimensions of 400×300×50 mm; were tested to simulate . actual pavement. Based on wheel-tracking test results, it has been concluded that increasing the compaction temperature from 110 to 150ºC caused a decreasing in permanent deformation by 20.5 and 15.6 percent for coarse and fine gradation control asphalt mixtures respectively. While the permanent deformation decreased about 21.3 percent when the compaction temperature is increased from 110 to 150ºC for coarse gradation asphalt mixtures modified with styrene butadiene styrene SBS with 3 percent by asphalt binder weight.

  20. Asphalt emulsion; Asphalt nyuzai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Toa Doro Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-28

    The emulsification, manufacture, type, applications, etc. of asphalt emulsion were introduced. The emulsification of asphalt is obtained by mixing heated asphalt into an emulsification liquid where emulsifier is added to water and then agitating it. The emulsifier has both hydrophilic and lipophilic parts in the same molecule, prevents collision between asphalt particles after being arranged properly on the surface of asphalt particles, and prevent separation into water and asphalt. The emulsion is available for penetration and for mixing depending on applications and can be classified into cation emulsion, anion emulsion, and nonionic emulsion according to the property. The emulsion is mainly applied to road pavement, reaching approximately 90 % of the total manufactured emulsion. It is also used for other areas such as the filler of a slab race of each bullet train of Sanyo, Tohoku, and Jyoetsu and is also applied to the formation of a water-proof layer by spraying a high-concentration emulsion with rubber, agricultural water channels using asphalt emulsion and nonwoven cloth, etc. in civil engineering and agricultural fields. 2 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Rheological characterization of asphalt binders used in strain relief asphalt mixtures (SRAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Kamilla L.; Bariani Bernucci, Liedi Legi; Midori Takahashi, Marcia; Castelo-Branco, Verônica T. F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The use of ´interlayers´ that tolerate high tensile and shear strain that exists above cracks in deteriorated pavements is becoming an interesting solution to prevent reflective cracking. Recent advances in polymer technology have led to binders that can be used to produce interlayer mixtures with good mechanical properties. In this study, two polymer-modified asphalt binders were evaluated, both from the production of strain relief asphalt mixtures used as interlayers in the field. ...

  2. Performance Modification of Asphalt Binders using Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to improve the performance of asphalt binders to minimize stress cracking that occurs at low temperatures and plastic deformation at high temperatures. Importation of used asphalt-polymers from abroad, leads to an increase in the total construction cost as compared to the cost if the used polymers were of local origin. The main objective of this research was to modify locally produced asphalt. Ten polymers were identified as potential asphalt modifiers based on their physical properties and chemical composition. After preliminary laboratory evaluation for the melting point of these polymers, five polymers were selected for local asphalt modification. In the initial stage, required mixing time was decided based on the relation between shear loss modulus and mixing time .The optimum polymer content was selected based on Superpave binder performance grade specifications.The suitability of improvement was verified through the evaluation of permanent deformation and fatigue behavior of laboratory prepared asphalt concrete mixes. The results indicated that the rheological properties of the modified binders improved significantly with sufficient polymer content (3%. The aging properties of the modified binders were found to be dependent on the type of polymer.The fatigue life and resistance to permanent deformation were significantly improved due to enhanced binder rheological properties.  Thus, local asphalts can be modified using thermoplastic polymers.

  3. Development of bio-based polymers for use in asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Asphalt binder is typically modified with poly type (styrene-butadiene-styrene or SBS) polymers to improve its rheological properties and performance grade. The elastic and principal component of SBS polymers is butadiene. For the last decade, butadi...

  4. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

  5. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    An important component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier is the use of a two-layer composite asphalt system, which provides backup water diversion capabilities if the primary capillary barrier fails to meet infiltration goals. Because of asphalt's potential to perform to specification over the 1000-year design life criterion, a composite asphalt barrier (HMAC/fluid-applied polymer-modified asphalt) is being considered as an alternative to the bentonite clay/high density poly(ethylene) barriers for the low-permeability component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier. The feasibility of using asphalt as a long-term barrier is currently being studied. Information that must be known is the ability of asphalt to retain desirable physical properties over a period of 1000 years. This paper presents the approach for performing accelerated aging tests and evaluating the performance of samples under accelerated conditions. The results of these tests will be compared with asphalt artifact analogs and the results of modeling the degradation of the selected asphalt composite to make life-cycle predictions

  6. Glycerol as high-permittivity liquid filler in dielectric silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Yu, Liyun; Gerhard, R.

    2016-01-01

    A recently reported novel class of elastomers was tested with respect to its dielectric properties. The new elastomer materialis based on a commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) composition, which has been modified by embedding glycerol droplets intoits matrix. The approach has two major ......, and the applicability ofthe models is discussed. VC 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2016, 133, 44153....

  7. Effect of moisture and freeze-thaw on mechanical properties of CRM asphalt mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak-Seok; Cho, Kee-Ju [Kyonggi University, Suwon(Korea)

    2000-06-30

    This paper presents the experimental test results on moisture and freeze-thaw resistance of hot mix crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt concrete mixture. To compare the differences in mechanical properties of conventional and CRM asphalt concretes, various tests were conducted under different moisture conditions and freeze-thaw cycles. Marshall mix design was also performed to determine the optimum asphalt contents for the both asphalt concrete mixtures. Test results revealed that the moisture and freeze-thaw resistance of CRM asphalt mixture was superior to the conventional asphalt concrete. As a result, it is considered that the utilization of waste tires in asphalt pavements has the potential of minimizing the damage due to the moisture and freeze-thaw. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  8. Investigation of the Physical and Molecular Properties of Asphalt Binders Processed with Used Motor Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohyeldin Ragab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the performance aspects of addition of used motor oils (UMO to neat and crumb rubber modified asphalts (CRMA and related that to the change of molecular size distribution of modified asphalt’s fractions; asphaltenes, saturates, naphthene aromatics, and polar aromatics. Based on the results of temperature sweep viscoelastic tests, addition of crumb rubber modifier (CRM alone or with UMO results in the formation of internal network within the modified asphalt. Based on the results of short and long term aged asphalts, the utilization of combination of UMO and CRM enhanced the aging behavior of asphalt. Bending beam rheometer was utilized to investigate the low temperature behavior of UMO modified asphalts. Based on those tests, the utilization of the UMO and CRM enhanced the low temperature properties of asphalts. Based on the results of the asphalt separation tests and the Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC analysis, it was found that saturates and naphthene aromatics are the two asphalt fractions that have similar molecular size fractions as those of UMO. However, UMO only shifts the molecular sizes of saturates after interaction with asphalt. Results also show that polar aromatics pose higher molecular size structures than UMO.

  9. Asphalt chemical fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando P, Klever N.

    1998-01-01

    Asphalt fractionation were carried out in the Esmeraldas Oil Refinery using n-pentane, SiO 2 and different mixture of benzene- methane. The fractions obtained were analyzed by Fourier's Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR)

  10. Asymmetric Dielectric Elastomer Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brian K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a dielectric elastomer composite material comprising a plurality of elastomer-coated electrodes arranged in an assembly. Embodiments of the invention provide improved force output over prior DEs by producing thinner spacing between electrode surfaces. This is accomplished by coating electrodes directly with uncured elastomer in liquid form and then assembling a finished component (which may be termed an actuator) from coated electrode components.

  11. Theory of Dielectric Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    feature of life is to receive and process information from the environment, and then move. The movements are responsible for diverse functions, far...beyond the function of going from place to place. For example, an octopus can change its color at an astonishing speed, for camouflage and signaling...in engineering are indeed apt in mimicking the salient feature of life: movements in response to stimuli. An electric field can cause an elastomer

  12. Warm mix asphalt : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The performance of pavements constructed using warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology were : compared to the performance of conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements placed on the : same project. Measurements of friction resistance, rutting/wear, ride ...

  13. RESISTENCIA MECÁNICA EVALUADA EN EL ENSAYO MARSHALL DE MEZCLAS DENSAS EN CALIENTE ELABORADAS CON ASFALTOS MODIFICADOS CON DESECHOS DE POLICLORURO DE VINILO (PVC, POLIETILENO DE ALTA DENSIDAD (PEAD Y POLIESTIRENO (PS MECHANICAL RESISTANCE OF HOT THICK MIXTURES MADE WITH ASPHALT MODIFIED WITH POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, POLYCLORURE (PVC WASTES, HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (PEAD, AND POLYSTYRENE (PS EVALUATED IN MARSHALL ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexánder Rondón Quintana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo buscó evaluar en laboratorio el cambio en la resistencia mecánica que experimentan mezclas asfálticas densas en caliente cuando se adicionan, por vía húmeda, al cemento asfáltico aditivos poliméricos producto de desechos industriales del tipo plastómero (policloruro de vinilo, polietileno de alta densidad y poliestireno. Para tal fin se empleó el ensayo Marshall. De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la resistencia mecánica de mezclas asfálticas modificadas con desechos del tipo plastómero es mayor en comparación con las convencionales (mezclas que emplean asfaltos sin ningún aditivo.The main objective of this research Project was to evaluate in a laboratory the change in mechanical strength that dense hot asphalt mixtures go through when waste polymeric additives of plastomeric type (polyvinyl chloride, high density polyethylene and polystyrene are added to asphalt cement, by 'wet way'. This change was evaluated using Marshall Test. The general conclusion of the experimental results was that modified hot asphalt mixtures present better mechanical behavior than conventional mixtures (mixtures which use asphalt without additives.

  14. Silicone-based Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Efficient conversion of energy from one form to another (transduction) is an important topic in our daily day, and it is a necessity in moving away from the fossil based society. Dielectric elastomers hold great promise as soft transducers, since they are compliant and light-weight amongst many...... energy efficient solutions are highly sought. These properties allow for interesting products ranging very broadly, e.g. from eye implants over artificial skins over soft robotics to huge wave energy harvesting plants. All these products utilize the inherent softness and compliance of the dielectric...... elastomer transducers. The subject of this thesis is improvement of properties of silicone-based dielectric elastomers with special focus on design guides towards electrically, mechanically, and electromechanically reliable elastomers. Strategies for improving dielectric elastomer performance are widely...

  15. Poliuretanos elastoméricos obtenidos a partir de aceite de ricino y almidón de yuca original y modificado con anhídrido propiónico: síntesis, propiedades fisicoquímicas y fisicomecánicas Polyurethane elastomers from castor oil and chemically modified yucca starch: synthesis and physical-chemical, physical-mechanical and thermical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Valero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of cassava starch was conducted through an acylation reaction by using pyridine and propionic anhydride to replace the functional groups of starch. Polyurethane elastomers were prepared using suspensions of the mixture obtained from castor oil and yucca starch that was modified by a propionic anhydride reaction. The suspensions were characterized by means of tests based on The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and the Hydroxyl Index. The castor oil-AMP suspensions were used for the PU synthesis. The PUs were characterized by their physical-mechanical properties like tension- deformation and Shore A. hardness, thermal gravimetric analysis and swelling test. The density cross-linking of from swelling tests was determined by applying the Flory-Rehner equation.

  16. Electrical, thermophysical and micromechanical properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate elastomer composites with surface modified BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Xingyi; Xie Liyuan; Jiang Pingkai; Wang Genlin; Liu Fei, E-mail: xyhuang@sjtu.edu.c, E-mail: pkjiang@sjtu.edu.c [Shanghai Key Lab of Electrical Insulation and Thermal Aging, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-12-21

    In this study, we investigated the influence of the surface modified BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles on the electrical, thermophysical and micromechanical properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVM) vulcanizates. Gamma-aminopropyl triethoxysilane was used as a silane coupling agent for the surface treatment of the BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles. It was found that the incorporation of surface modified BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles into the EVM matrix not only increased the permittivity, thermal conductivity and the mechanical strength but also showed a comparative dielectric loss tangent with pure EVM vulcanizates. In particular, the nanocomposites exhibit relatively high dielectric strength and good ductility even at the loading level of 50 vol%. The improved properties not only originate from the homogeneous dispersion of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles but also should be ascribed to the strong interfacial interaction between the surface modified BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles and EVM matrix. We also investigated the dielectric relaxation behaviour of the BaTiO{sub 3} filled EVM nanocomposites by using Jonscher's theory of universal dielectric response.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Hot Mix Asphalt with Different Proportions of RAP Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Arshad Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is old asphalt pavement that has been removed from a road by milling or full depth removal. The use of RAP in hot mix asphalt (HMA eliminates the need to dispose old asphalt pavements and conserves asphalt binders and aggregates, resulting in significant cost savings and benefits to society. This paper presents a study on HMA with different RAP proportions carried out to evaluate the volumetric properties and performance of asphalt mixes containing different proportions of RAP. Marshall Mix Design Method was used to produce control mix (0% RAP and asphalt mixes containing 15% RAP, 25% RAP and 35% RAP in accordance with Specifications for Road Works of Public Works Department, Malaysia for AC14 dense graded asphalt gradation. Volumetric analysis was performed to ensure that the result is compliance with specification requirements. The resilient modulus test was performed to measure the stiffness of the mixes while the Modified Lottman test was conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of these mixes. The Hamburg wheel tracking test was used to evaluate the rutting performance of these mixes. The results obtained showed that there were no substantial difference in Marshall Properties, moisture susceptibility, resilient modulus and rutting resistance between asphalt mixes with RAP and the control mix. The test results indicated that recycled mixes performed as good as the performance of conventional HMA in terms of moisture susceptibility and resilient modulus. It is recommended that further research be carried out for asphalt mixes containing more than 35% RAP material.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Hot Mix Asphalt with Different Proportions of RAP Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil Arshad, Ahmad; Awang, Haryati; Shaffie, Ekarizan; Hashim, Wardati; Rahman, Zanariah Abd

    2018-03-01

    Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is old asphalt pavement that has been removed from a road by milling or full depth removal. The use of RAP in hot mix asphalt (HMA) eliminates the need to dispose old asphalt pavements and conserves asphalt binders and aggregates, resulting in significant cost savings and benefits to society. This paper presents a study on HMA with different RAP proportions carried out to evaluate the volumetric properties and performance of asphalt mixes containing different proportions of RAP. Marshall Mix Design Method was used to produce control mix (0% RAP) and asphalt mixes containing 15% RAP, 25% RAP and 35% RAP in accordance with Specifications for Road Works of Public Works Department, Malaysia for AC14 dense graded asphalt gradation. Volumetric analysis was performed to ensure that the result is compliance with specification requirements. The resilient modulus test was performed to measure the stiffness of the mixes while the Modified Lottman test was conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of these mixes. The Hamburg wheel tracking test was used to evaluate the rutting performance of these mixes. The results obtained showed that there were no substantial difference in Marshall Properties, moisture susceptibility, resilient modulus and rutting resistance between asphalt mixes with RAP and the control mix. The test results indicated that recycled mixes performed as good as the performance of conventional HMA in terms of moisture susceptibility and resilient modulus. It is recommended that further research be carried out for asphalt mixes containing more than 35% RAP material.

  19. Electrical behaviour of synthetic elastomers under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharescu, Traian; Ciuprina, Florin

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of ethylene-propylene elastomers to the action of gamma radiation causes the modification of chemical state of polymer matrix by the formation of oxygenated products. The accumulation of dipoles modifies the electrical behaviour of materials. The value of resistance increases more than three times at increasing the dose up to 200 kGy. The absorption/resorption current measurements demonstrate the bad consequence of the inversion of polarity for applied voltages. Differences between the two sorts of synthetic elastomers (ethylene-propylene copolymer and ethylene-propylene terpolymer) were pointed out. (author)

  20. Production and performance of desulfurized rubber asphalt binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt rubber binder typically exhibits disadvantages like segregation and high viscosity; however, this can be improved by the incorporation of desulfurized rubber powder. This study examined the swelling principle of desulfurized rubber asphalt (DRA. In addition, it evaluated the performance of DRA fabricated with various rubber powder contents under different shear conditions and development time. Superpave binders tests, including Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR tests, were applied on three control binders (i.e., neat, 20 mesh asphalt rubber binder, 40 mesh asphalt rubber binder and a DRA binder. Binder testing results indicated that rubber powder swelled into the base binder and resulted in enhanced stability. Optimum performance of the DRA binder was achieved by adding 20% (by weight of rubber powder into the base binder at shear rate, shear temperature, shear time and development time of 7000 r/min, 170 °C, 60 min and 45 min, respectively. Modified ranges of production conditions were also provided to widen the application of DRA in field construction. It appeared that DRA binder benefited from the recovered plasticity and viscosity of the rubber and consequently, exhibited superior performance over the neat and conventional asphalt rubber binders. Preliminary mixture evaluation was also conducted and the DRA binder was found to significantly improve the mixture resistance to permanent deformation and water damage. Overall, the DAR binder is encouraged to be used as a modified binder for flexible pavements. Keywords: Desulfurized rubber asphalt, Swelling model, Production process, Asphalt performance, Rubber asphalt

  1. Laboratory Study on the Fatigue Resistance of Asphaltic Concrete Containing Titanium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhari Rosnawati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the fatigue performance of modified asphalt mixture using Indirect Tensile Fatigue Test. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 powder in a form of rutile was used for producing asphalt concrete with lower mixing and compaction temperature compared to conventional hot mix asphalt without reducing its physical and mechanical also resistance to fatigue. The characteristic of the asphalt and modified asphalt was evaluated using penetration test, softening test and rotational viscosity test. Titanium dioxide of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by weight of asphalt has been incorporated into unaged 80/100 asphalt mix in order to improvise its performance and to fulfill the objectives of this experimental study. As a result, TiO2 as an additive is potential to decrease the penetration and increasing the softening point of the asphalt. In terms of fatigue performance testing, addition TiO2 additive does help in improving the fatigue properties as it shows greater result than the control asphalt. In conclusion, TiO2 is great in improving fatigue properties.

  2. Laboratory Study on the Fatigue Resistance of Asphaltic Concrete Containing Titanium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhari, Rosnawati; Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Khairul Ahmad, Mohd; Azhar Tajudin, Saiful; Khatijah Abu Bakar, Siti

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the fatigue performance of modified asphalt mixture using Indirect Tensile Fatigue Test. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) powder in a form of rutile was used for producing asphalt concrete with lower mixing and compaction temperature compared to conventional hot mix asphalt without reducing its physical and mechanical also resistance to fatigue. The characteristic of the asphalt and modified asphalt was evaluated using penetration test, softening test and rotational viscosity test. Titanium dioxide of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by weight of asphalt has been incorporated into unaged 80/100 asphalt mix in order to improvise its performance and to fulfill the objectives of this experimental study. As a result, TiO2 as an additive is potential to decrease the penetration and increasing the softening point of the asphalt. In terms of fatigue performance testing, addition TiO2 additive does help in improving the fatigue properties as it shows greater result than the control asphalt. In conclusion, TiO2 is great in improving fatigue properties.

  3. Evaluation of abrasion of a modified drainage mixture with rubber waste crushed (GCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Wan Yung Vargas

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that there is a highlighted influence of mix temperature (between asphalt and GCR and compaction temperature (modified asphalt and aggregate on the behavior of the MD modified with GCR.

  4. Silicone elastomers with superior softness and dielectric properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Zakaria, Shamsul Bin

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) change their shape and size under a high voltage or reversibly generate a high voltage when deformed. The obstacle of high driving voltages, however, limits the commercial viability of the technology at present. Driving voltage can be lowered by decreasing the Young......’s modulus and increasing the dielectric permittivity of silicone elastomers. One such prominent method of modifying the properties is by adding suitable additives. [1] The major drawbacks for adding solid fillers are agglomeration and increasing stiffness which is often accompanied by the decrease...... were determined by NMR and morphology structures were investigated by optical microscopy. The resulting elastomers were evaluated with respect to their dielectric permittivity, tear and tensile strengths, as well as electrical breakdown.The breakdown strength increased at low amounts of additives...

  5. Sustainable Elastomers from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongkai; Yuan, Liang; Tang, Chuanbing

    2017-07-18

    Sustainable elastomers have undergone explosive growth in recent years, partly due to the resurgence of biobased materials prepared from renewable natural resources. However, mounting challenges still prevail: How can the chemical compositions and macromolecular architectures of sustainable polymers be controlled and broadened? How can their processability and recyclability be enabled? How can they compete with petroleum-based counterparts in both cost and performance? Molecular-biomass-derived polymers, such as polymyrcene, polymenthide, and poly(ε-decalactone), have been employed for constructing thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs). Plant oils are widely used for fabricating thermoset elastomers. We use abundant biomass, such as plant oils, cellulose, rosin acids, and lignin, to develop elastomers covering a wide range of structure-property relationships in the hope of delivering better performance. In this Account, recent progress in preparing monomers and TPEs from biomass is first reviewed. ABA triblock copolymer TPEs were obtained with a soft middle block containing a soybean-oil-based monomer and hard outer blocks containing styrene. In addition, a combination of biobased monomers from rosin acids and soybean oil was formulated to prepare triblock copolymer TPEs. Together with the above-mentioned approaches based on block copolymers, multigraft copolymers with a soft backbone and rigid side chains are recognized as the first-generation and second-generation TPEs, respectively. It has been recently demonstrated that multigraft copolymers with a rigid backbone and elastic side chains can also be used as a novel architecture of TPEs. Natural polymers, such as cellulose and lignin, are utilized as a stiff, macromolecular backbone. Cellulose/lignin graft copolymers with side chains containing a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate exhibited excellent elastic properties. Cellulose graft copolymers with biomass-derived polymers as side chains were

  6. The Future of Swelling Elastomers: An Elastomer Manufacturer's View of Swelling Elastomer Developments and Market Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Seyger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Swelling elastomers have gained acceptance as very effective products for creating sealing in various industries, including those creating energy from fossil fuels and geothermal resources. This paper outlines the research and development work being conducted not only in the application of these elastomers but also in the development work required to create new generations of elastomers. It touches on fundamental research into the mechanics of swelling with the intent to create a better and more predictable sealing as well as more advanced elastomers. It lifts the veil on the direction of work being done on new elastomers being developed in order to enable a better control of swelling. By doing so, the research is opening up field of applications for new equipment designs and mechanical possibilities in the future. Additionally, it addresses the need for a better and more in-depth dialogue between both chemical and mechanical engineers, and the elastomer companies and their customers on the potential that both swelling and non-swelling elastomers can offer to the industry as a whole.

  7. Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture Incorporating Kenaf Fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainin, M. R.; Idham, M. K.; Yaro, N. S. A.; Hussein, S. O. A. E.; Warid, M. N. M.; Mohamed, A.; Naqibah, S. N.; Ramadhansyah, P. J.

    2018-04-01

    Kenaf fibre has been recognised to increase the strength of concrete, but its application in asphalt concrete is still unanswered. This research investigated the performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) incorporated with different percentages of kenaf fibre (0.1 %, 0.2% and 0.3% by weight of dry aggregate) in term of resilient modulus, rutting performance using Asphalt Pavement analyser (APA) and moisture damage using the Modified Lottman test (AASHTO-T283). The fibre was interweaved to a diameter of about 5-10 mm and length of 30 mm which is three times the nominal maximum aggregate size used in the mix. Asphaltic mixtures of asphalt concrete (AC) 10 were prepared and compacted using Marshall compactor which were subsequently tested to evaluate the resilient modulus and moisture susceptibility. Twelve cylindrical specimens (150mm diameter) from AC10, two control samples with two modified ones for each percentage of kenaf fibres compacted using Gyratory compactor were used for rutting test using APA. The laboratory results reveal that the addition of kenaf fibres slightly reduce the resilient modulus of the mixes and that asphaltic mix with 0.3% kenaf fibre can mitigate both rutting and moisture damage which makes the pavement more sustain to the loads applied even in the presence of water. 0.3% kenaf fibre content is considered to be the optimal content which had the least rut depth and the highest TSR of 81.07%. Based on grid analysis, addition of 0.3% kenaf fibre in asphaltic concrete was recommended in modifying the samples.

  8. Dismantling of asphalt and recycling road materials in asphalt layers

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, M. L.; Batista, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Este registo pertence ao Repositório Científico do LNEC The interest of recycling of asphalt and other road materials for pavement construction and rehabilitation has been generally growing in Portugal, for the last 15 years. After some occasional demonstration projects dealing with hot and cold in situ recycling of asphalt layers, the first significant experiences with cold in situ recycling and hot mix plant recycling of asphalt applied in full scale rehabilitation projects, ...

  9. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  10. The use of waste materials in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncan, Mustafa; Tuncan, Ahmet; Cetin, Altan

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the effects of rubber and plastic concentrations and rubber particle sizes on properties of asphalt cement, (b) on properties of asphalt concrete specimens and (c) the effects of fly ash, marble powder, rubber powder and petroleum contaminated soil as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete specimens. One type of limestone aggregate and one penetration-graded asphalt cement (75-100) were used. Three concentrations of rubber and plastic (i.e. 5%, 10% and 20% of the total weight of asphalt cement), three rubber particle sizes (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 20 [0.85 mm], No. 20 [0.85mm] - 200 [0.075mm] and No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm]) and one plastic particle size (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 10 [2.00mm]) were also used. It was found that while the addition of plastic significantly increased the strength of specimens, the addition of rubber decreased it. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm] rubber particles showed the best results with respect to the indirect tensile test. The Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength properties of plastic modified specimens increased. Marble powder and fly ash could be used as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete pavement specimens.

  11. A review of asphalt and asphalt mixture aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Darío Fernández-Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive review of the pertinent literature regarding asphalt and asphalt mixture Aging. Aging affects flexible pavement performance and is produced by intrinsic and extrinsic variables as well as exposure time. Intrinsic variables include asphalt and aggregate properties, a mixture’s asphalt content, binder film thickness and air void content; extrinsic variables are associated with production (short-term aging and exposure to environmental field conditions (long-term aging. Taken together, both variables demonstrate that aging results from three distinct mechanisms: volatilisation, oxidation and steric hardening. Temperature, pressure and photo degradation treatments are used to simulate aging in the laboratory and empirical and semi-empirical models are created to represent and study aging. Aging increases asphalt complex modulus and decreases the phase angle. Mixtures become stiffer while fatigue life becomes reduced. Carbonyl and sulfoxide group formation in asphalt are often studied as such chemical changes show oxidation in aged asphalts. The prevailing models used to predict asphalt aging are discussed, though more comprehensive research into asphalt aging is still needed.

  12. Self-healing elastomer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael W. (Inventor); Sottos, Nancy R. (Inventor); White, Scott R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A composite material includes an elastomer matrix, a set of first capsules containing a polymerizer, and a set of second capsules containing a corresponding activator for the polymerizer. The polymerizer may be a polymerizer for an elastomer. The composite material may be prepared by combining a first set of capsules containing a polymerizer, a second set of capsules containing a corresponding activator for the polymerizer, and a matrix precursor, and then solidifying the matrix precursor to form an elastomeric matrix.

  13. Effects of Titanate Coupling Agent on Engineering Properties of Asphalt Binders and Mixtures Incorporating LLDPE-CaCO3 Pellet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated to evaluate the performance of asphalt binders and mixtures incorporating linear low-density polyethylene- calcium carbonate (LLDPE-CaCO3 pellet, either with or without titanate coupling agent. The detailed manufacturing process of modifier pellets was displayed. The coupling agent was used to enhance the cross-linking between materials by means of winding up covalent bonds or molecule chains, thus improving the performance of composites. In the preparation of modified bitumen, the preheated asphalt binder was mixed with the modifiers using a high shear mixer at 5000 rpm rotational speed for 45 min. Experimental works were conducted to evaluate the performance of asphalt binders in terms of volatile loss, viscosity, rutting potential, and low temperature cracking. Meanwhile, the asphalt mixtures were tested using the flow number test and tensile strength ratio (TSR test. The addition of LLDPE-CaCO3 modifiers and coupling agent does not significantly affect the volatile loss of modified asphalt binders. The addition of modifiers and coupling agent has significantly improved the resistance to permanent deformation of asphalt binders. Even though, the addition of LLDPE-CaCO3 modifier and coupling agent remarkably increased the mixture stiffness that contributed to lower rutting potential, the resistance to low temperature cracking of asphalt binder was not adversely affected. The combination of 1% coupling agent with 3% PECC is optimum dosage for asphalt binder to have satisfactory performance in resistance to moisture damage and rutting.

  14. Radiation crosslinking of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    In the first part of this paper a review is presented of recent results which show that the tensile strength and fatigue life of synthetic elastomers cured by radiation are essentially equivalent to those prepared by other crosslinking techniques. An explanation for the conflict of these new results with the earlier studies on natural rubber is presented. Investigations into the mechanisms and kinetics of crosslinking mentioned above have also shown that the irradiation method should be ideal for preparing well characterized networks. Such materials are useful for testing theoretical relationships between the structure of rubber networks and their stress-strain behavior. The second part of this paper is devoted to this aspect. (author)

  15. Acoustic Properties of Absorbent Asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Road traffic is one of the greater cause of noise pollution in urban centers; a prolonged exposure to this source of noise disturbs populations subjected to it. In this paper is reported a study on the absorbent coefficients of asphalt. The acoustic measurements are carried out with a impedance tube (tube of Kundt). The sample are measured in three conditions: with dry material (traditional), “wet” asphalt and “dirty” asphalt.

  16. Impact of the Superpave hot mix asphalt properties on its permanent deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Zahra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Iraq, the severity of rutting has increased in asphalt pavements possibly due to the increase in truck axle loads, tyre pressure, and high pavement temperature in summer. As of late, Superpave has been accounted as an enhanced system for performance based design, analysis of asphalt pavement performance prediction for asphalt concrete mixes. In this research the development of permanent deformation in asphalt concrete under repeated loadings was investigated, Wheel-Tracking apparatus has been used in a factorial testing program during which 44 slab samples were tested to simulate actual pavement. The objectives of the present research include; investigating the main factors affecting rutting in asphalt concrete mixture, quantifying the effect of SBS polymer and steel reinforcement on asphalt concrete mixtures in addition to studying the effect of variables on the asphalt concrete mixes against moisture sensitivity. It has been determined that that increasing of compaction temperature from 110 to 150°C will decrease the permanent deformation by 20.5 and 15.6 percent for coarse and fine gradation control asphalt mixtures, respectively. While the permanent deformation decreases by 21.3 percent when the compaction temperature is increased from 110 to 150°C for coarse gradation SBS modified asphalt mixtures.

  17. Evaluation of factors that affect rutting resistance of asphalt mixes by orthogonal experiment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilian Zou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rutting has been one of the major distresses observed on asphalt pavement in China, due to increasing traffic volume, heavy axle load, continuous hot weather, etc., especially in long-steep-slope section, bus stops, etc. Many factors would affect rutting resistance of asphalt pavement, including material properties, climatic condition, traffic volumes, speed, and axle types, and construction quality.The orthogonal experimental design method was used in this study to reduce the number of tests required, without comprising the validity of the test results. The testing variables and their levels were selected according to investigations and field test results. Effects of various factors on asphalt pavement rutting performance were evaluated, including the asphalt binders, mixture type (aggregate gradation, axle load, vehicle speed and temperature.In this study, the wheel tracking test was used to evaluate rutting performance, as represented by the parameter Dynamic Stability (DS, of the various asphalt mixes. Test results were analyzed using range analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA. All four factors evaluated in this study had significant effects on pavement rutting performance. The ranking of the significance was asphalt mixture type, temperature, loading frequency, and tire-pavement contact pressure. Asphalt mixture type was the most important factor that affects rutting resistance. Within the asphalt mixtures, asphalt binder had significant effects on rutting performance of mixes more than aggregate gradation. Rutting resistance of SBS modified asphalt mixes was significantly better than neat asphalt mixes, and skeleton dense structure mixes were better than suspended dense structure mixes. Keywords: Asphalt mixes, Rutting resistance, Effect factor, Orthogonal experiment design

  18. Mechanical design handbook for elastomers. [the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, M.; Zorzi, E.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive guide for the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery is presented. Theoretical discussions, a step by step procedure for the design of elastomer dampers, and detailed examples of actual elastomer damper applications are included. Dynamic and general physical properties of elastomers are discussed along with measurement techniques.

  19. The mechanical behavior of two warm-mix asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Rondón-Quintana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results stemming from a comparative experimental analysis of two warm-mix asphalts (WMA and a dense-graded hot-mix asphalt (HMA. In order to evaluate asphalt mixture behavior, physical and rheological tests were conducted, including tests on resilient modulus, resistance to moisture-induced damage, resistance to fatigue and resistance to permanent deformation. Samples studied were subjected to short (STOA and long-term (LTOA aging. As far as asphalt mixture composition is concerned, the same particle size distribution and coarse aggregate were employed for both mixture types. The control HMA mixture was produced with AC 60-70, and the WMAs used the same asphalt cement modified with two chemical additives (Rediset WMX® and Cecabase RT®. The modified mixtures exhibited better resistance to permanent deformation, aging and moisture-induced damage (versus the control mixture. Likewise, WMAs generally saw increased fatigue resistance under controlled-stress loading, which rheological characterization showed is mainly attributable to binder additives and their concomitant modifications.

  20. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3% to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  1. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbo; Wu, Shaopeng; Pang, Ling; Sun, Yihan; Chen, Zongwu

    2017-01-07

    In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration) were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3%) to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants) of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  2. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : final report 564.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies have shown that G*/Sin, the high temperature specification parameter for current Performance Graded (PG) asphalt binder is not adequate to reflect the rutting characteristics of polymer-modified binders. Consequently, many state De...

  3. The addition effects of macro and nano clay on the performance of asphalt binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Shafie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to explore the addition effect of macro and organically modified nanoclay on the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt binders. Both macroclay and modified nanoclay were blended in an asphalt binder in various percentages (starting from 2% to 8%. The blended asphalt binders were characterized using kinematic viscosity (C.st, softening point (°C, and penetration and compared with anunmodified binder. The tensile strength of the asphalt binders was also tested as a function of clay types and content%. The results of the study indicated an increase in softening point; kinematics viscosity and decrease in binder penetration. The tensile strength of modified clay binders was enhanced at all percentages by a comparison with both macroclay and unmodified binders. The best improvements in the modified binders were obtained with 6% nanoclay.

  4. Studying the Behavior of Asphalt Mix and Their Properties in the Presence of Nano Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Aman Patidar; Dipankar Sarkar; Manish Pal

    2017-01-01

    Due to rapid development, increase in the traffic load, higher traffic volume and seasonal variation in temperature, asphalt pavement shows distresses like rutting, fatigue and thermal cracking etc. because of this pavement fails during service life so that bitumen needs to be modified with some additive. In this study VG30 grade bitumen modify with addition of nanosilica with 1% to 5% (increment of 1%) by weight of bitumen. Hot mix asphalt (HMA) have higher mixing, laying and rolling tempera...

  5. Recovery of asphalt from bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jossinet, J

    1881-12-31

    A process is disclosed for the recovery of asphalt from bituminous minerals, consisting in that the mineral is extracted with mineral oil, which is recovered by distilling the raw asphalt and distilling the solution to obtain on the one hand the liquid oil contained in the raw asphalt for use in the extraction and on the other hand distilled asphalt.

  6. Radiation resistance of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourquebie, P.; Bigarre, J.; Forveille, J.L.; Raby, J.; Lazare, L.

    2002-01-01

    The COMOR group is a network of laboratories from both the CEA and the CNRS. This network is particularly involved in fundamental and applied studies on the ageing of polymers under irradiation. COMOR has studied the ageing of EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer) because this elastomer is often used in nuclear environment (in cable coating for instance). In this study, we have prepared materials with different formulations and we have characterised their use-condition properties (dielectric and mechanical) before and after γ irradiation. The dielectric measurements are well adapted to study the oxidation and the crosslinking phenomena which appear during the irradiation ageing. We have shown that after a short time, the oxidation is limited by the diffusion of oxygen. A phenolic antioxidant is not able to protect the polymer against the oxidation. However, we used a concentration typical of a purely thermal stabilisation case (0,1%). On the other hand, a diamine type additive with a concentration of 1% showed efficient stabilisation. The mechanical properties of the regular EPDM are strongly affected by the irradiation but there is little difference with regard to radiation resistance between both types of raw materials. Nevertheless, the NORDEL IP 3725 stabilised with the amine has better initial mechanical properties whereas the NORDEL 2722 offers higher strength above 300 kGy. Our results emphasize the stake of a proper stabilisation of polymers with respect to ionising radiation. (authors)

  7. Performance of asphaltic concrete incorporating styrene butadiene rubber subjected to varying aging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Faisal Mohammed; Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra; Mohamed, Azman; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Rosni, Nurul Najihah Mad; Mohamed, Abdullahi Ali; Agussabti

    2017-12-01

    The influence of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) on asphaltic concrete properties at different aging conditions was presented in this study. These aging conditions were named as un-aged, short-term, and long-term aging. The conventional asphalt binder of penetration grade 60/70 was used in this work. Four different levels of SBR addition were employed (i.e., 0 %, 1 %, 3 %, and 5 % by binder weight). Asphalt concrete mixes were prepared at selected optimum asphalt content (5 %). The performance was evaluated based on Marshall Stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests. Results indicated the improving stability and permanent deformation characteristics that the mixes modified with SBR polymer have under aging conditions. The result also showed that the stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests have the highest rates compared to the short-term aging and un-aged samples. Thus, the use of 5 % SBR can produce more durable asphalt concrete mixtures with better serviceability.

  8. Influence of gamma irradiation in the thermoplastic elastomer (TPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Camila B.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Marchini, Leonardo G.

    2017-01-01

    The TPE is the nomenclature used for the thermoplastic elastomer, which is also known as thermoplastic rubber. It belongs to an under-researched class of engineering plastics, however, in recent years there has been steady growth due to its important and unusual combination of properties. During its use, it behaves like an elastomer, but, unlike traditional elastomers (vulcanized rubbers), it can be processed using conventional technologies and equipment used for thermoplastics, such as extrusion and injection. The processing of polymers, such as TPE by means of radiation, constitutes a technological area dedicated to the study of the physical and chemical effects caused by high energy radiation, such as gamma radiation. Thus the objective of this work is to evaluate the mechanical and thermal properties of TPE irradiated by 60 Co source of gamma radiation in different doses. The thermoplastic elastomer being modified by means of ionizing radiation at doses of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 kGy the effects of the radiation on the mechanical and thermal properties of this material are evaluated through the tests of tensile tests, TGA, FTIR and Fluency Index

  9. Effects of tritium in elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    Elastomers are used as flange gaskets in the piping system of the Savannah River Plant tritium facilities. A number of elastomers is being examined to identify those compounds more radiation-resistant than the currently specified Buna-N rubber and to study the mechanism of tritium radiation damage. Radiation resistance is evaluated by compression set tests on specimens exposed to about 1 atm tritium for several months. Initial results show that ethylene-propylene rubber and three fluoroelastomers are superior to Buna-N. Off-gassing measurements and autoradiography show that retained surface absorption of tritium varies by more than an order of magnitude among the different elastomer compounds. Therefore, tritium solubility and/or exchange may have a role in addition to that of chemical structure in the damage process. Ongoing studies of the mechanism of radiation damage include: (1) tritium absorption kinetics, (2) mass spectroscopy of radiolytic products, and (3) infrared spectroscopy

  10. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  11. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    Silicone elastomers have been heavily investigated as candidates for dielectric elastomers and are as such almost ideal candidates with their inherent softness and compliance but they suffer from low dielectric permittivity. This shortcoming has been sought optimized by many means during recent...... years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we investigate the electrical breakdown phenomena of various types of permittivity-enhanced silicone elastomers. Two types...... of silicone elastomers are investigated and different types of breakdown are discussed. Furthermore the use of voltage stabilizers in silicone-based dielectric elastomers is investigated and discussed....

  12. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a mixture containing aggregates and asphalt binders prepared at specified : proportions. The aggregates and asphalt binder proportions are determined through a mix design : procedure such as the Marshall Mix Design or the Sup...

  13. Basic Performance of Fibre Reinforced Asphalt Concrete with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Produced In Low Temperatures with Foamed Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz-Kowalska, Anna; Iwański, Mateusz M.; Mrugała, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    During the reconstruction of road pavements, the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), which is obtained through milling of the worn out existing asphalt, is commonly used for producing new base courses in cold recycling processes. Two of these techniques are most popular: one using mineral-cement-emulsion mixes and one utilizing mineral cement mixes with foamed bitumen. Additionally, some amounts of RAP can be incorporated into traditional hot mix asphalt. The demand for energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions however, results in a need for development of new techniques that would result in cheaper and more reliable solutions with smaller carbon footprint. The reduction of processing temperatures with simultaneous incorporation of reclaimed material is the most efficient way of obtaining these objectives, but it often results in the overall decrease of bituminous mix quality. The paper presents the possibility of using RAP for producing asphalt concrete in warm mix asphalt (WMA) production process by the use of foamed bitumen modified with Fischer-Tropsch synthetic wax and polymer-basalt fibers. Additionally, a series of reference mixtures were produced to investigate the effects of the additives and of the warm process. The carried out analyses and tests shown that the experimental warm mix asphalt produced with RAP and foamed bitumen returned satisfactory performance. The introduction of synthetic F-T wax in the warm foam bitumen mixes resulted in a significantly improved compaction levels and moisture and frost resistance and the addition of polymer-basalt fibers has further improved the permanent deformation resistance of the mixes. All of the designed and tested mixes have fulfilled the requirements for binding course asphalt concrete with medium traffic loads.

  14. Stability and Volumetric Properties of Asphalt Mixture Containing Waste Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Kader Siti Aminah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to determine the optimum bitumen content (OBC for every percentage added of waste plastics in asphalt mixtures and to investigate the stability properties of the asphalt mixtures containing waste plastic. Marshall stability and flow values along with density, air voids in total mix, voids in mineral aggregate, and voids filled with bitumen were determined to obtain OBC at different percentages of waste plastic, i.e., 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% by weight of bitumen as additive. Results showed that the OBC for the plastic-modified asphalt mixtures at 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% are 4.98, 5.44, 5.48, and 5.14, respectively. On the other hand, the controlled specimen’s shows better volumetric properties compared to plastic mixes. However, 4% additional of waste plastic indicated better stability than controlled specimen.

  15. Volumetric Analysis and Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt with Variable Rap Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP to the asphalt concrete mixture for highway construction offer many benefits including energy consumption, conservation of natural resources and preservation of the environment to associated emissions. This paper presents a study on performance of Hot Mix Asphalt with variable RAP content. The study is carried out to evaluate the Marshall Properties and Performance of RAP-Asphalt mixes using conventional asphaltic concrete mix AC14. Marshall Mix Design Method was used to produce control mix (0% RAP and RAP-Asphalt mixes samples which consist of 15% RAP, 25% RAP and 35% RAP in accordance with Specifications for Road Works of Public Works Department, Malaysia. The Marshall Properties analysis was performed to ensure compliance with Marshall Requirements, The resilient modulus test was performed to measure the stiffness of the mixes while Modified Lottman test was conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of these mixes. The results obtained showed that there were no substantial difference in Marshall Properties, moisture susceptibility and indirect tensile strength between RAP-Asphalt mixes with the control mix. The test results indicated that recycled mixes performed as good as the performance of conventional HMA in terms of moisture susceptibility and resilient modulus. It is recommended that further research be carried out for asphalt mixes containing more than 35% of RAP material.

  16. Alabama warm mix asphalt field study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation hosted a warm mix asphalt field demonstration in August 2007. The warm mix asphalt technology demonstrated was Evotherm Dispersed Asphalt Technology. The WMA and hot mix asphalt produced for the demonstration ...

  17. Progresses in irradiating SBS for road asphalt applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linfan; Xie Leidong; Fu Haiying; Li Yintao; Yu Min; Sheng Kanglong; Yao Side

    2006-01-01

    Technical developments at SINAP to improve properties of SBS, a styrene-butadiene- styrene copolymer, for road asphalt applications are reviewed. In an attempt to better solve problems related to undesirable compatibility of SBS to asphalt components, we proposed a new method to modify the SBS molecular chains with ionizing radiations through radiation graft copolymerization and radiation crosslinking. Grafting a monomer with polar functional groups onto SBS molecules improves compatibility of SBS to polar components of asphalt, hence enhanced storage stability of the polymer modified asphalt (PMA), while crosslinks of SBS molecular chains endues increased physical properties to the PMA. Mechanisms of the radiation effects were studied with a series of SBS samples irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays or electron beams. The PMA and macadam-blended PMA samples showed higher performance than the control, i.e. SBS-modified asphalt by conventional approaches. The results can be summarized as follows. 1. The grafted SBS enhances thermostability of saturates and aromatics, the two asphalt components that exhibit the biggest SBS-swelling effect. The resins of asphalt, however, can hardly be absorbed by SBS, and the SBS is in a phase-separation status with the resins. Therefore, it is crucial to strengthen reactions between SBS and the resins to obtain stable and high quality PMA. 2. SBS molecular chains can be crosslinked with irradiation of a few tens of kGy. The crosslinking effect was evidenced by increased molecular weight of SBS and wider distribution of the molecular weight in GPC measurement of the irradiated SBS samples, and by decreased activation energy of viscosity in rheological measurement, in which the storage modulus G' increased and the loss modulus G' declined with increasing doses, indicating a larger elastic component and smaller viscous component in the irradiated SBS. Correspondingly, temperature sensitivity of the irradiated SBS reduced. Blended with SBS

  18. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  19. Polyurethane elastomers in armour applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    The use of elastomers in ballistic protection products (armour) is limited to low threat levels and transparent armour solution components. Often armor is considered a parasitic mass that increases with increasing threat levels. Therefore, low weight solutions are welcomed and bulk polymers,

  20. Modification of local asphalt with epoxy resin to be used in pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.M. Abd El Rahman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The durability of asphalt pavement is greatly influenced by the environmental changes during the year. In this paper, we prepared asphalt modified by mixing asphalt 60/70 with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR in different percentages (5, 10 and 15%, which was achieved using preformed peracetic acid (aqueous solution 59% at 60–80 °C, then molten cross-linker maleic anhydride (MA was added to modified asphalt until homogenous blends are achieved. Marshall test was used to evaluate the asphalt pavement performance depending on the curing time and hardener concentration. To measure marshall test, the pervious mixture was stirred with aggregate jop formula mix (JMF and 40% MA at 150–170 °C for 20 h and 1600 rpm. From the obtained data, it was found that asphalt mixed with 15% of ENR + 40% MA achieves a high stability (16,632 Newton, air voids of 2.5%, flow of 2.9 mm and mineral voids of 14.6%. While, the stability of the unmodified asphalt was (11,500 Newton, the flow 3.2 mm, the suitable air void value was 3.7% at 5.5% with the same conditions.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of New ‎Copolymers as Asphalt Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firyal M. ‎ A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of asphalt S50  were improved by adding different prepared copolymers as additives with high homogeneity of asphalts  samples.  Three types of copolymers were prepared  Poly  (Indene –Co- maleic anhydride(A1 Poly (Acrylonitrile –Co- Maleic anhydride (A2 and Poly (Dipentine –Co-Maleic anhydride (A3, the cross linking of (A3 to (A3d. by using sulfur.              These copolymers  were designed by inserting Maleic anhydride as  rings  containing through backbone of polymer chains to be high potentially to react with water to protect the crack of pavement .And moisture with inhibit bonding of crack of pavement, Many factors should be considered when prepared the additives to enhanced performance to be convenience cost, beneficial thermal safety ,   extended life of the asphalt, preparing conditions which gave high thermal resistance with more stabilities, all these prepared copolymer have been characterized by FTIR and H-NMR spectroscopies .Intrinsic viscosities were calculated. softening point and penetration were observed for all asphalts blends which were  compared with the  asphalt samples, which gave high thermal resistance with more stabilities.                                          The results  showed high properties of these blends when  compared with the original asphalt. The physical properties of a specific polymers are determined by the sequence and chemical structure , When polymers are added to asphalt , the properties of the modified asphalt cement depend on polymer characteristic of asphalt and compatibility of polymer with asphalt. All these prepared copolymers were tested by softening points and penetration for all  asphalt blends which were compared with the asphalt sample. All the Improvements made by adding polymers to asphalt included the Increasing the viscosity of the binder service, the thermal susceptibility of the binder

  2. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 {times} 10{sup -7} cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 {times} 10{sup -8} cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 {times} 10{sup -9} cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 {times} 10{sup -11} cm/s.

  3. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 x 10 -7 cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 x 10 -8 cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 x 10 -9 cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 x 10 -11 cm/s

  4. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction. PMID:24688369

  5. Effects of Test Conditions on APA Rutting and Prediction Modeling for Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available APA rutting tests were conducted for six kinds of asphalt mixtures under air-dry and immersing conditions. The influences of test conditions, including load, temperature, air voids, and moisture, on APA rutting depth were analyzed by using grey correlation method, and the APA rutting depth prediction model was established. Results show that the modified asphalt mixtures have bigger rutting depth ratios of air-dry to immersing conditions, indicating that the modified asphalt mixtures have better antirutting properties and water stability than the matrix asphalt mixtures. The grey correlation degrees of temperature, load, air void, and immersing conditions on APA rutting depth decrease successively, which means that temperature is the most significant influencing factor. The proposed indoor APA rutting prediction model has good prediction accuracy, and the correlation coefficient between the predicted and the measured rutting depths is 96.3%.

  6. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  7. Evaluación de las propiedades mecánicas de una mezcla densa en caliente modificada con un desecho de polietileno de baja densidad (PEBD Mechanical properties evaluation of a dense hot asphalt mixture modified with a residue of low density polyethylene (LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Rondón Quintana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los resultados experimentales de ensayar una mezcla asfáltica densa en caliente tipo MDC-2 (acorde con las especificaciones del Instituto Nacional de Vías - INVIAS, 2007 modificada con un desecho de polietileno de baja densidad (PEBD. Para la evaluación del comportamiento de las mezclas asfálticas convencionales (sin aditivo y modificadas se realizaron ensayos Marshall, módulo dinámico, deformación permanente y resistencia a fatiga. Las mezclas fueron elaboradas con un cemento asfáltico (CA producido en Colombia tipo CA 80-100. Al CA con y sin aditivo se realizaron ensayos de caracterización de asfaltos como penetración y punto de ablandamiento. La modificación de las mezclas se realizó por vía húmeda. Las mezclas modificadas con desecho de PEBD experimentan mayor rigidez (bajo carga monotónica y cíclica y resistencia a la deformación permanente en comparación con las convencionales. Sin embargo la resistencia a fatiga de las mezclas convencionales disminuye cuando se adiciona PEBD al CA. Adicionalmente el CA modificado presenta mayor resistencia a la penetración, mayor punto de ablandamiento y menor susceptibilidad térmica a fluir que el convencional.Laboratory tests were used to evaluate the effect on the mechanical properties of a hot asphalt mix (MDC-2 as per INVIAS, 2007 specifications due to the addition by wet way of a residue of low density polyethylene (LDPE. The strength under monotonic load, resilient modulus, rutting and fatigue strength were evaluated. Asphalt cement (AC AC 80-100 was used from Colombia. The results show that the monotonic and cyclic mechanical strength evaluated were higher for the mixes modified with LDPE compared with mixtures with asphalts without additives. However, the mixes modified with LDPE undergo less fatigue strength. Additionally, characterization tests were conducted on asphalt cement with and without additive. The LDPE produces higher penetration resistance

  8. Using waste plastic bottles as additive for stone mastic asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadinia, Esmaeil; Zargar, Majid; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez; Shafigh, Payam

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The PET increased the stiffness level of the mixture improving its resistance level against permanent deformation. → The effects of waste PET on Marshall Stability, air void and bulk specific gravity of the mixture are significant. → The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. -- Abstract: Currently, polymer modified asphalt mixture is a relatively costly mixture for paving roads. One way to reduce the cost of such constructions and rendering them more convenient is by using inexpensive polymers, i.e. waste polymers. The main purpose of this research is to determine the effect of incorporating waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the engineering properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture. The volumetric and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes that include various percentages of PET (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) were calculated and assessed with laboratory tests. The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. The outcomes were statistically analysed and the determination of the significance at certain confidence limits was performed with the two factor variance analysis (ANOVA). Moreover, some studies conducted on polyethylene modified asphalt mixture have also been taken into consideration in this paper. The results show that the addition of PET has a significant positive effect on the properties of SMA and it can promote the re-use of waste material in industry in an environmentally friendly and economical way.

  9. Hydrogenizing oils, asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1925-03-14

    The hydrogenation of carbonaceous solids in presence of combined sulfur, e.g., sulfides as described in the parent specification is applied to the treatment of rock oils, shale oils, resins, ozokerite, asphalt, and the like, or fractions, residues, or acid sludge or other conversion products thereof, alone or mixed. Preferably the hydrogen or other reducing gas is in excess and under pressure, and is either circuited or led through a series of treatment vessels, hydrogen being added for that used. In an example, residues from American crude oil are passed continuously with hydrogen at 200 atmospheres and 450 to 500/sup 0/C over pressed precipitated cobalt sulfide, the issuing gases being cooled to condense the light oil produced.

  10. Silicone rubbers for dielectric elastomers with improved dielectric and mechanical properties as a result of substituting silica with titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    One prominent method of modifying the properties of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is by adding suitable metal oxide fillers. However, almost all commercially available silicone elastomers are already heavily filled with silica to reinforce the otherwise rather weak silicone network and the resulting...... and dynamic viscosity. Filled silicone elastomers with high loadings of nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles were also studied. The best overall performing formulation had 35 wt.% TiO2 nanoparticles in the POWERSIL® XLR LSR, where the excellent ensemble of relative dielectric permittivity of 4.9 at 0...

  11. Investigation of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Technologies and Increased Percentages of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The implementation of warm-mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more widespread with a growing number of contractors utilizing various WMA technologies. Early research suggests WMA may be more susceptible to moisture damage than traditional hot-mix asphalt ...

  12. Assessment of low temperature cracking in asphalt pavement mixes and rheological performance of asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowah-Kuma, David

    Government spends a lot of money on the reconstruction and rehabilitation of road pavements in any given year due to various distresses and eventual failure. Low temperature (thermal) cracking, one of the main types of pavement distress, contributes partly to this economic loss, and comes about as a result of accumulated tensile strains exceeding the threshold tensile strain capacity of the pavement. This pavement distress leads to a drastic reduction of the pavement's service life and performance. In this study, the severity of low temperature (thermal) cracking on road pavements selected across the Province of Ontario and its predicted time to failure was assessed using the AASTHO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) and AASHTOWARE(TM) software, with inputs such as creep compliance and tensile strength from laboratory test. Highway 400, K1, K2, Y1, Sasobit, Rediset LQ, and Rediset WMX were predicted to have a pavement in-service life above 15 years. Additionally, the rheological performance of the recovered asphalt binders was assessed using Superpave(TM) tests such as the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and bending beam rheometer (BBR). Further tests using modified standard protocols such as the extended bending beam rheometer (eBBR) (LS-308) test method and double-edge notched tension (DENT) test (LS-299) were employed to evaluate the failure properties associated with in service performance. The various rheological tests showed K1 to be the least susceptible to low temperature cracking compared to the remaining samples whiles Highway 24 will be highly susceptible to low temperature cracking. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was performed on the recovered asphalt binders to determine the presence of metals such as zinc (Zn) and molybdenum (Mo) believed to originate from waste engine oil, which is often added to asphalt binders. Finally, the severity of oxidative aging (hardening) of the recovered asphalt binders was also evaluated using the

  13. Determine viscoelastic mechanical properties of warm mix asphalt (WMA)-reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) mixes under high stresses in air-field flexible pavements and its impact on design life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The introduction of larger aircrafts on flexible airfield pavements has led to a need for asphalt mixtures capable of sustaining such heavy : loads. This laboratory and analytical study investigated the mechanical responses of a number of modified as...

  14. Performance of asphalt mixture incorporating recycled waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Nor Baizura; Abdullah, Mohd Ezree; Sanik, Mohd Erwan; Mokhtar, Mardiha; Kaamin, Masiri; Raduan, Rasyidah; Ramli, Mohd Zakwan

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, the amount of premix waste was increased every year, especially at the batching plants. Normally, the waste materials will be discarded without doing any innovative and effective research about those materials. This situation has become one of the global concerns due to the increasing number of premix waste produced every year. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) using premix waste on improving asphalt mixture fatigue behaviour. The method used in this study was Superpave mix design method. The sample conducted in this study were 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 100% of premix waste respectively. For a binder test, the laboratory test conducted were penetration test, softening test and thin film oven test while for the performance test were resilient modulus test and indirect tensile fatigue test. From the laboratory test, the resilient modulus test was conducted with two different temperature which was 25°C and 40°C. The result from that test was 20% of premix waste had higher resilient modulus at that two different temperatures compared to another samples. From that test also shown that the sample at the lower temperature which was 25°C has higher resilient modulus compared to the temperature of 40°C. Indirect tensile fatigue test showed that the 30% of premix waste sample was suitable for the modified asphalt mixture with referring to the maximum deformation and strain for comparison control, 10%,20%, and 100% of premix waste samples. So, it can be concluded that premix waste inhibits great potential as road construction material and suitable for repeated traffic loading.

  15. Arrangement for the measurement of the quantity of asphalt in an asphaltic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, I.; Taniguchi, K.

    1978-01-01

    The arrangement for the measurement of the quantity of asphalt in an asphaltic compound in an apparatus for the mixture of asphalt components and an aggregate for the formation of an asphaltic compound characterized by the inclusion of a member for the transmission of a neutron beam which reacts with the hydrogen atoms in the asphaltic compound in such a way that the energy of a neutron beam is adsorbed; a continuous transport device feeds a continuous supply of the asphalt compound past the neutron beam; a member responds to an automatic detector for the quantity of asphaltic components in the asphaltic compound and provides an adjustment so that the quantity [of asphaltic components in asphaltic compound] may be held at a constant value. (G.C.)

  16. A review of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology, recently developed in Europe, is gaining strong interest in the US. By : lowering the viscosity of asphalt binder and/or increasing the workability of mixture using minimal heat, WMA : technology allows the mixing, ...

  17. Controlling conductivity of asphalt concrete with graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has a huge potential for various multifunctional applications such as : self-healing, self-sensing, and deicing. In order to utilize the full spectrum of applications of electrically conductive : asphalt compo...

  18. Constructing better roads with asphalt rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Jorge C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilians mixtures containing asphalt rubber were evaluated by mechanical laboratory tests. A conventional mixture with asphalt CAP-50/70 was produced as a mixture control. With the aim of compare the Brazilians mixtures performance, a Portuguese asphalt rubber mixture was tested as well. The testing set involved the determination of the mechanical properties, fatigue and permanent deformation, of asphalt rubber produced by wet process through two different systems: continuous blend and terminal blend. The asphalt rubber morphology was evaluated in order to determine the compatibility of the systems. The asphalt rubber mixtures exhibit good resistance to permanent deformation and prolonged fatigue life in relation to mixture control. Therefore it is concluded that the application of asphalt rubber alters the characteristics of asphalt mixture in a very beneficial way.

  19. VISCOELASTIC STRUCTURAL MODEL OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bogomolov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic rheological model of asphalt concrete based on the generalized Kelvin model is offered. The mathematical model of asphalt concrete viscoelastic behavior that can be used for calculation of asphalt concrete upper layers of non-rigid pavements for strength and rutting has been developed. It has been proved that the structural model of Burgers does not fully meet all the requirements of the asphalt-concrete.

  20. Liquid-Embedded Elastomer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca; Majidi, Carmel; Park, Yong-Lae; Paik, Jamie; Wood, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Hyperelastic sensors are fabricated by embedding a silicone rubber film with microchannels of conductive liquid. In the case of soft tactile sensors, pressing the surface of the elastomer will deform the cross-section of underlying channels and change their electrical resistance. Soft pressure sensors may be employed in a variety of applications. For example, a network of pressure sensors can serve as artificial skin by yielding detailed information about contact pressures. This concept was demonstrated in a hyperelastic keypad, where perpendicular conductive channels form a quasi-planar network within an elastomeric matrix that registers the location, intensity and duration of applied pressure. In a second demonstration, soft curvature sensors were used for joint angle proprioception. Because the sensors are soft and stretchable, they conform to the host without interfering with the natural mechanics of motion. This marked the first use of liquid-embedded elastomer electronics to monitor human or robotic motion. Finally, liquid-embedded elastomers may be implemented as conductors in applications that call for flexible or stretchable circuitry, such as robotic origami.

  1. The crack growth mechanism in asphaltic mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.M.J.; Hopman, P.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The crack growth mechanism in asphalt concrete (Ac) mixes is studied. In cyclic tests on several asphaltic mixes crack growth is measured, both with crack foils and with cOD-gauges. It is found that crack growth in asphaltic mixes is described by three processes which are parallel in time: cohesive

  2. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  3. Evaluation of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a project in which approximately 6,200 tons (5,630 Mg) of asphaltic concrete were recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant. During the construction of the project, a buildup of asphalt-coated fines occurred in the dry...

  4. Characterization of asphalt treated base course material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Asphalt-treated bases are often used in new pavements; the materials are available and low-cost, but there is little data on how these materials perform in cold regions. : This study investigated four ATB types (hot asphalt, emulsion, foamed asphalt,...

  5. MODELACIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO REOLÓGICO DE ASFALTO CONVENCIONAL Y MODIFICADO CON POLÍMERO RECICLADO, ESTUDIADA DESDE LA RELACIÓN VISCOSIDAD-TEMPERATURA MODELAMENTO DO COMPORTAMENTO REOLÓGICO DE ASFALTO CONVENCIONAL E MODIFICADO COM POLÍMERO RECICLADO MODELING OF RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF CONVENTIONAL AND RECYCLED POLYMER MODIFIED ASPHALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleydi Cárdenas

    2009-12-01

    the binder has a significant influence on the properties of the asphalt- -aggregate mixture (truck-wheel test, fatigue, and thermal susceptibility,. To describe the rheological behavior of asphalt from the Barrancabermeja Industrial Complex (IBC and the modified asphalt with recycled material (polystyrene and tire rubber with and without control of particle size, viscosity measurements were conducted at different temperatures (intervals of 2 º C with a Brookfield rotational viscometer, and from these data suggested several mathematical expressions that describe the behavior of viscosity in terms of temperature, were evaluated in terms of the coefficient of determination, and determined the mixing and compaction temperatures. The results indicate that the best fit in the three cases corresponds to the Arrhenius model truncation, correlations between 0.9945 and 0.9968. The mixing and compaction temperatures calculated from this model compared to those of norms ASTM D2493 (2001 and AASHTO (2002 were significantly different for the modified asphalt (polymer-controlled particle size, but similar to the original asphalt. Furthermore, in order to establish the chemical structure of the original and modified asphalt and its influence on the viscosity, the separation was performed for each sample according to ASTM D4124 (2001. The results indicated that only structural changes occurred in the polymer-modified asphalt controlled particle size, which shows the relationship between chemical composition and viscosity of the three binders studied.

  6. Initiative assessment of asphalt works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikheim, Bente; Kjerschow, Einar

    2003-01-01

    Several asphalt works are utilizing heat from combustion of used oil for drying and heating of rock material in the production of asphalt. According to new regulations on combustion of waste, used oil is to be regarded as waste and subject to emission requirements according to the combustion regulations. Measurements show that emissions of CO, dust, dioxins, TOC and SO 2 exceed the limits set by the regulations. To conform to the regulations these asphalt works must improve their combustion technique. However, such measures may lead to increased formation of NOx. It is recommended that a combustion chamber for drying of rock material should be used in order to reduce the emissions of CO and TOC concentrations. The concentration of SO 2 may be reduced by dry cleaning by means of injection of lime. In the same way, active carbon is injected to remove dioxins. The asphalt works must be outfitted with measuring equipment that monitors and records certain operation and control parameters and some emission to air parameters. Periodic measurements are to be done of heavy metals and dioxins. It is estimated that the measures necessary to make the asphalt works comply with the regulations will cost about NOK 4 530 000 in investment per plant and that the operation expenses will increase by NOK 700 000 per year per plant. This includes maintenance, control etc

  7. Mechanistic and Economical Characteristics of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena I. Souliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavement systems. Flexural bending beam fatigue laboratory test has been used for several decades and is considered to be an integral part of the new superpave advanced characterization procedure. One of the most significant solutions to prolong the fatigue life for an asphaltic mixture is to utilize flexible materials as rubber. A laboratory testing program was performed on a conventional and Asphalt Rubber- (AR- gap-graded mixtures to investigate the impact of added rubber on the mechanical, mechanistic, and economical attributes of asphaltic mixtures. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted according to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO procedures. The results from the beam fatigue tests indicated that the AR-gap-graded mixtures would have much longer fatigue life compared with the reference (conventional mixtures. In addition, a mechanistic analysis using 3D-Move software coupled with a cost analysis study based on the fatigue performance on the two mixtures was performed. Overall, analysis showed that AR modified asphalt mixtures exhibited significantly lower cost of pavement per 1000 cycles of fatigue life per mile compared to conventional HMA mixture.

  8. PZT/PLZT - elastomer composites with improved piezoelectric voltage coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, K.; Bavbande, D. V.; Mohan, Dhirendra; Manoharan, B.; Prasad, M. R. S.; Kalyanakrishnan, G.

    2018-02-01

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) and Lanthanum-modified Lead Zirconate Titanate (PLZT) ceramic sensor materials are widely used because of their excellent piezoelectric coefficients. These materials are brittle, high density and have low achievable piezoelectric voltage coefficients. The density of the sintered ceramics shall be reduced by burnable polymeric sponge method. The achievable porosity level in this case is nearly 60 - 90%. However, the porous ceramic structure with 3-3 connectivity produced by this method is very fragile in nature. The strength of the porous structure is improved with Sylgard®-184 (silicone elastomer) by vacuum impregnation method maintaining the dynamic vacuum level in the range of -650 mm Hg. The elastomer Sylgard®-184 is having low density, low dielectric constant and high compliance (as a resultant stiffness of the composites is increased). To obtain a net dipole moment, the impregnated ceramic composites were subjected to poling treatment with varying conditions of D.C. field and temperature. The properties of the poled PZT/PLZT - elastomer composites were characterized with LCR meter for measuring the dielectric constant values (k), d33 meter used for measuring piezo-electric charge coefficient values (d33) and piezo-electric voltage coefficient (g33) values which were derived from d33 values. The voltage coefficient (g33) values of these composites are increased by 10 fold as compared to the conventional solid ceramics demonstrates that it is possible to fabricate a conformable detector.

  9. Interfacial Properties of EXXPRO(TM) and General Purpose Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Rafailovich, M.; Sokolov, Jon; Qu, S.; Ge, S.; Ngyuen, D.; Li, Z.; Peiffer, D.; Song, L.; Dias, J. A.; McElrath, K. O.

    1998-03-01

    EXXPRO(Trademark) elastomers are used for tires and many other applications. This elastomer (denoted as BIMS) is a random copolymer of p-methylstyrene (MS) and polyisobutylene (I) with varying degrees of PMS content and bromination (B) on the p-methyl group. BIMS is impermeable to gases, and has good heat, ozone and flex resistance. Very often general purpose elastomers are blended with BIMS. The interfacial width between polybutadiene and BIMS is a sensitive function of the Br level and PMS content. By neutron reflectivity (NR), we studied the dynamics of interface formation as a function of time and temperature for BIMS with varying degrees of PMS and Br. We found that in addition to the bulk parameters, the total film thickness and the proximity of an interactive surface can affect the interfacial interaction rates. The interfacial properties can also be modified by inclusion of particles, such as carbon black (a filler component in tire rubbers). Results will be presented on the relation between the interfacial width as measured by NR and compatibilization studies via AFM and LFM.

  10. Evaluation of moisture damage in asphalt concrete with CRM motorcycle tire waste passing #50 sieve size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Pranoto; Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this experimental research is to evaluate moisture damage in Asphalt Concrete (AC) with Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) motorcycle tire waste passing #50 and retaining #100 sieve size. Two gradations were used in this research, the first gradation is usual for asphalt concrete base (ACB) and the second gradation is for asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC). Marshall testing apparatus was used for testing the Marshall specimens. Seven levels of CRM content were used, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5% and 6% by weight of mixtures. Retained stability represent the level of moisture damage of AC pavement. The result indicates that addition CRM to the AC mixture increases their the stability to a maximum value and subsequent addition decrease the stability. The addition CRM to AC decreases their moisture damage susceptibility. AC with 1% CRM is the best asphalt-CRM mix.

  11. Thermo-mechanical properties improvement of asphalt binder by using methylmethacrylate/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ragab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Various polymer-modified asphalt compositions for paving and roofing applications are known since several years ago. The degree to which a polymer improves the asphalt’s properties depends on the compatibility of the polymer and the asphalt. Highly compatible polymers are more effective in providing property improvements. In this research, the influence of in situ polymerization of methylmethacrylate monomer with asphalt in presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM as a crosslinker on the rheological and thermal properties of asphalt binder of type penetration grade 60/70 was studied. To achieve this aim, MMA/EGDM(MC in different ratios as 5, 10 and 15% (w/w were used to modify the thermo-mechanical properties of asphalt via forming chemical bond, and the changing in mechanical and thermal properties, of the mixes as well as the storage stability were studied. Also, the morphology (SEM, thermal characterization (TGA, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, bending and rheological tests were detected. The obtained experimental results revealed that the addition of MC causes both the rheological and thermal properties of the binder to improve and the prepared PMAs has high temperature susceptibility and low curing time. The improvement in the properties of the virgin asphalt will be effective in using this soft type in coating applications instead of highly expensive oxidized one.

  12. Improving Asphalt Mixtures Performance by Mitigating Oxidation Using Anti-Oxidants Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessouky, Samer; Diaz, Manuel

    Polymer modified additives are typically used to improve rheological properties of asphalt binder as well as mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mix. In this study, polymer-modified binder PG70-22 is mixing with two co-polymers enhanced with anti-oxidant agents namely; Solution Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SSBR) and Solution Ethylene-Butylene/Styrene (SEBS). The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of those additives into the rheological properties of the asphalt binder using temperature sweep test and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes. The aging index is determined to evaluate the role of additives to reduce brittleness after aging of the binder. The performance of asphalt mixes were characterized by Hamburg Wheel Tracking Test for moisture damage, Beam Fatigue Test for fatigue properties and Flow Number Test for rutting performance. It is found that the asphalt mixes with enhanced binders are improving its rutting and moisture resistance but decreased its fatigue life compared to the control mix.

  13. Biodegradable xylitol-based elastomers: In vivo behavior and biocompatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Bruggeman (Joost); C.J. Bettinger (Christopher); R.S. Langer (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBiodegradable elastomers based on polycondensation reactions of xylitol with sebacic acid, referred to as poly(xylitol sebacate) (PXS) elastomers have recently been developed. We describe the in vivo behavior of PXS elastomers. Four PXS elastomers were synthesized, characterized, and

  14. Investigations of the Montmorillonite and Aluminium Trihydrate Addition Effects on the Ignitability and Thermal Stability of Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of limiting oxygen index (LOI, cone calorimeter, and TG-DSC tests, this paper investigated the effect of unmodified montmorillonite (MMT, organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT, and aluminium trihydrate (ATH additions on the flame retardancy for asphalt combustion. Experimental results showed that adding a small amount of montmorillonite did not significantly increase the oxygen index of the asphalt but reduced the heat release rate during asphalt combustion. TGA tests had indicated that the montmorillonite (MMT and OMMT could suppress the release of flammable volatiles and form more asphaltenes, which hence postponed the burnout time of asphalt. Furthermore, the combination of montmorillonite (MMT and OMMT and ATH had yielded a synergistic effect, which had further reduced the heat release rate and also increased the oxygen index of asphalt. In particular, after further addition of OMMT, the barrier layer showed less crack, leading to a significant decrease in the heat release rate as compared to the adding of ATH alone.

  15. Waterproofing improvement of radioactive waste asphalt solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ikeoka, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the waterproofing of asphalt solid by adding an alkaline earth metal salt and, further, paraffin, into radioactive liquid waste when processing asphalt solidification of the radioactive liquid waste. Method: Before processing molten asphalt solidification of radioactive liquid waste, soluble salts of alkaline earth metal such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, or the like is added to the radioactive liquid waste. Paraffin having a melting point of higher than 60 0 C, for example, is added to the asphalt, and waterproofing can be remarkably improved. The waste asphalt solid thus fabricated can prevent the swelling thereof, and can improve its waterproofing. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. Thermal behavior of asphalt cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudy, P.M.; Letoffe, J.M.; Martin, D.; Planche, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Asphalt cements are highly complex mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules whose thermal behavior is of prime importance for petroleum and road industry. From DSC, the determination of several thermal properties of asphalts is given, e.g. glass-transition temperature and crystallized fraction content.The dissolution of a pure n-paraffin C n H 2n+2 in an asphalt, as seen by DSC, should be a single peak. For 20 g of these glasses change with time and temperature. The formation of the crystallized phases is superposed to the enthalpic relaxation of the glasses, making a kinetic study very difficult. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Microstructure of dimethylsiloxane based magnetic elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasoiu, M.; Craus, M.L.; Anitas, E.M.; Bica, I.; Plestil, J.; Kuklin, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    Dimethylsiloxane based elastomers filled with two types of magnetic particles (nano- and micro-sized) were investigated. It was obtained that doping with Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and applying of magnetic field during the polymerization process leads to a significant change of the local structure of elastomer. After filling the polymer with Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles the magnetic elastomer presents a mass fractal structure. The mass fractal dimension is decreasing in the magnetic elastomer polymerized in magnetic field. For the elastomer filled with a large amount of Fe microparticles (75% particle concentration) a texture effect is detected; for the samples polymerized in magnetic field the texture effect is higher. Surface fractal property is obtained for all microparticle concentrations

  18. Polypropylene/elastomers/organophilic bentonite nanocomposites. Influence of elastomer content on morphology and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, K.R.M.; Braga, C.R.C.; Andrade, D.L.A.C.S.; Carvalho, L.H.; Silva, S.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the elastomer terpolymer ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) content on the morphology and mechanical properties of polypropylene PP/EPDM/organophilic bentonite nanocomposite was evaluated. The bentonite, supplied by Bentonit Uniao Nordeste, was purified and organically modified with cetyl trimethyl quaternary ammonium (cetremide) before the incorporation in PP/EPDM blend. The blends with various amounts of EPDM (10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) and 1 phr of organoclay were prepared by melt-blending at 180 deg C and 50 rpm for 15 min with an internal mixer (Haake). The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction and mechanical properties (tensile strength). According to the results, we concluded that the content of EPDM affected the morphology and mechanical properties of nanocomposites resulting in improvement in mechanical and morphological properties when a content of 30 wt% of EPDM was used. (author)

  19. Effect of new type of synthetic waxes on reduced production and compaction temperature of asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Tereza; Benešová, Lucie; Mastný, Jan; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Lower mixing and paving temperatures of asphalt mixtures, which are an important issue in recent years, with respect to increased energy demand of civil engineering structures during their processing, allow reduction of this demand and result in minimized greenhouse gas production. In present time, there are many possibilities how to achieve reduction of production temperature during the mixing and paving of an asphalt mixture. The existing solutions distinguish in target operating temperature behaviour which has to be achieved in terms of good workability. This paper is focused on technical solutions based on use of new types of selected synthetic and bio-based waxes. In case of bio-based additive sugar cane wax was used, which is free of paraffins and is reclaimed as waste product during processing of sugar cane. The used waxes are added to bituminous binder in form of free-flowing granules or fine-grained powder. Synthetic waxes are represented by new series of Fischer-Tropsch wax in form of fine granules as well as by polyethylene waxes in form of fine-grained powder or granules. Those waxes were used to modify a standard paving grade bitumen dosed into asphalt mixture of ACsurf type containing up to 30 % of reclaimed asphalt (RA).

  20. Analysis of the usage of rubberized asphalt in hot mix asphalt using Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwidarma Nataadmadja, Adelia; Prahara, Eduardi; Sumbung, Pierre Christian

    2017-12-01

    There has been an increasing demand in using more environmentally friendly materials in pavement construction. One of the alternative materials that have been widely used is the Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) aggregates. The RAP aggregates are derived from the crushed and screened pavement materials that contain asphalt and aggregates. This material is usually combined with natural aggregates and virgin asphalt binder to construct a new pavement. There have been numerous positive feedbacks in using this material although RAP aggregates also have certain weaknesses, such as questionable interaction between virgin and recycled materials and increased stiffness of RAP binder. Moreover, there has been a push on using rubber as an additive to asphalt binder to improve the welfare of rubber farmers. This research combines the usage of both latex and RAP as the ingredients to design hot mix asphalt (HMA) as latex could help in improving the flexibility of HMA and the interaction between the virgin and recycled materials. The main objective of this research is to find a suitable percentage of RAP aggregates to be used in HMA with certain percentage of latex as the binder additive.

  1. Scrap tire rubber as modifier of asphalt cement for use in road paving Borracha de pneus como modificador de cimentos asfálticos para uso em obras de pavimentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Oda

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a research on the technical feasibility of the use of asphalt-rubber binder by the asphalt paving industry. In Brazil more than 30 million tires a year are disposed of, mostly in inadequate sites, causing serious health and environmental problems. The effects of the main factors (rubber content, rubber particle size, temperature of mixture, reaction time on the behavior of asphalt-rubber binders are evaluated by traditional and Superpave Method tests, the latter based on certain fundamental properties directly related to field performance. Results of the statistical analysis of the factorial design of laboratory experiments show the most significant effect of rubber contents, or rather, that asphalt-rubber binder may increase the resistance against permanent deformation and fatigue crackingEste trabalho apresenta estudo sobre a incorporação de borracha de pneus em ligantes asfálticos utilizados em obras de pavimentação. Trata-se de uma alternativa para solucionar um grave problema ambiental, pois no Brasil, anualmente, são descartados mais de 30 milhões de pneus, dos quais a maior parte é disposta em locais inadequados, servindo para a procriação de vetores de doenças e representando risco de contaminação do meio-ambiente. Os efeitos dos principais fatores que condicionam o comportamento do ligante asfalto-borracha (teor e granulometria da borracha, temperatura de mistura, tempo de reação são avaliados através de ensaios tradicionais de caracterização de ligantes asfálticos e ensaios do Método Superpave, diretamente relacionadas ao desempenho dos pavimentos no campo. Os resultados da análise estatística evidenciam o efeito preponderante do teor de borracha e, principalmente, que o ligante asfalto-borracha pode aumentar a resistência ao acúmulo de deformação permanente e ao aparecimento de trincas por fadiga do revestimento

  2. Influence of bitumen type on cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures used in pavement overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, P.; Szydlowski, C.; Stienss, M.

    2018-05-01

    Cracking is one of the predominant distresses occurring in flexible pavements, especially in old pavements that were rehabilitated with an asphalt overlay. In such cases asphalt mixtures should be designed to ensure high resistance to reflective cracking because new asphalt layers are exposed to existing cracks of the old pavement. The nature of these cracks can be various (transverse, longitudinal as well as crazy cracking). One factor that minimizes this type of distress is the proper mix design process, which should involve selection of specific bitumen binder and mineral mix gradation. However, still there is no universally adopted laboratory test method that would allow to clearly assess resistance of asphalt mixtures to reflective cracking. This paper describes the usage of one of the devices developed to test asphalt mixtures in terms of such distress – Texas Overlay Tester. For this test, samples prepared in laboratory conditions (i.e. compacted with the use of Superpave Gyratory Compactor) as well as obtained in the field (by core drilling) can be used. The results are obtained not only quickly and easily, but also with sufficient repeatability. The described method characterizes both crack initiation and crack propagation properties of asphalt mixtures. In this work one type of mineral mixture was tested with 4 different types of bitumen (one neat bitumen, two ordinary polymer-modified and one polymer-modified with high polymer content). For selected cases extra additives (rubber and loose fibres) were also tested. In total, six asphalt mixtures were tested. A ranking of the used binders was created on the basis of the results in order to conclude which bitumen would ensure the best performance characteristics in terms of reflective cracking. The results have clearly shown that deliberate choice of the binder used in the asphalt mixture for the overlay will significantly improve its reflective cracking resistance or even fatigue resistance.

  3. Initial Self-Healing Temperatures of Asphalt Mastics Based on Flow Behavior Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing temperature is a simple and convenient method to accelerate the self-healing process of bitumen. However, bitumen may not achieve the healing capability at lower temperature, and may be aged if temperature is too high. In addition, the bitumen is mixed with mineral filler and formed as asphalt mastic in asphalt concrete, so it is more accurate to study the initial self-healing from the perspective of asphalt mastic. The primary purpose of this research was to examine the initial self-healing temperature of asphalt mastic, which was determined by the flow behavior index obtained from the flow characteristics. Firstly, the texture and geometry characteristics of two fillers were analyzed, and then the initial self-healing temperature of nine types of asphalt mastic, pure bitumen (PB and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS modified bitumen were determined by the flow behavior index. Results demonstrate that the average standard deviation of gray-scale texture value of limestone filler (LF is 21.24% lower than that of steel slag filler (SSF, showing that the steel slag filler has a better particle distribution and geometry characteristics. Also the initial self-healing temperatures of asphalt mastics with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 LF-PB volume ratio are 46.5 °C, 47.2 °C and 49.4 °C, which are 1.4 °C, 0.8 °C and 0.4 °C higher than that of asphalt mastics with SSF-PB, but not suitable for the evaluation of asphalt mastic contained SBS modified bitumen because of unique structure and performance of SBS.

  4. Initial Self-Healing Temperatures of Asphalt Mastics Based on Flow Behavior Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wu, Shaopeng; Tao, Guanyu; Xiao, Yue

    2018-05-29

    Increasing temperature is a simple and convenient method to accelerate the self-healing process of bitumen. However, bitumen may not achieve the healing capability at lower temperature, and may be aged if temperature is too high. In addition, the bitumen is mixed with mineral filler and formed as asphalt mastic in asphalt concrete, so it is more accurate to study the initial self-healing from the perspective of asphalt mastic. The primary purpose of this research was to examine the initial self-healing temperature of asphalt mastic, which was determined by the flow behavior index obtained from the flow characteristics. Firstly, the texture and geometry characteristics of two fillers were analyzed, and then the initial self-healing temperature of nine types of asphalt mastic, pure bitumen (PB) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified bitumen were determined by the flow behavior index. Results demonstrate that the average standard deviation of gray-scale texture value of limestone filler (LF) is 21.24% lower than that of steel slag filler (SSF), showing that the steel slag filler has a better particle distribution and geometry characteristics. Also the initial self-healing temperatures of asphalt mastics with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 LF-PB volume ratio are 46.5 °C, 47.2 °C and 49.4 °C, which are 1.4 °C, 0.8 °C and 0.4 °C higher than that of asphalt mastics with SSF-PB, but not suitable for the evaluation of asphalt mastic contained SBS modified bitumen because of unique structure and performance of SBS.

  5. Effect of Co-Production of Renewable Biomaterials on the Performance of Asphalt Binder in Macro and Micro Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xin; Liu, Quan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Dawei; Oeser, Markus

    2018-02-06

    Conventional asphalt binder derived from the petroleum refining process is widely used in pavement engineering. However, asphalt binder is a non-renewable material. Therefore, the use of a co-production of renewable bio-oil as a modifier for petroleum asphalt has recently been getting more attention in the pavement field due to its renewability and its optimization for conventional petroleum-based asphalt binder. Significant research efforts have been done that mainly focus on the mechanical properties of bio-asphalt binder. However, there is still a lack of studies describing the effects of the co-production on performance of asphalt binders from a micro-scale perspective to better understand the fundamental modification mechanism. In this study, a reasonable molecular structure for the co-production of renewable bio-oils is created based on previous research findings and the observed functional groups from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy tests, which are fundamental and critical for establishing the molecular model of bio-asphalt binder with various biomaterials contents. Molecular simulation shows that the increase of biomaterial content causes the decrease of cohesion energy density, which can be related to the observed decrease of dynamic modulus. Additionally, a parameter of Flexibility Index is employed to characterize the ability of asphalt binder to resist deformation under oscillatory loading accurately.

  6. Effect of Co-Production of Renewable Biomaterials on the Performance of Asphalt Binder in Macro and Micro Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional asphalt binder derived from the petroleum refining process is widely used in pavement engineering. However, asphalt binder is a non-renewable material. Therefore, the use of a co-production of renewable bio-oil as a modifier for petroleum asphalt has recently been getting more attention in the pavement field due to its renewability and its optimization for conventional petroleum-based asphalt binder. Significant research efforts have been done that mainly focus on the mechanical properties of bio-asphalt binder. However, there is still a lack of studies describing the effects of the co-production on performance of asphalt binders from a micro-scale perspective to better understand the fundamental modification mechanism. In this study, a reasonable molecular structure for the co-production of renewable bio-oils is created based on previous research findings and the observed functional groups from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy tests, which are fundamental and critical for establishing the molecular model of bio-asphalt binder with various biomaterials contents. Molecular simulation shows that the increase of biomaterial content causes the decrease of cohesion energy density, which can be related to the observed decrease of dynamic modulus. Additionally, a parameter of Flexibility Index is employed to characterize the ability of asphalt binder to resist deformation under oscillatory loading accurately.

  7. Effect of using of reclaimed asphalt and/or lower temperature asphalt on the availability of the road network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, C.; Wayman, M.; Mollenhauer, K.; McNally, C.; Tabakovic, A.; Varveri, A.; Cassidy, S.; Shahmohammadi, R.; Taylor, R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reclaimed asphalt, secondary component materials and/or additives and lower temperature asphalt are being increasingly used in order to improve the sustainability of asphalt production. The use of reclaimed asphalt reduces the need for virgin materials whilst lower temperature asphalts

  8. Experimental study on behaviors of dielectric elastomer based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kuangjun; Chuc, Nguyen Huu; Kwon, Hyeok Yong; Phuc, Vuong Hong; Koo, Jachoon; Lee, Youngkwan; Nam, Jaedo; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol

    2010-04-01

    Previously, the dielectric elastomer based on Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), called synthetic elastomer has been reported by our group. It has the advantages that its characteristics can be modified according to the requirements of performances, and thus, it is applicable to a wide variety of applications. In this paper, we address the effects of additives and vulcanization conditions on the overall performance of synthetic elastomer. In the present work, factors to have effects on the performances are extracted, e.g additives such as dioctyl phthalate (DOP), barium titanium dioxide (BaTiO3) and vulcanization conditions such as dicumyl peroxide (DCP), cross-linking times. Also, it is described how the performances can be optimized by using DOE (Design of Experiments) technique and experimental results are analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of variance).

  9. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE-PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ˜6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE-PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE-PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation.

  10. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE–PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ∼6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE–PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE–PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation. (paper)

  11. Hencky's model for elastomer forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinikov, A. A.; Oleinikov, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    In the numerical simulation of elastomer forming process, Henckys isotropic hyperelastic material model can guarantee relatively accurate prediction of strain range in terms of large deformations. It is shown, that this material model prolongate Hooke's law from the area of infinitesimal strains to the area of moderate ones. New representation of the fourth-order elasticity tensor for Hencky's hyperelastic isotropic material is obtained, it possesses both minor symmetries, and the major symmetry. Constitutive relations of considered model is implemented into MSC.Marc code. By calculating and fitting curves, the polyurethane elastomer material constants are selected. Simulation of equipment for elastomer sheet forming are considered.

  12. Design and evaluation of foamed asphalt base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Foamed asphalt stabilized base (FASB) combines reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), recycled : concrete (RC), and/or graded aggregate base (GAB) with a foamed asphalt binder to produce a : partially stabilized base material. The objectives of this study...

  13. Investigation on Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR Specimen to Predict Moisture Sensitivity of Asphalt Pavements Mixture and Using Polymer to Reduce Moisture Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aziz Hameed Al-Shaybani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage of asphalt concrete is defined as losing the strength and Permanence caused by the active presence of moisture.The most common technique to reduce moisture damage is using modifiers with the asphalt binder or the aggregate.The goal of this study was to explore the effect of various modifiers of polymer on the moisture susceptibility mixture of asphaltic concrete pavement. Modifiers included in this research selected two kinds of polymers Crumb Rubber No 50 (CR No 50 and Methyl Methacrylates (MMA(which are available in the local markets in Iraq and have been used in three percentages for each type. These percentages are (5, 10 and 15% for (CR No 50 and (2.5, 5 and 7.5(% for (MMA.Each type of these polymers is blended with asphalt by wet process at constant blending times for a suitable range of temperatures. The experimental works showed that all polymers modified mixtures have indirect tensile strength higher than control asphalt mixtures, its about (2-15 %, dependent on different type of polymer and polymer concentration under predicted suitable blending time.Test results of indirect tensile strength indicated betterment in modifying the proprieties of mixture, the increased resistance mixture of asphalt concrete pavement versus moisture damage, and reduced the effect of water on asphalt concrete properties. The final result is the addition of (10% CR No 50 and (5% MMA to asphalt mixtures showed an improved mixture of asphalt concrete properties and produced strong mixtures for road construction.One model is predicted for tensile strength ratio [TSR]to estimate the effects of polymer modification on moisture susceptibility mixture of asphalt concrete.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a name given to a group of technologies that have the common purpose of reducing the viscosity : of the asphalt binders. This reduction in viscosity offers the advantage of producing asphalt-aggregate mixtures at lower mixin...

  15. The Electrical Breakdown of Thin Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers are being developed for use in actuators, sensors and generators to be used in various applications, such as artificial eye lids, pressure sensors and human motion energy generators. In order to obtain maximum efficiency, the devices are operated at high electrical fields....... This increases the likelihood for electrical breakdown significantly. Hence, for many applications the performance of the dielectric elastomers is limited by this risk of failure, which is triggered by several factors. Amongst others thermal effects may strongly influence the electrical breakdown strength....... In this study, we model the electrothermal breakdown in thin PDMS based dielectric elastomers in order to evaluate the thermal mechanisms behind the electrical failures. The objective is to predict the operation range of PDMS based dielectric elastomers with respect to the temperature at given electric field...

  16. Process of preparing asphalt bodies, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klever, H W

    1924-05-03

    A process for the preparation of asphaltic bodies is characterized in that bituminous minerals such as oil-shale, coal, etc. are submitted to a heating process, with or without pressure, which is so mild that asphaltic bodies result and petroleum and tar oils are formed only in small amounts, and that the asphaltic bodies are used either together with the mineral constituents or after filtration from the latter.

  17. High-strain actuator materials based on dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelrine, R.; Kornbluh, R.; Kofod, G.

    2000-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers are a new class of actuator materials that exhibit excellent performance. The principle of operation, as well as methods to fabricate and test these elastomers, is summarized here. The Figure is a sketch of an elastomer film (light gray) stretched on a frame (black) and patt......Dielectric elastomers are a new class of actuator materials that exhibit excellent performance. The principle of operation, as well as methods to fabricate and test these elastomers, is summarized here. The Figure is a sketch of an elastomer film (light gray) stretched on a frame (black...

  18. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a February 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing.

  19. Standards for dielectric elastomer transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpi, Federico; Frediani, Gabriele; Anderson, Iain; Bauer, Siegfried; Gallone, Giuseppe; Gei, Massimiliano; Graaf, Christian; Jean-Mistral, Claire; Kaal, William; Kofod, Guggi; Kollosche, Matthias; Kornbluh, Roy; Pelrine, Ron; Lassen, Benny; Rechenbach, Björn; Matysek, Marc; Michel, Silvain; Nowak, Stephan; O’Brien, Benjamin; Pei, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers consist of thin electrically insulating elastomeric membranes coated on both sides with compliant electrodes. They are a promising electromechanically active polymer technology that may be used for actuators, strain sensors, and electrical generators that harvest mechanical energy. The rapid development of this field calls for the first standards, collecting guidelines on how to assess and compare the performance of materials and devices. This paper addresses this need, presenting standardized methods for material characterisation, device testing and performance measurement. These proposed standards are intended to have a general scope and a broad applicability to different material types and device configurations. Nevertheless, they also intentionally exclude some aspects where knowledge and/or consensus in the literature were deemed to be insufficient. This is a sign of a young and vital field, whose research development is expected to benefit from this effort towards standardisation. (paper)

  20. Standards for dielectric elastomer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Federico; Anderson, Iain; Bauer, Siegfried; Frediani, Gabriele; Gallone, Giuseppe; Gei, Massimiliano; Graaf, Christian; Jean-Mistral, Claire; Kaal, William; Kofod, Guggi; Kollosche, Matthias; Kornbluh, Roy; Lassen, Benny; Matysek, Marc; Michel, Silvain; Nowak, Stephan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Pei, Qibing; Pelrine, Ron; Rechenbach, Björn; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers consist of thin electrically insulating elastomeric membranes coated on both sides with compliant electrodes. They are a promising electromechanically active polymer technology that may be used for actuators, strain sensors, and electrical generators that harvest mechanical energy. The rapid development of this field calls for the first standards, collecting guidelines on how to assess and compare the performance of materials and devices. This paper addresses this need, presenting standardized methods for material characterisation, device testing and performance measurement. These proposed standards are intended to have a general scope and a broad applicability to different material types and device configurations. Nevertheless, they also intentionally exclude some aspects where knowledge and/or consensus in the literature were deemed to be insufficient. This is a sign of a young and vital field, whose research development is expected to benefit from this effort towards standardisation.

  1. Fracture of elastomers by cavitation

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdi, Adel

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation phenomenon is studied in rubber-like materials by combining experimental, theoretical and numerical approaches. Specific tests are carried out on a Styrene Butadiene Rubber to point out main characteristics of cavitation phenomenon. Hydrostatic depression is numerically modelled using finite element method. Numerical results are compared to Ball\\'s and Hou & Abeyaratne\\'s models with regard to cavity nucleation in the material. Both models well fit experimental observations suggesting that the cavitation nucleation in elastomers depends on the confinement degree of the specimen. Finally, critical hydrostatic pressure and critical global deformation are proved to govern cavitation nucleation in the studied material. Critical loadings are identified by comparing experimental and numerical load-displacement curves. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Process of coagulating asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, J A; Pfersch, G

    1931-03-28

    The present invention has for its object a process of deasphaltizing and deparaffining applicable to mixtures of hydrocarbons such as crude mineral oils and tars obtained under the influence of heat from shales, lignites, peats, and similar products, to natural bitumens and those obtained by extraction with organic solvents and also all those derived from the substances, the process in question having the following characteristics: the coagulation or the precipitation of the asphaltic material, the resinous material, and the asphaltic and resinous material, which is found in the colloidal state or any other state in the substances given above, is obtained by the addition of a small amount of solvent and of acids or mixtures of acids.

  3. Tensile and impact properties of three-component PP/wood/elastomer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pukanszky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP was reinforced with wood flour and impact modified with elastomers to increase stiffness and impact resistance simultaneously. Elastomer content changed in four (0, 5, 10 and 20 wt%, while that of wood content in seven steps, the latter from 0 to 60 wt% in 10 wt% steps. Structure and adhesion were controlled by the addition of functionalized (maleated polymers. Composites were homogenized in a twin-screw extruder and then injection molded to tensile bars. Fracture resistance was characterized by standard and instrumented impact tests. The results showed that the components are dispersed independently of each other even when a functionalized elastomer is used for impact modification, at least under the conditions of this study. Impact resistance does not change much as a function of wood content in PP/wood composites, but decreases drastically from the very high level of the PP/elastomer blend to almost the same value obtained without impact modifier in the three-component materials. Increasing stiffness and fiber related local deformation processes led to small fracture toughness at large wood content. Micromechanical deformation processes depend mainly on the strength of PP/wood interaction; debonding and pull-out take place at poor adhesion, while fiber fracture dominates when adhesion is strong. Composites with sufficiently large impact resistance cannot be prepared in the usual range of wood contents (50–60 wt%.

  4. Evaluation of Asphalt Mixture Low-Temperature Performance in Bending Beam Creep Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczola, Marek; Jaczewski, Mariusz; Rys, Dawid; Jaskula, Piotr; Szydlowski, Cezary

    2018-01-10

    Low-temperature cracking is one of the most common road pavement distress types in Poland. While bitumen performance can be evaluated in detail using bending beam rheometer (BBR) or dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests, none of the normalized test methods gives a comprehensive representation of low-temperature performance of the asphalt mixtures. This article presents the Bending Beam Creep test performed at temperatures from -20 °C to +10 °C in order to evaluate the low-temperature performance of asphalt mixtures. Both validation of the method and its utilization for the assessment of eight types of wearing courses commonly used in Poland were described. The performed test indicated that the source of bitumen and its production process (and not necessarily only bitumen penetration) had a significant impact on the low-temperature performance of the asphalt mixtures, comparable to the impact of binder modification (neat, polymer-modified, highly modified) and the aggregate skeleton used in the mixture (Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) vs. Asphalt Concrete (AC)). Obtained Bending Beam Creep test results were compared with the BBR bitumen test. Regression analysis confirmed that performing solely bitumen tests is insufficient for comprehensive low-temperature performance analysis.

  5. Reduction of the Adhesive Friction of Elastomers through Laser Texturing of Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Voyer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that elastomers usually possess poor dry sliding friction properties due to their highly adhesive character. In order to overcome this problematic behavior in industrial applications, interfacial materials such as oils, greases, coatings, or lacks are normally used in order to separate or to functionalize the contact surfaces of elastomers. Alternatively, the high adhesion tendency of elastomers may be explicitly reduced by modifying the elastomer composition itself or by enabling a reduction of its effective contact area through, for example, surface laser texturing. This second approach, i.e., the reduction of the adhesive character of elastomers through laser structuring, will be the main topic of the present study. For this purpose, different micro-sized grooved structures were produced on flat injection molds using an ultra-short pulsed laser. The micro-structured molds were then used to produce injection molded micro-ridged Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR sample pads. The investigations consisted firstly of determining the degree of replication of the mold micro-structures onto the surface of the LSR pads and secondly, to ascertain the degree of reduction of the friction force (or coefficient of friction of these micro-ridged LSR pads in comparison to the benchmark (unstructured LSR pads when tested under dry conditions against Aluminum alloy (Al-6082 or PA6.6-GF30 plates. For this second part of the investigation, the normal force (or contact pressure dependency of the coefficient of friction was determined through stepwise load increasing friction tests. The results of these investigations have shown that the production of micro-ridged surfaces on LSR pads through laser structuring of the injection molds could be successfully achieved and that it enables a significant reduction of the friction force for low normal forces (or contact pressures, where the component of adhesion friction is playing an important and determining

  6. Aging of Rejuvenated Asphalt Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohammadafzali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An important concern that limits the RAP content in asphalt mixtures is the fact that the aged binder that is present in the RAP can cause premature cracking. Rejuvenators are frequently added to high RAP mixtures to enhance the properties of the binder. There is no existing method to predict the longevity of a rejuvenated asphalt. This study investigated the aging of rejuvenated binders and compared their durability with that of virgin asphalt. Various samples with different types and proportions of RAP, virgin binder, and rejuvenator were aged by RTFO and three cycles of PAV. DSR and BBR tests were conducted to examine the high-temperature and low-temperature rheological properties of binders. Results indicated that the type and dosage of the rejuvenator have a great influence on the aging rate and durability of the binder. Some rejuvenators make the binder age slower, while others accelerate aging. These observations confirm the importance of evaluating the long-term aging of recycled binders. For this purpose, critical PAV time was proposed as a measure of binder’s longevity.

  7. Regional implementation of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Asphalt is used in over 94 percent of all paved roadways in the United States. The ability to reduce its cost and emissions : while improving its performance has benefits that could potentially change the direction the asphalt industry moves toward i...

  8. Laboratory evaluation of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    "Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) has been traditionally produced at a discharge temperature of between : 280F (138C) and 320 F (160C), resulting in high energy (fuel) costs and generation of greenhouse : gases. The goal for Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is to...

  9. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling : Practices and Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a

  10. Mix Proportion Design of Asphalt Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianhu; Gao, Lingling; Du, Shoujun

    2017-12-01

    Based on the gradation of AC and SMA, this paper designs a new type of anti slide mixture with two types of advantages. Chapter introduces the material selection, ratio of ore mixture ratio design calculation, and determine the optimal asphalt content test and proportioning design of asphalt concrete mix. This paper introduces the new technology of mix proportion.

  11. Advanced evaluation of asphalt mortar for induction healing purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Scarpas, Athanasios; Kasbergen, C.; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2016-01-01

    Induction heating technique is an innovative asphalt pavement maintenance method that is applied to inductive asphalt concrete mixes in order to prevent the formation of macro-cracks by increasing locally the temperature of asphalt. The development of asphalt mixes with improved electrical and

  12. Hot-mix asphalt testing for the South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available of local and international hot-mix asphalt (HMA) test methods and modify or adapt them to suit South African road pavement conditions. This paper presents various laboratory HMA test protocols developed as part of the project to revise SAPDM. Large scale...

  13. Toughening elastomers with sacrificial bonds and watching them break

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducrot, E.; Chen, Y.; Bulters, M.J.H.; Sijbesma, R.P.; Creton, C.

    2014-01-01

    Elastomers are widely used because of their large-strain reversible deformability. Most unfilled elastomers suffer from a poor mechanical strength, which limits their use. Using sacrificial bonds, we show how brittle, unfilled elastomers can be strongly reinforced in stiffness and toughness (up to 4

  14. Optimization of fractional composition of the excipient in the elastomeric covering for asphalt highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Nurullaev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The computational method of optimum fractional composition of a dispersible filler of polymeric composite on the basis of three-dimensionally linked elastomer is developed according to non-linear programming. The coefficient of dynamic viscosity of polymeric suspension or the initial module of a viscoelasticity of the join solidification low-molecular rubbers with the final functional groups, filled by many fractional dioxide of silicon are considered as criteria of optimization. Influence of the limiting volume filling on energy of mechanical destruction was investigated. The elastomeric material is offered for use as a covering of asphalt highways in the form of a frost-proof waterproofing layer, which allowing multiply to increase operating properties.

  15. Effect of crumb rubber on asphaltic binder chemistry and rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de S.; Tome, Luisa G.A.; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Jorge B.; Soares, Sandra A. [University Federal of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of the crumb rubber (CR) from scraps tires to modify asphalt binders (AB) at high temperature can improve significantly the performance grade, but the storage stability can be influenced after the mix of AB and CR or polymer. The major concern of asphalt binder with polymer and CR blends is their lack of stability during prolonged storage at high temperatures. The tendency to phase separation under quiescent conditions appears as an important limitation for the practical use of these blends. After the RTFOT and PAV process, the binder conventional and modified was analyzed in a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) for chemical characterization. After aging in RTFOT, the AB presented a larger degradation compared to the CR of RABC and RABC commercial. So, the crumb rubber contributed to the binder stability, acting as an antioxidant in the aging process. The dynamic mechanical properties of CR modify asphalts binder before and after graft has been characterized by use of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) or advances rheology expanded system (ARES) of Rheometric Scientific. The difference in the viscoelastic parameters between the top and the bottom sections of the tube was measured. It has been found that the added content of CR has great effect on the rheological properties of the AB and its high temperature performance. It also has been confirmed that the RABC sample showed larger storage stability compared to the sample RABC commercial observed with viscoelastic parameters. As a consequence, the use CR and aromatic oil can be considered a suitable alternative for modification of binder in pavement. (author)

  16. The influence of modification of elastomer compositions in polyethylene oxides on their resistance to mineral oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Uss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of modifying of elastomer compositions based on nitrile rubber in the medium of low molecular weight polyethylene oxide on resistance of rubbers to liquid aggressive mediawas studied. Standard hydrocarbon oils – oil ASTM №1 and ASTM №3, having a constant chemical composition and properties, were used as aggressive fluids. Resistance of elastomer compositions to standard oil was evaluated by change in weight, volume and relative compression set after keeping the samples in these oils at elevated temperatures. The influence of aggressive environment on the degree of swelling and the value of compression set of compositions modified in polyethylene oxides medium was established. It has been shown that the mass/volume of modified rubbers during aging in oil ASTM №1 reduced to a lesser degree compared to unmodified samples, which is probably due to the influence of low molecular weight polyethylene oxides for the formation of vulcanizates structure. At the same time exposure to oil ASTM №3 of elastomer compositions increases the degree of swelling of modified rubber more than unmodified, which can be due to destruction by the action of aggressive medium additional intermolecular bonds between macromolecules of polyethylene oxide and rubber, resulting in increased flexibility of the elastomeric matrix segments. It revealed that modification of rubbers in low molecular weightpolyethylene oxides facilitates preparation of rubber with low compression set after aging in standard oils at elevated temperatures.

  17. EB radiation crosslinking of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bik, J.; Rzymski, M.; Gluszewski, W.; Zagorski, Z.P.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The first paper in the series described by the general title, starts with radiation crosslinking of hydrogenated butadiene-nitrile rubber (HBNR). This high-tech elastomer is obtained by catalytic hydrogenation of >C=C 99.5 and 94.5% of starting double bonds. Samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons, monoenergetical, 6 kW power, used as scanned beam over the conveyor, securing homogeneity of dose distribution. The doses were up to 300 kGy, applied in 20 kGy increments to avoid radiation generated heating of the material. The influence of presence or absence of oxygen was considered. Irradiated samples were investigated for the extend of crosslinking in the function of dose and for properties important for understanding of mechanisms. Samples are transparent, what allowed conventional absorption spectrophotometry, also time resolved. The quantitative interpretation of results shows that for 100 crosslinks there are 6-9 acts of chain-scission. It is less, than expected from the participation of multi-ionization spurs, also in the solid state, as announced during the previous, 9th Tihany Conference. However, the apparent lower yield of multi-ionization spurs is explained by partial conversion of products into crosslinks of specific type. Our investigations confirm the usefulness of consideration of radiation spurs in polymers as well as in all, low LET irradiated media

  18. Effects of crumb rubber content and curing time on the properties of asphalt concrete and stone mastic asphalt using dry process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. Tai Nguyen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the rapid increase in the number of road vehicles, a large amount of waste tires have been created, causing negative effects to the environment. Many attempts have been made to effectively reduce this type of solid waste including the reuse of recycled rubber powder from waste tires as an additive for improving the performance of asphalt mixtures. In this work, the authors aim to study the effects of crumb rubber (CR on the mechanical properties, especially the rutting resistance, of CR modified asphalt concrete (AC and stone mastic asphalt (SMA by varying two factors-namely, the content of additive and the curing time. The dimension of used CR ranges from 0 to 2.36 mm, which is not too coarse for promoting the CR–bitumen interaction and not too fine for facilitating the production of CR. The content of CR was increased gradually from 0 to 3% to examine the effects of CR content on the engineering properties and determine the optimal content in the mixture. It was observed that the optimal content is 1.5–2%, while the optimal curing time that contributes to the maximal increase in the mechanical characteristics of both mixtures could not be determined. In the range of 0–5 h of curing time, the longer the asphalt mixture is maintained at a high temperature, the better the performance of mixture will be. Ageing was found to have influence on the performance of asphalt mixtures; however, its effects are not as important as those of CR modification. Keywords: Crumb rubber, Dry process, Asphalt concrete, SMA, Curing time

  19. In vitro cytotoxicity of maxillofacial silicone elastomers: effect of accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Bilge Turhan; Yilmaz, Handan; Aydin, Cemal; Karakoca, Seçil; Yilmaz, Sükran

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of three maxillofacial silicone elastomers at 24, 48, and 72 h on L-929 cells and to determine the effect of accelerated aging on the cytotoxicity of these silicone elastomers. Disc-shaped test samples of maxillofacial silicone elastomers (Cosmesil, Episil, Multisil) were fabricated according to manufacturers' instructions under aseptic conditions. Samples were then divided into three groups: (1) not aged; (2) aged for 150 h with an accelerated weathering tester; and (3) aged for 300 h. Then the samples were placed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium/Ham's F12 (DMEM/F12) for 24, 48, and 72 h. After the incubation periods, cytotoxicity of the extracts to cultured fibroblasts (L-929) was measured by MTT assay. The degree of cytotoxicity of each sample was determined according to the reference value represented by the cells with a control (culture without sample). Statistical significance was determined by repeated measurement ANOVA (p test (p test materials in each group demonstrated high survival rates in MTT assay (Episil; 93.84%, Multisil; 88.30%, Cosmesil; 87.50%, respectively); however, in all groups, Episil material demonstrated significantly higher cell survival rate after each of the experimental incubation periods (p Accelerated aging for 150 and 300 h had no significant effect on the biocompatibility of maxillofacial silicone elastomers tested (p > 0.05).

  20. Warm mix asphalt: Chemical additives’ effects on bitumen properties and limestone aggregates mixture compactibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Pereira

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt industries consume large amounts of fuels and emit pollutant gases into the atmosphere. Warm mix asphalt is the most recognized way to minimize these negative impacts, which have given rise to numerous issues related to their performance and the materials used. In this study, the basic and rheological properties of three different bituminous binders, modified with two different chemical additives, were evaluated, determining their behaviour and susceptibility to modification. The results showed that, although chemical additives do not affect the binder by reducing its viscosity, they act on the mixture, allowing to improve its compactability and, consequently, reduce the required production and compaction temperatures. Keywords: Warm mix asphalt, Bitumen, Chemical additives, Behaviour, Additive-binder interaction, Road pavements

  1. About Coloured Cold Asphaltic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first coloured bitumen was obtained by using bitumen from Peru and then bitumen from the Middle East, with a low content of asphaltenes, also called "colourable" bitumens. The colours obtained by adding iron oxides led nevertheless to dark colours, due to the presence of asphaltenes. Nowadays the coloured asphalt is obtained from synthesis binders with translucent aspect. The colours are obtained by adding inorganic pigments, mainly iron oxide for red, chromic oxide for green, titanic dioxide for white. The properties and behaviour of the coloured bitumen during its lifetime are comparable with the ones of classic bitumen, sometimes even better.

  2. Poly (ricinoleic acid) based novel thermosetting elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Hiroki; Yasuda, Mayumi; Toshima, Kazunobu; Matsumura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    A novel bio-based thermosetting elastomer was prepared by the lipase-catalyzed polymerization of methyl ricinoleate with subsequent vulcanization. Some mechanical properties of the cured carbon black-filled polyricinoleate compounds were evaluated as a thermosetting elastomer. It was found that the carbon black-filled polyricinoleate compounds were readily cured by sulfur curatives to produce a thermosetting elastomer that formed a rubber-like sheet with a smooth and non-sticky surface. The curing behaviors and mechanical properties were dependent on both the molecular weight of the polyricinoleate and the amount of the sulfur curatives. Cured compounds consisting of polyricinoleate with a molecular weight of 100,800 showed good mechanical properties, such as a hardness of 48 A based on the durometer A measurements, a tensile strength at break of 6.91 MPa and an elongation at break of 350%.

  3. Better fuel handling system performance through improved elastomers and seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensel, R G; Metcalfe, R [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    In the area of elastomers, tests have identified specific compounds that perform well in each class of CANDU service. They offer gains in service life, sometimes by factors of ten or more. Moreover, the aging characteristics of these specific compounds are being thoroughly investigated, whereas many elastomers used previously were either non-specific or their aging was unknown. In this paper the benefits of elastomer upgrading, as well as the deficiencies of current station elastomer practices, are discussed in the context of fuel handling equipment. Guidelines for procurement, storage, handling and condition monitoring of elastomer seals are outlined. (author). 3 figs.

  4. Better fuel handling system performance through improved elastomers and seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensel, R.G.; Metcalfe, R.

    1996-01-01

    In the area of elastomers, tests have identified specific compounds that perform well in each class of CANDU service. They offer gains in service life, sometimes by factors of ten or more. Moreover, the aging characteristics of these specific compounds are being thoroughly investigated, whereas many elastomers used previously were either non-specific or their aging was unknown. In this paper the benefits of elastomer upgrading, as well as the deficiencies of current station elastomer practices, are discussed in the context of fuel handling equipment. Guidelines for procurement, storage, handling and condition monitoring of elastomer seals are outlined. (author). 3 figs

  5. Silicone elastomers with aromatic voltage stabilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    of electron-trapping by aromatic compounds grafted to silicone backbones in a crosslinked PDMS is illustrated in Fig. 1. The electrical breakdown strength, the storage modulus and the loss modulus of the elastomer were investigated, as well as the excitation energy from the collision between electron carriers...... and benzene rings in PDMS-PPMS copolymer was measured by UV-vis spectroscopy. The developed elastomers were inherently soft with enhanced electrical breakdown strength due to delocalized pi-electrons of aromatic rings attached to the silicone backbone. The dielectric relative permittivity of PDMS...

  6. Electrical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete containing conductive fibers and fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Yang, Jun; Liao, Hui; Chen, Xianhua

    2016-01-01

    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has the potential to satisfy multifunctional applications. Designing such asphalt concrete needs to balance the electrical and mechanical performance of asphalt concrete. The objective of this study is to design electrically conductive asphalt concrete

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOAMING BEHAVIOR AND SURFACE ENERGY OF ASPHALT BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of insufficiency in microscopic performance of foamed asphalt binder, surface energy theory was utilized to analyze the foaming behavior and wettability of asphalt binder. Based on the surface energy theory, the Wilhelmy plate method and universal sorption device method were employed to measure the surface energy components of asphalt binders and aggregates, respectively. Combined with the traditional evaluation indictor for foamed asphalt, the relationship between the foaming property and surface energy of asphalt binder was analyzed. According to the surface energy components, the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregate was calculated to verify the performance of foamed asphalt mixture. Results indicate that the foaming behavior of asphalt will be influenced by surface energy, which will increase with the decline of surface energy. In addition, the surface energy of asphalt binder significantly influences the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregates. Meanwhile, there is an inversely proportional relationship between surface energy of asphalt binder and wettability. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that surface energy is a good indictor which can be used to evaluate the foaming behavior of the asphalt binder. And it is suggested to choose the asphalt binder with lower surface energy in the process of design of foamed asphalt mixture.

  8. Thermal stability of segmented polyurethane elastomers reinforced by clay particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavličević Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of clay nanoparticles on thermal properties of segmented polyurethanes based on hexamethylene- diisocyanate, aliphatic polycarbonate diol and 1,4-butanediol as chain extender. The organically modified particles of montmorillonite and bentonite were used as reinforcing fillers. The structure of elastomeric materials was varied either by diol type or chain extender content. The ratio of OH groups from diol and chain extender (R was either 1 or 10. Thermal properties of prepared materials were determined using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC. Thermal stability of obtained elastomers has been studied by simultaneously thermogravimetry coupled with DSC. The glass transition temperature, Tg, of soft segments for all investigated samples was about -33°C. On the basis of DTG results, it was concluded that obtained materials were very stable up to 300°C.

  9. Radiation cured acrylonitrile--butadiene elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldred, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with a preferred embodiment of this invention, the ultimate elongation of an electron beam radiation cured acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer is significantly increased by the incorporation of a preferred noncrosslinking monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, in combination with the conventional crosslinking monomer, trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate, prior to the radiation curing process

  10. Patterning nonisometric origami in nematic elastomer sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucinsky, Paul; Kowalski, Benjamin A.; White, Timothy J.; Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    Nematic elastomers dramatically change their shape in response to diverse stimuli including light and heat. In this paper, we provide a systematic framework for the design of complex three dimensional shapes through the actuation of heterogeneously patterned nematic elastomer sheets. These sheets are composed of \\textit{nonisometric origami} building blocks which, when appropriately linked together, can actuate into a diverse array of three dimensional faceted shapes. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that: 1) the nonisometric origami building blocks actuate in the predicted manner, 2) the integration of multiple building blocks leads to complex multi-stable, yet predictable, shapes, 3) we can bias the actuation experimentally to obtain a desired complex shape amongst the multi-stable shapes. We then show that this experimentally realized functionality enables a rich possible design landscape for actuation using nematic elastomers. We highlight this landscape through theoretical examples, which utilize large arrays of these building blocks to realize a desired three dimensional origami shape. In combination, these results amount to an engineering design principle, which we hope will provide a template for the application of nematic elastomers to emerging technologies.

  11. Processing a difficult urethane elastomer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed study of an adiprene/butanediol/trimethylolpropane elastomer system and the associated production process was performed to assess the importance of various processing factors on the physical properties of the system. Results indicated that control of the curing cycle, material ratio, moisture in the curing agent and elastomer, mixing, and vacuum level was necessary. Sufficient control of the manual process could not be obtained to eliminate significant physical property variability. An automatic metering, mixing and dispensing machine was purchased for laboratory evaluation. After modification, including the addition of a high shear vacuum type mixer, and with close vacuum and temperature control, material property variability was still at an unacceptable level. A tracer agent was introduced into the curing agent system to assess the distribution of the curing agent in the elastomer. Machine evaluation using the tracer agent indicated that distribution of the curing agent in the elastomer was very poor is spite of the high shear mixing configuration. The addition of an oscillating motion to the mixing configuration. The addition of an oscillating motion to the mixing system significantly improved curing agent distribution and eliminated material property variability problems. 16 figures, 3 tables

  12. Thermoplastic elastomers via controlled radical graft polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzcu, G.

    2012-01-01

    Rubbery behavior with a consistent modulus over a wide temperature range is a challenge in the search for ultimate structure-property relations of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs). This feature is closely related to the phase separation behavior of the constitutional segments and the Tg of the

  13. Use of elastomers in regenerative braking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The storage of potential energy as strain energy in elastomers was investigated. The evolution of the preferred stressing scheme is described, and test results on full-size elastomeric energy storage units sized for an automotive regenerative braking system application are presented. The need for elastomeric material improvements is also discussed.

  14. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we focus on the chloro propyl functionalized silicone elastomers prepared in Madsen et al[2] and we investigate the electrical...

  15. Evaluation of asphalt treated permeable base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    III : Tec : hnical : Report Documentation Page : 1. Report No. : 2. Government Accession : No. : 3. Recipient's Catalog No : . : 201 : 3 : - : 09 : - : - : - : - : - : - : 4. Title and Subtitle : 5. Report Date : Evaluation of Asphalt Treated Permeab...

  16. Low temperature rheological properties of asphalt mixtures containing different recycled asphalt materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hoon Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS are valuable materials commonly reused in asphalt mixtures due to their economic and environmental benefits. However, the aged binder contained in these materials may negatively affect the low temperature performance of asphalt mixtures. In this paper, the effect of RAP and RAS on low temperature properties of asphalt mixtures is investigated through Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR tests and rheological modeling. First, a set of fourteen asphalt mixtures containing RAP and RAS is prepared and creep stiffness and m-value are experimentally measured. Then, thermal stress is calculated and graphically and statistically compared. The Huet model and the Shift-Homothety-Shift in time-Shift (SHStS transformation, developed at the École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État (ENTPE, are used to back calculate the asphalt binder creep stiffness from mixture experimental data. Finally, the model predictions are compared to the creep stiffness of the asphalt binders extracted from each mixture, and the results are analyzed and discussed. It is found that an addition of RAP and RAS beyond 15% and 3%, respectively, significantly change the low temperature properties of asphalt mixture. Differences between back-calculated results and experimental data suggest that blending between new and old binder occurs only partially. Based on the recent finding on diffusion studies, this effect may be associated to mixing and blending processes, to the effective contact between virgin and recycled materials and to the variation of the total virgin-recycled thickness of the binder film which may significantly influence the diffusion process. Keywords: Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS, Thermal stress, Statistical comparison, Back-calculation, Binder blending

  17. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  18. Comparison of influence of ageing on low-temperature characteristics of asphalt mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacková, Pavla; Valentin, Jan; Benešová, Lucie

    2017-09-01

    Ability of relaxation of asphalt mixtures and thus its resilience to climate change and traffic load is decreasing by influence of aging - in this case aging of bituminous binder. Binder exposed to climate and UV ages and becomes more fragile and susceptible to damage. The results of the research presented in this paper are aimed to finding a correlation between low-temperature properties of referential and aged asphalt mixture specimens and characteristics (not low-temperature) of bituminous binders. In this research there were used conventional road binders, commonly used modified binders and binders additionally modified in the laboratory. The low-temperature characteristics were determined by strength flexural test, commonly used in the Czech Republic for High Modulus Asphalt Mixtures (TP 151), and semi-cylindrical bending test (EN 12697-44). Both of the tests were extended by specimens exposed to artificial long-term aging (EN 12697-52) - storing at 85° C for 5 days. The results were compared with characteristics of binders for finding a suitable correlation between characteristics of binders and asphalt mixtures.

  19. 75 FR 39664 - Grant of Authority For Subzone Status Materials Science Technology, Inc. (Specialty Elastomers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Status Materials Science Technology, Inc. (Specialty Elastomers and Fire Retardant Chemicals) Conroe... specialty elastomer manufacturing and distribution facility of Materials Science Technology, Inc., located... and distribution of specialty elastomers and fire retardant chemicals at the facility of Materials...

  20. Observation of asphalt binder microstructure with ESEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, P; Kadhim, H; Baaj, H; Tighe, S

    2017-09-01

    The observation of asphalt binder with the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has shown the potential to observe asphalt binder microstructure and its evolution with binder aging. A procedure for the induction and identification of the microstructure in asphalt binder was established in this study and included sample preparation and observation parameters. A suitable heat-sampling asphalt binder sample preparation method was determined for the test and several stainless steel and Teflon sample moulds developed, finding that stainless steel was the preferable material. The magnification and ESEM settings conducive to observing the 3D microstructure were determined through a number of observations to be 1000×, although other magnifications could be considered. Both straight run binder (PG 58-28) and an air blown oxidised binder were analysed; their structures being compared for their relative size, abundance and other characteristics, showing a clear evolution in the fibril microstructure. The microstructure took longer to appear for the oxidised binder. It was confirmed that the fibril microstructure corresponded to actual characteristics in the asphalt binder. Additionally, a 'bee' micelle structure was found as a transitional structure in ESEM observation. The test methods in this study will be used for more comprehensive analysis of asphalt binder microstructure. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Use of Adhesion Promoters in Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihlářová Denisa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of asphalt binder as a significant binder in road constructions is to permanently bind aggregates of different compositions and grain sizes. The asphalt binder itself does not have suitable adhesiveness, so after a period of time, bare grains can appear. This results in a gradual separation of the grains from an asphalt layer and the presence of potholes in a pavement. Adhesion promoters or adhesive agents are important and proven promoters in practice. They are substances mainly based on the fatty acids of polyamides which should increase the reliability of the asphalt’s binder adhesion to the aggregates, thus increasing the lifetime period of the asphalt mixture as well as its resistance to mechanical strain. The amount of a promoter or agent added to the asphalt mixture is negligible and constitutes about 0.3% of the asphalt’s binder weight. Nevertheless, even this quantity significantly increases the adhesive qualities of an asphalt binder. The article was created in cooperatation with the Slovak University of Technology, in Bratislava, Slovakia, and focuses on proving the new AD2 adhesive additive and comparing it with the Addibit and Wetfix BE promoters used on aggregates from the Skuteč - Litická and Bystřec quarries.

  2. Dielectric Elastomers for Fluidic and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoul, David James

    Dielectric elastomers have demonstrated tremendous potential as high-strain electromechanical transducers for a myriad of novel applications across all engineering disciplines. Because their soft, viscoelastic mechanical properties are similar to those of living tissues, dielectric elastomers have garnered a strong foothold in a plethora of biomedical and biomimetic applications. Dielectric elastomers consist of a sheet of stretched rubber, or elastomer, coated on both sides with compliant electrode materials; application of a voltage generates an electrostatic pressure that deforms the elastomer. They can function as soft generators, sensors, or actuators, and this last function is the focus of this dissertation. Many design configurations are possible, such as stacks, minimum energy structures, interpenetrating polymer networks, shape memory dielectric elastomers, and others; dielectric elastomers are already being applied to many fields of biomedicine. The first part of the original research presented in this dissertation details a PDMS microfluidic system paired with a dielectric elastomer stack actuator of anisotropically prestrained VHB(TM) 4910 (3M(TM)) and single-walled carbon nanotubes. These electroactive microfluidic devices demonstrated active increases in microchannel width when 3 and 4 kV were applied. Fluorescence microscopy also indicated an accompanying increase in channel depth with actuation. The cross-sectional area strains at 3 and 4 kV were approximately 2.9% and 7.4%, respectively. The device was then interfaced with a syringe pump, and the pressure was measured upstream. Linear pressure-flow plots were developed, which showed decreasing fluidic resistance with actuation, from 0.192 psi/(microL/min) at 0 kV, to 0.160 and 0.157 psi/(microL/min) at 3 and 4 kV, respectively. This corresponds to an ~18% drop in fluidic resistance at 4 kV. Active de-clogging was tested in situ with the device by introducing ~50 microm diameter PDMS microbeads and

  3. Experimental investigation of basic oxygen furnace slag used as aggregate in asphalt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongjie; Wu, Shaopeng; Hou, Haobo; Zha, Jin

    2006-11-16

    Chinese researchers have commenced a great deal of researches on the development of application fields of basic oxygen steel making furnace slag (BOF slag) for many years. Lots of new applications and properties have been found, but few of them in asphalt mixture of road construction engineering. This paper discussed the feasibility of BOF steel slag used as aggregate in asphalt pavement by two points of view including BOF steel slag's physical and micro-properties as well as steel slag asphalt materials and pavement performances. For the former part, this paper mainly concerned the mechanochemistry and physical changes of the steel slag and studied it by performing XRD, SEM, TG and mercury porosimeter analysis and testing method. In the second part, this paper intended to use BOF steel slag as raw material, and design steel slag SMA mixture. By using traditional rutting test, soak wheel track and modified Lottman test, the high temperature stability and water resistance ability were tested. Single axes compression test and indirect tensile test were performed to evaluate the low temperature crack resistance performance and fatigue characteristic. Simultaneously, by observing steel slag SMA pavement which was paved successfully. A follow-up study to evaluate the performance of the experimental pavement confirmed that the experimental pavement was comparable with conventional asphalt pavement, even superior to the later in some aspects. All of above test results and analysis had only one main purpose that this paper validated the opinion that using BOF slag in asphalt concrete is feasible. So this paper suggested that treated and tested steel slag should be used in a more extensive range, especially in asphalt mixture paving projects in such an abundant steel slag resource region.

  4. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of conditioned foamed asphalt mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katman, Herda Yati; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Matori, Mohd Yazip

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test for samples prepared with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Samples were conditioned in water at 25°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Results show that recycled aggregate from reclaimed asphalt pavement performs as well as virgin aggregate.

  5. Durability of European Asphalt Mixtures Containing Reclaimed Asphalt and Warm-Mix Additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Avgerinopoulos, S.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the moisture susceptibility of European asphalt mixtures (SMA) containing reclaimed asphalt (RA) and warm mix (WMA) additives. Test sections of a typical SMA mixture have been laid, from which cylindrical samples were cored and utilized for laboratory testing. Four variants

  6. Preparation and demonstration of poly(dopamine)-triggered attapulgite-anchored polyurethane as a high-performance rod-like elastomer to reinforce soy protein-isolated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shujun; Wen, Yingying; Wang, Zhong; Kang, Haijiao; Li, Jianzhang; Zhang, Shifeng; Ji, Yong

    2018-06-01

    Nanophase modification is an effective path to improve composite properties, however, it remains a great challenge to increase the mechanical strength of the modified materials without sacrificing elongation and toughness. This study presents a novel and efficient design for interface anchoring of a waterborne polyurethane (WPU) elastomer with attapulgite (ATP) triggered by poly(dopamine) (PDA) formation due to self-polymerization of the dopamine moieties. The WPU-PDA-ATP (WDA) rod-like elastomer served as an active enhancer for a soy protein isolate (SPI)-based composite to facilitate multiple interactions between SPI and the elastomer. As expected, the PDA layer was coated onto ATP, inducing the nanofiller to successfully anchor onto the WPU elastomer, as confirmed by solid-state 13C NMR, XPS, and ATR-FTIR results. Compared with the control SPI-based film, the tensile strength and toughness increased by 145.6% and 118.3% respectively by introducing WDA rod-like elastomer. The water resistance and thermal stability of the prepared SPI composites were also favorable. The proposed approach represents an efficient way to utilize high-performance elastomer in biobased materials to concurrently enhance strength and toughness.

  7. Compatibility of selected elastomers with plutonium glovebox environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.

    1994-06-01

    This illustrative test was undertaken as a result of on-going failure of elastomer components in plutonium gloveboxes. These failures represent one of the major sources of required maintenance to keep gloveboxes operational. In particular, it was observed that the introduction of high specific activity Pu-238 into a glovebox, otherwise contaminated with Pu-239, resulted in an inordinate failure of elastomer components. Desiring to keep replacement of elastomer components to a minimum, a decision to explore a few possible alternative elastomer candidates was undertaken and reported upon herewith. Sample specimens of Neoprene, Urethane, Viton, and Hypalon elastomeric formulations were obtained from the Bacter Rubber Company. Strips of the elastomer specimens were placed in a plutonium glovebox and outside of a glovebox, and were observed for a period of three years. Of the four types of elastomers, only Hypalon remained completely viable

  8. Types and properties of elastomer materials used in CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Ho Sik; Jeong, Jin Kon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    Properties and kinds of elastomer materials used in a CANDU power plant have been described. The elastomer materials have been used as a sealing material in the components f nuclear power plant since they have many excellent properties that can not be seen in other materials. It is very important to select proper elastomer materials used in the nuclear power plant are required to have resistance to temperature as well as radiation. According to the experimental results performed at some laboratories including the Chalk River Laboratory of AECL, elastomer materials with high resistance to temperature and radiation are Nitrile, Ethylene, Propylene and Butyl. These materials have been used in a lot of components of Wolsong unit 1 and Wolsong 2, 3 and 4 which are under elastomer material. Therefore, the studies on the standardization are currently under way to limit about 10 different kinds of elastomer materials to be used in the plant. 16 tabs., 1 fig., 12 refs. (Author) .new.

  9. Experimental studies of biodegradation of asphalt by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Tatsuya; Mihara, Morihiro; Ooi, Takao; Lin, Kong-hua; Kawakami, Yasushi

    2000-04-01

    On the geological disposal system of the radioactive wastes, the activities of the microorganisms that could degrade the asphalt might be significant for the assessment of the system performance. As the main effects of the biodegradation of the asphalt, the fluctuation of leaching behavior of the nuclides included in asphalt waste has been indicated. In this study, the asphalt biodegradation test was carried out. The microorganism of which asphalt degradation ability was comparatively higher under aerobic condition and anaerobic condition was used. The asphalt biodegradation rate was calculated and it was evaluated whether the asphalt biodegradation in this system could occur. The results show that the asphalt biodegradation rate under anaerobic and high alkali condition will be 300 times lower than under aerobic and neutral pH. (author)

  10. Investigating the creep properties of asphaltic concrete containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasan Taherkhani

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... A three-stage model, developed was fitted to the dynamic ... This indicates that the rutting resistance of such asphalt ... drug delivery [23]. .... Different mathematical ... viour of asphaltic materials and prediction of flow number. A.

  11. Determination of usable residual asphalt binder in RAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    For current recycled mix designs, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) assumes 100% contribution of : working binder from Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) materials when added to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). However, it is : unclear if this assu...

  12. Comparison of winter temperature profiles in asphalt and concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) determine which pavement type, asphalt or concrete, has : higher surface temperatures in winter and 2) compare the subsurface temperatures under asphalt and : concrete pavements to determine the pavement typ...

  13. Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... An environmental radiation survey in asphalt processing plants in Rivers State was been carried out ... Therefore the results show significant radiological risk.

  14. Appropriate models for estimating stresses and strains in asphalt layers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jooste, FJ

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad objective is to make recommendations for appropriate modelling procedures to be used in the structural design of asphalt layers. Findings of this investigation are intended to be used in refining and validating existing asphalt pavement...

  15. Asphalt mix characterization using dynamic modulus and APA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    final report summarizes two research efforts related to asphalt mix characterization: dynamic modulus and Asphalt Pavement Analyzer testing. One phase of the research consisted of a laboratory-based evaluation of dynamic modulus of Oregon dense-grade...

  16. Performance assessment of warm mix asphalt (WMA) pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is a new technology that was introduced in Europe in 1995. WMA offers several advantages over : conventional asphalt concrete mixtures, including: reduced energy consumption, reduced emissions, improved or more uniform : binder...

  17. Investigation of warm-mix asphalt using Iowa aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The implementation of warm-mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more widespread with a growing number of contractors utilizing various WMA technologies. Early research suggests WMA may be more susceptible to moisture damage than traditional hot-mix asphalt ...

  18. Utilizing Lab Tests to Predict Asphalt Concrete Overlay Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    A series of five experimental projects and three demonstration projects were constructed to better understand the performance of pavement overlays using various levels of asphalt binder replacement (ABR) from reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), recycle...

  19. Field Control and Performance of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Greater than 25 Percent Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement : Draft Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    The Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) and other highway agencies are interested in utilization of higher percentages of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in asphalt mixtures. There are a number of research studies at both state and national...

  20. State of the art: Asphalt for airport pavement surfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg White

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport runways and taxiways are commonly comprised of a flexible pavement with an asphalt surface. Marshall-designed asphalt with sawn grooves is the most frequent airport asphalt surface material. However, some airports have adopted alternate asphalt mixtures for improved resistance to shear stress and for increased surface texture, allowing grooving to be avoided. Of the alternate asphalt mixtures, stone mastic asphalt is the most commonly reported. Resistance to shear stress is a critical performance requirement for airport surface asphalt. Shear stress resistance minimises the risk of rutting, shoving and groove closure. However, fracture resistance must not be ignored when developing even more shear resistance asphalt mixtures. Significant distress in airport asphalt surfaces, compliant with the traditional prescriptive specification, has increased interest in a performance-based airport asphalt specification. Commonly reported distresses include groove closure in slow moving aircraft areas and shearing in heavy aircraft braking zones. Development of reliable performance-indicative test methods is expected in the future and will enable warranted performance-based asphalt mixture design for airport surfaces. Keywords: Airport, Pavement, Asphalt, Surface

  1. On a Minimum Problem in Smectic Elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonsanti, Michele; Giovine, Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    Smectic elastomers are layered materials exhibiting a solid-like elastic response along the layer normal and a rubbery one in the plane. Balance equations for smectic elastomers are derived from the general theory of continua with constrained microstructure. In this work we investigate a very simple minimum problem based on multi-well potentials where the microstructure is taken into account. The set of polymeric strains minimizing the elastic energy contains a one-parameter family of simple strain associated with a micro-variation of the degree of freedom. We develop the energy functional through two terms, the first one nematic and the second one considering the tilting phenomenon; after, by developing in the rubber elasticity framework, we minimize over the tilt rotation angle and extract the engineering stress

  2. Pengerasan Pada Bahan Cetak Elastomer Polyether

    OpenAIRE

    Azree Zayani M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Bahan cetak polyether merupakan bahan elastomer yang digunakan di kedokteran gigi. Terdapat empat kelas menurut konsistensi dan viskositas yaitu (1) light body (2)medium atau regular body (3) heavy body: dan (4) Putty. Komposisi bahan cetak polyether terdiri dari pasta base dan pasta katalis. Pasta base mengandung polimer polyether, kolloidal silika sebagai bahan pengisi, dan plastisizer yaitu glikoeter atau phthalate. Pasta katalis mengandung alkil aromatik sulfonat ditambah dengan baha...

  3. Assessment of The Asphalt Produced in Some Factories of Asphalt in Al-Hilla City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Karem Abd

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present an evaluation of  the properties and characteristics of asphalt concrete of several hot mix asphalt (HMA from five factories in Al-Hilla city. The research is divided into two parts. The first part included the laboratory analysis of samples. The second part is evaluation of results according to standard specifications.      The test results included (Asphalt content percent, stability, creep compliance, voids ratio, density, flow, crushed aggregate percent, Loss Angless abrasion and SO3 percent.The results of laboratorial tests indicated that all properties of asphalt mixes were susceptible and possible to be used in the asphaltic roads. The mixes types prepared and tested according to Marshall method. The values of Marshall stability, creep and density are (9.4, 5.4, 9.8, 9, 8.6, (2.5, 2.7, 2.7, 2.6, 2.3 and (2.334, 2.336, 2.337, 2.333, 2.338 with asphalt content between (4.2 to 4.6 % for all asphalt mixes of different factories.

  4. Upgrading elastomer seals for nuclear service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittich, K C; Wensel, R; LaRose, R; Kuran, S

    1995-06-01

    Pumps, valves and instruments in nuclear plants have historically contained whatever elastomer each equipment supplier traditionally used for corresponding non-nuclear service. The proliferation of elastomer compounds, and their sometimes uncertain reliability, is now being reduced by upgrading and standardizing on a handful of compounds that have each been verified to be high performers for their class of service conditions. The objective is to make cost-effective improvements in the reliability and integrity of equipment in Canadian-designed nuclear plants. The effort focuses on elastomer seals and includes: understanding sealing fundamentals, developing relevant data for superior compounds for each service, and improving quality assurance methods, including handling and inspection guidelines. In practice, discussions with plant personnel and review of plant records are the first step. Two severe-service examples are given where these needs have been met by the following progression of activities: inspecting and laboratory testing of seals removed from service, preliminary and qualification testing of improvements, introduction into service, and monitoring the upgraded seals during phase-in periods. Large gains in reliability and integrity have been demonstrated for simulated normal and accident service conditions of heat, radiation and other deteriorative influences. Significant savings in maintenance costs are also projected. (author). 2 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Upgrading elastomer seals for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, K.C.; Wensel, R.; LaRose, R.; Kuran, S.

    1995-06-01

    Pumps, valves and instruments in nuclear plants have historically contained whatever elastomer each equipment supplier traditionally used for corresponding non-nuclear service. The proliferation of elastomer compounds, and their sometimes uncertain reliability, is now being reduced by upgrading and standardizing on a handful of compounds that have each been verified to be high performers for their class of service conditions. The objective is to make cost-effective improvements in the reliability and integrity of equipment in Canadian-designed nuclear plants. The effort focuses on elastomer seals and includes: understanding sealing fundamentals, developing relevant data for superior compounds for each service, and improving quality assurance methods, including handling and inspection guidelines. In practice, discussions with plant personnel and review of plant records are the first step. Two severe-service examples are given where these needs have been met by the following progression of activities: inspecting and laboratory testing of seals removed from service, preliminary and qualification testing of improvements, introduction into service, and monitoring the upgraded seals during phase-in periods. Large gains in reliability and integrity have been demonstrated for simulated normal and accident service conditions of heat, radiation and other deteriorative influences. Significant savings in maintenance costs are also projected. (author). 2 refs., 6 figs

  6. Toward a predictive model for elastomer seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Nicola; Khawaja, Musab; Sutton, Adrian; Mostofi, Arash

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and hydrogenated-NBR (HNBR) are widely used elastomers, especially as seals in oil and gas applications. During exposure to well-hole conditions, ingress of gases causes degradation of performance, including mechanical failure. We use computer simulations to investigate this problem at two different length and time-scales. First, we study the solubility of gases in the elastomer using a chemically-inspired description of HNBR based on the OPLS all-atom force-field. Starting with a model of NBR, C=C double bonds are saturated with either hydrogen or intramolecular cross-links, mimicking the hydrogenation of NBR to form HNBR. We validate against trends for the mass density and glass transition temperature for HNBR as a function of cross-link density, and for NBR as a function of the fraction of acrylonitrile in the copolymer. Second, we study mechanical behaviour using a coarse-grained model that overcomes some of the length and time-scale limitations of an all-atom approach. Nanoparticle fillers added to the elastomer matrix to enhance mechanical response are also included. Our initial focus is on understanding the mechanical properties at the elevated temperatures and pressures experienced in well-hole conditions.

  7. Upgrading elastomer seals for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, K.C.; Wensel, R.; Larose, R.; Kuran, S.

    1998-01-01

    Pumps, valves and instruments in nuclear plants have historically contained whatever elastomer each equipment supplier traditionally used for corresponding non-nuclear service. The proliferation of elastomer compounds, and their sometimes uncertain reliability, is now being reduced by upgrading and standardizing on a handful of compounds that have each been verified to be high performers for their class of service conditions. The objective is to make cost-effective improvements in the reliability and integrity of equipment in Canadian-designed nuclear plants. The effort focuses on elastomer seals and includes: understanding sealing fundamentals, developing relevant data for superior compounds for each service, and improving quality assurance methods, including handling and inspection guidelines. In practice, discussion with plant personnel and review of plant records are the first step. Two severe-service examples are given where these needs have been met by the following progression of activities: inspecting and laboratory testing of seals removed from service, preliminary and qualification testing of improvements, introduction into service, and monitoring the upgraded seals during phase-in periods. Large gains in reliability and integrity have been demonstrated for simulated normal and accident service conditions of heat, radiation and other deteriorative influences. Significant savings in maintenance costs are also projected. (author)

  8. Numerical analysis of laminated elastomer by FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazda, T.; Shiojiri, H.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer code based on mixed finite element method was developed for three dimensional large strain analyses of laminated elastomers including nonlinear bulk stress vs. bulk strain relationships. The adopted element is the variable node element with maximum node numbers of 27 for displacements and 4 for pressures. At first, the displacements and pressures were calculated by the code using single element under various loading conditions. The results were compared with theoretical solutions and the both results' exactly coincided with each other. Next, the analyses of laminated elastomers subjected to axial loadings were conducted using both the new code and ABAQUS code, and the results were compared with the test results. The agreement of the results of the present code were better than ABAQUS code mainly due to the capability of handling wider range of material properties. Lastly, the shearing tests of laminated elastomers were simulated by the new code. The results were shown to be in good agreement with the test results. (author)

  9. Electromechanical response of silicone dielectric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cârlescu, V.; Prisăcaru, G.; Olaru, D.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental technique to investigate the electromechanical properties of silicone dielectric elastomers actuated with high DC electric fields. A non-contact measurement technique is used to capture and monitor the thickness strain (contraction) of a circular film placed between two metallic disks electrodes. Two active fillers such as silica (10, 15 and 30 wt%) and barium titanate (5 and 15 wt%) were incorporated in order to increase the actuation performance. Thickness strain was measured at HV stimuli up to 4.5 kV and showed a quadratic dependence against applied electric field indicating that the induced strain is triggered by the Maxwell effect and/or electrostriction phenomenon as reported in literature. The actuation process evidences a rapid contraction upon HV activation and a slowly relaxation when the electrodes are short-circuit due to visco-elastic nature of elastomers. A maximum of 1.22 % thickness strain was obtained at low actuating field intensity (1.5 V/pm) comparable with those reported in literature for similar dielectric elastomer materials.

  10. Design Method and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Hybrid Fiber Used in Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber, as an additive, can improve the performance of asphalt concrete and be widely studied, but only a few works have been done for hybrid fiber. This paper presents a new and convenient method to design hybrid fiber and verifies hybrid fiber’s superiority in asphalt pavement engineering. Firstly, this paper expounds the design method used as its applied example with the hybrid fiber composed of lignin, polyester, and polypropylene fibers. In this method, a direct shear device (DSD is used to measure the shear damage energy density (SDED of hybrid fiber modified asphalts, and range and variance statistical analysis are applied to determine the composition proportion of hybrid fiber. Then, the engineering property of hybrid fiber reinforced asphalt concrete (AC-13 is investigated. Finally, a cost-benefit model is developed to analyze the advantage of hybrid fiber compared to single fibers. The results show that the design method employed in this paper can offer a beneficial reference. A combination of 1.8% of lignin fiber and 2.4% of polyester fiber plus 3.0% polypropylene fiber presented the best reinforcement of the hybrid fiber. The cost-benefit model verifies that the hybrid fiber can bring about comprehensive pavement performance and good economy.

  11. Effects of Crumb Rubber Size and Concentration on Performance of Porous Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altan Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of size distribution and concentration of crumb rubber on the performance characteristics of porous asphalt mixture. The recycling of scrap tires in asphalt pavements appears as an important alternative providing a large-scale market. The characteristics of bitumen are very important with regard to service life of porous asphalt pavement. The experimental study consists of two main steps. Firstly, the mixture design was performed to determine the optimum bitumen content. In the latter step, the mixtures were modified by dry process using crumb rubber in three different grain size distributions of #4~#20, #20~#200, and #4~#200 and rubber content of 10%, 15%, and 20% as weight of optimum bitumen. The permeability, Cantabro abrasion loss, indirect tensile strength, moisture susceptibility, and resilient modulus tests were carried out on the specimens. Test results show that #20~#200 sized rubber particles reduced air voids and coefficient of permeability, while they increased the Cantabro abrasion loss. In general, increasing the crumb rubber size and content decreased the performance characteristics of the porous asphalt mixtures.

  12. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composites in absence and presence of acrylic elastomer (ACM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Rath, T; Mahaling, R N; Mukherjee, M; Khatua, B B; Das, C K

    2009-05-01

    Polyetherimide/Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs) nanocomposites containing as-received and modified (COOH-MWNT) carbon nanotubes were prepared through melt process in extruder and then compression molded. Thermal properties of the composites were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the MWNTs were well dispersed and formed an intimate contact with the polymer matrix without any agglomeration. However the incorporation of modified carbon nanotubes formed fascinating, highly crosslinked, and compact network structure throughout the polymer matrix. This showed the increased adhesion of PEI with modified MWNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed high degree of dispersion of modified MWNTs along with broken ends. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed a marginal increase in storage modulus (E') and glass transition temperature (T(g)) with the addition of MWNTs. Increase in tensile strength and impact strength of composites confirmed the use the MWNTs as possible reinforcement agent. Both thermal and electrical conductivity of composites increased, but effect is more pronounced on modification due to formation of network of carbon nanotubes. Addition of acrylic elastomer to developed PEI/MWNTs (modified) nanocomposites resulted in the further increase in thermal and electrical properties due to the formation of additional bond between MWNTs and acrylic elastomers at the interface. All the results presented are well corroborated by SEM and FESEM studies.

  13. Effects of Sasobit® content on the rheological characteristics of unaged and aged asphalt binders at high and intermediate temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jamshidi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the rheological properties of PG64, PG70, and PG76 asphalt binders blended with different Sasobit® contents. The rheological properties of the Sasobit®-modified binders were characterized after being subjected to different aging conditions using the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and rotational viscometer (RV according to SuperpaveTM test protocols. The results indicated that the characterization of aging in terms of the Aging Index (AI depends on the rheological property of the asphalt binder selected for use in evaluating aging, the amount of Sasobit®, the binder type, and the temperature range. Linear relationships between failure temperatures of unaged and short-term-aged asphalt were observed for three binder types. Design charts were developed to select the appropriate Sasobit® content as a function of temperature, taking into consideration the stiffening effects of Sasobit®, using the SuperpaveTM fatigue factor and asphalt mix construction temperatures.

  14. The shape-memory effect in ionic elastomers: fixation through ionic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Antonio; Malmierca, Marta A; Bernal-Ortega, Pilar; Posadas, Pilar; Pérez-Aparicio, Roberto; Marcos-Fernández, Ángel; Mather, Patrick T; Valentín, Juan L

    2017-04-19

    Shape-memory elastomers based on a commercial rubber cross-linked by both ionic and covalent bonds have been developed. The elastomeric matrix was a carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) vulcanized with magnesium oxide (MgO) providing ionic interactions that form hierarchical structures. The so-named ionic transition is used as the unique thermal transition responsible for the shape-memory effect (SME) in these elastomers. These ionic interactions fix the temporary shape due to their behavior as dynamic cross-links with temperature changes. Covalent cross-links were incorporated with the addition of different proportions of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) to the ionic elastomer to establish and recover the permanent shape. In this article, the SME was modulated by modifying the degree of covalent cross-linking, while keeping the ionic contribution constant. In addition, different programming parameters, such as deformation temperature, heating/cooling rate, loading/unloading rate and percentage of tensile strain, were evaluated for their effects on shape-memory behavior.

  15. Steady shear characteristic and behavior of magneto-thermo-elasticity of isotropic MR elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Xingzhe

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-thermo-elastic steady shear behaviors of isotropic smart composites of silicon rubber matrix randomly filled with ferromagnetic particles, commonly referred to as magnetorheological (MR) elastomers, are investigated experimentally and theoretically in the present study. The strip specimens of the MR elastomer composite with different ferromagnetic particle concentrations are fabricated and implemented for lap-shear tests under both magnetic and thermal fields. It is illustrated that the magneto-thermo-elastic shear modulus of the MR elastomer is markedly enhanced with the volume fraction of ferromagnetic particles and the applied external magnetic field, while the shear modulus is decreased with the environment temperature. To qualitatively elucidate the magneto-thermo-elastic shear performance of this kind of magnetic smart composites, a modified constitutive of hyperelasticity is suggested taking into account the influence of magnetic field and temperature on the magnetic potential energy and strain energy. The theoretical modeling predictions on the stress–strain behaviors for different applied magnetic fields and environment temperatures are compared to experimental observations to demonstrate a good agreement. (paper)

  16. Polysiloxane-based luminescent elastomers prepared by thiol-ene "click" chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yujing; Lu, Haifeng; Xue, Lei; Wang, Xianming; Wu, Lianfeng; Feng, Shengyu

    2014-09-26

    Side-chain vinyl poly(dimethylsiloxane) has been modified with mercaptopropionic acid, methyl 3-mercaptopropionate, and mercaptosuccinic acid. Coordinative bonding of Eu(III) to the functionalized polysiloxanes was then carried out and crosslinked silicone elastomers were prepared by thiol-ene curing reactions of these composites. All these europium complexes could be cast to form transparent, uniform, thin elastomers with good flexibility and thermal stability. The networks were characterized by FTIR, NMR, UV/Vis, and luminescence spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The europium elastomer luminophores exhibited intense red light at 617 nm under UV excitation at room temperature due to the (5)D0 →(7)F2 transition in Eu(III) ions. The newly synthesized luminescent materials offer many advantages, including the desired mechanical flexibility. They cannot be dissolved or fused, and so they have potential for use in optical and electronic applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Contact and friction in systems with fibre reinforced elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Pareja, Natalia Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The tribological behaviour (contact and friction) of systems that include fibre reinforced elastomers is studied in this thesis. The elastomer composite is considered to behave as a viscoelastic anisotropic continuum material. In the defined tribo-system, the most influential friction mechanism is

  18. Theory Of Dewetting In A Filled Elastomer Under Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Steven T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of dewetting between elastomeric binder and filler particles of highly filled elastomer under multiaxial tension and resulting dilatation of elastomer. Study directed toward understanding and predicting nonlinear stress-vs.-strain behavior of filled elastomeric rocket propellant, also applicable to rubber in highly loaded tire or in damping pad.

  19. Role of catalysis in sustainable production of synthetic elastomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    productions, the impact of synthetic elastomer business cannot be overlooked. The need of ... Keywords. Elastomers; catalysis; tyres and automobiles; mechanism; manufacturing process. 1. ..... level fractional factorial design model was also developed to ..... Polybutadiene can be manufactured by a number of pro- cesses ...

  20. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling: Practices and Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a high RA content are produced in a batch plant to which a parallel drum is attached. In this drum RA is pre-heated to approximately 130°C. Since 2007 another hot mix recycling techniques became availa...

  1. Implementation of nondestructive testing and mechanical performance approaches to assess low temperature fracture properties of asphalt binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Hakimzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, three different asphalt binders were studied to assess their fracture behavior at low temperatures. Fracture properties of asphalt materials were obtained through conducting the compact tension [C(T] and indirect tensile [ID(T] strength tests. Mechanical fracture tests were followed by performing acoustic emissions test to determine the “embrittlement temperature” of binders which was used in evaluation of thermally induced microdamages in binders. Results showed that both nondestructive and mechanical testing approaches could successfully capture low-temperature cracking behavior of asphalt materials. It was also observed that using GTR as the binder modifier significantly improved thermal cracking resistance of PG64-22 binder. The overall trends of AE test results were consistent with those of mechanical tests. Keywords: Thermal cracking, Indirect tensile strength test, Compact tension test, Nondestructive approach, Acoustic emission test, Embrittlement temperature

  2. Phosphorus-containing imide resins - Modification by elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Varma, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    The syntheses and general features of addition-type maleimide resins based on bis(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide and tris(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide have been reported previously. These resins have been used to fabricate graphite cloth laminates having excellent flame resistance. These composites did not burn even in pure oxygen. However, these resins were somewhat brittle. This paper reports the modification of these phosphorus-containing resins by an amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN) and a perfluoroalkylene diaromatic amine elastomer (3F). An approximately two-fold increase in short beam shear strength and flexural strength was observed at 7 percent ATBN concentration. The tensile, flexural, and shear strengths were reduced when 18 percent ATBN was used. Anaerobic char yields of the resins at 800 C and the limiting oxygen indexes of the laminates decreased with increasing ATBN concentration. The perfluorodiamine (3F) was used with both imide resins at 6.4 percent concentration. The shear strength was doubled in the case of the bisimide with no loss of flammability characteristics. The modified trisimide laminate also had improved properties over the unmodified one. The dynamic mechanical analysis of a four-ply laminate indicated a glass transition temperature above 300 C. Scanning electron micrographs of the ATBN modified imide resins were also recorded.

  3. Oil-Sludge Extended Asphalt Mastic Filled with Heavy Oil Fly Ash and Cement Waste for Waterproofing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycling as an economic disposal process for many hazardous waste materials has become a popular means of conserving our planet’s scarce and diminishing natural resources. This paper is a study of the influence of oil sludge (OS on the physical behavior and performance of asphalt filled with heavy oil fly ash (HOFA, cement kiln dust (CKD and limestone dust (LMD. Conventional asphalt consistency tests in addition to a new bond strength (BS test were conducted on the modified asphalt mastics. The results were statistically analyzed and assessed in accordance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D 332 and ASTM D 449 specifications. Too much OS resulted in strength deterioration of the asphalt mastic, which can be compensated for by filling the mastic with HOFA. OS interacts constructively with the fillers to improve their effectiveness in raising the softening point (SP and viscosity of the asphalt, and also in reducing its penetration and ductility. Even though sludge mastics hold promise as suitable composites for damp proofing and waterproofing, the resulting low flash point (FP and SP of some of these mastics make their suitability for roofing applications questionable.

  4. Dielectric elastomer actuators used for pneumatic valve technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giousouf, Metin; Kovacs, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators have been investigated for applications in the field of pneumatic automation technology. We have developed different valve designs with stacked dielectric elastomer actuators and with integrated high voltage converters. The actuators were made using VHB-4910 material and a stacker machine for automated fabrication of the cylindrical actuators. Typical characteristics of pneumatic valves such as flow rate, power consumption and dynamic behaviour are presented. For valve construction the force and stroke parameters of the dielectric elastomer actuator have been measured. Further, benefits for valve applications using dielectric elastomers are shown as well as their potential operational area. Finally, challenges are discussed that are relevant for the use of elastomer actuators in valves for industrial applications. (paper)

  5. Functional silicone copolymers and elastomers with high dielectric permittivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) are a new and promising transducer technology and are often referred to as ‘artificial muscles’, due to their ability to undergo large deformations when stimulated by electric fields. DEs consist of a soft and thin elastomeric film sandwiched between compliant electrodes......, thereby forming a capacitor [1]. Silicone elastomers are one of the most used materials for DEs due to their high efficiency, fast response times and low viscous losses. The major disadvantage of silicone elastomers is that they possess relatively low dielectric permittivity, which means that a high...... electrical field is necessary to operate the DE. The necessary electrical field can be lowered by creating silicone elastomers with higher dielectric permittivity, i.e. with a higher energy density.The aim of this work is to create new and improved silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity...

  6. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Rodríguez-Alloza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants. These benefits, combined with the effective reuse of a solid waste product, make asphalt rubber (AR mixtures with WMA additives an excellent environmentally-friendly material for road construction. The effect of WMA additives on rubberized mixtures has not yet been established in detail and the lower mixing/compaction temperatures of these mixtures may result in insufficient compaction. In this sense, the present study uses a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the volumetric characteristics and compactability of AR mixtures with organic additives when production/compaction temperatures are decreased. The results of this study indicate that the additives selected can decrease the mixing/compaction temperatures without compromising the volumetric characteristics and compactability.

  7. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Alloza, A.M.; Gallego, J.

    2017-01-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants. These benefits, combined with the effective reuse of a solid waste product, make asphalt rubber (AR) mixtures with WMA additives an excellent environmentally-friendly material for road construction. The effect of WMA additives on rubberized mixtures has not yet been established in detail and the lower mixing/compaction temperatures of these mixtures may result in insufficient compaction. In this sense, the present study uses a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the volumetric characteristics and compactability of AR mixtures with organic additives when production/compaction temperatures are decreased. The results of this study indicate that the additives selected can decrease the mixing/compaction temperatures without compromising the volumetric characteristics and compactability. [es

  8. Performance Evaluation of Stone Mastic Asphalt and Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and economic considerations have encouraged civil engineers to find ways to reuse recycled materials in new constructions. The current paper presents an experimental research on the possibility of utilizing recycled concrete aggregates (RCA in stone mastic asphalt (SMA and hot mix asphalt (HMA mixtures. Three categories of RCA in various percentages were mixed with virgin granite aggregates to produce SMA and HMA specimens. The obtained results indicated that, regardless of the RCA particular sizes, the use of RCA to replace virgin aggregates increased the needed binder content in the asphalt mixtures. Moreover, it was found that even though the volumetric and mechanical properties of the asphalt mixtures are highly affected by the sizes and percentages of the RCA but, based on the demands of the project and traffic volume, utilizing specific amounts of RCA in both types of mixtures could easily satisfy the standard requirements.

  9. Development of a material for preventing fluidization of asphalt laid on a road by using coal-ash. Sekitan hai riyo ni yoru asufaruto hoso ryudoka boshizai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T. (Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan). Electric Power Engineering Lab.); Yamada, Y. (Taiseirotec Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Chiba, Y. (Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-05-30

    Currently, although prevention of fluidization of asphalt using modified asphalt mixed with resin and rubber has been taken, application of such a fluidization prevention means is limited, due to the reasons of high cost and difficult quality control, particularly mainly to places in the vicinity of intersections where the traffic is heavy, on bridges and in tunnels where construction is difficult. In addition, although low penetration asphalt is used, in this case, there are problems of deterioration of wear resistance and of cracks caused by temperature stress at low temperatures. The writers have conducted a study of imparting asphalt a fluidization resistance by adsorbing light oil in asphalt on a coal-ash fluidization preventing agent (FB) mixed in advance in an asphalt mixture. This article reports a study about the influence of mixing ratio and grain size of coal-ash upon the anti-fluidization property and durability of asphalt when coal-ash discharged from coal thermal power plants is mixed into asphalt, and a confirmation of the effectiveness of the mixing of coal-ash by actual road tests. 6 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.

    2008-01-01

    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  11. Influence of Hydrated Lime on the Properties and Permanent Deformation of the Asphalt Concrete Layers in Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tameemi Ahmed F.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible or asphalt concrete pavement is the paving system most widely adopted all over the world. It has been recognized that there are many different types of the factors affecting the performance and durability of asphalt concrete pavement, including the service conditions, such as: the variation of temperature from mild to extremes and the repeated excessive axle loading as well as the inadequate quality of the raw materials. All of these when combined together are going to accelerate the occurrence of distresses in flexible pavement such as permanent deformation and fatigue cracking. As the result, there has an urgent need to enhance the ability of asphalt concrete mixture to resist distresses happened in pavement. Use of additives is one of the techniques adopted to improve pavement properties. It has been found that hydrated lime might be one of the effective additives because it is widely available and relatively cheap compared to other modifiers like polymers. This paper presents an experimental study of the hydrated-lime modified asphalt concrete mixtures. Five different percentages of the hydrated lime additive were investigated, namely (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 percent. The hydrated lime additive was used as partial replacement of limestone filler by total weight of the aggregate. The designed Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA concretes are for the application of three pavement courses, i.e. Surface, Leveling and Base. These mixtures are designed and tested following Marshall procedure and uniaxial repeated loading to evaluate permanent deformation at different temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C. The experimental results show that the addition of hydrated lime as a partial replacement of ordinary limestone mineral filler results a significant improvement on mechanical properties and the resistant to permanent deformation of the designed asphalt concrete mixtures.

  12. Experimental Study on Modification of Concrete with Asphalt Admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bołtryk, Michał; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Pawluczuk, Edyta

    2017-10-01

    Durability of engineering structures made of cement concrete with high compressive strength is a very vital issue, especially when they are exposed to different aggressive environments and dynamic loads. Concrete resistance to weathering actions and chemical attack can be improved by combined chemical and mechanical modification of concrete microstructure. Asphalt admixture in the form of asphalt paste (AP) was used for chemical modification of cement composite microstructure. Concrete structure was formed using special technology of compaction. A stand for vibro-vibropressing with regulated vibrator force and pressing force was developed. The following properties of the modified concrete were tested: compressive strength, water absorption, freeze-thaw resistance, scaling resistance in the presence of de-icing agents, chloride migration, resistance to CO2 and corrosion in aggressive solutions. Corrosion resistance was tested alternately in 1.8% solutions of NH4Cl, MgSO4, (NH2)2CO and CaCl2, which were altered every 7 days; the experiment lasted 9.5 months. Optimum compaction parameters in semi-industrial conditions were determined: ratio between piston stress (Qp ) and external top vibrator force (Po ) in the range 0.4÷-0.5 external top vibrator force 4 kN. High strength concretes with compressive strength fcm = 60÷70 MPa, very low water absorption (barrier formed in pores of cement hydrates against dioxide and chloride ions. Concrete specimens containing AP 4% c.m. and consolidated by vibro-vibropressing method proved to be practically resistant to highly corrosive environment. Vibro-vibropressing compaction technology of concrete modified with AP can be applied in prefabrication plants to produce elements for road, bridge and hydraulic engineering constructions.

  13. Understanding asphalt compaction: An action research strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Seirgei Rosario; ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Doree, Andries G.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi

    2007-01-01

    In Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) construction, rollers provide the compaction energy required to produce a specified density. However, little is known about the heuristics used by the roller operators. This study forms part of a larger action research project focussing on the improvement of the HMA paving

  14. Interfacial debonding of ice-asphalt concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazawa, E.; Mizoue, Y. (Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan)); Kojima, T. (Hitachi Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-09-20

    Series of experimental investigations were carried out to clarify the bonding mechanism between ice and asphalt and to develop a new technique to reduce bonding resistance. The surface bonding resistance was measured by three methods and the main variables taken into consideration have been surface energy, surface roughness and stiffness of asphalt. Surface energy was varied by using various water repellents and the stiffness of the concrete was varied by mixing rubber particles. Correlations of the three variables were studied and the following results have been obtained. Decreasing of surface energy and increasing of deformability of asphalt concrete has been the effective method to decrease the bonding between ice and asphalt. For the case of water repellent coated surface, shear debonding strength has been linearly related to the energy required for debonding by dynamic tension and the shear debonding strength has decreased with the decrease in roughness of pavement. In the case of surface without using repellent, shear debonding strength has not been influenced by surface energy and roughness of pavement. 6 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Extending the Lifespan of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Porous Asphalt (PA) concrete is widely used as a surfacing layer on highways in the Netherlands. The service life of PA wearing courses is limited because of the fact that it is vulnerable to raveling. The possibilities of applying preventive maintenance to PA wearing courses by means of spraying

  16. Application of Conductive Materials to Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Viet Vo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow-melting pavement technique is an advanced preservation method, which can prevent the forming of snow or ice on the pavement surface by increasing the temperature using an embedded heating system. The main scope of this study is to evaluate the impact of conductive additives on the heating efficiency. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were considered to investigate effects of conductive additives, graphite, and carbon fibers on the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixtures. Also, the distribution of the conductive additives within the asphalt concrete body was investigated by microstructural imaging. An actual test was applied to simulate realistic heating for an asphalt concrete mixture. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon fibers improve the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixes and their combination is more effective than when used alone. As observed in the microstructural image, carbon fibers show a long-range connecting effect among graphite conductive clusters and gather in bundles when added excessively. According to the actual test, adding the conductive additives helps improve snow-melting efficiency by shortening processing time and raising the surface temperature.

  17. Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibai Iskakbayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.

  18. Monitoring diver kinematics with dielectric elastomer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher R.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2017-04-01

    Diving, initially motivated for food purposes, is crucial to the oil and gas industry, search and rescue, and is even done recreationally by millions of people. There is a growing need however, to monitor the health and activity of divers. The Divers Alert Network has reported on average 90 fatalities per year since 1980. Furthermore an estimated 1000 divers require recompression treatment for dive-related injuries every year. One means of monitoring diver activity is to integrate strain sensors into a wetsuit. This would provide kinematic information on the diver potentially improving buoyancy control assessment, providing a platform for gesture communication, detecting panic attacks and monitoring diver fatigue. To explore diver kinematic monitoring we have coupled dielectric elastomer sensors to a wetsuit worn by the pilot of a human-powered wet submarine. This provided a unique platform to test the performance and accuracy of dielectric elastomer strain sensors in an underwater application. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of strain sensors to monitor the kinematics of a diver. This study was in collaboration with the University of Auckland's human-powered submarine team, Team Taniwha. The pilot, completely encapsulated in a hull, pedals to propel the submarine forward. Therefore this study focused on leg motion as that is the primary motion of the submarine pilot. Four carbon-filled silicone dielectric elastomer sensors were fabricated and coupled to the pilot's wetsuit. The first two sensors were attached over the knee joints, with the remaining two attached between the pelvis and thigh. The goal was to accurately measure leg joint angles thereby determining the position of each leg relative to the hip. A floating data acquisition unit monitored the sensors and transmitted data packets to a nearby computer for real-time processing. A GoPro Hero 4 silver edition was used to capture the experiments and provide a means of post-validation. The

  19. A Recipe for Soft Fluidic Elastomer Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Andrew D; Katzschmann, Robert K; Rus, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    This work provides approaches to designing and fabricating soft fluidic elastomer robots. That is, three viable actuator morphologies composed entirely from soft silicone rubber are explored, and these morphologies are differentiated by their internal channel structure, namely, ribbed, cylindrical, and pleated. Additionally, three distinct casting-based fabrication processes are explored: lamination-based casting, retractable-pin-based casting, and lost-wax-based casting. Furthermore, two ways of fabricating a multiple DOF robot are explored: casting the complete robot as a whole and casting single degree of freedom (DOF) segments with subsequent concatenation. We experimentally validate each soft actuator morphology and fabrication process by creating multiple physical soft robot prototypes.

  20. Fundamental evaluation of the interaction between RAS/RAP and virgin asphalt binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted in this research project to examine the blending between reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)/recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) and virgin asphalt binders and to evaluate the factors that may affect ...

  1. Thermodynamics and instability of dielectric elastomer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Mu, Tong

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer is a kind of typical soft active material. It can deform obviously when subjected to an external voltage. When a dielectric elastomer with randomly oriented dipoles is subject to an electric field, the dipoles will rotate to and align with the electric field. The polarization of the dielectric elastomer may be saturated when the voltage is high enough. When subjected to a mechanical force, the end-to-end distance of each polymer chain, which has a finite contour length, will approach the finite value, reaching a limiting stretch. On approaching the limiting stretch, the elastomer stiffens steeply. Here, we develop a thermodynamic constitutive model of dielectric elastomers undergoing polarization saturation and strain-stiffening, and then investigate the stability (electromechanical stability, snap-through stability) and voltage induced deformation of dielectric elastomers. Analytical solution has been obtained and it reveals the marked influence of the extension limit and polarization saturation limit on its instability. The developed thermodynamic constitutive model and simulation results would be helpful in future to the research of dielectric elastomer based high-performance transducers.

  2. Influence of DAD-TA temperature-reducing additive on physical and mechanical properties of bitumen and compaction of asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadykina, V. V.; Akimov, A. E.; Trautvain, A. I.; Kholopov, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the use of DAD-TA temperature-reducing additive for the preparation and pouring of asphalt concrete mixes at reduced temperatures. It also shows positive influence of the modified bitumen on the efficiency of organo-mineral composite compaction at reduced temperatures. Physical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete with the use of bitumen modified by DAD-TA additive including indicators characterizing road surfacing life are presented. Arguments to use this material from the point of view of its production technology and environmental impact are given.

  3. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping properties of elastomers. Part 3: The effects of temperature, dissipation level and geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, A. J.; Tessarzik, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of temperature, dissipation level and geometry on the dynamic behavior of elastomer elements were investigated. Force displacement relationships in elastomer elements and the effects of frequency, geometry and temperature upon these relationships are reviewed. Based on this review, methods of reducing stiffness and damping data for shear and compression test elements to material properties (storage and loss moduli) and empirical geometric factors are developed and tested using previously generated experimental data. A prediction method which accounts for large amplitudes of deformation is developed on the assumption that their effect is to increase temperature through the elastomers, thereby modifying the local material properties. Various simple methods of predicting the radial stiffness of ring cartridge elements are developed and compared. Material properties were determined from the shear specimen tests as a function of frequency and temperature. Using these material properties, numerical predictions of stiffness and damping for cartridge and compression specimens were made and compared with corresponding measurements at different temperatures, with encouraging results.

  4. The Effect of Morphological Characteristic of Coarse Aggregates Measured with Fractal Dimension on Asphalt Mixture’s High-Temperature Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological properties of coarse aggregates, such as shape, angularity, and surface texture, have a great influence on the mechanical performance of asphalt mixtures. This study aims to investigate the effect of coarse aggregate morphological properties on the high-temperature performance of asphalt mixtures. A modified Los Angeles (LA abrasion test was employed to produce aggregates with various morphological properties by applying abrasion cycles of 0, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 on crushed angular aggregates. Based on a laboratory-developed Morphology Analysis System for Coarse Aggregates (MASCA, the morphological properties of the coarse aggregate particles were quantified using the index of fractal dimension. The high-temperature performances of the dense-graded asphalt mixture (AC-16, gap-graded stone asphalt mixture (SAC-16, and stone mastic asphalt (SMA-16 mixtures containing aggregates with different fractal dimensions were evaluated through the dynamic stability (DS test and the penetration shear test in laboratory. Good linear correlations between the fractal dimension and high-temperature indexes were obtained for all three types of mixtures. Moreover, the results also indicated that higher coarse aggregate angularity leads to stronger high-temperature shear resistance of asphalt mixtures.

  5. Surface modification of basalt with silane coupling agent on asphalt mixture moisture damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Yahong; Fang, Ying; Huang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Yinhui; Li, Wensheng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Yuan, Jianmin [College of Materials Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Tan, Ligang [College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Wang, Shuangyin [State Key Laboratory of Chem/Bio-Sensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Wu, Zhenjun, E-mail: wooawt@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new silane coupling agent was synthesized based on KH570. • Basalt surface was modified using the new silane coupling agent. • Chemical bond between basalt and the new silane coupling agent was formed. • Asphalt mixture which used modified basalt show superior water stability. - Abstract: A new silane coupling agent was synthesized based on γ-(methacryloyloxy) propyltrimethoxysilane (KH570). The surface of basalt rocks was modified by KH570 and the new silane coupling agent (NSCA), and the interfacial interaction between silane coupling agent and basalt was also studied. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that the silane coupling agent molecule bound strongly with basalt rocks. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observation showed that a thin layer of coupling agent was formed on the surface of modified basalt. The boiling test and immersion Marshall test confirmed that the moisture sensitivity of basalt modified with the new silane coupling agent increased more significantly than that untreated and treated with KH570. The Retained Marshall Strength of basalt modified with the new coupling agent increased from 71.74% to 87.79% compared with untreated basalt. The results indicated that the new silane coupling agent played an important role in improving the interfacial performance between basalt and asphalt.

  6. Effect of using fly ash as alternative filler in hot mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Mistry

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of using fly ash (FA in asphalt mixture as replacement of common filler. In view of the same, samples were prepared for different bitumen content (3.5−6.5% at 0.5% increments by using 2% hydrated lime (HL in control mix as well as varying percentage of FA ranging from 2 to 8% as alternative filler in modified mixes. The optimum bitumen content (OBC was then determined for all the mix by Marshall mix design. Experimental results indicated higher stability value with lower OBC for the mixture having 4% FA as optimum filler content in comparison with conventional mix and standard specification. So this study discuss the feasibility of using FA as alternative filler instead of HL in asphalt concrete mix by satisfying the standard specification.

  7. Performance Characteristic of Cold Recycled Mixture with Asphalt Emulsion and Chemical Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowen Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three types of chemical additives were used to modify asphalt emulsion recycled mixture. These chemical additives include composite Portland cement (CPC, hydrated lime (HL, and a combination of hydrated lime and ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBF. The influence of different additives on the recycled mixture performance was investigated by volumetric and strength tests, moisture susceptibility test, rutting resistance test, and low temperature bending test. To better understand its performance characteristic, the microstructure images of the recycled mixture were observed by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM. Test results demonstrate that the performance improvement of the emulsion recycled mixture depends on the types and content of chemical additives. Several recommendations are presented for the selection of chemical materials. Based on ESEM image analysis, the interface bonding mechanism is proposed to explain the performance characteristic of the recycled mixture with asphalt emulsion and cementitious materials.

  8. Modeling shape selection of buckled dielectric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langham, Jacob; Bense, Hadrien; Barkley, Dwight

    2018-02-01

    A dielectric elastomer whose edges are held fixed will buckle, given a sufficiently applied voltage, resulting in a nontrivial out-of-plane deformation. We study this situation numerically using a nonlinear elastic model which decouples two of the principal electrostatic stresses acting on an elastomer: normal pressure due to the mutual attraction of oppositely charged electrodes and tangential shear ("fringing") due to repulsion of like charges at the electrode edges. These enter via physically simplified boundary conditions that are applied in a fixed reference domain using a nondimensional approach. The method is valid for small to moderate strains and is straightforward to implement in a generic nonlinear elasticity code. We validate the model by directly comparing the simulated equilibrium shapes with the experiment. For circular electrodes which buckle axisymetrically, the shape of the deflection profile is captured. Annular electrodes of different widths produce azimuthal ripples with wavelengths that match our simulations. In this case, it is essential to compute multiple equilibria because the first model solution obtained by the nonlinear solver (Newton's method) is often not the energetically favored state. We address this using a numerical technique known as "deflation." Finally, we observe the large number of different solutions that may be obtained for the case of a long rectangular strip.

  9. Compatibility of elastomers in palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Siang, C.T.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    In recent time, environmental awareness and concern over the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels have led to an increased popularity of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for automobiles. However, there are concerns over enhanced degradation of automotive materials in biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate the impact of palm biodiesel on the degradation behavior of elastomers such as nitrile rubber (NBR), polychloroprene, and fluoro-viton A. Static immersion tests in B0 (diesel), B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B100 (biodiesel) were carried out at room temperature (25 C) and at 50 C for 500 h. At the end of immersion test, degradation behavior was investigated by measuring mass, volume, hardness as well as tensile strength and elongation. The exposed elastomer surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to identify the chemical and structural changes. Results showed that the extent of degradation was higher for both polychloroprene and NBR while fluoro-viton exhibited good resistance to degradation and was least attacked. (author)

  10. Stress measurements of planar dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Bekim; Aeby, Elise A.; Müller, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) micro- and nano-structures are referred to artificial muscles because of their specific continuous power and adequate time response. The bending measurement of an asymmetric, planar DEA is described. The asymmetric cantilevers consist of 1 or 5 μm-thin DEAs deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates 16, 25, 38, or 50 μm thick. The application of a voltage to the DEA electrodes generates an electrostatic pressure in the sandwiched silicone elastomer layer, which causes the underlying PEN substrate to bend. Optical beam deflection enables the detection of the bending angle vs. applied voltage. Bending radii as large as 850 m were reproducibly detected. DEA tests with electric fields of up to 80 V/μm showed limitations in electrode’s conductivity and structure failures. The actuation measurement is essential for the quantitative characterization of nanometer-thin, low-voltage, single- and multi-layer DEAs, as foreseen for artificial sphincters to efficiently treat severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

  11. Stress measurements of planar dielectric elastomer actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmani, Bekim; Aeby, Elise A.; Müller, Bert [Biomaterials Science Center, University of Basel, Gewerbestrasse 14, 4123 Allschwil (Switzerland)

    2016-05-15

    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) micro- and nano-structures are referred to artificial muscles because of their specific continuous power and adequate time response. The bending measurement of an asymmetric, planar DEA is described. The asymmetric cantilevers consist of 1 or 5 μm-thin DEAs deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates 16, 25, 38, or 50 μm thick. The application of a voltage to the DEA electrodes generates an electrostatic pressure in the sandwiched silicone elastomer layer, which causes the underlying PEN substrate to bend. Optical beam deflection enables the detection of the bending angle vs. applied voltage. Bending radii as large as 850 m were reproducibly detected. DEA tests with electric fields of up to 80 V/μm showed limitations in electrode’s conductivity and structure failures. The actuation measurement is essential for the quantitative characterization of nanometer-thin, low-voltage, single- and multi-layer DEAs, as foreseen for artificial sphincters to efficiently treat severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

  12. Modeling of Magnetostriction of Soft Elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, Andriushchenko; Leonid, Afremov; Mariya, Chernova

    2014-01-01

    Small magnetic particles placed in a relatively soft polymer (with elastic modulus E ∼ 10 ÷ 100 kPa) are magnetically soft elastomers. The external magnetic field acts on each particle which leads to microscopic deformation of the material and consequently to changing of its shape – magnetostriction. For purposes of studying of magnetostriction the model of movable cellular automata (MCA), in which a real heterogeneous material is an ensemble of interacting elements of finite size – automata, is used. It's supposed to be that the motion of each automata can be described by Newton's Second law. The force acting on the i-th automata consists of the following components: volume-dependent force acting on the automata i which is caused by pressure from the surrounding automata; force of an external magnetic field acting on the i-th automata with some magnetic moment; and normal and tangential interaction force between a pair of i and j automata. This approach was used for modeling of magnetostriction elastomer

  13. Soft Dielectric Elastomer Oscillators Driving Bioinspired Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E-F Markus; Schlatter, Samuel; Anderson, Iain A

    2017-12-01

    Entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. To produce them, we must integrate control and actuation in the same soft structure. Soft actuators (e.g., pneumatic and hydraulic) exist but electronics are hard and stiff and remotely located. We present novel soft, electronics-free dielectric elastomer oscillators, which are able to drive bioinspired robots. As a demonstrator, we present a robot that mimics the crawling motion of the caterpillar, with an integrated artificial nervous system, soft actuators and without any conventional stiff electronic parts. Supplied with an external DC voltage, the robot autonomously generates all signals that are necessary to drive its dielectric elastomer actuators, and it translates an in-plane electromechanical oscillation into a crawling locomotion movement. Therefore, all functional and supporting parts are made of polymer materials and carbon. Besides the basic design of this first electronic-free, biomimetic robot, we present prospects to control the general behavior of such robots. The absence of conventional stiff electronics and the exclusive use of polymeric materials will provide a large step toward real animal-like robots, compliant human machine interfaces, and a new class of distributed, neuron-like internal control for robotic systems.

  14. Dielectric silicone elastomers with mixed ceramic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiubianu, George; Bele, Adrian; Cazacu, Maria; Racles, Carmen; Vlad, Stelian; Ignat, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Composite ceramics nanoparticles (MCN) with zirconium dioxide and lead zirconate. • Dielectric elastomer films wDith PDMS matrix and MCN as dielectric filler. • Hydrophobic character—water resistant and good flexibility specific to siloxanes. • Increased value of dielectric constant with the content of MCN in dielectric films. • Increased energy output from uniaxial deformation of the dielectric elastomer films. - Abstract: A ceramic material consisting in a zirconium dioxide-lead zirconate mixture has been obtained by precipitation method, its composition being proved by wide angle X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average diameter of the ceramic particles ranged between 50 and 100 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy images. These were surface treated and used as filler for a high molecular mass polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diol (Mn = 450,000) prepared in laboratory, the resulted composites being further processed as films and crosslinked. A condensation procedure, unusual for polydimethylsiloxane having such high molecular mass, with a trifunctional silane was approached for the crosslinking. The effect of filler content on electrical and mechanical properties of the resulted materials was studied and it was found that the dielectric permittivity of nanocomposites increased in line with the concentration of ceramic nanoparticles

  15. Dielectric silicone elastomers with mixed ceramic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiubianu, George, E-mail: george.stiubianu@icmpp.ro [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Bele, Adrian; Cazacu, Maria; Racles, Carmen; Vlad, Stelian [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Ignat, Mircea [National R& D Institute for Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA Bucharest, Splaiul Unirii 313, District 3, Bucharest 030138 (Romania)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Composite ceramics nanoparticles (MCN) with zirconium dioxide and lead zirconate. • Dielectric elastomer films wDith PDMS matrix and MCN as dielectric filler. • Hydrophobic character—water resistant and good flexibility specific to siloxanes. • Increased value of dielectric constant with the content of MCN in dielectric films. • Increased energy output from uniaxial deformation of the dielectric elastomer films. - Abstract: A ceramic material consisting in a zirconium dioxide-lead zirconate mixture has been obtained by precipitation method, its composition being proved by wide angle X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average diameter of the ceramic particles ranged between 50 and 100 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy images. These were surface treated and used as filler for a high molecular mass polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diol (Mn = 450,000) prepared in laboratory, the resulted composites being further processed as films and crosslinked. A condensation procedure, unusual for polydimethylsiloxane having such high molecular mass, with a trifunctional silane was approached for the crosslinking. The effect of filler content on electrical and mechanical properties of the resulted materials was studied and it was found that the dielectric permittivity of nanocomposites increased in line with the concentration of ceramic nanoparticles.

  16. The Current State of Silicone-Based Dielectric Elastomer Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    class of transducer due to their inherent lightweight and potentially large strains. For the field to progress towards industrial implementation, a leap in material devel- opment is required, specifically targeting longer lifetime and higher energy densities to provide more efficient transduction at lower...... driving voltages. In this review, the current state of sili- cone elastomers for DETs is summarised and critically discussed, including commercial elastomers, composites, polymer blends, grafted elastomers and complex network structures. For future developments in the field it is essential that all aspects...

  17. Active vibration isolation platform on base of magnetorheological elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, Valery P., E-mail: mikhailov@bmstu.ru; Bazinenkov, Alexey M.

    2017-06-01

    The article describes the active vibration isolation platform on base of magnetorheological (MR) elastomers. An active damper based on the MR elastomers can be used as an actuator of micro- or nanopositioning for a vibroinsulated object. The MR elastomers give such advantages for active control of vibration as large range of displacements (up to 1 mm), more efficient absorption of the vibration energy, possibility of active control of amplitude-frequency characteristics and positioning with millisecond response speed and nanometer running accuracy. The article presents the results of experimental studies of the most important active damper parameters. Those are starting current, transient time for stepping, transmission coefficient of the vibration displacement amplitude.

  18. Self-Healing, High-Permittivity Silicone Dielectric Elastomer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    possesses high dielectric permittivity and consists of an interpenetrating polymer network of silicone elastomer and ionic silicone species that are cross-linked through proton exchange between amines and acids. The ionically cross-linked silicone provides self-healing properties after electrical breakdown...... or cuts made directly to the material due to the reassembly of the ionic bonds that are broken during damage. The dielectric elastomers presented in this paper pave the way to increased lifetimes and the ability of dielectric elastomers to survive millions of cycles in high-voltage conditions....

  19. Metal and elastomer seal tests for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.; McIntyre, G.T.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Skelton, R.; Pate, D.J.; Gill, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The vacuum system of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has more than a thousand metal vacuum seals. Also, numerous elastomer seals are used throughout the AGS to seal large beam component chambers. An accelerator upgrade program is being implemented to reduce the AGS operating pressure by x100 and improve the reliability of the vacuum system. This paper describes work in progress on metal and elastomer vacuum seals to help meet those two objectives. Tests are reported on the sealing properties of a variety of metal seals used on different sealing surfaces. Results are also given on reversible sorption properties of certain elastomers. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Suppression of electromechanical instability in fiber-reinforced dielectric elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The electromechanical instability of dielectric elastomers has been a major challenge for the application of this class of active materials. In this work, we demonstrate that dielectric elastomers filled with soft fiber can suppress the electromechanical instability and achieve large deformation. Specifically, we developed a constitutive model to describe the dielectric and mechanical behaviors of fiber-reinforced elastomers. The model was applied to study the influence of stiffness, nonlinearity properties and the distribution of fiber on the instability of dielectric membrane under an electric field. The results show that there exists an optimal fiber distribution condition to achieve the maximum deformation before failure.

  1. Electrical Breakdown and Mechanical Ageing in Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin

    Dielectric elastomers (DE) are used in various applications, such as artificial eye lids, pressure sensors and human motion energy generators. For many applications, one of the major factors that limits the DE performance is premature electrical breakdown. There are many approaches that have been......, the lifetime of elastomer materials needs further investigation. Therefore, in the second strategy, several DE parameters such as Young’s moduli, breakdown strengths and dielectric permittivities of PDMS elastomers filled with hard filler particles were investigated after being subjected to pre...

  2. Rheo-mechanical model for self-healing asphalt pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gömze, A L; Gömze, L N

    2017-01-01

    Examining the rheological properties of different asphalt mixtures at different temperatures, pressures and deformation conditions on the combined rheo-tribometers the authors have found that the generally used Burgers-model doesn’t explain the deformation properties of asphalt mixtures and pavements under loading forces and loading pressures. To understand better the rheological and deformation properties of such complex materials like asphalt mixtures and pavements the authors used Malvern Mastersizer X laser granulometer, Bruker D8 Advance X-ray diffractometer, Hitachi TM 1000 Scanning Elektronmicroscope, Tristar 3000 specific surface tester and the combined rheo-tribometer developed and patented by the authors. After the complex investigation of different asphalt mixtures the authors have found a new, more complex rheological model for the asphalts including self-healing asphalt pavements. (paper)

  3. Performance of Recycled Porous Hot Mix Asphalt with Gilsonite Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Djakfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of porous asphalt using waste recycled concrete material and explore the effect of adding Gilsonite to the mixture. As many as 90 Marshall specimens were prepared with varied asphalt content, percentage of Gilsonite as an additive, and proportioned recycled and virgin coarse aggregate. The test includes permeability capability and Marshall characteristics. The results showed that recycled concrete materials seem to have a potential use as aggregate in the hot mix asphalt, particularly on porous hot mix asphalt. Adding Gilsonite at ranges 8–10% improves the Marshall characteristic of the mix, particularly its stability, without decreasing significantly the permeability capability of the mix. The use of recycled materials tends to increase the asphalt content of the mix at about 1 to 2% higher. With stability reaching 750 kg, the hot mix recycled porous asphalt may be suitable for use in the local roads with medium vehicle load.

  4. Valorization of vinasse as binder modifier in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª José Martínez-Echevarría-Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La reutilización de los residuos derivados de los procesos industriales se ha convertido en uno de los objetivos prioritarios de carácter ambiental en la investigación científica y técnica. En el sector de la construcción, se pueden aprovechar materiales residuales de otros procesos en sustitución de materias primas. Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio desarrollado con el objetivo de valorizar la vinaza residual del proceso de fabricación de etanol a partir de biomasa, como material modificante del betún utilizado en las mezclas bituminosas. Se han fabricado cuatro mezclas bituminosas tipo AC-16S (1: Betún 50/70, 2: Betún 50/70 + 10%vinaza, 3: Betún-caucho, 4: Betún-caucho + 10%vinaza y se han realizado ensayos de caracterización como son sensibilidad al agua, resistencia a las deformaciones plásticas, rigidez y fatiga.Los resultados muestran que las mezclas modificadas con vinaza mejoran el comportamiento mecánico de la mezcla AC-16 S y contribuye a la revalorización del residuo.

  5. Properties of polymer - and fibre-modified porous asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verhaeghe, Benoit MJA

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing traffic volumes in South Africa and especially with regard to the impact of that on noise pollution and wet-weather accident rates in urban areas, the Southern African Bitumen and Tar Association expressed a need...

  6. Rubber materials from elastomers and nanocellulose powders: filler dispersion and mechanical reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Matthieu; Berriot, Julien; de Gaudemaris, Benoit; Veyland, Anne; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Molina-Boisseau, Sonia; Heux, Laurent

    2018-04-04

    Rubber materials with well-dispersed fillers and large mechanical reinforcement have been obtained by melt-processing a diene elastomer matrix and tailored nanocellulose powders having both a high specific surface area and a modified interface. Such filler powders with a specific surface area of 180 m2 g-1 and 100 m2 g-1 have been obtained by freeze-drying suspensions of short needle-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and entangled networks of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in tert-butanol/water, respectively. A quantitative and toposelective filler surface esterification was performed using a gas-phase protocol either with palmitoyl chloride (PCl) to obtain a hydrophobic but non-reactive nanocellulose interface, or with 3,3'-dithiopropionic acid chloride (DTACl) to introduce reactive groups that can covalently bind the nanocellulose interface to the dienic matrix in a subsequent vulcanization process. A set of filled materials was prepared varying the filler morphology, interface and volume fraction. Transmission electron microscopy images of ultrathin cryo-sections showed that modified nanocellulose fillers presented a relatively homogeneous distribution up to a volume fraction of 20%. The materials also exhibited a significant modulus increase, while keeping an extensibility in the same range as that of the neat matrix. Strikingly, in the case of the reactive interface, a strong stress-stiffening behavior was evidenced from the upward curvature of the tensile curve, leading to a large increase of the ultimate stress (up to 7 times that of the neat matrix). Taken together, these properties, which have never been previously reported for nanocellulose-filled elastomers, match well the mechanical characteristics of industrial carbon black or silica-loaded elastomers.

  7. Field testing of asphalt-emulsion radon-barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Elmore, M.R.; Nelson, D.A.; Voss, C.F.; Koehmstedt, P.L.

    1981-09-01

    Three years of laboratory and field testing have demonstrated that asphalt emulsion seals are effective radon diffusion barriers. Both laboratory and field tests in 1979, 1980 and 1981 have shown that an asphalt emulsion seal can reduce radon fluxes by greater than 99.9%. The effective diffusion coefficient for the various asphalt emulsion admix seals averages about 10 -6 cm 2 /s. The 1981 joint field test is a culmination of all the technology developed to date for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. Preliminary results of this field test and the results of the 1980 field test are presented. 18 figures, 6 tables

  8. Effect of Fibers on Mixture Design of Stone Matrix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lignin fibers typically influence the mixture performance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA, such as strength, stability, durability, noise level, rutting resistance, fatigue life, and water sensitivity. However, limited studies were conducted to analyze the influence of fibers on the percent voids in mineral aggregate in bituminous mixture (VMA during the mixture design. This study analyzed the effect of different fibers and fiber contents on the VMA in SMA mixture design. A surface-dry condition method test and Marshall Stability test were applied on the SMA mixture with four different fibers (i.e., flocculent lignin fiber, mineral fiber, polyester fiber, blended fiber. The test results indicated that the bulk specific gravity of SMA mixtures and asphalt saturation decreased with the increasing fiber content, whilst the percent air voids in bituminous mixtures (VV, Marshall Stability and VMA increased. Mineral fiber had the most obvious impact on the bulk specific gravity of bituminous mixtures, while flocculent lignin fiber had a minimal impact. The mixture with mineral fiber and polyester fiber had significant effects on the volumetric properties, and, consequently, exhibited better VMA over the conventional SMA mixture with lignin fiber. Modified fiber content range was also provided, which will widen the utilization of mineral fiber and polyester fiber in the applications of SMA mixtures. The mixture evaluation suggested no statistically significant difference between lignin fiber and polyester fiber on the stability. The mineral fiber required a much larger fiber content to improve the mixture performance than other fibers. Overall, the results can be a reference to guide SMA mixture design.

  9. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katman, Herda Yati; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Matori, Mohd Yazip

    2013-01-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  10. Toughening elastomers with sacrificial bonds and watching them break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Etienne; Chen, Yulan; Bulters, Markus; Sijbesma, Rint P; Creton, Costantino

    2014-04-11

    Elastomers are widely used because of their large-strain reversible deformability. Most unfilled elastomers suffer from a poor mechanical strength, which limits their use. Using sacrificial bonds, we show how brittle, unfilled elastomers can be strongly reinforced in stiffness and toughness (up to 4 megapascals and 9 kilojoules per square meter) by introducing a variable proportion of isotropically prestretched chains that can break and dissipate energy before the material fails. Chemoluminescent cross-linking molecules, which emit light as they break, map in real time where and when many of these internal bonds break ahead of a propagating crack. The simple methodology that we use to introduce sacrificial bonds, combined with the mapping of where bonds break, has the potential to stimulate the development of new classes of unfilled tough elastomers and better molecular models of the fracture of soft materials.

  11. Synthetic Strategies for High Dielectric Constant Silicone Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt

    synthetic strategies were developed in this Ph.D. thesis, in order to create silicone elastomers with high dielectric constants and thereby higher energy densities. The work focused on maintaining important properties such as dielectric loss, electrical breakdown strength and elastic modulus....... The methodology therefore involved chemically grafting high dielectric constant chemical groups onto the elastomer network, as this would potentially provide a stable elastomer system upon continued activation of the material. The first synthetic strategy involved the synthesis of a new type of cross...... extender’ that allowed for chemical modifications such as Cu- AAC. This route was promising for one-pot elastomer preparation and as a high dielectric constant additive to commercial silicone systems. The second approach used the borane-catalysed Piers-Rubinsztajn reaction to form spatially well...

  12. Optical microtopographic inspection of asphalt pavement surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Freitas, E. F.; Torres, H.; Cerezo, V.

    2017-08-01

    Microtopographic and rugometric characterization of surfaces is routinely and effectively performed non-invasively by a number of different optical methods. Rough surfaces are also inspected using optical profilometers and microtopographer. The characterization of road asphalt pavement surfaces produced in different ways and compositions is fundamental for economical and safety reasons. Having complex structures, including topographically with different ranges of form error and roughness, the inspection of asphalt pavement surfaces is difficult to perform non-invasively. In this communication we will report on the optical non-contact rugometric characterization of the surface of different types of road pavements performed at the Microtopography Laboratory of the Physics Department of the University of Minho.

  13. Finite element simulation of asphalt fatigue testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Kieler, Thomas Lau; Kargo, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The traditional interpretation of fatigue tests on asphalt mixes has been in terms of a logarithmic linear relationship between the constant stress or strain amplitude and the number of load repetitions to cause failure, often defined as a decrease in modulus to half the initial value...... damage mechanics.The paper describes how continuum damage mechanics may be used with a finite element program to explain the progressive deterioration of asphalt mixes under laboratory fatigue testing. Both constant stress and constant strain testing are simulated, and compared to the actual results from...... three point and four point fatigue test on different mixes. It is shown that the same damage law, based on energy density, may be used to explain the gradual deterioration under constant stress as well as under constant strain testing.Some of the advantages of using this method for interpreting fatigue...

  14. Ageing evolution of foamed warm mix asphalt combined with reclaimed asphalt pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martinez, M.; Marsac, P.; Gabet, T.; Pouget, S.; Hammoum, F.

    2017-01-01

    The combination of high rates of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies is still ambiguous in terms of durability. With the aim of clarifying this issue, a study comparing a hot mix asphalt with a WMA prepared using the foaming process technology. Both mixes contain 50% of RAP and are submitted to a laboratory ageing procedure. The long term related performance of the mixtures is compared by means of complex modulus and fatigue testing. Penetration and ring and ball tests are undertaken on the recovered bitumens, as well as the ageing evolution, characterised by the Fourier Transform Infrared analysis. Finally, the Apparent Molecular Weight Distribution (AMWD) of the binders is calculated from rheological measurements using the δ-method. Results show a relation between ageing evolution and mechanical performance. After ageing, the overall tendencies are similar for both processes. [es

  15. Present status and future of various rubber materials. ; Asphalt. Kakushu gomu zairyo no genjo to kongo. ; Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakisaka, S. (Toa Doro Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-15

    Asphalt is obtained at a rate of about 25 Kg per 1 Kl of oil and is produced at about 5 million tons per annum in Japan, 80 % of which is now used for the pavement of road. The purpose of this study is to examine the possibilities of developing new applications of asphalt to the anti-vibration, vibration-control and anti-noise materials, though its uses have already been diversified in fields other than for road paving, due to excellent performance regardless of cheap cost. In the paper, firstly, under a title of what is asphalt, the history, the composition and internal structure of asphalt were considered. Secondly, the dynamic characteristics of asphalt were considered. And lastly, under a title of the application of asphalt, examples of the application of asphalt to anti-noise materials were examined in the field of architecture, automobile and civil engineering respectively. Especially, in the field of civil engineering, improvements of flexibility and vibration-control by using the cement asphalt mortar (CAM) in the anti-vibration A-type slab track for railway, and also anti-noise and anti-vibration technologies applied to the road pavement body by using the ferrite asphalt were reviewed. 11 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Rapid Radiochemical Methods for Asphalt Paving Material ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief Validated rapid radiochemical methods for alpha and beta emitters in solid matrices that are commonly encountered in urban environments were previously unavailable for public use by responding laboratories. A lack of tested rapid methods would delay the quick determination of contamination levels and the assessment of acceptable site-specific exposure levels. Of special concern are matrices with rough and porous surfaces, which allow the movement of radioactive material deep into the building material making it difficult to detect. This research focuses on methods that address preparation, radiochemical separation, and analysis of asphalt paving materials and asphalt roofing shingles. These matrices, common to outdoor environments, challenge the capability and capacity of very experienced radiochemistry laboratories. Generally, routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques produce liquid samples (representative of the original sample material) that can be processed using available radiochemical methods. The asphalt materials are especially difficult because they do not readily lend themselves to these routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques. The HSRP and ORIA coordinate radiological reference laboratory priorities and activities in conjunction with HSRP’s Partner Process. As part of the collaboration, the HSRP worked with ORIA to publish rapid radioanalytical methods for selected radionuclides in building material matrice

  17. Elastomer degradation sensor using a piezoelectric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olness, Dolores U.; Hirschfeld, deceased, Tomas B.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring the degradation of elastomeric materials is provided. Piezoelectric oscillators are placed in contact with the elastomeric material so that a forced harmonic oscillator with damping is formed. The piezoelectric material is connected to an oscillator circuit,. A parameter such as the resonant frequency, amplitude or Q value of the oscillating system is related to the elasticity of the elastomeric material. Degradation of the elastomeric material causes changes in its elasticity which, in turn, causes the resonant frequency, amplitude or Q of the oscillator to change. These changes are monitored with a peak height monitor, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum analyzer, or other measurement circuit. Elasticity of elastomers can be monitored in situ, using miniaturized sensors.

  18. Polyurethane elastomers from morphology to mechanical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Prisacariu, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive account of the physical / mechanical behaviour of polyurethanes (PU´s) elastomers, films and blends of variable crystallinity. Aspects covered include the elasticity and inelasticity of amorphous to crystalline PUs, in relation to their sensitivity to chemical and physical structure. A study is made of how aspects of the constitutive responses of PUs vary with composition: the polyaddition procedure, the hard segment, soft segment and chain extender (diols and diamines) are varied systematically in a large number of systems of model and novel crosslinked andthermoplastic PUs. Results will be related to: microstructural changes, on the basis of evidence from x-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), and also dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and IR dichroism. Inelastic effects will be investigated also by including quantitative correlations between the magnitude of the Mullins effect and the fractional energy dissipation by hysteresis under cyclic straining, g...

  19. Sensing capabilities of graphite based MR elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, T F; Li, W H; Deng, Y M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents both experimental and theoretical investigations of the sensing capabilities of graphite based magnetorheological elastomers (MREs). In this study, eight MRE samples with varying graphite weight fractions were fabricated and their resistance under different magnetic fields and external loadings were measured with a multi-meter. With an increment of graphite weight fraction, the resistance of MRE sample decreases steadily. Higher magnetic fields result in a resistance increase. Based on an ideal assumption of a perfect chain structure, a mathematical model was developed to investigate the relationship between the MRE resistance with external loading. In this model, the current flowing through the chain structure consists of both a tunnel current and a conductivity current, both of which depend on external loadings. The modelling parameters have been identified and reconstructed from comparison with experimental results. The comparison indicates that both experimental results and modelling predictions agree favourably well

  20. Actuation response of polyacrylate dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, G.; Kornbluh, R.; Pelrine, R.

    2001-01-01

    Polyacrylate dielectric elastomers have yielded extremely large strain and elastic energy density suggesting that they are useful for many actuator applications. A thorough understanding of the physics underlying the mechanism of the observed response to an electric field can help develop improved......, though there are discrepancies. Further analysis suggests that these arise mostly from imperfect manufacture of the actuators, though there is a small contribution from an explicitly electrostrictive behavior of the acrylic adhesive. Measurements of the dielectric constant of stretched polymer reveal...... that the dielectric constant drops, when the polymer is strained, indicating the existence of a small electrostrictive effect. Finally, measurements of the electric breakdown field were made. These also show a dependence upon the strain. In the unstrained state the breakdown field is 20 WV/m, which grows to 218MV...

  1. Effects of conductive fillers on temperature distribution of asphalt pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mingyu; Wu Shaopeng; Zhang Yuan; Wang Hong

    2010-01-01

    The sun provides a cheap and abundant source of clean and renewable energy. Solar cells have been used to capture this energy and generate electricity. A more useful form of the solar cell would be asphalt pavements, which get heated up by solar radiation. Graphite powders are utilized as thermal conductive fillers to make an asphalt collector conductive so as to improve the efficiency of the asphalt collector. Accounting for the important application conditions and evaluating the effects of the heat conductive materials and the solar energy absorbability of the conductive asphalt collector, a finite element model has been developed to predict temperature distributions in the conductive asphalt solar collector. In this study, an experimental validation exercise was conducted using the measured data taken from full-depth asphalt slabs. Validation results showed that the model can satisfactorily predict the temperature distributions in asphalt concrete slabs. The optimal depth is 25-50 mm for placing pipes that serve as the heat exchanger. Meanwhile, the effect of the surroundings on the solar energy potential of the asphalt collector was noticeable.

  2. Characterization of Failure and Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material consisting of aggregates, filler and bitumen. The response of asphalt concrete is highly dependent on temperature, loading rate and confining pressure. Permanent deformation is one of the most important distresses developing during the flexible pavement

  3. Crack repair of asphalt concrete with induction energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, A.; Schlangen, E.; Ven, M. van de; Vliet, D. van

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the healing rates of asphalt courses increase with the temperature. A new method, induction heating, is used in this paper to increase the lifetime of asphalt concrete pavements. Mastic will be first made electrically conductive by the addition of conductive fibers. Then it

  4. Estimation of fatigue characteristics of asphaltic mixes using simple tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medani, T.O.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2000-01-01

    A simplified procedure for estimation of fatigue characteristics of asphaltic mixes is presented. The procedure requires the determination of the so-called master curve (Le. the relationship between the mix stiffness, the loading time and the temperature), the asphalt properties and the mix

  5. 7 CFR 2902.36 - Concrete and asphalt release fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt release fluids. 2902.36 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.36 Concrete and asphalt release fluids. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to provide a lubricating barrier between the composite surface materials (e.g., concrete or...

  6. Including asphalt cooling and rolling regimes in laboratory compaction procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank; Doree, Andries G.; Kim,

    2014-01-01

    Given the various changes occurring in the asphalt construction industry, improved process and quality control is becoming essential. The significance of appropriate rolling and compaction for the quality of asphalt is widely acknowledged and vital for improved process control. But what constitutes

  7. Application of waste tires to asphalt pavement. Improvement of adhesion of asphalt with rubber particles; Haitaiya no asphalt hoso eno tekiyo. Asphalt to gomu ryushi no fuchakusei no kairyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaoka, I. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-10-10

    With an objective to apply waste tires to asphalt pavement, an experiment was carried out to improve adhesion of asphalt with rubber particles by using polymers. The state of interface on rubber particle and asphalt mixture was observed by a scanning electron microscope. As a result, it was found that the surface of untreated rubber particles is not bonded with the asphalt, but polymer treated mixture was found to have the affinity of rubber particles with asphalt improved. Tensile bonding strength was tested on rubber plates and asphalt. The result revealed that the polymer-reformed mixture has two times as large tensile bonding strength as that of the untreated mixture. With regard to the characters of asphalt mixture mixed with rubber particles, the stability shows a decreasing trend as compared with the standard asphalt concrete, but presents an excellent performance in wear. The fluidity resistance value is inferior to the standard, but not as great as presenting a problem under normal using environment, where its applicability as a road paving material was verified. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Regional implementation of warm mix asphalt : [tech summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Asphalt is used in over 94 percent of all paved roadways in the United States. The ability to reduce its cost and : emissions while improving its performance has bene ts that could potentially change the direction the asphalt : industry moves in t...

  9. Impact of Modificated Asphalt Mixtures on Paving Functioning and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Gribulis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution began to increase in the beginning of 19th century, when the global economy and industrial development started the signal grow. The current problem of global warming is partly related with emission of carbon dioxide (CO2 to environment, which one of the sources are industrial production companies. Warm asphalt mix is usually used in the practice of Lithuania and the world for equipment of road paving. These mixes are produced in specialized asphalt mixers where stone dosing, drying and its mixing with bituminous binders are performed. The temperature of produced hot asphalt mix in mixer reach 150–180 °C and 120–160 °C of mixture laying on the road. Various pollutants, carbon dioxide, formaldehydes, and other are spread to the environment. The carried out researches in Lithuania and the world have showed that while using special additives it is possible to reduce the temperatures of warm asphalt production and laying on the road. Such reduction of temperature helps not to worsen the quality of asphalt layer, to lower the emission of pollutants to environment, to improve the conditions of road workers and to economically use the gas for production of asphalt mixes. Production technologies of different asphalt mixes, their advantages and disadvantages, and results of laboratory tests are analyzed in this article. Equipment samples of experimental road sections, using the warm mixing asphalt mixtures are given.

  10. Advanced Experimental Evaluation of Asphalt Mortar for Induction Healing Purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Scarpas, Athanasios; van Bochove, G; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied the induction heating and healing capacity of asphalt mortar by adding electrically conductive additives (e.g. iron powder and steel fibers), and examined the influence of different combinations of them on the mechanical response of asphalt mortars. Induction heating technique is

  11. Rubber-like Quasi-thermosetting Polyetheramine-cured Epoxy Asphalt Composites Capable of Being Opened to Traffic Immediately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang; Wu, Qiang; Jin, Rui; Yu, Pengfei; Cheng, Jixiang

    2016-01-06

    This paper reports the facile preparation, mechanical performance and linear viscoelasticity of polyetheramine-cured rubber-like epoxy asphalt composites (EACs) with different asphalt contents. Compared with previous EACs prepared via complex chemical reactions and time-consuming high-temperature curing, the EACs reported here were obtained by using a compatible, bi-functional polyetheramine and a simple physical co-blend process, which make the EACs feasibly scalable for production at a lower cost. The EACs were cured for 1 h at 160 °C and 3 d at 60 °C; therefore, these composites can be opened to traffic immediately. The EACs have a much greater temperature stability than common thermoplastic polymer-modified asphalt composites from -30 °C to 120 °C, but their complex shear moduli at higher temperatures slightly decrease instead of remaining constant when temperatures are greater than 80 °C, especially for the higher asphalt content composites; that is, these composites are quasi-thermosetting. Wicket plots illustrate that the EACs reported here are thermorheological simple materials, and the master curves are constructed and well-fitted by generalized logistic sigmoidal model functions. This research provides a facile, low-cost method for the preparation of polyetheramine-cured EACs that can be opened to traffic immediately, and the concept of quasi-thermosetting may facilitate the development of cheaper EACs for advanced applications.

  12. Rubber-like Quasi-thermosetting Polyetheramine-cured Epoxy Asphalt Composites Capable of Being Opened to Traffic Immediately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang; Wu, Qiang; Jin, Rui; Yu, Pengfei; Cheng, Jixiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the facile preparation, mechanical performance and linear viscoelasticity of polyetheramine-cured rubber-like epoxy asphalt composites (EACs) with different asphalt contents. Compared with previous EACs prepared via complex chemical reactions and time-consuming high-temperature curing, the EACs reported here were obtained by using a compatible, bi-functional polyetheramine and a simple physical co-blend process, which make the EACs feasibly scalable for production at a lower cost. The EACs were cured for 1 h at 160 °C and 3 d at 60 °C therefore, these composites can be opened to traffic immediately. The EACs have a much greater temperature stability than common thermoplastic polymer-modified asphalt composites from -30 °C to 120 °C, but their complex shear moduli at higher temperatures slightly decrease instead of remaining constant when temperatures are greater than 80 °C, especially for the higher asphalt content composites; that is, these composites are quasi-thermosetting. Wicket plots illustrate that the EACs reported here are thermorheological simple materials, and the master curves are constructed and well-fitted by generalized logistic sigmoidal model functions. This research provides a facile, low-cost method for the preparation of polyetheramine-cured EACs that can be opened to traffic immediately, and the concept of quasi-thermosetting may facilitate the development of cheaper EACs for advanced applications.

  13. Advanced self-healing asphalt composites in the pavement performance field: mechanisms at the nano level and new repairing methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agzenai, Yahya; Pozuelo, Javier; Sanz, Javier; Perez, Ignacio; Baselga, Juan

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to give a global view of this field of research, in this mini-review we highlight the most recent publications and patents focusing on modified asphalt pavements that contain certain reinforcing nanoparticles which impart desirable thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. In response to the increasing cost of asphalt binder and road maintenance, there is a need to look for alternative technologies and new asphalt composites, able to self-repair, for preserving and renewing the existing pavements. First, we will focus on the self-healing property of asphalt, the evidences that support that healing takes place immediately after the contact between the faces of a crack, and how the amount of healing can be measured in both the laboratory and the field. Next we review the hypothetical mechanisms of healing to understand the material behaviour and establish models to quantify the damage-healing process. Thereafter, we outline different technologies, nanotechnologies and methodologies used for self-healing paying particular attention to embedded micro-capsules, new nano-materials like carbon nanotubes and nano-fibres, ionomers, and microwave and induction heating processes.

  14. Skin-inspired hydrogel-elastomer hybrids with robust interfaces and functional microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Hyunwoo; Zhang, Teng; Parada, German Alberto; Liu, Xinyue; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by mammalian skins, soft hybrids integrating the merits of elastomers and hydrogels have potential applications in diverse areas including stretchable and bio-integrated electronics, microfluidics, tissue engineering, soft robotics and biomedical devices. However, existing hydrogel-elastomer hybrids have limitations such as weak interfacial bonding, low robustness and difficulties in patterning microstructures. Here, we report a simple yet versatile method to assemble hydrogels and elastomers into hybrids with extremely robust interfaces (interfacial toughness over 1,000 Jm-2) and functional microstructures such as microfluidic channels and electrical circuits. The proposed method is generally applicable to various types of tough hydrogels and diverse commonly used elastomers including polydimethylsiloxane Sylgard 184, polyurethane, latex, VHB and Ecoflex. We further demonstrate applications enabled by the robust and microstructured hydrogel-elastomer hybrids including anti-dehydration hydrogel-elastomer hybrids, stretchable and reactive hydrogel-elastomer microfluidics, and stretchable hydrogel circuit boards patterned on elastomer.

  15. Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Portland Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Al-Oraimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is the result of removing old asphalt pavement material. RAP consists of high quality well-graded aggregate coated with asphalt cement. The removal of asphalt concrete is done for reconstruction purposes, resurfacing, or to obtain access to buried utilities. The disposal of RAP represents a large loss of valuable source of high quality aggregate. This research investigates the properties of concrete utilizing recycled reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP. Two control mixes with normal aggregate were designed with water cement ratios of 0.45 and 0.5. The control mixes resulted in compressive strengths of 50 and 33 MPa after 28 days of curing. The coarse fraction of RAP was used to replace the coarse aggregate with 25, 50, 75, and 100% for both mixtures. In addition to the control mix (0%, the mixes containing RAP were evaluated for slump, compressive strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Durability was evaluated using surface absorption test.

  16. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julide Oner

    Full Text Available The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  17. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Julide; Sengoz, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing) at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  18. Fluoridated elastomers: effect on the microbiology of plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Philip E; Douglas, C W Ian; Martin, Michael V

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoridated elastomeric ligatures on the microbiology of local dental plaque in vivo. This randomized, prospective, longitudinal, clinical trial had a split-mouth crossover design. The subjects were 30 patients at the beginning of their treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances in the orthodontic departments of the Liverpool and the Sheffield dental hospitals in the United Kingdom. The study consisted of 2 experimental periods of 6 weeks with a washout period between. Fluoridated elastomers were randomly allocated at the first visit to be placed around brackets on tooth numbers 12, 11, 33 or 22, 21, 43. Nonfluoridated elastomers were placed on the contralateral teeth. Standard nonantibacterial fluoridated toothpaste and mouthwash were supplied. After 6 weeks (visit 2), the elastomers were removed, placed in transport media, and plated on agar within 2 hours. Nonfluoridated elastomers were placed on all brackets for 1 visit to allow for a washout period. At visit 3, fluoridated elastomers were placed on the teeth contralateral to those that received them at visit 1. At visit 4, the procedures at visit 2 were repeated. Samples were collected on visits 2 and 4. A logistic regression was performed, with the presence or absence of streptococcal or anaerobic growth as the dependent variable. A mixed-effects analysis of variance was carried out with the percentage of streptococcal or anaerobic bacterial count as the dependent variable. The only significant independent variables were the subject variable (P =bacterial count and the visit variable for the percentage of streptococcal count (P =fluoridated or nonfluoridated elastomers was not significant for percentage of either streptococcal (P =.288) or anaerobic count (P =.230). Fluoridated elastomers are not effective at reducing local streptococcal or anaerobic bacterial growth after a clinically relevant time in the mouth.

  19. Effect of Carbon Black Nanoparticles from the Pyrolysis of Discarded Tires on the Performance of Asphalt and its Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuangmin Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It is of great benefit to the environment and the economy to use discarded tires pyrolysis carbon black (TPCB nanoparticles as a modifier for asphalt binders. A base asphalt binder with 60/80 penetration (GF-70 was selected to prepare the TPCB-modified asphalt binder (TPCB/GF-70 with a 15% dosage of TPCB by the melt blending method. The test instruments, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, laser particle size analyzer, and thermogravimetric analyzer, were used to study the characteristics of TPCB. The physical performance of GF-70 and TPCB/GF-70 were tested and the rheological properties were also tested with a dynamic shear rheometer to investigate TPCB’s effect on the performance of GF-70. In addition, the aromatic hydrocarbon oil (AHO was used as the softening agent for TPCB/GF-70. The pavement performance of AC-13 and AC-20 was studied to evaluate the comprehensive effect of TPCB and AHO on the pavement performance of asphalt mixtures. Results show that a 15% dosage of TPCB can significantly improve the anti-rutting performance of GF-70, and decrease the low-temperature performance of GF-70 within one PG grade. AHO can obviously improve the low-temperature performance of TPCB/GF-70, but does not significantly decrease the high-temperature performance. With the addition of AHO and a 0.1% higher oil aggregate ratio, TPCB tends to significantly improve the anti-rutting performance and the low-temperature performance of TPCB-modified mixtures; the moisture stability of TPCB and AHO composite modified mixtures satisfies the requirement of water stability.

  20. Performance evaluation of stone matrix asphalt using indonesian natural rock asphalt as stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Suaryana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One type of road pavement material which is developed to be more resistant to permanent deformation is the SMA (Stone Matrix Asphalt. Utilization of the SMA mix in Indonesia has constraints in gain stabilizer and also difficulty to comply the gradations, mainly because it needs a relatively large amount of filler. Alternative of local materials that can be used is asbuton (natural rock asphalt from Buton Island. Asbuton is expected to act as a stabilizer and simultaneously provides an additional filler. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of the SMA that uses the asbuton. The methodology used in this research is the experimental method, its starts from material testing, design mix and performance testing that includes dynamic modulus, permanent deformation and fatigue resistance. The results obtained showed asbuton can prevent asphalt draindown as well as increase the proportion of filler. Draindown asphalt can be prevented by using binder absorbers with fiber cellulose and viscosity boosters with asbuton. Asbuton (LGA 50/25 can behave as a stabilizer as well as cellulose fiber. Addition of asbuton also improves the performance of the SMA mix, as shown with increase in the value of dynamic stability. In terms of resistance to fatigue, SMA with cellulosa as stabilizer and SMA with asbuton as stabilizer, relatively have the same performance. Master curve of dynamic modulus indicates SMA with asbuton as stabilizer is relatively stiffer at high temperatures (more than 4.4 °C, but relatively less stiff (less brittle at low temperatures. Keywords: Stone matrix asphalt, Asbuton, Draindown, Dynamic modulus, Permanent deformation

  1. Thermal tuning of a silicon photonic crystal cavity infilled with an elastomer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdamar, A.K.; Van Leest, M.M.; Picken, S.J.; Caro, J.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal tuning of the transmission of an elastomer infilled photonic crystal cavity is studied. An elastomer has a thermal expansion-induced negative thermo-optic coefficient that leads to a strong decrease of the refractive index upon heating. This property makes elastomer highly suitable for

  2. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on dipolar copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DES) are a promising new transducer technology, but high driving voltages limit their current commercial potential. One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric...

  3. Improved reliability, maintainability and safety through elastomer upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensel, R.; Wittich, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    Equipment in nuclear plants has historically contained whatever elastomer each component supplier traditionally used for corresponding non-nuclear service. The resulting proliferation of elastomer compounds, many of which are far from optimal for the service conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, radiation, etc.), has multiplied the costs to provide station reliability, maintainability and safety. Cost-effective improvements are being achieved in CANDU plants by upgrading and standardizing on a handful of high performing elastomer compounds. These upgraded materials offer significant gains in service life over the materials they replace (often by factors of 2 or more). This rationalization of elastomer compounds also facilitates the EQ process for safety-related equipment. Detailed test data on aging is currently being generated for these specific elastomers, encompassing the conditions and media (air, water, oil) common in CANDU service. Two key elements characterize this testing. First, each result is specific to the compound used in the test, and second, it is specific to the tested failure mode (e.g., compression set, extrusion, fracture, etc.). Having fewer, but more thoroughly tested compounds, avoids the penalty (associated with poorly characterized materials) of having to replace parts prematurely because of conservatism, while maintaining safe, reliable service. This paper provides an overview of this approach covering: the benefits of compound rationalization; and the how and why of establishing relevant failure criteria; appropriate quality assurance to maintain EQ; procurement, storage and handling guidelines; and monitoring and predicting in-service degradation. (author)

  4. Toughening elastomers with sacrificial bonds and watching them break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creton, Costantino

    2014-03-01

    Most unfilled elastomers are relatively brittle, in particular when the average molecular weight between crosslinks is lower than the average molecular weight between entanglements. We created a new class of tough elastomers by introducing isotropically prestretched chains inside ordinary acrylic elastomers by successive swelling and polymerization steps. These new materials combine a high entanglement density with a densely crosslinked structure reaching elastic moduli of 4 MPa and fracture strength of 25 MPa. The highly prestretched chains are the minority in the material and can break in the bulk of the material before catastrophic failure occurs, increasing the toughness of the material by two orders of magnitude up to 5 kJ/m2. To investigate the details of the toughening mechanism we introduced specific sacrificial dioxetane bonds in the prestretched chains that emit light when they break. In uniaxial extension cyclic experiments, we checked that the light emission corresponded exactly and quantitatively to the energy dissipation in each cycle demonstrating that short chains break first and long chains later. We then watched crack propagation in notched samples and mapped spatially the location of bond breakage ahead of the crack tip before and during propagation. This new toughening mechanism for elastomers creates superentangled rubbers and is ideally suited to overcome the trade-off between toughness and stiffness of ordinary elastomers. We gratefully acknowledge funding from DSM Ahead

  5. Frequency and temperature dependence of high damping elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    High damping steel-laminated elastomeric seismic isolation bearings are one of the preferred devices for isolating large buildings and structures. In the US, the current reference design for the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) uses laminated bearings for seismic isolation. These bearings are constructed from alternating layers of high damping rubber and steel plates. They are typically designed for shear strains between 50 and 100% and are expected to sustain two to three times these levels for beyond design basis loading conditions. Elastomeric bearings are currently designed to provide a system frequency between 0.4 and 0.8 Hz and expected to operate between -20 and 40 degrees Centigrade. To assure proper performance of isolation bearings, it is necessary to characterize the elastomer's response under expected variations of frequency and temperature. The dynamic response of the elastomer must be characterized within the frequency range that spans the bearing acceptance test frequency, which may be as low as 0.005 Hz, and the design frequency. Similarly, the variation in mechanical characteristics of the elastomer must be determined over the design temperature range, which is between -20 and 40 degrees Centigrade. This paper reports on (1) the capabilities of a testing facility at ANL for testing candidate elastomers, (2) the variation with frequency and temperature of the stiffness and damping of one candidate elastomer, and (3) the effect of these variations on bearing acceptance testing criteria and on the choice of bearing design values for stiffness and damping

  6. Characterisation of Asphalt Concrete Using Nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbhuiya, Salim; Caracciolo, Benjamin

    2017-07-18

    In this study, nanoindentation was conducted to extract the load-displacement behaviour and the nanomechanical properties of asphalt concrete across the mastic, matrix, and aggregate phases. Further, the performance of hydrated lime as an additive was assessed across the three phases. The hydrated lime containing samples have greater resistance to deformation in the mastic and matrix phases, in particular, the mastic. There is strong evidence suggesting that hydrated lime has the most potent effect on the mastic phase, with significant increase in hardness and stiffness.

  7. Use of emulsion for warm mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in energy costs and emission problems in hot mix asphalt usually used, it brought a great interest to the researchers to develop the warm mix technology for pavement constructions. Commonly known as warm mix asphalt (WMA, it is a typical method in the bituminous paving technology, which allows production and placement of bituminous mixes at lower temperatures than that used for hot mix asphalt (HMA. The WMA involves an environmental friendly production process that utilises organic additives, chemical additives and water based technologies. The organic and chemical additives are normally very costly and still involve certain amount of environmental issues. These factors motivated the authors to take up this technology using simple, environment friendly and somewhat cost effective procedure. In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare warm mixes by first pre-coating the aggregates with medium setting bitumen emulsion (MS and then mixing the semi-coated aggregates with VG 30 bitumen at a lower temperature than normally required. After a number of trials it was observed that mostly three mixing temperatures, namely temperatures 110 °C, 120 °C and 130 °C were appropriate to form the bituminous mixes with satisfactory homogeneity and consistency and as such were maintained throughout this study. Marshall samples for paving mixes were prepared using this procedure for dense bituminous macadam (DBM gradings as per the specifications of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH and subsequently Marshall properties of the resultant mixes were studied with the main objective of deciding the different parameters that were considered for development of appropriate warm mix asphalt. In this study it has been observed that out of three mixing temperatures tried, the mixes prepared at 120 °C with bitumen-emulsion composition of 80B:20E for DBM warm mix, offer highest Marshall stability and highest indirect tensile strength

  8. Comparison of renewable oil, recycled oil, and commercial rejuvenating agent derived from crude oil in paving asphalt modification[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, C.; Ho, S.; Zanzotto, L. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The asphalt industry relies heavily on crude oil. In response to increasing oil prices, there have been efforts to save money on asphalt by taking harder asphalts, such as recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), and softening them with rejuvenating agents. For asphalt that is to be used in cold climates, softer asphalts are preferred because they will perform better under extreme cold conditions without cracking. This study compared the performance, economic benefits, and environmental benefits of renewable materials, recycled oil and a commercially used rejuvenating agent derived from crude oil. Different oily materials including margarine, Cyclogen L (a crude oil-derived material), a vegetable wax, and recycled cooking oil were used to modify paving asphalt. Their effectiveness at improving the superpave low-temperature performance grade was compared. The samples were all tested using the 2008 AASHTO M320 procedures. The high temperature grades were determined using the dynamic shear rheometer test, and the low-temperature grades were determined using the bending beam rheometer test. The 3 varieties of margarine that were tested were able to improve the low-temperature grade, but they caused a greater depreciation of the high-temperature performance grade than the other materials, and were much more expensive. The best candidate for an effective, economic asphalt softening agent was found to be the recycled cooking oil. It out-performed the Cyclogen L oil in terms of improving the low- temperature performance grade, and was less expensive. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Study on Relaxation Damage Properties of High Viscosity Asphalt Sand under Uniaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhen Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory investigations of relaxation damage properties of high viscosity asphalt sand (HVAS by uniaxial compression tests and modified generalized Maxwell model (GMM to simulate viscoelastic characteristics coupling damage were carried out. A series of uniaxial compression relaxation tests were performed on HVAS specimens at different temperatures, loading rates, and constant levels of input strain. The results of the tests show that the peak point of relaxation modulus is highly influenced by the loading rate in the first half of an L-shaped curve, while the relaxation modulus is almost constant in the second half of the curve. It is suggested that for the HVAS relaxation tests, the temperature should be no less than −15°C. The GMM is used to determine the viscoelastic responses, the Weibull distribution function is used to characterize the damage of the HVAS and its evolution, and the modified GMM is a coupling of the two models. In this paper, the modified GMM is implemented through a secondary development with the USDFLD subroutine to analyze the relaxation damage process and improve the linear viscoelastic model in ABAQUS. Results show that the numerical method of coupling damage provides a better approximation of the test curve over almost the whole range. The results also show that the USDFLD subroutine can effectively predict the relaxation damage process of HVAS and can provide a theoretical support for crack control of asphalt pavements.

  10. Inkjet 3D printing of UV and thermal cure silicone elastomers for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoul, David; Rosset, Samuel; Schlatter, Samuel; Shea, Herbert

    2017-12-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are an attractive form of electromechanical transducer, possessing high energy densities, an efficient design, mechanical compliance, high speed, and noiseless operation. They have been incorporated into a wide variety of devices, such as microfluidic systems, cell bioreactors, tunable optics, haptic displays, and actuators for soft robotics. Fabrication of DEA devices is complex, and the majority are inefficiently made by hand. 3D printing offers an automated and flexible manufacturing alternative that can fabricate complex, multi-material, integrated devices consistently and in high resolution. We present a novel additive manufacturing approach to DEA devices in which five commercially available, thermal and UV-cure DEA silicone rubber materials have been 3D printed with a drop-on-demand, piezoelectric inkjet system. Using this process, 3D structures and high-quality silicone dielectric elastomer membranes as thin as 2 μm have been printed that exhibit mechanical and actuation performance at least as good as conventionally blade-cast membranes. Printed silicone membranes exhibited maximum tensile strains of up to 727%, and DEAs with printed silicone dielectrics were actuated up to 6.1% area strain at a breakdown strength of 84 V μm-1 and also up to 130 V μm-1 at 2.4% strain. This approach holds great potential to manufacture reliable, high-performance DEA devices with high throughput.

  11. Significant Enhancement of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic Polyester Elastomer by Polymer Blending and Nanoinclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manwar Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic elastomer composites and nanocomposites were fabricated via melt processing technique by blending thermoplastic elastomer (TPEE with poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT thermoplastic and also by adding small amount of organo modified nanoclay and/or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. We study the effect of polymer blending on the mechanical and thermal properties of TPEE blends with and without nanoparticle additions. Significant improvement was observed by blending only TPEE and virgin PBT polymers. With a small amount (0.5 wt.% of nanoclay or PTFE particles added to the TPEE composite, there was further improvement in both the mechanical and thermal properties. To study mechanical properties, flexural strength (FS, flexural modulus (FM, tensile strength (TS, and tensile elongation (TE were all investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to analyze the thermal properties, including the heat distortion temperature (HDT, of the composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe the polymer fracture surface morphology. The dispersion of the clay and PTFE nanoparticles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis. This material is proposed for use as a baffle plate in the automotive industry, where both high HDT and high modulus are essential.

  12. Temperature-dependent magnetic properties of a magnetoactive elastomer: Immobilization of the soft-magnetic filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnaruk, Andrii V.; Brunhuber, Alexander; Kalita, Viktor M.; Kulyk, Mykola M.; Snarskii, Andrei A.; Lozenko, Albert F.; Ryabchenko, Sergey M.; Shamonin, Mikhail

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic properties of a magnetoactive elastomer (MAE) filled with μm-sized soft-magnetic iron particles have been experimentally studied in the temperature range between 150 K and 310 K. By changing the temperature, the elastic modulus of the elastomer matrix was modified, and it was possible to obtain magnetization curves for an invariable arrangement of particles in the sample and in the case when the particles were able to change their position within the MAE under the influence of magnetic forces. At low (less than 220 K) temperatures, when the matrix becomes rigid, the magnetization of the MAE does not show a hysteresis behavior, and it is characterized by a negative value of the Rayleigh constant. At room temperature, when the polymer matrix is compliant, a magnetic hysteresis exists where the dependence of the differential magnetic susceptibility on the magnetic field exhibits local maxima. The appearance of these maxima is explained by the elastic resistance of the matrix to the displacement of particles under the action of magnetic forces.

  13. Artificial muscles based on liquid crystal elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-Hui; Keller, Patrick

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents our results on liquid crystal (LC) elastomers as artificial muscle, based on the ideas proposed by de Gennes. In the theoretical model, the material consists of a repeated series of main-chain nematic LC polymer blocks, N, and conventional rubber blocks, R, based on the lamellar phase of a triblock copolymer RNR. The motor for the contraction is the reversible macromolecular shape change of the chain, from stretched to spherical, that occurs at the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition in the main-chain nematic LC polymers. We first developed a new kind of muscle-like material based on a network of side-on nematic LC homopolymers. Side-on LC polymers were used instead of main-chain LC polymers for synthetic reasons. The first example of these materials was thermo-responsive, with a typical contraction of around 35-45% and a generated force of around 210 kPa. Subsequently, a photo-responsive material was developed, with a fast photochemically induced contraction of around 20%, triggered by UV light. We then succeeded in preparing a thermo-responsive artificial muscle, RNR, with lamellar structure, using a side-on nematic LC polymer as N block.Micrometre-sized artificial muscles were also prepared. This paper illustrates the bottom-up design of stimuli-responsive materials, in which the overall material response reflects the individual macromolecular response, using LC polymer as building block.

  14. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 600 ºC, during 3 h. Unsettled material samples were soaked in acetone and chloroform for removal of the organic portion. The remaining filler particles were sputter-coated with gold evaluation of their morphology and size, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexitime Easy Putty was the material with the highest results for volumetric particle fraction, while Impregum Soft had the lowest values. Silon 2 APS Fluid presented the lowest mean filler size values, while Clonage Putty had the highest values. SEM micrographs of the inorganic particles showed several morphologies - lathe-cut, spherical, spherical-like, sticks, and sticks mixed to lathe-cut powder. The results of this study revealed differences in particle characteristics among the elastometic materials that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  15. A soft compressive sensor using dielectric elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongying; Wang, Michael Yu; Li, Jisen; Zhu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to design, analyze and fabricate a soft compressive sensor, made of dielectric elastomers that are able to recover from large strain. Each module of the compressive sensor is modeled as a capacitor, comprising a DE membrane sandwiched between two compliant electrodes. When the sensor modules aligned in an array were subject to a compressive load, the induced deformation on the corresponding module resulted in capacitance increase. By detecting the capacitance signal, not only the position but also the magnitude of the compressive load were obtained. We built an analytical model to simulate the mechanical–electrical responses of two common soft sensor structures, namely with and without an embedded air chamber. The simulation results showed that the air embedded prototype improved the sensitivity of the sensor significantly, which was consistent with the experimental results, where the sensitivity is enhanced from 0.05 N −1 to 0.91 N −1 . Furthermore, the effect of the air chamber dimension on the sensitivity is also discussed theoretically and experimentally. It concluded that the detection range increased with the air chamber height over length ratio. (paper)

  16. Hysteretic behavior of soft magnetic elastomer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krautz, Maria; Werner, David [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Schrödner, Mario [Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research e.V., Breitscheidstraße 97, D-07407 Rudolstadt (Germany); Funk, Alexander [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Jantz, Alexander; Popp, Jana [Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research e.V., Breitscheidstraße 97, D-07407 Rudolstadt (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Jahnstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Waske, Anja [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Composites of polymer and micron-sized particles of carbonyl-iron were investigated in terms of their magnetization behavior. Thermoplastic elastomers with varying Young's modulus (E{sub Polymer}=0.14–14.6 MPa) were used as matrix material. Field dependent magnetization curves reveal that the hysteretic behavior of the composites strongly depends on both the particle fraction (7, 10, 14, 21, 31 vol%) and on the mechanical properties of the polymer. It is shown that hysteresis only appears above a certain fraction of magnetic particles which can be accounted to the magnetic exchange between the particles. However, hysteresis is suppressed in the composite with largest Young's modulus of the polymer matrix, even at largest particle fraction. - Highlights: • Composites with soft magnetic Iron Particles show hysteretic magnetization behavior. • Origin of the hysteresis is the alignment of particles along field direction. • Hysteresis depends on both, mechanical properties of matrix and particle fraction.

  17. Qualitative criteria and thresholds for low noise asphalt mixture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkus, A.; Andriejauskas, T.; Gražulytė, J.; Šernas, O.; Vorobjovas, V.; Kleizienė, R.

    2018-05-01

    Low noise asphalt pavements are cost efficient and cost effective alternative for road traffic noise mitigation comparing with noise barriers, façade insulation and other known noise mitigation measures. However, design of low noise asphalt mixtures strongly depends on climate and traffic peculiarities of different regions. Severe climate regions face problems related with short durability of low noise asphalt mixtures in terms of considerable negative impact of harsh climate conditions (frost-thaw, large temperature fluctuations, hydrological behaviour, etc.) and traffic (traffic loads, traffic volumes, studded tyres, etc.). Thus there is a need to find balance between mechanical and acoustical durability as well as to ensure adequate pavement skid resistance for road safety purposes. Paper presents analysis of the qualitative criteria and design parameters thresholds of low noise asphalt mixtures. Different asphalt mixture composition materials (grading, aggregate, binder, additives, etc.) and relevant asphalt layer properties (air void content, texture, evenness, degree of compaction, etc.) were investigated and assessed according their suitability for durable and effective low noise pavements. Paper concluded with the overview of requirements, qualitative criteria and thresholds for low noise asphalt mixture design for severe climate regions.

  18. Evaluation of warm mix technologies for use in asphalt rubber - asphaltic concrete friction courses (AR\\0x2010ACFC) : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this research project was to determine whether warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies can be : used by the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) for the production of an asphalt rubberasphaltic : concrete friction course (AR...

  19. Super soft silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) have many favourable properties. The obstacle of high driving voltages, however, limits the commercial viability of the technology at present. Driving voltage can be lowered by decreasing the Young’s modulus and increasing the dielectric permittivity of silicone...... elastomers. A decrease in Young’s modulus, however, is often accompanied by the loss of mechanical stability and thereby the lifetime of the DE. New soft elastomer matrices with high dielectric permittivity and low Young’s modulus, with no loss of mechanical stability, were prepared by two different...... approaches using chloropropyl-functional silicone polymers. The first approach was based on synthesised chloropropyl-functional copolymers that were cross-linkable and thereby formed the basis of new silicone networks with high dielectric permittivity (e.g. a 43% increase). These networks were soft without...

  20. Mechanical tests for validation of seismic isolation elastomer constitutive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    High damping laminated elastomeric bearings are becoming the preferred device for seismic isolation of large buildings and structures, such as nuclear power plants. The key component of these bearings is a filled natural rubber elastomer. This material exhibits nonlinear behavior within the normal design range. The material damping cannot be classified as either viscous or hysteritic, but it seems to fall somewhere in between. This paper describes a series of tests that can be used to characterize the mechanical response of these elastomers. The tests are designed to determine the behavior of the elastomer in the time scale of the earthquake, which is typically from 30 to 60 seconds. The test results provide data for use in determining the material parameters associated with nonlinear constitutive models. 4 refs

  1. Preparation of micro-pored silicone elastomer through radiation crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiaoling; Gu Mei; Xie Xubing; Huang Wei

    2013-01-01

    The radiation crosslinking was adopted to prepare the micro-pored silicone elastomer, which was performed by vulcanization and foaming respectively. Radiation crosslinking is a new method to prepare micro-pored material with high performance by use of radiation technology. Silicon dioxide was used as filler, and silicone elastomer was vulcanized by electron beams, then the micro-pored material was made by heating method at a high temperature. The effects of absorbed dose and filler content on the performance and morphology were investigated. The structure and distribution of pores were observed by SEM. The results show that the micro-pored silicon elastomer can be prepared successfully by controlling the absorbed dose and filler content. It has a smooth surface similar to a rubber meanwhile the pores are round and unconnected to each other with the minimum size of 14 μm. And the good mechanical performance can be suitable for further uses. (authors)

  2. Optimization of large-scale fabrication of dielectric elastomer transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassouneh, Suzan Sager

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) have gained substantial ground in many different applications, such as wave energy harvesting, valves and loudspeakers. For DE technology to be commercially viable, it is necessary that any large-scale production operation is nondestructive, efficient and cheap. Danfoss......-strength laminates to perform as monolithic elements. For the front-to-back and front-to-front configurations, conductive elastomers were utilised. One approach involved adding the cheap and conductive filler, exfoliated graphite (EG) to a PDMS matrix to increase dielectric permittivity. The results showed that even...... as conductive adhesives were rejected. Dielectric properties below the percolation threshold were subsequently investigated, in order to conclude the study. In order to avoid destroying the network structure, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used as fillers during the preparation of the conductive elastomers...

  3. Flexible and stretchable electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert R.

    2013-02-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are flexible lightweight actuators that can generate strains of over 100 %. They are used in applications ranging from haptic feedback (mm-sized devices), to cm-scale soft robots, to meter-long blimps. DEAs consist of an electrode-elastomer-electrode stack, placed on a frame. Applying a voltage between the electrodes electrostatically compresses the elastomer, which deforms in-plane or out-of plane depending on design. Since the electrodes are bonded to the elastomer, they must reliably sustain repeated very large deformations while remaining conductive, and without significantly adding to the stiffness of the soft elastomer. The electrodes are required for electrostatic actuation, but also enable resistive and capacitive sensing of the strain, leading to self-sensing actuators. This review compares the different technologies used to make compliant electrodes for DEAs in terms of: impact on DEA device performance (speed, efficiency, maximum strain), manufacturability, miniaturization, the integration of self-sensing and self-switching, and compatibility with low-voltage operation. While graphite and carbon black have been the most widely used technique in research environments, alternative methods are emerging which combine compliance, conduction at over 100 % strain with better conductivity and/or ease of patternability, including microfabrication-based approaches for compliant metal thin-films, metal-polymer nano-composites, nanoparticle implantation, and reel-to-reel production of μm-scale patterned thin films on elastomers. Such electrodes are key to miniaturization, low-voltage operation, and widespread commercialization of DEAs.

  4. Utilization of Ripe Coconut Fiber in Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA is a gap graded mix; characterized by higher proportion of coarse aggregate, lower proportion of middle size aggregate and higher proportion of mineral filler. In the present laboratory study, commonly available one conventional VG 30 bitumen and another modified binder, namely CRMB 60 have been used along with a non-conventional natural fiber, namely coconut fiber which is abundantly available in India to provide improved engineering properties and at the same time preventing the usual draining of binder in SMA. The role of a particular binder and fiber with respect to their concentrations in the mix is studied for various engineering properties. Marshall procedure has been followed to determine the optimum binder and optimum fiber contents and also to study the relative advantages of fiber addition in the SMA mixtures. Thereafter, the engineering properties under both static as well as repeated load conditions and moisture susceptibility characteristics have been studied. It is observed that only a marginal 0.3% coconut fiber addition brings significant improvement in the engineering properties of SMA mixes.

  5. Investigation of porous asphalt microstructure using optical and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulikakos, L D; Partl, M N

    2010-11-01

    Direct observations of porous asphalt concrete samples in their natural state using optical and electron microscopy techniques led to useful information regarding the microstructure of two mixes and indicated a relationship between microstructure and in situ performance. This paper presents evidence that suboptimal microstructure can lead to premature failure thus making a first step in defining well or suboptimal performing pavements with a bottom-up approach (microstructure). Laboratory and field compaction produce different samples in terms of the microstructure. Laboratory compaction using the gyratory method has produced more microcracks in mineral aggregates after the binder had cooled. Well-performing mixes used polymer-modified binders, had a more homogeneous void structure with fewer elongated voids and better interlocking of the aggregates. Furthermore, well-performing mixes showed better distribution of the mastic and better coverage of the aggregates with bitumen. Low vacuum scanning electron microscopy showed that styrene butadiene styrene polymer modification in binder exists in the form of discontinuous globules and not continuous networks. A reduction in the polymer phase was observed as a result of aging and in-service use. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Collapse of triangular channels in a soft elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepáyotl-Ramírez, Daniel; Lu, Tong; Park, Yong-Lae; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    We extend classical solutions in contact mechanics to examine the collapse of channels in a soft elastomer. These channels have triangular cross-section and collapse when pressure is applied to the surrounding elastomer. Treating the walls of the channel as indenters that penetrate the channel base, we derive an algebraic mapping between pressure and cross-sectional area. These theoretical predictions are in strong agreement with results that we obtain through finite element analysis and experimental measurements. This is accomplished without data fitting and suggests that the theoretical approach may be generalized to a broad range of cross-sectional geometries in soft microfluidics.

  7. Hemispherical breathing mode speaker using a dielectric elastomer actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Naoki; Baba, Shun; Maeda, Shingo

    2015-10-01

    Although indoor acoustic characteristics should ideally be assessed by measuring the reverberation time using a point sound source, a regular polyhedron loudspeaker, which has multiple loudspeakers on a chassis, is typically used. However, such a configuration is not a point sound source if the size of the loudspeaker is large relative to the target sound field. This study investigates a small lightweight loudspeaker using a dielectric elastomer actuator vibrating in the breathing mode (the pulsating mode such as the expansion and contraction of a balloon). Acoustic testing with regard to repeatability, sound pressure, vibration mode profiles, and acoustic radiation patterns indicate that dielectric elastomer loudspeakers may be feasible.

  8. Effect of the filler on radiolysis of filled elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, S.A.; Erastov, A.Kh.; Kolesnikov, A.A.; Gostikina, A.V.; Mal'kov, A.M.; Korovkin, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the type and concentration of filler (A-175 Aerosil, PM-75 technical carbon, BS-100 white black, kaolin, titanium oxide) on the radiation yield of elastomers of different chemical nature was studied. The extreme character of the dependence of the radiation yield of paramagnetic centers on the concentration of filler, common to the systems studied, was established; it was due to the features of the colloid chemical structure of the filled elastomers and particularly to processes of cross-linking of the filter

  9. Hydrogen release from irradiated elastomers measured by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagielski, J., E-mail: jacek.jagielski@itme.edu.pl [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-926 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland); Ostaszewska, U. [Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials & Dyes, Division of Elastomers & Rubber Technology, Harcerska 30, 05-820 Piastow (Poland); Bielinski, D.M. [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Polymer & Dye Technology, Stefanowskiego 12/16, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Grambole, D. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, PO Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Romaniec, M.; Jozwik, I.; Kozinski, R. [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-926 Warszawa (Poland); Kosinska, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland)

    2016-03-15

    Ion irradiation appears as an interesting method of modification of elastomers, especially friction and wear properties. Main structural effect caused by heavy ions is a massive loss of hydrogen from the surface layer leading to its smoothening and shrinking. The paper presents the results of hydrogen release from various elastomers upon irradiation with H{sup +}, He{sup +} and Ar{sup +} studied by using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) method. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that the hydrogen release is controlled by inelastic collisions between ions and target electrons. The last part of the study was focused on preliminary analysis of mechanical properties of irradiated rubbers.

  10. Asphalt Concrete for Cold Regions, A Comparative Laboratory Study and Analysis of Mixtures Containing Soft and Hard Grades of Asphalt Cement,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Justification January 1980 BY Distribution Availabilit CodesIAvail an~d/or Dist special Prepa red for DIRECTORATE OF MILITARY PROGRAMS OFFICE, CHIEF OF...of water on the resilient modulus of asphalt treated mixes. Proecedinfp 4. Asphalt concrete mixes using the Tilton aggregates Association of Asphalt

  11. Microtomography of elastomers for tire manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmuir, John H.; Dias, A. J.; Peiffer, D. G.; Kolb, R.; Jones, G.

    1999-09-01

    X-ray microtomography is used to image the internal structure of carbon black filled isobutylene-p-methylstyrene-p- bromomethylstyrene (PIB-PMS/BrPMS or ExxProTM) curing bladders before and after use-to-failure in the manufacture of automobile tires. Curing bladders operate under extreme conditions with extended mechanical cycling at high temperatures. Manufacturers typically do not run the bladders until failure but rather a pull policy is established which emphasizes the distribution of cyclic lifetimes. We examine the bladder elastomer structure at a resolution of about 10 microns with the objective of reducing the variability in performance. Using both edge crossing and absorption contrast we identify several types of heterogeneity including voids, foreign inclusions, and the distribution of curative agent from which we infer the uniformity of the cure. The results indicate several potential failure mechanisms. The small number of voids and foreign inclusions are mechanical defects that can initiate cracking. More widespread through the polymer matrix are small regions of polymer devoid of curative agent as shown by absorption edge imaging. These regions may be uncured polymer with poor mechanical and thermal properties that may lead to early failure. After several cure cycles the uncured regions are no longer present in the bladder tread area but they remain near the bead. At high cycles an approximately 500 micrometer thick zinc rich cap develops where the bladder contacts the inner tread area of the tire. This zinc rich cap may cause over-curing of the polymer resulting in crack initiation at the surface of the bladder that contacts the tire.

  12. Storm Water General Permit 3 for Rock and Asphalt

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #3 for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity for Asphalt Plants, Concrete Batch Plants, Rock Crushing Plants and Construction...

  13. Occupational Renal Dysfunction Among Asphalt Workers In Sharkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : An Epidemiological Study. ... Zagazig Journal of Occupational Health and Safety ... Abstract. Background: Occupational exposure to bitumen fumes emitted during hot application of asphalt carries the risk of exposure to significant amount of ...

  14. Quality control of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    This study examined the variations found in recycled asphaltic concrete mix based upon plant quality control data and verification testing. The data was collected from four recycled hot-mix projects constructed in 1981. All plant control and acceptan...

  15. Characteristic Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (ACWC) Using Variation Lime Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, R. A.; Pramesti, F. P.; Setyawan, A.

    2018-03-01

    This research use of lime filler Sukaraja expected add durability layers of concrete pavement is asphalt damage caused by the weather and load traffic. This study attempts to know how much value characteristic Marshall on a mixture of concrete asphalt using lime filler. This research uses experimental methods that is with a pilot to get results, thus will look filler utilization lime on construction concrete asphalt variation in filler levels 2 %, 3 %, 4 %.The results showed that the use of lime filler will affect characteristic a mixture of concrete asphalt. The more filler chalk used to increase the value of stability. On the cretaceous filler 2 % value of stability is 1067,04 kg. When lime filler levels added to the levels of filler 4 %, the value of stability increased to 1213,92 kg. The flexibility increased the number of filler as levels lime 2 % to 4 % suggests that are conducted more stiff mix.

  16. Density measurement verification for hot mix asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  17. Density measurement verification for hot mixed asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  18. Improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt - final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA) mixtures have been produced and placed for several decades using : specification requirements currently listed under DMS 9210. Several districts have had placement issues : and premature failures at the beginning of 2010....

  19. Connecticut warm mix asphalt (WMA) pilot projects 2010 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    WMA overlays were placed in several pilot projects in Connecticut during the 2010 and 2011 construction : seasons. These technologies included Sasobit, Evotherm, Advera, Double-Barrel Green foamed : asphalt as well as SonneWarmix. The res...

  20. Implementation of warm-mix asphalt mixtures in Nebraska pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of several WMA mixtures as potential asphalt paving : mixtures for Nebraska pavements. To that end, three well-known WMA additives (i.e., Sasobit, Evotherm, and Advera : synthetic ...

  1. Performance of Virginia's warm-mix asphalt trial sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Three trial sections using two warm-mix asphalt (WMA) technologies were constructed in various locations in Virginia in 2006, and experiences with these trial sections were used in the development of the Virginia Department of Transportation's specia...

  2. Investigation of warm-mix asphalt for Iowa roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Phase II of this study further evaluated the performance of plant-produced warm-mix asphalt (WMA) mixes by conducting : additional mixture performance tests at a broader range of temperatures, adding additional pavements to the study, comparing : vir...

  3. Assessment of Quality of Asphalt Concrete used in Road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    subjected to bitumen extraction and sieve analysis, hot mix Marshall Stability and flow tests, penetration and ... asphalt concrete as well as other structures of the flexible pavement. ... High-quality road networks are very important to the.

  4. Risk management of low air void asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Various forms of asphalt pavement distress, such as rutting, shoving and bleeding, can be attributed, in many cases, to low air voids in : the mixtures during production and placement. The occurrence of low air void contents during plant production m...

  5. Towards analytical mix design for large-stone asphalt mixes.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of an analytically based design procedure for large-aggregate asphalt and its application in thirteen trial sections. The physical and engineering properties of the various materials are discussed and related...

  6. Building Asphalt Pavement with SBS-based Compound Added Using a Dry Process in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hosin; Kim, Yongjoo; Geisler, Nivi

    2009-01-01

    PMA where it is formulated to melt and blend with asphalt quickly during a batch mixing process. The main objectives of this study are to (1) build asphalt pavement using asphalt mixtures with SBS-based compound added using a “dry” process at the batch plant and (2) evaluate its performance under......-based compound seemed to affect the asphalt mix to become more flexible under the heavy loads. By adding SBS-based compound to asphalt mixtures using a “dry” process, it is expected that the pavement would become more resistant to rutting than a typical asphalt mixture used in Greenland while enduring its arctic...

  7. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  8. Dynamic Properties and Fatigue Life of Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures Reinforced with Waste Tyre Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, virgin polymer modified asphalt mixes are comparatively more expensive for road pavement. One way to reduce the expense of such construction and to make it more convenient is the application of inexpensive polymer, such as waste polymer. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM on the stiffness and fatigue properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA mixtures. Various percentages of waste CRM with size of 0.60 mm were added to SMA mixtures. Indirect tensile stiffness modulus test was conducted at temperatures of 5, 25, and 40°C. Indirect tensile fatigue test was conducted at three different stress levels (2000, 2500, and 3000 N. The results show that the stiffness modulus of reinforced SMA samples containing various contents of CRM is significantly high in comparison with that of nonreinforced samples, and the stiffness modulus of reinforced samples is in fact less severely affected by the increased temperature compared to the nonreinforced samples. Further, the results show that CRM reinforced SMA mixtures exhibit significantly higher fatigue lives compared to the nonreinforced mixtures help in and promotion of sustainable technology by recycling of waste materials in much economical and environmental-friendly manner.

  9. Evaluation of the chemical modifications in petroleum asphalt cement with the addition of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcondes, C.P.; Sales, M.J.A.; Resck, I.S.; Farias, M.M.; Souza, M.V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that the common distress mode in the Brazilian highway network are fatigue cracks and plastic deformation, which are associated with the type of material used in the pavement layers, structural project, excessive traffic load and weathering. To minimize these defects, research on modifiers such as polymers, added to asphalt binders have been developed to provide physical, chemical and rheological improvement. This paper investigates chemical modifications of the binders with the addition of PP by FTIR, NMR and DSC. FTIR spectra of pure and modified binder showed no differences in absorption. NMR analysis showed no strong chemical bonds between the binder and PP. DSC curve of PP showed a melting temperature of 160 deg C (ΔH = 94J/g) and the pure binder presented an endothermic transition between 20 and 40 deg C (ΔH = 2J/g). In the DSC curves of mixtures, these transitions are not significant, indicating possible interactions between asphalt binder and PP. (author)

  10. Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    successfully used as interlayers include asphalt rubber and geotextiles, and the applica- tion of recycling techniques to rework the upper 2–4 in. of the...from a set of weights dropped from increasingly greater predetermined heights onto a rubber buffer system connected to a 12 in. diameter segmented...pavement temperature at depth, IR = the infrared pavement surface temperature (°C), D = the asphalt depth to estimate the temperature (mm), 1

  11. DURABILITY OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES USING DOLOMITE AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Al-Shalout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the durability of asphalt concrete, including the effects of different gradations, compaction temperatures and immersion time on the durability potential of mixtures. The specific objectives of this study are: to investigate the effect of compaction temperature on the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixtures; investigate the effect of bitumen content and different aggregate gradations on the durability potential of bituminous mixtures.

  12. A novel thermoplastic elastomer based on dynamically vulcanized polypropylene/acrylic rubber blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic elastomer based on polypropylene (PP and acrylic rubber (ACM was investigated, with special attention on the compatibilization and dynamic vulcanization. ACM component contains chlorine and carboxyl groups along the backbone, which act as center for the curing and reactive compatibilization. The last event was carried out by adding a combination of maleic anhydride-modified PP (PP-g-MA and triethylene tetramine (TETA, which act as interfacial agents between PP and ACM phases. The effectiveness of the compatibilization was suggested from mixing torque and viscosity, determined from rheological measurements. Outstanding mechanical performance, especially elongation at break, and better tensile set (lower values were obtained with the compatibilization. The dynamic vulcanization also resulted in good mechanical properties for compatibilized blends, but the performance was inferior to that observed for non vulcanized blends. The effect of the compatibilization and/or dynamic vulcanization on the dynamic mechanical, thermal, morphological and stress relaxation properties was investigated.

  13. Field dependent response of magnetorheological elastomers utilizing spherical Fe particles versus Fe nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H J; Wereley, N M; Bell, R C; Planinsek, J L; II, J A Filer

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the dynamic response of nanowire-based magnetorheological elastomers (MREs), to those containing conventional spherical particles. MRE samples were fabricated by curing the iron particle laden elastomeric material in a magnetic field. Material characteristics of the MRE samples were evaluated using a material test machine that was modified to measure static and frequency dependent characteristics of these samples under different magnetic fields. The MRE samples consisted of a silicone rubber matrix containing various weight fractions of iron particles of differing morphology. Nanowires were used to enhance the interaction forces and contact area between particles. The static and dynamic properties of the MREs were evaluated under a compressive load for the various compositions and weight fractions. The stress vs. strain characteristics were measured for each sample. The equivalent damping coefficient of the MRE samples was measured and characterized under magnetic fields of differing intensities. The dynamic characteristic (dynamic stiffness) was measured under sinusoidal excitation in the frequency domain.

  14. Laboratory Evaluation of Ground Tire Rubber in Stone Mastic Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muniandy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone mastic asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix whereby stiffer asphalt cement is required to bind the stone matrix or arrangement of stones together. Although various asphalt additives are traditionally available, the use of rubber crumbs in SMA is still a new rresearch endeavor. Many countries around the world are facing serious problems on what to do with reject or discarded tires. In the present study, commercial truck tires, containing 70% natural rubber, were ground and pre-blended in 80-100 penetration asphalt for use in SMA mixtures. An assessment was made of the laboratory performance of rubberized SMA in terms of stability, resilent modulus, dynamic creep and tensile strength ratio. It was observed that the performance of SMA with ground tire rubber was for superior as compared to SMA mix with unmodified asphalt. Sulfur and Styrene Butadeline Rubber (SBR were used in rubberized SMA mixes as additives to test the sensitivity of SMA mixtures. As standard practice a 0.3% newly developed cellulose oil palm fiber was used in SMA to minimize the asphalt drain-down effects.

  15. Reinforcement of Recycled Foamed Asphalt Using Short Polypropylene Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of short polypropylene fibers on recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixture. Short polypropylene fibers of 10 mm length with a 0.15% by weight mixing ratio of the fiber to the asphalt binder were used. The Marshall stability test, the indirect tensile strength test, the resilient modulus test, and wheel tracking test of the RFA mixtures were conducted. The test results were compared to find out the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of the fiber and the other mixtures, which included the conventional recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixtures; the cement reinforced recycled foamed asphalt (CRFA mixtures; the semihot recycled foamed asphalt (SRFA mixtures; and recycled hot-mix asphalt (RHMA mixtures. It is found that the FRFA mixture shows higher Marshall stability than the RFA and SRFA mixtures, higher indirect tensile strength than the RFA mixture, and higher rut resistance than the RFA, SRFA, and RHMA mixtures as seen from the wheel tracking test.

  16. The dynamic contact area of elastomers at different velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khafidh, Muhammad; Rodriguez, N.V.; Masen, Marc Arthur; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    The friction in tribo-systems that contain viscoelastic materials, such as elastomers, is relevant for a large number of applications. Examples include tyres, hoses, transmission and conveyor belts. To quantify the friction in these applications, one must first understand the contact behaviour of

  17. Complaint liquid metal electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenauer, Lauren R.; Majidi, Carmel

    2014-03-01

    This work presents a liquid-phase metal electrode to be used with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) for a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). DEAs are favorable for soft-matter applications where high efficiency and response times are desirable. A consistent challenge faced during the fabrication of these devices is the selection and deposition of electrode material. While numerous designs have been demonstrated with a variety of conductive elastomers and greases, these materials have significant and often intrinsic shortcomings, e.g. low conductivity, hysteresis, incapability of large deformations, and complex fabrication requirements. The liquid metal alloy eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn) is a promising alternative to existing compliant electrodes, having both high conductivity and complete soft-matter functionality. The liquid electrode shares almost the same electrical conductivity as conventional metal wiring and provides no mechanical resistance to bending or stretching of the DEA. This research establishes a straightforward and effective method for quickly depositing EGaIn electrodes, which can be adapted for batch fabrication, and demonstrates the successful actuation of sample curved cantilever elastomer actuators using these electrodes. As with the vast majority of electrostatically actuated elastomer devices, the voltage requirements for these curved DEAs are still quite significant, though modifications to the fabrication process show some improved electrical properties. The ease and speed with which this method can be implemented suggests that the development of a more electronically efficient device is realistic and worthwhile.

  18. Patterning conductive PDMS nanocomposite in an elastomer using microcontact printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao-Xuan; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple method of embedding conductive and flexible elastomer micropatterns into a bulk elastomer. Employing microcontact printing and cast molding techniques, patterns consisting of conductive poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) composites mixed with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are embedded into bulk PDMS to form all-elastomer devices. To pattern conductive composites, a micromachined printing mold is utilized to transfer composite ink from a spin-coated thin layer to another substrate. Distinct from previously reported approaches, the printing mold in this technique, once fabricated, can be repeatedly used to generate new patterns and therefore greatly simplifies the device fabrication process and improves its efficiency. Manufactured devices with embedded conductive patterns exhibit excellent mechanical flexibility. With characterization of printing reliability, electrical conductivity of the composites is also shown with different loading percentages of MWCNTs. Furthermore, a simple strain gauge was fabricated and tested to demonstrate the potential applications of embedded conductive patterns. Overall, this approach demonstrates feasibility to be a simple method to pattern conductive elastomers that work as electrodes or sensing probes in PDMS-based devices. With further development, this technology yields many potential applications in lab-on-a-chip systems

  19. Conductive Elastomers for Stretchable Electronics, Sensors and Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Seo Noh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There have been a wide variety of efforts to develop conductive elastomers that satisfy both mechanical stretchability and electrical conductivity, as a response to growing demands on stretchable and wearable devices. This article reviews the important progress in conductive elastomers made in three application fields of stretchable technology: stretchable electronics, stretchable sensors, and stretchable energy harvesters. Diverse combinations of insulating elastomers and non-stretchable conductive materials have been studied to realize optimal conductive elastomers. It is noted that similar material combinations and similar structures have often been employed in different fields of application. In terms of stretchability, cyclic operation, and overall performance, fields such as stretchable conductors and stretchable strain/pressure sensors have achieved great advancement, whereas other fields like stretchable memories and stretchable thermoelectric energy harvesting are in their infancy. It is worth mentioning that there are still obstacles to overcome for the further progress of stretchable technology in the respective fields, which include the simplification of material combination and device structure, securement of reproducibility and reliability, and the establishment of easy fabrication techniques. Through this review article, both the progress and obstacles associated with the respective stretchable technologies will be understood more clearly.

  20. Liquid crystal elastomer coatings with programmed response of surface profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babakhanova, G.; Turiv, T.; Guo, Y.; Hendrikx, M.; Wei, Q.H.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Broer, D.J.; Lavrentovich, O.D.

    2018-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive liquid crystal elastomers with molecular orientation coupled to rubber-like elasticity show a great potential as elements in soft robotics, sensing, and transport systems. The orientational order defines their mechanical response to external stimuli, such as thermally activated

  1. Novel polycarbonate-based polyurethane elastomers: composition–property relationship

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Pavličevic, J.; Strachota, Adam; Poreba, Rafal; Bera, O.; Kaprálková, Ludmila; Baldrian, Josef; Šlouf, Miroslav; Lazić, N.; Budinski-Simendic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2011), s. 959-972 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/0195 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyurethane elastomer * polycarbonate diol * montmorillonite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.739, year: 2011

  2. Diffraction from relief gratings on a biomimetic elastomer cast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Raphael A.; Aranas, Erika B.

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic optical elements combine the optimized designs of nature with the versatility of materials engineering. We employ a beetle carapace as the template for fabricating relief gratings on an elastomer substrate. Biological surface features are successfully replicated by a direct casting procedure. Far-field diffraction effects are discussed in terms of the Fraunhofer approximation in Fourier space.

  3. Adjusting Asphalt Mixes for Increased Durability and Implementation of a Performance Tester to Evaluate Fatigue Cracking of Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-17

    Cracking is a common failure mechanism in asphalt concrete pavement structures. It is one of the main reasons for large road maintenance and rehabilitation expenditures, as well as reduced user comfort and increased fuel consumption due to high road ...

  4. Rutting based evaluation of asphalt mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Pavement rutting is one of the most common and destructive pavement distresses being observed in flexible pavements, which is primarily due to a-x-le loads that exceed legal limit and high ambient temperatures, and also poor mix design is one of the cause of rutting. The drastic increase in traffic volume during last few decades has resulted in premature pavement fillers of almost the whole road structure in Pakistan. In this scenario it is the time to investigate this problem and propose appropriate solution. Physical properties of aggregates and bitumen were evaluated in the laboratory. Mechanical Properties of three mixes. i.e., Marshall, Super pave and Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) were evaluated by performing creep test. indirect tensile test and dynamic modulus in order to compare the performance of mixes under prevailing load and environmental conditions of Pakistan. The study revealed that Super pave mixes performed better than Marshall and SMA. (author)

  5. Applications of pressure-sensitive dielectric elastomer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böse, Holger; Ocak, Deniz; Ehrlich, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer sensors for the measurement of compression loads with high sensitivity are described. The basic design of the sensors exhibits two profiled surfaces between which an elastomer film is confined. All components of the sensor were prepared with silicone whose stiffness can be varied in a wide range. Depending on details of the sensor design, various effects contribute to the enhancement of the capacitance. The intermediate elastomer film is stretched upon compression and electrode layers on the elastomer profiles and in the elastomer film approach each other. Different designs of the pressure sensor give rise to very different sensor characteristics in terms of the dependence of electric capacitance on compression force. Due to their inherent flexibility, the pressure sensors can be used on compliant substrates such as seats or beds or on the human body. This gives rise to numerous possible applications. The contribution describes also some examples of possible sensor applications. A glove was equipped with various sensors positioned at the finger tips. When grabbing an object with the glove, the sensors can detect the gripping forces of the individual fingers with high sensitivity. In a demonstrator of the glove equipped with seven sensors, the capacitances representing the gripping forces are recorded on a display. In another application example, a lower limb prosthesis was equipped with a pressure sensor to detect the load on the remaining part of the leg and the load is displayed in terms of the measured capacitance. The benefit of such sensors is to detect an eventual overload in order to prevent possible pressure sores. A third example introduces a seat load sensor system based on four extended pressure sensor mats. The sensor system detects the load distribution of a person on the seat. The examples emphasize the high performance of the new pressure sensor technology.

  6. Investigation on performances of asphalt mixtures made with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement: Effects of interaction between virgin and RAP bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Noferini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to most recent surveys, the European area produced 265 mil tonnes of asphalt for road applications in 2014. In the same year, the amount of available RAP was more than 50 mil tonnes. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. Despite the economic and environmental benefits, road authorities tend to limit the use of RAP in asphalt mixes due to uncertainty about field performances. The present study focuses on the interaction between neat and RAP bitumen in asphalt mixes made with different RAP content. The effects of RAP on physical and rheological properties of the final bituminous blend were investigated. This study is part of a wider research, where a specific type of asphalt mixture was produced with different RAP contents being 10%, 20% and 30% by mass of the mix. Bitumen was extracted and recovered from asphalt mixes, then it was subjected to the following laboratory tests: standard characterization, dynamic viscosity and rheological analysis with DSR. Findings showed that the effects of RAP bitumen on the final blend varied in proportion to RAP content. A threshold value of RAP content was found, below which bitumen was not subjected to significant changes in physical and rheological properties. Practical implications on production methods and paving of RAP mixes are also proposed. Keywords: Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, Recycling, Bitumen blending, Bitumen rheology

  7. Fix it first : utilizing the seismic property analyzer and MMLS to develop guidelines for the use of polymer modified thin lift HMA vs. surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop thin lift overlay mixtures with polymer modified asphalt for use in New England. As part of this : research a comprehensive literature review and internet survey was conducted. Moreover, laboratory test...

  8. Assessment of asphalt concrete reinforcement grid in flexible pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report investigated the application of accepted methods of pavement structural evaluation to independently assess the potential structural benefit of asphalt geogrid reinforcement of an operational flexible highway pavement. The asphalt interlay...

  9. Quantifying Asphalt Emulsion-Based Chip Seal Curing Times Using Electrical Resistance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Chip sealing typically consists of covering a pavement surface with asphalt emulsion into which aggregate chips are embedded. The asphalt emulsion cures through the evaporation of water, thus providing mechanical strength to adhere to the pavement wh...

  10. 0-6686 : improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Limestone rock asphalt (LRA) mixtures have : been produced and placed for several decades : using specification requirements currently listed : under DMS 9210, Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA). : Several Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) distr...

  11. Performance Assessment of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Pavements : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is a new technology which was : introduced in 1995 in Europe. WMA is gaining attention all : over the world because it offers several advantages over : conventional asphalt concrete mixes. The benefits include: : (1) Reduced en...

  12. Performance Measures of Warm Asphalt Mixtures for Safe and Reliable Freight Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is an emerging technology that can allow asphalt to flow at a lower temperature for mixing, placing and compaction. The advantages of WMA include reduced fuel consumption, less carbon dioxide emission, longer paving season, lon...

  13. Pavement service life extension due to asphalt surface treatment interlayer : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD) has been : using asphalt surface treatment (AST) interlayers over soil cement base courses : as a means to mitigate shrinkage cracks from reflecting through the asphaltic : concrete (A...

  14. Fatigue and fracture properties of aged binders in the context of reclaimed asphalt mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Evidence in the literature indicates that the stiffness of the asphalt binder increases and ductility of the binder decreases : with oxidative aging. Typically for unmodified asphalt binders, increase in stiffness or decrease in ductility is regarded...

  15. In-Place Recycling and Reclamation of Asphaltic Concrete Pavements in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Full-depth reclamation has been defined by the Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association as a rehabilitation technique in which the full thickness of the asphalt pavement and a predetermined portion of the underlying material (base, subbase, an...

  16. Improving Quality Control of Asphalt Pavement with RAP Using a Portable Infrared Spectroscopy Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This project has investigated the effectiveness of a Portable Infrared Spectrometer (PIRS) device in estimating percent of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and its contribution into oxidative aging of a new asphalt mixture immediately after productio...

  17. The road that's taken : Alberta's bitumen and the world of asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately one third of the bitumen produced by the oil sands industry in Canada is used as asphalt in roads and roofing materials. Crude oils used for asphalt production require very little refining. The asphalt market has become a key profit centre for some Cold Lake operators. Imperial Oil has established a research centre devoted to asphalt production at its Sarnia-based refinery. A decline in heavy oil supplies from Mexico and Venezuela has left Canada with a larger margin of the asphalt market. Industry leaders predict that demand for asphalt products will grow by 2.6 per cent per year. A sharp increase in asphalt prices led to many construction delays in 2007. Trials are now being conducted on a new warm mix paving technology that allows users to lower the temperature of asphalt by 20 to 30 degrees C when paving. 2 figs

  18. Evaluation of cement and fly ash treated recycled asphalt pavement and aggregates for base construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Many entities currently use recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and other aggregates as base material, temporary haul roads, : and, in the case of RAP, hot mix asphalt construction. Several states currently allow the use of RAP combined with cement : for...

  19. A Review of the Application of Zeolite Materials in Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woszuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among warm mix asphalt (WMA technologies, asphalt foaming techniques offer high potential in terms of decreasing production temperature. Reluctance of manufacturers to introduce this technology is connected with the concerns of a large investment costs. However, there are known additives which, through asphalt foaming, allow a decrease in temperatures by approximately 30 °C; the use of these additives do not involve expensive investment in order to change the asphalt mix production method. These additives are zeolites, that is, minerals of the aluminosilicate group, the crystalline structure of which contains water bound in a specific way. Its release, at mix asphalt production temperatures, causes asphalt foaming. It is currently known that zeolites can be used in WMA, including natural and synthetic zeolites obtained using chemical reagents and waste. This review presents the results of studies of WMA technology, including the effects of zeolite addition on asphalt properties and mix asphalt, as well as related environmental, economic, and technological benefits.

  20. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF RADIATION AND DEFORMATION ON THE ELASTOMER DETERIORATION BY USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Bonato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers belong to the group of polymer materials and they have an important role as technical material in the shipbuilding industry. The radiation crosslinking of elastomers shows significant advantages over chemical crosslinking. It can improve mechanical strength, resistance to chemicals and insulation properties of elastomers. An undesirable side reaction, which can occur during radiation, is the degradation process. This results in cracks breaking, chemical disintegration and reduction of mechanical properties of elastomers. In this paper fuzzy logic is used to estimate the influence of radiation and deformation on the behavior of elastomer samples. A Gaussian model is created according to both the experts' experience and the measuring data. The results of the model are calculated by using the Normalized Roth Mean Square Error (NRMSE and the Roth Mean Square Error (RMSE. The so developed model gives new conceptions, which offer a possibility to improve the application of elastomer materials.

  2. Modification of asphaltic concrete with a mineral polymeric additive based on butadiene-styrene rubber and chemically precipitated calcium carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of asphaltic concrete with a mineral polymeric additive based on butadiene – styrene rubber and chemically precipitated calcium carbonate. This paper presents the results of the study of physical – mechanical and service properties of the asphaltic concrete modified with the mineral polymeric composition. Calcium carbonate is used both as a filler and a coagulant. The chalk was preliminarily ground and hydrophobizated by stearic acid. These operations contribute to even distribution of the filler and interfere with lump coagulation. As a result of the experiments, it was found that the best results were obtained by combining the operations of dispersion and hydrophobization. The optimal amount of stearic acid providing the finest grinding in a ball mill is a content from 3 to 5% by weight. The optimal grinding time of the filler was found (4–6 hours. With increasing dispersion time the particles form agglomerates. Filling the butadiene styrene latex with the hydrophobic fine-grained calcium carbonate was carried out in the laboratory mixer. As a result of the experimental works, it was found that the best distribution of the filler takes place with ratio of rubber: chalk – 100:400. The resulting modifier was subjected to the thermal analysis on the derivatograph to determine its application temperature interval. A marked reduction in weight of the mineral polymeric modifier begins at 350 °C. Thus, high temperature of the modifier destruction allows to use it at the temperature of the technological process of asphaltic concrete preparation (up to 170 °C. It was found that an increase in the amount of the carbonate filler in the rubber SKS 30АRК significantly increases its thermal resistance and connection of the polymer with the chalk in the composition.

  3. Specifications and Construction Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Plant-Mix Types, 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The purpose of this publication is to assist engineers in the analysis, design and control of paving projects that use asphalt concrete and other asphalt plant-mixes. The scope of this new third edition has been enlarged, and changes necessitated by advances in asphalt technology have been incorporated. Chapters I and II and Appendices A and B…

  4. Survey of microbial degradation of asphalts with notes on relationship to nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZoBell, C.E.; Molecke, M.A.

    1978-12-01

    A survey has been made of the microbial degradation of asphalts. Topics covered include chemical and physical properties of asphalts, their chemical stability, methods of demonstrating their microbial degradation, and environmental extremes for microbial activity based on existing literature. Specific concerns for the use of asphalt in nuclear waste management, plus potential effects and consequences thereof are discussed. 82 references

  5. Visualizing asphalt roller trajectories in context: acquiring, processing, and representing sensor readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt compaction process relies heavily on the skills and knowledge of roller operators who act alongside other stakeholders involved in asphalt paving. It is essential that these construction specialists: (1) are adequately informed about the initial temperature distribution of the asphalt

  6. The first engineered self-healing asphalt road : How is it performing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van Bochove, G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  7. On the representative volume element of asphalt concrete at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasteanu, Mihai; Cannone Falchetto, Augusto; Velasquez, Raul; Le, Jia-Liang

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of characterizing asphalt mixtures' rheological and failure properties at low temperatures by means of the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) is investigated in this paper. The main issue is the use of thin beams of asphalt mixture in experimental procedures that may not capture the true behavior of the material used to construct an asphalt pavement.

  8. Design of Elastomer Structure to Facilitate Incorporation of Expanded Graphite in Silicones Without Compromising Electromechanical Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassouneh, Suzan Sager; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    The development of elastomer materials with a high dielectric permittivity has attracted increased interest over the past years due to their use in, for example, dielectric elastomers. For this particular use, both the electrically insulating properties - as well as the mechanical properties......-functional crosslinker, which allows for development of a suitable network matrix. The dielectric permittivity was increased by almost a factor of 4 compared to a benchmark silicone elastomer....

  9. Enhancement of dielectric permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymers in silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    A silicone elastomer from PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymer has been prepared by use of silylation reactions for both copolymer preparation and crosslinking. The dielectric and mechanical properties of the silicone elastomers were carefully investigated, as well as the morphology of the elastomers wa...... to a significantly increased dielectric permittivity. The conductivity also remained low due to the resulting discontinuity in PEG within the silicone matrix....

  10. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping of elastomers in engineering applications, part 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, A.; Zorzi, E.

    1980-01-01

    An elastomer shear damper was designed, tested, and compared with the performance of the T 55 power turbine supported on the production engine roller bearing support. The Viton 70 shear damper was designed so that the elastomer damper could be interchanged with the production T 55 power turbine roller bearing support. The results show that the elastomer sheer dampener permitted stable operation of the power turbine to the maximum operating speed of 16,000 rpm.

  11. Giant, Voltage-Actuated Deformation of a Dielectric Elastomer under Dead Load

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jiangshui; Li, Tiefeng; Foo, Choon Chiang; Clarke, David R.; Zhu, Jian; Suo, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    Far greater voltage-actuated deformation is achievable for a dielectric elastomer under equal-biaxial dead load than under rigid constraint usually employed. Areal strains of 488% are demonstrated. The dead load suppresses electric breakdown, enabling the elastomer to survive the snap-through electromechanical instability. The breakdown voltage is found to increase with the voltage ramp rate. A nonlinear model for viscoelastic dielectric elastomers is developed and shown to be consistent with...

  12. The effects of additives on the actuating performances of a dielectric elastomer actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Huu Chuc; Doan, Vu Thuy; Park, JongKil; Koo, Ja Choon; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Lee, Youngkwan; Nam, Jae-do

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effects of additives on the performance of a dielectric elastomer actuator. Previously, a new dielectric elastomer material, called 'synthetic elastomer', was presented for the means of actuation, which permits changes in the mechanical as well as the electrical properties in order to meet the requirements of certain applications. This work studies how the electromechanical properties of the synthetic elastomer can be adjusted by combining two additives, namely dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ). Experiments are carried out and the effects of each additive are compared to one another based on the actuation performances

  13. Elastomer damper performance - A comparison with a squeeze film for a supercritical power transmission shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Burgess, G.; Cunningham, R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an elastomer damper on a super-critical power transmission shaft. The elastomers were designed to provide acceptable operation through the fourth bending mode and to control synchronous as well as nonsynchronous vibration throughout the operating range. The design of the elastomer was such that it could be incorporated into the system as a replacement for a squeeze-film damper without a reassembly, which could have altered the imbalance of the shaft. This provided a direct comparison of the elastomer and squeeze-film dampers without having to assess the effect of shaft imbalance changes.

  14. Solvent Resistant Elastomers and High TG Materials from the Same Carbosilane Backbone: Broadening the Materials Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagener, K

    2003-01-01

    .... We have directed our efforts towards solvent resistant materials that improve upon butyl rubber. Polycarobcsilanes combine the behavioral characteristics of hydrocarbon polymers and siloxane elastomers...

  15. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  16. Significance of Fines in Hot Mix Asphalt Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaitzaki Elvira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to their size, aggregates are classified in coarse grained, fine grained, and fines. The determination of fines content in aggregate materials is very simple and is performed through the aggregate washing during the sieving procedure to define the gradation curve. The very fine material consists of grains having a size lower than 63 μm. The presence of fines directly influences the composition and performance of concrete and asphalt mixtures (e.g. asphalt content, elasticity, fracture. The strength and load carrying capacity of hot mix asphalt (HMA results from the aggregate framework created through particle-particle contact and interlock. Fines or mineral filler have a role in HMA. The coarse aggregate framework is filled by the sand-sized material and finally by the mineral filler. At some point, the smallest particles lose contact becoming suspended in the binder not having the particle-particle contact that is created by the larger particles. The overall effect of mineral filler in hot mix asphalt specimens has been investigated through a series of laboratory tests. It is clear that a behaviour influenced by the adherence of fines to asphalt film has been developed. The optimum bitumen content requirement in case of stone filler is almost the same as that for fly ash. It has been found that the percentage of fly ash filler is crucial if it exceeds approximately a value of 4%.

  17. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  18. Experimental Study on Color Durability of Color Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shi; Huan, Su

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the poor Color durability and the lack of research on Color asphalt pavement, spraying an anti-tire trace seal resin emulsion on the surface, a Color durable asphalt pavement was proposed. After long-term rolling and long-term aging test, the Color durability was evaluated by RGB function in Photoshop and trace residue rate formula. Test results proved that the Evaluation method was simple and effective. After long-term rolling, the Color of the road surface tends to a constant value. Spraying the emulsion on the road surface can resist tire traces. After long-term aging test, the resistance to tire traces was increased by 26.6% compared with the conventional type, while the former was 44.1% higher than the latter without long-term aging. The Color durable asphalt pavement can effectively improve the ability of Color asphalt pavement to resist tire traces, and significantly improve the Color durability of Color asphalt pavement.

  19. Aging test results of an asphalt membrane liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Barnes, S.M.

    1983-07-01

    The objective of the asphalt aging study described in this report was to determine the expected performance lifetime of a catalytically airblown asphalt membrane as a seepage barrier for inactive uranium mill tailings. The study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, showed through chemical compatibility tests that the asphalt membrane is well suited for this purpose. The chemical compatibility tests were designed to accelerate the aging reactions in the asphalt and to determine the accelerated aging effect. Higher temperatures and oxygen concentrations proved to be effective acceleration parameters. By infrared spectral analysis, the asphalt was determined to have undergone 7 years of equivalent aging in a 3-month period when exposed to 40 0 C and 1.7 atm oxygen pressure. However, the extent of aging was limited to a maximum penetration of 0.5% of the total liner thickness. It was concluded that the liner could be expected to be effective as a seepage barrier for at least 1000 years before the entire thickness of the liner would be degraded

  20. Effect of synthetic surfactants, salinity and alkalinity on the properties of asphalt emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prat, F.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of salinity, alkalinity and amount of ionic and non-ionic synthetic surfactants in the aqueous emulsifier used to prepare oil-in-water or asphaltic emulsions on the performance of such substances as waterproofing on buildings. The emulsion systems studied here were prepared with Venezuelan extra heavy oil. The findings showed that the four variables modified viscosity, surface tension and mean particle size, physical properties that are instrumental to asphalt emulsion stability.Este trabajo estudia la influencia de las variables salinidad, alcalinidad y cantidad de surfactantes sintéticos, tanto iónicos como no iónicos, existentes en el emulsivo acuoso empleado para formular emulsiones asfálticas, con vistas a la aplicación de las mismas como recubrimientos impermeabilizantes en edificaciones. Para la preparación de los sistemas emulsionados objeto de estudio, se utilizó como producto bituminoso un crudo extrapesado procedente de Venezuela. En tal sentido, los resultados obtenidos muestran cómo las cuatro variables de formulación anteriormente mencionadas modifican una serie de propiedades físicas (viscosidad, tensión superficial y diámetro promedio de partícula muy determinantes para la estabilidad de las referidas emulsiones asfálticas.