WorldWideScience

Sample records for elastic 1-d plane

  1. Elastic Constants of Plane Orthotropic Elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The four independent material parameters of plane orthotropic elasti city are introduced as the effective stiffness, the effective Poisson ratio, the stiffness ratio and the shear parameter. It is proved that stress boundary value problems with zero resulting force on internal contours lead...

  2. MX chains: 1-D analog of CuO planes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammel, J.T.; Batistic, I.; Bishop, A.R.; Loh, E.Y. Jr.; Marianer, S.

    1989-01-01

    We study a two-band Peierls-Hubbard model for halogen-bridged mixed-valence transition metal linear chain complexes (MX chains). We include electron-electron correlations (both Hubbard and PPP-like expressions) using several techniques including calculations in the zero-hopping limit, exact diagonalization of small systems, mean field approximation, and a Gutzwiller-like Ansatz for quantum phonons. The adiabatic optical absorption and phonon spectra for both photo-excited and doping induced defects (kinks, polarons, bipolarons, and excitons) are discussed. A long period phase which occurs even at commensurate filling for certain parameter values may be related to twinning. The effect of including the electron-phonon in addition to the electron-electron interaction on the polaron/bipolaron (pairing) competition is especially interesting when this class of compounds is viewed as a 1-D analog of high-temperature superconductors. 6 refs., 4 figs

  3. EDSPA, 1-D Mechanical Displacement for Elastic, Thermoelastic, Viscoelastic Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlich, M.; Elsen, R.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: EDSPA solves the one dimensional mechanical displacement equation in radial (sphere) axisymmetric cylindrical (infinite cylinder, slab) coordinates. The constitutive laws for the material to be considered can comprise the - elastic and/or - thermoelastic and/or - viscoplastic behaviour. The boundary conditions allow to prescribe displacement and/or stress values. The delivered version of EDSPA is especially suitable for the calculation of borehole problems in rock salt (heater boreholes or free converging boreholes or caverns) where convergence rates and/or contact pressures are of interest. 2 - Method of solution: The coarse-mesh method is used to transform the displacement differential equation (quasi-stationary case: second order ordinary differential equation as a two point boundary value problem) into a system of algebraic equations. This three-diagonal system is solved with the Thomas algorithm (direct solver). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Because of EDSPA's simple one-dimensional formulation there are no restrictions for storage allocation and argument ranges

  4. Plane strain problem in microstretch elastic solid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    College, Patti 143 416, India. 3Department of Mathematics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005, ... lem in microstretch elastic solid by employing the eigenvalue approach. 975. Page 2. 976. Rajneesh Kumar et al. 2. Basic equations ..... of the matrix A are characteristic roots of (29) assuming that real parts of qs.

  5. Control Plane Strategies for Elastic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan

    Networks (EONs) concept is proposed as a solution to enable a more flexible handling of the optical capacity and allows an increase of available capacity over the existing optical infrastructure. One main requirement for enabling EONs is to have a flexible spectrum structure (i.e.Flex-Grid) which allows...... the spectrum to be used as an on-demand resource. Flex-Grid raises new challenges for controlling the dynamic spectrum slots environment. This thesis addresses, as part of the Celtic project “Elastic Optical Networks” (EONet), the control of Flex-Grid architectures by extending the capabilities of a GMPLS...... (Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching)-based control framework in accordance with existing IETF standards and recommendations. The usual approach of extending capacity in transport networks by incrementally adding more optical resources results in a very inefficient usage and determines a high power...

  6. Topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shao-Yong; Chen, Jiu-Jiu; Huang, Hong-Bo

    2018-04-01

    Topological phononic insulators (TPnIs) show promise for application in the manipulation of acoustic waves for the design of low-loss transmission and perfectly integrated communication devices. Since solid phononic crystals exist as a transverse polarization mode and a mixed longitudinal-transverse polarization mode, the realization of topological edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is desirable to enhance the controllability of the edge waves in solid systems. In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) solid/solid hexagonal-latticed phononic system that simultaneously supports the topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is investigated. Firstly, two pairs of two-fold Dirac cones, respectively corresponding to the out-of-plane and in-plane waves, are obtained at the same frequency by tuning the crystal parameters. Then, a strategy of zone folding is invoked to form double Dirac cones. By shrinking and expanding the steel scatterer, the lattice symmetry is broken, and band inversions induced, giving rise to an intriguing topological phase transition. Finally, the topologically protected edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves, which can be simultaneously located at the frequency range from 1.223 to 1.251 MHz, are numerically observed. Robust pseudospin-dependent elastic edge wave propagation along arbitrary paths is further demonstrated. Our results will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  7. Coupling of lipid membrane elasticity and in-plane dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kuan-Yu; Lai, Yei-Chen; Chiang, Yun-Wei; Chen, Yi-Fan

    2017-07-01

    Biomembranes exhibit liquid and solid features concomitantly with their in-plane fluidity and elasticity tightly regulated by cells. Here, we present experimental evidence supporting the existence of the dynamics-elasticity correlations for lipid membranes and propose a mechanism involving molecular packing densities to explain them. This paper thereby unifies, at the molecular level, the aspects of the continuum mechanics long used to model the two membrane features. This ultimately may elucidate the universal physical principles governing the cellular phenomena involving biomembranes.

  8. Finite Thin Cover on an Orthotropic Elastic Half Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Oyedeji Falope

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the mechanical behaviour of thin films bonded to a homogeneous elastic orthotropic half plane under plain strain condition and infinitesimal strain. Both the film and semi-infinite substrate display linear elastic orthotropic behaviour. By assuming perfect adhesion between film and half plane together with membrane behaviour of the film, the compatibility condition between the coating and substrate leads to a singular integral equation with Cauchy kernel. Such an equation is straightforwardly solved by expanding the unknown interfacial stress in series of Chebyshev polynomials displaying square-root singularity at the film edges. This approach allows handling the singular behaviour of the shear stress and, in turn, reducing the problem to a linear algebraic system of infinite terms. Results are found for two loading cases, with particular reference to concentrated axial forces acting at the edges of the film. The corresponding mode II stress intensity factor has been assessed, thus providing the stress concentrations at both ends of the covering. Possible applications of the results here obtained range from MEMS, NEMS, and solar Silicon cell for energy harvesting to welded joint and building foundation.

  9. The elastic strain energy of crystallographic shear planes in reduced tungsten trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, E.; Tilley, R.J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations of the elastic strain energy due to crystallographic shear (c.s.) planes lying upon 102, 103 and 001 planes in reduced tungsten trioxide crystals have been made. The cases analysed in detail are for both isolated c.s. planes and for pairs of c.s. planes. These results are used to determine the elastic strain energy per unit volume for crystals containing ordered arrays of c.s. planes. It was found that the magnitude of the elastic strain energy was in the sequence 001 < 102 < 103 and that at relatively small inter-c.s. spacings the curves of elastic strain energy against c.s. plane separation take the form of a series of peaks and valleys. These results are compared with experimental observations of c.s. plane spacings in substantially reduced crystals containing quasi-ordered arrays of c.s. planes and with observations of c.s. plane nucleation and growth in both slightly and more appreciably reduced crystals. It was found that the elastic strain energy plays a significant part in controlling the microstructure of c.s. plane arrays in such cases. (author)

  10. Contact Problem for an Elastic Layer on an Elastic Half Plane Loaded by Means of Three Rigid Flat Punches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ozsahin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The frictionless contact problem for an elastic layer resting on an elastic half plane is considered. The problem is solved by using the theory of elasticity and integral transformation technique. The compressive loads P and Q (per unit thickness in direction are applied to the layer through three rigid flat punches. The elastic layer is also subjected to uniform vertical body force due to effect of gravity. The contact along the interface between elastic layer and half plane is continuous, if the value of the load factor, λ, is less than a critical value, . In this case, initial separation loads, and initial separation points, are determined. Also the required distance between the punches to avoid any separation between the punches and the elastic layer is studied and the limit distance between punches that ends interaction of punches is investigated for various dimensionless quantities. However, if tensile tractions are not allowed on the interface, for the layer separates from the interface along a certain finite region. Numerical results for distance determining the separation area, vertical displacement in the separation zone, contact stress distribution along the interface between elastic layer and half plane are given for this discontinuous contact case.

  11. ANALYSIS OF A RIGID WALL IN AN ELASTIC WEIGHTY HALF-PLANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dmitrieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of stress-strain state of a rigid wall in an elastic weighty half-plane with a broken outline is carried out. To this end, the auxiliary problem of displacements definition in an elastic weighty quarter-plane was solved. Ritz method derived a formula to determine the displacements of elastic flat wedge boundaries in view of its own weight. On the basis of the received expressions the algorithm of displacements definition of a crack in an elastic weighty half-plane with a broken outline is developed. Analytical calculation of a rigid vertical wall located in an elastic weighty half-plane under the influence of a horizontal load, carried out by two methods: by Zhemochkin's method and finite difference method. In the problem statement an elastic half-plane is considered a model of the soil medium, therefore, only compressive normal stresses can arise on the connection of the wall with the elastic base. This assumption implies occurrence of discontinuities soil medium, and leads for the wall to an emergence of two dividing points of boundary conditions. The determination of the boundaries contact of the wall with the elastic half-plane, are not known in advance, is performed by iteratively way at each step set the position of dividing points of boundary conditions and the system of canonical equations of a corresponding method is written.  If tensile stresses appear in wall-base contact and/or there is overlap of the crack edges occurs, then proceeds to the next iteration. Analysis of the results shows that the bending moment and shear forces in sections of the rigid wall in a broken weighty half-plane differ slightly from the same diagrams constructed for a rigid wall in an elastic weightless half-plane. The verification of the results of analytical calculation with the results received by using the LIRA 9.6 that implements the finite element method is obtained. The calculation results for the rigid wall in an elastic weighty half-plane

  12. In-Plane free Vibration Analysis of an Annular Disk with Point Elastic Support

    OpenAIRE

    Bashmal, S.; Bhat, R.; Rakheja, S.

    2011-01-01

    In-plane free vibrations of an elastic and isotropic annular disk with elastic constraints at the inner and outer boundaries, which are applied either along the entire periphery of the disk or at a point are investigated. The boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials are employed in the Rayleigh-Ritz method to obtain the frequency parameters and the associated mode shapes. Boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials are generated for the free boundary conditions of the disk while arti...

  13. On crack interaction effects of in-plane surface cracks using elastic and elastic-plastic finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Nam Su

    2010-01-01

    The crack-tip stress fields and fracture mechanics assessment parameters for a surface crack, such as the elastic stress intensity factor or the elastic-plastic J-integral, can be affected significantly by the adjacent cracks. Such a crack interaction effect due to multiple cracks can alter the fracture mechanics assessment parameters significantly. There are many factors to be considered, for instance the relative distance between adjacent cracks, the crack shape, and the loading condition, to quantify the crack interaction effect on the fracture mechanics assessment parameters. Thus, the current assessment codes on crack interaction effects (crack combination rules), including ASME Sec. XI, BS7910, British Energy R6 and API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, provide different rules for combining multiple surface cracks into a single surface crack. The present paper investigates crack interaction effects by evaluating the elastic stress intensity factor and the elastic-plastic J-integral of adjacent in-plane surface cracks in a plate through detailed 3-dimensional elastic and elastic-plastic finite element analyses. The effects on the fracture mechanics assessment parameters of the geometric parameters, the relative distance between two cracks, and the crack shape are investigated systematically. As for the loading condition, an axial tension is considered. Based on the finite element results, the acceptability of the crack combination rules provided in the existing guidance was investigated, and the relevant recommendations on a crack interaction for in-plane surface cracks are discussed. The present results can be used to develop more concrete guidance on crack interaction effects for crack shape characterization to evaluate the integrity of defective components

  14. Laser-based linear and nonlinear guided elastic waves at surfaces (2D) and wedges (1D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Peter; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Mayer, Andreas P

    2014-01-01

    The characteristic features and applications of linear and nonlinear guided elastic waves propagating along surfaces (2D) and wedges (1D) are discussed. Laser-based excitation, detection, or contact-free analysis of these guided waves with pump-probe methods are reviewed. Determination of material parameters by broadband surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and other applications in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are considered. The realization of nonlinear SAWs in the form of solitary waves and as shock waves, used for the determination of the fracture strength, is described. The unique properties of dispersion-free wedge waves (WWs) propagating along homogeneous wedges and of dispersive wedge waves observed in the presence of wedge modifications such as tip truncation or coatings are outlined. Theoretical and experimental results on nonlinear wedge waves in isotropic and anisotropic solids are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The features of inclined force acting on 1D homogeneous elastic lumped line and corresponding modernisation of the wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Karavashkin, S B

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the exact analytical solutions for 1D elastic lumped lines under action of an external force inclined to the line axis. We show that in this case an inclined wave being described by an implicit function propagates along the line. We extend this conclusion both to free vibrations and to distributed lines. We prove that the presented solution in the form of implicit function is a generalizing for the wave equation. When taken into consideration exactly, the dynamical processes pattern leads to the conclusion that the divergence of a vector in dynamical fields is not zero but proportional to the scalar product of the partial derivative of the given vector with respect to time into the wave propagation direction vector.

  16. Surface effects on anti-plane shear waves propagating in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Chunli; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-01-01

    Material surfaces may have a remarkable effect on the mechanical behavior of magneto-electro-elastic (or multiferroic) structures at nanoscale. In this paper, a surface magneto-electro-elasticity theory (or effective boundary condition formulation), which governs the motion of the material surface of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, is established by employing the state-space formalism. The properties of anti-plane shear (SH) waves propagating in a transversely isotropic magneto-electro-elastic plate with nanothickness are investigated by taking surface effects into account. The size-dependent dispersion relations of both antisymmetric and symmetric SH waves are presented. The thickness-shear frequencies and the asymptotic characteristics of the dispersion relations considering surface effects are determined analytically as well. Numerical results show that surface effects play a very pronounced role in elastic wave propagation in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, and the dispersion properties depend strongly on the chosen surface material parameters of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates. As a consequence, it is possible to modulate the waves in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates through surface engineering. (paper)

  17. In-plane anisotropic strain of elastically and plastically deformed III-nitrides on lithium gallate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Huang, Sa; Moseley, Michael; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated both elastically and plastically deformed GaN films on lithium gallate, LiGaO 2 , by molecular beam epitaxy. The in-plane lattice parameters were determined from high resolution X-ray diffraction and indicated two different groups of in-plane lattice parameters, influenced by the a- and b-axis of LiGaO 2 . The measured in-plane lattice parameters indicate that there exist both compressive and tensile strains of in-plane GaN along the a- and b-axis of LiGaO 2 , respectively. This anisotropic strain in GaN films forms a slight distortion of the basal-plane hexagonal structure of GaN films, leading to a different critical thickness of 4.0 ± 0.17 and 7.8 ± 0.7 nm along the a- and b-axis of LiGaO 2 , respectively.

  18. Controlled multiple neutral planes by low elastic modulus adhesive for flexible organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wansun; Lee, Inhwa; Yoon Kim, Dong; Yu, Youn-Yeol; Jung, Hae-Yoon; Kwon, Seyeoul; Seo Park, Weon; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2017-05-12

    To protect brittle layers in organic photovoltaic devices, the mechanical neutral plane strategy can be adopted through placing the brittle functional materials close to the neutral plane where stress and strain are zero during bending. However, previous research has been significantly limited in the location and number of materials to protect through using a single neutral plane. In this study, multiple neutral planes are generated using low elastic modulus adhesives and are controlled through quantitative analyses in order to protect the multiple brittle materials at various locations. Moreover, the protection of multiple brittle layers at various locations under both concave and convex bending directions is demonstrated. Multilayer structures that have soft adhesives are further analyzed using the finite element method analysis in order to propose guidelines for structural design when employing multiple neutral planes.

  19. Plane strain analytical solutions for a functionally graded elastic-plastic pressurized tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, Ahmet N.; Akis, Tolga

    2006-01-01

    Plane strain analytical solutions to functionally graded elastic and elastic-plastic pressurized tube problems are obtained in the framework of small deformation theory. The modulus of elasticity and the uniaxial yield limit of the tube material are assumed to vary radially according to two parametric parabolic forms. The analytical plastic model is based on Tresca's yield criterion, its associated flow rule and ideally plastic material behaviour. Elastic, partially plastic and fully plastic stress states are investigated. It is shown that the elastoplastic response of the functionally graded pressurized tube is affected significantly by the material nonhomogeneity. Different modes of plasticization may take place unlike the homogeneous case. It is also shown mathematically that the nonhomogeneous elastoplastic solution presented here reduces to that of a homogeneous one by appropriate choice of the material parameters

  20. Numerical tests of evolution systems, gauge conditions, and boundary conditions for 1D colliding gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.; Buchman, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate how the accuracy and stability of numerical relativity simulations of 1D colliding plane waves depends on choices of equation formulations, gauge conditions, boundary conditions, and numerical methods, all in the context of a first-order 3+1 approach to the Einstein equations, with basic variables some combination of first derivatives of the spatial metric and components of the extrinsic curvature tensor. Hyperbolic schemes, specifically variations on schemes proposed by Bona and Masso and Anderson and York, are compared with variations of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation. Modifications of the three basic schemes include raising one index in the metric derivative and extrinsic curvature variables and adding a multiple of the energy constraint to the extrinsic curvature evolution equations. Redundant variables in the Bona-Masso formulation may be reset frequently or allowed to evolve freely. Gauge conditions which simplify the dynamical structure of the system are imposed during each time step, but the lapse and shift are reset periodically to control the evolution of the spacetime slicing and the longitudinal part of the metric. We show that physically correct boundary conditions, satisfying the energy and momentum constraint equations, generically require the presence of some ingoing eigenmodes of the characteristic matrix. Numerical methods are developed for the hyperbolic systems based on decomposing flux differences into linear combinations of eigenvectors of the characteristic matrix. These methods are shown to be second-order accurate, and in practice second-order convergent, for smooth solutions, even when the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the characteristic matrix are spatially varying

  1. Simplified description of out-of-plane waves in thin annular elastic plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Maziyar Nesari; Sorokin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion relations are derived for the out-of-plane wave propagation in planar elastic plates with constant curvature using the classical Kirchhoff thin plate theory. The dispersion diagrams and the mode shapes are compared with their counterparts for a straight plate strip and the role...... of curvature is assessed for plates with unconstrained edges. Elementary Bernoulli–Euler theory for a beam of rectangular cross-section with the circular shape of its axis is also employed to analyze the wave guide properties of this structure in its out-of-plane deformation. The applicability range...... of the elementary beam theory is validated. The wave finite element method in the formulation of the three-dimensional elasticity theory is used to ensure that the comparison of dispersion diagrams is performed in the frequency range, where the classical thin plate theory is valid. Thus, the paper summarizes...

  2. Transient reaction of an elastic half-plane on a source of a concentrated boundary disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonechnikov, A. S.; Tarlakovski, D. V.; Ul'yashina, A. N.; Fedotenkov, G. V.

    2016-11-01

    One of the key problems in studying the non-stationary processes of solid mechanics is obtaining of influence functions. These functions serve as solutions for the problems of effect of sudden concentrated loads on a body with linear elastic properties. Knowledge of the influence functions allows us to obtain the solutions for the problems with non-mixed boundary and initial conditions in the form of quadrature formulae with the help of superposition principle, as well as get the integral governing equations for the problems with mixed boundary and initial conditions. This paper offers explicit derivations for all nonstationary surface influence functions of an elastic half-plane in a plane strain condition. It is achieved with the help of combined inverse transform of a Fourier-Laplace integral transformation. The external disturbance is both dynamic and kinematic. The derived functions in xτ-domain are studied to find and describe singularities and are supplemented with graphs.

  3. Instabilities in dynamic anti-plane sliding of an elastic layer on a dissimilar elastic half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnath, R.

    2012-12-01

    The stability of dynamic anti-plane sliding at an interface between an elastic layer and an elastic half-space with dissimilar elastic properties is studied. Friction at the interface is assumed to follow a rate- and state-dependent law, with a positive instantaneous dependence on slip velocity and a rate weakening behavior in the steady state. The perturbations are of the form exp(ikx+pt), where k is the wavenumber, x is the coordinate along the interface, p is the time response to the perturbation and t is time. The results of the stability analysis are shown in Figs. 1 and 2 with the velocity weakening parameter b/a=5, shear wave speed ratio cs'/cs=1.2, shear modulus ratio μ'/μ=1.2 and non-dimensional layer thickness H=100. The normalized instability growth rate and normalized phase velocity are plotted as a function of wavenumber. Fig.1 is for a non-dimensional unperturbed slip velocity ɛ=5 (rapid sliding) while Fig. 2 is for ɛ=0.05 (slow sliding). The results show the destabilization of interfacial waves. For slow sliding, destabilization of interfacial waves is still seen, indicating that the quasi-static approximation to slow sliding is not valid. This is in agreement with the result of Ranjith (Int. J. Solids and Struct., 2009, 46, 3086-3092) who predicted an instability of long-wavelength Love waves in slow sliding.

  4. Evaluation of crack interaction effect for in-plane surface cracks using elastic finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Nam Su; Choi, Suhn; Park, Keun Bae; Kim, Jong Min; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    The crack-tip stress fields and fracture mechanics assessment parameters, such as the elastic stress intensity factor and the elastic-plastic J-integral, for a surface crack can be significantly affected by adjacent cracks. Such a crack interaction effect due to multiple cracks can magnify the fracture mechanics assessment parameters. There are many factors to be considered, for instance the relative distance between adjacent cracks, crack shape and loading condition, to quantify a crack interaction effect on the fracture mechanics assessment parameters. Thus, the current guidance on a crack interaction effect (crack combination rule), including ASME Sec. XI, BS7910, British Energy R6 and API RP579, provide different rules for combining multiple surface cracks into a single surface crack. The present paper investigates a crack interaction effect by evaluating the elastic stress intensity factor of adjacent surface cracks in a plate along the crack front through detailed 3-dimensional elastic finite element analyses. The effects of the geometric parameters, the relative distance between cracks and the crack shape, on the stress intensity factor are systematically investigated. As for the loading condition, only axial tension is considered. Based on the elastic finite element results, the acceptability of the crack combination rules provided in the existing guidance was investigated, and the relevant recommendations on a crack interaction for in-plane surface cracks in a plate were discussed

  5. Forced in-plane vibration of a thick ring on a unilateral elastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjian; Ayalew, Beshah; Rhyne, Timothy; Cron, Steve; Dailliez, Benoit

    2016-10-01

    Most existing studies of a deformable ring on elastic foundation rely on the assumption of a linear foundation. These assumptions are insufficient in cases where the foundation may have a unilateral stiffness that vanishes in compression or tension such as in non-pneumatic tires and bushing bearings. This paper analyzes the in-plane dynamics of such a thick ring on a unilateral elastic foundation, specifically, on a two-parameter unilateral elastic foundation, where the stiffness of the foundation is treated as linear in the circumferential direction but unilateral (i.e. collapsible or tensionless) in the radial direction. The thick ring is modeled as an orthotropic and extensible circular Timoshenko beam. An arbitrarily distributed time-varying in-plane force is considered as the excitation. The Equations of Motion are explicitly derived and a solution method is proposed that uses an implicit Newmark scheme for the time domain solution and an iterative compensation approach to determine the unilateral zone of the foundation at each time step. The dynamic axle force transmission is also analyzed. Illustrative forced vibration responses obtained from the proposed model and solution method are compared with those obtained from a finite element model.

  6. In-plane anisotropic strain of elastically and plastically deformed III-nitrides on lithium gallate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkoong, Gon, E-mail: gnamkoon@odu.ed [Old Dominion University, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Applied Research Center, 12050 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Huang, Sa; Moseley, Michael; Doolittle, W. Alan [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 777 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2009-10-30

    We have investigated both elastically and plastically deformed GaN films on lithium gallate, LiGaO{sub 2}, by molecular beam epitaxy. The in-plane lattice parameters were determined from high resolution X-ray diffraction and indicated two different groups of in-plane lattice parameters, influenced by the a- and b-axis of LiGaO{sub 2}. The measured in-plane lattice parameters indicate that there exist both compressive and tensile strains of in-plane GaN along the a- and b-axis of LiGaO{sub 2}, respectively. This anisotropic strain in GaN films forms a slight distortion of the basal-plane hexagonal structure of GaN films, leading to a different critical thickness of 4.0 {+-} 0.17 and 7.8 {+-} 0.7 nm along the a- and b-axis of LiGaO{sub 2}, respectively.

  7. Lamb's plane problem in a thermo-elastic micropolar medium with stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Chadha

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the Lamb plane problem in a thermo-elastic micropolar medium with the effect of stretch. The problem is solved for an arbitrary, normal load distribution by using the double Fourier transform. The displacement components, force stress, couple stress, vector first moment and the temperature field are determined for a half space subjected to an arbitrary normal load. Two special cases of a horizontal force and a torque which are oscillating with a frequency ω have been investigated. It is shown that results of this analysis reduce to those without stretch.

  8. Standard test method for linear-elastic plane-strain fracture toughness KIc of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fracture toughness (KIc) of metallic materials under predominantly linear-elastic, plane-strain conditions using fatigue precracked specimens having a thickness of 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) or greater subjected to slowly, or in special (elective) cases rapidly, increasing crack-displacement force. Details of test apparatus, specimen configuration, and experimental procedure are given in the Annexes. Note 1—Plane-strain fracture toughness tests of thinner materials that are sufficiently brittle (see 7.1) can be made using other types of specimens (1). There is no standard test method for such thin materials. 1.2 This test method is divided into two parts. The first part gives general recommendations and requirements for KIc testing. The second part consists of Annexes that give specific information on displacement gage and loading fixture design, special requirements for individual specimen configurations, and detailed procedures for fatigue precracking. Additional a...

  9. The plane elasticity problem for a crack near the curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    The unconventional approach to the plane elasticity problem for a crack near the curved surface is presented. The solution of the problem is considered in the form of the sum of solutions of two auxiliary problems. The first one describes the plane with a crack, whose surfaces are loaded by some unknown self-balanced force p(x). The second problem is dealing with the semi-infinite region with the boundary conditions equal to the difference of boundary conditions of the problem to be sought and the solution of the first problem on the region border. The unknown function p(x) is supposed to be approximated with the sufficient level of accuracy by N order polynomial with complex coefficients. This paper is aimed to determine the critical loads causing the spontaneous growth of cracks. The angles of propagation of the stationary cracks located in the region with a ledge or a cut are found. The influence of length of a crack on the bearing ability of an elastic body with the curved surface is investigated. The effect of a form of the concentrator and orientation of a crack to the fracture load subject to the different combinations of forces acting both on a surface of a crack and at infinity is analysed. The results of this research can be applied for calculation of the durability of thin-walled vessels of pressure, e.g., chemical reactors, in order to ensure their ecological safety.

  10. In-Plane free Vibration Analysis of an Annular Disk with Point Elastic Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bashmal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In-plane free vibrations of an elastic and isotropic annular disk with elastic constraints at the inner and outer boundaries, which are applied either along the entire periphery of the disk or at a point are investigated. The boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials are employed in the Rayleigh-Ritz method to obtain the frequency parameters and the associated mode shapes. Boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials are generated for the free boundary conditions of the disk while artificial springs are used to account for different boundary conditions. The frequency parameters for different boundary conditions of the outer edge are evaluated and compared with those available in the published studies and computed from a finite element model. The computed mode shapes are presented for a disk clamped at the inner edge and point supported at the outer edge to illustrate the free in-plane vibration behavior of the disk. Results show that addition of point clamped support causes some of the higher modes to split into two different frequencies with different mode shapes.

  11. Analytical solution to the 1D Lemaitre's isotropic damage model and plane stress projected implicit integration procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    obtaining an integral relationship between total strain and effective stress. By means of the generalized binomial theorem, an expression in terms of infinite series is subsequently derived. The solution is found to simplify considerably existing techniques for material parameters identification based...... on optimization, as all issues associated with classical numerical solution procedures of the constitutive equations are eliminated. In addition, an implicit implementation of the plane stress projected version of Lemaitre's model is discussed, showing that the resulting algebraic system can be reduced...

  12. Pulse wave propagation in a model human arterial network: Assessment of 1-D visco-elastic simulations against in vitro measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastruey, Jordi; Khir, Ashraf W; Matthys, Koen S; Segers, Patrick; Sherwin, Spencer J; Verdonck, Pascal R; Parker, Kim H; Peiró, Joaquim

    2011-08-11

    The accuracy of the nonlinear one-dimensional (1-D) equations of pressure and flow wave propagation in Voigt-type visco-elastic arteries was tested against measurements in a well-defined experimental 1:1 replica of the 37 largest conduit arteries in the human systemic circulation. The parameters required by the numerical algorithm were directly measured in the in vitro setup and no data fitting was involved. The inclusion of wall visco-elasticity in the numerical model reduced the underdamped high-frequency oscillations obtained using a purely elastic tube law, especially in peripheral vessels, which was previously reported in this paper [Matthys et al., 2007. Pulse wave propagation in a model human arterial network: Assessment of 1-D numerical simulations against in vitro measurements. J. Biomech. 40, 3476-3486]. In comparison to the purely elastic model, visco-elasticity significantly reduced the average relative root-mean-square errors between numerical and experimental waveforms over the 70 locations measured in the in vitro model: from 3.0% to 2.5% (p<0.012) for pressure and from 15.7% to 10.8% (p<0.002) for the flow rate. In the frequency domain, average relative errors between numerical and experimental amplitudes from the 5th to the 20th harmonic decreased from 0.7% to 0.5% (p<0.107) for pressure and from 7.0% to 3.3% (p<10(-6)) for the flow rate. These results provide additional support for the use of 1-D reduced modelling to accurately simulate clinically relevant problems at a reasonable computational cost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of in-plane elasticity of live cell layers using a pressure sensor embedded microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Han; Wang, Chien-Kai; Chen, Yu-An; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2016-11-01

    In various physiological activities, cells experience stresses along their in-plane direction when facing substrate deformation. Capability of continuous monitoring elasticity of live cell layers during a period is highly desired to investigate cell property variation during various transformations under normal or disease states. This paper reports time-lapsed measurement of live cell layer in-plane elasticity using a pressure sensor embedded microfluidic device. The sensor converts pressure-induced deformation of a flexible membrane to electrical signals. When cells are cultured on top of the membrane, flexural rigidity of the composite membrane increases and further changes the output electrical signals. In the experiments, human embryonic lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells are cultured and analyzed to estimate the in-plane elasticity. In addition, the cells are treated with a growth factor to simulate lung fibrosis to study the effects of cell transformation on the elasticity variation. For comparison, elasticity measurement on the cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is also performed. The experimental results confirm highly anisotropic configuration and material properties of cells. Furthermore, the in-plane elasticity can be monitored during the cell transformation after the growth factor stimulation. Consequently, the developed microfluidic device provides a powerful tool to study physical properties of cells for fundamental biophysics and biomedical researches.

  14. Comparison of experiment and theory for elastic-plastic plane strain crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, L.; Rice, J.R.

    1980-02-01

    Recent theoretical results on elastic-plastic plane strain crack growth, and experimental results for crack growth in a 4140 steel in terms of the theoretical concepts are reviewed. The theory is based on a recent asymptotic analysis of crack surface opening and strain distributions at a quasi-statically advancing crack tip in an ideally-plastic solid. The analysis is incomplete in that some of the parameters which appear in it are known only approximately, especially at large scale yielding. Nevertheless, it suffices to derive a relation between the imposed loading and amount of crack growth, prior to general yielding, based on the assumption that a geometrically similar near-tip crack profile is maintained during growth. The resulting predictions for the variation of J with crack growth are found to fit well to the experimental results obtained on deeply cracked compact specimens

  15. Noninvasive Vascular Displacement Estimation for Relative Elastic Modulus Reconstruction in Transversal Imaging Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. de Korte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaque rupture can initiate stroke or myocardial infarction. Lipid-rich plaques with thin fibrous caps have a higher risk to rupture than fibrotic plaques. Elastic moduli differ for lipid-rich and fibrous tissue and can be reconstructed using tissue displacements estimated from intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency (RF data acquisitions. This study investigated if modulus reconstruction is possible for noninvasive RF acquisitions of vessels in transverse imaging planes using an iterative 2D cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm. Furthermore, since it is known that displacements can be improved by compounding of displacements estimated at various beam steering angles, we compared the performance of the modulus reconstruction with and without compounding. For the comparison, simulated and experimental RF data were generated of various vessel-mimicking phantoms. Reconstruction errors were less than 10%, which seems adequate for distinguishing lipid-rich from fibrous tissue. Compounding outperformed single-angle reconstruction: the interquartile range of the reconstructed moduli for the various homogeneous phantom layers was approximately two times smaller. Additionally, the estimated lateral displacements were a factor of 2–3 better matched to the displacements corresponding to the reconstructed modulus distribution. Thus, noninvasive elastic modulus reconstruction is possible for transverse vessel cross sections using this cross-correlation method and is more accurate with compounding.

  16. Tissue elasticity of in vivo skeletal muscles measured in the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Kentaro; Kawakami, Yasuo; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure in vivo skeletal muscle elasticity in the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography and then to compare the image stability, measurement values and measurement repeatability between these imaging planes. Thirty-one healthy males participated in this study. Tissue elasticity (shear wave velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, biceps brachii and rectus abdominis was measured in both the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography. Image stability was evaluated by the standard deviation of the colour distribution in the shear wave elastography image. Measurement repeatability was assessed by the coefficient of variance obtained from three measurement values. Image stability of all tested muscles was significantly higher in the longitudinal plane (Pplanes (P>0·05), except in the biceps brachii (P = 0·001). Measurement values of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps brachii were significantly different between the imaging planes (Pplane, which indicates that imaging plane should be considered when measuring skeletal muscle tissue elasticity by shear wave elastography. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Contribution to the study of heavy-ion induced quasi-elastic processes in the 2s-1d shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, A.

    1982-06-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we present a study of the charge exchange reaction 28 Si( 18 O, 18 F) 28 Al at 56 MeV. This reaction can be easily understood in terms of a one-step direct charge exchange mechanism. With a very simple shell model, it can be interpreted that a neutron of the 18 O in the Jsup(π)=0 + , T=1 state interacts with a proton in the dsub(5/2) shell of 28 Si and they exchange their spin and charge forming Jsup(π)=1 + , T=0 18 F, and Jsup(π)=3 + or 2 + , T=1 28 Al. In the present analysis of data, we have first performed the direct charge exchange DWBA calculations. These results are compared with the exact-finite-range (EFR) second order DWBA calculations which take into account the successive one-nucleon stripping and pickup, and pickup and stripping process. In the second part, we wish to report results and analysis concerning the 24 Mg+ 12 C system. The 180 0 c.m. angle scattering excitation functions were measured between 12- and 27-MeV c.m. corresponding to a range in the compound 36 Ar excitation energy of 28.3 to 43.3 MeV. Several angular distributions for the elastic and inelastic scattering have been measured on the top of the bumps of the elastic scattering excitation function. These elastic scattering angular distributions cannot be fitted by a single squared Legendre polynomial of order L. A complete phase shift analysis is presented. We discuss also the shapes of the first 24 Mg 2 + inelastic scattering angular distributions with respect to the shape of the elastic scattering differential cross section [fr

  18. Fundamental solutions and dual boundary element methods for fracture in plane Cosserat elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atroshchenko, Elena; Bordas, Stéphane P A

    2015-07-08

    In this paper, both singular and hypersingular fundamental solutions of plane Cosserat elasticity are derived and given in a ready-to-use form. The hypersingular fundamental solutions allow to formulate the analogue of Somigliana stress identity, which can be used to obtain the stress and couple-stress fields inside the domain from the boundary values of the displacements, microrotation and stress and couple-stress tractions. Using these newly derived fundamental solutions, the boundary integral equations of both types are formulated and solved by the boundary element method. Simultaneous use of both types of equations (approach known as the dual boundary element method (BEM)) allows problems where parts of the boundary are overlapping, such as crack problems, to be treated and to do this for general geometry and loading conditions. The high accuracy of the boundary element method for both types of equations is demonstrated for a number of benchmark problems, including a Griffith crack problem and a plate with an edge crack. The detailed comparison of the BEM results and the analytical solution for a Griffith crack and an edge crack is given, particularly in terms of stress and couple-stress intensity factors, as well as the crack opening displacements and microrotations on the crack faces and the angular distributions of stresses and couple-stresses around the crack tip.

  19. Neoclassical Solution of Transient Interaction of Plane Acoustic Waves with a Spherical Elastic Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Huang

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed solution to the transient interaction of plane acoustic waves with a spherical elastic shell was obtained more than a quarter of a century ago based on the classical separation of variables, series expansion, and Laplace transform techniques. An eight-term summation of the time history series was sufficient for the convergence of the shell deflection and strain, and to a lesser degree, the shell velocity. Since then, the results have been used routinely for validation of solution techniques and computer methods for the evaluation of underwater explosion response of submerged structures. By utilizing modern algorithms and exploiting recent advances of computer capacities and floating point mathematics, sufficient terms of the inverse Laplace transform series solution can now be accurately computed. Together with the application of the Cesaro summation using up to 70 terms of the series, two primary deficiencies of the previous solution are now remedied: meaningful time histories of higher time derivative data such as acceleration and pressure are now generated using a sufficient number of terms in the series; and uniform convergence around the discontinuous step wave front is now obtained, completely eradicating spurious oscillations due to the Gibbs' phenomenon. New results of time histories of response items of interest are presented.

  20. Dynamic Interaction of Interfacial Point Source Loading and Cylinder in an Elastic Quarter with Anti-plane Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Gao; Hui, Qi; Nan, Pan Xiang; Bo, Zhao Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Theoretical steady state solution of a semi-circular cylinder impacted by an anti-plane point loading in a vertical bound of an elastic quarter is formulated in this paper through using image method and wave function expansion series. The elastic quarter is extended as a half space, and the semi-circular interfacial cylinder is extended as a circular cylinder. Displacement field is constructed as series of Fourier-Hankel and Fourier-Bessel wave functions. At last, circular boundary is expanded as Fourier series to determine coefficients of wave function. Numerical results show that material parameters have two widely divergent effects on the radial and circumferential dynamic stress distribution.

  1. Diffraction plane dependency of elastic constants in ferritic steel in neutron stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Ishiwata, M.; Minakawa, N.; Funahashi, S.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements have been made to investigate the elastic properties of the ferritic steel obtained from socket weld. The Kroner elastic model is found to account for the [hkl]-dependence of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio in the material. Maps of residual stress are later to be made by measuring lattice strain from shifts in the (112) diffraction peak, for which the diffraction elastic constants the herein found to be E=243±5GPa and ν=0.28±0.01. (author)

  2. An IBEM solution to the scattering of plane SH-waves by a lined tunnel in elastic wedge space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongxian; Liu, Lei

    2015-02-01

    The indirect boundary element method (IBEM) is developed to solve the scattering of plane SH-waves by a lined tunnel in elastic wedge space. According to the theory of single-layer potential, the scattered-wave field can be constructed by applying virtual uniform loads on the surface of lined tunnel and the nearby wedge surface. The densities of virtual loads can be solved by establishing equations through the continuity conditions on the interface and zero-traction conditions on free surfaces. The total wave field is obtained by the superposition of free field and scattered-wave field in elastic wedge space. Numerical results indicate that the IBEM can solve the diffraction of elastic wave in elastic wedge space accurately and efficiently. The wave motion feature strongly depends on the wedge angle, the angle of incidence, incident frequency, the location of lined tunnel, and material parameters. The waves interference and amplification effect around the tunnel in wedge space is more significant, causing the dynamic stress concentration factor on rigid tunnel and the displacement amplitude of flexible tunnel up to 50.0 and 17.0, respectively, more than double that of the case of half-space. Hence, considerable attention should be paid to seismic resistant or anti-explosion design of the tunnel built on a slope or hillside.

  3. Modeling fracture in the context of a strain-limiting theory of elasticity: a single anti-plane shear crack

    KAUST Repository

    Rajagopal, K. R.

    2011-01-06

    This paper is the first part of an extended program to develop a theory of fracture in the context of strain-limiting theories of elasticity. This program exploits a novel approach to modeling the mechanical response of elastic, that is non-dissipative, materials through implicit constitutive relations. The particular class of models studied here can also be viewed as arising from an explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is specified to be a nonlinear function of stress. This modeling construct generalizes the classical Cauchy and Green theories of elasticity which are included as special cases. It was conjectured that special forms of these implicit theories that limit strains to physically realistic maximum levels even for arbitrarily large stresses would be ideal for modeling fracture by offering a modeling paradigm that avoids the crack-tip strain singularities characteristic of classical fracture theories. The simplest fracture setting in which to explore this conjecture is anti-plane shear. It is demonstrated herein that for a specific choice of strain-limiting elasticity theory, crack-tip strains do indeed remain bounded. Moreover, the theory predicts a bounded stress field in the neighborhood of a crack-tip and a cusp-shaped opening displacement. The results confirm the conjecture that use of a strain limiting explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is given as a function of stress for modeling the bulk constitutive behavior obviates the necessity of introducing ad hoc modeling constructs such as crack-tip cohesive or process zones in order to correct the unphysical stress and strain singularities predicted by classical linear elastic fracture mechanics. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Elastic-plastic analysis of high speed rotors with no plane of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantha Ramu, S.

    1981-01-01

    A general method of analysis of elastic plastic shells has been developed. The material of the shell is assumed to obey von Mises yield condition and a stress strain law on the basis of deformation theory of plasticity. The method permits an easy iterative solution of the complete set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. The iterative procedure is essentially the solution of the elastic problem several times with different sets of loads. The solution finally yields among other things, the location of the elastic-plastic boundary in the shell wall. The second approach suggested is a three-dimensional hexahedral isoparametric solid element. The computer program developed is capable of modelling perfectly plastic, bilinear as well as nonlinear strain hardening behaviour of materials. As an example, a radial impeller is analysed by both the approaches by idealizing it as a rotating conical shell. The complete history of plastification of the shell wall as the speed increases is determined. The results of both approaches are found to be in good agreement with each other. (orig./HP)

  5. Existence of solutions for the anti-plane stress for a new class of “strain-limiting” elastic bodies

    KAUST Repository

    Bulí ček, Miroslav; Má lek, Josef; Rajagopal, K. R.; Walton, Jay R.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The main purpose of this study is to establish the existence of a weak solution to the anti-plane stress problem on V-notch domains for a class of recently proposed new models that could describe elastic materials in which the stress can increase unboundedly while the strain yet remains small. We shall also investigate the qualitative properties of the solution that is established. Although the equations governing the deformation that are being considered share certain similarities with the minimal surface problem, the boundary conditions and the presence of an additional model parameter that appears in the equation and its specific range makes the problem, as well as the result, different from those associated with the minimal surface problem.

  6. Existence of solutions for the anti-plane stress for a new class of “strain-limiting” elastic bodies

    KAUST Repository

    Bulíček, Miroslav

    2015-04-21

    © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The main purpose of this study is to establish the existence of a weak solution to the anti-plane stress problem on V-notch domains for a class of recently proposed new models that could describe elastic materials in which the stress can increase unboundedly while the strain yet remains small. We shall also investigate the qualitative properties of the solution that is established. Although the equations governing the deformation that are being considered share certain similarities with the minimal surface problem, the boundary conditions and the presence of an additional model parameter that appears in the equation and its specific range makes the problem, as well as the result, different from those associated with the minimal surface problem.

  7. Analysis of the Elastic Large Deflection Behavior for Metal Plates under Nonuniformly Distributed Lateral Pressure with In-Plane Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeom Kee Paik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Galerkin method is applied to analyze the elastic large deflection behavior of metal plates subject to a combination of in-plane loads such as biaxial loads, edge shear and biaxial inplane bending moments, and uniformly or nonuniformly distributed lateral pressure loads. The motive of the present study was initiated by the fact that metal plates of ships and ship-shaped offshore structures at sea are often subjected to non-uniformly distributed lateral pressure loads arising from cargo or water pressure, together with inplane axial loads or inplane bending moments, but the current practice of the maritime industry usually applies some simplified design methods assuming that the non-uniform pressure distribution in the plates can be replaced by an equivalence of uniform pressure distribution. Applied examples are presented, demonstrating that the current plate design methods of the maritime industry may be inappropriate when the non-uniformity of lateral pressure loads becomes more significant.

  8. Comparison of theory and experiment for elastic-plastic plane-strain crack growth. [AISI 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, L.; Rice, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    Recent theoretical results on elastic-plastic plane-strain crack growth are reviewed and experimental results for crack growth in a 4140 steel are discussed in terms of the theoretical concepts. The theory is based on a recent asymptotic analysis of crack surface opening and strain distributions at a quasistatically advancing crack tip in an ideally plastic solid. The analysis is incomplete in that some of the parameters which appear in it are known only approximately, especially at large-scale yielding. Nevertheless, it is sufficient for the derivation of a relation between the imposed loading and amount of crack growth prior to general yielding, based on the assumption that a geometrically similar near-tip crack profile is maintained during growth. The resulting predictions for the variation of J with crack growth are found to fit well to the experimental results obtained on deeply cracked compact specimens.

  9. Elasticity Theory Solution of the Problem on Plane Bending of a Narrow Layered Cantilever Beam by Loads at Its Free End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryk, A. V.; Koval'chuk, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    An exact elasticity theory solution for the problem on plane bending of a narrow layered composite cantilever beam by tangential and normal loads distributed on its free end is presented. Components of the stress-strain state are found for the whole layers package by directly integrating differential equations of the plane elasticity theory problem by using an analytic representation of piecewise constant functions of the mechanical characteristics of layer materials. The continuous solution obtained is realized for a four-layer beam with account of kinematic boundary conditions simulating the rigid fixation of its one end. The solution obtained allows one to predict the strength and stiffness of composite cantilever beams and to construct applied analytical solutions for various problems on the elastic bending of layered beams.

  10. The elasticity anisotropy in the basal atomic planes of Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2 associated with auxetic elastic properties of the hydrogen sub-lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harutyunyan, Valeri S.; Abrahamyan, Aren A.; Aivazyan, Ashot P.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: To the out-of-plane strain ε x induced in the (0 0 0 1) atomic planes of Mg(OH) 2 , the contributions of constituent octahedral layers ε x (1) and interlayers ε x (2) are of opposite sign. Highlights: ► Elasticity anisotropy of rare earth metal hydroxides is theoretically analyzed. ► Elastic anisotropy within (0 0 0 1) atomic planes is studied from energy consideration. ► The out-of-plane Poisson’s ratios of octahedral layers and interlayers are of opposite sign. ► Auxeticity of the hydrogen sublattice (interlayers) results from weak interlayer bonding. ► The obtained expression for the in-plane Young’s modulus results in useful conclusions. - Abstract: Within the framework of the Hook’s generalized law and using the experimental data for characteristic crystallographic parameters and stiffness constants available from literature, the individual elastic properties of constituent octahedral layers and interlayers of the (0 0 0 1) atomic planes in the Mg(OH) 2 and Ca(OH) 2 crystal lattices are theoretically quantified from intermolecular interaction energy. It is shown that, under uniaxial type of deformation applied along the (0 0 0 1) basal planes, in the “load-deformation response” the octahedral layers and interlayers exhibit the positive and negative Poisson’s ratio, respectively. Manifestation of such a type strong elastic anisotropy in the basal atomic planes and auxetic elastic behavior of the hydrogen sub-lattice (interlayers) upon applied uniaxial load result from a large difference in the strength of bonding within octahedral layers and interlayers. The intermolecular binding energy is contributed both by “hydroxyl–hydroxyl” and “metal atom–hydroxyl” dispersion interactions, whereas the Young’s modulus in the direction parallel to a (0 0 0 1) plane is practically contributed only by the former interaction. For this Young’s modulus, an approximate analytical expression is derived, which is

  11. Solution of a Problem Linear Plane Elasticity with Mixed Boundary Conditions by the Method of Boundary Integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed S. Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical boundary integral scheme is proposed for the solution to the system of …eld equations of plane. The stresses are prescribed on one-half of the circle, while the displacements are given. The considered problem with mixed boundary conditions in the circle is replaced by two problems with homogeneous boundary conditions, one of each type, having a common solution. The equations are reduced to a system of boundary integral equations, which is then discretized in the usual way, and the problem at this stage is reduced to the solution to a rectangular linear system of algebraic equations. The unknowns in this system of equations are the boundary values of four harmonic functions which define the full elastic solution and the unknown boundary values of stresses or displacements on proper parts of the boundary. On the basis of the obtained results, it is inferred that a stress component has a singularity at each of the two separation points, thought to be of logarithmic type. The results are discussed and boundary plots are given. We have also calculated the unknown functions in the bulk directly from the given boundary conditions using the boundary collocation method. The obtained results in the bulk are discussed and three-dimensional plots are given. A tentative form for the singular solution is proposed and the corresponding singular stresses and displacements are plotted in the bulk. The form of the singular tangential stress is seen to be compatible with the boundary values obtained earlier. The efficiency of the used numerical schemes is discussed.

  12. Contact problem on indentation of an elastic half-plane with an inhomogeneous coating by a flat punch in the presence of tangential stresses on a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Sergei S.; Vasiliev, Andrey S.; Aizikovich, Sergei M.; Sadyrin, Evgeniy V.

    2018-05-01

    Indentation of an elastic half-space with functionally graded coating by a rigid flat punch is studied. The half-plane is additionally subjected to distributed tangential stresses. Tangential stresses are represented in a form of Fourier series. The problem is reduced to the solution of two dual integral equations over even and odd functions describing distribution of unknown normal contact stresses. The solutions of these dual integral equations are constructed by the bilateral asymptotic method. Approximated analytical expressions for contact normal stresses are provided.

  13. Propagation of plane waves at the interface of an elastic solid half-space and a microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    Full Text Available The problem of reflection and refraction phenomenon due to plane waves incident obliquely at a plane interface between uniform elastic solid half-space and microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half-space has been studied. It is found that the amplitude ratios of various reflected and refracted waves are functions of angle of incidence, frequency of incident wave and are influenced by the microstretch thermoelastic diffusion properties of the media. The expressions of amplitude ratios and energy ratios are obtained in closed form. The energy ratios have been computed numerically for a particular model. The variations of energy ratios with angle of incidence are shown for thermoelastic diffusion media in the context of Lord-Shulman (L-S (1967 and Green-Lindsay (G-L (1972 theories. The conservation of energy at the interface is verified. Some particular cases are also deduced from the present investigation.

  14. Physically elastic analysis of a cylindrical ring as a unit cell of a complete composite under applied stress in the complex plane using cubic polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfared, Vahid

    2018-03-01

    Elastic analysis is analytically presented to predict the behaviors of the stress and displacement components in the cylindrical ring as a unit cell of a complete composite under applied stress in the complex plane using cubic polynomials. This analysis is based on the complex computation of the stress functions in the complex plane and polar coordinates. Also, suitable boundary conditions are considered and assumed to analyze along with the equilibrium equations and bi-harmonic equation. This method has some important applications in many fields of engineering such as mechanical, civil and material engineering generally. One of the applications of this research work is in composite design and designing the cylindrical devices under various loadings. Finally, it is founded that the convergence and accuracy of the results are suitable and acceptable through comparing the results.

  15. Thermo-elastic plane deformations in doubly-connected domains with temperature and pressure which depend of the thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cimatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new weak formulation for the plane problem of thermoelastic theory in multiply-connected domains. This permits to avoid the difficulties connected with the Cesaro-Volterra boundary conditions in the related elliptic boundary-value problem. In the second part we consider a nonlinear version of the problem assuming that the thermal conductivity depends not only on the temperature but also on the pressure. Recent studies reveals that this situation can occur in practice. A theorem of existence and uniqueness is proved for this problem.

  16. Measurement of the elastic modulus of Kapton perpendicular to the plane of the film at room and cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, M.; Bastian, S.; Markley, F.

    1992-04-01

    Understanding the short term elastic properties, (i.e. the instantaneous modulus) of Kapton is essential in determining the loss of prestress during storage and operation of SSC dipole magnets. The magnet prestress contributes directly to the coil response to the Lorentz forces during ramping. The instantaneous modulus is important in extrapolating short term stress relaxation data to longer times. Most theoretical fits assume a time independent component and a time dependent component. The former may be represented by the Kapton modulus near zero K where all relaxation processes have been ''frozen'' out. Modulus measurements at 77K and 4.2K may point to a correct value for the near zero K modulus. Three companion papers presented at this conference will be: ''Stress Relaxation in SSC 50 mm Dipole Coils'' ''Temperature Dependence of the Viscoelastic Properties of SSC Coil Insulation (Kapton)'' ''Theoretical Methods for Creep and Stress Relaxation Studies of SSC Coil.''

  17. Motion equation of a finite dynamic elastic plane lineal element plane lineal element Ecuación del movimiento de un elemento finito lineal plano elástico dinámico con ocho grados de libertad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo G Hossne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A lineal finite element with constant traverse section, it can adopt any orientation in the plane, and their ends or nodes tie it to the rest of the elements. The kinetic energy (T and potential (V of a dynamic elastic element are the basement in the implementation of the Hamilton principle for the definition of a finite element. The definition of the kinetic energy and potential is the first step for the preliminary variational formulation to the enunciation for finite elements that it is used to solve, say, the problems of mechanisms that move in the plane using the Hamilton equation. The general objective consisted on defining the equation of the movement of a finite lineal dynamic elastic plane element using the equation of Hamilton, starting from the lagrangiana (T − V obtained with the use of a polynomial of fifth and first degree, with eight degrees of freedom, four in each node that represented the deformations: axial (u(x, traverse (w(x, slope ((dw(x/dx and bend ((d2w(x/dx2. The deformation due to traverse shearing, insignificant with respect to flexional and axial deformations, the rotational inertia and the frictional forces in the nodes, were underrated with the purpose of producing a friendly element. The specific objectives were to take place: (a the translational mass matrix [MD], (b the translational gyroscopic matrix [AD], (c the translational total rigidity matrix [KD], and (d the deformation vector (S. As a result the movement equation of a finite lineal dynamic elastic plane element was forged [MD]( ¨ S − 2¨[AD]( ˙S + {[K] − ˙2[MD] − ¨[AD]}(S = (Q . On concluded that the equation obtained variationally with the application of the Hamilton Principle is the state–of–the–art pattern, and that the procedure can be used when it is required to increase the number of the pattern freedom degrees.Un elemento finito lineal con sección transversal constante puede adoptar cualquier orientación en el plano y sus

  18. Design and performance evaluation of an OpenFlow-based control plane for software-defined elastic optical networks with direct-detection optical OFDM (DDO-OFDM) transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Peng, Wei-Ren; Casellas, Ramon; Tsuritani, Takehiro; Morita, Itsuro; Martínez, Ricardo; Muñoz, Raül; Yoo, S J B

    2014-01-13

    Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (O-OFDM), which transmits high speed optical signals using multiple spectrally overlapped lower-speed subcarriers, is a promising candidate for supporting future elastic optical networks. In contrast to previous works which focus on Coherent Optical OFDM (CO-OFDM), in this paper, we consider the direct-detection optical OFDM (DDO-OFDM) as the transport technique, which leads to simpler hardware and software realizations, potentially offering a low-cost solution for elastic optical networks, especially in metro networks, and short or medium distance core networks. Based on this network scenario, we design and deploy a software-defined networking (SDN) control plane enabled by extending OpenFlow, detailing the network architecture, the routing and spectrum assignment algorithm, OpenFlow protocol extensions and the experimental validation. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that an OpenFlow-based control plane is reported and its performance is quantitatively measured in an elastic optical network with DDO-OFDM transmission.

  19. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  20. Nearaffine planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we develop a theory for nearaffine planes analogous to the theory of ordinary affine translation planes. In a subsequent paper we shall use this theory to give a characterization of a certain class of Minkowski planes.

  1. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  2. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  3. Nonreciprocity of edge modes in 1D magnonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisenkov, I.; Kalyabin, D.; Osokin, S.; Klos, J.W.; Krawczyk, M.; Nikitov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Spin waves propagation in 1D magnonic crystals is investigated theoretically. Mathematical model based on plane wave expansion method is applied to different types of magnonic crystals, namely bi-component magnonic crystal with symmetric/asymmetric boundaries and ferromagnetic film with periodically corrugated top surface. It is shown that edge modes in magnonic crystals may exhibit nonreciprocal behaviour at much lower frequencies than in homogeneous films. - Highlights: • Magnetostatic surface spin waves in 1D magnonic crystals were studied theoretically. • Mathematical model is based on plane wave method. • Mathematical model was applied to different types of magnonic crystals. • Stop band formation and nonreciprocity were obtained

  4. 1D Nano materials 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanqiu Zhu, Y.; Ma, R.; Whitby, R.; Acquah, S.

    2013-01-01

    We witnessed an initial hyped period and enthusiasm on carbon nano tubes in the 1990s later went through a significant expansion into nano tubes of other materials (metal di chalcogenides, boron nitride, etc.) as well as various nano wires and nano rods. While much of the hype might have gone, the research on one-dimensional (1D) nano materials has matured as one of the most active research areas within the nano science and nano technology community, flourishing with ample, exciting, and new research opportunities. Just like any other research frontier, researchers working in the 1D nano materials field are constantly striving to develop new fundamental science as well as potential applications. It remains a common belief that versatility and tunability of 1D nano materials would challenge many new rising tasks coming from our resource and energy demanding modern society. The traditional semiconductor industry has produced so many devices and systems from transistors, sensors, lasers, and LEDs to more sophisticated solar panels, which are now part of our daily lives. By down sizing the core components or parts to 1D form, one might wonder how fundamentally the dimensionality and morphology would impact the device performance, this is, as always, requiring us to fully understand the structure-property relationship in 1D nano materials. It may be equally crucial in connecting discovery-driven fundamental science to market-driven technology industry concerning potentially relevant findings derived from these novel materials. The importance of a platform that allows active researchers in this field to present their new development in a timely and efficient manner is therefore self-evident. Following the success of two early special issues devoted to 1D nano materials, this is the third one in a row organized by the same group of guest editors, attesting that such a platform has been well received by the readers

  5. Elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates the following five aspects of engineering-material solid-state elastic constants: general properties, interrelationships, relationships to other physical properties, changes during cooling from ambient to near-zero temperature, and near-zero-temperature behavior. Topics considered include compressibility, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Hooke's law, elastic-constant measuring methods, thermodynamic potentials, higher-order energy terms, specific heat, thermal expansivity, magnetic materials, structural phase transitions, polymers, composites, textured aggregates, and other-phenomena correlations. Some of the conclusions concerning polycrystalline elastic properties and their temperature dependence are: elastic constants are physical, not mechanical, properties which relate thermodynamically to other physical properties such as specific heat and thermal expansivity; elastic constants at low temperatures are nearly temperature independent, as required by the third law of thermodynamics; and elastic constants can be used to study directional properties of materials, such as textured aggregates and composites

  6. Elastic properties of graphite and interstitial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayasse, J.-B.

    1977-01-01

    The graphite elastic constants C 33 and C 44 , reflecting the interaction of the graphitic planes, were experimentally measured as a function of irradiation and temperature. A model of non-central strength atomic interaction was established to explain the experimental results obtained. This model is valid at zero temperature. The temperature dependence of the elastic properties was analyzed. The influence of the elastic property variations on the specific heat of the lattice at very low temperature was investigated [fr

  7. Distinct charge orders in the planes and chains of ortho-III-ordered YBa2Cu3O(6+δ) superconductors identified by resonant elastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkar, A J; Sutarto, R; Mao, X; He, F; Frano, A; Blanco-Canosa, S; Le Tacon, M; Ghiringhelli, G; Braicovich, L; Minola, M; Sala, M Moretti; Mazzoli, C; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Keimer, B; Sawatzky, G A; Hawthorn, D G

    2012-10-19

    Recently, charge density wave (CDW) order in the CuO(2) planes of underdoped YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6+δ) was detected using resonant soft x-ray scattering. An important question remains: is the chain layer responsible for this charge ordering? Here, we explore the energy and polarization dependence of the resonant scattering intensity in a detwinned sample of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6.75) with ortho-III oxygen ordering in the chain layer. We show that the ortho-III CDW order in the chains is distinct from the CDW order in the planes. The ortho-III structure gives rise to a commensurate superlattice reflection at Q=[0.33 0 L] whose energy and polarization dependence agrees with expectations for oxygen ordering and a spatial modulation of the Cu valence in the chains. Incommensurate peaks at [0.30 0 L] and [0 0.30 L] from the CDW order in the planes are shown to be distinct in Q as well as their temperature, energy, and polarization dependence, and are thus unrelated to the structure of the chain layer. Moreover, the energy dependence of the CDW order in the planes is shown to result from a spatial modulation of energies of the Cu 2p to 3d(x(2)-y(2)) transition, similar to stripe-ordered 214 cuprates.

  8. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    With data from the Danish expenditure survey for 12 years 1996 through 2007, this study analyses household expenditures for long distance travelling. Household expenditures are examined at two levels of aggregation having the general expenditures on transportation and leisure relative to five other...... aggregated commodities at the highest level, and the specific expenditures on plane tickets and travel packages at the lowest level. The Almost Ideal Demand System is applied to determine the relationship between expenditures on transportation and leisure and all other purchased non-durables within...... packages has higher income elasticity of demand than plane tickets but also higher than transportation and leisure in general. The findings within price sensitiveness are not as sufficient estimated, but the model results indicate that travel packages is far more price elastic than plane tickets which...

  9. Elastic Beanstalk

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg; Wel, Steven; Dowd, Dara

    2011-01-01

    While it's always been possible to run Java applications on Amazon EC2, Amazon's Elastic Beanstalk makes the process easier-especially if you understand how it works beneath the surface. This concise, hands-on book not only walks you through Beanstalk for deploying and managing web applications in the cloud, you'll also learn how to use this AWS tool in other phases of development. Ideal if you're a developer familiar with Java applications or AWS, Elastic Beanstalk provides step-by-step instructions and numerous code samples for building cloud applications on Beanstalk that can handle lots

  10. Social exploration of 1D games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the apparently meaningless concept of a 1 dimensional computer game is explored, via netnography. A small number of games was designed and implemented, in close contact with online communities of players and developers, providing evidence that 1 dimension is enough to produce...... interesting gameplay, to allow for level design and even to leave room for artistic considerations on 1D rendering. General techniques to re-design classic 2D games into 1D are also emerging from this exploration....

  11. Elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leader, Elliot

    1991-01-01

    With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees

  12. Modeling an electric motor in 1-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Quite often the dynamicist will be faced with having an electric drive motor as a link in the elastic path of a structure such that the motor's characteristics must be taken into account to properly represent the dynamics of the primary structure. He does not want to model it so accurately that he could get detailed stress and displacements in the motor proper, but just sufficiently to represent its inertia loading and elastic behavior from its mounting bolts to its drive coupling. Described here is how the rotor and stator of such a motor can be adequately modeled as a colinear pair of beams.

  13. Estimates of plastic loads for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a method to estimate plastic loads (defined by twice-elastic-slope) for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment, based on detailed 3-D FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Because closing bending moment is always lower than opening bending moment, the combination of in-plane closing bending and out-of-plane bending moment becomes the most significant case. Due to conservatism of each bending moments, the resultant moment provided by ASME B and PV code is unduly conservative. However, the concept of the resultant moment is still valid. In this paper, FE results show that the accurate solutions of bending moments provide better estimates of plastic loads of pipe bend under combined in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending moment

  14. Synthesis of 1-D ZnO nanorods and polypyrrole/1-D ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1-D ZnO nanorods and PPy/1-D ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by the surfactant-assisted precipitation and in situ polymerization method, respectively. The synthesized nanorods and nanocomposites were characterized by UV–Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction ...

  15. Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  16. Modeling of 1D motion of interstitial clusters in iron under HVEM irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Y.; Hamaoka, T.; Matsui, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: We examined 1D motion of interstitial clusters in Fe under electron irradiation at room temperature using high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). We found that some impurities have essential effects on the experimental 1D motion behavior. The characteristics of experimental 1D motion were obtained as follows: 1) 1D motion appears as discrete jumps (namely, stepwise positional changes) at irregular intervals. 2) Sometimes a set of several successive jumps occurs between certain two points (back and forth motion). 3) The frequency of 1D jumps is almost proportional to the electron beam intensity, while the distribution of 1D jump distance does not change much with the intensity. Very few 1D jumps are observed with a 200 kV TEM at room temperature. 4) The distance and the frequency of 1D jumps are greatly reduced in a specimen of low purities. Taking account for effects of impurities, we propose a mechanism of the experimental 1D jumps, as follows. Small interstitial clusters are regarded to be essentially mobile as crowdion bundles. Then interstitial clusters in a stationary state are trapped by impurity atom(s), due to elastic interactions between impurities and crowdion bundle. The electron irradiation changes the cluster into a mobile state by a detrapping: for example, the impurity atom is displaced to apart from the crowdion bundle. Then the crowdion bundle makes a free 1D migration until it is trapped by another impurity atom. Because of small activation energy for 1D migration, we cannot observe the detailed 1D random walk process, but a stepwise positional change from an impurity to another impurity. The average size of interstitial clusters observed in the present experiments was around 5 nm, corresponding to a bundle of 300 crowdions. In a rough estimate assuming that an impurity atom on any crowdion in the crowdion bundle prevent the migration of the bundle, the mean free path is about 75 nm and 7.5 nm at the impurity

  17. 1D Printing of Recyclable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cellucci, Daniel; MacCurdy, Robert; Lipson, Hod

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in 3D printing are revolutionizing manufacturing, enabling the fabrication of structures with unprecedented complexity and functionality. Yet biological systems are able to fabricate systems with far greater complexity using a process that involves assembling and folding a linear...... string. Here, we demonstrate a 1D printing system that uses an approach inspired by the ribosome to fabricate a variety of specialized robotic automata from a single string of source material. This proof-ofconcept system involves both a novel manufacturing platform that configures the source material...... using folding and a computational optimization tool that allows designs to be produced from the specification of high-level goals. We show that our 1D printing system is able to produce three distinct robots from the same source material, each of which is capable of accomplishing a specialized...

  18. Computational Elastic Knots

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects

  19. Uniqueness in inverse elastic scattering with finitely many incident waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elschner, Johannes; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    We consider the third and fourth exterior boundary value problems of linear isotropic elasticity and present uniqueness results for the corresponding inverse scattering problems with polyhedral-type obstacles and a finite number of incident plane elastic waves. Our approach is based on a reflection principle for the Navier equation. (orig.)

  20. Remarks on stability of magneto-elastic shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Domański

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of stability of plane shock waves for a model of perfect magnetoelasticityis investigated. Important mathematical properties, like loss of strict hyperbolicityand loss of genuine nonlinearity, and their consequences for the stability ofmagneto-elastic shocks are discussed. It is shown that some of these shocks do not satisfyclassical Lax stability conditions. Both compressible and incompressible models ofmagneto-elasticity are discussed.[b]Keywords[/b]: perfect magneto-elasticity, shock waves, stability conditions

  1. A New Application of the Channel Packet Method for Low Energy 1-D Elastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    matter. On a cosmic scale, we wonder if a collision between an asteroid and Earth led to the extinction of the dinosaurs . Collisions are important...in Figure 12. In an effort to have the computation time reasonable was chosen to be for this simulation. In order to represent the intermediate...linear regions joined by the two labeled points. However, based on Figure 13 the two potential functions are reasonably close and so one would not

  2. Periodic Contact and Crack Problems in Plane Elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1976-01-01

    By use of singular integral equations it is demonstrated how some periodic contact and crack problems can be solved in closed form. The integral equation in question is the same which is encountered when dealing with mixed boundary conditions on a circle. As analytical evaluation of the solution ...... may be quite complicated attention is drawn to a numerical quadrature method...

  3. A general solution to some plane problems of micropolar elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, William E.; Byskov, Esben

    2008-01-01

    functions, the solution is obtained in terms of two analytic functions and a third function satisfying the modified homogeneous Helmholtz equation. Expressions for the two-dimensional components of displacement, stress, and couple stress, along with the resultant force on a contour, are presented.We observe...

  4. Computational Elastic Knots

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Xin

    2013-05-01

    Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects. Architectural structures, NODUS, were constructed by elastic rods as a new method of form-finding. We study discrete models of elastic rods and NODUS structures. We also develop computational tools to find the equilibria of elastic rods and the shape of NODUS. Applications of elastic rods in forming torus knot and closing Bishop frame are included in this thesis.

  5. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  6. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Wei [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu, Zhengyue [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Xiaole [School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lai, Yun [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ∼30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  7. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ˜30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  8. Existence of Projective Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Perrott, Xander

    2016-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the history of finite projective planes and their properties before going on to outline the proof that no projective plane of order 10 exists. The report also investigates the search carried out by MacWilliams, Sloane and Thompson in 1970 [12] and confirms their result by providing independent verification that there is no vector of weight 15 in the code generated by the projective plane of order 10.

  9. Elastic field of approaching dislocation loop in isotropic bimaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wenwang; Xu, Shucai; Zhang, Jinhuan; Xia, Re; Qian, Guian

    2015-01-01

    A semi-analytical solution is developed for calculating interface traction stress (ITS) fields due to elastic modulus mismatch across the interface plane of isotropic perfectly bounded bimaterial system. Based on the semi-analytical approaches developed, ITS is used to correct the bulk elastic field of dislocation loop within infinite homogenous medium, and to produce continuous displacement and stress fields across the perfectly-bounded interface. Firstly, calculation examples of dislocation loops in Al–Cu bimaterial system are performed to demonstrate the efficiency of the developed semi-analytical approach; Then, the elastic fields of dislocation loops in twinning Cu and Cu–Nb bimaterial are analyzed; Finally, the effect of modulus mismatch across interface plane on the elastic field of bimaterial system is investigated, it is found that modulus mismatch has a drastic impact on the elastic fields of dislocation loops within bimaterial system. (paper)

  10. Elastic interaction of hydrogen atoms on graphene: A multiscale approach from first principles to continuum elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branicio, Paulo S.; Vastola, Guglielmo; Jhon, Mark H.; Sullivan, Michael B.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Srolovitz, David J.

    2016-10-01

    The deformation of graphene due to the chemisorption of hydrogen atoms on its surface and the long-range elastic interaction between hydrogen atoms induced by these deformations are investigated using a multiscale approach based on first principles, empirical interactions, and continuum modeling. Focus is given to the intrinsic low-temperature structure and interactions. Therefore, all calculations are performed at T =0 , neglecting possible temperature or thermal fluctuation effects. Results from different methods agree well and consistently describe the local deformation of graphene on multiple length scales reaching 500 Å . The results indicate that the elastic interaction mediated by this deformation is significant and depends on the deformation of the graphene sheet both in and out of plane. Surprisingly, despite the isotropic elasticity of graphene, within the linear elastic regime, atoms elastically attract or repel each other depending on (i) the specific site they are chemisorbed; (ii) the relative position of the sites; (iii) and if they are on the same or on opposite surface sides. The interaction energy sign and power-law decay calculated from molecular statics agree well with theoretical predictions from linear elasticity theory, considering in-plane or out-of-plane deformations as a superposition or in a coupled nonlinear approach. Deviations on the exact power law between molecular statics and the linear elastic analysis are evidence of the importance of nonlinear effects on the elasticity of monolayer graphene. These results have implications for the understanding of the generation of clusters and regular formations of hydrogen and other chemisorbed atoms on graphene.

  11. XBWR, 1-D Xe Transients for BWR in Axial Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forti, G.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: 1-D xenon transients for BWRs in axial geometry. 2 - Method of solution: XBWR couples a two group neutron diffusion calculation in plane geometry with a two phase flow cooling channel calculation and the heat conduction in the typical fuel rod. The program allows following any given power time schedule, such as shut-down and restart, day-night power variation etc., while the reactor is being kept critical by control rod movement, variable poisoning of the core, or coolant flow recirculation rate. The xenon and iodine concentrations variation is evaluated pointwise (up to 100 points) by analytical solution for successive fixed time steps. At the end of each time step a new distribution of fluxes, power, voids and temperatures is obtained, which is consistent with the reactor critical condition as it is got by variation of the control parameter taking into account the feedbacks. The new flux distribution is used as input for xenon and iodine concentrations evolution in the next time step

  12. 1-D hybrid code for FRM dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.A.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    A 1-D radial hybrid code has been written to study the start-up of the FRM via neutral-beam injection. This code, named FROST (Field Reversed One-dimensional STart-up), models the plasma as azimuthal symmetric with no axial dependence. A multi-group method in energy and canonical angular momentum describes the large-orbit ions from the beam. This method is designed to be more efficient than those employing particle tracking, since the characteristic timescale of the simulation is the ion slowing down time, rather than the much shorter cyclotron period. A time-differentiated Grad-Shafranov equation couples the ion current to massless fluid equations describing electrons and low energy ions. Flux coordinates are used in this fluid model, in preference to an Eulerian framework, so that coupling of plasma at the two different radii of a closed flux surface may be treated with ease. Since a fluid treatment for electrons is invalid near a field null, a separate model for the electron current has been included for this region, a unique feature. Results of simulation of injection into a 2XIIB-like plasma are discussed. Electron currents are found to retard, but not prevent reversal of the magnetic field at the plasma center

  13. Quantum entanglement in inhomogeneous 1D systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    The entanglement entropy of the ground state of a quantum lattice model with local interactions usually satisfies an area law. However, in 1D systems some violations may appear in inhomogeneous systems or in random systems. In our inhomogeneous system, the inhomogeneity parameter, h, allows us to tune different regimes where a volumetric violation of the area law appears. We apply the strong disorder renormalization group to describe the maximally entangled state of the system in a strong inhomogeneity regime. Moreover, in a weak inhomogeneity regime, we use a continuum approximation to describe the state as a thermo-field double in a conformal field theory with an effective temperature which is proportional to the inhomogeneity parameter of the system. The latter description also shows that the universal scaling features of this model are captured by a massless Dirac fermion in a curved space-time with constant negative curvature R = h2, providing another example of the relation between quantum entanglement and space-time geometry. The results we discuss here were already published before, but here we present a more didactic exposure of basic concepts of the rainbow system for the students attending the Latin American School of Physics "Marcos Moshinsky" 2017.

  14. Continuum mechanics elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Dill, Ellis H

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICSMaterial ModelsClassical Space-TimeMaterial BodiesStrainRate of StrainCurvilinear Coordinate SystemsConservation of MassBalance of MomentumBalance of EnergyConstitutive EquationsThermodynamic DissipationObjectivity: Invariance for Rigid MotionsColeman-Mizel ModelFluid MechanicsProblems for Chapter 1BibliographyNONLINEAR ELASTICITYThermoelasticityMaterial SymmetriesIsotropic MaterialsIncompressible MaterialsConjugate Measures of Stress and StrainSome Symmetry GroupsRate Formulations for Elastic MaterialsEnergy PrinciplesGeometry of Small DeformationsLinear ElasticitySpecial Constitutive Models for Isotropic MaterialsMechanical Restrictions on the Constitutive RelationsProblems for Chapter 2BibliographyLINEAR ELASTICITYBasic EquationsPlane StrainPlane StressProperties of SolutionsPotential EnergySpecial Matrix NotationThe Finite Element Method of SolutionGeneral Equations for an Assembly of ElementsFinite Element Analysis for Large DeformationsProblems for Chapter 3Bibliograph...

  15. Low band gap frequencies and multiplexing properties in 1D and 2D mass spring structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Arafa H; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the propagation of elastic waves in 1D and 2D mass spring structures. An analytical and computation model is presented for the 1D and 2D mass spring systems with different examples. An enhancement in the band gap values was obtained by modeling the structures to obtain low frequency band gaps at small dimensions. Additionally, the evolution of the band gap as a function of mass value is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the local resonance property in frequency ranges within the gaps in the band structure for the corresponding infinite periodic lattice in the 1D and 2D mass spring system. A linear defect formed of a row of specific masses produces an elastic waveguide that transmits at the narrow pass band frequency. The frequency of the waveguides can be selected by adjusting the mass and stiffness coefficients of the materials constituting the waveguide. Moreover, we pay more attention to analyze the wave multiplexer and DE-multiplexer in the 2D mass spring system. We show that two of these tunable waveguides with alternating materials can be employed to filter and separate specific frequencies from a broad band input signal. The presented simulation data is validated through comparison with the published research, and can be extended in the development of resonators and MEMS verification. (paper)

  16. Can continuous scans in orthogonal planes improve diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography for breast lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Peng, Yulan; Zhao, Haina; Luo, Honghao; Jin, Ya; He, Yushuang

    2015-01-01

    Static shear wave elastography (SWE) is used to detect breast lesions, but slice and plane selections result in discrepancies. To evaluate the intraobserver reproducibility of continuous SWE, and whether quantitative elasticities in orthogonal planes perform better in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions. One hundred and twenty-two breast lesions scheduled for ultrasound-guided biopsy were recruited. Continuous SWE scans were conducted in orthogonal planes separately. Quantitative elasticities and histopathology results were collected. Reproducibility in the same plane and diagnostic performance in different planes were evaluated. The maximum and mean elasticities of the hardest portion, and standard deviation of whole lesion, had high inter-class correlation coefficients (0.87 to 0.95) and large areas under receiver operation characteristic curve (0.887 to 0.899). Without loss of accuracy, sensitivities had increased in orthogonal planes compared with single plane (from 73.17% up to 82.93% at most). Mean elasticity of whole lesion and lesion-to-parenchyma ratio were significantly less reproducible and less accurate. Continuous SWE is highly reproducible for the same observer. The maximum and mean elasticities of the hardest portion and standard deviation of whole lesion are most reliable. Furthermore, the sensitivities of the three parameters are improved in orthogonal planes without loss of accuracies.

  17. Cross plane scattering correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution

  18. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dominguez@ttu.edu; Peralta, Luis Grave de [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bernussi, Ayrton A. [Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  19. Instabilities of Kirkendall planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dal, van M.J.H.; Gusak, A.M.; Cserhati, C.; Kodentsov, A.; Loo, van F.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Reconsideration of the Kirkendall effect is presented. It is demonstrated (experimentally as well as theoretically) that Kirkendall planes can be multiple, stable or unstable within a single-phase reaction zone. A general criterion of instabilty is given.

  20. Algebraic Structures on MOD Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Kandasamy, Vasantha; Ilanthenral, K.; Smarandache, Florentin

    2015-01-01

    Study of MOD planes happens to a very recent one. In this book, systematically algebraic structures on MOD planes like, MOD semigroups, MOD groups and MOD rings of different types are defined and studied. Such study is innovative for a large four quadrant planes are made into a small MOD planes. Several distinct features enjoyed by these MOD planes are defined, developed and described.

  1. Escape of O(3P), O(1D), and O(1S) from the Martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jane L.; Hać, Aleksander B.

    2018-01-01

    We have computed here the escape probabilities, fluxes and rates for hot O atoms that are initially produced in the ground state and the first two excited metastable states, O(1D)and O(1S), in the Martian thermosphere by dissociative recombination of O2+. In order to compare our results with those of our previous calculations and with those of others, we have employed here the pre-MAVEN models that we have used previously. To compute the escape probabilities, we have employed the Monte Carlo escape code that has been described previously, but we here use for the first time energy-dependent elastic cross sections for collisions of the energetic O atoms with each of the twelve background species in our model. We also incorporate three mechanisms that interchange identities of the O(3P) and O(1D) atoms, including collisional excitation of O(3P) to O(1D), quenching of O(1D) to O(3P), and excitation exchange of O(1D) with O(3P). We find that the escape probabilities of O atoms that are produced initially as O(1D) are reduced compared to those in which these processes are not included, but the escape probabilities of O atoms that are initially produced as O(3P) are not significantly reduced. As a guide for our future research and those of other investigators, we review here what is known about the interactions of O atoms with other species in which the energies of the O atoms are altered, and several other sources of hot and escaping O, many of which have been suggested by other investigators. We will incorporate these data in a future MAVEN-like model.

  2. Elastic scattering and quasi-elastic transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments are presented which it will be possible to carry out at GANIL on the elastic scattering of heavy ions: diffraction phenomena if the absorption is great, refraction phenomena if absorption is low. The determination of the optical parameters can be performed. The study of the quasi-elastic transfer reactions will make it possible to know the dynamics of the nuclear reactions, form exotic nuclei and study their energy excitation spectrum, and analyse the scattering and reaction cross sections [fr

  3. Assessing 1D Atmospheric Solar Radiative Transfer Models: Interpretation and Handling of Unresolved Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, H. W.; Stephens, G. L.; Partain, P. T.; Bergman, J. W.; Bonnel, B.; Campana, K.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Clough, S.; Cusack, S.; Delamere, J.; Edwards, J.; Evans, K. F.; Fouquart, Y.; Freidenreich, S.; Galin, V.; Hou, Y.; Kato, S.; Li, J.;  Mlawer, E.;  Morcrette, J.-J.;  O'Hirok, W.;  Räisänen, P.;  Ramaswamy, V.;  Ritter, B.;  Rozanov, E.;  Schlesinger, M.;  Shibata, K.;  Sporyshev, P.;  Sun, Z.;  Wendisch, M.;  Wood, N.;  Yang, F.

    2003-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to assess the performance of 1D solar radiative transfer codes that are used currently both for research and in weather and climate models. Emphasis is on interpretation and handling of unresolved clouds. Answers are sought to the following questions: (i) How well do 1D solar codes interpret and handle columns of information pertaining to partly cloudy atmospheres? (ii) Regardless of the adequacy of their assumptions about unresolved clouds, do 1D solar codes perform as intended?One clear-sky and two plane-parallel, homogeneous (PPH) overcast cloud cases serve to elucidate 1D model differences due to varying treatments of gaseous transmittances, cloud optical properties, and basic radiative transfer. The remaining four cases involve 3D distributions of cloud water and water vapor as simulated by cloud-resolving models. Results for 25 1D codes, which included two line-by-line (LBL) models (clear and overcast only) and four 3D Monte Carlo (MC) photon transport algorithms, were submitted by 22 groups. Benchmark, domain-averaged irradiance profiles were computed by the MC codes. For the clear and overcast cases, all MC estimates of top-of-atmosphere albedo, atmospheric absorptance, and surface absorptance agree with one of the LBL codes to within ±2%. Most 1D codes underestimate atmospheric absorptance by typically 15-25 W m-2 at overhead sun for the standard tropical atmosphere regardless of clouds.Depending on assumptions about unresolved clouds, the 1D codes were partitioned into four genres: (i) horizontal variability, (ii) exact overlap of PPH clouds, (iii) maximum/random overlap of PPH clouds, and (iv) random overlap of PPH clouds. A single MC code was used to establish conditional benchmarks applicable to each genre, and all MC codes were used to establish the full 3D benchmarks. There is a tendency for 1D codes to cluster near their respective conditional benchmarks, though intragenre variances typically exceed those for

  4. On Maximally Dissipative Shock Waves in Nonlinear Elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, James K.

    2010-01-01

    Shock waves in nonlinearly elastic solids are, in general, dissipative. We study the following question: among all plane shock waves that can propagate with a given speed in a given one-dimensional nonlinearly elastic bar, which one—if any—maximizes the rate of dissipation? We find that the answer to this question depends strongly on the qualitative nature of the stress-strain relation characteristic of the given material. When maximally dissipative shocks do occur, they propagate according t...

  5. Transformational plane geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Umble, Ronald N

    2014-01-01

    Axioms of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Existence and Incidence Postulates The Distance and Ruler Postulates The Plane Separation Postulate The Protractor Postulate The Side-Angle-Side Postulate and the Euclidean Parallel Postulate Theorems of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Exterior Angle Theorem Triangle Congruence Theorems The Alternate Interior Angles Theorem and the Angle Sum Theorem Similar Triangles Introduction to Transformations, Isometries, and Similarities Transformations Isometries and SimilaritiesAppendix: Proof of Surjectivity Translations, Rotations, and Reflections Translations Rotations Reflections Appendix: Geometer's Sketchpad Commands Required by Exploratory Activities Compositions of Translations, Rotations, and Reflections The Three Points Theorem Rotations as Compositions of Two Reflections Translations as Compositions of Two Halfturns or Two Reflections The Angle Addition Theorem Glide Reflections Classification of Isometries The Fundamental Theorem and Congruence Classification of Isometr...

  6. Fast Plane Wave Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas

    This PhD project investigates and further develops methods for ultrasound plane wave imaging and blood flow estimation with the objective of overcoming some of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems, which are related to low frame rates and only estimation of velocities along...... the ultrasound beam. The first part of the contribution investigates the compromise between frame rate and plane wave image quality including the influence of grating lobes from a λ-pitch transducer. A method for optimizing the image quality is suggested, and it is shown that the frame rate can be increased...... healthy volunteers. Complex flow patterns were measured in an anthropomorphic flow phantom and showed good agreement with the velocity field simulated using computational fluid dynamics. The last part of the contribution investigates two clinical applications. Plane wave imaging was used for slow velocity...

  7. Energy in elastic fiber embedded in elastic matrix containing incident SH wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James H., Jr.; Nagem, Raymond J.

    1989-01-01

    A single elastic fiber embedded in an infinite elastic matrix is considered. An incident plane SH wave is assumed in the infinite matrix, and an expression is derived for the total energy in the fiber due to the incident SH wave. A nondimensional form of the fiber energy is plotted as a function of the nondimensional wavenumber of the SH wave. It is shown that the fiber energy attains maximum values at specific values of the wavenumber of the incident wave. The results obtained here are interpreted in the context of phenomena observed in acousto-ultrasonic experiments on fiber reinforced composite materials.

  8. Three-dimensional microstructural effects on plane strain ductile crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Ductile crack growth under mode 1, plane strain, small scale yielding conditions is analyzed. Overall plane strain loading is prescribed, but a full 3D analysis is carried out to model three dimensional microstructural effects. An elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic...

  9. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Written in an engaging, easy-to-follow style, the recipes will help you to extend the capabilities of ElasticSearch to manage your data effectively.If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications, manage data, or have decided to start using ElasticSearch, this book is ideal for you. This book assumes that you've got working knowledge of JSON and Java

  10. Engineering in-plane silicon nanowire springs for highly stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhaoguo; Dong, Taige; Zhu, Zhimin; Zhao, Yaolong; Sun, Ying; Yu, Linwei

    2018-01-01

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) is unambiguously the most important semiconductor that underpins the development of modern microelectronics and optoelectronics, though the rigid and brittle nature of bulk c-Si makes it difficult to implement directly for stretchable applications. Fortunately, the one-dimensional (1D) geometry, or the line-shape, of Si nanowire (SiNW) can be engineered into elastic springs, which indicates an exciting opportunity to fabricate highly stretchable 1D c-Si channels. The implementation of such line-shape-engineering strategy demands both a tiny diameter of the SiNWs, in order to accommodate the strains under large stretching, and a precise growth location, orientation and path control to facilitate device integration. In this review, we will first introduce the recent progresses of an in-plane self-assembly growth of SiNW springs, via a new in-plane solid-liquid-solid (IPSLS) mechanism, where mono-like but elastic SiNW springs are produced by surface-running metal droplets that absorb amorphous Si thin film as precursor. Then, the critical growth control and engineering parameters, the mechanical properties of the SiNW springs and the prospects of developing c-Si based stretchable electronics, will be addressed. This efficient line-shape-engineering strategy of SiNW springs, accomplished via a low temperature batch-manufacturing, holds a strong promise to extend the legend of modern Si technology into the emerging stretchable electronic applications, where the high carrier mobility, excellent stability and established doping and passivation controls of c-Si can be well inherited. Project supported by the National Basic Research 973 Program (No. 2014CB921101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61674075), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2017YFA0205003), the Jiangsu Excellent Young Scholar Program (No. BK20160020), the Scientific and Technological Support Program in Jiangsu Province (No. BE

  11. Magnetic Anticrossing of 1D Subbands in Coupled Ballistic Double Quantum Wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blount, Mark A.; Moon, Jeong-Sun; Simmons, Jerry A.; Lyo, Sungkwun K.; Wendt, Joel R.; Reno, John L.

    2000-01-01

    We study the low-temperature in-plane magnetoconductance of vertically coupled double quantum wires. Using a novel flip-chip technique, the wires are defined by two pairs of mutually aligned split gates on opposite sides of a s 1 micron thick AlGaAs/GaAs double quantum well heterostructure. We observe quantized conductance steps due to each quantum well and demonstrate independent control of each ID wire. A broad dip in the magnetoconductance at -6 T is observed when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to both the current and growth directions. This conductance dip is observed only when 1D subbands are populated in both the top and bottom constrictions. This data is consistent with a counting model whereby the number of subbands crossing the Fermi level changes with field due to the formation of an anticrossing in each pair of 1D subbands

  12. Pressure-controlled terahertz filter based on 1D photonic crystal with a defective semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinwen, XUE; Xiaohua, WANG; Chenglin, LIU; Youwen, LIU

    2018-03-01

    The tunable terahertz (THz) filter has been designed and studied, which is composed of 1D photonic crystal (PC) containing a defect layer of semiconductor GaAs. The analytical solution of 1D defective PC (1DDPC) is deduced based on the transfer matrix method, and the electromagnetic plane wave numerical simulation of this 1DDPC is performed by using the finite element method. The calculated and simulated results have confirmed that the filtering transmittance of this 1DDPC in symmetric structure of air/(Si/SiO2) N /GaAs/(SiO2/Si) N /air is far higher than in asymmetric structure of air/(Si/SiO2) N /GaAs/(Si/SiO2) N /air, where the filtering frequency can be tuned by the external pressure. It can provide a feasible route to design the external pressure-controlled THz filter based on 1DPC with a defective semiconductor.

  13. Boundary value problems of holomorphic vector functions in 1D QCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yang; Zhao Yingtao; Zhao Baosheng

    2007-01-01

    By means of the generalized Stroh formalism, two-dimensional (2D) problems of one-dimensional (1D) quasicrystals (QCs) elasticity are turned into the boundary value problems of holomorphic vector functions in a given region. If the conformal mapping from an ellipse to a circle is known, a general method for solving the boundary value problems of holomorphic vector functions can be presented. To illustrate its utility, by using the necessary and sufficient condition of boundary value problems of holomorphic vector functions, we consider two basic 2D problems in 1D QCs, that is, an elliptic hole and a rigid line inclusion subjected to uniform loading at infinity. For the crack problem, the intensity factors of phonon and phason fields are determined, and the physical sense of the results relative to phason and the difference between mechanical behaviors of the crack problem in crystals and QCs are figured out. Moreover, the same procedure can be used to deal with the elastic problems for 2D and three-dimensional (3D) QCs

  14. A 1D version of EllipSys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2017-01-01

    A one-dimensional version of EllipSys, labeled as EllipSys1D is presented. Three atmospheric boundary layer test cases are used to show that results of EllipSys1D are exactly the same or very similar as results of EllipSys3D, while EllipSys1D uses 3 to 4 orders of magnitude less CPU hours compared...

  15. The OBS control plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    . The applicability analysis carried out here focuses on the actual feasibility of the integration and the potential trade-offs which appear when two contradicting principles are combined. Taking advantage of the flexibility of the GMPLS control plane does not seem to be as easy and as straightforward as expected...

  16. Elastic representation surfaces of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriz, R.D.; Ledbetter, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites exhibit high elastic anisotropy and unusual geometrical features in their elastic-property polar diagrams. From the five-component transverse-isotropic elastic-stiffness tensor we compute and display representation surfaces for Young's modulus, torsional modulus, linear compressibility, and Poisson's ratios. Based on Christoffel-equation solutions, we describe some unusual elastic-wave-surface topological features. Musgrave considered in detail the differences between phase-velocity and group-velocity surfaces arising from high elastic anisotropy. For these composites, we find effects similar to, but more dramatic than, Musgrave's. Some new, unexpected results for graphite/epoxy include: a shear-wave velocity that exceeds a longitudinal velocity in the plane transverse to the fiber; a wave that changes polarization character from longitudinal to transverse as the propagation direction sweeps from the fiber axis to the perpendicular axis

  17. In-plane and out-of-plane bending tests on carbon steel pipe bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouard, D.; Tremblais, A.; Vrillon, B.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives of these tests were to obtain experimental results on bends behaviour in elastic and plastic regime by in plane and out of plane bending. Results were used to improve the computer model, for large distorsion of bends, to be used in a simplified beam type computer code for piping calculations. Tests were made on type ANSI B 169 DN 5 bends in ASTM A 106 Grade B carbon steel. These tests made it possible to measure, for identical bends, in elastic regime, the flexibility factors and, in plastic regime, the total evolution in opening, in closing and out of plane. Flexibility factors of 180 0 bend without flanges are approximately the same in opening and in closing. The end effect due to flanges is not very significant, but it is important for 90 0 bends. In plastic regime, collapse loads or collapse moments of bends depends also of both the end effects and the angle bend. The end effects and the angle bend are more sensitive in opening than in closing. The interest of these tests is to procure some precise evolution curves of identical bends well characterized in geometry and metal strength, deflected in large distorsions. (orig./HP)

  18. Optimal Full Waveform Inversion Strategy in Azimuthally Rotated Elastic Orthorhombic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    The elastic orthorhombic assumption is one of the most practical Earth models that takes into account the horizontal anisotropic layering and vertical fracture network. In this model, the rotation angle of the vertical planes of symmetry is a

  19. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications and want to sharpen your understanding of the core elements and applications, this is the book for you. It is assumed that you've got working knowledge of JSON and, if you want to extend ElasticSearch, of Java and related technologies.

  20. Elasticity theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saada, Adel S; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    2013-01-01

    Elasticity: Theory and Applications reviews the theory and applications of elasticity. The book is divided into three parts. The first part is concerned with the kinematics of continuous media; the second part focuses on the analysis of stress; and the third part considers the theory of elasticity and its applications to engineering problems. This book consists of 18 chapters; the first of which deals with the kinematics of continuous media. The basic definitions and the operations of matrix algebra are presented in the next chapter, followed by a discussion on the linear transformation of points. The study of finite and linear strains gradually introduces the reader to the tensor concept. Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are examined in detail, along with the similarities between stress and strain. The chapters that follow cover torsion; the three-dimensional theory of linear elasticity and the requirements for the solution of elasticity problems; the method of potentials; and topics related to cylinders, ...

  1. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Superconducting Phase Transition of Quasi 1D Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi Ho

    In this PhD project, the feasibility of establishing a state with vanishing resistance in quasi-1D superconductors are studied. In the first stage, extrinsic quasi-1D superconductors based on composite materials made by metallic nanowire arrays embedded in mesoporous silica substrates, such as Pb-SBA-15 and NbN-SBA-15 (fabricated by a Chemical Vapor Deposition technique) are investigated. Two impressive outcomes in Pb-SBA-15 are found, including an enormous enhancement of the upper critical field from 0.08T to 14T and an increase of the superconducting transition temperature onset s from 7.2 to 11K. The second stage is to apply Monte Carlo simulations to model the quasi-1D superconductor, considering its penetration depth, coherence length, defects, electron mean free path, tunneling barrier and insulating width between the nanowires. The Monte Carlo results provide a clear picture to approach to stage 3, which represents a study of the intrinsic quasi-1D superconductor Sc3CoC4, which contains parallel arrays of 1D superconducting CoC4 ribbons with weak transverse Josephson or Proximity interaction, embedded in a Sc matrix. According to our previous work, a BKT transition in the lateral plane is believed to be the physics behind the vanishing resistance of quasi-1D superconductors, because it activates a dimensional crossover from a 1D fluctuating superconductivity at high temperature to a 3D bulk phase coherent state in the entire material at low temperatures. Moreover, we decided to study thin 1D Sn nanowires without substrate, which display very similar superconducting properties to Pb-SBA-15 with a strong critical field and Tc enhancement. Finally, a preliminary research on a novel quasi-2D superconductor formed by parallel 2D mercury sheets that are separated by organic molecules is presented. The latter material may represent a model system to study the effect of a layered structure, which is believed to be an effective ingredient to design high temperature

  2. Energy Device Applications of Synthesized 1D Polymer Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long-Biao; Xu, Wei; Hao, Jianhua

    2017-11-01

    1D polymer nanomaterials as emerging materials, such as nanowires, nanotubes, and nanopillars, have attracted extensive attention in academia and industry. The distinctive, various, and tunable structures in the nanoscale of 1D polymer nanomaterials present nanointerfaces, high surface-to-volume ratio, and large surface area, which can improve the performance of energy devices. In this review, representative fabrication techniques of 1D polymer nanomaterials are summarized, including electrospinning, template-assisted, template-free, and inductively coupled plasma methods. The recent advancements of 1D polymer nanomaterials in energy device applications are demonstrated. Lastly, existing challenges and prospects of 1D polymer nanomaterials for energy device applications are presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. BKP plane partitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another

  4. BKP plane partitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  5. Carbon nanotube plane fastener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Hirahara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a feature of carbon nanotubes (CNTs that arises when the surfaces of two vertically-aligned CNT brushes are pressed together. Adhesion between the CNTs creates a plane fastener-like device. Observations from scanning electron microscopy and measurements of adhesion properties indicate a device-dependence on CNT density and shape near the tip region. Among other applications, such fasteners have the potential to attach small components onto micron-sized electronic devices.

  6. Conquest of the Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Colignatus, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    CONQUEST OF THE PLANE provides: an integrated course for geometry and analysis a didactic build-up that avoids traditional clutter use of only the essentials for good understanding proper place for vectors, complex numbers, linear algebra and trigonometry an original and elegant development of trigonometry an original and elegant foundation for calculus examples from physics, economics and statistics integration within the dynamic environment of Mathematica ...

  7. An Algorithm for constructing Hjelmslev planes

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Joanne L.; Rao, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Projective Hjelmslev planes and Affine Hjelmselv planes are generalisations of projective planes and affine planes. We present an algorithm for constructing a projective Hjelmslev planes and affine Hjelsmelv planes using projective planes, affine planes and orthogonal arrays. We show that all 2-uniform projective Hjelmslev planes, and all 2-uniform affine Hjelsmelv planes can be constructed in this way. As a corollary it is shown that all 2-uniform Affine Hjelmselv planes are sub-geometries o...

  8. Simultaneous orthogonal plane imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickevicius, Nikolai J; Paulson, Eric S

    2017-11-01

    Intrafraction motion can result in a smearing of planned external beam radiation therapy dose distributions, resulting in an uncertainty in dose actually deposited in tissue. The purpose of this paper is to present a pulse sequence that is capable of imaging a moving target at a high frame rate in two orthogonal planes simultaneously for MR-guided radiotherapy. By balancing the zero gradient moment on all axes, slices in two orthogonal planes may be spatially encoded simultaneously. The orthogonal slice groups may be acquired with equal or nonequal echo times. A Cartesian spoiled gradient echo simultaneous orthogonal plane imaging (SOPI) sequence was tested in phantom and in vivo. Multiplexed SOPI acquisitions were performed in which two parallel slices were imaged along two orthogonal axes simultaneously. An autocalibrating phase-constrained 2D-SENSE-GRAPPA (generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition) algorithm was implemented to reconstruct the multiplexed data. SOPI images without intraslice motion artifacts were reconstructed at a maximum frame rate of 8.16 Hz. The 2D-SENSE-GRAPPA reconstruction separated the parallel slices aliased along each orthogonal axis. The high spatiotemporal resolution provided by SOPI has the potential to be beneficial for intrafraction motion management during MR-guided radiation therapy or other MRI-guided interventions. Magn Reson Med 78:1700-1710, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. THE WAVE INTERACTION OF HEAVY BREAKS IN THE WATER WITH ELASTIC BARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanchenko G.M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of underwater shock wave spherical front geometry and chauge of impulse carried by it at interaction witu elastic shield is numerically investigated witu the use of zero approximation of ray technique. It is established, that in the vicinity of spots of total internal reflection in the plane interface between water and elastic body the additional internal stresses tend to infinity.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and physical properties of 1D nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Peter Mchael

    The roster of materials exhibiting metal---insulator transitions with sharply discontinuous switching of electrical conductivity close to room temperature remains rather sparse despite the fundamental interest in the electronic instabilities manifested in such materials and the plethora of potential technological applications, ranging from frequency-agile metamaterials to electrochromic coatings and Mott field-effect transistors. Vanadium oxide bronzes with the general formula MxV2O 5, provide a wealth of compositions and frameworks where strong electron correlation can be systematically (albeit thus far only empirically) tuned. Charge fluctuations along the quasi-1D frameworks of MxV 2O5 bronzes have evinced much recent interest owing to the manifestation of colossal metal---insulator transitions and superconductivity. We start with a general review on the phase transitions, both electronic and structural, of vanadium oxide bronzes in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, we demonstrate an unprecedented reversible transformation between double-layered (delta) and tunnel (beta) quasi-1D geometries for nanowires of a divalent vanadium bronze CaxV2O5 (x ˜0.23) upon annealing-induced dehydration and hydrothermally-induced hydration. Such a facile hydration/dehydration-induced interconversion between two prominent quasi-1D structures (accompanied by a change in charge ordering motifs) has not been observed in the bulk and is posited to result from the ease of propagation of crystallographic slip processes across the confined nanowire widths for the delta→beta conversion and the facile diffusion of water molecules within the tunnel geometries for the beta→delta reversion. We demonstrate in Chapter 3 unprecedented pronounced metal-insulator transitions induced by application of a voltage for nanowires of a vanadium oxide bronze with intercalated divalent cations, beta-PbxV 2O5 (x ˜0.33). The induction of the phase transition through application of an electric field at room

  11. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fent, Karl [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Smital, Tvrtko, E-mail: smital@irb.hr [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  12. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-01-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  13. Response of multiphase magneto-electro-elastic sensors under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The finite element formulation for coupled magneto-electro-elastic sensor bonded to a mild steel beam with plane stress assumption is presented in this paper. The beam is subjected to harmonic excitation with a point load at tip and a uniformly distributed load along the bottom surface of the mild steel beam. Numerical ...

  14. Plane partition vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensburg, E J Janse van; Ma, J

    2006-01-01

    We examine partitions and their natural three-dimensional generalizations, plane partitions, as models of vesicles undergoing an inflation-deflation transition. The phase diagrams of these models include a critical point corresponding to an inflation-deflation transition, and exhibits multicritical scaling in the vicinity of a multicritical point located elsewhere on the critical curve. We determine the locations of the multicritical points by analysing the generating functions using analytic and numerical means. In addition, we determine the numerical values of the multicritical scaling exponents associated with the multicritical scaling regimes in these models

  15. Statistical mechanics of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, JH

    2012-01-01

    Advanced, self-contained treatment illustrates general principles and elastic behavior of solids. Topics include thermoelastic behavior of crystalline and polymeric solids, interatomic force laws, behavior of solids, and thermally activated processes. 1983 edition.

  16. Elasticity of energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, M.

    2004-01-01

    Insight is given into the price elasticities of several energy carriers. Next, attention is paid to the impact of the discussion on changes of the Regulating Energy Levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch) in the Netherlands [nl

  17. ATR kinase regulates its attenuation via PPM1D phosphatase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debadrita Bhattacharya

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... generated in response to ultraviolet and ionizing radiation (Lu et al. 2005a, b; Cha ... nocopy' each other's effects by uncovering persistent ATR signalling that in ...... been shown to indirectly stabilize PPM1D by mediating the.

  18. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia in Glut1D on Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepper, Joerg; Leiendecker, Baerbel; Heussinger, Nicole; Lausch, Ekkehart; Bosch, Friedrich

    2016-04-01

    High-fat ketogenic diets are the only treatment available for Glut1 deficiency (Glut1D). Here, we describe an 8-year-old girl with classical Glut1D responsive to a 3:1 ketogenic diet and ethosuximide. After 3 years on the diet a gradual increase of blood lipids was followed by rapid, severe asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia (1,910 mg/dL). Serum lipid apheresis was required to determine liver, renal, and pancreatic function. A combination of medium chain triglyceride-oil and a reduction of the ketogenic diet to 1:1 ratio normalized triglyceride levels within days but triggered severe myoclonic seizures requiring comedication with sultiam. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in children with Glut1D on ketogenic diets may be underdiagnosed and harmful. In contrast to congenital hypertriglyceridemias, children with Glut1D may be treated effectively by dietary adjustments alone. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Mastering ElasticSearch

    CERN Document Server

    Kuc, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.

  20. TBC1D24 genotype–phenotype correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Milh, Mathieu; Castiglioni, Claudia; Lüthy, Kevin; Finelli, Mattea J.; Verstreken, Patrik; Cardon, Aaron; Stražišar, Barbara Gnidovec; Holder, J. Lloyd; Lesca, Gaetan; Mancardi, Maria M.; Poulat, Anne L.; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Banka, Siddharth; Bilo, Leonilda; Birkeland, Laura E.; Bosch, Friedrich; Brockmann, Knut; Cross, J. Helen; Doummar, Diane; Félix, Temis M.; Giuliano, Fabienne; Hori, Mutsuki; Hüning, Irina; Kayserili, Hulia; Kini, Usha; Lees, Melissa M.; Meenakshi, Girish; Mewasingh, Leena; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Peluso, Silvio; Mey, Antje; Rice, Gregory M.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Taylor, Jenny C.; Troester, Matthew M.; Stanley, Christine M.; Ville, Dorothee; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Falace, Antonio; Fassio, Anna; Lemke, Johannes R.; Biskup, Saskia; Tardif, Jessica; Ajeawung, Norbert F.; Tolun, Aslihan; Corbett, Mark; Gecz, Jozef; Afawi, Zaid; Howell, Katherine B.; Oliver, Karen L.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; de Falco, Fabrizio A.; Oliver, Peter L.; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in TBC1D24. Methods: We acquired new clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging data of 11 previously unreported and 37 published patients. TBC1D24 mutations, identified through various sequencing methods, can be found online (http://lovd.nl/TBC1D24). Results: Forty-eight patients were included (28 men, 20 women, average age 21 years) from 30 independent families. Eighteen patients (38%) had myoclonic epilepsies. The other patients carried diagnoses of focal (25%), multifocal (2%), generalized (4%), and unclassified epilepsy (6%), and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (25%). Most patients had drug-resistant epilepsy. We detail EEG, neuroimaging, developmental, and cognitive features, treatment responsiveness, and physical examination. In silico evaluation revealed 7 different highly conserved motifs, with the most common pathogenic mutation located in the first. Neuronal outgrowth assays showed that some TBC1D24 mutations, associated with the most severe TBC1D24-associated disorders, are not necessarily the most disruptive to this gene function. Conclusions: TBC1D24-related epilepsy syndromes show marked phenotypic pleiotropy, with multisystem involvement and severity spectrum ranging from isolated deafness (not studied here), benign myoclonic epilepsy restricted to childhood with complete seizure control and normal intellect, to early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe developmental delay and early death. There is no distinct correlation with mutation type or location yet, but patterns are emerging. Given the phenotypic breadth observed, TBC1D24 mutation screening is indicated in a wide variety of epilepsies. A TBC1D24 consortium was formed to develop further research on this gene and its associated phenotypes. PMID:27281533

  1. DFT calculation for elastic constants of orthorhombic structure within WIEN2K code: A new package (ortho-elastic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshak, Ali H.; Jamal, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new package for calculating elastic constants of orthorhombic structure is released. ► The package called ortho-elastic. ► It is compatible with [FP-(L)APW+lo] method implemented in WIEN2k code. ► Several orthorhombic structure compounds were used to test the new package. ► Elastic constants calculated using this package show good agreement with experiment. - Abstract: A new package for calculating the elastic constants of orthorhombic structure is released. The package called ortho-elastic. The formalism of calculating the ortho-elastic constants is described in details. The package is compatible with the highly accurate all-electron full-potential (linearized) augmented plane-wave plus local orbital [FP-(L)APW+lo] method implemented in WIEN2k code. Several orthorhombic structure compounds were used to test the new package. We found that the calculated elastic constants using the new package show better agreement with the available experimental data than the previous theoretical results used different methods. In this package the second-order derivative E ″ (ε) of polynomial fit E=E(ε) of energy vs strains at zero strain (ε=0), used to calculate the orthorhombic elastic constants.

  2. Impact of CD1d deficiency on metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya E Kotas

    Full Text Available Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKTs are innate-like T cells that are highly concentrated in the liver and recognize lipids presented on the MHC-like molecule CD1d. Although capable of a myriad of responses, few essential functions have been described for iNKTs. Among the many cell types of the immune system implicated in metabolic control and disease, iNKTs seem ideally poised for such a role, yet little has been done to elucidate such a possible function. We hypothesized that lipid presentation by CD1d could report on metabolic status and engage iNKTs to regulate cellular lipid content through their various effector mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, we examined CD1d deficient mice in a variety of metabolically stressed paradigms including high fat feeding, choline-deficient feeding, fasting, and acute inflammation. CD1d deficiency led to a mild exacerbation of steatosis during high fat or choline-deficient feeding, accompanied by impaired hepatic glucose tolerance. Surprisingly, however, this phenotype was not observed in Jα18⁻/⁻ mice, which are deficient in iNKTs but express CD1d. Thus, CD1d appears to modulate some metabolic functions through an iNKT-independent mechanism.

  3. Traveling Wave Modes of a Plane Layered Anelastic Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    grant, “Coupled Modes in Elastic Bottoms” (1) is the publication “Traveling wave modes of a plane layered anelastic earth ” accepted for...anelastic earth Robert I. Odom Applied Physics Laboratory and Department of Earth and Space Sciences University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th St., Seattle...contrast to a similar standing wave problem for the earth free oscillations (Tromp and Dahlen, 1990). Attenuation is commonly incorporated into synthetic

  4. Study of the band-gap structure of a 1D-photonic crystal by using different numerical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jian-Bo; Chen, Yue-Rui; Shen, Yan; Zhou, Wei-Xi; Ren, Jiu-Chun; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2010-01-01

    Comparative studies between the transfer matrices method (TMM) and plane wave method (PWM) approaches have been performed on 1D photonics crystal under different conditions to show the differences between these two kinds of calculations. TMM is suitable for the design of 1D photonic crystal device with high precision and is in good agreement with experimental results, but is not suitable for the 2D and 3D photonic structures which are limited by the complicated boundary conditions at micro interfaces. The result based on the PWM approach to deal approximately with the photonic structure in approximation has not yet been strictly verified by experiment, not even for 1D photonic crystal structures. More efforts will be required to explore its validation under all physical conditions to enhance its application.

  5. On liquid vibration in elastic containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priehn, F.

    1984-01-01

    Numerical methods of calculation for containers made of circular rings of any crossection are derived for containers which are filled with incompressible and also with compressible liquids. This is done neglecting the formation of waves on the liquid surface, and by using a simplified mechanical model for calculations for the elastic walls. Using a developed Fourier series in the circumferential direction, this leads to a plane model and one obtains a very compact system of equations, which give an opportunity of studying the individual effects very economically. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Structural transformation in monolayer materials: a 2D to 1D transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Kasra; Attariani, Hamed; LeSar, Richard A

    2016-07-20

    Reducing the dimensions of materials to atomic scales results in a large portion of atoms being at or near the surface, with lower bond order and thus higher energy. At such scales, reduction of the surface energy and surface stresses can be the driving force for the formation of new low-dimensional nanostructures, and may be exhibited through surface relaxation and/or surface reconstruction, which can be utilized for tailoring the properties and phase transformation of nanomaterials without applying any external load. Here we used atomistic simulations and revealed an intrinsic structural transformation in monolayer materials that lowers their dimension from 2D nanosheets to 1D nanostructures to reduce their surface and elastic energies. Experimental evidence of such transformation has also been revealed for one of the predicted nanostructures. Such transformation plays an important role in bi-/multi-layer 2D materials.

  7. Elastic properties of uniaxial-fiber reinforced composites - General features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Subhendu; Ledbetter, Hassel; Lei, Ming

    The salient features of the elastic properties of uniaxial-fiber-reinforced composites are examined by considering the complete set of elastic constants of composites comprising isotropic uniaxial fibers in an isotropic matrix. Such materials exhibit transverse-isotropic symmetry and five independent elastic constants in Voigt notation: C(11), C(33), C(44), C(66), and C(13). These C(ij) constants are calculated over the entire fiber-volume-fraction range 0.0-1.0, using a scattered-plane-wave ensemple-average model. Some practical elastic constants such as the principal Young moduli and the principal Poisson ratios are considered, and the behavior of these constants is discussed. Also presented are the results for the four principal sound velocities used to study uniaxial-fiber-reinforced composites: v(11), v(33), v(12), and v(13).

  8. A calculational round robin in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.H.

    Eighteen organizations participated in this round robin which treated the same three-point bend problem as an ASTM round robin four years earlier. Overall deformation, J, CTOD and crack profile were the main results required using plane strain elastic-plastic finite element analysis for a monotonically increasing load up to a maximum deformation which was far beyond the elastic regime. All elastic solutions were accurate to within a few percent. In the elastic-plastic regime, however, there was a large scatter of the results, increasing with increasing plastic deformation and roughly of the same order as in the ASTM round robin which contained ten solutions. Apparently no significant progress has taken place in the state of the art of numerical EPFM analysis in four years time. The paper discusses the reasons for this scatter and draws tentative conclusions on the most suitable numerical analysis methods in EPFM. (Auth.)

  9. Modeling Pseudo-elastic Behavior of Springback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    constant. In the context of this investigation we refer psuedoelastic behavior in the most general sense as any deviation from linearity in the unloading curve. The non-linearity leads to a hysteresis loop upon reloading. The approach is based on the non-conventional theory with a vanishing elastic region as advanced by Dafalias and Popov. The treatment is purely phenomenological where we don't distinguish between macroscopic plasticity and micro-plasticity. The macroscopic uniaxial stress-strain curve is used to define effective plastic response in the same manner as classical plasticity theory except that the nonlinearity during unloading and reloading are incorporated into plasticity. It is shown that such models can be easily formulated within the context of elastoplasticity without violating any physical mechanisms of deformation. Springback for a plane strain bending model is used to demonstrate the potential effect if such a model is applied

  10. Duality and noncommutative planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøndrup, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We study extensions of simple modules over an associative ring A   and we prove that for twosided ideals mm and nn with artinian factors the condition ExtA1(A/m,A/n)≠0 holds for the left A  -modules A/mA/m and A/nA/n if and only if it holds for the right modules A/nA/n and A/mA/m. The methods pro...... proving this are applied to show that noncommutative models of the plane, i.e. algebras of the form k〈x,y〉/(f)k〈x,y〉/(f), where f∈([x,y])f∈([x,y]) are noetherian only in case (f)=([x,y])...

  11. Dispersive elastic properties of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegren, James; Lau, Derek; Sokalski, Vincent

    Recent studies on the asymmetric field-driven growth of magnetic bubble domains in perpendicular thin films exhibiting an interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) have provided a wealth of experimental evidence to validate models of creep phenomena, as key properties of the domain wall (DW) can be altered with the application of an external in-plane magnetic field. While asymmetric growth behavior has been attributed to the highly anisotropic DW energy, σ (θ) , which results from the combination of DMI and the in-plane field, many experimental results remain anomalous. In this work, we demonstrate that the anisotropy of DW energy alters the elastic response of the DW as characterized by the surface stiffness, σ (θ) = σ (θ) + σ (θ) , and evaluate the impact of this stiffness on the creep law. We find that at in-plane fields larger than and antiparallel to the effective field due to DMI, the DW stiffness decreases rapidly, suggesting that higher energy walls can actually become more mobile than their low energy counterparts. This result is consistent with experiments on CoNi multilayer films where velocity curves for domain walls with DMI fields parallel and antiparallel to the applied field cross over at high in-plane fields.

  12. Thermoelectric Power Factor Limit of a 1D Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ju; Burke, Adam; Svilans, Artis; Linke, Heiner; Thelander, Claes

    2018-04-01

    In the past decade, there has been significant interest in the potentially advantageous thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional (1D) nanowires, but it has been challenging to find high thermoelectric power factors based on 1D effects in practice. Here we point out that there is an upper limit to the thermoelectric power factor of nonballistic 1D nanowires, as a consequence of the recently established quantum bound of thermoelectric power output. We experimentally test this limit in quasiballistic InAs nanowires by extracting the maximum power factor of the first 1D subband through I -V characterization, finding that the measured maximum power factors conform to the theoretical limit. The established limit allows the prediction of the achievable power factor of a specific nanowire material system with 1D electronic transport based on the nanowire dimension and mean free path. The power factor of state-of-the-art semiconductor nanowires with small cross section and high crystal quality can be expected to be highly competitive (on the order of mW /m K2 ) at low temperatures. However, they have no clear advantage over bulk materials at, or above, room temperature.

  13. Valley-symmetric quasi-1D transport in ballistic graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hu-Jong

    We present our recent studies on gate-defined valley-symmetric one-dimensional (1D) carrier guiding in ballistic monolayer graphene and valley-symmetry-protected topological 1D transport in ballistic bilayer graphene. Successful carrier guiding was realized in ballistic monolayer graphene even in the absence of a band gap by inducing a high distinction ( more than two orders of magnitude) in the carrier density between the region of a quasi-1D channel and the rest of the top-gated regions. Conductance of a channel shows quantized values in units of 4e2/ h, suggesting that the valley symmetry is preserved. For the latter, the topological 1D conduction was realized between two closely arranged insulating regions with inverted band gaps, induced under a pair of split dual gating with polarities opposite to each other. The maximum conductance along the boundary channel showed 4e2/ h, again with the preserved valley symmetry. The 1D topological carrier guiding demonstrated in this study affords a promising route to robust valleytronic applications and sophisticated valley-associated functionalities based on 2D materials. This work was funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea.

  14. A model with isospin doublet U(1)D gauge symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    We propose a model with an extra isospin doublet U(1)D gauge symmetry, in which we introduce several extra fermions with odd parity under a discrete Z2 symmetry in order to cancel the gauge anomalies out. A remarkable issue is that we impose nonzero U(1)D charge to the Standard Model Higgs, and it gives the most stringent constraint to the vacuum expectation value of a scalar field breaking the U(1)D symmetry that is severer than the LEP bound. We then explore relic density of a Majorana dark matter candidate without conflict of constraints from lepton flavor violating processes. A global analysis is carried out to search for parameters which can accommodate with the observed data.

  15. Elastic anisotropy of crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kube

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.

  16. Shells on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)

  17. Designing broad phononic band gaps for in-plane modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang Fan; Meng, Fei; Li, Shuo; Jia, Baohua; Zhou, Shiwei; Huang, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    Phononic crystals are known as artificial materials that can manipulate the propagation of elastic waves, and one essential feature of phononic crystals is the existence of forbidden frequency range of traveling waves called band gaps. In this paper, we have proposed an easy way to design phononic crystals with large in-plane band gaps. We demonstrated that the gap between two arbitrarily appointed bands of in-plane mode can be formed by employing a certain number of solid or hollow circular rods embedded in a matrix material. Topology optimization has been applied to find the best material distributions within the primitive unit cell with maximal band gap width. Our results reveal that the centroids of optimized rods coincide with the point positions generated by Lloyd's algorithm, which deepens our understandings on the formation mechanism of phononic in-plane band gaps.

  18. Quantum electrodynamics with 1D arti cial atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Alisa

    A 1D atom, a single quantum emitter coupled to a single optical mode, exhibits rich quantum electrodynamic (QED) e_ects and is thought to be the key ingredient for many applications in quantuminformation processing. Single quantum dots (QD) in photonic-crystal waveguides (PCW) constitute a robust...... as expected from the theory. The value of g(2)(0) is around 1.08. The results con_rm the observation of an on-chip giant optical nonlinearity and the 1D atom behavior. Another direction in this thesis has been to investigate the e_ect of Anderson localization on the electrodynamics of QDs in PCWs. A large...

  19. Diffusion and particle mobility in 1D system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borman, V.D.; Johansson, B.; Skorodumova, N.V.; Tronin, I.V.; Tronin, V.N.; Troyan, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    The transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) systems have been studied theoretically. Contradictory experimental results on molecular transport in quasi-1D systems, such as zeolite structures, when both diffusion transport acceleration and the existence of the diffusion mode with lower particle mobility (single-file diffusion ( 2 >∼t 1/2 )) have been reported, are consolidated in a consistent model. Transition from the single-file diffusion mode to an Einstein-like diffusion 2 >∼t with diffusion coefficient increasing with the density has been predicted to occur at large observation times

  20. Flood hazard assessment using 1D and 2D approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaccia, Gabriella; Costabile, Pierfranco; Macchione, Francesco; Natale, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    The EU flood risk Directive (Directive 2007/60/EC) prescribes risk assessment and mapping to develop flood risk management plans. Flood hazard mapping may be carried out with mathematical models able to determine flood-prone areas once realistic conditions (in terms of discharge or water levels) are imposed at the boundaries of the case study. The deterministic models are mainly based on shallow water equations expressed in their 1D or 2D formulation. The 1D approach is widely used, especially in technical studies, due to its relative simplicity, its computational efficiency and also because it requires topographical data not as expensive as the ones needed by 2D models. Even if in a great number of practical situations, such as modeling in-channel flows and not too wide floodplains, the 1D approach may provide results close to the prediction of a more sophisticated 2D model, it must be pointed out that the correct use of a 1D model in practical situations is more complex than it may seem. The main issues to be correctly modeled in a 1D approach are the definition of hydraulic structures such as bridges and buildings interacting with the flow and the treatment of the tributaries. Clearly all these aspects have to be taken into account also in the 2D modeling, but with fewer difficulties. The purpose of this paper is to show how the above cited issues can be described using a 1D or 2D unsteady flow modeling. In particular the Authors will show the devices that have to be implemented in 1D modeling to get reliable predictions of water levels and discharges comparable to the ones obtained using a 2D model. Attention will be focused on an actual river (Crati river) located in the South of Italy. This case study is quite complicated since it deals with the simulation of channeled flows, overbank flows, interactions with buildings, bridges and tributaries. Accurate techniques, intentionally developed by the Authors to take into account all these peculiarities in 1D and 2

  1. Elastic interaction between twins during tensile deformation of austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nicolai Ytterdal; Winther, Grethe; Dale, Darren

    2016-01-01

    . However, the components of the Type II stress normal to the twin boundary plane exhibit the same large variations as for the grain boundaries. Elastic grain interactions are therefore complex and must involve the entire set of neighbouring grains. The elastic-regime stress along the tensile direction......In austenite, the twin boundary normal is a common elastically stiff direction shared by the two twins, which may induce special interactions. By means of three-dimensional X-ray diffraction this elastic interaction has been analysed and compared to grains separated by conventional grain boundaries...

  2. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun

    2011-06-26

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun; Wu, Ying; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. The law of elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cesare Masin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight-a cognitive law analogous to Hooke¿s law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined either in series or in parallel. This total elongation was longer for serial than for parallel springs, and increased proportionally to the number of serial springs and inversely proportionally to the number of parallel springs. The results suggest that participants integrated load weight with imagined elasticity rather than with spring length.

  5. ElasticSearch server

    CERN Document Server

    Rogozinski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This book is a detailed, practical, hands-on guide packed with real-life scenarios and examples which will show you how to implement an ElasticSearch search engine on your own websites.If you are a web developer or a user who wants to learn more about ElasticSearch, then this is the book for you. You do not need to know anything about ElastiSeach, Java, or Apache Lucene in order to use this book, though basic knowledge about databases and queries is required.

  6. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.

    1978-07-01

    The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to crack stability in brittle structures is now well understood and widely applied. However, in many structural materials, crack propagation is accompanied by considerable crack-tip plasticity which invalidates the use of LEFM. Thus, present day research in fracture mechanics is aimed at developing parameters for predicting crack propagation under elastic-plastic conditions. These include critical crack-opening-displacement methods, the J integral and R-curve techniques. This report provides an introduction to these concepts and gives some examples of their applications. (author)

  7. 3D and 1D calculation of hysteresis loops and energy products for anisotropic nanocomposite films with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, X.H.; Zhao, G.P.; Yue, Ming; Ye, L.N.; Xia, J.; Zhang, X.C.; Chang, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the magnetic reversal process, hysteresis loops and energy products for exchange-coupled Nd 2 Fe 14 B/α-Fe bilayers are studied systematically by a three-dimensional (3D) model. The 3D calculations are numerically solved using the finite difference method, where the results are carefully compared with those calculated by one-dimensional (1D) model. It is found that the calculated hysteresis loops and energy products based on the two methods are consistent with each other. Both nucleation fields and coercivities decrease monotonically as the soft layer thickness L s increases. In addition, the calculated spatial distributions of magnetization orientations in the thickness direction at various applied fields based on both methods signify a three-step magnetic reversal process, which are nucleation, growth and displacement of the domain wall. The calculated magnetic orientations within the film plane, however, are totally different according to the two methods. The 3D calculation exhibits a process of vortex formation and annihilation. On the other hand, the 1D calculation gives a quasi-coherent one, where magnetization orientation is coherent in the film plane and varies in the thickness direction. This new reversal mechanism displayed in the film plane has a systematic influence on the nucleation fields, coercivity and energy products. - Highlights: • Consistent hysteresis loops and energy products for 3D and 1D calculation. • Domain wall formation, evolution and displacement perpendicular to the film plane. • Vortex formation, annihilation and better loop squareness in 3D calculation. • Larger nucleation fields, remanence and smaller coercivity in 3D calculation

  8. Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Filmus, Yuval; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the strength of the semantic and syntactic version of the cutting planes proof system. First, we show that the lower bound technique of Pudlák applies also to semantic cutting planes: the proof system has feasible interpolation via monotone real circuits, which gives an exponential lower bound on lengths of semantic cutting planes refutations. Second, we show that semantic refutations are stronger than syntactic ones. In particular, we give a formula for whic...

  9. Plastic loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kuk Hee; Kim, Yun Jae; Park, Chi Yong; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2007-01-01

    Based on three-Dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit and TES(Twice- Elastic-Slope) loads for pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic.perfectly-plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide TES plastic loads. A wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and TES plastic load solutions for pipe bends under out-of-plane bending are proposed

  10. MODICO, 1-D Time-Dependent 1 Group, 2 Group Neutron Diffusion with Delayed Neutron Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camiciola, P.; Cundari, D.; Montagnini, B.

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program solves the 1-D time-dependent one and two group coarse-mesh neutron diffusion equations, coupled with the equations for the delayed-neutron precursor, in plane geometry. 2 - Method of solution: The program is based on a simple coarse-mesh cubic approximation formula for the spatial behaviour of the flux inside each interval. An implicit scheme (the time-integrated method) is used for the advancement of the solution. The resulting (block three-diagonal) matrix is inverted at each time step by Thomas' method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Number of coarse- mesh intervals LE 80; number of material regions LE 10; number of delayed-neutron precursor groups LE 10. Typical mesh sizes range from 5 cm to 20 cm; typical step length (non-prompt critical transients) ranges from 0.005 to 0.1 seconds

  11. Waveguide modes of 1D photonic crystals in a transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylgacheva, D. A., E-mail: sylgacheva.darjja@physics.msu.ru; Khokhlov, N. E.; Kalish, A. N.; Belotelov, V. I. [Moscow State University, Physics Department (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    We analyze waveguide modes in 1D photonic crystals containing layers magnetized in the plane. It is shown that the magnetooptical nonreciprocity effect emerges in such structures during the propagation of waveguide modes along the layers and perpendicularly to the magnetization. This effect involves a change in the phase velocity of the mode upon reversal of the direction of magnetization. Comparison of the effects in a nonmagnetic photonic crystal with an additional magnetic layer and in a photonic crystal with magnetic layers shows that the magnitude of this effect is several times larger in the former case in spite of the fact that the electromagnetic field of the modes in the latter case is localized in magnetic regions more strongly. This is associated with asymmetry of the dielectric layers contacting with the magnetic layer in the former case. This effect is important for controlling waveguide structure modes with the help of an external magnetic field.

  12. Crystal structure, characterization and magnetic properties of a 1D ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Crystal structure, characterization and magnetic properties of a 1D copper(II) polymer incorporating a Schiff base with carboxylate side arm. SHYAMAPADA SHIT MADHUSUDAN NANDY CORRADO RIZZOLI CÉDRIC DESPLANCHES SAMIRAN MITRA. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 6 June 2016 pp 913-920 ...

  13. Quantitative 1D saturation profiles on chalk by NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dan; Topp, Simon; Stensgaard, Anders

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative one-dimensional saturation profiles showing the distribution of water and oil in chalk core samples are calculated from NMR measurements utilizing a 1D CSI spectroscopy pulse sequence. Saturation profiles may be acquired under conditions of fluid flow through the sample. Results reveal...

  14. Anti-cytokine therapies in T1D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepom, Gerald T; Ehlers, Mario; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of proinflammatory cytokines is clinically beneficial in several autoimmune disorders. Several of these cytokines are directly implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, suggesting opportunities for design of clinical trials in type 1 diabetes that incorporate select...... suitable for modulating the immune response in T1D....

  15. Non-cooperative Brownian donkeys: A solvable 1D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez de Cisneros, B.; Reimann, P.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    A paradigmatic 1D model for Brownian motion in a spatially symmetric, periodic system is tackled analytically. Upon application of an external static force F the system's response is an average current which is positive for F 0 (absolute negative mobility). Under suitable conditions, the system approaches 100% efficiency when working against the external force F.

  16. Inverse parameter identification for a branching 1 D arterial network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the invertability of a branching 1 D arterial blood flow network. We limit our investigation to a single bifurcating vessel, where the material properties, unloaded areas and variables characterizing the input and output...

  17. Fracton-Elasticity Duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretko, Michael; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by recent studies of fractons, we demonstrate that elasticity theory of a two-dimensional quantum crystal is dual to a fracton tensor gauge theory, providing a concrete manifestation of the fracton phenomenon in an ordinary solid. The topological defects of elasticity theory map onto charges of the tensor gauge theory, with disclinations and dislocations corresponding to fractons and dipoles, respectively. The transverse and longitudinal phonons of crystals map onto the two gapless gauge modes of the gauge theory. The restricted dynamics of fractons matches with constraints on the mobility of lattice defects. The duality leads to numerous predictions for phases and phase transitions of the fracton system, such as the existence of gauge theory counterparts to the (commensurate) crystal, supersolid, hexatic, and isotropic fluid phases of elasticity theory. Extensions of this duality to generalized elasticity theories provide a route to the discovery of new fracton models. As a further consequence, the duality implies that fracton phases are relevant to the study of interacting topological crystalline insulators.

  18. The Law of Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  19. Two-phase 1D+1D model of a DMFC: development and validation on extensive operating conditions range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, A.; Marchesi, R.; Parenti, D. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    A two-phase 1D+1D model of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is developed, considering overall mass balance, methanol transport in gas phase through anode diffusion layer, methanol and water crossover. The model is quantitatively validated on an extensive range of operating conditions, 24 polarisation curves. The model accurately reproduces DMFC performance in the validation range and, outside this, it is able to predict values under feasible operating conditions. Finally, the estimations of methanol crossover flux are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to experimental measures and the main local quantities' trends are coherent with results obtained with more complex models. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Autonomic Vertical Elasticity of Docker Containers with ElasticDocker

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dhuraibi , Yahya; Paraiso , Fawaz; Djarallah , Nabil; Merle , Philippe

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Elasticity is the key feature of cloud computing to scale computing resources according to application workloads timely. In the literature as well as in industrial products, much attention was given to the elasticity of virtual machines, but much less to the elasticity of containers. However, containers are the new trend for packaging and deploying microservices-based applications. Moreover, most of approaches focus on horizontal elasticity, fewer works address vertica...

  1. Homogenized Elastic Properties of Graphene for Small Deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurica Sorić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide the quantification of the linear and non-linear elastic mechanical properties of graphene based upon the judicious combination of molecular mechanics simulation results and homogenization methods. We clarify the influence on computed results by the main model features, such as specimen size, chirality of microstructure, the effect of chosen boundary conditions (imposed displacement versus force and the corresponding plane stress transformation. The proposed approach is capable of explaining the scatter of the results for computed stresses, energy and stiffness and provides the bounds on graphene elastic properties, which are quite important in modeling and simulation of the virtual experiments on graphene-based devices.

  2. Gravitational Couplings for Gop-Planes and y-Op-Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Juan Fernando Ospina

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino actions for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) and y-deformed orientifold planes (yOp-planes) are presented and two series power expantions are realized from whiches processes that involves GOp-planes,yOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes and y-Op-planes are showed.

  3. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W

    1997-01-01

    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  4. Conceptual Design of Wave Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Trewers, Andrew; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The Wave Plane is a patented Wave Energy device of the overtopping type, designed to capture potential as well as kinetic energy. This is as such different to other overtopping devices, who usually only focus on potential energy. If Wave Plane A/S can deliver the turbine technology to utilize both...

  5. Designing interactively with elastic splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Fisker, Ann-Sofie

    2018-01-01

    We present an algorithm for designing interactively with C1 elastic splines. The idea is to design the elastic spline using a C1 cubic polynomial spline where each polynomial segment is so close to satisfying the Euler-Lagrange equation for elastic curves that the visual difference becomes neglig...... negligible. Using a database of cubic Bézier curves we are able to interactively modify the cubic spline such that it remains visually close to an elastic spline....

  6. Giant enhancement of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in ultrathin manganite films via nanoscale 1D periodic depth modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapitamahuni, Anil; Zhang, Le; Singh, Vijay; Burton, John; Koten, Mak; Shield, Jeffrey; Tsymbal, Evgeny; Hong, Xia

    We report a unusual giant enhancement of in-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) in ultrathin colossal magnetoresistive oxide films due to 1D nanoscale periodic depth modulation. High quality epitaxial thin films of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) of thickness 6 nm were grown on (001) SrTiO3 substrates via off-axis radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The top 2 nm of LSMO films are patterned into periodic nano-stripes using e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. The resulting structure consists of nano-stripes of 2 nm height and 100-200 nm width on top of a 4 nm thick continuous base layer. We employed planar Hall effect measurements to study the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the unpatterned and nanopatterned films. The unpatterned films show a biaxial anisotropy with easy axis along [110]. The extracted anisotropy energy density is ~1.1 x 105 erg/cm3, comparable to previously reported values. In the nanopatterned films, a strong uniaxial anisotropy is developed along one of the biaxial easy axes. The corresponding anisotropy energy density is ~5.6 x 106 erg/cm3 within the nano-striped volume, comparable to that of Co. We attribute the observed uniaxial MCA to MnO6 octahedral rotations/tilts and the enhancement in the anisotropy energy density to the strain gradient within the nano-stripes.

  7. The effect of longitudinal fluctuations in (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Long-Gang; Karpenko, Yuri [FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); ITP, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Huovinen, Pasi [ITP, University of Wroclaw (Poland); Wang, Xin-Nian [CCNU, Wuhan (China); LBNL, Berkeley (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The energy density fluctuations of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) in the transverse plane are studied in detail and found to be important to explain the high order harmonic flow v{sub n} at RHIC and LHC. However, the energy density fluctuations along longitudinal direction (space-time rapidity η{sub s}) have not been fully investigated yet, even though they should exist as well. Previous studies show that the longitudinal fluctuations strongly depend on the initial entropy deposition mechanisms. In this work AMPT initial conditions are used where HIJING introduces longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, string length fluctuations and finite number of partons at different collision energies. The longitudinal fluctuations have been found to be responsible for the de-correlation of anisotropic flow and twist of event planes along rapidity. We study the effect of longitudinal fluctuations on the QGP expansion in both transverse and longitudinal direction within CLVisc, a (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamic code parallelized on GPU using OpenCL, to check whether the anisotropic flow is affected by longitudinal fluctuations and to determine appropriate shear viscosity over entropy density coefficients η/s in comparison with experiments at RHIC and LHC.

  8. Surface stress-induced change in overall elastic behavior and self-bending of ultrathin cantilever plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, H.; Goosen, J.F.L.; Bossche, A.; Van Keulen, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, the dominant role of surface stress and surface elasticity on the overall elastic behavior of ultrathin cantilever plates is studied. A general framework based on two-dimensional plane-stress analysis is presented. Because of either surface reconstruction or molecular adsorption,

  9. Sandia reactor kinetics codes: SAK and PK1D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, P.S.; Odom, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Sandia Kinetics code (SAK) is a one-dimensional coupled thermal-neutronics transient analysis code for use in simulation of reactor transients. The time-dependent cross section routines allow arbitrary time-dependent changes in material properties. The one-dimensional heat transfer routines are for cylindrical geometry and allow arbitrary mesh structure, temperature-dependent thermal properties, radiation treatment, and coolant flow and heat-transfer properties at the surface of a fuel element. The Point Kinetics 1 Dimensional Heat Transfer Code (PK1D) solves the point kinetics equations and has essentially the same heat-transfer treatment as SAK. PK1D can address extended reactor transients with minimal computer execution time

  10. Developing 1D nanostructure arrays for future nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke DG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is intense and growing interest in one-dimensional (1-D nanostructures from the perspective of their synthesis and unique properties, especially with respect to their excellent optical response and an ability to form heterostructures. This review discusses alternative approaches to preparation and organization of such structures, and their potential properties. In particular, molecular-scale printing is highlighted as a method for creating organized pre-cursor structure for locating nanowires, as well as vapor–liquid–solid (VLS templated growth using nano-channel alumina (NCA, and deposition of 1-D structures with glancing angle deposition (GLAD. As regards novel optical properties, we discuss as an example, finite size photonic crystal cavity structures formed from such nanostructure arrays possessing highQand small mode volume, and being ideal for developing future nanolasers.

  11. Partial breaking of N = 1, D = 10 supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper is described the spontaneous partial breaking of N =1, D =10 supersymmetry to N = (1, 0), d = 6 and its dimensionally-reduced versions in the framework of nonlinear realizations. The basic Goldstone superfield is N = (1, 0), d = 6 hyper multiplet superfield satisfying a nonlinear generalization of the standard hyper multiplet constraint. It is here interpreted the generalized constraint as the manifestly world volume supersymmetric form of equations of motion of the type 1 super 5-brane in D 10. The related issues here addressed are a possible existence of brane extension of off-shell hyper multiplet actions, the possibility to utilize vector N = (1, 0), d =6 supermultiplet as the Goldstone one, and the description of 1/4 breaking of N =1, D = 11 supersymmetry

  12. Elasticity in Elastics-An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisetty, Supradeep Kumar; Nimagadda, Chakrapani; Begam, Madhoom Ponnachi; Nalamotu, Raghuveer; Srivastav, Trilok; Gs, Shwetha

    2014-04-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement results from application of forces to teeth. Elastics in orthodontics have been used both intra-orally and extra- orally to a great effect. Their use, combined with good patient co-operation provides the clinician with the ability to correct both anteroposterior and vertical discrepancies. Force decay over a period of time is a major problem in the clinical usage of latex elastics and synthetic elastomers. This loss of force makes it difficult for the clinician to determine the actual force transmitted to the dentition. It's the intent of the clinician to maintain optimal force values over desired period of time. The majority of the orthodontic elastics on the market are latex elastics. Since the early 1990s, synthetic products have been offered in the market for latex-sensitive patients and are sold as nonlatex elastics. There is limited information on the risk that latex elastics may pose to patients. Some have estimated that 0.12-6% of the general population and 6.2% of dental professionals have hypersensitivity to latex protein. There are some reported cases of adverse reactions to latex in the orthodontic population but these are very limited to date. Although the risk is not yet clear, it would still be inadvisable to prescribe latex elastics to a patient with a known latex allergy. To compare the in-vitro performance of latex and non latex elastics. Samples of 0.25 inch, latex and non latex elastics (light, medium, heavy elastics) were obtained from three manufacturers (Forestadent, GAC, Glenroe) and a sample size of ten elastics per group was tested. The properties tested included cross sectional area, internal diameter, initial force generated by the elastics, breaking force and the force relaxation for the different types of elastics. Force relaxation testing involved stretching the elastics to three times marketed internal diameter (19.05 mm) and measuring force level at intervals over a period of 48 hours. The data were

  13. On deformation of complex continuum immersed in a plane space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, V. A.; Murashkin, E. V.; Radayev, Y. N.

    2018-05-01

    The present paper is devoted to mathematical modelling of complex continua deformations considered as immersed in an external plane space. The complex continuum is defined as a differential manifold supplied with metrics induced by the external space. A systematic derivation of strain tensors by notion of isometric immersion of the complex continuum into a plane space of a higher dimension is proposed. Problem of establishing complete systems of irreducible objective strain and extrastrain tensors for complex continuum immersed in an external plane space is resolved. The solution to the problem is obtained by methods of the field theory and the theory of rational algebraic invariants. Strain tensors of the complex continuum are derived as irreducible algebraic invariants of contravariant vectors of the external space emerging as functional arguments in the complex continuum action density. Present analysis is restricted to rational algebraic invariants. Completeness of the considered systems of rational algebraic invariants is established for micropolar elastic continua. Rational syzygies for non-quadratic invariants are discussed. Objective strain tensors (indifferent to frame rotations in the external plane space) for micropolar continuum are alternatively obtained by properly combining multipliers of polar decompositions of deformation and extra-deformation gradients. The latter is realized only for continua immersed in a plane space of the equal mathematical dimension.

  14. Piezoelectric excitation of elastic waves in centrosymmetrical potassium tantalate crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolenskij, G.A.; Lemanov, V.V.; Sotnikov, A.V.; Syrnikov, P.P.; Yushin, N.K.

    1981-01-01

    Experiment results on excitation of elastic oscillations in potassium tantalate crystals are considered. The experiment has been conducted by usual for supersonic measurements technique: an impulse of the variable electric field has been applied to one of plane-parallel sample end-faces, at the same end-face signals corresponding to elastic pulses propagating in the crystal have been detected. Basic radiopulses parameters: basic frequency 30 MHz, duration 1-2 μs, pulse recurrence frequency 500 Hz, power 10 W. The investigation carried out has shown that the application to the sample at T=80 K temperature of constant external electrical field parallel to direction of elastic wave propagation leads to hysteresis dependence of elastic waves amplitude on the external voltage value. With temperature increase the hysteresis loop is deformed. It has been found when investigating temperature dependence of elastic wave amplitude that in the absence of external constant electrical field in short-circuited by constant current samples the oxillation excitation effect disappears at T approximately equal to 200 K. An essential influence on the elastic wave amplitude value is exerted by illumination of the crystal surface by light with 360-630 nm wave length. At T 130 K bacaee of photovoltaic effect in illuminated samples [ru

  15. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  16. Applications of AMPS-1D for solar cell simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Kalkan, Ali Kaan; Hou, Jingya; Fonash, Stephen J.

    1999-03-01

    The AMPS-1D PC computer program is now used by over 70 groups world-wide for detector and solar cell analysis. It has proved to be a very powerful tool in understanding device operation and physics for single crystal, poly-crystalline and amorphous structures. For example, AMPS-1D has been successful in explaining the "red kink" [1] and the "transient effect" in CdS/CIGS poly-crystalline solar cells. It has been used to show that thin film poly-Si structures, with reasonable light trapping, are capable of competitive solar cell conversion efficiencies. In the case of a-Si:H structures, it has been used, for example, to settle the discrepancies in bandgap measurement, to predict the effective QE>1 phenomenon later seen in these materials [2], to determine the relative roles of interface and bulk properties, and to point the direction toward 16% triple junction structures. In general AMPS-1D is used for cell and detector design, material parameter sensitivity studies, and parameter extraction. Recently we have shown that it can be used to determine optimum structure and light and voltage biasing conditions in the material parameter extraction function. Information on AMPS can be found at www.psu.edu/dept/AMPS/amps_web/AMPS.html and at other web sites set up by user groups.

  17. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez T, A.M.; Ovando C, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  18. MARG1D: One dimensional outer region matching data code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Shinji; Watanabe, Tomoko.

    1995-08-01

    A code MARG1D has been developed which computes outer region matching data of the one dimensional Newcomb equation. Matching data play an important role in the resistive (and non ideal) Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in a tokamak plasma. The MARG1D code computes matching data by using the boundary value method or by the eigenvalue method. Variational principles are derived for the problems to be solved and a finite element method is applied. Except for the case of marginal stability, the eigenvalue method is equivalent to the boundary value method. However, the eigenvalue method has the several advantages: it is a new method of ideal MHD stability analysis for which the marginally stable state can be identified, and it guarantees numerical stability in computing matching data close to marginal stability. We perform detailed numerical experiments for a model equation with analytical solutions and for the Newcomb equation in the m=1 mode theory. Numerical experiments show that MARG1D code gives the matching data with numerical stability and high accuracy. (author)

  19. Introduction to linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Phillip L

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also:  Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...

  20. Zirconium elasticity modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, G.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the limit and the intermediate values of the Young modulus E, modulus of shear G and of linear modulus of compression K obtainable at various temperatures (4.2 to 1133 K) for single crystals of α-zirconium. Determined and presented are the corrected isotropic elasticity characteristics of E, G, K over the above range of temperatures of textured and non-textured α-Zr

  1. pp-elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E; Cantale, G; Degli-Agosti, S; Hausammann, R; Heer, E; Hess, R; Lechanoine-LeLuc, C; Leo, W; Morenzoni, S; Onel, Y [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the elastic pp experimental program at SIN was to measure enough spin dependent parameters in order to do a direct experimental reconstruction of the elastic scattering amplitudes at a few energies between 400 and 600 MeV and at several angles between 38/sup 0/ cm and 90/sup 0/ cm. This reconstruction was not possible until recently due to lack of experimental data. Information instead has come mainly from phase shift analysis (PSA). The only way to extract the elastic scattering amplitudes without any hypotheses except those of basic symmetries, is to measure a sufficient set of spin dependent parameters at a given angle and energy. With this in view, the authors have measured at 448, 494, 515, 536 and 579 MeV, the polarization, the spin correlation parameters Asub(00nn), Asub(00ss), Asub(00kk), Asub(00ks), the 2-spin parameters Dsub(n0n0), Ksub(n00n), Dsub(s'0s0), Dsub(s'0k0) and the 3-spin parameters Msub(s'0sn), Msub(s'0kn) between 34/sup 0/ cm and 118/sup 0/ cm. A few of these parameters have also been measured at 560 and 470 MeV and at a few energies below 448 MeV. The indices refer to the polarization orientation of the scattered, recoil, beam and target particle respectively.

  2. Plane-wave impulse approximation extraction of the neutron magnetic form factor from Quasi-Elastic 3(rvec H)e((rvec e),e(prime)) at Q2 = 0.3 to 0.6 (GeV/c)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Anderson, B.; Auberbach, L.; Averett, T.; Bertozzi, W.; Black, T.; Calarco, J.; Cardman, L.; Cates, G.D.; Chai, Z.W.; Chen, J.P.; Choi, S.; Chudakov, E.; Churchwell, S.; Corrado, G.S.; Crawford, C.; Dale, D.; Deur, A.; Djawotho, P.; Donnelly, T.W.; Dutta, D.; Finn, J.M.; Gao, H.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, A.V.; Glashausser, C.; Gloeckle, Walter; Golak, J.; Gomez, J.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Hansen, J.O.; Hersman, F.W.; Higinbotham, D.W.; Holmes, R.; Howell, C.R.; Hughes, E.; Humensky, B.; Incerti, S.; Jager, C.W. de; Jensen, J.S.; Jiang, X.; Jones, C.E.; Jones, M.; Kahl, R.; Kamada, H.; Kievsky, A.; Kominis, I.; Korsch, W.; Kramer, K.; Kumbartzki, G.; Kuss, M.; Lakuriqi, E.; Liang, M.; Liyanage, N.; LeRose, J.; Malov, S.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Martin, J.W.; McCormick, K.; McKeown, R. D.; McIlhany, K.; Meziani, Z.E.; Michaels, R.; Miller, G.W.; Mitchell, J.; Nanda, S.; Pace, E.; Pavlin, T.; Petratos, G.G.; Pomatsalyuk, R.I.; Pripstein, D.; Prout, D.; Ransome, R.D.; Roblin, Y.; Rvachev, M.; Saha, A.; Salme, G.; Schnee, M.; Shin, T.; Slifer, K.; Souder, P.A.; Strauch, S.; Suleiman, R.; Sutter, M.; Tipton, B.; Todor, L.; Viviani, M.; Vlahovic, B.; Watson, J.; Williamson, C.F.; Witala, H.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Xiong, F.; Yeh, J.; Zolnierczuk, P.

    2003-01-01

    A high precision measurement of the transverse spin-dependent asymmetry A T in 3 (rvec H)e((rvec e),e(prime)) quasielastic scattering was performed in Hall A at Jefferson Lab at values of the squared four-momentum transfer, Q 2 , between 0.1 and 0.6 (GeV/c) 2 . A T is sensitive to the neutron magnetic form factor, G M n . Values of G M n at Q 2 = 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c) 2 , extracted using Faddeev calculations, were reported previously. Here, we report the extraction of G M n for the remaining Q 2 -values in the range from 0.3 to 0.6 (GeV/c) 2 using a Plane-Wave Impulse Approximation calculation. The results are in good agreement with recent precision data from experiments using a deuterium target

  3. Elastic properties of Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko; Hwang, Junghwan; Nishino, Kazuaki; Saito, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction measurements under tensile loading and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms of elastic deformation in Gum Metal. Tensile stress-strain curves for Gum Metal indicate that cold working substantially decreases the elastic modulus while increasing the yield strength, thereby confirming nonlinearity in the elastic range. The gradient of each curve decreased continuously to about one-third its original value near the elastic limit. As a result of this decrease in elastic modulus and nonlinearity, elastic deformability reaches 2.5% after cold working. Superelasticity is attributed to stress-induced martensitic transformations, although the large elastic deformation in Gum Metal is not accompanied by a phase transformation

  4. Vibrations of Elastic Systems With Applications to MEMS and NEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Magrab, Edward B

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a unified approach to the vibrations of elastic systems as applied to MEMS devices, mechanical components, and civil structures. Applications include atomic force microscopes, energy harvesters, and carbon nanotubes and consider such complicating effects as squeeze film damping, viscous fluid loading, in-plane forces, and proof mass interactions with their elastic supports. These effects are analyzed as single degree-of-freedom models and as more realistic elastic structures. The governing equations and boundary conditions for beams, plates, and shells with interior and boundary attachments are derived by applying variational calculus to an expression describing the energy of the system. The advantages of this approach regarding the generation of orthogonal functions and the Rayleigh-Ritz method are demonstrated. A large number of graphs and tables are given to show the impact of various factors on the systems’ natural frequencies, mode shapes, and responses.

  5. Composite magnetorheological elastomers as dielectrics for plane capacitors: Effects of magnetic field intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balasoiu

    Full Text Available The fabrication of composite magnetorheological elastomers (MRECs based on silicone rubber, carbonyl iron microparticles (10% vol. and polyurethane elastomer doped with 0%, 10% and 20% volume concentration TiO2 microparticles is presented. The obtained MRECs have the shape of thin foils and are used as dielectric materials for manufacturing plane capacitors. Using the plane capacitor method and expression of capacitance as a function of magnetic field intensity, combined with linear elasticity theory, the static magnetoelastic model of the composite is obtained and analyzed. Keywords: Magnetorheological elastomer, TiO2 microparticles, Silicone rubber, Carbonyl iron, Plane capacitor, Magnetoelasticity

  6. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case; Acoplamiento de Nod1D y HOTCHANNEL: caso estatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A.M. [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ovando C, R. [IIE-Gcia. de Energia Nuclear, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  7. Generating asymptotically plane wave spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to study asymptotically plane wave spacetimes which admit an event horizon, we find solutions to vacuum Einstein's equations in arbitrary dimension which have a globally null Killing field and rotational symmetry. We show that while such solutions can be deformed to include ones which are asymptotically plane wave, they do not posses a regular event horizon. If we allow for additional matter, such as in supergravity theories, we show that it is possible to have extremal solutions with globally null Killing field, a regular horizon, and which, in addition, are asymptotically plane wave. In particular, we deform the extremal M2-brane solution in 11-dimensional supergravity so that it behaves asymptotically as a 10-dimensional vacuum plane wave times a real line. (author)

  8. Two-transitive MInkowski planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we determine all finite Minkowski planes with an automorphism group which satisfies the following transitivity property: any ordered pair of nonparallel points can be mapped onto any other ordered pair of nonparallel points.

  9. Out-of-plane stability of roller bent steel arches – an experimental investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Poutre, D.B.; Spoorenberg, R.C.; Snijder, H.H.; Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the elastic-plastic out-of-plane buckling response of roller bent circular steel arches subjected to a single force applied to the crown. The experiments are used to validate a finite element model described in a related paper. A series of 15

  10. Cell Migration in 1D and 2D Nanofiber Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabridis, Horacio M; Jana, Aniket; Nain, Amrinder; Odde, David J

    2018-03-01

    Understanding how cells migrate in fibrous environments is important in wound healing, immune function, and cancer progression. A key question is how fiber orientation and network geometry influence cell movement. Here we describe a quantitative, modeling-based approach toward identifying the mechanisms by which cells migrate in fibrous geometries having well controlled orientation. Specifically, U251 glioblastoma cells were seeded onto non-electrospinning Spinneret based tunable engineering parameters fiber substrates that consist of networks of suspended 400 nm diameter nanofibers. Cells were classified based on the local fiber geometry and cell migration dynamics observed by light microscopy. Cells were found in three distinct geometries: adhering two a single fiber, adhering to two parallel fibers, and adhering to a network of orthogonal fibers. Cells adhering to a single fiber or two parallel fibers can only move in one dimension along the fiber axis, whereas cells on a network of orthogonal fibers can move in two dimensions. We found that cells move faster and more persistently in 1D geometries than in 2D, with cell migration being faster on parallel fibers than on single fibers. To explain these behaviors mechanistically, we simulated cell migration in the three different geometries using a motor-clutch based model for cell traction forces. Using nearly identical parameter sets for each of the three cases, we found that the simulated cells naturally replicated the reduced migration in 2D relative to 1D geometries. In addition, the modestly faster 1D migration on parallel fibers relative to single fibers was captured using a correspondingly modest increase in the number of clutches to reflect increased surface area of adhesion on parallel fibers. Overall, the integrated modeling and experimental analysis shows that cell migration in response to varying fibrous geometries can be explained by a simple mechanical readout of geometry via a motor-clutch mechanism.

  11. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  12. D1/D5 systems in N=4 string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gava, Edi; Hammou, Amine B.; Morales, Jose F.; Narain, Kumar S.

    2001-01-01

    We propose CFT descriptions of the D1/D5 system in a class of freely acting Z 2 orbifolds/orientifolds of type IIB theory, with sixteen unbroken supercharges. The CFTs describing D1/D5 systems involve N=(4,4) or N=(4,0) sigma models on (R 3 xS 1 xT 4 x(T 4 ) N /S N )/Z 2 , where the action of Z 2 is diagonal and its precise nature depends on the model. We also discuss D1(D5)-brane states carrying non-trivial Kaluza-Klein charges, which correspond to excitations of two-dimensional CFTs of the type (R 3 xS 1 xT 4 ) N /S N xZ 2 N . The resulting multiplicities for two-charge bound states are shown to agree with the predictions of U-duality. We raise a puzzle concerning the multiplicities of three-charge systems, which is generically present in all vacuum configurations with sixteen unbroken supercharges studied so far, including the more familiar type IIB on K3 case: the constraints put on BPS counting formulae by U-duality are apparently in contradiction with any CFT interpretation. We argue that the presence of RR backgrounds appearing in the symmetric product CFT may provide a resolution of this puzzle. Finally, we show that the whole tower of D-instanton corrections to certain 'BPS saturated couplings' in the low energy effective actions match with the corresponding one-loop threshold corrections on the dual fundamental string side

  13. 1D energy transport in a strongly scattering laboratory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijk, Kasper van; Scales, John A.; Haney, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Radiative transfer (RT) theory is often invoked to describe energy propagation in strongly scattering media. Fitting RT to measured wave field intensities is rather different at late times, when the transport is diffusive, than at intermediate times (around one extinction mean free time), when ballistic and diffusive behavior coexist. While there are many examples of late-time RT fits, we describe ultrasonic multiple scattering measurements with RT over the entire range of times--from ballistic to diffusive. In addition to allowing us to retrieve the scattering and absorption mean free paths independently, our results also support theoretical predictions in 1D that suggest an intermediate regime of diffusive (nonlocalized) behavior

  14. ESO science data product standard for 1D spectral products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micol, Alberto; Arnaboldi, Magda; Delmotte, Nausicaa A. R.; Mascetti, Laura; Retzlaff, Joerg

    2016-07-01

    The ESO Phase 3 process allows the upload, validation, storage, and publication of reduced data through the ESO Science Archive Facility. Since its introduction, 2 million data products have been archived and published; 80% of them are one-dimensional extracted and calibrated spectra. Central to Phase3 is the ESO science data product standard that defines metadata and data format of any product. This contribution describes the ESO data standard for 1d-spectra, its adoption by the reduction pipelines of selected instrument modes for in-house generation of reduced spectra, the enhanced archive legacy value. Archive usage statistics are provided.

  15. 1D-transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michotte, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Piraux, L.

    2003-01-01

    of the nanowire is small enough to ensure a 1D superconducting regime in a wide temperature range below T. The non-zero resistance in the superconducting state and its variation caused by fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter were measured versus temperature, magnetic field, and applied DC current......We report on the transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires grown by an electrodeposition technique, embedded in a nanoporous track-etched polymer membrane. The nanowires are granular, have uniform diameter of ̃40 nm and a very large aspect ratio (̃500). The diameter...

  16. 1-D blood flow modelling in a running human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Viktor; Halász, Gábor

    2017-07-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to simulate blood flow in a mobile human arterial network, specifically, in a running human subject. In order to simulate the effect of motion, a previously published immobile 1-D model was modified by including an inertial force term into the momentum equation. To calculate inertial force, gait analysis was performed at different levels of speed. Our results show that motion has a significant effect on the amplitudes of the blood pressure and flow rate but the average values are not effected significantly.

  17. 1D equation for toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhansky, V A; Senichenkov, I Yu

    2010-01-01

    A 1D equation for toroidal momentum transport is derived for a given set of turbulent transport coefficients. The averaging is performed taking account of the poloidal variation of the toroidal fluxes and is based on the ambipolar condition of the zero net radial current through the flux surface. It is demonstrated that taking account of the Pfirsch-Schlueter fluxes leads to a torque in the toroidal direction which is proportional to the gradient of the ion temperature. This effect is new and has not been discussed before. The boundary condition at the separatrix, which is based on the results of the 2D simulations of the edge plasma, is formulated.

  18. 1D models for condensation induced water hammer in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemeling, Frank; Neuhas, Thorsten; Schaffrath, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) are caused by contact of steam and subcooled water. Thus, modeling the direct contact condensation is a crucial step towards the simulation of condensation induced water hammer with 1D pressure surge codes. Therefore, also the TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH and Co. KG inhouse pressure surge code DYVRO has been equipped with a new contact condensation model. The validation of DYVRO against an experiment dealing with CIWH is presented in this contribution. (orig.)

  19. 1D models for condensation induced water hammer in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloemeling, Frank; Neuhas, Thorsten; Schaffrath, Andreas [TUEV NORD SysTec GmbH und Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) are caused by contact of steam and subcooled water. Thus, modeling the direct contact condensation is a crucial step towards the simulation of condensation induced water hammer with 1D pressure surge codes. Therefore, also the TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH and Co. KG inhouse pressure surge code DYVRO has been equipped with a new contact condensation model. The validation of DYVRO against an experiment dealing with CIWH is presented in this contribution. (orig.)

  20. Form finding in elastic gridshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Changyeob; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O.; Jawed, Mohammad K.; Reis, Pedro M.

    2018-01-01

    Elastic gridshells comprise an initially planar network of elastic rods that are actuated into a shell-like structure by loading their extremities. The resulting actuated form derives from the elastic buckling of the rods subjected to inextensibility. We study elastic gridshells with a focus on the rational design of the final shapes. Our precision desktop experiments exhibit complex geometries, even from seemingly simple initial configurations and actuation processes. The numerical simulations capture this nonintuitive behavior with excellent quantitative agreement, allowing for an exploration of parameter space that reveals multistable states. We then turn to the theory of smooth Chebyshev nets to address the inverse design of hemispherical elastic gridshells. The results suggest that rod inextensibility, not elastic response, dictates the zeroth-order shape of an actuated elastic gridshell. As it turns out, this is the shape of a common household strainer. Therefore, the geometry of Chebyshev nets can be further used to understand elastic gridshells. In particular, we introduce a way to quantify the intrinsic shape of the empty, but enclosed regions, which we then use to rationalize the nonlocal deformation of elastic gridshells to point loading. This justifies the observed difficulty in form finding. Nevertheless, we close with an exploration of concatenating multiple elastic gridshell building blocks.

  1. Mathematical foundations of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Jerrold E

    1994-01-01

    This advanced-level study approaches mathematical foundations of three-dimensional elasticity using modern differential geometry and functional analysis. It is directed to mathematicians, engineers and physicists who wish to see this classical subject in a modern setting with examples of newer mathematical contributions. Prerequisites include a solid background in advanced calculus and the basics of geometry and functional analysis.The first two chapters cover the background geometry ― developed as needed ― and use this discussion to obtain the basic results on kinematics and dynamics of con

  2. Elastic and viscoplastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebensohn, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we review crystal elasticity and plasticity-based self-consistent theories and apply them to the determination of the effective response of polycrystalline aggregates. These mean-field formulations, which enable the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of polycrystalline aggregates based on the heterogeneous and/or directional properties of their constituent single crystal grains and phases, are ideal tools to establish relationships between microstructure and properties of these materials, ubiquitous among fuels and structural materials for nuclear systems. (author)

  3. Constitutive modeling and control of 1D smart composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jonathan P.; Ostrowski, James P.; Ponte-Castaneda, Pedro

    1998-07-01

    Homogenization techniques for determining effective properties of composite materials may provide advantages for control of stiffness and strain in systems using hysteretic smart actuators embedded in a soft matrix. In this paper, a homogenized model of a 1D composite structure comprised of shape memory alloys and a rubber-like matrix is presented. With proportional and proportional/integral feedback, using current as the input state and global strain as an error state, implementation scenarios include the use of tractions on the boundaries and a nonlinear constitutive law for the matrix. The result is a simple model which captures the nonlinear behavior of the smart composite material system and is amenable to experiments with various control paradigms. The success of this approach in the context of the 1D model suggests that the homogenization method may prove useful in investigating control of more general smart structures. Applications of such materials could include active rehabilitation aids, e.g. wrist braces, as well as swimming/undulating robots, or adaptive molds for manufacturing processes.

  4. Blood flow quantification using 1D CFD parameter identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosig, Richard; Kowarschik, Markus; Maday, Peter; Katouzian, Amin; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir

    2014-03-01

    Patient-specific measurements of cerebral blood flow provide valuable diagnostic information concerning cerebrovascular diseases rather than visually driven qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we present a quantitative method to estimate blood flow parameters with high temporal resolution from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) image sequences. Using a 3D DSA dataset and a 2D+t DSA sequence, the proposed algorithm employs a 1D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for estimation of time-dependent flow values along a cerebral vessel, combined with an additional Advection Diffusion Equation (ADE) for contrast agent propagation. The CFD system, followed by the ADE, is solved with a finite volume approximation, which ensures the conservation of mass. Instead of defining a new imaging protocol to obtain relevant data, our cost function optimizes the bolus arrival time (BAT) of the contrast agent in 2D+t DSA sequences. The visual determination of BAT is common clinical practice and can be easily derived from and be compared to values, generated by a 1D-CFD simulation. Using this strategy, we ensure that our proposed method fits best to clinical practice and does not require any changes to the medical work flow. Synthetic experiments show that the recovered flow estimates match the ground truth values with less than 12% error in the mean flow rates.

  5. Modeling atrazine transport in soil columns with HYDRUS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leju Celestino Ladu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Both physical and chemical processes affect the fate and transport of herbicides. It is useful to simulate these processes with computer programs to predict solute movement. Simulations were run with HYDRUS-1D to identify the sorption and degradation parameters of atrazine through calibration from the breakthrough curves (BTCs. Data from undisturbed and disturbed soil column experiments were compared and analyzed using the dual-porosity model. The study results show that the values of dispersivity are slightly lower in disturbed columns, suggesting that the more heterogeneous the structure is, the higher the dispersivity. Sorption parameters also show slight variability, which is attributed to the differences in soil properties, experimental conditions and methods, or other ecological factors. For both of the columns, the degradation rates were similar. Potassium bromide was used as a conservative non-reactive tracer to characterize the water movement in columns. Atrazine BTCs exhibited significant tailing and asymmetry, indicating non-equilibrium sorption during solute transport. The dual-porosity model was verified to best fit the BTCs of the column experiments. Greater or lesser concentration of atrazine spreading to the bottom of the columns indicated risk of groundwater contamination. Overall, HYDRUS-1D successfully simulated the atrazine transport in soil columns.

  6. Analytic study of 1D diffusive relativistic shock acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshet, Uri, E-mail: ukeshet@bgu.ac.il [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Be' er-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2017-10-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) by relativistic shocks is thought to generate the dN / dE ∝ E{sup −p} spectra of charged particles in various astronomical relativistic flows. We show that for test particles in one dimension (1D), p {sup −1}=1−ln[γ{sub d}(1+β{sub d})]/ln[γ{sub u}(1+β{sub u})], where β{sub u}(β{sub d}) is the upstream (downstream) normalized velocity, and γ is the respective Lorentz factor. This analytically captures the main properties of relativistic DSA in higher dimensions, with no assumptions on the diffusion mechanism. Unlike 2D and 3D, here the spectrum is sensitive to the equation of state even in the ultra-relativistic limit, and (for a J(üttner-Synge equation of state) noticeably hardens with increasing 1<γ{sub u}<57, before logarithmically converging back to p (γ{sub u→∞})=2. The 1D spectrum is sensitive to drifts, but only in the downstream, and not in the ultra-relativistic limit.

  7. A Framework for Low-Communication 1-D FFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Tak Peter Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-performance computing on distributed-memory systems, communication often represents a significant part of the overall execution time. The relative cost of communication will certainly continue to rise as compute-density growth follows the current technology and industry trends. Design of lower-communication alternatives to fundamental computational algorithms has become an important field of research. For distributed 1-D FFT, communication cost has hitherto remained high as all industry-standard implementations perform three all-to-all internode data exchanges (also called global transposes. These communication steps indeed dominate execution time. In this paper, we present a mathematical framework from which many single-all-to-all and easy-to-implement 1-D FFT algorithms can be derived. For large-scale problems, our implementation can be twice as fast as leading FFT libraries on state-of-the-art computer clusters. Moreover, our framework allows tradeoff between accuracy and performance, further boosting performance if reduced accuracy is acceptable.

  8. Comparison of waveguide properties of curved versus straight planar elastic layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Maziyar Nesari; Sorokin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion equations are solved for the in-plane and anti-plane wave propagation in planar elastic layer with constant curvature. The classical Lamé formulation of displacements via elastic potentials is applied and appropriate simplifications are employed. The dispersion diagrams in each case...... are compared with their counterparts for a straight layer, e.g., the classical Rayleigh–Lamb solution. The curvature-induced symmetry-breaking effects are investigated for layers with symmetric boundary conditions. The role of curvature is also investigated in the cases, when the boundary conditions...

  9. Mathematical methods in elasticity imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ammari, Habib; Garnier, Josselin; Kang, Hyeonbae; Lee, Hyundae; Wahab, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to comprehensively explore elasticity imaging and examines recent, important developments in asymptotic imaging, modeling, and analysis of deterministic and stochastic elastic wave propagation phenomena. It derives the best possible functional images for small inclusions and cracks within the context of stability and resolution, and introduces a topological derivative-based imaging framework for detecting elastic inclusions in the time-harmonic regime. For imaging extended elastic inclusions, accurate optimal control methodologies are designed and the effects of uncertainties of the geometric or physical parameters on stability and resolution properties are evaluated. In particular, the book shows how localized damage to a mechanical structure affects its dynamic characteristics, and how measured eigenparameters are linked to elastic inclusion or crack location, orientation, and size. Demonstrating a novel method for identifying, locating, and estimating inclusions and cracks in elastic...

  10. Scattering of elastic waves by thin inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    A solution is derived for the elastic waves scattered by a thin inclusion. The solution is asymptotically valid as inclusion thickness tends to zero with the other dimensions and the frequency fixed. The method entails first approximating the total field in the inclusion in terms of the incident wave by enforcing the appropriate continuity conditions on traction and displacement across the interface, then using these displacements and strains in the volume integral that gives the scattered field. Expressions are derived for the far-field angular distributions of P and S waves due to an incident plane P wave, and plots are given for normalized differential cross sections of an oblate spheroidal tungsten carbide inclusion in a titanium matrix

  11. Special discontinuities in nonlinearly elastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugainova, A. P.

    2017-06-01

    Solutions of a nonlinear hyperbolic system of equations describing weakly nonlinear quasitransverse waves in a weakly anisotropic elastic medium are studied. The influence of small-scale processes of dissipation and dispersion is investigated. The small-scale processes determine the structure of discontinuities (shocks) and a set of discontinuities with a stationary structure. Among the discontinuities with a stationary structure, there are special ones that, in addition to relations following from conservation laws, satisfy additional relations required for the existence of their structure. In the phase plane, the structure of such discontinuities is represented by an integral curve joining two saddles. Special discontinuities lead to nonunique self-similar solutions of the Riemann problem. Asymptotics of non-self-similar problems for equations with dissipation and dispersion are found numerically. These asymptotics correspond to self-similar solutions of the problems.

  12. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  13. Heavy ion elastic scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative

  14. Design guidance for elastic followup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naugle, F.V.

    1983-01-01

    The basic mechanism of elastic followup is discussed in relation to piping design. It is shown how mechanistic insight gained from solutions for a two-bar problem can be used to identify dominant design parameters and to determine appropriate modifications where elastic followup is a potential problem. It is generally recognized that quantitative criteria are needed for elastic followup in the creep range where badly unbalanced lines can pose potential problems. Approaches for criteria development are discussed

  15. Income Elasticity of Environmental Amenities

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Miles; Andrés Pereyra; Máximo Rossi

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the estimation of income elasticities of environmental amenities. The novelty is the application of econometric methods that take into account the problem of measurement errors when estimating these elasticities, which are common in microeconomic data and are not usually considered in the applied literature related with this issue. Our aim is to discuss whether the measurement error has signi…cant e¤ects on the elasticities. Data from the Expenditure Budget...

  16. Shear Elasticity and Shear Viscosity Imaging in Soft Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun

    In this thesis, a new approach is introduced that provides estimates of shear elasticity and shear viscosity using time-domain measurements of shear waves in viscoelastic media. Simulations of shear wave particle displacements induced by an acoustic radiation force are accelerated significantly by a GPU. The acoustic radiation force is first calculated using the fast near field method (FNM) and the angular spectrum approach (ASA). The shear waves induced by the acoustic radiation force are then simulated in elastic and viscoelastic media using Green's functions. A parallel algorithm is developed to perform these calculations on a GPU, where the shear wave particle displacements at different observation points are calculated in parallel. The resulting speed increase enables rapid evaluation of shear waves at discrete points, in 2D planes, and for push beams with different spatial samplings and for different values of the f-number (f/#). The results of these simulations show that push beams with smaller f/# require a higher spatial sampling rate. The significant amount of acceleration achieved by this approach suggests that shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs. Shear wave elasticity imaging determines the mechanical parameters of soft tissue by analyzing measured shear waves induced by an acoustic radiation force. To estimate the shear elasticity value, the widely used time-of-flight method calculates the correlation between shear wave particle velocities at adjacent lateral observation points. Although this method provides accurate estimates of the shear elasticity in purely elastic media, our experience suggests that the time-of-flight (TOF) method consistently overestimates the shear elasticity values in viscoelastic media because the combined effects of diffraction, attenuation, and dispersion are not considered. To address this problem, we have developed an approach that directly accounts for all

  17. A calculational round robin in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    Eighteen organisations participated in this elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) numerical analysis round robin which treated the same three-point bend problem as a similar round robin conducted by ASTM four years earlier. The work involved the calculation of overall deformation, J, CTOD and crack profile using plane strain elastic-plastic finite element analysis for a monotonically increasing load up to a maximum deformation which was far beyond the elastic regime. It was found that all of the elastic solutions were accurate to within a few per cent. In the elastic-plastic regime, however, there was a large scatter of the results, increasing with increasing plastic deformation and roughly of the same order as in the ASTM round robin which contained ten solutions. No significant progress has taken place in the state of the art of numerical EPFM analysis over the four-year interval. The reasons for this scatter and tentative conclusions on the most suitable numerical analysis methods in EPFM are discussed. (author)

  18. Texture and Elastic Anisotropy of Mantle Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. N.; Ivankina, T. I.; Bourilitchev, D. E.; Klima, K.; Locajicek, T.; Pros, Z.

    Eight olivine rock samples from different European regions were collected for neu- tron texture analyses and for P-wave velocity measurements by means of ultrasonic sounding at various confining pressures. The orientation distribution functions (ODFs) of olivine were determined and pole figures of the main crystallographic planes were calculated. The spatial P-wave velocity distributions were determined at confining pressures from 0.1 to 400 MPa and modelled from the olivine textures. In dependence upon the type of rock (xenolith or dunite) different behavior of both the P-wave veloc- ity distributions and the anisotropy coefficients with various confining pressures was observed. In order to explain the interdependence of elastic anisotropy and hydrostatic pressure, a model for polycrystalline olivine rocks was suggested, which considers the influence of the crystallographic and the mechanical textures on the elastic behaviour of the polycrystal. Since the olivine texture depends upon the active slip systems and the deformation temperature, neutron texture analyses enable us to estimate depth and thermodynamical conditions during texture formation.

  19. Wrinkling in the deflation of elastic bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumaitre, Elodie; Knoche, Sebastian; Cicuta, Pietro; Vella, Dominic

    2013-03-01

    The protein hydrophobin HFBII self-assembles into very elastic films at the surface of water; these films wrinkle readily upon compression. We demonstrate and study this wrinkling instability in the context of non-planar interfaces by forming HFBII layers at the surface of bubbles whose interfaces are then compressed by deflation of the bubble. By varying the initial concentration of the hydrophobin solutions, we are able to show that buckling occurs at a critical packing fraction of protein molecules on the surface. Independent experiments show that at this packing fraction the interface has a finite positive surface tension, and not zero surface tension as is usually assumed at buckling. We attribute this non-zero wrinkling tension to the finite elasticity of these interfaces. We develop a simple geometrical model for the evolution of the wrinkle length with further deflation and show that wrinkles grow rapidly near the needle (used for deflation) towards the mid-plane of the bubble. This geometrical model yields predictions for the length of wrinkles in good agreement with experiments independently of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layer.

  20. Wrinkling in the deflation of elastic bubbles

    KAUST Repository

    Aumaitre, Elodie

    2013-03-01

    The protein hydrophobin HFBII self-assembles into very elastic films at the surface of water; these films wrinkle readily upon compression. We demonstrate and study this wrinkling instability in the context of non-planar interfaces by forming HFBII layers at the surface of bubbles whose interfaces are then compressed by deflation of the bubble. By varying the initial concentration of the hydrophobin solutions, we are able to show that buckling occurs at a critical packing fraction of protein molecules on the surface. Independent experiments show that at this packing fraction the interface has a finite positive surface tension, and not zero surface tension as is usually assumed at buckling. We attribute this non-zero wrinkling tension to the finite elasticity of these interfaces. We develop a simple geometrical model for the evolution of the wrinkle length with further deflation and show that wrinkles grow rapidly near the needle (used for deflation) towards the mid-plane of the bubble. This geometrical model yields predictions for the length of wrinkles in good agreement with experiments independently of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layer. © 2013 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Wave chaos in the elastic disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondergaard, Niels; Tanner, Gregor

    2002-12-01

    The relation between the elastic wave equation for plane, isotropic bodies and an underlying classical ray dynamics is investigated. We study, in particular, the eigenfrequencies of an elastic disk with free boundaries and their connection to periodic rays inside the circular domain. Even though the problem is separable, wave mixing between the shear and pressure component of the wave field at the boundary leads to an effective stochastic part in the ray dynamics. This introduces phenomena typically associated with classical chaos as, for example, an exponential increase in the number of periodic orbits. Classically, the problem can be decomposed into an integrable part and a simple binary Markov process. Similarly, the wave equation can, in the high-frequency limit, be mapped onto a quantum graph. Implications of this result for the level statistics are discussed. Furthermore, a periodic trace formula is derived from the scattering matrix based on the inside-outside duality between eigenmodes and scattering solutions and periodic orbits are identified by Fourier transforming the spectral density.

  2. Elastic energy and metastable phase equilibria for coherent mixtures in cubic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.O.

    1979-02-01

    Expressions were derived for the elastic energy due to coherency for cubic systems for an isotropic structure and for (100) or (111) habit planes for a lamellar structure. For the metastable equilibria the usual tangent compositions are replaced by compositions that are tangent to the elastic energy curve. For a loss of coherency there is an energy decrease due to the elastic effects and a further decrease associated with compositional changes. Information contained within this treatment permits calculation of the x-ray diffraction effects for such structures

  3. Modelling of planar interface elastic behaviour: Application to grain boundaries in polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelebart, L.

    2010-01-01

    In polycrystalline elastic simulations, grain boundaries can be considered as volume inter-phases or as elastic interfaces assuming a displacement jump across the interface. Such an interface description does not account for the in-plane deformation of the interface and Poisson effects cannot be reproduced. The purpose of this Note is to provide an enriched description of the elastic interface which takes into account such effects. When considering a multilayer material, the interphase description and the enriched interface description yield identical homogenized behaviour while quite important discrepancies can be observed with the classical interface description. (author)

  4. Traveling waves in a continuum model of 1D schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Anand; Kanso, Eva; Shelley, Michael

    2017-11-01

    We construct and analyze a continuum model of a 1D school of flapping swimmers. Our starting point is a delay differential equation that models the interaction between a swimmer and its upstream neighbors' wakes, which is motivated by recent experiments in the Applied Math Lab at NYU. We coarse-grain the evolution equations and derive PDEs for the swimmer density and variables describing the upstream wake. We study the equations both analytically and numerically, and find that a uniform density of swimmers destabilizes into a traveling wave. Our model makes a number of predictions about the properties of such traveling waves, and sheds light on the role of hydrodynamics in mediating the structure of swimming schools.

  5. Quadratic Finite Element Method for 1D Deterministic Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolar, D R Jr.; Ferguson, J M

    2004-01-01

    In the discrete ordinates, or SN, numerical solution of the transport equation, both the spatial ((und r)) and angular ((und (Omega))) dependences on the angular flux ψ(und r),(und (Omega))are modeled discretely. While significant effort has been devoted toward improving the spatial discretization of the angular flux, we focus on improving the angular discretization of ψ(und r),(und (Omega)). Specifically, we employ a Petrov-Galerkin quadratic finite element approximation for the differencing of the angular variable (μ) in developing the one-dimensional (1D) spherical geometry S N equations. We develop an algorithm that shows faster convergence with angular resolution than conventional S N algorithms

  6. Axial turbomachine modelling with a 1D axisymmetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauveron, Nicolas; Saez, Manuel; Ferrand, Pascal; Leboeuf, Francis

    2007-01-01

    This work concerns the design and safety analysis of direct cycle gas cooled reactor. The estimation of compressor and turbine performances in transient operations is of high importance for the designer. The first goal of this study is to provide a description of compressor behaviour in unstable conditions with a better understanding than the models based on performance maps ('traditional' 0D approach). A supplementary objective is to provide a coherent description of the turbine behaviour. The turbomachine modelling approach consists in the solution of 1D axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations on an axial grid inside the turbomachine: mass, axial momentum, circumferential momentum and total-enthalpy balances are written. Blade forces are taken into account by using compressor or turbine blade cascade steady correlations. A particular effort has been developed to generate or test correlations in low mass flow and negative mass flow regimes, based on experimental data. The model is tested on open literature cases of the gas turbine aircraft community. For compressor and turbine, steady situations are fairly described, especially for medium and high mass flow rate. The dynamic behaviour of compressor is also quite well described, even in unstable operation (surge): qualitative tendencies (role of plenum volume and role of throttle) and some quantitative characteristics (frequency) are in a good agreement with experimental data. The application to transient simulations of gas cooled nuclear reactors is concentrated on the hypothetical 10 in. break accident. The results point out the importance of the location of the pipe rupture in a hypothetical break event. In some detailed cases, compressor surge and back flow through the circuit can occur. In order to be used in a design phase, a simplified model of surge has also been developed. This simplified model is applied to the gas fast reactor (GFR) and compared quite favourably with 1D axisymmetric simulation results

  7. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, the error analysis has been done for the linear approximate transformation between two tangent planes in celestial sphere in a simple case. The results demonstrate that the error from the linear transformation does not meet the requirement of high-precision astrometry under some conditions, so the ...

  8. Low-temperature monocrystal elastic constants of Fe-19Cr-10Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    By a pulse-echo-overlap ultrasonic method, we determined the monocrystal elastic constants (C 11 , C 12 , C 44 ) of an Fe-19Cr-10Ni alloy between 295 and 4 K. In composition this laboratory alloy approximates a technological austenitic stainless steel: AISI 304. Many previous studies on polycrystalline steels found a low-temperature magnetic phase transition that affects physical properties, including elastic constants. At the transition, anomalies occur in all polycrystal elastic constants: Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and Poisson's ratio. The present study found that the transition, near 50 K, does not affect one monocrystal elastic constant: C 44 , the resistance to shear on a (100) plane in a [100]-type direction. We interpret this new observation from the viewpoint of a Born-type lattice model. Also, we comment about the relationship between the elastic-constant changes and the low-temperature magnetic state

  9. Testing of focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  10. Measurement of the elastic cross section for positive pions on carbon at 142 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyer, A.T.

    1976-12-01

    A measurement of the elastic cross section dsigma/dΩ was made for the reaction π + + 12 C → π + + 12 C with 142 MeV pions at ten angles ranging from 35 to 85 0 in the laboratory. This experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. A double focusing magnetic spectrometer observed a cylindrical styrofoam target. The resulting momentum spectra were recorded by an array of nineteen totally depleted surface barrier detectors located at the spectrometer's focal plane. The spectra from the styrofoam were composed of peaks representing proton elastic, carbon elastic, carbon inelastic, and carbon quasi-elastic channels. A function made of Gaussians representing the two body channels and a distribution representing the quasi-elastic channel was fit to the data using a nonlinear least squares algorithm. The ratio of the carbon elastic to proton elastic cross sections was calculated from the areas of the corresponding Gaussians and then multiplied by the proton elastic cross section of Bugg et al eliminating several sources of systematic errors such as beam normalization. The differential cross sections were found to have the usual diffraction structure with a forward peak and a minimum near 55 0 . Finally, the carbon elastic cross sections were compared to similar π - + 12 C cross sections of Binon et al using the optical model

  11. Measurement of the elastic cross section for positive pions on carbon at 142 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyer, A.T.

    1976-12-01

    A measurement of the elastic cross section dsigma/d..cap omega.. was made for the reaction ..pi../sup +/ + /sup 12/C ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/ + /sup 12/C with 142 MeV pions at ten angles ranging from 35 to 85/sup 0/ in the laboratory. This experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. A double focusing magnetic spectrometer observed a cylindrical styrofoam target. The resulting momentum spectra were recorded by an array of nineteen totally depleted surface barrier detectors located at the spectrometer's focal plane. The spectra from the styrofoam were composed of peaks representing proton elastic, carbon elastic, carbon inelastic, and carbon quasi-elastic channels. A function made of Gaussians representing the two body channels and a distribution representing the quasi-elastic channel was fit to the data using a nonlinear least squares algorithm. The ratio of the carbon elastic to proton elastic cross sections was calculated from the areas of the corresponding Gaussians and then multiplied by the proton elastic cross section of Bugg et al eliminating several sources of systematic errors such as beam normalization. The differential cross sections were found to have the usual diffraction structure with a forward peak and a minimum near 55/sup 0/. Finally, the carbon elastic cross sections were compared to similar ..pi../sup -/ + /sup 12/C cross sections of Binon et al using the optical model.

  12. Measurement of the elastic cross section for positive pions on carbon at 142 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyer, A.T.

    1976-01-01

    A measurement of the elastic cross section dsigma/dOMEGA was made for the reaction π + + 12 C yields π + + 12 C with 142 MeV pions at ten angles ranging from 35 to 85 0 in the laboratory. This experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. A double focusing magnetic spectrometer observed a cylindrical styrofoam target. The resulting momentum spectra were recorded by an array of nineteen totally depleted surface barrier detectors located at the spectrometers focal plane. The spectra from the styrofoam were composed of peaks representing proton elastic, carbon elastic, carbon inelastic and carbon quasi-elastic channels. A function made of Gaussians representing the two body channels and a distribution representing the quasi-elastic channel was fit to the data using a nonlinear least squares algorithm. The ratio of the carbon elastic to proton elastic cross sections was calculated from the areas of the corresponding Gaussians and then multiplied by the proton elastic cross section of Bugg et al., eliminating several sources of systematic errors such as beam normalization. The differential cross sections were found to have the usual diffraction structure with a forward peak and a minimum near 55 0 . Finally, the carbon elastic cross sections were compared to similar π - + 12 C cross sections of Binon et al., using the optical model

  13. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  14. Diverging strains near threshold: Breakdown of the elastic description of a charge density wave model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mungan, M.; Coppersmith, S.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the strains near threshold in 1-d charge density wave models at zero temperature and strong pinning. We show that in these models local strains diverge near the depinning threshold and characterize the scaling behavior of the phenomenon. This helps quantify when the underlying elastic description breaks down and plastic effects have to be included

  15. One-dimensional in-plane edge domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ross G.; Muratov, Cyrill B.; Slastikov, Valeriy V.

    2018-03-01

    We study existence and properties of 1D edge domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic films with uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. In these materials, the magnetization vector is constrained to lie entirely in the film plane, with the preferred directions dictated by the magnetocrystalline easy axis. We consider magnetization profiles in the vicinity of a straight film edge oriented at an arbitrary angle with respect to the easy axis. To minimize the micromagnetic energy, these profiles form transition layers in which the magnetization vector rotates away from the direction of the easy axis to align with the film edge. We prove existence of edge domain walls as minimizers of the appropriate 1D micromagnetic energy functional and show that they are classical solutions of the associated Euler-Lagrange equation with a Dirichlet boundary condition at the edge. We also perform a numerical study of these 1D domain walls and uncover further properties of these domain wall profiles.

  16. On applicability of crack shape characterization rules for multiple in-plane surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Min; Choi, Suhn; Park, Keun Bae; Choi, Jae Boong; Huh, Nam Su

    2009-01-01

    The fracture mechanics assessment parameters, such as the elastic stress intensity factor and the elastic-plastic J-integral, for a surface crack can be significantly affected by adjacent cracks. Regarding such an interaction effect, the relative distance between adjacent cracks, crack aspect ratio and loading condition were known to be important factors for multiple cracks, which affects the fracture mechanics assessment parameters. Although several guidance (ASME Sec. XI, BS7910, British Energy R6 and API RP579) on a crack interaction effect (crack combination rule) have been proposed and used for assessing the interaction effect, each guidance provides different rules for combining multiple surface cracks into a single surface crack. Based on the systematic elastic and elastic-plastic finite element analyses, the present study investigated the acceptability of the crack combination rules provided in the existing guidance, and the relevant recommendations on a crack interaction for in-plane surface cracks in a plate were discussed. To quantify the interaction effect, the elastic stress intensity factor and elastic-plastic J-integral along the crack front were used. As for the loading condition, only axial tension was considered. As a result, BS7910 seems to provide the most relevant crack combination rule for in-plane dual surface cracks, whereas API RP579 provides the most conservative results. In particular, ASME Sec. XI still seems to have some room for a revision to shorten the critical distance between two adjacent cracks for a crack combination. The overall tendency of the elastic-plastic analyses results is identical to that of the elastic analyses results.

  17. Nonlinear Elasticity of Doped Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0206 NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS Mark Dykman and Kirill Moskovtsev Michigan State University...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7600 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...vibration amplitude. 15. SUBJECT TERMS semiconductors , microresonators, microelectromechanical 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  18. Elasticity theory of ultrathin nanofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiangang; Yun, Guohong; Narsu, B; Yao, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    A self-consistent theoretical scheme for describing the elastic behavior of ultrathin nanofilms (UTNFs) was proposed. Taking into account the lower symmetry of an UTNF compared to its bulk counterpart, additional elastic and magnetoelastic parameters were introduced to model the elasticity rigorously. The applications of current theory to several elastic and magnetoelastic systems gave excellent agreement with experiments. More importantly, the surface elastic and magnetoelastic parameters used to fit the experimental results are physically reasonable and in close agreement with those obtained from experiment and simulation. This fact suggests that the additional elastic (magnetoelastic) constants due to symmetry breaking are of great importance in theoretical description of the mechanical properties of UTNFs. And we proved that the elasticity of UTNFs should be described by a three-dimensional model just including the intrinsic surface and bulk parameters, but not the effective surface parameters. It is believed that the theory reported here is a universal strategy for elasticity and magnetoelasticity of ultrathin films. (paper)

  19. Cell Elasticity Determines Macrophage Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Naimish R.; Bole, Medhavi; Chen, Cheng; Hardin, Charles C.; Kho, Alvin T.; Mih, Justin; Deng, Linhong; Butler, James; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Koziel, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function. PMID:23028423

  20. Cell elasticity determines macrophage function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimish R Patel

    Full Text Available Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function.

  1. Multipurpose hooks for elastic attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As certain bracket systems do not include hooks on premolar brackets for elastic attachment, Kobayashi or custom made ligature hooks have proven as an alternative. However, these hooks tend to bend labially when used with heavy elastics and these elastics can even pop loose from the hooks on mouth opening. The following article describes an innovative multipurpose hook which is simple, stiff and inexpensive and can be used for engagement of class II elastics on premolars in case of missing molars as well as engagement of intermaxillary elastics for settling of occlusion in finishing stages. As the hooks can be prefabricated, this saves a lot of chair side time and is more practical for use in day-to-day orthodontic practice.

  2. Interaction of gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical theory of colliding, infinite-fronted, plane gravitational waves is presented. The process of focusing, the creation of singularities and horizons, due to the interaction, and the lens effect due to a beam-like gravitational wave are discussed

  3. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second...

  4. Blocking sets in Desarguesian planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, A.; Miklós, D.; Sós, V.T.; Szönyi, T.

    1996-01-01

    We survey recent results concerning the size of blocking sets in desarguesian projective and affine planes, and implications of these results and the technique to prove them, to related problemis, such as the size of maximal partial spreads, small complete arcs, small strong representative systems

  5. Gravitational Couplings for y-Gop-Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Juan Fernando Ospina

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino action for y deformed and generalized orientifold planes (yGOp-planes) is presented and one power expantion is realized from which processes that involves yGOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard yGOp-planes are showed.

  6. Gravitational Couplings for Generalized Orientifold Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Juan Fernando Ospina

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino action for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) is presented and a series power expantion is realized from which processes that involves GOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes are showed.

  7. Blocky inversion of multichannel elastic impedance for elastic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozayan, Davoud Karami; Gholami, Ali; Siahkoohi, Hamid Reza

    2018-04-01

    Petrophysical description of reservoirs requires proper knowledge of elastic parameters like P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) and density (ρ), which can be retrieved from pre-stack seismic data using the concept of elastic impedance (EI). We propose an inversion algorithm which recovers elastic parameters from pre-stack seismic data in two sequential steps. In the first step, using the multichannel blind seismic inversion method (exploited recently for recovering acoustic impedance from post-stack seismic data), high-resolution blocky EI models are obtained directly from partial angle-stacks. Using an efficient total-variation (TV) regularization, each angle-stack is inverted independently in a multichannel form without prior knowledge of the corresponding wavelet. The second step involves inversion of the resulting EI models for elastic parameters. Mathematically, under some assumptions, the EI's are linearly described by the elastic parameters in the logarithm domain. Thus a linear weighted least squares inversion is employed to perform this step. Accuracy of the concept of elastic impedance in predicting reflection coefficients at low and high angles of incidence is compared with that of exact Zoeppritz elastic impedance and the role of low frequency content in the problem is discussed. The performance of the proposed inversion method is tested using synthetic 2D data sets obtained from the Marmousi model and also 2D field data sets. The results confirm the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method for inversion of pre-stack seismic data.

  8. The analytical solution to the 1D diffusion equation in heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.; Nigg, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    The analytical solution to the time-independent multigroup diffusion equation in heterogeneous plane cylindrical and spherical media is presented. The solution features the simplicity of the one-group formulation while addressing the complication of multigroup diffusion in a fully heterogeneous medium. Beginning with the vector form of the diffusion equation, the approach, based on straightforward mathematics, resolves a set of coupled second order ODEs. The analytical form is facilitated through matrix diagonalization of the neutron interaction matrix rendering the multigroup solution as a series of one-group solutions which, when re-assembled, gives the analytical solution. Customized Eigenmode solutions of the one-group diffusion operator then represent the homogeneous solution in a uniform spatial domain. Once the homogeneous solution is known, the particular solution naturally emerges through variation of parameters. The analytical expression is then numerically implemented through recurrence. Finally, we apply the theory to assess the accuracy of a second order finite difference scheme and to a 1D slab BWR reactor in the four-group approximation. (author)

  9. Thermalization threshold in models of 1D fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Subroto; Modak, Ranjan; Ramswamy, Sriram

    2013-03-01

    The question of how isolated quantum systems thermalize is an interesting and open one. In this study we equate thermalization with non-integrability to try to answer this question. In particular, we study the effect of system size on the integrability of 1D systems of interacting fermions on a lattice. We find that for a finite-sized system, a non-zero value of an integrability breaking parameter is required to make an integrable system appear non-integrable. Using exact diagonalization and diagnostics such as energy level statistics and the Drude weight, we find that the threshold value of the integrability breaking parameter scales to zero as a power law with system size. We find the exponent to be the same for different models with its value depending on the random matrix ensemble describing the non-integrable system. We also study a simple analytical model of a non-integrable system with an integrable limit to better understand how a power law emerges.

  10. Three-field modeling for MARS 1-D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moonkyu; Lim, Ho-Gon; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Chung, Bub-Dong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the three-field modeling of the two-phase mixture is developed. The finite difference equations for the three-field equations thereafter are devised. The solution scheme has been implemented into the MARS 1-D code. The three-field formulations adopted are similar to those for MARS 3-D module, in a sense that the mass and momentum are treated separately for the entrained liquid and continuous liquid. As in the MARS-3D module, the entrained liquid and continuous liquid are combined into one for the energy equation, assuming thermal equilibrium between the two. All the non-linear terms are linearized to arrange the finite difference equation set into a linear matrix form with respect to the unknown arguments. The problems chosen for the assessment of the newly added entrained field consist of basic conceptual tests. Among the tests are gas-only test, liquid-only test, gas-only with supplied entrained liquid test, Edwards pipe problem, and GE level swell problem. The conceptual tests performed confirm the sound integrity of the three-field solver

  11. The molecular spin filter constructed from 1D organic chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Ning; Wang, Baolin; Bian, Baoan

    2014-01-01

    We proposed a molecular spin filter, which is constructed from the 1D metallic organic chain (Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n ). The spin-polarized transport properties of the molecular spin filter are explored by combining density functional theory with nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Theoretical results reveal that Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n molecular chain exhibits robust spin filtering effect, and only the spin-down electrons can transmit through the molecular chain. At the given bias voltage window [−1 eV,1 eV], the calculated spin filter efficiency is close to 100% in the case of n≥3. We find that the effect of spin polarization origin from both Fe n+1 and (C 6 H 4 ) n . In addition, negative difference resistance behavior appears in Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n molecular chain. The results can help us understand the spin transport properties of organic molecular chain. - Highlights: • Theoretical results reveal that Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n molecular chain exhibits robust spin filtering effect. • The effect of spin polarization origin from both of Fe n+1 and (C 6 H 4 ) n . • Negative difference resistance behavior appears in Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n molecular chain

  12. Parallelization of elliptic solver for solving 1D Boussinesq model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarwidi, D.; Adytia, D.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a parallel implementation of an elliptic solver in solving 1D Boussinesq model is presented. Numerical solution of Boussinesq model is obtained by implementing a staggered grid scheme to continuity, momentum, and elliptic equation of Boussinesq model. Tridiagonal system emerging from numerical scheme of elliptic equation is solved by cyclic reduction algorithm. The parallel implementation of cyclic reduction is executed on multicore processors with shared memory architectures using OpenMP. To measure the performance of parallel program, large number of grids is varied from 28 to 214. Two test cases of numerical experiment, i.e. propagation of solitary and standing wave, are proposed to evaluate the parallel program. The numerical results are verified with analytical solution of solitary and standing wave. The best speedup of solitary and standing wave test cases is about 2.07 with 214 of grids and 1.86 with 213 of grids, respectively, which are executed by using 8 threads. Moreover, the best efficiency of parallel program is 76.2% and 73.5% for solitary and standing wave test cases, respectively.

  13. Giant magnons in the D1-D5 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.; Sahoo, Bindusar

    2008-01-01

    We study giant magnons in the the D1-D5 system from both the boundary CFT and as classical solutions of the string sigma model in AdS 3 x S 3 x T 4 . Re-examining earlier studies of the symmetric product conformal field theory we argue that giant magnons in the symmetric product are BPS states in a centrally extended SU(1|1) x SU(1|1) superalgebra with two more additional central charges. The magnons carry these additional central charges locally but globally they vanish. Using a spin chain description of these magnons and the extended superalgebra we show that these magnons obey a dispersion relation which is periodic in momentum. We then identify these states on the string theory side and show that here too they are BPS in the same centrally extended algebra and obey the same dispersion relation which is periodic in momentum. This dispersion relation arises as the BPS condition for the extended algebra and is similar to that of magnons in N = 4 Yang-Mills

  14. Cellular reprogramming dynamics follow a simple 1D reaction coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teja Pusuluri, Sai; Lang, Alex H.; Mehta, Pankaj; Castillo, Horacio E.

    2018-01-01

    Cellular reprogramming, the conversion of one cell type to another, induces global changes in gene expression involving thousands of genes, and understanding how cells globally alter their gene expression profile during reprogramming is an ongoing problem. Here we reanalyze time-course data on cellular reprogramming from differentiated cell types to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and show that gene expression dynamics during reprogramming follow a simple 1D reaction coordinate. This reaction coordinate is independent of both the time it takes to reach the iPSC state as well as the details of the experimental protocol used. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, we show that such a reaction coordinate emerges from epigenetic landscape models where cellular reprogramming is viewed as a ‘barrier-crossing’ process between cell fates. Overall, our analysis and model suggest that gene expression dynamics during reprogramming follow a canonical trajectory consistent with the idea of an ‘optimal path’ in gene expression space for reprogramming.

  15. Modeling of 1D Anomalous Diffusion in Fractured Nanoporous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albinali Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fractured nanoporous reservoirs include multi-scale and discontinuous fractures coupled with a complex nanoporous matrix. Such systems cannot be described by the conventional dual-porosity (or multi-porosity idealizations due to the presence of different flow mechanisms at multiple scales. More detailed modeling approaches, such as Discrete Fracture Network (DFN models, similarly suffer from the extensive data requirements dictated by the intricacy of the flow scales, which eventually deter the utility of these models. This paper discusses the utility and construction of 1D analytical and numerical anomalous diffusion models for heterogeneous, nanoporous media, which is commonly encountered in oil and gas production from tight, unconventional reservoirs with fractured horizontal wells. A fractional form of Darcy’s law, which incorporates the non-local and hereditary nature of flow, is coupled with the classical mass conservation equation to derive a fractional diffusion equation in space and time. Results show excellent agreement with established solutions under asymptotic conditions and are consistent with the physical intuitions.

  16. Effective theory of black holes in the 1/D expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational field of a black hole is strongly localized near its horizon when the number of dimensions D is very large. In this limit, we can effectively replace the black hole with a surface in a background geometry (e.g. Minkowski or Anti-deSitter space). The Einstein equations determine the effective equations that this ‘black hole surface’ (or membrane) must satisfy. We obtain them up to next-to-leading order in 1/D for static black holes of the Einstein-(A)dS theory. To leading order, and also to next order in Minkowski backgrounds, the equations of the effective theory are the same as soap-film equations, possibly up to a redshift factor. In particular, the Schwarzschild black hole is recovered as a spherical soap bubble. Less trivially, we find solutions for ‘black droplets’, i.e. black holes localized at the boundary of AdS, and for non-uniform black strings.

  17. Diffraction Plane Dependence of Micro Residual Stresses in Uniaxially Extended Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanabusa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the stress measurement using X-ray or neutron diffraction, an elastic anisotropy as well as a plastic anisotropy of crystal must be carefully considered. In the X-ray and neutron diffraction stress measurement for polycrystalline materials, a particular {hkl} plane is used in measuring lattice strains. The dependence of an X-ray elastic constant on a diffraction plane is a typical example caused by an elastic anisotropy of the crystal. The yield strength and the work hardening rate of a single crystal depend on a crystallographic direction of the crystal. The difference in the yield strength and the work hardening rate relating to the crystallographic direction develops different residual stresses measured on each {hkl} diffraction after plastic deformation of a polycrystalline material. The present paper describes the result of the neutron stress measurement on uniaxially extended low and middle carbon steels. A tri-axial residual stress state developed in the extended specimens was measured on different kind of {hkl} diffraction plane. The measurement on the {110}, {200} and {211} diffraction showed that residual stresses increased with increasing the plastic elongation and the residual stresses on {110} were compressive, {200} were tensile and those on {211} were the middle of the former two planes.

  18. Elastic Anisotropy of Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Shapiro, S.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Kaselow, A.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2005-12-01

    Elastic properties of rocks are sensitive to changes of the in-situ stress and damage state. In particular, seismic velocities are strongly affected by stress-induced formation and deformation of cracks or shear-enhanced pore collapse. The effect of stress on seismic velocities as a result of pore space deformation in isotropic rock at isostatic compression may be expressed by the equation: A+K*P-B*exp (-D*P) (1), where P=Pc-Pp is the effective pressure, the pure difference between confining pressure and pore pressure. The parameter A, K, B and D describe material constants determined using experimental data. The physical meaning of the parameters is given by Shapiro (2003, in Geophysics Vol.68(Nr.2)). Parameter D is related to the stress sensitivity of the rock. A similar relation was derived by Shapiro and Kaselow (2005, in Geophysics in press) for weak anisotropic rocks under arbitrary load. They describe the stress dependent anisotropy in terms of Thomson's (1986, in Geophysics, Vol. 51(Nr.10)) anisotropy parameters ɛ and γ as a function of stress in the case of an initially isotropic rock: ɛ ∝ E2-E3, γ ∝ E3-E2 (2) with Ei=exp (D*Pi). The exponential terms Ei are controlled by the effective stress components Pi. To test this relation, we have conducted a series of triaxial compression tests on dry samples of initially isotropic Etnean Basalt in a servo-controlled MTS loading frame equipped with a pressure cell. Confining pressure was 60, 40 and 20 MPa. Samples were 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length. Elastic anisotropy was induced by axial compression of the samples through opening and growth of microcracks predominantly oriented parallel to the sample axis. Ultrasonic P- and S- wave velocities were monitored parallel and normal to the sample axis by an array of 20 piezoceramic transducers glued to the surface. Preamplified full waveform signals were stored in two 12 channel transient recorders. According to equation 2 the anisotropy parameters are

  19. Roof planes detection via a second-order variational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benciolini, Battista; Ruggiero, Valeria; Vitti, Alfonso; Zanetti, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    The paper describes a unified automatic procedure for the detection of roof planes in gridded height data. The procedure exploits the Blake-Zisserman (BZ) model for segmentation in both 2D and 1D, and aims to detect, to model and to label roof planes. The BZ model relies on the minimization of a functional that depends on first- and second-order derivatives, free discontinuities and free gradient discontinuities. During the minimization, the relative strength of each competitor is controlled by a set of weight parameters. By finding the minimum of the approximated BZ functional, one obtains: (1) an approximation of the data that is smoothed solely within regions of homogeneous gradient, and (2) an explicit detection of the discontinuities and gradient discontinuities of the approximation. Firstly, input data is segmented using the 2D BZ. The maps of data and gradient discontinuities are used to isolate building candidates and planar patches (i.e. regions with homogeneous gradient) that correspond to roof planes. Connected regions that can not be considered as buildings are filtered according to both patch dimension and distribution of the directions of the normals to the boundary. The 1D BZ model is applied to the curvilinear coordinates of boundary points of building candidates in order to reduce the effect of data granularity when the normals are evaluated. In particular, corners are preserved and can be detected by means of gradient discontinuity. Lastly, a total least squares model is applied to estimate the parameters of the plane that best fits the points of each planar patch (orthogonal regression with planar model). Refinement of planar patches is performed by assigning those points that are close to the boundaries to the planar patch for which a given proximity measure assumes the smallest value. The proximity measure is defined to account for the variance of a fitting plane and a weighted distance of a point from the plane. The effectiveness of the

  20. Acute exercise and physiological insulin induce distinct phosphorylation signatures on TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 proteins in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treebak, Jonas T; Pehmøller, Christian; Kristensen, Jonas M; Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Birk, Jesper B; Schjerling, Peter; Richter, Erik A; Goodyear, Laurie J; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2014-01-15

    We investigated the phosphorylation signatures of two Rab-GTPase activating proteins TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle in response to physical exercise and physiological insulin levels induced by a carbohydrate rich meal using a paired experimental design. Eight healthy male volunteers exercised in the fasted or fed state and muscle biopsies were taken before and immediately after exercise. We identified TBC1D1/4 phospho-sites that (1) did not respond to exercise or postprandial increase in insulin (TBC1D4: S666), (2) responded to insulin only (TBC1D4: S318), (3) responded to exercise only (TBC1D1: S237, S660, S700; TBC1D4: S588, S751), and (4) responded to both insulin and exercise (TBC1D1: T596; TBC1D4: S341, T642, S704). In the insulin-stimulated leg, Akt phosphorylation of both T308 and S473 correlated significantly with multiple sites on both TBC1D1 (T596) and TBC1D4 (S318, S341, S704). Interestingly, in the exercised leg in the fasted state TBC1D1 phosphorylation (S237, T596) correlated significantly with the activity of the α2/β2/γ3 AMPK trimer, whereas TBC1D4 phosphorylation (S341, S704) correlated with the activity of the α2/β2/γ1 AMPK trimer. Our data show differential phosphorylation of TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in response to physiological stimuli in human skeletal muscle and support the idea that Akt and AMPK are upstream kinases. TBC1D1 phosphorylation signatures were comparable between in vitro contracted mouse skeletal muscle and exercised human muscle, and we show that AMPK regulated phosphorylation of these sites in mouse muscle. Contraction and exercise elicited a different phosphorylation pattern of TBC1D4 in mouse compared with human muscle, and although different circumstances in our experimental setup may contribute to this difference, the observation exemplifies that transferring findings between species is problematic.

  1. Nanoscale phase transition behavior of shape memory alloys — closed form solution of 1D effective modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. P.; Sun, Q. P.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the roles of grain size (lg) and grain boundary thickness (lb) on the stress-induced phase transition (PT) behaviors of nanocrystalline shape memory alloys (SMAs) by using a Core-shell type "crystallite-amorphous composite" model. A non-dimensionalized length scale lbarg(=lg /lb) is identified as the governing parameter which is indicative of the energy competition between the crystallite and the grain boundary. Closed form analytical solutions of a reduced effective 1D model with embedded microstructure length scales of lg and lb are presented in this paper. It is shown that, with lbarg reduction, the energy of the elastic non-transformable grain boundary will gradually become dominant in the phase transition process, and eventually bring fundamental changes of the deformation behaviors: breakdown of two-phase coexistence and vanishing of superelastic hysteresis. The predictions are supported by experimental data of nanocrystalline NiTi SMAs.

  2. Dispersion relation for elastic electron-hydrogen atom forward scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchiev, M.Yu.; Amusia, M.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    The elastic e+H forward scattering amplitude is an analytical function in the complex energy E plane and has two cuts on the real axis: 0 < E < infinity and -infinity < E < -B, B being the hydrogen ionization potential. The e+H dispersion relation contains two integrals over the right and left cuts. (Auth.)

  3. Probing the phase of the elastic pp scattering amplitude with vortex proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I. P.

    2013-01-01

    We show that colliding vortex proton beams instead of (approximate) plane waves can lead to a direct measurement of how the overall phase of the scattering amplitude changes with the scattering angle. In elastic pp scattering, this will open a novel way to measure the parameter ρ(t) and probe the real part of the Pomeron.

  4. Probing the phase of the elastic pp scattering amplitude with vortex proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, I. P. [IFPA, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, batiment B5a, 4000 Liege, Belgium Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Koptyug avenue 4, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15

    We show that colliding vortex proton beams instead of (approximate) plane waves can lead to a direct measurement of how the overall phase of the scattering amplitude changes with the scattering angle. In elastic pp scattering, this will open a novel way to measure the parameter {rho}(t) and probe the real part of the Pomeron.

  5. bessel functions for axisymmetric elasticity problems of the elastic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    2, 3DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA. ENUGU STATE. ... theory of elasticity and in the case of vertical applied loads, was first ... partial differential equations in bodies having cylindrical symmetry.

  6. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  7. High energy elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnly, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described

  8. Hydrodynamics of planing monohull watercraft

    CERN Document Server

    Vorus, William S

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the principles involved in the design and engineering of planing monohull power boats, with an emphasis on the theoretical fundamentals that readers need in order to be fully functional in marine design and engineering. Author William Vorus focuses on three topics: boat resistance, seaway response, and propulsion and explains the physical principles, mathematical details, and theoretical details that support physical understanding. In particular, he explains the approximations and simplifications in mathematics that lead to success in the applications of planing craft design engineering, and begins with the simplest configuration that embodies the basic physics. He leads readers, step-by-step, through the physical complications that occur, leading to a useful working knowledge of marine design and engineering. Included in the book are a wealth of examples that exemplify some of the most important naval architecture and marine engineering problems that challenge many of today’s engineers.

  9. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  10. Decagonal quasicrystal plate with elliptic holes subjected to out-of-plane bending moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lian He, E-mail: nmglilianhe@163.com [College of Mathematics Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Hohhot 010021 (China); Liu, Guan Ting [College of Mathematics Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China)

    2014-02-01

    In the present paper, we consider only the ideal elastic behavior, neglecting the dissipation associated with the atomic rearrangements. Under these conditions, the decagonal quasicrystal plate bending problems have been discussed. The Stroh-like formalism for the bending theory of decagonal quasicrystal plate is developed. The analytical solutions for problems of decagonal quasicrystal plate with elliptic hole subjected to out-of-plane bending moments are obtained directly by using the forms. The resultant bending moments around the hole boundaries are also given explicitly. When the phonon–phason coupling is absent, the results reduce to the corresponding solutions for the isotropic elastic plates.

  11. CONCERNING THE ELASTIC ORTHOTROPIC MODEL APPLIED TO WOOD ELASTIC PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeu Mascia,Nilson

    2003-01-01

    Among the construction materials, wood reveals an orthotropic pattern, because of unique characteristics in its internal structure with three axes of wood biological directions (longitudinal, tangential and radial). elastic symmetry: longitudinal, tangential and radial, reveals an orthotropic pattern. The effect of grain angle orientation onin the elastic modulus constitutes the fundamental cause forof wood anisotropy. It is responsible for the greatest changes in the values of the constituti...

  12. Spectral dimension of elastic Sierpinski gaskets with general elastic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.H.; Liu, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectral dimension is calculated for a Sierpinski gasket with the most general elastic restoring forces allowed by symmetry. The elastic forces consist of bond-stretching and angle-bending components. The spectral dimension is the same as that for the bond-stretching-force (central-force) model. This demonstrates that on the Sierpinski gasket the two types of forces belong to the same universality class

  13. Limit load solutions for piping branch junctions under out-of-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ying Hu; Lee, Kuk Hee; Jeon, Jun Young; Kim, Yun Jae

    2009-01-01

    Approximate plastic limit load solutions for piping branch junctions under out-of plane bending are obtained from detailed three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses based on elastic-perfectly plastic materials with the small geometry change option. Two types of bending are considered; out-of-plane bending to the branch pipe and out-of-plane bending to the run pipe. Accordingly closed-form approximations are proposed for piping branch junctions under out-of-plane bending based on the FE results. The proposed solutions are valid for the branch-to-run pipe radius and thickness from 0.0 to 1.0, and the mean radius-to-thickness ratio of the run pipe from 2.0 to 20.0. And, this study provides effects of reinforcement area on plastic limit loads.

  14. Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP)

    OpenAIRE

    Câmara, Carlos Alexandre; Martins, Renato Parsekian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: A reasonable exposure of incisors and gingival tissues is generally considered more attractive than excess or lack of exposure. A reasonable gingival exposure is considered to be around 0 to 2 mm when smiling and 2-4 mm exposure of the maxillary incisor edge when the lips are at rest. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP), which aims to help in the diagnosis of the relationships established among molars, incisors...

  15. Plane waves and spacelike infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marolf, Donald; Ross, Simon F

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we showed that the causal boundary of any homogeneous plane wave satisfying the null convergence condition consists of a single null curve. In Einstein-Hilbert gravity, this would include any homogeneous plane wave satisfying the weak null energy condition. For conformally flat plane waves such as the Penrose limit of AdS 5 x S 5 , all spacelike curves that reach infinity also end on this boundary and the completion is Hausdorff. However, the more generic case (including, e.g., the Penrose limits of AdS 4 x S 7 and AdS 7 x S 4 ) is more complicated. In one natural topology, not all spacelike curves have limit points in the causal completion, indicating the need to introduce additional points at 'spacelike infinity' - the endpoints of spacelike curves. We classify the distinct ways in which spacelike curves can approach infinity, finding a two-dimensional set of distinct limits. The dimensionality of the set of points at spacelike infinity is not, however, fixed from this argument. In an alternative topology, the causal completion is already compact, but the completion is non-Hausdorff

  16. Elastic-plastic analysis of an axi-symmetric problem by a finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni

    1984-06-01

    Generally speaking, many structures are designed and fabricated on the basis of an axi-symmetric structure. Finite Element Method is the capable method to solve these axi-symmetric problems beyond the elastic limit. As the first step to solve these problems, the computer program for the elastic-plastic analysis of the axi-symmetric problem is composed. The basic program is based upon that described in Zienkiewicz's text book to solve the elastic plane stress problem, taking the plastic stress matrix by Yamada's method into consideration and it is converted to solve the axi-symmetric problem. For the verification of the program, the plane strain problem of a cylindrical tube under internal pressure was solved. The computed results were compared with those shown in ADINA's user's manual. They showed close agreement. (author)

  17. Astronomical optics and elasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaitre, Gerard Rene

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical Optics and Elasticity Theory provides a very thorough and comprehensive account of what is known in this field. After an extensive introduction to optics and elasticity, the book discusses variable curvature and multimode deformable mirrors, as well as, in depth, active optics, its theory and applications. Further, optical design utilizing the Schmidt concept and various types of Schmidt correctors, as well as the elasticity theory of thin plates and shells are elaborated upon. Several active optics methods are developed for obtaining aberration corrected diffraction gratings. Further, a weakly conical shell theory of elasticity is elaborated for the aspherization of grazing incidence telescope mirrors. The very didactic and fairly easy-to-read presentation of the topic will enable PhD students and young researchers to actively participate in challenging astronomical optics and instrumentation projects.

  18. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  19. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells

  20. From nonfinite to finite 1D arrays of origami tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsai Chin; Rahman, Masudur; Norton, Michael L

    2014-06-17

    average solution structures for blocks is more readily achieved using computer models than using direct imaging methods. The development of scalable 1D-origami arrays composed of uniquely addressable components is a logical, if not necessary, step in the evolution of higher order fully addressable structures. Our research into the fabrication of arrays has led us to generate a listing of several important areas of future endeavor. Of high importance is the re-enforcement of the mechanical properties of the building blocks and the organization of multiple arrays on a surface of technological importance. While addressing this short list of barriers to progress will prove challenging, coherent development along each of these lines of inquiry will accelerate the appearance of commercial scale molecular manufacturing.

  1. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alan

    1989-09-15

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago.

  2. A Labor Supply Elasticity Accord?

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Ljungqvist; Thomas J. Sargent

    2011-01-01

    A dispute about the size of the aggregate labor supply elasticity has been fortified by a contentious aggregation theory used by real business cycle theorists. The replacement of that aggregation theory with one more congenial to microeconomic observations opens possibilities for an accord about the aggregate labor supply elasticity. The new aggregation theory drops features to which empirical microeconomists objected and replaces them with life-cycle choices. Whether the new aggregation theo...

  3. Integrodifferential relations in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Kostin, Georgy V

    2012-01-01

    This work treats the elasticity of deformed bodies, including the resulting interior stresses and displacements.It also takes into account that some of constitutive relations can be considered in a weak form. To discuss this problem properly, the method of integrodifferential relations is used, and an advanced numerical technique for stress-strain analysis is presented and evaluated using various discretization techniques. The methods presented in this book are of importance for almost all elasticity problems in materials science and mechanical engineering.

  4. Theoretical study of the elastic properties of titanium nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingdong CHEN; Yinglu ZHAO; Benhai YU; Chunlei WANG; Deheng SHI

    2009-01-01

    The equilibrium lattice parameter, relative volume V/Vo, elastic constants Cij, and bulk modulus of titanium nitride are successfully obtained using the ab initio plane-wave pseudopotential (PW-PP) method within the framework of density functional theory. The quasi-harmonic Debye model, using a set of total energy vs molar volume obtained with the PW-PP method, is applied to the study of the elastic properties and vibrational effects. We analyze the relationship between the bulk modulus and temperature up to 2000 K and obtain the relationship between bulk modulus B and pressure at different temperatures. It is found that the bulk modulus B increases monotonously with increasing pressure and decreases with increasing temperature. Moreover, the Debye temperature is determined from the non-equilibrium Gibbs func-tions.

  5. In Situ elastic property sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olness, D.; Hirschfeld, T.; Kishiyama, K.; Steinhaus, R.

    1987-01-01

    Elasticity is an important property of many materials. Loss of elasticity can have serious consequences, such as when a gasket deteriorates and permits leakage of an expensive or hazardous material, or when a damping system begins to go awry. Loss of elasticity can also provide information related to an ancillary activity such as degradation of electrical insulation, loss of plasticizer in a plastic, or changes in permeability of a thin film. In fact, the mechanical properties of most organic compounds are altered when the compound degrades. Thus, a sensor for the mechanical properties can be used to monitor associated characteristics as well. A piezoelectric material in contact with an elastomer forms an oscillating system that can provide real-time elasticity monitoring. This combination constitutes a forced harmonic oscillator with damping provided by the elastomer. A ceramic oscillator with a total volume of a few mm 3 was used as an elasticity sensor. It was placed in intimate contact with an elastomer and then monitored remotely with a simple oscillator circuit and standard frequency counting electronics. Resonant frequency shifts and changes in Q value were observed corresponding to changes in ambient temperature and/or changes in pressure applied to the sample. Elastomer samples pretreated with ozone (to simulate aging) showed changes in Q value and frequency response, even though there were no visible changes in the elastic samples

  6. Quantitative studies of the brain specific antigens GFA, 14-3-2, synaptin C1, D1, D2, D3 and D5 in jimpy mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacque, C M; Baumann, N A; Bock, E

    1976-01-01

    Seven antigens specific to the nervous tissue were measured in both Jimpy and control mice. The D5 and the GFA protein, both components of the glia, are strongly increased in the mutant while the neuronal components 14-3-2, synaptin C1, D1, D2 and D3 are unchanged....

  7. Acute exercise and physiological insulin induce distinct phosphorylation signatures on TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; Pehmøller, Christian; Kristensen, Jonas Møller

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the phosphorylation signatures of two Rab GTPase activating proteins TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle in response to physical exercise and physiological insulin levels induced by a carbohydrate rich meal using a paired experimental design. Eight healthy male volunteers e...

  8. Some Considerations Regarding Plane to Plane Parallelism Error Effects in Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alaci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that by imposing the parallelism constraint between the measured plane and the reference plane, the position of the current plane is not univocal specified and is impossible to specify the way to attain the parallelism errors imposed by accuracy constrains. The parameters involved in the calculus of plane to plane parallelism error can be used to set univocal the relative position between the two planes.

  9. Temperature dependence of elastic properties of paratellurite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestrova, I.M.; Pisarevskii, Y.V.; Senyushenkov, P.A.; Krupny, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    New data are presented on the temperature dependence of the elastic wave velocities, elastic stiffness constants, and thermal expansion of paratellurite. It is shown that the external pressure appreciably influences the elastic properties of TeO 2 , especially the temperature dependence of the elastic modulus connected with the crystal soft mode. (author)

  10. A 3D Orthotropic Elastic Continuum Damage Material Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, Shawn Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, Arthur A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage is implemented for polymer matrix composite lamina. Damage evolves based on a quadratic homogeneous function of thermodynamic forces in the orthotropic planes. A small strain formulation is used to assess damage. In order to account for large deformations, a Kirchhoff material formulation is implemented and coded for numerical simulation in Sandia’s Sierra Finite Element code suite. The theoretical formulation is described in detail. An example of material parameter determination is given and an example is presented.

  11. Normal Spin Asymmetries in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Gorchtein; P.A.M. Guichon; M. Vanderhaeghen

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the two-photon exchange contribution to observables which involve lepton helicity flip in elastic lepton-nucleon scattering. This contribution is accessed through the single spin asymmetry for a lepton beam polarized normal to the scattering plane. We estimate this beam normal spin asymmetry at large momentum transfer using a parton model and we express the corresponding amplitude in terms of generalized parton distributions. We further discuss this observable in the quasi-RCS kinematics which may be dominant at certain kinematical conditions and find it to be governed by the photon helicity-flip RCS amplitudes

  12. Normal Spin Asymmetries in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorchtein, M.; Guichon, P.A.M.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the two-photon exchange contribution to observables which involve lepton helicity flip in elastic lepton-nucleon scattering. This contribution is accessed through the single spin asymmetry for a lepton beam polarized normal to the scattering plane. We estimate this beam normal spin asymmetry at large momentum transfer using a parton model and we express the corresponding amplitude in terms of generalized parton distributions. We further discuss this observable in the quasi-RCS kinematics which may be dominant at certain kinematical conditions and find it to be governed by the photon helicity-flip RCS amplitudes

  13. Visualising elastic anisotropy: theoretical background and computational implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, J.; Aßmus, M.; Altenbach, H.

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we present the technical realisation for visualisations of characteristic parameters of the fourth-order elasticity tensor, which is classified by three-dimensional symmetry groups. Hereby, expressions for spatial representations of uc(Young)'s modulus and bulk modulus as well as plane representations of shear modulus and uc(Poisson)'s ratio are derived and transferred into a comprehensible form to computer algebra systems. Additionally, we present approaches for spatial representations of both latter parameters. These three- and two-dimensional representations are implemented into the software MATrix LABoratory. Exemplary representations of characteristic materials complete the present treatise.

  14. Work Planing Automation at Mechanical Subdivision

    OpenAIRE

    Dzindzelėta, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Work planing automation, installation possibilities and future outlook at mechanical subdivision. To study how the work planing has changed before and after automation process and to analyse automation process methodology.

  15. Combinatorial geometry in the plane

    CERN Document Server

    Hadwiger, Hugo; Klee, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates familiar with analysis and college geometry, this concise book discusses theorems on topics restricted to the plane such as convexity, coverings, and graphs. In addition to helping students cultivate rigorous thought, the text encourages the development of mathematical intuition and clarifies the nature of mathematical research.The two-part treatment begins with specific topics including integral distances, covering problems, point set geometry and convexity, simple paradoxes involving point sets, and pure combinatorics, among other subjects. The second pa

  16. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez, D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle, G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

  17. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  18. Low-Energy Dislocation Structure (LEDS) character of dislocation boundaries aligned with slip planes in rolled aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe; Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2015-01-01

    For the specific slip geometry of two sets of coplanar systems (a total of four systems) in fcc metals, the range of dislocation networks in boundaries aligned with one of the two active slip planes is predicted from the Frank equation for boundaries free of long-range elastic stresses. Detailed...

  19. Chirality-dependent anisotropic elastic properties of a monolayer graphene nanosheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Gang; Zhou, Li-Jun; Kang, Yi-Lan

    2012-04-01

    An analytical approach is presented to predict the elastic properties of a monolayer graphene nanosheet based on interatomic potential energy and continuum mechanics. The elastic extension and torsional springs are utilized to simulate the stretching and angle variation of carbon-carbon bond, respectively. The constitutive equation of the graphene nanosheet is derived by using the strain energy density, and the analytical formulations for nonzero elastic constants are obtained. The in-plane elastic properties of the monolayer graphene nanosheet are proved to be anisotropic. In addition, Young's moduli, Poisson's ratios and shear modulus of the monolayer graphene nanosheet are calculated according to the force constants derived from Morse potential and AMBER force field, respectively, and they were proved to be chirality-dependent. The comparison with experimental results shows a very agreement.

  20. The Morishima Gross elasticity of substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Blackorby, Charles; Primont, Daniel; Russell, R. Robert

    2007-01-01

    We show that the Hotelling-Lau elasticity of substitution, an extension of the Allen-Uzawa elasticity to allow for optimal output-quantity (or utility) responses to changes in factor prices, inherits all of the failings of the Allen-Uzawa elasticity identified by Blackorby and Russell [1989 AER]. An analogous extension of the Morishima elasticity of substitution to allow for output quantity changes preserves the salient properties of the original Hicksian notion of elasticity of substitution.

  1. 3-D Whole-Core Transport Calculation with 3D/2D Rotational Plane Slicing Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Han Jong; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Use of the method of characteristics (MOC) is very popular due to its capability of heterogeneous geometry treatment and widely used for 2-D core calculation, but direct extension of MOC to 3-D core is not so attractive due to huge calculational cost. 2-D/1-D fusion method was very successful for 3-D calculation of current generation reactor types (highly heterogeneous in radial direction but piece-wise homogeneous in axial direction). In this paper, 2-D MOC concept is extended to 3-D core calculation with little modification of an existing 2-D MOC code. The key idea is to suppose 3-D geometry as a set of many 2-D planes like a phone-directory book. Dividing 3-D structure into a large number of 2-D planes and solving each plane with a simple 2-D SN transport method would give the solution of a 3-D structure. This method was developed independently at KAIST but it is found that this concept is similar with that of 'plane tracing' in the MCCG-3D code. The method developed was tested on the 3-D C5G7 OECD/NEA benchmark problem and compared with the 2-D/1-D fusion method. Results show that the proposed method is worth investigating further. A new approach to 3-D whole-core transport calculation is described and tested. By slicing 3-D structure along characteristic planes and solving each 2-D plane problem, we can get 3-D solution. The numerical test results indicate that the new method is comparable with the 2D/1D fusion method and outperforms other existing methods. But more fair comparison should be done in similar discretization level.

  2. Boundary modes in quasiperiodic elastic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Matheus I. N.; Pal, Raj K.; Arruda, José R. F.; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2018-03-01

    Topological metamaterials are a new class of materials that support topological modes such as edge modes and interface modes, which are commonly immune to scattering and imperfections. This novelty has been the subject of extensive research in many branches of physics such as electronics, photonics, phononics, and acoustics. The nontrivial topological properties related to the presence of topological modes are tipically found in periodic media. However, it was recently demonstrated that structures called quasicrystals may also exhibit nontrivial topological behavior attributed to dimensions higher than that of the quasicrystal. While quasiperiodicity has received a lot of attention in the fields of crystallography and photonics, research into quasiperiodic elastic structures has been scarce. In this paper, we show how the concepts of quasiperiodicity may be applied to the design of topological mechanical metamaterials. We start by investigating the boundary modes present in quasiperiodic 1D phononic lattices. These modes have the interesting property of being localized at either one of the two different boundaries depending on the value of an additional parameter, which is remnant of the higher dimension. A smooth variation of this parameter in either time or a spatial dimension can lead to a robust transfer of energy between two sites of the structure. We present an idealized mechanical system composed by an array of coupled rods that may be used as a platform for realizing this kind of robust transfer of energy. These are preliminary investigations into a entirely new class of structures which may lead to novel engineering applications.

  3. Semi-analytical solution to plane strain loading of elastic layered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - ... of LCs by flat ended cylindrical, quadrilateral and triangular punches and proposed a method .... in Eqs. (9–13) and applying the boundary and interface conditions Eqs. ...... Yue Z Q 1995 Indentation of a rigid plate on a multilayered solid.

  4. Reflection of plane waves from free surface of a microstretch elastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Department of Mathematics, Jat College, Rohtak 124 001, Haryana, India. e-mail: baljeet−gill@hotmail.com. In the present investigation, it is shown that there exists five basic waves in a ..... in layered media, (New York: McGraw-Hill). Gauthier ...

  5. GMPLS control plane extensions in support of flex-grid enabled elastic optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2013-01-01

    of generalized labels format and enable enhancements for the wavelength selection procedures. OSPF-TE enables the creation of spectrum databases based on novel LSA sub-TLV attributes capable of advertising spectrum status. Based on the implemented extensions, we propose and evaluate advanced distributed spectrum...... allocation schemes and strategies for dynamic routing algorithms in support of flex-grid optical networks....

  6. An introduction to finite projective planes

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Abraham Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Geared toward both beginning and advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this self-contained treatment offers an elementary approach to finite projective planes. Following a review of the basics of projective geometry, the text examines finite planes, field planes, and coordinates in an arbitrary plane. Additional topics include central collineations and the little Desargues' property, the fundamental theorem, and examples of finite non-Desarguesian planes.Virtually no knowledge or sophistication on the part of the student is assumed, and every algebraic system that arises is defined and

  7. Systems considerations in mosaic focal planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. P., III

    1983-08-01

    Two key reasons for pursuing the development of mosaic focal planes are reviewed and it is shown that rapid frame repetition rate is the only requirement that can be solved no other way than through mosaic focal planes. With the view that spaceborne mosaic focal plane sensors are necessarily 'smart sensors' requiring a lot of onboard processing just to function, it is pointed out that various artificial intelligence techniques may be the most appropriate to incorporate in the data processing. Finally, a novel mosaic focal plane design is proposed, termed a virtual mosaic focal plane, in response to other system constraints.

  8. Contact-resonance atomic force microscopy for nanoscale elastic property measurements: Spectroscopy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan, G.; Krylyuk, S.; Davydov, A.V.; Vaudin, M.D.; Bendersky, L.A.; Cook, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the elastic modulus of nanosize systems and nanostructured materials are provided with great accuracy and precision by contact-resonance atomic force microscopy (CR-AFM). As an example of measuring the elastic modulus of nanosize entities, we used the CR-AFM technique to measure the out-of-plane indentation modulus of tellurium nanowires. A size-dependence of the indentation modulus was observed for the investigated tellurium nanowires with diameters in the range 20-150 nm. Over this diameter range, the elastic modulus of the outer layers of the tellurium nanowires experienced significant enhancement due to a pronounced surface stiffening effect. Quantitative estimations for the elastic moduli of the outer and inner parts of tellurium nanowires of reduced diameter are made with a core-shell structure model. Besides localized elastic modulus measurements, we have also developed a unique CR-AFM imaging capability to map the elastic modulus over a micrometer-scale area. We used this CR-AFM capability to construct indentation modulus maps at the junction between two adjacent facets of a tellurium microcrystal. The clear contrast observed in the elastic moduli of the two facets indicates the different surface crystallography of these facets.

  9. Phason elasticity and surface roughening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Leihan; Jaric, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The phason elasticity of two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium quasicrystals is discussed in analogy with surface roughening phenomena. Taking a Penrose tiling model as an example, we show that the phason elastic energy is linear in the phason strain at zero temperature (T = 0), but becomes quadratic at any T > 0 and sufficiently small strain. Heuristic and real-space renormalization group arguments are given for the thermal roughening of the hyper-surface which represents quasicrystal tiling. Monte Carlo method is applied to illustrate the logarithmically diverging phason fluctuations and power-law diffraction intensities at T > 0. For three-dimensional systems, we present arguments which suggest a finite temperature transition between two quasicrystal phases, characterized by linear and quadratic phason elastic energy, respectively. (author). 17 refs, 12 figs

  10. Appraisal of elastic follow up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1981-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide indications to choose what fraction of a self limiting stress can be considered as secondary. At first, considerations are given to a simple structure which could be called ''creep relaxation tensile test''. A bar (with constant cross section) is loaded by an elastic spring in order to obtain a given elongation of the assembly. The stress evolution is studied. Then the creep damage is computed, and compared to the damage corresponding to the elastic computed stress. This comparison gives the fraction of the self limiting stress which must be considered as primary. This involve the structural parameter 0 which is the initial value of the ratio of elastic energy to dissipating power. Extension of the rule is made with the help of KACHANOV approximation. As a conclusion a procedure is described which determines what fraction of a self limiting stress must be considered as primary

  11. Investor response to consumer elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, Stine; Meibom, Peter; Ravn, H.F.; Straarup, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    In the Nordic electricity system there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the long-term development in production capacity. The process towards liberalisation of the electricity sector started in a situation with a large reserve margin, but this margin is gradually vanishing. Since the potential investors in new production capacity are unaccustomed with investments under the new regime it is unknown if and when investments will take place. The electricity price is the key market signal to potential investors. The price is settled as a balance between supply and demand, and it is generally assumed that the demand side has an important role in this, and increasingly so. However, since consumers have not earlier had the incentive to respond to electricity prices, no reliable estimate of demand elasticity is known. The purpose of the present study is to analyse the role of electricity demand elasticity for investments in new electricity production capacity. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the demand elasticity are used. The simulated investment decisions are taken in a stochastic, dynamic setting, where a key point is the timing of the investment decision in relation to the gathering of new information relative to the stochastic elements. Based on this, the consequences of the development in consumer price elasticity for investments in a base load and a peak load plant are investigated. The main result of the analysis is that peak load investments can be made unprofitable by the development in consumer price elasticity, such that an investor will tend to wait with his peak load investment, until the development in consumer price elasticity has been revealed. (au)

  12. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago

  13. Water hammer in elastic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.

    2002-01-01

    One dimensional two-fluid six-equation model of two-phase flow, that can be found in computer codes like RELAP5, TRAC, and CATHARE, was upgraded with additional terms, which enable modelling of the pressure waves in elastic pipes. It is known that pipe elasticity reduces the propagation velocity of the shock and other pressure waves in the piping systems. Equations that include the pipe elasticty terms are used in WAHA code, which is being developed within the WAHALoads project of 5't'h EU research program.(author)

  14. Isogeometric BDDC deluxe preconditioners for linear elasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Pavarino, L. F.

    2018-03-14

    Balancing Domain Decomposition by Constraints (BDDC) preconditioners have been shown to provide rapidly convergent preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for solving many of the very ill-conditioned systems of algebraic equations which often arise in finite element approximations of a large variety of problems in continuum mechanics. These algorithms have also been developed successfully for problems arising in isogeometric analysis. In particular, the BDDC deluxe version has proven very successful for problems approximated by Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS), even those of high order and regularity. One main purpose of this paper is to extend the theory, previously fully developed only for scalar elliptic problems in the plane, to problems of linear elasticity in three dimensions. Numerical experiments supporting the theory are also reported. Some of these experiments highlight the fact that the development of the theory can help to decrease substantially the dimension of the primal space of the BDDC algorithm, which provides the necessary global component of these preconditioners, while maintaining scalability and good convergence rates.

  15. Isogeometric BDDC deluxe preconditioners for linear elasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Pavarino, L. F.; Scacchi, S.; Widlund, O. B.; Zampini, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Balancing Domain Decomposition by Constraints (BDDC) preconditioners have been shown to provide rapidly convergent preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for solving many of the very ill-conditioned systems of algebraic equations which often arise in finite element approximations of a large variety of problems in continuum mechanics. These algorithms have also been developed successfully for problems arising in isogeometric analysis. In particular, the BDDC deluxe version has proven very successful for problems approximated by Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS), even those of high order and regularity. One main purpose of this paper is to extend the theory, previously fully developed only for scalar elliptic problems in the plane, to problems of linear elasticity in three dimensions. Numerical experiments supporting the theory are also reported. Some of these experiments highlight the fact that the development of the theory can help to decrease substantially the dimension of the primal space of the BDDC algorithm, which provides the necessary global component of these preconditioners, while maintaining scalability and good convergence rates.

  16. Bcl-xL regulates CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells by altering CD1d trafficking through the endocytic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Priyanka B; Carey, Gregory B; Webb, Tonya J

    2014-09-01

    NKT cells are a unique subset of T cells that recognize glycolipid Ags presented in the context of CD1d molecules. NKT cells mount strong antitumor responses and are a major focus in developing effective cancer immunotherapy. It is known that CD1d molecules are constantly internalized from the cell surface, recycled through the endocytic compartments, and re-expressed on the cell surface. However, little is known about the regulation of CD1d-mediated Ag processing and presentation in B cell lymphoma. Prosurvival factors of the Bcl-2 family, such as Bcl-xL, are often upregulated in B cell lymphomas and are intimately linked to sphingolipid metabolism, as well as the endocytic compartments. We hypothesized that Bcl-xL can regulate CD1d-mediated Ag presentation to NKT cells. We found that overexpression or induction of Bcl-xL led to increased Ag presentation to NKT cells. Conversely, the inhibition or knockdown of Bcl-xL led to decreased NKT cell activation. Furthermore, knockdown of Bcl-xL resulted in the loss of CD1d trafficking to lysosome-associated membrane protein 1(+) compartments. Rab7, a late endosomal protein, was upregulated and CD1d molecules accumulated in the Rab7(+) late endosomal compartment. These results demonstrate that Bcl-xL regulates CD1d-mediated Ag processing and presentation to NKT cells by altering the late endosomal compartment and changing the intracellular localization of CD1d. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Inverse methods for 3D quantitative optical coherence elasticity imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Wijesinghe, Philip; Hugenberg, Nicholas; Sampson, David D.; Munro, Peter R. T.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Oberai, Assad A.

    2017-02-01

    In elastography, quantitative elastograms are desirable as they are system and operator independent. Such quantification also facilitates more accurate diagnosis, longitudinal studies and studies performed across multiple sites. In optical elastography (compression, surface-wave or shear-wave), quantitative elastograms are typically obtained by assuming some form of homogeneity. This simplifies data processing at the expense of smearing sharp transitions in elastic properties, and/or introducing artifacts in these regions. Recently, we proposed an inverse problem-based approach to compression OCE that does not assume homogeneity, and overcomes the drawbacks described above. In this approach, the difference between the measured and predicted displacement field is minimized by seeking the optimal distribution of elastic parameters. The predicted displacements and recovered elastic parameters together satisfy the constraint of the equations of equilibrium. This approach, which has been applied in two spatial dimensions assuming plane strain, has yielded accurate material property distributions. Here, we describe the extension of the inverse problem approach to three dimensions. In addition to the advantage of visualizing elastic properties in three dimensions, this extension eliminates the plane strain assumption and is therefore closer to the true physical state. It does, however, incur greater computational costs. We address this challenge through a modified adjoint problem, spatially adaptive grid resolution, and three-dimensional decomposition techniques. Through these techniques the inverse problem is solved on a typical desktop machine within a wall clock time of 20 hours. We present the details of the method and quantitative elasticity images of phantoms and tissue samples.

  18. Frequency Equations for the In-Plane Vibration of Circular Annular Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bashmal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the in-plane vibration of circular annular disks under combinations of different boundary conditions at the inner and outer edges. The in-plane free vibration of an elastic and isotropic disk is studied on the basis of the two-dimensional linear plane stress theory of elasticity. The exact solution of the in-plane equation of equilibrium of annular disk is attainable, in terms of Bessel functions, for uniform boundary conditions. The frequency equations for different modes can be obtained from the general solutions by applying the appropriate boundary conditions at the inner and outer edges. The presented frequency equations provide the frequency parameters for the required number of modes for a wide range of radius ratios and Poisson's ratios of annular disks under clamped, free, or flexible boundary conditions. Simplified forms of frequency equations are presented for solid disks and axisymmetric modes of annular disks. Frequency parameters are computed and compared with those available in literature. The frequency equations can be used as a reference to assess the accuracy of approximate methods.

  19. Forming a complex with MHC class I molecules interferes with mouse CD1d functional expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renukaradhya J Gourapura

    Full Text Available CD1d molecules are structurally similar to MHC class I, but present lipid antigens as opposed to peptides. Here, we show that MHC class I molecules physically associate with (and regulate the functional expression of mouse CD1d on the surface of cells. Low pH (3.0 acid stripping of MHC class I molecules resulted in increased surface expression of murine CD1d on antigen presenting cells as well as augmented CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells. Consistent with the above results, TAP1-/- mice were found to have a higher percentage of type I NKT cells as compared to wild type mice. Moreover, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from TAP1-/- mice showed increased antigen presentation by CD1d compared to wild type mice. Together, these results suggest that MHC class I molecules can regulate NKT cell function, in part, by masking CD1d.

  20. Nonlinear theory of elastic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, J.A.

    1979-08-01

    Nonlinear theory of elastic shells is developed which incorporates both geometric and physical nonlinearities and which does not make use of the well known Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis. The resulting equations are formulated in tensorial notation and are reduced to the ones of common use when simplifying assumptions encountered in the especific litterature are taken. (Author) [pt

  1. Structural, electronic and elastic properties of heavy fermion YbRh2 Laves phase compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harsha; Shugani, Mani; Aynyas, Mahendra; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2018-05-01

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of YbRh2 Laves phase intermetallic compound which crystallize in cubic (MgCu2-type) structure have been investigated using ab-initio full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP- LAPW) method with LDA and LDA+U approximation. The calculated ground state properties such as lattice parameter (a0), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B') are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. The electronic properties are analyzed from band structures and density of states. Elastic constants are predicted first time for this compound which obeys the stability criteria for cubic system.

  2. Elastic-plastic deformation of fiber composites with a tetragonal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, E.IU.; Svistkova, L.A. (Permskii Politekhnicheskii Institut, Perm (USSR))

    1991-02-01

    Results of numerical solutions are presented for elastic-plastic problems concerning arbitrary loading of unidirectional composites in the transverse plane. The nucleation and evolution of microplastic zones in the matrix and the effect of this process on the macroscopic characteristics of the composite are discussed. Attention is also given to the effect of the fiber shape on the elastic-plastic deformation of the matrix and to deformation paths realized in simple microdeformation processes. The discussion is illustrated by results obtained for a composite consisting of a VT1-0 titanium alloy matrix reinforced by Ti-Mo fibers.

  3. First Principles Calculations for X-ray Resonant Spectra and Elastic Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongbin Lee

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss applications of first principles methods to x-ray resonant spectra and elastic properties calculation. We start with brief reviews about theoretical background of first principles methods, such as density functional theory, local density approximation (LDA), LDA+U, and the linear augmented plane wave (LAPW) method to solve Kohn-Sham equations. After that we discuss x-ray resonant scattering (XRMS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and the branching problem in the heavy rare earths Ledges. In the last chapter we discuss the elastic properties of the second hardest material AlMgB 14

  4. Contraction regulates site-specific phosphorylation of TBC1D1 in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichaiwong, Kanokwan; Purohit, Suneet; An, Ding; Toyoda, Taro; Jessen, Niels; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2010-10-15

    TBC1D1 (tre-2/USP6, BUB2, cdc16 domain family member 1) is a Rab-GAP (GTPase-activating protein) that is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, but little is known about TBC1D1 regulation and function. We studied TBC1D1 phosphorylation on three predicted AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) phosphorylation sites (Ser231, Ser660 and Ser700) and one predicted Akt phosphorylation site (Thr590) in control mice, AMPKα2 inactive transgenic mice (AMPKα2i TG) and Akt2-knockout mice (Akt2 KO). Muscle contraction significantly increased TBC1D1 phosphorylation on Ser231 and Ser660, tended to increase Ser700 phosphorylation, but had no effect on Thr590. AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside) also increased phosphorylation on Ser231, Ser660 and Ser700, but not Thr590, whereas insulin only increased Thr590 phosphorylation. Basal and contraction-stimulated TBC1D1 Ser231, Ser660 and Ser700 phosphorylation were greatly reduced in AMPKα2i TG mice, although contraction still elicited a small increase in phosphorylation. Akt2 KO mice had blunted insulin-stimulated TBC1D1 Thr590 phosphorylation. Contraction-stimulated TBC1D1 Ser231 and Ser660 phosphorylation were normal in high-fat-fed mice. Glucose uptake in vivo was significantly decreased in tibialis anterior muscles overexpressing TBC1D1 mutated on four predicted AMPK phosphorylation sites. In conclusion, contraction causes site-specific phosphorylation of TBC1D1 in skeletal muscle, and TBC1D1 phosphorylation on AMPK sites regulates contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. AMPK and Akt regulate TBC1D1 phosphorylation, but there must be additional upstream kinases that mediate TBC1D1 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.

  5. Contact instabilities of anisotropic and inhomogeneous soft elastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Gaurav; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2012-02-01

    Anisotropy plays important roles in various biological phenomena such as adhesion of geckos and grasshoppers enabled by the attachment pods having hierarchical structures like thin longitudinal setae connected with threads mimicked by anisotropic films. We study the contact instability of a transversely isotropic thin elastic film when it comes in contact proximity of another surface. In the present study we investigate the contact stability of a thin incompressible transversely isotropic film by performing linear stability analysis. Based on the linear stability analysis, we show that an approaching contactor renders the film unstable. The critical wavelength of the instability is a function of the total film thickness and the ratio of the Young's modulus in the longitudinal direction and the shear modulus in the plane containing the longitudinal axis. We also analyze the stability of a thin gradient film that is elastically inhomogeneous across its thickness. Compared to a homogeneous elastic film, it becomes unstable with a longer wavelength when the film becomes softer in going from the surface to the substrate.

  6. Heart transplantation and arterial elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colvin-Adams M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monica Colvin-Adams,1 Nonyelum Harcourt,1 Robert LeDuc,2 Ganesh Raveendran,1 Yassir Sonbol,3 Robert Wilson,1 Daniel Duprez11Cardiovascular Division, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Division of Biostatistics University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Cardiovascular Division, St Luke's Hospital System, Sugar Land, TX, USAObjective: Arterial elasticity is a functional biomarker that has predictive value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in nontransplant populations. There is little information regarding arterial elasticity in heart transplant recipients. This study aimed to characterize small (SAE and large (LAE artery elasticity in heart transplant recipients in comparison with an asymptomatic population free of overt cardiovascular disease. A second goal was to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with arterial elasticity in this unique population.Methods: Arterial pulse waveform was registered noninvasively at the radial artery in 71 heart transplant recipients between 2008 and 2010. SAEs and LAEs were derived from diastolic pulse contour analysis. Comparisons were made to a healthy cohort of 1,808 participants selected from our prevention clinic database. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations between risk factors and SAE and LAE within the heart transplant recipients.Results: LAE and SAE were significantly lower in heart transplant recipients than in the normal cohort (P <0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively. Female sex and history of ischemic cardiomyopathy were significantly associated with reduced LAE and SAE. Older age and the presence of moderate cardiac allograft vasculopathy were also significantly associated with reduced SAE. Transplant duration was associated with increased SAE.Conclusion: Heart transplants are associated with peripheral endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in SAE and LAE when compared with a

  7. A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine

    Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.

  8. Exercise increases TBC1D1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Niels; An, Ding; Lihn, Aina S.; Nygren, Jonas; Hirshman, Michael F.; Thorell, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Exercise and weight loss are cornerstones in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes, and both interventions function to increase insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Studies in rodents demonstrate that the underlying mechanism for glucose uptake in muscle involves site-specific phosphorylation of the Rab-GTPase-activating proteins AS160 (TBC1D4) and TBC1D1. Multiple kinases, including Akt and AMPK, phosphorylate TBC1D1 and AS160 on distinct residues, regulating their activity and allowing for GLUT4 translocation. In contrast to extensive rodent-based studies, the regulation of AS160 and TBC1D1 in human skeletal muscle is not well understood. In this study, we determined the effects of dietary intervention and a single bout of exercise on TBC1D1 and AS160 site-specific phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. Ten obese (BMI 33.4 ± 2.4, M-value 4.3 ± 0.5) subjects were studied at baseline and after a 2-wk dietary intervention. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the subjects in the resting (basal) state and immediately following a 30-min exercise bout (70% V̇o2 max). Muscle lysates were analyzed for AMPK activity and Akt phosphorylation and for TBC1D1 and AS160 phosphorylation on known or putative AMPK and Akt sites as follows: AS160 Ser711 (AMPK), TBC1D1 Ser231 (AMPK), TBC1D1 Ser660 (AMPK), TBC1D1 Ser700 (AMPK), and TBC1D1 Thr590 (Akt). The diet intervention that consisted of a major shift in the macronutrient composition resulted in a 4.2 ± 0.4 kg weight loss (P < 0.001) and a significant increase in insulin sensitivity (M value 5.6 ± 0.6), but surprisingly, there was no effect on expression or phosphorylation of any of the muscle-signaling proteins. Exercise increased muscle AMPKα2 activity but did not increase Akt phosphorylation. Exercise increased phosphorylation on AS160 Ser711, TBC1D1 Ser231, and TBC1D1 Ser660 but had no effect on TBC1D1 Ser700. Exercise did not increase TBC1D1 Thr590 phosphorylation or TBC1D1/AS160 PAS

  9. The Planar Sandwich and Other 1D Planar Heat Flow Test Problems in ExactPack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-24

    This report documents the implementation of several related 1D heat flow problems in the verification package ExactPack [1]. In particular, the planar sandwich class defined in Ref. [2], as well as the classes PlanarSandwichHot, PlanarSandwichHalf, and other generalizations of the planar sandwich problem, are defined and documented here. A rather general treatment of 1D heat flow is presented, whose main results have been implemented in the class Rod1D. All planar sandwich classes are derived from the parent class Rod1D.

  10. Application of 1 D Finite Element Method in Combination with Laminar Solution Method for Pipe Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudar, O. I.; Dudar, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    The features of application of the 1D dimensional finite element method (FEM) in combination with the laminar solutions method (LSM) for the calculation of underground ventilating networks are considered. In this case the processes of heat and mass transfer change the properties of a fluid (binary vapour-air mix). Under the action of gravitational forces it leads to such phenomena as natural draft, local circulation, etc. The FEM relations considering the action of gravity, the mass conservation law, the dependence of vapour-air mix properties on the thermodynamic parameters are derived so that it allows one to model the mentioned phenomena. The analogy of the elastic and plastic rod deformation processes to the processes of laminar and turbulent flow in a pipe is described. Owing to this analogy, the guaranteed convergence of the elastic solutions method for the materials of plastic type means the guaranteed convergence of the LSM for any regime of a turbulent flow in a rough pipe. By means of numerical experiments the convergence rate of the FEM - LSM is investigated. This convergence rate appeared much higher than the convergence rate of the Cross - Andriyashev method. Data of other authors on the convergence rate comparison for the finite element method, the Newton method and the method of gradient are provided. These data allow one to conclude that the FEM in combination with the LSM is one of the most effective methods of calculation of hydraulic and ventilating networks. The FEM - LSM has been used for creation of the research application programme package “MineClimate” allowing to calculate the microclimate parameters in the underground ventilating networks.

  11. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  12. Compact planes, mostly 8-dimensional. A retrospect

    OpenAIRE

    Salzmann, Helmut R.

    2014-01-01

    Results on $8$-dimensional topological planes are scattered in the literature. It is the aim of the present paper to give a survey of these geometries, in particular of information obtained after the appearance of the treatise Compact Projective Planes or not included in this book. For some theorems new proofs are given and a few related results concerning planes of other dimensions are presented.

  13. Collusion and the elasticity of demand

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of collusion in infinitely repeated Cournot oligopoly games has generally assumed that demand is linear, but this note uses constant-elasticity demand functions to investigate how the elasticity of demand affects the sustainability of collusion.

  14. Mechanical behaviour of nanoparticles: Elasticity and plastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... Mechanical behaviour of nanoparticles: Elasticity and plastic deformation mechanisms ... The main results in terms of elasticity and plastic deformation mechanisms are then reported ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  15. Coupled fracture modes under anti-plane loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les P. Pook

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The linear elastic analysis of homogeneous, isotropic cracked bodies is a Twentieth Century development. It was recognised that the crack tip stress field is a singularity, but it was not until the introduction of the essentially two dimensional stress intensity factor concept in 1957 that widespread application to practical engineering problems became possible. The existence of three dimensional corner point effects in the vicinity of a corner point where a crack front intersects a free surface was investigated in the late 1970s: it was found that modes II and III cannot exist in isolation. The existence of one of these modes always induces the other. An approximate solution for corner point singularities by Bažant and Estenssoro explained some features of corner point effects but there were various paradoxes and inconsistencies. In an attempt to explain these a study was carried out on the coupled in-plane fracture mode induced by a nominal anti-plane (mode III loading applied to plates and discs weakened by a straight crack. The results derived from a large bulk of finite element models showed clearly that Bažant and Estenssoro’s analysis is incomplete. Some of the results of the study are summarised, together with some recent results for a disc under in-plane shear loading. On the basis of these results, and a mathematical argument, the results suggest that the stress field in the vicinity of a corner point is the sum of two singularities: one due to stress intensity factors and the other due to an as yet undetermined corner point singularity.

  16. How can cells sense the elasticity of a substrate? An analysis using a cell tensegrity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G De Santis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A eukaryotic cell attaches and spreads on substrates, whether it is the extracellular matrix naturally produced by the cell itself, or artificial materials, such as tissue-engineered scaffolds. Attachment and spreading require the cell to apply forces in the nN range to the substrate via adhesion sites, and these forces are balanced by the elastic response of the substrate. This mechanical interaction is one determinant of cell morphology and, ultimately, cell phenotype. In this paper we use a finite element model of a cell, with a tensegrity structure to model the cytoskeleton of actin filaments and microtubules, to explore the way cells sense the stiffness of the substrate and thereby adapt to it. To support the computational results, an analytical 1D model is developed for comparison. We find that (i the tensegrity hypothesis of the cytoskeleton is sufficient to explain the matrix-elasticity sensing, (ii cell sensitivity is not constant but has a bell-shaped distribution over the physiological matrix-elasticity range, and (iii the position of the sensitivity peak over the matrix-elasticity range depends on the cytoskeletal structure and in particular on the F-actin organisation. Our model suggests that F-actin reorganisation observed in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in response to change of matrix elasticity is a structural-remodelling process that shifts the sensitivity peak towards the new value of matrix elasticity. This finding discloses a potential regulatory role of scaffold stiffness for cell differentiation.

  17. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, E. H. T.; Kalish, R.; Kulik, J.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lifshitz, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphitic planes under different conditions.

  18. Lower incisor inclination regarding different reference planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zataráin, Brenda; Avila, Josué; Moyaho, Angeles; Carrasco, Rosendo; Velasco, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of lower incisor inclination with respect to different reference planes. It was an observational, analytical, longitudinal, prospective study conducted on 100 lateral cephalograms which were corrected according to the photograph in natural head position in order to draw the true vertical plane (TVP). The incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was compensated to eliminate the variation of the mandibular plane growth type with the formula "FMApx.- 25 (FMA) + IMPApx. = compensated IMPA (IMPACOM)". As the data followed normal distribution determined by the KolmogorovSmirnov test, parametric tests were used for the statistical analysis, Ttest, ANOVA and Pearson coefficient correlation test. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical significance of p planes. There were statistically significant differences among the means of the planes measured, except for IMPACOM, FMIA and TVP. The IMPA differed significantly from the IMPACOM. The compensated IMPA and the FMIA did not differ significantly from the TVP. The true horizontal plane was mismatched with Frankfort plane in 84% of the sample with a range of 19°. The true vertical plane is adequate for measuring lower incisor inclination. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  19. Flux dynamics in ultrasensitive superconducting focal planes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The performance of superconducting focal planes will drive the achievable specifications of ultrasensitive instruments for NASA astrophysics missions, yet they have...

  20. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    Elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) is used to invert synthetic particle-velocity data and crosswell pressure field data. The migration images consist of both the P- and Svelocity perturbation images. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data illustrate the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM). In addition, elastic LSRTM images are better focused and have better reflector continuity than do the acoustic LSRTM images.

  1. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai

    2016-09-06

    Elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) is used to invert synthetic particle-velocity data and crosswell pressure field data. The migration images consist of both the P- and Svelocity perturbation images. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data illustrate the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM). In addition, elastic LSRTM images are better focused and have better reflector continuity than do the acoustic LSRTM images.

  2. Mapping of the serotonin 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} autoreceptor gene (HTR1D) on chromosome 1 using a silent polymorphism in the coding region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, N.; Lappalainen, J.; Linnoila, M. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-24

    Serotonin (5-HT){sub ID} receptors are 5-HT release-regulating autoreceptors in the human brain. Abnormalities in brain 5-HT function have been hypothesized in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, mood disorders, eating disorders, impulsive violent behavior, and alcoholism. Thus, mutations occurring in 5-HT autoreceptors may cause or increase the vulnerability to any of these conditions. 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} and 5-HT{sub 1D{Beta}} subtypes have been previously localized to chromosomes 1p36.3-p34.3 and 6q13, respectively, using rodent-human hybrids and in situ localization. In this communication, we report the detection of a 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} receptor gene polymorphism by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the coding sequence. The polymorphism was used for fine scale linkage mapping of 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} on chromosome 1. This polymorphism should also be useful for linkage studies in populations and in families. Our analysis also demonstrates that functionally significant coding sequence variants of the 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} are probably not abundant either among alcoholics or in the general population. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Does one-dimensional (1D) adatom and cluster diffusion of Pt on the Pt(110)-(1 x 2) surface lead to 1D ripening?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, T R; Horch, S; Petersen, L; Laegsgaard, E; Stensgaard, I; Besenbacher, F

    2005-01-01

    The technique of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) uniquely allows dynamic processes on surfaces to be followed directly in real space and at atomic resolution. Results for the 551225 surface diffusion of Pt adatoms and clusters on the anisotropic, missing row reconstructed Pt(110)-(1 x 2) surface are briefly reviewed. Mass transport in this system is entirely one-dimensional (1D) since, at low adatom coverage, atoms and clusters are confined to the missing row troughs. In this paper, we therefore address the question if Pt/Pt(110)-(1 x 2) is a 1D model system to study late stage growth phenomena such as island ripening? From STM measurements, we quantify the morphology changes resulting from annealing a surface configuration with small 1D Pt islands in the missing row troughs to temperatures in the interval 369-395 K. Interestingly, the resulting increase in island sizes (ripening) cannot be accounted for by the known island and adatom mobilities within a 1D model. An explanation is provided from dynamic, time-resolved 'STM-movies' that directly reveal two novel island-mediated mechanisms for inter-trough mass transport which cause the Pt/Pt(110)-(1 x 2) system not to be purely 1D at the higher surface coverage used in the annealing experiments

  4. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical.

  5. CD1d-Restricted Type II NKT Cells Reactive With Endogenous Hydrophobic Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Yusuke; Masuda, Sakiko; Tomaru, Utano; Ishizu, Akihiro

    2018-01-01

    NKT cells belong to a distinct subset of T cells that recognize hydrophobic antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecules, such as CD1d. Because NKT cells stimulated by antigens can activate or suppress other immunocompetent cells through an immediate production of a large amount of cytokines, they are regarded as immunological modulators. CD1d-restricted NKT cells are classified into two subsets, namely, type I and type II. CD1d-restricted type I NKT cells express invariant T cell receptors (TCRs) and react with lipid antigens, including the marine sponge-derived glycolipid α-galactosylceramide. On the contrary, CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells recognize a wide variety of antigens, including glycolipids, phospholipids, and hydrophobic peptides, by their diverse TCRs. In this review, we focus particularly on CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells that recognize endogenous hydrophobic peptides presented by CD1d. Previous studies have demonstrated that CD1d-restricted type I NKT cells usually act as pro-inflammatory cells but sometimes behave as anti-inflammatory cells. It has been also demonstrated that CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells play opposite roles to CD1d-restricted type I NKT cells; thus, they function as anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory cells depending on the situation. In line with this, CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells that recognize type II collagen peptide have been demonstrated to act as anti-inflammatory cells in diverse inflammation-induction models in mice, whereas pro-inflammatory CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells reactive with sterol carrier protein 2 peptide have been demonstrated to be involved in the development of small vessel vasculitis in rats.

  6. Colliding almost-plane gravitational waves: Colliding plane waves and general properties of almost-plane-wave spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, U.

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that when two precisely plane-symmetric gravitational waves propagating in an otherwise flat background collide, they focus each other so strongly as to produce a curvature singularity. This paper is the first of several devoted to almost-plane gravitational waves and their collisions. Such waves are more realistic than plane waves in having a finite but very large transverse size. In this paper we review some crucial features of the well-known exact solutions for colliding plane waves and we argue that one of these features, the breakdown of ''local inextendibility'' can be regarded as nongeneric. We then introduce a new framework for analyzing general colliding plane-wave spacetimes; we give an alternative proof of a theorem due to Tipler implying the existence of singularities in all generic colliding plane-wave solutions; and we discuss the fact that the recently constructed Chandrasekhar-Xanthopoulos colliding plane-wave solutions are not strictly plane symmetric and thus do not satisfy the conditions and the conclusion of Tipler's theorem

  7. Elastic fracture in driven media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung Chiwei; Wang Shenggang; Long Qiyi

    1999-08-01

    Fracture as one of the mechanical properties of materials is structurally dependent. Defects, defect assemblies, grain boundaries and sub-boundaries materials, modify the local stress intensity factors intensively. Brittle fracture prefers to confine to the grain boundary where the specific surface energy is lower than that in the grain. Again, transgranular cracking may occur on the crystal cleavage plane or planes where the local toughness is lowered by dislocation interaction and motion. This paper shows the complexity of the fractal dimension or roughness index of fractured surfaces in materials with metallographic structures or in inhomogeneous media. (author)

  8. Thermodynamic parameters of elasticity and electrical conductivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermodynamic parameters (change in free energy of elasticity, DGe; change in enthalpy of elasticity, DHe; and change in entropy of elasticity, DSe) and the electrical conductivity of natural rubber composites reinforced separately with some agricultural wastes have been determined. Results show that the reinforced ...

  9. On Elasticity Measurement in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elasticity is the foundation of cloud performance and can be considered as a great advantage and a key benefit of cloud computing. However, there is no clear, concise, and formal definition of elasticity measurement, and thus no effective approach to elasticity quantification has been developed so far. Existing work on elasticity lack of solid and technical way of defining elasticity measurement and definitions of elasticity metrics have not been accurate enough to capture the essence of elasticity measurement. In this paper, we present a new definition of elasticity measurement and propose a quantifying and measuring method using a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC model, which is easy to use for precise calculation of elasticity value of a cloud computing platform. Our numerical results demonstrate the basic parameters affecting elasticity as measured by the proposed measurement approach. Furthermore, our simulation and experimental results validate that the proposed measurement approach is not only correct but also robust and is effective in computing and comparing the elasticity of cloud platforms. Our research in this paper makes significant contribution to quantitative measurement of elasticity in cloud computing.

  10. A rational route to SCM materials based on a 1-D cobalt selenocyanato coordination polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Jan; Näther, Christian

    2011-07-07

    Thermal annealing of a discrete complex with terminal SeCN anions and monodentate coligands enforces the formation of a 1D cobalt selenocyanato coordination polymer that shows slow relaxation of the magnetization. Therefore, this approach offers a rational route to 1D materials that might show single chain magnetic behaviour. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  11. Influence of lipid rafts on CD1d presentation by dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wei; Martaresche, Cecile; Escande-Beillard, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    corresponding to lipid rafts and we describe that alpha-GalCer enhanced CD1d amount in the low density detergent insoluble fraction. We conclude that the membrane environment of CD1d can influence antigen presentation mainly when the endocytic pathway is required. Flow cytometry analysis can provide additional...

  12. Development of a 3D consistent 1D neutronics model for reactor core simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Bog; Joo, Han Gyu; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun

    2001-02-01

    In this report a 3D consistent 1D model based on nonlinear analytic nodal method is developed to reproduce the 3D results. During the derivation, the current conservation factor (CCF) is introduced which guarantees the same axial neutron currents obtained from the 1D equation as the 3D reference values. Furthermore in order to properly use 1D group constants, a new 1D group constants representation scheme employing tables for the fuel temperature, moderator density and boron concentration is developed and functionalized for the control rod tip position. To test the 1D kinetics model with CCF, several steady state and transient calculations were performed and compared with 3D reference values. The errors of K-eff values were reduced about one tenth when using CCF without significant computational overhead. And the errors of power distribution were decreased to the range of one fifth or tenth at steady state calculation. The 1D kinetics model with CCF and the 1D group constant functionalization employing tables as a function of control rod tip position can provide preciser results at the steady state and transient calculation. Thus it is expected that the 1D kinetics model derived in this report can be used in the safety analysis, reactor real time simulation coupled with system analysis code, operator support system etc.

  13. The organic anion transport polypeptide 1d1 (Oatp1d1) mediates hepatocellular uptake of phalloidin and microcystin into skate liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Abt, F; Hammann-Hänni, A; Stieger, B; Ballatori, N; Boyer, J L

    2007-02-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (rodent Oatp; human OATP) mediate cellular uptake of numerous organic compounds including xenobiotic toxins into mammalian hepatocytes. In the little skate Leucoraja erinacea a liver-specific Oatp (Oatp1d1, also called sOatp) has been identified and suggested to represent an evolutionarily ancient precursor of the mammalian liver OATP1B1 (human), Oatp1b2 (rat), and OATP1B3 (human). The present study tested whether Oatp1d1 shares functional transport activity of the xenobiotic oligopeptide toxins phalloidin and microcystin with the mammalian liver Oatps/OATPs. The phalloidin analogue [(3)H]-demethylphalloin was taken up into skate hepatocytes with high affinity (Km approximately 0.4 microM), and uptake could be inhibited by phalloidin and a variety of typical Oatp/OATP substrates such as bromosulfophthalein, bile salts, estrone-3-sulfate, cyclosporine A and high concentrations of microcystin-LR (Ki approximately 150 microM). When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes Oatp1d1 increased uptake of demethylphalloin (Km approximately 2.2 microM) and microcystin-LR (Km approximately 27 microM) 2- to 3-fold over water-injected oocytes, whereas the alternative skate liver organic anion transporter, the dimeric Ostalpha/beta, exhibited no phalloidin and only minor microcystin-LR transport. Also, the closest mammalian Oatp1d1 orthologue, the human brain and testis OATP1C1, did not show any phalloidin transport activity. These results demonstrate that the evolutionarily ancient Oatp1d1 is able to mediate uptake of cyclic oligopeptide toxins into skate liver. The findings support the notion that Oatp1d1 is a precursor of the liver-specific mammalian Oatps/OATPs and that its transport properties are closely associated with certain forms of toxic liver injury such as for example protein phosphatase inhibition by the water-borne toxin microcystin.

  14. The organic anion transport polypeptide 1d1 (Oatp1d1) mediates hepatocellular uptake of phalloidin and microcystin into skate liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier-Abt, F.; Hammann-Haenni, A.; Stieger, B.; Ballatori, N.; Boyer, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (rodent Oatp; human OATP) mediate cellular uptake of numerous organic compounds including xenobiotic toxins into mammalian hepatocytes. In the little skate Leucoraja erinacea a liver-specific Oatp (Oatp1d1, also called sOatp) has been identified and suggested to represent an evolutionarily ancient precursor of the mammalian liver OATP1B1 (human), Oatp1b2 (rat), and OATP1B3 (human). The present study tested whether Oatp1d1 shares functional transport activity of the xenobiotic oligopeptide toxins phalloidin and microcystin with the mammalian liver Oatps/OATPs. The phalloidin analogue [ 3 H]-demethylphalloin was taken up into skate hepatocytes with high affinity (Km ∼ 0.4 μM), and uptake could be inhibited by phalloidin and a variety of typical Oatp/OATP substrates such as bromosulfophthalein, bile salts, estrone-3-sulfate, cyclosporine A and high concentrations of microcystin-LR (Ki ∼ 150 μM). When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes Oatp1d1 increased uptake of demethylphalloin (Km ∼ 2.2 μM) and microcystin-LR (Km ∼ 27 μM) 2- to 3-fold over water-injected oocytes, whereas the alternative skate liver organic anion transporter, the dimeric Ostα/β, exhibited no phalloidin and only minor microcystin-LR transport. Also, the closest mammalian Oatp1d1 orthologue, the human brain and testis OATP1C1, did not show any phalloidin transport activity. These results demonstrate that the evolutionarily ancient Oatp1d1 is able to mediate uptake of cyclic oligopeptide toxins into skate liver. The findings support the notion that Oatp1d1 is a precursor of the liver-specific mammalian Oatps/OATPs and that its transport properties are closely associated with certain forms of toxic liver injury such as for example protein phosphatase inhibition by the water-borne toxin microcystin

  15. Influence of temperature on δ-hydride habit plane in α-Zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R. N.; Stahle, P.; Banerjee, S.; Ristmanaa, Matti; Sauramd, K.

    2008-01-01

    Dilute Zr-alloy with hcp α-Zr as major phase is used as pressure boundary for hot coolant in CANDU, PHWR and RBMK reactors. Hydrogen / deuterium ingress during service makes the pressure boundary components like pressure tubes of the aforementioned reactors susceptible to hydride embrittlement. Hydride acquires plate shaped morphology and the broad face of the hydride plate coincides with certain crystallographic plane of α-Zr crystal, which is called habit plane. Hydride plate oriented normal to tensile stress significantly increases the degree of embrittlement. Thus key to mitigating the damage due to hydride embrittlement is to avoid the formation of hydride plates normal to tensile stress. Two different theoretical approaches are used to determine the habit plane of precipitates viz., geometrical and solid mechanics. For the geometrical approach invariant plane and invariant-line criteria have been applied successfully and for the solid mechanics approach strain energy minimization criteria have been used successfully. Solid mechanics approach using strain energy computed by FEM technique has been applied to hydride precipitation in Zr-alloys, but the emphasis has been to understand the solvus hysteresis. The objective of the present investigation is to predict the habit plane of δ-hydride precipitating in α-Zr at 25, 300, 400 and 450 .deg. C. using strain energy minimization technique. The δ-hydride phase is modeled to undergo isotropic elastic and plastic deformation. The α-Zr phase was modeled to undergo transverse isotropic elastic deformation. Both isotropic plastic and transverse isotropic plastic deformations of α-Zr were considered. Further, both perfect and linear work-hardening plastic behaviors were considered. Accommodation strain energy of δ-hydrides forming in α-Zr crystal was computed using initial strain method as a function of hydride nuclei orientation. Hydride was modeled as disk with circular edge. The simulation was carried out

  16. Elasticity of Relativistic Rigid Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-10-01

    In the classical Twin Paradox, according to the Special Theory of Relativity, when the traveling twin blasts off from the Earth to a relative velocity v =√{/3 } 2 c with respect to the Earth, his measuring stick and other physical objects in the direction of relative motion shrink to half their lengths. How is that possible in the real physical world to have let's say a rigid rocket shrinking to half and then later elongated back to normal as an elastic material when it stops? What is the explanation for the traveler's measuring stick and other physical objects, in effect, return to the same length to their original length in the Stay-At-Home, but there is no record of their having shrunk? If it's a rigid (not elastic) object, how can it shrink and then elongate back to normal? It might get broken in such situation.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of 1D Ceria Nanomaterials for CO Oxidation and Steam Reforming of Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Chowdhury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel one-dimensional (1D ceria nanostructure has been investigated as a promising and practical approach for the reforming of methanol reaction. Size and shape of the ceria nanomaterials are directly involved with the catalytic activities. Several general synthesis routes as including soft and hard template-assemble phenomenon for the preparation of 1D cerium oxide are discussed. This preparation phenomenon is consisting with low cost and ecofriendly. Nanometer-sized 1D structure provides a high-surface area that can interact with methanol and carbon-monoxide reaction. Overall, nanometer-sized structure provides desirable properties, such as easy recovery and regeneration. As a result, the use of 1D cerium has been suitable for catalytic application of reforming. In this paper, we describe the 1D cerium oxide syntheses route and then summarize their properties in the field of CO oxidation and steam reforming of methanol approach.

  18. Non-thermal distribution of O(1D) atoms in the night-time thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Jeng-Hwa

    1988-01-01

    The 6300 A O(1D-3P) emission has been used for many years to remotely monitor the thermospheric temperature from the Doppler width of its line profile. The O(1D) atoms in the nighttime thermosphere are initially produced by the dissociative recombination of O2(+) ions with kinetic energy much greater than the thermal energy of the ambient neutrals. The validity of the technique to monitor neutral ambient temperature by measuring O(1D) 6300 A emission depends on the degree of thermalization of the O(1D) atoms. The object of this study is to calculate the velocity distribution of the O(1D) atoms and to examine the effect of nonthermal distribution on the nighttime thermospheric neutral temperature determined.

  19. Pipeline robots with elastic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Matuliauskas

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article constructions of the pipeline robots with elastic elements are reviewed and the scheme of new original construction is presented. The mathematical models of a robot with one-dimensional vibration exciter with two degrees of freedom were developed and the equations of movement were formed and written. The mathematical model of the pipeline robot with circular elements is formed and its motion equations are presented.

  20. The poverty elasticity of growth

    OpenAIRE

    Heltberg, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    How much does economic growth contribute to poverty reduction? I discuss analytical and empirical approches to assess the poverty elasticity of growth, and emphasize that the relationship between growth and poverty change is non-constant. For a given poverty measure, it depends on initial inequality and on the location of the poverty line relative to mean income. In most cases, growth is more important for poverty reduction than changes in inequality, but this does not tender inequality unimp...

  1. Comparison of stress and total energy methods for calculation of elastic properties of semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, M A; Schulz, S; O'Reilly, E P

    2013-01-16

    We explore the calculation of the elastic properties of zinc-blende and wurtzite semiconductors using two different approaches: one based on stress and the other on total energy as a function of strain. The calculations are carried out within the framework of density functional theory in the local density approximation, with the plane wave-based package VASP. We use AlN as a test system, with some results also shown for selected other materials (C, Si, GaAs and GaN). Differences are found in convergence rate between the two methods, especially in low symmetry cases, where there is a much slower convergence for total energy calculations with respect to the number of plane waves and k points used. The stress method is observed to be more robust than the total energy method with respect to the residual error in the elastic constants calculated for different strain branches in the systems studied.

  2. Discretization of superintegrable systems on a plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabát, Z.

    2012-02-01

    We construct difference analogues of so called Smorodinsky-Winternitz superintegrable systems in the Euclidean plane. Using methods of umbral calculus, we obtain difference equations for generalized isotropic harmonic oscillator on the uniform lattice, and also its solution in terms of power series. In the case of gauge-rotated Hamiltonian, the solution is a polynomial, well-defined in the whole plane.

  3. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  4. Moving vertices to make drawings plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goaoc, X.; Kratochvil, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Shin, C.S.; Wolff, A.; Hong, S.K.; Nishizeki, T.; Quan, W.

    2008-01-01

    In John Tantalo’s on-line game Planarity the player is given a non-plane straight-line drawing of a planar graph. The aim is to make the drawing plane as quickly as possible by moving vertices. In this paper we investigate the related problem MinMovedVertices which asks for the minimum number of

  5. Transient waves in visco-elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Norman

    1977-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave

  6. Teaching nonlinear dynamics through elastic cords

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, R; Galan, C A; Sanchez-Bajo, F

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally studied the restoring force of a length of stretched elastic cord. A simple analytical expression for the restoring force was found to fit all the experimental results for different elastic materials. Remarkably, this analytical expression depends upon an elastic-cord characteristic parameter which exhibits two limiting values corresponding to two nonlinear springs with different Hooke's elastic constants. Additionally, the simplest model of elastic cord dynamics is capable of exhibiting a great diversity of nonlinear phenomena, including bifurcations and chaos, thus providing a suitable alternative model system for discussing the basic essentials of nonlinear dynamics in the context of intermediate physics courses at university level.

  7. Elastic interaction between surface and spherical pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, G.Z.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Kislitsyn, S.B.; Turkebaev, T.Eh.

    2000-01-01

    The energy of elastic interaction of a gas-filled spherical cavity with a boundary of an elastic isotropic half-space is determined. The elastic field of a system of a spherical cavity - boundary is represented as an expansion in series of potential functions. The factors of expansions are determined by boundary conditions on a free surface of an elastic half-space and on a spherical surface of a cavity with pressure of gas P. Function of a Tresca-Miesesa on a surface of elastic surface is defined additionally with purpose creep condition determination caused by gas pressure in the cavity. (author)

  8. Elastic scattering at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspar, Jan; Deile, M

    The seemingly simple elastic scattering of protons still presents a challenge for the theory. In this thesis we discuss the elastic scattering from theoretical as well as experimental point of view. In the theory part, we present several models and their predictions for the LHC. We also discuss the Coulomb-hadronic interference, where we present a new eikonal calculation to all orders of alpha, the fine-structure constant. In the experimental part we introduce the TOTEM experiment which is dedicated, among other subjects, to the measurement of the elastic scattering at the LHC. This measurement is performed primarily with the Roman Pot (RP) detectors - movable beam-pipe insertions hundreds of meters from the interaction point, that can detect protons scattered to very small angles. We discuss some aspects of the RP simulation and reconstruction software. A central point is devoted to the techniques of RP alignment - determining the RP sensor positions relative to each other and to the beam. At the end we pres...

  9. Biomimetic heterogenous elastic tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kai Jen; Dixon, Simon; Hale, Luke Richard; Darbyshire, Arnold; Martin, Daniel; de Mel, Achala

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for artificial tissue to address current limitations with donor organs and problems with donor site morbidity. Despite the success with sophisticated tissue engineering endeavours, which employ cells as building blocks, they are limited to dedicated labs suitable for cell culture, with associated high costs and long tissue maturation times before available for clinical use. Direct 3D printing presents rapid, bespoke, acellular solutions for skull and bone repair or replacement, and can potentially address the need for elastic tissue, which is a major constituent of smooth muscle, cartilage, ligaments and connective tissue that support organs. Thermoplastic polyurethanes are one of the most versatile elastomeric polymers. Their segmented block copolymeric nature, comprising of hard and soft segments allows for an almost limitless potential to control physical properties and mechanical behaviour. Here we show direct 3D printing of biocompatible thermoplastic polyurethanes with Fused Deposition Modelling, with a view to presenting cell independent in-situ tissue substitutes. This method can expeditiously and economically produce heterogenous, biomimetic elastic tissue substitutes with controlled porosity to potentially facilitate vascularisation. The flexibility of this application is shown here with tubular constructs as exemplars. We demonstrate how these 3D printed constructs can be post-processed to incorporate bioactive molecules. This efficacious strategy, when combined with the privileges of digital healthcare, can be used to produce bespoke elastic tissue substitutes in-situ, independent of extensive cell culture and may be developed as a point-of-care therapy approach.

  10. Open Cluster Dynamics via Fundamental Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Cheng; Pang, Xiao-Ying

    2018-04-01

    Open clusters (OCs) are important objects for stellar dynamics studies. The short survival timescale of OCs makes them closely related to the formation of Galactic field stars. We motivate to investigate the dynamical evolution of OCs on the aspect of internal effect and the external influence. Firstly, we make use of the known OC catalog to obtain OCs masses, effective radii. Additionally, we estimate OCs kinematics properties by OC members cross-matched with radial velocity and metallicity from SDSSIV/APOGEE2. We then establish the fundamental plane of OCs based on the radial velocity dispersion, the effective radius, and average surface brightness. The deviation of the fundamental plane from the Virial Plane, so called the tilt, and the r.m.s. dispersion of OCs around the average plane are used to indicate the dynamical status of OCs. Parameters of the fitted plane will vary with cluster age and distance.

  11. Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient (μ). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 μ. If μ > 2/7 tan θ, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  12. Coherent field propagation between tilted planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Johannes; Worku, Norman Girma; Gross, Herbert

    2017-10-01

    Propagating electromagnetic light fields between nonparallel planes is of special importance, e.g., within the design of novel computer-generated holograms or the simulation of optical systems. In contrast to the extensively discussed evaluation between parallel planes, the diffraction-based propagation of light onto a tilted plane is more burdensome, since discrete fast Fourier transforms cannot be applied directly. In this work, we propose a quasi-fast algorithm (O(N 3  log N)) that deals with this problem. Based on a proper decomposition into three rotations, the vectorial field distribution is calculated on a tilted plane using the spectrum of plane waves. The algorithm works on equidistant grids, so neither nonuniform Fourier transforms nor an explicit complex interpolation is necessary. The proposed algorithm is discussed in detail and applied to several examples of practical interest.

  13. One-Dimensional Mass-Spring Chains Supporting Elastic Waves with Non-Conventional Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two classes of phononic structures that can support elastic waves with non-conventional topology, namely intrinsic and extrinsic systems. The non-conventional topology of elastic wave results from breaking time reversal symmetry (T-symmetry of wave propagation. In extrinsic systems, energy is injected into the phononic structure to break T-symmetry. In intrinsic systems symmetry is broken through the medium microstructure that may lead to internal resonances. Mass-spring composite structures are introduced as metaphors for more complex phononic crystals with non-conventional topology. The elastic wave equation of motion of an intrinsic phononic structure composed of two coupled one-dimensional (1D harmonic chains can be factored into a Dirac-like equation, leading to antisymmetric modes that have spinor character and therefore non-conventional topology in wave number space. The topology of the elastic waves can be further modified by subjecting phononic structures to externally-induced spatio-temporal modulation of their elastic properties. Such modulations can be actuated through photo-elastic effects, magneto-elastic effects, piezo-electric effects or external mechanical effects. We also uncover an analogy between a combined intrinsic-extrinsic systems composed of a simple one-dimensional harmonic chain coupled to a rigid substrate subjected to a spatio-temporal modulation of the side spring stiffness and the Dirac equation in the presence of an electromagnetic field. The modulation is shown to be able to tune the spinor part of the elastic wave function and therefore its topology. This analogy between classical mechanics and quantum phenomena offers new modalities for developing more complex functions of phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials.

  14. Fatigue life estimation of a 1D aluminum beam under mode-I loading using the electromechanical impedance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yee Yan; Soh, Chee Kiong

    2011-01-01

    Structures in service are often subjected to fatigue loads. Cracks would develop and lead to failure if left unnoticed after a large number of cyclic loadings. Monitoring the process of fatigue crack propagation as well as estimating the remaining useful life of a structure is thus essential to prevent catastrophe while minimizing earlier-than-required replacement. The advent of smart materials such as piezo-impedance transducers (lead zirconate titanate, PZT) has ushered in a new era of structural health monitoring (SHM) based on non-destructive evaluation (NDE). This paper presents a series of investigative studies to evaluate the feasibility of fatigue crack monitoring and estimation of remaining useful life using the electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique employing a PZT transducer. Experimental tests were conducted to study the ability of the EMI technique in monitoring fatigue crack in 1D lab-sized aluminum beams. The experimental results prove that the EMI technique is very sensitive to fatigue crack propagation. A proof-of-concept semi-analytical damage model for fatigue life estimation has been developed by incorporating the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) theory into the finite element (FE) model. The prediction of the model matches closely with the experiment, suggesting the possibility of replacing costly experiments in future

  15. Fatigue life estimation of a 1D aluminum beam under mode-I loading using the electromechanical impedance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yee Yan; Kiong Soh, Chee

    2011-12-01

    Structures in service are often subjected to fatigue loads. Cracks would develop and lead to failure if left unnoticed after a large number of cyclic loadings. Monitoring the process of fatigue crack propagation as well as estimating the remaining useful life of a structure is thus essential to prevent catastrophe while minimizing earlier-than-required replacement. The advent of smart materials such as piezo-impedance transducers (lead zirconate titanate, PZT) has ushered in a new era of structural health monitoring (SHM) based on non-destructive evaluation (NDE). This paper presents a series of investigative studies to evaluate the feasibility of fatigue crack monitoring and estimation of remaining useful life using the electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique employing a PZT transducer. Experimental tests were conducted to study the ability of the EMI technique in monitoring fatigue crack in 1D lab-sized aluminum beams. The experimental results prove that the EMI technique is very sensitive to fatigue crack propagation. A proof-of-concept semi-analytical damage model for fatigue life estimation has been developed by incorporating the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) theory into the finite element (FE) model. The prediction of the model matches closely with the experiment, suggesting the possibility of replacing costly experiments in future.

  16. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.

    2005-01-01

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate (φ coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m 2 ) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints

  17. The dispersion relation for the forward elastic electron-atom scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.

    1978-01-01

    The analytical properties of forward elastic electron-atom scattering amplitude are discussed. It is noted that the occurrence of exchange between the incoming and atomic electrons leads to the appearance of a number of singularities on the negative real axis in the complex energy plane. The conclusion is drawn that the dispersion relation for the forward electron-atom scattering amplitude should also include an integration over the negative energy from - I to - infinity, where I is the ionization potential. (author)

  18. Propagation of Elastic Waves in a One-Dimensional High Aspect Ratio Nanoridge Phononic Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Gueddida

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the propagation of elastic waves in a one-dimensional (1D phononic crystal constituted by high aspect ratio epoxy nanoridges that have been deposited at the surface of a glass substrate. With the help of the finite element method (FEM, we calculate the dispersion curves of the modes localized at the surface for propagation both parallel and perpendicular to the nanoridges. When the direction of the wave is parallel to the nanoridges, we find that the vibrational states coincide with the Lamb modes of an infinite plate that correspond to one nanoridge. When the direction of wave propagation is perpendicular to the 1D nanoridges, the localized modes inside the nanoridges give rise to flat branches in the band structure that interact with the surface Rayleigh mode, and possibly open narrow band gaps. Filling the nanoridge structure with a viscous liquid produces new modes that propagate along the 1D finite height multilayer array.

  19. Motivation and compliance with intraoral elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeroo, Helen J; Cunningham, Susan J; Newton, Jonathon Timothy; Travess, Helen C

    2014-07-01

    Intraoral elastics are commonly used in orthodontics and require regular changing to be effective. Unfortunately, poor compliance with elastics is often encountered, especially in adolescents. Intention for an action and its implementation can be improved using "if-then" plans that spell out when, where, and how a set goal, such as elastic wear, can be put into action. Our aim was to determine the effect of if-then plans on compliance with elastics. To identify common barriers to compliance with recommendations concerning elastic wear, semistructured interviews were carried out with 14 adolescent orthodontic patients wearing intraoral elastics full time. Emerging themes were used to develop if-then plans to improve compliance with elastic wear. A prospective pilot study assessed the effectiveness of if-then planning aimed at overcoming the identified barriers on compliance with elastic wear. Twelve participants were randomized equally into study and control groups; the study group received information about if-then planning. The participants were asked to collect used elastics, and counts of these were used to assess compliance. A wide range of motivational and volitional factors were described by the interviewed participants, including the perceived benefits of elastics, cues to remember, pain, eating, social situations, sports, loss of elastics, and breakages. Compliance with elastic wear was highly variable among patients. The study group returned more used elastics, suggesting increased compliance, but the difference was not significant. The use of if-then plans might improve compliance with elastic wear when compared with routine clinical instructions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Phased array compaction cell for measurement of the transversely isotropic elastic properties of compacting sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Reverdy, F.; Meyer, L.R.; Duranti, L.; Ball, G.

    2010-12-15

    Sediments undergoing compaction typically exhibit transversely isotropic (TI) elastic properties. We present a new experimental apparatus, the phased array compaction cell, for measuring the TI elastic properties of clay-rich sediments during compaction. This apparatus uses matched sets of P- and S-wave ultrasonic transducers located along the sides of the sample and an ultrasonic P-wave phased array source, together with a miniature P-wave receiver on the top and bottom ends of the sample. The phased array measurements are used to form plane P-waves that provide estimates of the phase velocities over a range of angles. From these measurements, the five TI elastic constants can be recovered as the sediment is compacted, without the need for sample unloading, recoring, or reorienting. This paper provides descriptions of the apparatus, the data processing, and an application demonstrating recovery of the evolving TI properties of a compacting marine sediment sample.

  1. Steady-state, elastic-plastic growth of slanted cracks in symmetrically loaded plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Hutchinson, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    parameter through the plate in the plastic zone at the crack tip. The distribution of the mode I and mode III stress intensity factors along the crack front are obtained for the elastic problem. The out-of-plane bending constraint imposed on the plate significantly influences the mixed mode behavior along......Elastic and elastic-plastic results are obtained for a semi-infinite slanted through-crack propagating in a symmetrically loaded plate strip with the aim of providing theoretical background to commonly observed plate tearing behavior. Were it is not for the slant of the crack through the thickness...... of the plate, the problem would be mode I, but due to the slant the local conditions along the crack front are a combination of mode I and mode III. A three-dimensional formulation for steady-state crack propagation is employed to generate distributions of effective stress, stress triaxiality and Lode...

  2. Electronic structure, elasticity, bonding features and mechanical behaviour of zinc intermetallics: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatima, Bushra, E-mail: bushrafatima25@gmail.com; Acharya, Nikita; Sanyal, Sankar P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, 462026 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The structural stability, electronic structure, elastic and mechanical properties of TiZn and ZrZn intermetallics have been studied using ab-initio full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation potentials. The various structural parameters, such as lattice constant (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B), and its pressure derivative (B’) are analysed and compared. The investigation of elastic constants affirm that both TiZn and ZrZn are elastically stable in CsCl (B{sub 2} phase) structure. The electronic structures have been analysed quantitatively from the band structure which reveals the metallic nature of these compounds. To better illustrate the nature of bonding and charge transfer, we have also studied the Fermi surfaces. The three well known criterion of ductility namely Pugh’s rule, Cauchy’s pressure and Frantsevich rule elucidate the ductile nature of these compounds.

  3. Modeling and analysis of waves in a heat conducting thermo-elastic plate of elliptical shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Selvamani

    Full Text Available Wave propagation in heat conducting thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-section is studied using the Fourier expansion collocation method based on Suhubi's generalized theory. The equations of motion based on two-dimensional theory of elasticity is applied under the plane strain assumption of generalized thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-sections composed of homogeneous isotropic material. The frequency equations are obtained by using the boundary conditions along outer and inner surface of elliptical cross-sectional plate using Fourier expansion collocation method. The computed non-dimensional frequency, velocity and quality factor are plotted in dispersion curves for longitudinal and flexural (symmetric and antisymmetric modes of vibrations.

  4. Field characterization of elastic properties across a fault zone reactivated by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne, Pierre; Guglielmi, Yves; Rutqvist, Jonny; Nussbaum, Christophe; Birkholzer, Jens

    2017-08-01

    We studied the elastic properties of a fault zone intersecting the Opalinus Clay formation at 300 m depth in the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory (Switzerland). Four controlled water injection experiments were performed in borehole straddle intervals set at successive locations across the fault zone. A three-component displacement sensor, which allowed capturing the borehole wall movements during injection, was used to estimate the elastic properties of representative locations across the fault zone, from the host rock to the damage zone to the fault core. Young's moduli were estimated by both an analytical approach and numerical finite difference modeling. Results show a decrease in Young's modulus from the host rock to the damage zone by a factor of 5 and from the damage zone to the fault core by a factor of 2. In the host rock, our results are in reasonable agreement with laboratory data showing a strong elastic anisotropy characterized by the direction of the plane of isotropy parallel to the laminar structure of the shale formation. In the fault zone, strong rotations of the direction of anisotropy can be observed. The plane of isotropy can be oriented either parallel to bedding (when few discontinuities are present), parallel to the direction of the main fracture family intersecting the zone, and possibly oriented parallel or perpendicular to the fractures critically oriented for shear reactivation (when repeated past rupture along this plane has created a zone).

  5. Use of optimized 1D TOCSY NMR for improved quantitation and metabolomic analysis of biofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandusky, Peter; Appiah-Amponsah, Emmanuel; Raftery, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    One dimensional selective TOCSY experiments have been shown to be advantageous in providing improved data inputs for principle component analysis (PCA) (Sandusky and Raftery 2005a, b). Better subpopulation cluster resolution in the observed scores plots results from the ability to isolate metabolite signals of interest via the TOCSY based filtering approach. This report reexamines the quantitative aspects of this approach, first by optimizing the 1D TOCSY experiment as it relates to the measurement of biofluid constituent concentrations, and second by comparing the integration of 1D TOCSY read peaks to the bucket integration of 1D proton NMR spectra in terms of precision and accuracy. This comparison indicates that, because of the extensive peak overlap that occurs in the 1D proton NMR spectra of biofluid samples, bucket integrals are often far less accurate as measures of individual constituent concentrations than 1D TOCSY read peaks. Even spectral fitting approaches have proven difficult in the analysis of significantly overlapped spectral regions. Measurements of endogenous taurine made over a sample population of human urine demonstrates that, due to background signals from other constituents, bucket integrals of 1D proton spectra routinely overestimate the taurine concentrations and distort its variation over the sample population. As a result, PCA calculations performed using data matrices incorporating 1D TOCSY determined taurine concentrations produce better scores plot subpopulation cluster resolution.

  6. 1D Piezoelectric Material Based Nanogenerators: Methods, Materials and Property Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Sun, Mei; Wei, Xianlong; Shan, Chongxin; Chen, Qing

    2018-03-23

    Due to the enhanced piezoelectric properties, excellent mechanical properties and tunable electric properties, one-dimensional (1D) piezoelectric materials have shown their promising applications in nanogenerators (NG), sensors, actuators, electronic devices etc. To present a clear view about 1D piezoelectric materials, this review mainly focuses on the characterization and optimization of the piezoelectric properties of 1D nanomaterials, including semiconducting nanowires (NWs) with wurtzite and/or zinc blend phases, perovskite NWs and 1D polymers. Specifically, the piezoelectric coefficients, performance of single NW-based NG and structure-dependent electromechanical properties of 1D nanostructured materials can be respectively investigated through piezoresponse force microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the in-situ scanning/transmission electron microcopy. Along with the introduction of the mechanism and piezoelectric properties of 1D semiconductor, perovskite materials and polymers, their performance improvement strategies are summarized from the view of microstructures, including size-effect, crystal structure, orientation and defects. Finally, the extension of 1D piezoelectric materials in field effect transistors and optoelectronic devices are simply introduced.

  7. Use of optimized 1D TOCSY NMR for improved quantitation and metabolomic analysis of biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, Peter [Eckerd College, Department of Chemistry (United States); Appiah-Amponsah, Emmanuel; Raftery, Daniel, E-mail: raftery@purdue.edu [Purdue University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2011-04-15

    One dimensional selective TOCSY experiments have been shown to be advantageous in providing improved data inputs for principle component analysis (PCA) (Sandusky and Raftery 2005a, b). Better subpopulation cluster resolution in the observed scores plots results from the ability to isolate metabolite signals of interest via the TOCSY based filtering approach. This report reexamines the quantitative aspects of this approach, first by optimizing the 1D TOCSY experiment as it relates to the measurement of biofluid constituent concentrations, and second by comparing the integration of 1D TOCSY read peaks to the bucket integration of 1D proton NMR spectra in terms of precision and accuracy. This comparison indicates that, because of the extensive peak overlap that occurs in the 1D proton NMR spectra of biofluid samples, bucket integrals are often far less accurate as measures of individual constituent concentrations than 1D TOCSY read peaks. Even spectral fitting approaches have proven difficult in the analysis of significantly overlapped spectral regions. Measurements of endogenous taurine made over a sample population of human urine demonstrates that, due to background signals from other constituents, bucket integrals of 1D proton spectra routinely overestimate the taurine concentrations and distort its variation over the sample population. As a result, PCA calculations performed using data matrices incorporating 1D TOCSY determined taurine concentrations produce better scores plot subpopulation cluster resolution.

  8. The transverse shear deformation behaviour of magneto-electro-elastic shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarody, Thar M. Badri; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H. [UniversitiTeknologi PETRONAS, Perak (Malaysia); Faris, Waleed [International Islamic University Malaysia, Perak (Malaysia)

    2016-01-15

    Compared to the large number of possible magneto-electro-elastic shell theories, very few exact solutions determining the in-plane stresses, electric displacements and magnetic inductions are possible. While, solving the magneto-electro-elastic shell equations in terms of thermo-magneto-electro-elastic generalized field functions on arbitrary domains and for general conditions exactly are not always possible. In the present work, a linear version of magneto-electro-elastic shell with simply supported boundary conditions, solved exactly, provided that the lamination scheme is cross-ply or anti-symmetric angle-ply laminates. The exact solution that introduced herein can measure the in-plane stresses, electric displacements and magnetic inductions. It also allow for an accurate and usually elegant and conclusive investigation of the various sensations in a shell structure. However, it is important for micro-electro-mechanical shell applications to have an approach available that gives the transverse shear deformation Behaviour for cases that cannot examine experimentally. An investigated examples were accompanied and noteworthy conclusions were drawn which highlight the issues of the implementation of the exact solution, implication of the effects of the material properties, lay-ups of the constituent layers, and shell parameters on the static Behaviour.

  9. The transverse shear deformation behaviour of magneto-electro-elastic shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarody, Thar M. Badri; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H.; Faris, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the large number of possible magneto-electro-elastic shell theories, very few exact solutions determining the in-plane stresses, electric displacements and magnetic inductions are possible. While, solving the magneto-electro-elastic shell equations in terms of thermo-magneto-electro-elastic generalized field functions on arbitrary domains and for general conditions exactly are not always possible. In the present work, a linear version of magneto-electro-elastic shell with simply supported boundary conditions, solved exactly, provided that the lamination scheme is cross-ply or anti-symmetric angle-ply laminates. The exact solution that introduced herein can measure the in-plane stresses, electric displacements and magnetic inductions. It also allow for an accurate and usually elegant and conclusive investigation of the various sensations in a shell structure. However, it is important for micro-electro-mechanical shell applications to have an approach available that gives the transverse shear deformation Behaviour for cases that cannot examine experimentally. An investigated examples were accompanied and noteworthy conclusions were drawn which highlight the issues of the implementation of the exact solution, implication of the effects of the material properties, lay-ups of the constituent layers, and shell parameters on the static Behaviour

  10. Tunable Design of Structural Colors Produced by Pseudo-1D Photonic Crystals of Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Liping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2016-07-01

    It is broadly observed that graphene oxide (GO) films appear transparent with a thickness of about several nanometers, whereas they appear dark brown or almost black with thickness of more than 1 μm. The basic color mechanism of GO film on a sub-micrometer scale, however, is not well understood. This study reports on GO pseudo-1D photonic crystals (p1D-PhCs) exhibiting tunable structural colors in the visible wavelength range owing to its 1D Bragg nanostructures. Striking structural colors of GO p1D-PhCs could be tuned by simply changing either the volume or concentration of the aqueous GO dispersion during vacuum filtration. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between thickness and reflection wavelength of GO p1D-PhCs has been revealed, thereby providing a theoretical basis to rationally design structural colors of GO p1D-PhCs. The spectral response of GO p1D-PhCs to humidity is also obtained clearly showing the wavelength shift of GO p1D-PhCs at differently relative humidity values and thus encouraging the integration of structural color printing and the humidity-responsive property of GO p1D-PhCs to develop a visible and fast-responsive anti-counterfeiting label. The results pave the way for a variety of potential applications of GO in optics, structural color printing, sensing, and anti-counterfeiting. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Slip patterns and preferred dislocation boundary planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.

    2003-01-01

    The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single and polycryst......The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single...... and polycrystals of fcc metals in three deformation modes (rolling, tension and torsion). In the macroscopic system, boundaries lie close to the macroscopically most stressed planes. In the crystallographic system, the boundary plane depends on the grain/crystal orientation. The boundary planes in both co......-ordinate systems are rationalised based on the slip. The more the slip is concentrated on a slip plane, the closer the boundaries lie to this. The macroscopic preference arises from the macroscopic directionality of the slip. The established relations are applied to (a) prediction of boundary planes from slip...

  12. 1D to 3D diffusion-reaction kinetics of defects in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkaus, H.; Heinisch, H.L.; Barashev, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Microstructural features evolving in crystalline solids from diffusion-reaction kinetics of mobile components depend crucially on the dimension of the underlying diffusion process which is commonly assumed to be three-dimensional (3D). In metals, irradiation-induced displacement cascades produce...... clusters of self-interstitials performing 1D diffusion. Changes between equivalent 1D diffusion paths and transversal diffusion result in diffusion-reaction kinetics between one and three dimensions. An analytical approach suggests a single-variable function (master curve) interpolating between the 1D...

  13. In-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Zhiwei; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the in-plane thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS 2 is about 19.76 W mK −1 . Interestingly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 is insensitive to the number of layers, which is in strong contrast to the in-plane thermal conductivity of graphene where the interlayer interaction strongly affects the in-plane thermal conductivity. This layer number insensitivity is attributable to the finite energy gap in the phonon spectrum of MoS 2 , which makes the phonon–phonon scattering channel almost unchanged with increasing layer number. For the cross-plane thermal transport, we find that the cross-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 can be effectively tuned by applying cross-plane strain. More specifically, a 10% cross-plane compressive strain can enhance the thermal conductivity by a factor of 10, while a 5% cross-plane tensile strain can reduce the thermal conductivity by 90%. Our findings are important for thermal management in MoS 2 based nanodevices and for thermoelectric applications of MoS 2 . (paper)

  14. Influence of mandibular fixation method on stability of the maxillary occlusal plane after occlusal plane alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosano, Akira; Katakura, Akira; Takaki, Takashi; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we investigated how method of mandibular fixation influenced longterm postoperative stability of the maxilla in Class III cases. In particular, we investigated change in the maxillary occlusal plane after Occlusal Plane Alteration. Therefore, we focused on change in the palatal plane to evaluate stability of the maxillary occlusal plane, as the position of the palatal plane affects the maxillary occlusal plane. This study included 16 patients diagnosed with mandibular protrusion. Alteration of the occlusal plane was achieved by clockwise rotation of the maxilla by Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback was performed by bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy. We analyzed and examined lateral cephalometric radiographs taken at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Stability achieved by two methods of mandibular fixation was compared. In one group of patients (group S) titanium screws were used, and in the other group (group P) titanium-locking mini-plates were used. No significant displacement was recognized in group S, whereas an approximately 0.7mm upward vertical displacement was recognized in the anterior nasal spine in group P. As a result, not only the angle of the palatal plane and S-N plane, but also occlusal plane angle in group P showed a greater decrease than that in group S. The results suggest that fixing the mandible with screws yielded greater stability of the maxilla and maxillary occlusal plane than fixing the mandible with titanium plates.

  15. Propagation of plane waves in a rotating magneto-thermoelastic fiber-reinforced medium under G-N theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is concernedwith the possibility of plane wave propagation in a rotating elastic medium under the action of magnetic and thermal fields. The material is assumed to be fibre-reinforced with increased stiffness, strength and load bearing capacity. Green and Nagdhi’s concepts of generalized thermoelastic models II and III have been followed in the governing equations expressed in tensor notation. The effects of various parameters of the applied fields on the plane wave velocity have been shown graphically.

  16. Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Miller, Wallace T

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus anginosus has long been recognized to cause invasive pyogenic infections. This holds true for thoracic infections where S. anginosus has a propensity for abscess and empyema formation. Early diagnosis is important given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with thoracic S. anginosus infections. Yet, distinguishing thoracic S. anginosus clinically is difficult. We present three cases of thoracic S. anginosus that demonstrated radiographic extension across tissue planes, including the interlobar fissure, diaphragm, and chest wall. Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes.

  17. Optically sectioned imaging by oblique plane microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Lin, Ziduo; Lyon, Alex R.; MacLeod, Ken T.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and so high speed optically sectioned imaging is possible. The first OPM results obtained using a high NA water immersion lens on a commercially available inverted microscope frame are presented, together with a measurement of the achievable optical resolution.

  18. Out-of-Plane Electromechanical Response of Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Measured by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Christopher J; Ghosh, Rudresh; Koul, Kalhan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Lu, Nanshu; Yu, Edward T

    2017-09-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have recently been theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed to exhibit electromechanical coupling. Specifically, monolayer and few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) have been measured to be piezoelectric within the plane of their atoms. This work demonstrates and quantifies a nonzero out-of-plane electromechanical response of monolayer MoS 2 and discusses its possible origins. A piezoresponse force microscope was used to measure the out-of-plane deformation of monolayer MoS 2 on Au/Si and Al 2 O 3 /Si substrates. Using a vectorial background subtraction technique, we estimate the effective out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficient, d 33 eff , for monolayer MoS 2 to be 1.03 ± 0.22 pm/V when measured on the Au/Si substrate and 1.35 ± 0.24 pm/V when measured on Al 2 O 3 /Si. This is on the same order as the in-plane coefficient d 11 reported for monolayer MoS 2 . Interpreting the out-of-plane response as a flexoelectric response, the effective flexoelectric coefficient, μ eff * , is estimated to be 0.10 nC/m. Analysis has ruled out the possibility of elastic and electrostatic forces contributing to the measured electromechanical response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy detected some contaminants on both MoS 2 and its substrate, but the background subtraction technique is expected to remove major contributions from the unwanted contaminants. These measurements provide evidence that monolayer MoS 2 exhibits an out-of-plane electromechanical response and our analysis offers estimates of the effective piezoelectric and flexoelectric coefficients.

  19. Wave motion in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Graff, Karl F

    1991-01-01

    This highly useful textbook presents comprehensive intermediate-level coverage of nearly all major topics of elastic wave propagation in solids. The subjects range from the elementary theory of waves and vibrations in strings to the three-dimensional theory of waves in thick plates. The book is designed not only for a wide audience of engineering students, but also as a general reference for workers in vibrations and acoustics. Chapters 1-4 cover wave motion in the simple structural shapes, namely strings, longitudinal rod motion, beams and membranes, plates and (cylindrical) shells. Chapter

  20. Elastic Moduli of Carbon Nanohorns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube is a special case of carbon nanohorns or carbon nanocones with zero apex angle. Research into carbon nanohorns started almost at the same time as the discovery of nanotubes in 1991. Most researchers focused on the investigation of nanotubes, and the exploration of nanohorns attracted little attention. To model the carbon nanohorns, we make use of a more reliable second-generation reactive empirical bond-order potential by Brenner and coworkers. We investigate the elastic moduli and conclude that these nanohorns are equally strong and require in-depth investigation. The values of Young's and Shear moduli decrease with apex angle.

  1. Wave propagation in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, Jan

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat

  2. The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 regulates skeletal muscle glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szekeres, Ferenc; Chadt, Alexandra; Tom, Robby Z

    2012-01-01

    The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has emerged as a novel candidate involved in metabolic regulation. Our aim was to determine whether TBC1D1 is involved in insulin as well as energy-sensing signals controlling skeletal muscle metabolism. TBC1D1-deficient congenic B6.SJL-Nob1.10 (Nob1.10(SJL...... be explained partly by a 50% reduction in GLUT4 protein, since proximal signaling at the level of Akt, AMPK, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was unaltered. Paradoxically, in vivo insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake was increased in EDL and tibialis anterior muscle from TBC1D1-deficient mice......)) and wild-type littermates were studied. Glucose and insulin tolerance, glucose utilization, hepatic glucose production, and tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake were determined. The effect of insulin, AICAR, or contraction on glucose transport was studied in isolated skeletal muscle. Glucose...

  3. Membranes from nanoporous 1D and 2D materials: A review of opportunities, developments, and challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi; Nair, Sankar

    2013-01-01

    strategies to process these materials into membranes and thin films with high performance. This work provides the first comprehensive review of this emerging area. We first discuss approaches for the synthesis and structural characterization of nanoporous 1D

  4. Human CD1d-Restricted Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Cytotoxicity Against Myeloid Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiuxu; Gumperz, Jenny E

    2006-01-01

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are a unique subpopulation of T lymphocytes that have been shown to be able to promote potent anti-tumor responses in a number of different murine (mouse...

  5. Experimental Conditions: SE24_S1_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rometry with 13C‑Labeling for Chemical Assignment of Sulfur-Containing Metabolites ...SE24_S1_M1_D1 SE24 Combination of Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Mass Spect

  6. Recent ARPES experiments on quasi-1D bulk materials and artificial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grioni, M; Pons, S; Frantzeskakis, E

    2009-01-14

    The spectroscopy of quasi-one-dimensional (1D) systems has been a subject of strong interest since the first experimental observations of unusual line shapes in the early 1990s. Angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) measurements performed with increasing accuracy have greatly broadened our knowledge of the properties of bulk 1D materials and, more recently, of artificial 1D structures. They have yielded a direct view of 1D bands, of open Fermi surfaces, and of characteristic instabilities. They have also provided unique microscopic evidence for the non-conventional, non-Fermi-liquid, behavior predicted by theory, and for strong and singular interactions. Here we briefly review some of the remarkable experimental results obtained in the last decade.

  7. Energy-Based Yield Criteria for Orthotropic Materials, Exhibiting Strength-Differential Effect. Specification for Sheets under Plane Stress State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeptyński P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A general proposition of an energy-based limit condition for anisotropic materials exhibiting strength-differential effect (SDE based on spectral decomposition of elasticity tensors and the use of scaling pressure-dependent functions is specified for the case of orthotropic materials. A detailed algorithm (based on classical solutions of cubic equations for the determination of elastic eigenstates and eigenvalues of the orthotropic stiffness tensor is presented. A yield condition is formulated for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases. Explicit formulas based on simple strength tests are derived for parameters of criterion in the plane case. The application of both criteria for the description of yielding and plastic deformation of metal sheets is discussed in detail. The plane case criterion is verified with experimental results from the literature.

  8. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality

  9. Lieb's correlation inequality for plane rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivasseau, V.

    1980-01-01

    We prove a conjecture by E. Lieb, which leads to the Lieb inequality for plane rotors. As in the Ising model case, this inequality implies the existence of an algorithm to compute the transition temperature of this model. (orig.)

  10. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  11. Null-plane quantization of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaki, D.

    1990-01-01

    Massive Dirac fermions are canonically quantized on the null plane using the Dirac-Bergmann algorithm. The procedure is carried out in the framework of quantum electrodynamics as an illustration of a rigorous treatment of interacting fermion fields

  12. Some Features of the Plane Couette Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skovorodko, Petr

    2000-01-01

    In the previous paper 1 it was found, in particular, that in the transition regime of the plane Couette flow the values of total energy flux and shear stress may exceed the corresponding free molecular values...

  13. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general space-time to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave space-times. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.

  14. TBC1D24 genotype-phenotype correlation: Epilepsies and other neurologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Milh, Mathieu; Castiglioni, Claudia; Lüthy, Kevin; Finelli, Mattea J; Verstreken, Patrik; Cardon, Aaron; Stražišar, Barbara Gnidovec; Holder, J Lloyd; Lesca, Gaetan; Mancardi, Maria M; Poulat, Anne L; Repetto, Gabriela M; Banka, Siddharth; Bilo, Leonilda; Birkeland, Laura E; Bosch, Friedrich; Brockmann, Knut; Cross, J Helen; Doummar, Diane; Félix, Temis M; Giuliano, Fabienne; Hori, Mutsuki; Hüning, Irina; Kayserili, Hulia; Kini, Usha; Lees, Melissa M; Meenakshi, Girish; Mewasingh, Leena; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Peluso, Silvio; Mey, Antje; Rice, Gregory M; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Taylor, Jenny C; Troester, Matthew M; Stanley, Christine M; Ville, Dorothee; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Falace, Antonio; Fassio, Anna; Lemke, Johannes R; Biskup, Saskia; Tardif, Jessica; Ajeawung, Norbert F; Tolun, Aslihan; Corbett, Mark; Gecz, Jozef; Afawi, Zaid; Howell, Katherine B; Oliver, Karen L; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E; de Falco, Fabrizio A; Oliver, Peter L; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico; Campeau, Phillipe M; Sisodiya, S M

    2016-07-05

    To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in TBC1D24. We acquired new clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging data of 11 previously unreported and 37 published patients. TBC1D24 mutations, identified through various sequencing methods, can be found online (http://lovd.nl/TBC1D24). Forty-eight patients were included (28 men, 20 women, average age 21 years) from 30 independent families. Eighteen patients (38%) had myoclonic epilepsies. The other patients carried diagnoses of focal (25%), multifocal (2%), generalized (4%), and unclassified epilepsy (6%), and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (25%). Most patients had drug-resistant epilepsy. We detail EEG, neuroimaging, developmental, and cognitive features, treatment responsiveness, and physical examination. In silico evaluation revealed 7 different highly conserved motifs, with the most common pathogenic mutation located in the first. Neuronal outgrowth assays showed that some TBC1D24 mutations, associated with the most severe TBC1D24-associated disorders, are not necessarily the most disruptive to this gene function. TBC1D24-related epilepsy syndromes show marked phenotypic pleiotropy, with multisystem involvement and severity spectrum ranging from isolated deafness (not studied here), benign myoclonic epilepsy restricted to childhood with complete seizure control and normal intellect, to early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe developmental delay and early death. There is no distinct correlation with mutation type or location yet, but patterns are emerging. Given the phenotypic breadth observed, TBC1D24 mutation screening is indicated in a wide variety of epilepsies. A TBC1D24 consortium was formed to develop further research on this gene and its associated phenotypes. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Unidirectional transmission in 1D nonlinear photonic crystal based on topological phase reversal by optical nonlinearity

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Li; Xiaoyong Hu; Hong Yang; Qihuang Gong

    2017-01-01

    We propose a scheme of unidirectional transmission in a 1D nonlinear topological photonic crystal based on the topological edge state and three order optical nonlinearity. The 1D photonic crystals consists of a nonlinear photonic crystal L and a linear photonic crystal R. In the backward direction, light is totally reflected for the photons transmission prohibited by the bandgap. While in the forward direction, light interacts with the nonlinear photonic crystal L by optical Kerr effect, brin...

  16. User's manual of the REFLA-1D/MODE4 reflood thermo-hydrodynamic analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Tsuneyuki; Iguchi, Tadashi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Murao, Yoshio; Sugimoto, Jun.

    1986-01-01

    REFLA-1D/MODE4 code has been developed by incorporating local power effect model and fuel temperature profile effect model into REFLA-1D/MODE3 code. This code can calculate the temperature transient of local rod by considering radial power profile effect in core and simulate the thermal characteristics of the nuclear fuel rod. This manual describes the outline of incorporated models, modification of the code with incorporating models and provides application information required to utilize the code. (author)

  17. Ubiquitination and degradation of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 is regulated by protein palmitoylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Chen; Lange, Jeffrey J.; Samovski, Dmitri [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Su, Xiong [Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Liu, Jialiu [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Sundaresan, Sinju [Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Stahl, Philip D., E-mail: pstahl@wustl.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Hominoid-specific oncogene TBC1D3 is targeted to plasma membrane by palmitoylation. •TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. •TBC1D3 palmitoylation governs growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. •Post-translational modifications may regulate oncogenic properties of TBC1D3. -- Abstract: Expression of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 promotes enhanced cell growth and proliferation by increased activation of signal transduction through several growth factors. Recently we documented the role of CUL7 E3 ligase in growth factors-induced ubiquitination and degradation of TBC1D3. Here we expanded our study to discover additional molecular mechanisms that control TBC1D3 protein turnover. We report that TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. The expression of double palmitoylation mutant TBC1D3:C318/325S resulted in protein mislocalization and enhanced growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. Moreover, ubiquitination of TBC1D3 via CUL7 E3 ligase complex was increased by mutating the palmitoylation sites, suggesting that depalmitoylation of TBC1D3 makes the protein more available for ubiquitination and degradation. The results reported here provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern TBC1D3 protein degradation. Dysregulation of these mechanisms in vivo could potentially result in aberrant TBC1D3 expression and promote oncogenesis.

  18. Surface elastic properties in silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Claudio; Giordano, Stefano; Colombo, Luciano

    2017-09-01

    The elastic behavior of the external surface of a solid body plays a key role in nanomechanical phenomena. While bulk elasticity enjoys the benefits of a robust theoretical understanding, many surface elasticity features remain unexplored: some of them are here addressed by blending together continuum elasticity and atomistic simulations. A suitable readdressing of the surface elasticity theory allows to write the balance equations in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates and to investigate the dependence of the surface elastic parameters on the mean and Gaussian curvatures of the surface. In particular, we predict the radial strain induced by surface effects in spherical and cylindrical silicon nanoparticles and provide evidence that the surface parameters are nearly independent of curvatures and, therefore, of the surface conformation.

  19. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon

    2010-01-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  20. Effective elastic properties of damaged isotropic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, U Sik

    1998-01-01

    In continuum damage mechanics, damaged solids have been represented by the effective elastic stiffness into which local damage is smoothly smeared. Similarly, damaged solids may be represented in terms of effective elastic compliances. By virtue of the effective elastic compliance representation, it may become easier to derive the effective engineering constants of damaged solids from the effective elastic compliances, all in closed form. Thus, in this paper, by using a continuum modeling approach based on both the principle of strain energy equivalence and the equivalent elliptical micro-crack representation of local damage, the effective elastic compliance and effective engineering constants are derived in terms of the undamaged (virgin) elastic properties and a scalar damage variable for both damaged two-and three-dimensional isotropic solids

  1. Proof of Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachkachi, M.; Kouadik, S.

    1994-10-01

    Using Neumann series, we solve iteratively SBE to arbitrary order. Then applying this, we compute the energy momentum tensor and n points functions for generic n starting from WZP action on the supercomplex plane. We solve the superconformal Ward identity and we show that the iterative solution to arbitrary order is resumed by WZP action. This proves the Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane. (author). 8 refs

  2. Constructive curves in non-Euclidean planes

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Ákos G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we overview the theory of conics and roulettes in four non-Euclidean planes. We collect the literature about these classical concepts, from the eighteenth century to the present, including papers available only on arXiv. The comparison of the four non-Euclidean planes, in terms of the known results on conics and roulettes, reflects only the very subjective view of the author.

  3. Elastic-wave generation in the evolution of displacement peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, V.P.; Boldin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigated the character of elastic shock wave generation and damping in irradiated materials along with the possibility of their long-range influence on the structure of the irradiated materials. Dispersion at the elastoplastic stage of atomic displacement peak development was taken into account. The three-dimensional nonlinear wave was described by an equation in the approximation of weak nonlinearity and weak spatial dispersion. Numerical modeling of the propagation of a plane shock wave in a crystal lattice was conducted. The distribution of the density and mass velocity of the material at the instant of complete damping of the plastic shock-wave component was determined. The appearance of solitary waves (solitons) at large amplitudes, localized in space, which propagate without distortion to arbitrary distances and retain their amplitude and form in interacting with one another, was investigated. Some physical consequences of the influence of solitary waves on the irradiated materials were considered

  4. Heteroepitaxial growth of basal plane stacking fault free a-plane GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieneke, Matthias; Hempel, Thomas; Noltemeyer, Martin; Witte, Hartmut; Dadgar, Armin; Blaesing, Juergen; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke Universitaet Magdeburg, FNW/IEP, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Growth of light emitting quantum-wells based on a-plane GaN is a possibility to reduce or even to avoid polarization correlated luminescence red shift and reduction of radiative recombination efficiency. But until now heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN films are characterized by a poor crystalline quality expressed by a high density of basal plane stacking faults (BSF) and partial dislocations. We present Si doped a-plane GaN films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy using high temperature AlGaN nucleation layers. FE-SEM images revealed three dimensionally grown GaN crystallites sized up to tenth micrometer in the basal plane and a few tenth micrometers along the c-axes. Though, the full width at half maxima of the X-ray diffraction {omega}-scans of the in-plane GaN(1 anti 100) and GaN(0002) Bragg reflections exhibited a very high crystal quality. Furthermore, luminescence spectra were dominated by near band gap emission, while there was no separated peak of the basal plane stacking fault. In summary we present heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN without an evidence of basal plane stacking faults in X-ray diffraction measurements and luminescence spectra.

  5. Anomalous elasticity, fluctuations and disorder in elastic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doussal, Pierre; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by freely suspended graphene and polymerized membranes in soft and biological matter we present a detailed study of a tensionless elastic sheet in the presence of thermal fluctuations and quenched disorder. The manuscript is based on an extensive draft dating back to 1993, that was circulated privately. It presents the general theoretical framework and calculational details of numerous results, partial forms of which have been published in brief Letters (Le Doussal and Radzihovsky, 1992; 1993). The experimental realization atom-thin graphene sheets (Novoselov et al., 2004) have driven a resurgence in this fascinating subject, making our dated predictions and their detailed derivations timely. To this end we analyze the statistical mechanics of a generalized D-dimensional elastic "membrane" embedded in d dimensions using a self-consistent screening approximation (SCSA), that has proved to be unprecedentedly accurate in this system, exact in three complementary limits: (i) d → ∞, (ii) D → 4, and (iii) D = d. Focusing on the critical "flat" phase, for a homogeneous two-dimensional (D = 2) membrane embedded in three dimensions (d = 3), we predict its universal roughness exponent ζ = 0 . 590, length-scale dependent elastic moduli exponents η = 0 . 821 and ηu = 0 . 358, and an anomalous Poisson ratio, σ = - 1 / 3. In the presence of random uncorrelated heterogeneity the membrane exhibits a glassy wrinkled ground state, characterized by ζ‧ = 0 . 775 ,η‧ = 0 . 449, ηu‧ = 1 . 101 and a Poisson ratio σ‧ = - 1 / 3. Motivated by a number of physical realizations (charged impurities, disclinations and dislocations) we also study power-law correlated quenched disorder that leads to a variety of distinct glassy wrinkled phases. Finally, neglecting self-avoiding interaction we demonstrate that at high temperature a "phantom" sheet undergoes a continuous crumpling transition, characterized by a radius of gyration exponent, ν = 0 . 732 and η = 0

  6. Pneumatic Variable Series Elastic Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Wu, Molei; Shen, Xiangrong

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by human motor control theory, stiffness control is highly effective in manipulation and human-interactive tasks. The implementation of stiffness control in robotic systems, however, has largely been limited to closed-loop control, and suffers from multiple issues such as limited frequency range, potential instability, and lack of contribution to energy efficiency. Variable-stiffness actuator represents a better solution, but the current designs are complex, heavy, and bulky. The approach in this paper seeks to address these issues by using pneumatic actuator as a variable series elastic actuator (VSEA), leveraging the compressibility of the working fluid. In this work, a pneumatic actuator is modeled as an elastic element with controllable stiffness and equilibrium point, both of which are functions of air masses in the two chambers. As such, for the implementation of stiffness control in a robotic system, the desired stiffness/equilibrium point can be converted to the desired chamber air masses, and a predictive pressure control approach is developed to control the timing of valve switching to obtain the desired air mass while minimizing control action. Experimental results showed that the new approach in this paper requires less expensive hardware (on-off valve instead of proportional valve), causes less control action in implementation, and provides good control performance by leveraging the inherent dynamics of the actuator.

  7. Hummingbird tongues are elastic micropumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Pumping is a vital natural process, imitated by humans for thousands of years. We demonstrate that a hitherto undocumented mechanism of fluid transport pumps nectar onto the hummingbird tongue. Using high-speed cameras, we filmed the tongue–fluid interaction in 18 hummingbird species, from seven of the nine main hummingbird clades. During the offloading of the nectar inside the bill, hummingbirds compress their tongues upon extrusion; the compressed tongue remains flattened until it contacts the nectar. After contact with the nectar surface, the tongue reshapes filling entirely with nectar; we did not observe the formation of menisci required for the operation of capillarity during this process. We show that the tongue works as an elastic micropump; fluid at the tip is driven into the tongue's grooves by forces resulting from re-expansion of a collapsed section. This work falsifies the long-standing idea that capillarity is an important force filling hummingbird tongue grooves during nectar feeding. The expansive filling mechanism we report in this paper recruits elastic recovery properties of the groove walls to load nectar into the tongue an order of magnitude faster than capillarity could. Such fast filling allows hummingbirds to extract nectar at higher rates than predicted by capillarity-based foraging models, in agreement with their fast licking rates. PMID:26290074

  8. Modified cantilevers to probe unambiguously out-of-plane piezoresponse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyabyeva, Natalia; Ouvrard, Aimeric; Lindfors-Vrejoiu, Ionela; Kolomiytsev, Alexey; Solodovnik, Maxim; Ageev, Oleg; McGrouther, Damien

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate and investigate the coupling of contributions from both in-plane (IP) polarization and out-of-plane (OP) components in BiFeO3 (BFO) thin-film polarization probed by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). Such coupling leads to image artifacts which prevent the correct determination of OP polarization vector directions and the corresponding piezoelectric coefficient d33. Using material strength theory with a one-dimensional modeling of the cantilever oscillation amplitude under electrostatic and elastic forces as a function of the tip length, we have evidenced the impact of IP piezoresponse to the OP signal for tip length longer than 4 μm. The IP polarization vector induces a significant longitudinal bending of the cantilever, due to the small spring constant of long tips, which provokes a normal deviation superimposed to the OP piezoresponse. These artifacts can be reduced by increasing the longitudinal spring constant of the cantilever by shortening the tip length. Standard cantilevers with 15-μm-long tips were modified to reach the desired tip length, using focused ion-beam techniques and tested using PFM on the same BFO thin film. Tip length shortening has strongly reduced IP artifacts as expected, while the impact of nonlocal electrostatic forces, becoming predominant for tips shorter than 1 μm, has led to a non-negligible deflection offset. For shorter tips, a strong electric field from a cantilever beam can induce polarization switching as observed for a 0.5-μm-long tip. Tip length ranging from 1 to 4 μm allowed minimizing both artifacts to probe unambiguously OP piezoresponse and quantify the d33 piezoelectric coefficient.

  9. Closed form solution for the finite anti-plane shear field for a class of hyperelastic incompressible brittle solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Claude

    2010-12-01

    The equilibrium solution of a damaged zone in finite elasticity is given for a class of hyperelastic materials which does not suffer tension when a critical stretching value is reached. The study is made for a crack in anti-plane shear loading condition. The prescribed loading is that of linearized elastostatics conditions at infinity. The geometry of the damaged zone is found and the stationary propagation is discussed when the inertia terms can be neglected.

  10. Development and assessment of a practical stiffness reduction method for the in-plane design of steel frames

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukler, M; Gardner, L; Macorini, L

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the development and assessment of a stiffness reduction method for the in-plane design of steel frames is presented. The adopted stiffness reduction approach is implemented by reducing the flexural stiffnesses (EI) of the members of a steel frame by considering the first-order forces they are subjected to through the stiffness reduction functions and performing Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis (i.e. second-order elastic analysis). Since the presented approach uses stiffness red...

  11. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  12. Elastic properties of icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Problems associated with determining the symmetry properties of the elastic constant tensor of icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals are reviewed. Notions of elastic isotropy and anisotropy are considered, and their relation to the components of the elastic constant tensor is discussed. The question is addressed of how to determine experimentally whether a system under study is elastically isotropic. Experimental results produced by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy of icosahedral Al-Li-Cu and decagonal Al-Ni-Co single quasicrystals are discussed in detail. (methodological notes)

  13. Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, L; Tarpin, M; Patinet, S; Eddi, A

    2016-05-01

    Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying subwavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.

  14. Elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy of cold sprayed metallic coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Cizek, J.; Sedlák, Petr; Huang, R.; Cupera, J.; Dlouhý, I.; Landa, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, April (2016), s. 342-347 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13616S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-35890S Grant - others:NETME Centre Plus - národní program udržitelnosti(CZ) LO1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : kinetic spray * CGDS * elastic properties * metals and alloys * deposition * resonant ultrasound spectroscopy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0257897216301165/1-s2.0-S0257897216301165-main.pdf?_tid=1083617a-017f-11e6-92e7-00000aacb361&acdnat=1460555773_2e80d3df20843f3af649bf3ac71c8844

  15. Simplified inelastic (plastic and creep) analysis of pipe elbows subjected to inplane and out-of-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, R.M.; Scheller, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The inelastic analysis of elbows typical of use in Liquid Metal Fast Reactor piping systems is described. Detailed information on stresses, plastic and creep strains, and deformations throughout the elbow bodies resulting from elastic/plastic, elastic/plastic/creep, and elastic/plastic-creep/relaxation material behavior was obtained for the cases of applied inplane and out-of-plane moment loading on the elbows. Some conclusions are made concerning the nature of the resulting stresses in the elbows. The simplified pipe-bend element in the MARC nonlinear finite element program is used as the analytical tool. This element permits nonlinear analysis of piping elbows and pipeline systems at realistic cost. 16 refs

  16. Elastic stress transmission and transformation (ESTT) by confined liquid: A new mechanics for fracture in elastic lithosphere of the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Wang; Peters, Stephen; Liang, Guang-He; Zhang, Bao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We report on a new mechanical principle, which suggests that a confined liquid in the elastic lithosphere has the potential to transmit a maximum applied compressive stress. This stress can be transmitted to the internal contacts between rock and liquid and would then be transformed into a normal compressive stress with tangential tensile stress components. During this process, both effective compressive normal stress and tensile tangential stresses arise along the liquid–rock contact. The minimum effective tensile tangential stress causes the surrounding rock to rupture. Liquid-driven fracture initiates at the point along the rock–liquid boundary where the maximum compressive stress is applied and propagates along a plane that is perpendicular to the minimum effective tensile tangential stress and also is perpendicular to the minimum principal stress.

  17. Investigating dynamic characteristics of porous double-layered FG nanoplates in elastic medium via generalized nonlocal strain gradient elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza Barati, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, a vibrating porous double-nanoplate system under in-plane periodic loads is modeled via the generalized nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT). Based on the proposed theory, one can examine both stiffness-softening and stiffness-hardening effects for a more accurate analysis of nanoplates. Nanopores or nanovoids are incorporated to the model based on a modified rule of mixture. Modeling of porous double-layered nanoplate is conducted according to a refined four-variable plate theory with fewer field variables than first-order plate theory. The governing equations and related classical and nonclassical boundary conditions are derived based on Hamilton's principle. These equations are solved for hinged nanoplates via Galerkin's method. It is shown that porosities, nonlocal parameter, strain gradient parameter, material gradation, interlayer stiffness, elastic foundation, side-to-thickness and aspect ratios have a notable impact on the vibration behavior of nanoporous materials.

  18. Thermo-mechanical vibration analysis of annular and circular graphene sheet embedded in an elastic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    Full Text Available In this study, the vibration behavior of annular and circular graphene sheet coupled with temperature change and under in-plane pre-stressed is studied. Influence of the surrounding elastic medium 011 the fundamental frequencies of the single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs is investigated. Both Winkler-type and Pasternak- type models are employed to simulate the interaction of the graphene sheets with a surrounding elastic medium. By using the nonlocal elasticity theory the governing equation is derived for SLGSs. The closed-form solution for frequency vibration of circular graphene sheets lias been obtained and nonlocal parameter, inplane pre-stressed, the parameters of elastic medium and temperature change appears into arguments of Bessel functions. The results are subsequently compared with valid result reported in the literature and the molecular dynamics (MD results. The effects of the small scale, pre-stressed, mode number, temperature change, elastic medium and boundary conditions on natural frequencies are investigated. The non-dimensional frequency decreases at high temperature case with increasing the temperature change for all boundary conditions. The effect of temperature change 011 the frequency vibration becomes the opposite at high temperature case in compression with the low temperature case. The present research work thus reveals that the nonlocal parameter, boundary conditions and temperature change have significant effects on vibration response of the circular nanoplates. The present results can be used for the design of the next generation of nanodevices that make use of the thermal vibration properties of the graphene.

  19. The first-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Zr2Al under compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiaoli; Wei Dongqing; Chen Xiangrong; Zhang Qingming; Gong Zizheng

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The calculated elastic constants C ij as a function of pressure P. Display Omitted Research highlights: → It is found that the five independent elastic constants increase monotonically with pressure. C 11 and C 33 vary rapidly as pressure increases, C 13 and C 12 becomes moderate. However, C 44 increases comparatively slowly with pressure. Figure shows excellent satisfaction of the calculated elastic constants of Zr 2 Al to these equations and hence in our calculation, the Zr 2 Al is mechanically stable at pressure up to 100 GPa. - Abstract: The first-principles calculations were applied to investigate the structural, elastic constants of Zr 2 Al alloy with increasing pressure. These properties are based on the plane wave pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for exchange and correlation. The result of the heat of formation of Zr 2 Al crystal investigated is in excellent consistent with results from other study. The anisotropy, the shear modulus, and Young's modulus for the ideal polycrystalline Zr 2 Al are also studied. It is found that (higher) pressure can significantly improve the ductility of Zr 2 Al. Moreover, the elastic constants of Zr 2 Al increase monotonically and the anisotropies decrease with the increasing pressure. Finally, it is observed that Zr d electrons are mainly contributed to the density of states at the Fermi level.

  20. Acoustic radiation force on cylindrical shells in a plane standing wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, F G

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the radiation force per length resulting from a plane standing wave incident on an infinitely long cylindrical shell is computed. The cases of elastic and viscoelastic shells immersed in ideal (non-viscous) fluids are considered with particular emphasis on their thickness and the content of their interior hollow spaces. Numerical calculations of the radiation force function Y st are performed. The fluid-loading effect on the radiation force function curves is analysed as well. The results show several features quite different when the interior hollow space is changed from air to water. Moreover, the theory developed here is more general since it includes the results on cylinders

  1. Discrete integrable systems and hodograph transformations arising from motions of discrete plane curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Inoguchi, Jun-ichi; Kajiwara, Kenji; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We consider integrable discretizations of some soliton equations associated with the motions of plane curves: the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa elastic beam equation, the complex Dym equation and the short pulse equation. They are related to the modified KdV or the sine-Gordon equations by the hodograph transformations. Based on the observation that the hodograph transformations are regarded as the Euler-Lagrange transformations of the curve motions, we construct the discrete analogues of the hodograph transformations, which yield integrable discretizations of those soliton equations. (paper)

  2. "A Tale of Two Planes": Deep Versus Superficial Serratus Plane Block for Postmastectomy Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piracha, Mohammad M; Thorp, Stephen L; Puttanniah, Vinay; Gulati, Amitabh

    Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a significant burden for breast cancer survivors. Although multiple therapies have been described, an evolving field of serratus anterior plane blocks has been described in this population. We describe the addition of the deep serratus anterior plane block (DSPB) for PMPS. Four patients with history of PMPS underwent DSPB for anterior chest wall pain. A retrospective review of these patients' outcomes was obtained through postprocedure interviews. Three of the patients previously had a superficial serratus anterior plane block, which was not as efficacious as the DSPB. The fourth patient had a superficial serratus anterior plane that was difficult to separate with hydrodissection but had improved pain control with a DSPB. We illustrate 4 patients who have benefitted from a DSPB and describe indications that this block may be more efficacious than a superficial serratus plane block. Further study is recommended to understand the intercostal nerve branches within the lateral and anterior muscular chest wall planes.

  3. Structural and elastic properties of AIBIIIC 2 VI semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Singh, Bhanu P.

    2018-01-01

    The plane wave pseudo-potential method within density functional theory has been used to calculate the structural and elastic properties of AIBIIIC 2 VI semiconductors. The electronic band structure, density of states, lattice constants (a and c), internal parameter (u), tetragonal distortion (η), energy gap (Eg), and bond lengths of the A-C (dAC) and B-C (dBC) bonds in AIBIIIC 2 VI semiconductors have been calculated. The values of elastic constants (Cij), bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), Young's modulus (Y), Poisson's ratio (υ), Zener anisotropy factor (A), Debye temperature (ϴD) and G/B ratio have also been calculated. The values of all 15 parameters of CuTlS2 and CuTlSe2 compounds, and 8 parameters of 20 compounds of AIBIIIC 2 VI family, except AgInS2 and AgInSe2, have been calculated for the first time. Reasonably good agreement has been obtained between the calculated, reported and available experimental values.

  4. Magnetic effects in the paraxial regime of elastic electron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Alexander; Lubk, Axel; Rusz, Ján

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by a recent claim [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 127203 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.127203] that electron vortex beams can be used to image magnetism at the nanoscale in elastic scattering experiments, using transmission electron microscopy, a comprehensive computational study is performed to study magnetic effects in the paraxial regime of elastic electron scattering in magnetic solids. Magnetic interactions from electron vortex beams, spin polarized electron beams, and beams with phase aberrations are considered, as they pass through ferromagnetic FePt or antiferromagnetic LaMnAsO. The magnetic signals are obtained by comparing the intensity over a disk in the diffraction plane for beams with opposite angular momentum or aberrations. The strongest magnetic signals are obtained from vortex beams with large orbital angular momentum, where relative magnetic signals above 10-3 are indicated for 10 ℏ orbital angular momentum, meaning that relative signals of one percent could be expected with the even larger orbital angular momenta, which have been produced in experimental setups. All results indicate that beams with low acceleration voltage and small convergence angles yield stronger magnetic signals, which is unfortunately problematic for the possibility of high spatial resolution imaging. Nevertheless, under atomic resolution conditions, relative magnetic signals in the order of 10-4 are demonstrated, corresponding to an increase with one order of magnitude compared to previous work.

  5. In-plane inertial coupling in tuned and severely mistuned bladed disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    A model has been developed and verified for blade-disk-shaft coupling in rotors due to the in-plane rigid body modes of the disk. An analytic model has been developed which couples the in-plane rigid body modes of the disk on an elastic shaft with the blade bending modes. Bench resonance test were carried out on the M.I.T. Compressor Rotor, typical of research rotors with flexible blades and a thick rigid disk. When the rotor was carefully tuned, the structural coupling of the blades by the disks was confined to zero and one nodal diameter modes, whose modal frequencies were greater than the blade cantilever frequency. In the case of the tuned rotor, and in two cases where severe mistuning was intentionally introduced, agreement between the predicted and observed natural frequencies is excellent. The analytic model was then extended to include the effects of constant angular rotation of the disk.

  6. Phase stability and elastic properties of Cr-V alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M. C.; Suzuki, Y.; Schweiger, H.; Doǧan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J.; Widom, M.

    2013-02-01

    V is the only element in the periodic table that forms a complete solid solution with Cr and thus is particularly important in alloying strategy to ductilize Cr. This study combines first-principles density functional theory calculations and experiments to investigate the phase stability and elastic properties of Cr-V binary alloys. The cluster expansion study reveals the formation of various ordered compounds at low temperatures that were not previously known. These compounds become unstable due to the configurational entropy of bcc solid solution as the temperature is increased. The elastic constants of ordered and disordered compounds are calculated at both T = 0 K and finite temperatures. The overall trends in elastic properties are in agreement with measurements using the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method. The calculations predict that addition of V to Cr decreases both the bulk modulus and the shear modulus, and enhances the Poisson’s ratio, in agreement with experiments. Decrease in the bulk modulus is correlated to decrease in the valence electron density and increase in the lattice constant. An enhanced Poisson’s ratio for bcc Cr-V alloys (compared to pure Cr) is associated with an increased density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, the difference charge density in the bonding region in the (110) slip plane is highest for pure Cr and decreases gradually as V is added. The present calculation also predicts a negative Cauchy pressure for pure Cr, and it becomes positive upon alloying with V. The intrinsic ductilizing effect from V may contribute, at least partially, to the experimentally observed ductilizing phenomenon in the literature.

  7. Phase stability and elastic properties of Cr-V alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, M C; Suzuki, Y; Schweiger, H; Doğan, Ö N; Hawk, J; Widom, M

    2013-01-23

    V is the only element in the periodic table that forms a complete solid solution with Cr and thus is particularly important in alloying strategy to ductilize Cr. This study combines first-principles density functional theory calculations and experiments to investigate the phase stability and elastic properties of Cr–V binary alloys. The cluster expansion study reveals the formation of various ordered compounds at low temperatures that were not previously known. These compounds become unstable due to the configurational entropy of bcc solid solution as the temperature is increased. The elastic constants of ordered and disordered compounds are calculated at both T = 0 K and finite temperatures. The overall trends in elastic properties are in agreement with measurements using the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method. The calculations predict that addition of V to Cr decreases both the bulk modulus and the shear modulus, and enhances the Poisson’s ratio, in agreement with experiments. Decrease in the bulk modulus is correlated to decrease in the valence electron density and increase in the lattice constant. An enhanced Poisson’s ratio for bcc Cr–V alloys (compared to pure Cr) is associated with an increased density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, the difference charge density in the bonding region in the (110) slip plane is highest for pure Cr and decreases gradually as V is added. The present calculation also predicts a negative Cauchy pressure for pure Cr, and it becomes positive upon alloying with V. The intrinsic ductilizing effect from V may contribute, at least partially, to the experimentally observed ductilizing phenomenon in the literature.

  8. Affine planes, ternary rings, and examples of non-Desarguesian planes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Nikolai V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a detailed self-contained exposition of a part of the theory of affine planes leading to a construction of affine (or, equivalently, projective) planes not satisfying the Desarques axiom. It is intended to complement the introductory expositions of the theory of affine and projective planes. A novelty of our exposition is a new notation for the ternary operation in a ternary ring, much more suggestive than the standard one.

  9. Mass-stiffness substructuring of an elastic metasurface for full transmission beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Lee, Jun Kyu; Seung, Hong Min; Kim, Yoon Young

    2018-03-01

    The metasurface concept has a significant potential due to its novel wavefront-shaping functionalities that can be critically useful for ultrasonic and solid wave-based applications. To achieve the desired functionalities, elastic metasurfaces should cover full 2π phase shift and also acquire full transmission within subwavelength scale. However, they have not been explored much with respect to the elastic regime, because the intrinsic proportionality of mass-stiffness within the continuum elastic media causes an inevitable trade-off between abrupt phase shift and sufficient transmission. Our goal is to engineer an elastic metasurface that can realize an inverse relation between (amplified) effective mass and (weakened) stiffness in order to satisfy full 2π phase shift as well as full transmission. To achieve this goal, we propose a continuum elastic metasurface unit cell that is decomposed into two substructures, namely a mass-tuning substructure with a local dipolar resonator and a stiffness-tuning substructure composed of non-resonant multiply-perforated slits. We demonstrate analytically, numerically, and experimentally that this unique substructured unit cell can satisfy the required phase shift with high transmission. The substructuring enables independent tuning of the elastic properties over a wide range of values. We use a mass-spring model of the proposed continuum unit cell to investigate the working mechanism of the proposed metasurface. With the designed metasurface consisting of substructured unit cells embedded in an aluminum plate, we demonstrate that our metasurface can successfully realize anomalous steering and focusing of in-plane longitudinal ultrasonic beams. The proposed substructuring concept is expected to provide a new principle for the design of general elastic metasurfaces that can be used to efficiently engineer arbitrary wave profiles.

  10. Cell visco-elasticity measured with AFM and optical trapping at sub-micrometer deformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanila Nawaz

    Full Text Available The measurement of the elastic properties of cells is widely used as an indicator for cellular changes during differentiation, upon drug treatment, or resulting from the interaction with the supporting matrix. Elasticity is routinely quantified by indenting the cell with a probe of an AFM while applying nano-Newton forces. Because the resulting deformations are in the micrometer range, the measurements will be affected by the finite thickness of the cell, viscous effects and even cell damage induced by the experiment itself. Here, we have analyzed the response of single 3T3 fibroblasts that were indented with a micrometer-sized bead attached to an AFM cantilever at forces from 30-600 pN, resulting in indentations ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 micrometer. To investigate the cellular response at lower forces up to 10 pN, we developed an optical trap to indent the cell in vertical direction, normal to the plane of the coverslip. Deformations of up to two hundred nanometers achieved at forces of up to 30 pN showed a reversible, thus truly elastic response that was independent on the rate of deformation. We found that at such small deformations, the elastic modulus of 100 Pa is largely determined by the presence of the actin cortex. At higher indentations, viscous effects led to an increase of the apparent elastic modulus. This viscous contribution that followed a weak power law, increased at larger cell indentations. Both AFM and optical trapping indentation experiments give consistent results for the cell elasticity. Optical trapping has the benefit of a lower force noise, which allows a more accurate determination of the absolute indentation. The combination of both techniques allows the investigation of single cells at small and large indentations and enables the separation of their viscous and elastic components.

  11. Influence of elastic strain on the thermodynamics and kinetics of lithium vacancy in bulk LiCoO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Ashkan; Kaghazchi, Payam; Rohrer, Jochen; Albe, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    The influence of elastic strain on the lithium vacancy formation and migration in bulk LiCoO2 is evaluated by means of first-principles calculations within density functional theory (DFT). Strain dependent energies are determined directly from defective cells and also within linear elasticity theory from the elastic dipole tensor (Gi j) for ground state and saddle point configurations. We analyze finite size effects in the calculation of Gi j, compare the predictions of the linear elastic model with those obtained from direct calculations of defective cells under strain, and discuss the differences. Based on our data, we calculate the variations in vacancy concentration and mobility due to the presence of external strain in bulk LiCoO2 cathodes. Our results reveal that elastic in-plane and out-of-plane strains can significantly change the ionic conductivity of bulk LiCoO2 by up to several orders of magnitude and thus strongly affect the performance of Li-secondary batteries.

  12. Quasi-experimental taxation elasticities of US gasoline demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Taxation elasticities provide inputs in public policy aimed at raising revenues. Using the quasi-experimental method, this paper calculates gasoline taxation elasticities for the USA over 1952-86. The medium (mean) elasticity over this period is found to be -0.075 (-0.122). However, the elasticity following the oil shock of 1973 is found to be statistically different from the pre-shock elasticity. Reasons for this change in elasticity are discussed. The implication of this analysis is that tax policies based on price elasticities, rather than on tax elasticities, might be using an inappropriate elasticity estimate and consequently misinterpreting the government's ability to raise tax revenues. (author)

  13. Multidiscipline simulation of elastic manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rølvåg

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to multidiscipline simulation of elastic robot manipulators in FEDEM. All developments presented in this paper are based on the formulations in FEDEM, a simulation system developed by the authors which combines finite element, mechanism and control analysis. In order to establish this general simulation system as an efficient multidiscipline robot design tool a robot control system including a high level robot programming language, interpolation algorithms, path generation algorithms, forward and inverse kinematics, control systems, gear and transmission models are implemented. These new features provide a high level of integration between traditionally separate design disciplines from the very beginning of the design and optimization process. Several simulations have shown that high fidelity mathematical models can be derived and used as a basis for dynamic analysis and controller design in FEDEM.

  14. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  15. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  16. Noncoherent Spectral Optical CDMA System Using 1D Active Weight Two-Code Keying Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Chyun Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new family of one-dimensional (1D active weight two-code keying (TCK in spectral amplitude coding (SAC optical code division multiple access (OCDMA networks. We use encoding and decoding transfer functions to operate the 1D active weight TCK. The proposed structure includes an optical line terminal (OLT and optical network units (ONUs to produce the encoding and decoding codes of the proposed OLT and ONUs, respectively. The proposed ONU uses the modified cross-correlation to remove interferences from other simultaneous users, that is, the multiuser interference (MUI. When the phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN is the most important noise, the modified cross-correlation suppresses the PIIN. In the numerical results, we find that the bit error rate (BER for the proposed system using the 1D active weight TCK codes outperforms that for two other systems using the 1D M-Seq codes and 1D balanced incomplete block design (BIBD codes. The effective source power for the proposed system can achieve −10 dBm, which has less power than that for the other systems.

  17. Alterations in cellular metabolism modulate CD1d-mediated NKT-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Tonya J; Carey, Gregory B; East, James E; Sun, Wenji; Bollino, Dominique R; Kimball, Amy S; Brutkiewicz, Randy R

    2016-08-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells play a critical role in the host's innate immune response. CD1d-mediated presentation of glycolipid antigens to NKT cells has been established; however, the mechanisms by which NKT cells recognize infected or cancerous cells remain unclear. 5(')-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of lipogenic pathways. We hypothesized that activation of AMPK during infection and malignancy could alter the repertoire of antigens presented by CD1d and serve as a danger signal to NKT cells. In this study, we examined the effect of alterations in metabolism on CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells and found that an infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus rapidly increased CD1d-mediated antigen presentation. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) enhance T-cell effector functions during infection, therefore antigen presenting cells pretreated with pharmacological agents that inhibit glycolysis, induce HIF and activate AMPK were assessed for their ability to induce NKT-cell responses. Pretreatment with 2-deoxyglucose, cobalt chloride, AICAR and metformin significantly enhanced CD1d-mediated NKT-cell activation. In addition, NKT cells preferentially respond to malignant B cells and B-cell lymphomas express HIF-1α. These data suggest that targeting cellular metabolism may serve as a novel means of inducing innate immune responses. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The D1-D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal DNA as barcode for ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, T; Przybos, E; Dunthorn, M

    2014-05-01

    Ciliates are a major evolutionary lineage within the alveolates, which are distributed in nearly all habitats on our planet and are an essential component for ecosystem function, processes and stability. Accurate identification of these unicellular eukaryotes through, for example, microscopy or mating type reactions is reserved to few specialists. To satisfy the demand for a DNA barcode for ciliates, which meets the standard criteria for DNA barcodes defined by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL), we here evaluated the D1-D2 region of the ribosomal DNA large subunit (LSU-rDNA). Primer universality for the phylum Ciliophora was tested in silico with available database sequences as well as in the laboratory with 73 ciliate species, which represented nine of 12 ciliate classes. Primers tested in this study were successful for all tested classes. To test the ability of the D1-D2 region to resolve conspecific and congeneric sequence divergence, 63 Paramecium strains were sampled from 24 mating species. The average conspecific D1-D2 variation was 0.18%, whereas congeneric sequence divergence averaged 4.83%. In pairwise genetic distance analyses, we identified a D1-D2 sequence divergence of DNA amplification of single cells and voucher deposition. In conclusion, the presented data pinpoint the D1-D2 region as an excellent candidate for an official CBOL barcode for ciliated protists. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. VES/TEM 1D joint inversion by using Controlled Random Search (CRS) algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Porsani, Jorge Luís; Santos, Fernando Acácio Monteiro dos; Almeida, Emerson Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Electrical (DC) and Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) soundings are used in a great number of environmental, hydrological, and mining exploration studies. Usually, data interpretation is accomplished by individual 1D models resulting often in ambiguous models. This fact can be explained by the way as the two different methodologies sample the medium beneath surface. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) is good in marking resistive structures, while Transient Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) is very sensitive to conductive structures. Another difference is VES is better to detect shallow structures, while TEM soundings can reach deeper layers. A Matlab program for 1D joint inversion of VES and TEM soundings was developed aiming at exploring the best of both methods. The program uses CRS - Controlled Random Search - algorithm for both single and 1D joint inversions. Usually inversion programs use Marquadt type algorithms but for electrical and electromagnetic methods, these algorithms may find a local minimum or not converge. Initially, the algorithm was tested with synthetic data, and then it was used to invert experimental data from two places in Paraná sedimentary basin (Bebedouro and Pirassununga cities), both located in São Paulo State, Brazil. Geoelectric model obtained from VES and TEM data 1D joint inversion is similar to the real geological condition, and ambiguities were minimized. Results with synthetic and real data show that 1D VES/TEM joint inversion better recovers simulated models and shows a great potential in geological studies, especially in hydrogeological studies.

  20. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Influence T1D Susceptibility among Pakistanis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mukhtar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The vitamin D receptor (VDR gene regulates insulin secretion from the pancreas and acts as a mediator of the immune response through vitamin D. Polymorphism in VDR causes alterations in the functioning of vitamin D, leading to type 1 diabetes (T1D predisposition. The aim of the present study was to determine VDR gene polymorphism in association with T1D in Pakistanis. Methods. The association was evaluated by selecting rs2228570 (FokΙ, rs7975232 (ApaΙ, and rs731236 (TaqΙ polymorphic sites in 102 patients and 100 controls. Genotypes were identified by DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP. Results. The allelic and genotypic frequencies of FokΙ and ApaI were significantly associated with T1D (p0.05. CCGC, CCGG, CCTC, and CCTG haplotypes were significantly associated with disease development (p<0.05. However, CTGG haplotype was protective towards T1D (p<0.01. Conclusion. VDR polymorphisms were identified as susceptible regions for T1D development in the Pakistani population.

  1. Deconvolution of Complex 1D NMR Spectra Using Objective Model Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis S Hughes

    Full Text Available Fluorine (19F NMR has emerged as a useful tool for characterization of slow dynamics in 19F-labeled proteins. One-dimensional (1D 19F NMR spectra of proteins can be broad, irregular and complex, due to exchange of probe nuclei between distinct electrostatic environments; and therefore cannot be deconvoluted and analyzed in an objective way using currently available software. We have developed a Python-based deconvolution program, decon1d, which uses Bayesian information criteria (BIC to objectively determine which model (number of peaks would most likely produce the experimentally obtained data. The method also allows for fitting of intermediate exchange spectra, which is not supported by current software in the absence of a specific kinetic model. In current methods, determination of the deconvolution model best supported by the data is done manually through comparison of residual error values, which can be time consuming and requires model selection by the user. In contrast, the BIC method used by decond1d provides a quantitative method for model comparison that penalizes for model complexity helping to prevent over-fitting of the data and allows identification of the most parsimonious model. The decon1d program is freely available as a downloadable Python script at the project website (https://github.com/hughests/decon1d/.

  2. Deflection of electron beams by ground planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernsler, R.F.; Lampe, M.

    1991-01-01

    Analytic methods are used to determine the effect of a nearby ground plane on the trajectory of a relativistic electron beam passing through dense gas. The beam is shown to respond to the ground plane in one of two distinct modes, determined by beam current and energy. Low-power beams deflect from the ground plane and tear longitudinally. High-power beams do not deflect or tear but tilt, i.e., the beam axis is no longer parallel to the direction of propagation. This conclusion is reached by computing the net beam force as a superposition of the ''bare'' ground-plane forces, the shielding forces from the beam-generated plasma, the body coupling forces induced by beam tilt, and the force that arises as the beam separates from the plasma. Effects from electromagnetic retardation and ground resistivity are shown to be negligible in typical cases of interest, and the interaction between ground planes and other external forces is discussed as well

  3. The horizontal plane appearances of scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two-/three-dimen......Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two...... cases of a normal spine and a thoracic scoliosis are presented. Results: For a normal spine, vector projections in the transverse plane are aligned with the posterior-anterior anatomical axis. For a scoliotic spine, vector projections in the horizontal plane provide information on the lateral...... decompensation of the spine and the lateral displacement of vertebrae. In the horizontal plane view, vertebral rotation and projections of the sagittal curves can also be analyzed simultaneously. Conclusions: The use of posterior-anterior vertebral vector facilitates the understanding of the 3D nature...

  4. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  5. Computed tomography of peripancreatic fat planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, G.R.; Van Sonnenberg, E.; Willson, S.A.; Tobin, R.S.; Cubberley, D.A.; Marx, M.Q.

    1987-01-01

    Obliteration of peripancreatic fat planes usually is considered an indicator of peripancreatic tumour infiltration in the presence of a malignant mass, or of inflammation of peripancreatic tissues in patients with pancreatitis. However, absence of peripancreatic fat planes also may be found in patients without evidence of pancreatic disease. Hence, CT scans of 125 patients without clinical or computed tomographic evidence of pancreatic disease were evaluated to assess normal variations in the anatomy of the pancreas and its relation to surrounding vessels and bowel loops. The fat plane separating the superior mesenteric artery from the pancreas was preserved in 100% of patients. Conversely, fat planes between the pancreas and the superior mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, and adjacent bowel loops were partially or totally obliterated in 13% to 50% of patients. It is concluded that the absence of fat around the superior mesenteric artery is highly suggestive of pathologic changes of the pancreas, while the lack of fat planes between the pancreas and other splanchnic vessels or bowel loops frequently is normal, and therefore, is an unreliable sign of pancreatic disease. The applications of these findings to the assessment of tumour resectability by CT, and to CT scanning techniques, are discussed. (orig.)

  6. The visco-elastic multilayer program VEROAD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    The mathematical principles and derivation of a linear visco-elastic multilayer computer program are described. The mathematical derivation is based on Fourier Transformation. The program is called VEROAD, which is an acronym for Visco-Elastic ROad Analysis Delft. The program allows calculation of

  7. Heavy ion elastic scattering of code : OPTHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.; Divatia, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code, OPTHI has been designed to calculate nuclear optical model elastic cross sections for the scattering of heavy ions. The program has been designed to be utilitarian rather than capable of giving an exact description of elastic scattering. Input format is described and the program listing is given. (M.G.B.)

  8. Thermo-elastic optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Tianshi; Pfeiffer, Tom; Wu, Min; Wieser, Wolfgang; Amenta, Gaetano; Draxinger, Wolfgang; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Huber, Robert; Van Soest, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    The absorption of nanosecond laser pulses induces rapid thermo-elastic deformation in tissue. A sub-micrometer scale displacement occurs within a few microseconds after the pulse arrival. In this Letter, we investigate the laser-induced thermo-elastic deformation using a 1.5 MHz phase-sensitive

  9. Dynamic elasticity measurement for prosthetic socket design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujin; Kim, Junghoon; Son, Hyeryon; Choi, Youngjin

    2017-07-01

    The paper proposes a novel apparatus to measure the dynamic elasticity of human limb in order to help the design and fabrication of the personalized prosthetic socket. To take measurements of the dynamic elasticity, the desired force generated as an exponential chirp signal in which the frequency increases and amplitude is maintained according to time progress is applied to human limb and then the skin deformation is recorded, ultimately, to obtain the frequency response of its elasticity. It is referred to as a Dynamic Elasticity Measurement Apparatus (DEMA) in the paper. It has three core components such as linear motor to provide the desired force, loadcell to implement the force feedback control, and potentiometer to record the skin deformation. After measuring the force/deformation and calculating the dynamic elasticity of the limb, it is visualized as 3D color map model of the limb so that the entire dynamic elasticity can be shown at a glance according to the locations and frequencies. For the visualization, the dynamic elasticities measured at specific locations and frequencies are embodied using the color map into 3D limb model acquired by using 3D scanner. To demonstrate the effectiveness, the visualized dynamic elasticities are suggested as outcome of the proposed system, although we do not have any opportunity to apply the proposed system to the amputees. Ultimately, it is expected that the proposed system can be utilized to design and fabricate the personalized prosthetic socket in order for releasing the wearing pain caused by the conventional prosthetic socket.

  10. 7 CFR 29.2515 - Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2515 Elasticity. The flexible, springy... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elasticity. 29.2515 Section 29.2515 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3516 - Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3516 Elasticity. The flexible, springy nature of the tobacco leaf to recover... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elasticity. 29.3516 Section 29.3516 Agriculture...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1014 - Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1014 Elasticity. The flexible, springy nature of the tobacco leaf to recover... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elasticity. 29.1014 Section 29.1014 Agriculture...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2265 - Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elasticity. 29.2265 Section 29.2265 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2265 Elasticity. The flexible, springy nature of the tobacco leaf to recover approximately its original size and...

  14. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai

    2017-03-08

    We use elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) to invert for the reflectivity images of P- and S-wave impedances. Elastic LSRTMsolves the linearized elastic-wave equations for forward modeling and the adjoint equations for backpropagating the residual wavefield at each iteration. Numerical tests on synthetic data and field data reveal the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM) and acoustic LSRTM. For our examples, the elastic LSRTM images have better resolution and amplitude balancing, fewer artifacts, and less crosstalk compared with the elastic RTM images. The images are also better focused and have better reflector continuity for steeply dipping events compared to the acoustic LSRTM images. Similar to conventional leastsquares migration, elastic LSRTM also requires an accurate estimation of the P- and S-wave migration velocity models. However, the problem remains that, when there are moderate errors in the velocity model and strong multiples, LSRTMwill produce migration noise stronger than that seen in the RTM images.

  15. Modelling the elastic properties of cellulose nanopaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Rui; Goutianos, Stergios; Tu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The elastic modulus of cellulose nanopaper was predicted using a two-dimensional (2D) micromechanical fibrous network model. The elastic modulus predicted by the network model was 12 GPa, which is well within the range of experimental data for cellulose nanopapers. The stress state in the network...

  16. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We use elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) to invert for the reflectivity images of P- and S-wave impedances. Elastic LSRTMsolves the linearized elastic-wave equations for forward modeling and the adjoint equations for backpropagating the residual wavefield at each iteration. Numerical tests on synthetic data and field data reveal the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM) and acoustic LSRTM. For our examples, the elastic LSRTM images have better resolution and amplitude balancing, fewer artifacts, and less crosstalk compared with the elastic RTM images. The images are also better focused and have better reflector continuity for steeply dipping events compared to the acoustic LSRTM images. Similar to conventional leastsquares migration, elastic LSRTM also requires an accurate estimation of the P- and S-wave migration velocity models. However, the problem remains that, when there are moderate errors in the velocity model and strong multiples, LSRTMwill produce migration noise stronger than that seen in the RTM images.

  17. Numerical simulation of the subsolar magnetopause current layer in the sun-earth meridian plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, H.

    1993-01-01

    The formation and stability of the magnetopause current layer near the subsolar point in the sun-earth meridian plane are examined using a 2D electromagnetic particle simulation. For the case of zero IMF, the simulation results show that the current layer remains stable and is essentially the same as in the 1D simulation. The width of the current layer is given by the electron-ion hybrid gyroradius which is much smaller than the ion gyroradius. The current layer is found to remain stable for the northward IMF as well. As in the 1D simulation, the jump of the magnetic field at the current layer for the northward IMF remains small. For the southward IMF, collisionless magnetic reconnection is found to develop, leading to the formation of magnetic islands and density peaking within the current layer.

  18. Structural, Electronic and Elastic Properties of Heavy Fermion YbTM2 (TM= Ir and Pt) Laves Phase Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, H.; Shugani, M.; Aynyas, M.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2018-02-01

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of YbTM2 (TM = Ir and Pt) Laves phase intermetallic compounds which crystallize in cubic (MgCu2-type) structure, have been investigated using ab-initio full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method with LDA and LDA+U approximation. The calculated ground state properties such as lattice parameter (a0), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B‧) are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. The electronic properties are analyzed from band structures and density of states. Elastic constants are predicted first time for these compounds which obey the stability criteria for cubic system.

  19. FP-LAPW study of the elastic properties of Al2X (X=Sc,Y,La,Lu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, M.; Praveen Kumar, S.; Anuthama, R.

    2010-01-01

    From the first principles total energy calculations based on full-potential linear augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW), the elastic properties of Al 2 X (X=Sc,Y,La,Lu) are reported here. Theoretical values of Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio and Debye temperature are estimated from the computed elastic constants. From the analysis of the ratio of shear to bulk modulus, it is found that these intermetallic compounds are brittle in nature. The calculated results are compared with other reported values.

  20. Forest biomass and Armington elasticities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundmark, Robert; Shahrammehr, Shima

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide estimated Armington elasticities for selected European countries and for three forest biomass commodities of main interest in many energy models: roundwood, chips and particles and wood residues. The Armington elasticity is based on the assumption that a specific forest biomass commodity is differentiated by its origin. The statistically significant estimated Armington elasticities range from 0.52 for roundwood in Hungary to approximately 4.53 for roundwood in Estonia. On average, the statistically significant Armington elasticity for chips and particles over all countries is 1.7 and for wood residues and roundwood 1.3 and 1.5, respectively. These elasticities can provide benchmark values for simulation models trying to assess trade patterns of forest biomass commodities and energy policy effects for European countries or for the EU as a whole.