WorldWideScience

Sample records for eiders somateria spectabilis

  1. Abundance and energy requirements of eiders (Somateria spp.) suggest high predation pressure on macrobenthic fauna in a key wintering habitat in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Martin Emil; Rasmussen, Lars Maltha; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2011-01-01

    The number of common eiders (Somateria mollissima borealis) in west Greenland declined dramatically during the twentieth century, supposedly because of human activities. However, their sensitivity to alternative drivers of variation, such as climate conditions, diseases or food availability......, remains unstudied. In this study, we describe prey availability and assess the trophic coupling between eiders and their macrobenthic prey in a shallow inlet, Nipisat Sound; a key wintering habitat in the southwest Greenland Open Water Area. Macrobenthic species abundance and biomass were studied...... was estimated at 13.9 g AFDM m-2 year-1 (317 kJ m-2 year-1). During the winters of 2008–2010, we monitored the number of common eiders (S. mollissima realis) and king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) and observed a distinct peak in abundance during winter with up to 15.000 birds in Nipisat Sound. Based...

  2. Thiamine deficiency impairs common eider (Somateria mollissima) reproduction in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas; Carlsson, Le; Berg, Anna-Lena; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Gustavsson, Hanna; Mattsson, Roland; Balk, Lennart

    2017-10-31

    The Baltic Sea population of the common eider (Somateria mollissima) has declined dramatically during the last two decades. Recently, widespread episodic thiamine (vitamin B 1 ) deficiency has been demonstrated in feral birds and suggested to contribute significantly to declining populations. Here we show that the decline of the common eider population in the Baltic Sea is paralleled by high mortality of the pulli a few days after hatch, owing to thiamine deficiency and probably also thereby associated abnormal behaviour resulting in high gull predation. An experiment with artificially incubated common eider eggs collected in the field revealed that thiamine treatment of pulli had a therapeutic effect on the thiamine status of the brain and prevented death. The mortality was 53% in untreated specimens, whereas it was only 7% in thiamine treated specimens. Inability to dive was also linked to brain damage typical for thiamine deficiency. Our results demonstrate how thiamine deficiency causes a range of symptoms in the common eider pulli, as well as massive die-offs a few days after hatch, which probably are the major explanation of the recent dramatic population declines.

  3. The gizzard worm, Amidostomum acutum (Lundahl, 1848) Seurat, 1918 in common eiders (Somateria mollissima L.) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    A study was made on the prevalence of Amidostomum acutum in the gizzard of the common eider (Somateria mollissima L.) in the Netherlands. The investigated birds were found dead along the Dutch coast in the winter of 2001/ 2002. From the dead birds collected at two localities, the North Sea coast

  4. Hierarchical spatial genetic structure of Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) breeding along a migratory corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Talbot, S.L.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Scribner, K.T.; McCracken, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Documentation of spatial genetic discordance among breeding populations of Arctic-nesting avian species is important, because anthropogenic change is altering environmental linkages at micro- and macrogeographic scales. We estimated levels of population subdivision within Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) breeding on 12 barrier islands in the western Beaufort Sea, Alaska, using molecular markers and capture—mark—recapture (CMR) data. Common Eider populations were genetically structured on a microgeographic scale. Regional comparisons between populations breeding on island groups separated by 90 km (Mikkelsen Bay and Simpson Lagoon) revealed structuring at 14 microsatellite loci (F ST = 0.004, P Sea are strongly philopatric to island groups rather than to a particular island. Despite the apparent high site fidelity of females, coalescence-based models of gene flow suggest that asymmetrical western dispersal occurs between island groups and is likely mediated by Mikkelsen Bay females stopping early on spring migration at Simpson Lagoon to breed. Alternatively, late-arriving females may be predisposed to nest in Simpson Lagoon because of the greater availability and wider distribution of nesting habitat. Our results indicate that genetic discontinuities, mediated by female philopatry, can exist at microgeographic scales along established migratory corridors.

  5. Re-colonization by common eiders Somateria mollissima in the Aleutian Archipelago following removal of introduced arctic foxes Vulpes lagopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Margaret R.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sexson, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Islands provide refuges for populations of many species where they find safety from predators, but the introduction of predators frequently results in elimination or dramatic reductions in island-dwelling organisms. When predators are removed, re-colonization for some species occurs naturally, and inter-island phylogeographic relationships and current movement patterns can illuminate processes of colonization. We studied a case of re-colonization of common eiders Somateria mollissima following removal of introduced arctic foxes Vulpes lagopus in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. We expected common eiders to resume nesting on islands cleared of foxes and to re-colonize from nearby islets, islands, and island groups. We thus expected common eiders to show limited genetic structure indicative of extensive mixing among island populations. Satellite telemetry was used to record current movement patterns of female common eiders from six islands across three island groups. We collected genetic data from these and other nesting common eiders at 14 microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine population genetic structure, historical fluctuations in population demography, and gene flow. Our results suggest recent interchange among islands. Analysis of microsatellite data supports satellite telemetry data of increased dispersal of common eiders to nearby areas and little between island groups. Although evidence from mtDNA is suggestive of female dispersal among island groups, gene flow is insufficient to account for recolonization and rapid population growth. Instead, near-by remnant populations of common eiders contributed substantially to population expansion, without which re-colonization would have likely occurred at a much lower rate. Genetic and morphometric data of common eiders within one island group two and three decades after re-colonization suggests reduced movement of eiders among islands and little movement between island groups after

  6. Aquatic burst locomotion by hydroplaning and paddling in common eiders (Somateria mollissima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, William T; Farina, Stacy C; Fish, Frank E

    2015-06-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) are heavy sea-ducks that spend a large portion of their time swimming at the water surface. Surface swimming generates a bow and hull wave that can constructively interfere and produce wave drag. The speed at which the wavelengths of these waves equal the waterline length of the swimming animal is the hull speed. To increase surface swimming speed beyond the hull speed, an animal must overtake the bow wave. This study found two distinct behaviors that eider ducks used to exceed the hull speed: (1) 'steaming', which involved rapid oaring with the wings to propel the duck along the surface of the water, and (2) 'paddle-assisted flying', during which the ducks lifted their bodies out of the water and used their feet to paddle against the surface while flapping their wings in the air. An average hull speed (0.732±0.046 m s(-1)) was calculated for S. mollissima by measuring maximum waterline length from museum specimens. On average, steaming ducks swam 5.5 times faster and paddle-assisted flying ducks moved 6.8 times faster than the hull speed. During steaming, ducks exceeded the hull speed by increasing their body angle and generating dynamic lift to overcome wave drag and hydroplane along the water surface. During paddle-assisted flying, ducks kept their bodies out of the water, thereby avoiding the limitations of wave drag altogether. Both behaviors provided alternatives to flight for these ducks by allowing them to exceed the hull speed while staying at or near the water surface. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Use of serum biochemistry to evaluate nutritional status and health of incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmen, T.; Franson, J.C.; Hario, Martti; Sankari, S.; Kilpi, Mikael; Lindstrom, K.

    2001-01-01

    During 1997–1999, we collected serum samples from 156 common eider (Somateria mollissima) females incubating eggs in the Finnish archipelago of the Baltic Sea. We used serum chemistry profiles to evaluate metabolic changes in eiders during incubation and to compare the health and nutritional status of birds nesting at a breeding area where the eider population has declined by over 50% during the past decade, with birds nesting at two areas with stable populations. Several changes in serum chemistries were observed during incubation, including (1) decreases in serum glucose, total protein, albumin, β‐globulin, and γ‐globulin concentrations and (2) increases in serum uric acid, creatine kinase, and β‐hydroxybutyrate concentrations. However, these changes were not consistent throughout the 3‐yr period, suggesting differences among years in the rate of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein utilization during incubation. The mean serum concentrations of free fatty acids, glycerol, and albumin were lowest and the serum α‐ and γ‐globulin levels were highest in the area where the eider population has declined, suggesting a role for nutrition and diseases in the population dynamics of Baltic eiders.

  8. Selected trace elements and organochlorines: some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Hario, Martti; Kilpi, Mikael; Smith, Milton R.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 and 1998, we collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm (residues in blood on wet weight basis) to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm (residues in eggs on fresh weight basis), respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that we found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

  9. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  10. Reprint of 'Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  11. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations,pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Finley, Daniel L.; Flint, Paul L.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  12. Gastrointestinal parasites of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) – Seasonal, geographical and host related variations in the parasite burdens of two distinct Danish populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Stengaard; Chriél, Mariann; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    Due to a recent decline in number of Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) in Denmark, prevalence, intensity and composition of the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of Common Eiders from two distinct colonies were examined to establish reference data of the helminth fauna of apparently healthy birds....... Furthermore, seasonal, geographical and host related variations in helminth composition were studied. The birds were collected November 2010 to January 2012. Included were a total of 157 eiders from Jutland (N=103) and Zealand (N=54) respectively, comprising 54 males and 102 females of which 20 were gathered...... during the nesting period. The study is ongoing, and so far most parasites have only been identified to the family level. Eight trematode families, two nematode families, one acanthocephala and one cestode family were identified. Intensities of infections were primarily influenced by age of the birds...

  13. Differential investment and costs during avian incubation determined by individual quality: an experimental study of the common eider (Somateria mollissima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Johnsen, Vigdis; Bustnes, Jan Ove

    2003-03-07

    Individuals of different quality may have different investment strategies, shaping responses to experimental manipulations, thereby rendering the detection of such patterns difficult. However, previous clutch-size manipulation studies have infrequently incorporated individual differences in quality. To examine costs of incubation and reproductive investment in relation to changes in clutch size, we enlarged and reduced natural clutch sizes of four and five eggs by one egg early in the incubation period in female common eiders (Somateria mollissima), a sea duck with an anorectic incubation period. Females that had produced four eggs (lower quality) responded to clutch reductions by deserting the nest more frequently but did not increase incubation effort in response to clutch enlargement, at the cost of reduced hatch success of eggs. Among birds with an original clutch size of five (higher quality), reducing and enlarging clutch size reduced and increased relative body mass loss respectively without affecting hatch success. In common eiders many females abandon their own ducklings to the care of other females. Enlarging five-egg clutches led to increased brood care rate despite the higher effort spent incubating these clutches, indicating that the higher fitness value of a large brood is increasing adult brood investment. This study shows that the ability to respond to clutch-size manipulations depends on original clutch size, reflecting differences in female quality. Females of low quality were reluctant to increase investment at the cost of lower hatch success, whereas females of higher quality apparently have a larger capacity both to increase incubation effort and brood care investment.

  14. Long-term changes in nutrients and mussel stocks are related to numbers of breeding eiders Somateria mollissima at a large Baltic colony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Laursen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Baltic/Wadden Sea eider Somateria mollissima flyway population is decreasing, and this trend is also reflected in the large eider colony at Christiansø situated in the Baltic Sea. This colony showed a 15-fold increase from 1925 until the mid-1990's, followed by a rapid decline in recent years, although the causes of this trend remain unknown. Most birds from the colony winter in the Wadden Sea, from which environmental data and information on the size of the main diet, the mussel Mytilus edulis stock exists. We hypothesised that changes in nutrients and water temperature in the Wadden Sea had an effect on the ecosystem affecting the size of mussel stocks, the principal food item for eiders, thereby influencing the number of breeding eider in the Christiansø colony. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: A positive relationship between the amount of fertilizer used by farmers and the concentration of phosphorus in the Wadden Sea (with a time lag of one year allowed analysis of the predictions concerning effects of nutrients for the period 1925-2010. There was (1 increasing amounts of fertilizer used in agriculture and this increased the amount of nutrients in the marine environment thereby increasing the mussel stocks in the Wadden Sea. (2 The number of eiders at Christiansø increased when the amount of fertilizer increased. Finally (3 the number of eiders in the colony at Christiansø increased with the amount of mussel stocks in the Wadden Sea. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The trend in the number of eiders at Christiansø is representative for the entire flyway population, and since nutrient reduction in the marine environment occurs in most parts of Northwest Europe, we hypothesize that this environmental candidate parameter is involved in the overall regulation of the Baltic/Wadden Sea eider population during recent decades.

  15. Exploring Moulting Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) Escape Responses towards Ship Traffic.

    OpenAIRE

    Skei, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    1. The construction of bottom dwelling offshore wind farms in shallow waters is expected to interfere with seabird feeding and moulting habitats. This study focus on how the disturbance from ship traffic associated with construction and maintenance of offshore wind farms influence moulting common eiders. Such studies might help forming guidelines to minimize potential conflicts between seabirds and the establishment of bottom dwelling offshore wind farms. 2. The study was conducted in coas...

  16. Impacts des conditions de glace de mer sur la reproduction des eiders a duvet (Somateria mollissima) nichant dans l'Arctique canadien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Gagnon, Frankie

    Environmental and climatic conditions on the breeding site affect the reproduction and dynamics of avian populations. The arctic sea ice is an essential environmental component to many marine species, and the sea ice dynamic can affect seabird reproduction. Our objective was to study the role of sea ice conditions early in the season on breeding decisions of Common eiders nesting at East Bay in the Canadian Arctic. Since eider females forage intensively at river mouths at East Bay during the pre-breeding period, we made the assumption that the timing of ice-breakup at river mouths influences the breeding propensity and the timing of laying through an effect on resources accessibility. Using radar satellite images acquired for the summers 2002 to 2013, we determined the timing of ice-breakup at river mouths and the ice-free conditions in the bay for each year. The timing of ice-breakup in June varied greatly between years and was strongly correlated to the day of ice-free conditions in the bay in July. Our results also demonstrated that a late ice-breakup induces a decrease in breeding propensity and a delay in the laying date in common eiders. However, females in lower body condition were more strongly affected by a late ice-breakup than females in better condition. These results shed light on the critical importance of the timing of resources accessibility for reproductive decisions and success of avian species breeding in the Arctic. Furthermore, the timing of ice-breakup could be used as an environmental cue by eiders to adjust their timing of breeding. Globally, our study allows us to better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of sea ice conditions on breeding decisions of marine birds. This work could be useful to anticipate the effect of climate change on population dynamics of birds breeding in the Arctic.

  17. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  18. Effects of sea ice on breeding numbers and clutch size of a high arctic population of the common eider Somateria mollissima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Fridtjof

    2012-04-01

    The breeding performance of high-arctic bird populations shows large inter-annual variation that may be attributed to environmental variability, such as the timing of snow melt and break-up of the landfast sea ice that surrounds breeding colonies on islands and along coasts. In the Kongsfjorden area (79°N) on Svalbard, the number of breeding pairs and the average egg clutch size vary considerably among years. In this study, data on breeding performance are presented from 15 years in the period 1981-2000. The results showed that early break-up of sea ice in Kongsfjorden resulted in larger numbers of nests and larger average clutch sizes than late break-up. Also, individual islands with early break-up of sea ice in a particular year had more nests and larger clutch sizes compared to other islands surrounded by sea ice during a longer period in spring. Thus, the inter-annual variation in the break-up of sea ice in the fjord has considerable implications for the inter-annual variability of recruitment to the population. The results indicate that the effects of global warming on changes in the sea ice melting regime in coastal regions are important for the reproductive output of island-nesting eiders.

  19. King eider foraging effort during the pre-breeding period in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; Butler, Malcolm G.

    2011-01-01

    For reproduction, many arctic-nesting migratory birds rely on nutrients obtained on the breeding grounds, so they devote sufficient time to foraging immediately prior to nesting. However, little is known about the increase in foraging effort necessary to meet the energetic requirements of reproduction. In early June 2006 and 2008, we quantified the proportion of time spent foraging before breeding by a large sea duck, the King Eider (Somateria spectabilis), on its breeding grounds in northern Alaska. During >235 hours of behavioral observations, both male and female King Eiders spent >50% of the day loafing (resting, sleeping, comfort behavior, or being alert). Females foraged on average 30% of the time (mean 7.2 hr day-1,95% CI 6.0-8.4 hr day-1), three times as much as males (9%; 2.3 hr day-1, 95% CI 1.5–2.8 hr day-1). The most common prey in ponds where the eiders foraged were chironomid larvae and worms ranging in length from 1 to 30 mm. If the King Eider's daily energy expenditure on its breeding grounds is similar to values published for related species, it would need to ingest only 0.2–0.6 g dry mass of invertebrates per minute of foraging to meet its energetic requirements. Males did not lose body mass before breeding, and we assume that their foraging effort was sufficient for energy balance. Therefore, female King Eiders appear to triple their foraging effort over maintenance requirements to meet the energetic challenges of egg formation.

  20. Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles. PMID:18521716

  1. Limits to benthic feeding by eiders in a vital Arctic migration corridor due to localized prey and changing sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovvorn, James R.; Rocha, Aariel R.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Dasher, Douglas; Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby

    2015-01-01

    Four species of threatened or declining eider ducks that nest in the Arctic migrate through the northeast Chukchi Sea, where anticipated industrial development may require prioritizing areas for conservation. In this nearshore corridor (10–40 m depth), the eiders’ access to benthic prey during the spring is restricted to variable areas of open water within sea ice. For the most abundant species, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis), stable isotopes in blood cells, muscle, and potential prey indicate that these eiders ate mainly bivalves when traversing this corridor. Bivalves there were much smaller than the same taxa in deeper areas of the northern Bering Sea, possibly due to higher mortality rates caused by ice scour in shallow water; future decrease in seasonal duration of fast ice may increase this effect. Computer simulations suggested that if these eiders forage for >15 h/day, they can feed profitably at bivalve densities >200 m−2 regardless of water depth or availability of ice for resting. Sampling in 2010–2012 showed that large areas of profitable prey densities occurred only in certain locations throughout the migration corridor. Satellite data in April–May over 13 years (2001–2013) indicated that access to major feeding areas through sea ice in different segments of the corridor can vary from 0% to 100% between months and years. In a warming and increasingly variable climate, unpredictability of access may be enhanced by greater effects of shifting winds on unconsolidated ice. Our results indicate the importance of having a range of potential feeding areas throughout the migration corridor to ensure prey availability in all years. Spatial planning of nearshore industrial development in the Arctic, including commercial shipping, pipeline construction, and the risk of released oil, should consider these effects of high environmental variability on the adequacy of habitats targeted for conservation.

  2. Contrasting feeding strategies among wintering common eiders linked to white-tailed sea eagle predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Mosbech, Anders; Sonne, Christian

    Southwest Greenland is an international important wintering area for Greenland and Canadian common eiders (Somateria mollissima borealis). They distribute both in the shallow habitats along the outer coastline and in the fjords which are generally very deep. In the fjord systems, eiders are typic...

  3. King eiders use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N; O'Brien, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves ("capital") and current diet ("income"). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 +/- 18%, N: 99 +/- 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 +/- 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 +/- 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual variation into

  4. King eider use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; O'Brien, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves (“capital”) and current diet (“income”). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 ± 18%, N: 99 ± 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 ± 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 ± 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual

  5. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, Mark L.; Braune, Birgit M.; Robertson, Gregory J.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Mallory, Conor D.; Forbes, Mark R.; Wells, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health

  6. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@acadiau.ca [Biology Department, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia B4P 2R6 (Canada); Braune, Birgit M. [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Robertson, Gregory J. [Environment Canada, Wildlife Research Division, 6 Bruce Street, Mount Pearl, Newfoundland and Labrador A1N 4T3 (Canada); Gilchrist, H. Grant [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, Conor D. [Chemistry Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Forbes, Mark R. [Biology Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Wells, Regina [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 512 Lahr Boulevard, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador A0P 1C0 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health.

  7. Population structure of Pacific Common Eiders breeding in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.R.; Flint, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to study the migration routes and wintering areas of two allopatric breeding populations of Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) in Alaska: the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and the western Beaufort Sea coast. Only 6% (2 of 36) of females wintered within the wintering area of the other breeding population. Both breeding populations wintered in the closest available ice-free habitat, perhaps to minimize migratory distance. Two Beaufort Sea females wintered in areas used by Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta females, implying potential gene flow among breeding areas. Yet, we conclude that these two populations are largely geographically isolated throughout the annual cycle and the environmental factors influencing survival and reproduction likely differ between these groups of birds. Thus, regardless of the potential gene flow among breeding populations, we suggest that birds from these two breeding areas should be managed as separate populations. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  8. Survival of breeding Pacific common eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H.M.; Flint, Paul L.; Moran, Christine L.; Powell, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Populations of Pacific common eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) breeding in Alaska, USA, have declined markedly over the past 40 years. We studied survival of adult female Pacific common eiders using capture—recapture of nesting hens at 3 sites on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska from 1994 to 2004. We used data consisting of 268 recapture events from 361 uniquely marked individuals to investigate temporal, geographic, and environmental variation in adult female survival. Our results suggest apparent annual survival of adult eiders from the YKD was high (0.892, SE = 0.022) and spatially and temporally invariant (σ2 = 0.005), a pattern consistent with other long-lived marine birds. Moreover, our results suggest adult survival may be functionally fixed for Pacific common eiders, and at the present, adult survival may be relatively unresponsive to environmental or management perturbations. Our data did not support hypothesized variation in survival relative to mortality factors such as predation on breeding grounds, physiologic costs of reproduction, and wintering conditions. Although changes in adult survival likely have a large potential effect on prospective population growth, our results suggest viable management actions aimed at increasing survival may be extremely limited.

  9. Effects of dietary selenium exposure in captive American common eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Perry, M.C.; Bochsler, V.S.; Finley, D.L.; Flint, Paul L.; Hollmen, T.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted two studies of Se exposure in captive common eiders (Somateria mollissima). In Study 1, eiders were fed diets with added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 ppm to 80 ppm. In Study 2, eiders received control, low exposure (20 ppm Se), and high exposure (60 ppm Se) diets. One duck in the high exposure group in Study 2 died after 36 days. Remaining high exposure ducks in Study 2 and ducks in Study 1 were euthanized after losing 25-30% of their body weight, which occurred after 41 days and 60-78 days, respectively. Body weights did not differ between control and low exposure ducks in Study 2. At the end of Study 1, the mean Se concentration in blood was 32 ppm wet weight (ww). In Study 2, mean blood Se reached 14 ppm ww in the low exposure group and 17 ppm ww in high exposure ducks. Mean Se concentrations in liver were 1252 ppm dry weight (dw) in Study 1, and 351 and 735 ppm dw, respectively, in the low and high exposure groups of Study 2. Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism, but not entirely in the same manner as with previous laboratory studies in mallards. In plasma, activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase increased with time. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, oxidized glutathione, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. Total and protein bound sulfhydryl concentrations, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver were negatively correlated with Se concentrations in the liver. In Study 2, spleen weights were significantly lower in ducks receiving 60 ppm Se than in those receiving 20 ppm. Gross lesions associated with high Se exposure included emaciation, absence of thymus, loss of nails from digits, and alopecia. Microscopic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather

  10. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Flint, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 μg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  11. 75 FR 17760 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri): Initiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... 94- 98 percent between the early 1970s and the 1993 listing date, from 47,700-70,000 nesting pairs to.... Fish and Wildlife Service, MS-361, 1011 E. Tudor Road, Anchorage, AK 99503. In-Person drop-off or...

  12. Dique de Eider - Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the various and detailed works of research, project and construction regarding this complex work that connects Hunderknoll and Vollerwiek. The four most important parts are: a the creating of an artificial island; b construction of the Eider dam; c the actual Eider reservoir, and d the auxiliary dam that reaches as far as Tonning, dividing the marshland of Katinger and that of Eider. Due to the rough sea at certain times of the year, the movement of the iceblocks in winter and the yearly transport of great quantities of sand, tests on a small scale have been carried out so as to achieve an almost perfect project as a considerable improvement for this region with a great tourist future. The work has been promoted by the Governmental Fluvial and Navigation Department. Both in the construction of the dam as well as the reservoir the following firms took part: Philipp Holzmann, Ltd.; Dyckerhoff & Widmann KG; Siemens-Bauunion GbmH and Max Giese-Stahlbetonbau GbmH.Se describen en este artículo los diferentes y minuciosos trabajos de investigación, proyecto y construcción de esta compleja obra que enlaza Hundeknoll y Vollerwiek. Las cuatro grandes partes más importantes de que se compone son: a la creación de una isla artificial; b construcción de la presa Eider; c el dique Eider, propiamente dicho, y d la presa auxiliar, que llega hasta Tonning, separando la marisma de Katinger y el Eider. Dada la violencia del mar en determinadas épocas del año, los movimientos de bloques de hielo en invierno y el transporte anual de grandes masas de arena, se han llevado a cabo ensayos en modelo reducido para realizar un proyecto casi perfecto destinado a conseguir una mejora notable para esta zona de gran porvenir turístico. La obra ha sido promovida por el Departamento Fluvial y de Navegación del Estado, interviniendo, tanto en la construcción de la Presa como en la del Dique, las siguientes empresas

  13. Persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in birds caught off the west coast of Spitsbergen. [Larus hyperboreus, Fulmarus glacialis, Uria lomvia, Alle alle, Somateria mollissima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norheim, G.; Kjos-Hanssen, B.

    1984-01-01

    The tissue concentrations of DDE, PCB, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mercury were determined in five species of migrating seabirds: glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus; fulmar Fulmarus glacialis; Bruennech's guillemot Uria lomvia; little auk Alle alle and eider Somateria mollissima. These birds nest on Svalbard and were shot in May 1980 off the west coast of Spitsbergen. The highest levels of DDE, PCB and HCB were found in glaucous gull, whilst low levels were found in Bruennich's guillemot, little auk and, expecially, eider. Fulmars were intermediate. Highly significant correlations were found between the concentrations of HCB, DDE and PCB. These results could indicate that the Gulf Stream is a common source of these substances. The highest mercury levels were found in the fulmar; glaucous gull and eider were intermediate, whilst the lowest mercury levels were found in Bruennich's guillemot and little auk. There was no connection between the nutritional condition and concentrations of the pollutants determined. However, there seems to be a close relationship between the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and the trophic level of the birds in the food chain. A comparison between the present results and analyses of Antartic seabirds indicates that the aquatic food chain in the Arctic is more loaded with persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons than in the Antarctic, whereas more mercury seems to be found in Antarctic birds.

  14. Reproductive Organography of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. is of prime importance for horticulture, as well as potentially for pharmaceutical industries, agriculture and environmental industries. However, its floral development is not yet well understood. A detailed study on floral structure and floral organography in the sp...

  15. Multiple spring migration strategies in a population of Pacific Common Eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Spring migration strategies vary within and among species. Examination of this variability extends our understanding of life histories and has implications for conservation. I used satellite transmitters to determine migration strategies and evaluate factors influencing the timing of spring migration of Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) that nest along the western Beaufort Sea coast. Adult females were marked at nesting colonies in the summers of 2000, 2001, and 2003, and were followed throughout spring migration the following year. Each year approximately equal proportions of eiders used three distinct migration strategies varying in duration, staging locations (waters near the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia, and the Chukchi and Beaufort seas, Alaska), and arrival dates at the nesting areas. It is unlikely that differences in the timing of movements to stopover sites in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas were a result of responses to changes in weather, particularly wind direction. Ice distribution and melt/movement patterns vary substantially among staging areas and thus may affect risk of starvation and reproductive potential. Long-term (decadal) changes in climate may favor birds using one strategy during "warmer" and another during "colder" years. ?? 2009 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic structure of the Common Eider in the western Aleutian Islands prior to fox eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Wilson, Robert E.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Byrd, G. Vernon; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 18th century bird populations residing in the Aleutian Archipelago have been greatly reduced by introduced arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). We analyzed data from microsatellite, nuclear intron, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) loci to examine the spatial genetic structure, demography, and gene flow among four Aleutian Island populations of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) much reduced by introduced foxes. In mtDNA, we found high levels of genetic structure within and between island groups (ΦST = 0.643), but we found no population subdivision in microsatellites or nuclear introns. Differences in genetic structure between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are consistent with the Common Eider's breeding and winter biology, as females are highly philopatric and males disperse. Nevertheless, significant differences between islands in the mtDNA of males and marginal significance (P =0.07) in the Z-linked locus Smo 1 suggest that males may also have some level of fidelity to island groups. Severe reduction of populations by the fox, coupled with females' high philopatry, may have left the genetic signature of a bottleneck effect, resulting in the high levels of genetic differentiation observed in mtDNA (ΦST = 0.460–0.807) between islands only 440 km apart. Reestablishment of the Common Eider following the fox's eradication was likely through recruitment from within the islands and bolstered by dispersal from neighboring islands, as suggested by the lack of genetic structure and asymmetry in gene flow between Attu and the other Near Islands.

  17. Do common eiders nest in kin groups? Microgeographic genetic structure in a philopatric sea duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Talbot, S.L.; Lanctot, Richard B.; McCracken, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated local genetic associations among female Pacific common eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) nesting in a stochastic Arctic environment within two groups of barrier islands (Simpson Lagoon and Mikkelsen Bay) in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Nonrandom genetic associations were observed among nesting females using regional spatial autocorrelation analyses for distance classes up to 1000 m in Simpson Lagoon. Nearest-neighbour analyses identified clusters of genetically related females with positive lr values observed for 0-13% and 0-7% of the comparisons in Simpson Lagoon and Mikkelsen Bay, respectively, across years. These results indicate that a proportion of females are nesting in close proximity to more genetically related individuals, albeit at low frequency. Such kin groupings may form through active association between relatives or through natal philopatry and breeding site fidelity. Eiders nest in close association with driftwood, which is redistributed annually by seasonal storms. Yet, genetic associations were still observed. Microgeographic structure may thus be more attributable to kin association than natal philopatry and site fidelity. However, habitat availability may also influence the level of structure observed. Regional structure was present only within Simpson Lagoon and this island group includes at least three islands with sufficient driftwood for colonies, whereas only one island at Mikkelsen Bay has these features. A long-term demographic study is needed to understand more fully the mechanisms that lead to fine-scale genetic structure observed in common eiders breeding in the Beaufort Sea. ?? Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Effects of Lead Exposure, Environmental Conditions, and Metapopulation Processes on Population Dynamics of Spectacled Eiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, James B.; Petersen, Margaret; Rockwell, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Spectacled eider Somateria fischeri numbers have declined and they are considered threatened in accordance with the US Endangered Species Act throughout their range. We synthesized the available information for spectacled eiders to construct deterministic, stochastic, and metapopulation models for this species that incorporated current estimates of vital rates such as nest success, adult survival, and the impact of lead poisoning on survival. Elasticities of our deterministic models suggested that the populations would respond most dramatically to changes in adult female survival and that the reductions in adult female survival related to lead poisoning were locally important. We also examined the sensitivity of the population to changes in lead exposure rates. With the knowledge that some vital rates vary with environmental conditions, we cast stochastic models that mimicked observed variation in productivity. We also used the stochastic model to examine the probability that a specific population will persist for periods of up to 50 y. Elasticity analysis of these models was consistent with that for the deterministic models, with perturbations to adult female survival having the greatest effect on population projections. When used in single population models, demographic data for some localities predicted rapid declines that were inconsistent with our observations in the field. Thus, we constructed a metapopulation model and examined the predictions for local subpopulations and the metapopulation over a wide range of dispersal rates. Using the metapopulation model, we were able to simulate the observed stability of local subpopulations as well as that of the metapopulation. Finally, we developed a global metapopulation model that simulates periodic winter habitat limitation, similar to that which might be experienced in years of heavy sea ice in the core wintering area of spectacled eiders in the central Bering Sea. Our metapopulation analyses suggested that no

  19. Relationships between Long-Term Demography and Weather in a Sub-Arctic Population of Common Eider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jón Einar Jónsson

    Full Text Available Effects of local weather on individuals and populations are key drivers of wildlife responses to climatic changes. However, studies often do not last long enough to identify weather conditions that influence demographic processes, or to capture rare but extreme weather events at appropriate scales. In Iceland, farmers collect nest down of wild common eider Somateria mollissima and many farmers count nests within colonies annually, which reflects annual variation in the number of breeding females. We collated these data for 17 colonies. Synchrony in breeding numbers was generally low between colonies. We evaluated 1 demographic relationships with weather in nesting colonies of common eider across Iceland during 1900-2007; and 2 impacts of episodic weather events (aberrantly cold seasons or years on subsequent breeding numbers. Except for episodic events, breeding numbers within a colony generally had no relationship to local weather conditions in the preceding year. However, common eider are sexually mature at 2-3 years of age and we found a 3-year time lag between summer weather and breeding numbers for three colonies, indicating a positive effect of higher pressure, drier summers for one colony, and a negative effect of warmer, calmer summers for two colonies. These findings may represent weather effects on duckling production and subsequent recruitment. Weather effects were mostly limited to a few aberrant years causing reductions in breeding numbers, i.e. declines in several colonies followed severe winters (1918 and some years with high NAO (1992, 1995. In terms of life history, adult survival generally is high and stable and probably only markedly affected by inclement weather or aberrantly bad years. Conversely, breeding propensity of adults and duckling production probably do respond more to annual weather variations; i.e. unfavorable winter conditions for adults increase probability of death or skipped breeding, whereas favorable summers

  20. Do purely capital layers exist among flying birds? Evidence of exogenous contribution to arctic-nesting common eider eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Edith; Bêty, Joël; Gilchrist, H Grant; Hobson, Keith A; Jamieson, Sarah E

    2011-03-01

    The strategy of relying extensively on stored resources for reproduction has been termed capital breeding and is in contrast to income breeding, where needs of reproduction are satisfied by exogenous (dietary) resources. Most species likely fall somewhere between these two extremes, and the position of an organism along this gradient can influence several key life-history traits. Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) are the only flying birds that are still typically considered pure capital breeders, suggesting that they depend exclusively on endogenous reserves to form their eggs and incubate. We investigated the annual and seasonal variation in contributions of endogenous and exogenous resources to egg formation in eiders breeding at the East Bay colony in the Canadian Arctic. We collected prey items along with females and their eggs during various stages of breeding and used two complementary analytical approaches: body reserve dynamics and stable isotope [δ(13)C, δ(15)N] mixing models. Indices of protein reserves remained stable from pre-laying to post-laying stages, while lipid reserves declined significantly during laying. Similarly, stable isotope analyses indicated that (1) exogenous nutrients derived from marine invertebrates strongly contributed to the formation of lipid-free egg constituents, and (2) yolk lipids were constituted mostly from endogenous lipids. We also found evidence of seasonal variation in the use of body reserves, with early breeders using proportionally more exogenous proteins to form each egg than late breeders. Based on these results, we reject the hypothesis that eiders are pure capital layers. In these flying birds, the fitness costs of a strict capital breeding strategy, such as temporary loss of flight capability and limitation of clutch and egg size, may outweigh benefits such as a reduction in egg predation rate.

  1. Factors influencing immediate post-release survival of spectacled eiders following surgical implantation of transmitters with percutaneous antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexson, Matthew G.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Spriggs, Maria; Myers, Gwen E.

    2014-01-01

    Surgically implanted transmitters are a common method for tracking animal movements. Immediately following surgical implantation, animals pass through a critical recovery phase when behaviors may deviate from normal and the likelihood of individual survival may be reduced. Therefore, data collected during this period may be censored to minimize bias introduced by surgery-related behaviors or mortality. However, immediate post-release mortalities negate a sampling effort and reduce the amount of data potentially collected after the censoring period. Wildlife biologists should employ methods to support an animal’s survival through this period, but factors contributing to immediate post-release survival have not been formally assessed. We evaluated factors that potentially influenced the immediate post-release survival of 56 spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) marked with coelomically implanted satellite transmitters with percutaneous antennae in northern Alaska in 2010 and 2011. We modeled survival through the first 14 days following release and assessed the relative importance and effect of 15 covariates hypothesized to influence survival during this immediate post-release period. Estimated daily survival rate increased over the duration of the immediate post-release period; the probability of mortality was greatest within the first 5 days following release. Our top-ranking model included the effect of 2 blood analytes, pH and hematocrit, measured prior to surgical implantation of a transmitter. We found a positive response to pH; eiders exhibiting acidemia (low pH) prior to surgery were less likely to survive the immediate post-release period. We found a curvilinear response to hematocrit; eiders exhibiting extremely low or high pre-surgery hematocrit were also less likely to survive the immediate post-release period. In the interest of maximizing the survival of marked birds following release, hematological data obtained prior to surgical implantation of

  2. Correlated growth and survival of juvenile spectacled eiders: Evidence of habitat limitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Morse, Julie A.; Grand, James B.; Moran, Christine L.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the growth and survival of Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) ducklings to 30 days of age along the lower Kashunuk River on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta from 1995 to 2000. We replicated this study at a second site, Kigigak Island, in 1999 and 2000. Age-adjusted estimates of duckling mass and survival at 30 days posthatching were highly variable. Duckling survival was consistently higher on Kigigak Island in 1999 and 2000, averaging 67%, while survival on the Kashunuk River averaged 45% during the same time period. Duckling survival was negatively related to hatching date. At the Kashunuk River site our data supported models that indicated age-adjusted mass varied with habitat type and declined with hatching date. Ducklings from Kashunuk River were heavier in 1999, while ducklings from Kigigak Island were heavier in 2000. However, we found a positive correlation between 30-day duckling survival and age-adjusted mass, suggesting a localized environmental effect on both parameters. We conclude that predation may be the proximate mechanism of mortality, but habitat conditions are likely the ultimate factors influencing duckling survival. Geographic variation in rates of duckling survival and apparent growth suggest that spatial heterogeneity in population vital rates is occurring at multiple levels.

  3. Effects of lead structure in Bering Sea pack ice on the flight costs of wintering spectacled eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Joseph K.; Lovvorn, James R.

    2004-10-01

    In polar regions, sea ice is critical habitat for many marine birds and mammals. The quality of pack ice habitat depends on the duration and spacing of leads (openings in the ice), which determine access to water and air for diving endotherms, and how often and how far they must move as leads open and close. Recent warming trends have caused major changes in the extent and nature of sea ice at large scales used in climate models. However, no studies have analyzed lead structure in terms of habitat for ice-dependent endotherms, or effects of climate on ice habitat at scales relevant to their daily movements. Based on observations from an icebreaker and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, we developed methods to describe the dynamics and thermodynamics of lead structure relative to use by spectacled eiders ( Somateria fischeri) wintering in pack ice of the Bering Sea. By correlating lead structure with weather variables, we then used these methods to estimate changes in lead dynamics from 1945 to 2002, and effects of such changes on flight costs of the eiders. For 1991-1992, when images were available about every 3 days throughout winter, SAR images were divided among five weather regimes defined by wind speed, wind direction, and air temperature. Based on 12.5-m pixels, lead shape, compass orientation, and fetch across leads did not differ among the weather regimes. However, the five regimes differed in total area of open water, leads per unit area, and distance between leads. Lead duration was modeled based on air temperature, wind, and fetch. Estimates of mean daily flight time for eiders, based on lead duration and distance between neighboring leads, differed among regimes by 0 to 15 min. Resulting flight costs varied from 0 to 158 kJ day -1, or from 0% to 11% of estimated field metabolic rate. Over 57 winters (1945-2002), variation among years in mean daily flight time was most influenced by the north-south wind component, which determined pack divergence

  4. Using Inuit traditional ecological knowledge for detecting and monitoring avian cholera among Common Eiders in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique A. Henri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK has played an increasing role in wildlife management and biodiversity conservation in Canada and elsewhere. This study examined the potential contribution that Inuit TEK (which is one aspect of Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit or Inuit traditional knowledge could offer to detect and monitor avian cholera and other disease-related mortality among Northern Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima borealis breeding in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Avian cholera is an infectious disease (Pasteurella multocida that has been a major conservation issue because of its potential to cause high rates of disease and mortality in several bird species in repeating epizootics; it has spread geographically in North America since the 1940s. In 2004, Inuit hunters from Ivujivik, Nunavik, Québec, were the first to detect avian disease outbreaks among Northern Common Eiders nesting in northeastern Hudson Bay and western Hudson Strait. Laboratory analysis of bird tissues confirmed avian cholera in that region. From 2007 to 2009, we collected Inuit TEK about mortality among Common Eiders and other bird species north and west of where the outbreaks were first detected. During interviews in the communities of Kimmirut, Cape Dorset, Coral Harbour, and Igloolik, Nunavut, Canada (n = 40, Inuit participants reported seeing a total of 8 Common Eiders and 41 specimens of other bird species either sick or dead in northern Hudson Strait, Hudson Bay, and Foxe Basin. Most of the observed disease and mortality events were at sea, on sea ice, or on small nesting islands. Such events probably would have gone undetected by biologists, who were mainly monitoring avian cholera outbreaks on large nesting islands in that region. Inuit participants readily recalled details about the timing, location, and numbers of sick and dead birds that they observed. Some reported signs of disease that were consistent with avian cholera. Inuit also revealed

  5. Avian Cholera emergence in Arctic-nesting northern Common Eiders: using community-based, participatory surveillance to delineate disease outbreak patterns and predict transmission risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Iverson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are a growing concern in wildlife conservation. Documenting outbreak patterns and determining the ecological drivers of transmission risk are fundamental to predicting disease spread and assessing potential impacts on population viability. However, evaluating disease in wildlife populations requires expansive surveillance networks that often do not exist in remote and developing areas. Here, we describe the results of a community-based research initiative conducted in collaboration with indigenous harvesters, the Inuit, in response to a new series of Avian Cholera outbreaks affecting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima and other comingling species in the Canadian Arctic. Avian Cholera is a virulent disease of birds caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. Common Eiders are a valuable subsistence resource for Inuit, who hunt the birds for meat and visit breeding colonies during the summer to collect eggs and feather down for use in clothing and blankets. We compiled the observations of harvesters about the growing epidemic and with their assistance undertook field investigation of 131 colonies distributed over >1200 km of coastline in the affected region. Thirteen locations were identified where Avian Cholera outbreaks have occurred since 2004. Mortality rates ranged from 1% to 43% of the local breeding population at these locations. Using a species-habitat model (Maxent, we determined that the distribution of outbreak events has not been random within the study area and that colony size, vegetation cover, and a measure of host crowding in shared wetlands were significantly correlated to outbreak risk. In addition, outbreak locations have been spatially structured with respect to hypothesized introduction foci and clustered along the migration corridor linking Arctic breeding areas with wintering areas in Atlantic Canada. At present, Avian Cholera remains a localized threat to Common Eider populations in the

  6. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Botany, Multanimal Modi (PG). College, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, India, and a voucher specimen (no. MMCM/02/013) deposited in the herbarium of Department of. Botany, Multanimal Modi (PG) College,. Modinagar, for future reference. Extraction and isolation. Stem bark of B. spectabilis was air-dried under a.

  7. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M G; Auad, A M; Resende, T T; Hott, M C; Borges, C A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis(Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis(Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum(Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4 °C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24 °C but equal at 28 °C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28 °C than at 20 °C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28 °C than at 20 °C, whereas adult longevity at 24 °C did not differ from that at 20 and 28 °C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Determination of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Eremurus spectabilis Bieb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Bircan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the E. spectabilis Bieb., which is consumed as a vegetable among people, was investigated and Kluyveromyces lactis’s antioxidant activies in anaerobic cultural environment is researched. This purpose; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, flavonoid, resveratrol, sugar contents, lipid peroxidation (LPO levels, fatty acid level, lipophilic vitamin values, protein and glutathione amounts were measured. In the FeCl group in which FeCl2+ H2O2 is applied, when compared with LPO level control group (K, it was observed that it increase in high amount (p<0.05. LPO level decreases in certain proportions in treatment groups. It is suggested that the lowering effect of the LPO of E. spectabilis extracts are arise from phytochemical like flavonoids that it includes. As a result of the antibacterial activity studies, it was observed that E. spectabilis have different proportional antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, Epidermophyton spp. and C. albicans.

  9. Impact of the Spittlebug Mahanarva spectabilis on Signal Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Teixeira Resende

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the damage in Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain & Edvard according to the density of and exposure time to adults of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera:Cercopidae. Each plant was kept with 0, 12, 18, or 24 adults of M. spectabilis for five or ten days. Then, the insects were removed from the plant, and the following parameters were evaluated: content and loss of chlorophyll, visual damage score, shoot dry mass, and the capability for regrowth. In fact, plants exposed to the highest level of infestation for 10 days showed an 80.97% loss of chlorophyll, which is 25% higher than that shown by the plants exposed for five days. The damage score also increased with infestation levels. In the levels of 12 and 18 adults per plant, the damage score increased with increasing time of exposure. The dry mass content was higher in plants exposed to 24 insects for 10 days, suggesting that the attack of spittlebugs caused premature drying of the plant. These effects caused significant reduction in the number of tillers of infested plants. Our results indicate that exposure to adults of M. spectabilis causes significant damage and affects the development and persistence of B. ruziziensis plants.

  10. An antiviral protein from Bougainvillea spectabilis roots; purification and characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasaraswathi, R; Sadasivam, S; Ward, M; Walker, J M

    1998-04-01

    An antiviral protein active against mechanical transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus was identified in the root tissues of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. Bougainvillea Antiviral Protein I (BAP I) was purified to apparent homogeneity from the roots of Bougainvillea by ammonium sulphate precipitation, CM- and DEAE-Sepharose chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. BAP I is a highly basic protein (pI value > 8.6) with an Mr of 28,000. The N-terminal sequence of BAP I showed homology with other plant antiviral proteins. Preliminary tests suggest that purified BAP I is capable of interfering with in vitro protein synthesis.

  11. Linkages between sea-ice coverage, pelagic-benthic coupling, and the distribution of spectacled eiders: observations in March 2008, 2009 and 2010, northern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, L.W.; Sexson, M.G.; Grebmeier, J.M.; Gradinger, R.; Mordy, C.W.; Lovvorn, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Icebreaker-based sampling in the northern Bering Sea south of St. Lawrence Island in March of 2008, 2009, and 2010 has provided new data on overall ecosystem function early in the annual productive cycle. While water-column chlorophyll concentrations (−2 integrated over the whole water column) are two orders of magnitude lower than observed during the spring bloom in May, sea-ice algal inventories of chlorophyll are high (up to 1 g m−3 in the bottom 2-cm of sea-ice). Vertical fluxes of chlorophyll as measured in sediment traps were between 0.3 to 3.7 mg m−2 d−1 and were consistent with the recent deposition (days to weeks time scale) of chlorophyll to the surface sediments (0–25 mg m−2 present at 0–1 cm). Sediment oxygen respiration rates were lower than previous measurements that followed the spring bloom, but were highest in areas of known high benthic biomass. Early spring release of sedimentary ammonium occurs, particularly southeast of St. Lawrence Island, leading to bottom-water ammonium concentrations of >5 µM. These data, together with other physical, biological, and nutrient data are presented here in conjunction with observed sea-ice dynamics and the distribution of an apex predator, the Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri). Sea-ice dynamics in addition to benthic food availability, as determined by sedimentation processes, play a role in the distribution of spectacled eiders, which cannot always access the greatest biomass of their preferred bivalve prey. Overall, the data and observations indicate that the northern Bering Sea is biologically active in late winter, but with strong atmospheric and hydrographic controls. These controls pre-determine nutrient and chlorophyll distributions, water-column mixing, as well as pelagic-benthic coupling.

  12. Population ecology of breeding Pacific common eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather M.; Flint, Paul L.; Powell, Abby N.; Grand, J. Barry; Moral, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Pacific common eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska declined by 50–90% from 1957 to 1992 and then stabilized at reduced numbers from the early 1990s to the present. We investigated the underlying processes affecting their population dynamics by collection and analysis of demographic data from Pacific common eiders at 3 sites on the YKD (1991–2004) for 29 site-years. We examined variation in components of reproduction, tested hypotheses about the influence of specific ecological factors on life-history variables, and investigated their relative contributions to local population dynamics. Reproductive output was low and variable, both within and among individuals, whereas apparent survival of adult females was high and relatively invariant (0.89 ± 0.005). All reproductive parameters varied across study sites and years. Clutch initiation dates ranged from 4 May to 28 June, with peak (modal) initiation occurring on 26 May. Females at an island study site consistently initiated clutches 3–5 days earlier in each year than those on 2 mainland sites. Population variance in nest initiation date was negatively related to the peak, suggesting increased synchrony in years of delayed initiation. On average, total clutch size (laid) ranged from 4.8 to 6.6 eggs, and declined with date of nest initiation. After accounting for partial predation and non-viability of eggs, average clutch size at hatch ranged from 2.0 to 5.8 eggs. Within seasons, daily survival probability (DSP) of nests was lowest during egg-laying and late-initiation dates. Estimated nest survival varied considerably across sites and years (mean = 0.55, range: 0.06–0.92), but process variance in nest survival was relatively low (0.02, CI: 0.01–0.05), indicating that most variance was likely attributed to sampling error. We found evidence that observer effects may have reduced overall nest survival by 0.0–0.36 across site

  13. Kangaroo rats: intraspecific variation in Dipodomys spectabilis Merriam and Dipodomys deserti Stephens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nader, Iyad A

    1978-01-01

    Twenty morpholoigcl characters in addition to color were studied throughout the geographic range of two species of kangaroo rats, the banner-tailed kangaroo rat Dipodomys spectabilis and the desert...

  14. Standardization of Cassia spectabilis with Respect to Authenticity, Assay and Chemical Constituent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Torey

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The assay part of standardization involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extract which could help assess the chemical effects and establish curative values. The MIC of the C. spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the Broth Dilution Method. The extracts showed a MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL, independent of the extraction time. The chemical constituent aspect of standardization involves quantification of the main chemical components in C. spectabilis. The GCMS method used for quantification of 2,4-(1H,3H-pyrimidinedione in the extract was rapid, accurate, precise, linear (R2 = 0.8685, rugged and robust. Hence this method was suitable for quantification of this component in C. spectabilis. The standardization of C. spectabilis is needed to facilitate marketing of medicinal plants, with a view to promoting the export of valuable Malaysian Traditional Medicinal plants such as C. spectabilis.

  15. Standardization of Cassia spectabilis with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torey, Angeline; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Yeng, Chen; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2010-05-10

    Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The assay part of standardization involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract which could help assess the chemical effects and establish curative values. The MIC of the C. spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the Broth Dilution Method. The extracts showed a MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL, independent of the extraction time. The chemical constituent aspect of standardization involves quantification of the main chemical components in C. spectabilis. The GCMS method used for quantification of 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione in the extract was rapid, accurate, precise, linear (R(2) = 0.8685), rugged and robust. Hence this method was suitable for quantification of this component in C. spectabilis. The standardization of C. spectabilis is needed to facilitate marketing of medicinal plants, with a view to promoting the export of valuable Malaysian Traditional Medicinal plants such as C. spectabilis.

  16. Cytotoxic Flavones from the Stem Bark of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Lien T M; Aree, Thammarat; Siripong, Pongpun; Vo, Nga T; Nguyen, Tuyet T A; Nguyen, Phung K P; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2018-01-01

    Five new flavones possessing a fully substituted A-ring with C-6 and C-8 methyl groups, bougainvinones I - M (1: -5: ), along with three known congeners, 2'-hydroxydemethoxymatteucinol (6: ), 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone (7: ) and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone (8: ), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the stem bark of Bougainvillea spectabilis . Their structures were established by means of spectroscopic data (ultraviolet, infrared, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance) and single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. The in vitro cytotoxicity of all isolated compounds against five cancer cell lines (KB, HeLa S-3, MCF-7, HT-29, and HepG2) was evaluated. Compound 5: showed promising cytotoxic activity against the KB and HeLa S-3 cell lines, with IC 50 values of 7.44 and 6.68 µM. The other compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against the KB cell line. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. A bayesian approach to classification criteria for spectacled eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, B.L.; Wade, P.R.; Stehn, R.A.; Cochrane, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    To facilitate decisions to classify species according to risk of extinction, we used Bayesian methods to analyze trend data for the Spectacled Eider, an arctic sea duck. Trend data from three independent surveys of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta were analyzed individually and in combination to yield posterior distributions for population growth rates. We used classification criteria developed by the recovery team for Spectacled Eiders that seek to equalize errors of under- or overprotecting the species. We conducted both a Bayesian decision analysis and a frequentist (classical statistical inference) decision analysis. Bayesian decision analyses are computationally easier, yield basically the same results, and yield results that are easier to explain to nonscientists. With the exception of the aerial survey analysis of the 10 most recent years, both Bayesian and frequentist methods indicated that an endangered classification is warranted. The discrepancy between surveys warrants further research. Although the trend data are abundance indices, we used a preliminary estimate of absolute abundance to demonstrate how to calculate extinction distributions using the joint probability distributions for population growth rate and variance in growth rate generated by the Bayesian analysis. Recent apparent increases in abundance highlight the need for models that apply to declining and then recovering species.

  18. Sex-biased gene flow in spectacled eiders (Anatidae): Inferences from molecular markers with contrasting modes of inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Kim T.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Fields, Raymond L.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Pearce, John M.; Chesser, Ronald K.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic markers that differ in mode of inheritance and rate of evolution (a sex-linked Z-specific microsatellite locus, five biparentally inherited microsatellite loci, and maternally inherited mitochondrial [mtDNA] sequences) were used to evaluate the degree of spatial genetic structuring at macro- and microgeographic scales, among breeding regions and local nesting populations within each region, respectively, for a migratory sea duck species, the spectacled eider (Somateria fisheri). Disjunct and declining breeding populations coupled with sex-specific differences in seasonal migratory patterns and life history provide a series of hypotheses regarding rates and directionality of gene flow among breeding populations from the Indigirka River Delta, Russia, and the North Slope and Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. The degree of differentiation in mtDNA haplotype frequency among breeding regions and populations within regions was high (ϕCT = 0.189, P 0.05; biparentally inherited microsatellites: mean θ = 0.001, P > 0.05) than was observed for mtDNA. Using models explicitly designed for uniparental and biparentally inherited genes, estimates of spatial divergence based on nuclear and mtDNA data together with elements of the species' breeding ecology were used to estimate effective population size and degree of male and female gene flow. Differences in the magnitude and spatial patterns of gene correlations for maternally inherited and nuclear genes revealed that females exhibit greater natal philopatry than do males. Estimates of generational female and male rates of gene flow among breeding regions differed markedly (3.67 × 10−4 and 1.28 × 10−2, respectively). Effective population size for mtDNA was estimated to be at least three times lower than that for biparental genes (30,671 and 101,528, respectively). Large disparities in population sizes among breeding areas greatly reduces the proportion of total genetic variance captured by dispersal, which may

  19. The Damage Capacity of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae Adults on Brachiaria ruziziensis Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Teixeira Resende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the damage caused by adult Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae on Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain & Evard under field conditions. A total of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 M. spectabilis adults per plot were maintained for 6 days. Thereafter, the insects were removed from the plant, and the following parameters were evaluated: chlorophyll content, damage score, dry as well as fresh weights, percentage of shoots’ dry matter, and the forage’s ability to regrow. The chlorophyll content was significantly reduced; the damage score and percentage of dry matter in plants increased depending on the increased insect infestation density after 6 days of exposure. In contrast, no change was observed on the B. ruziziensis fresh and dry weights as well as the regrowth capacity depending on the M. spectabilis infestation densities. Attacks by 8 adult M. spectabilis per clump of B. ruziziensis with an average of 80 tillers for 6 days were sufficient to reduce the chlorophyll content and the functional plant loss index. This density can be a reference for spittlebug integrated management in Brachiaria.

  20. Chemical constituents of leaves of Senna spectabilis (DC) Irwin and Barneby var. excelsa (Schard.) Irwin and Barneby; Constituintes quimicos das folhas de Senna spectabilis (DC) Irwin and Barneby var. excelsa (Schrad.) Irwin and Barneby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabio de Oliveira; Oliveira, Irvila Ricarte de; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos, E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From leaves of Senna spectabilis var. excelsa were isolated caffeine, the triterpenes lupeol, {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, cycloeucalenol, friedelin and ursolic, oleanolic and betulinic acids, besides the steroids sitosterol and stigmasterol and their respective glucosides. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis including two-dimensional NMR methods and comparison with published spectral data. This paper deals with the first report of these compounds in S. spectabilis var. excelsa. (author)

  1. The value of Inuit participation when conserving the common eider duck in Arctic Canada and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilchrist, Grant; Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Sonne, Christian

    , Denmark, and northerners. This presentation will review the meaningful involvement and direct participation of Inuit during many aspects of historical and ongoing eider duck conservation efforts. These include studies that examined the sustainability of harvest, the establishment of new harvest......The northern common eider duck nests in the eastern Canadian Arctic and west Greenland, and migrates to winter in Atlantic Canada and southwest Greenland. The eider is harvested for its meat, feather down and eggs and its ongoing conservation is the shared responsibility of Canada, Greenland...... regulations, long term monitoring of breeding colonies in remote coastal locations, reporting on emerging disease epidemics, and ongoing field studies which examine the impacts of polar bear predation under changing sea ice conditions. This presentation will review how working relationships were established...

  2. Metals Accumulation and Leaf Surface Anatomy of Murdannia spectabilis Growing in Zn/Cd Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladawan Rattanapolsan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Murdannia spectabilis (Kurz Faden was identified as a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulative plant. Leaf surface anatomy of the plant growing in non-contaminated soil (control and Zn/Cd contaminated soil,was studied and compared by a light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(SEM/EDS. The similarities were reticulate cuticle on epidermises, uniform polygonal cell, stomatal arrangement in six surrounding subsidiary cells, and submarginal sclerenchyma. The dissimilarities were uniserate trichomes spreading on both adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil, whereas the uniserate trichomes were only on the submarginal-adaxial epidermis of the control plants. The trichomes on leaves of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil were found to have both uniseriate non-glandular and uniseriate glandular trichomes;whereas, leaves of the plants growing in the contaminated soil were merely non-glandular trichomes. The different shape and location of trichomes, the number of stomata and trichome indicated the effect of Zn and Cd on M. spectabilis. The higher percentages of Zn and Cd in the vascular bundle than in the cross section and epidermis areas showed both solutes could move along each route, with diffusion through the symplast and apoplast. The increase of Ca in M. spectabilis growing in Zn/Cd contaminated soil corresponded to the Zn and Cd distributed in the leaves. Zn K-edge and S K-edge XANES spectra proposed that Zn2+ ions were accumulated and/or adsorbed on the epidermis of the tuber, and then absorbed into the root and transport to the xylem. The double peaks of Zn-cysteine in the leaf samples proposed the metal sequestration was by sulphur proteins.

  3. Effects of Paclobutrazol on Growth and Flowering of Bougainvillea spectabilis WILLD

    OpenAIRE

    KARAGÜZEL, Osman

    2014-01-01

    The effects of paclobutrazol were examined in respect to the growth and flowering of Bougainvillea spectabilis WILLD under conditions of long and short natural photoperiods. In the middle of July and at the beginning of November, doses of paclobutrazol; 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 50 mg a.e./pot soil drench, and 0 (control), 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm foliage spray, were applied to plants grown in 18 cm pots (h=16.5 cm). With the application of paclobutrazol in the form of soil drench and fol...

  4. Potencial de Cajanus cajan e Crotalaria spectabilis parafitorremediação: absorção de arsênio e respostas antioxidativas Potential of Cajanus cajan and Crotalaria spectabilis for phytoremediation: arsenic absorption and antioxidative responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Teles Arantes Felipe

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliaram-se os efeitos tóxicos do arsênio (As sobre o crescimento e atividade de enzimas antioxidativas dismutase do superóxido (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidases (POX, peroxidase do ascorbato peroxidase (APX e glutationa redutase (GR em plantas de Cajanus cajan e Crotalaria spectabili. Plantas das duas espécies foram expostas a diferentes concentrações de As, em solução nutritiva de Hoagland, pH 6,5. A taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR das duas espécies reduziu-se com o aumento da concentração de As na solução nutritiva, sendo de forma mais intensa em C. cajan. A concentração de As na solução capaz de reduzir em 50% a TCR de C. cajan foi de 0,93 mg L-1, enquanto em C. spectabilis foi de 4,80 mg L-1. As duas espécies apresentaram reduzida translocação de As para a parte aérea, sendo em raízes de C. spectabilis observada a maior concentração desse elemento. C. cajan exposto ao As teve as atividades das enzimas CAT, POX e APX reduzidas, ao contrário do que ocorreu em C. spectabilis. Esta espécie, quando submetida ao As, apresentou incremento na atividade de todas as enzimas avaliadas. A maior tolerância ao As observada em C. spectabilis pode estar relacionada à maior capacidade em reter o As nas raízes e à indução das enzimas SOD, CAT, POX, APX e GR. Dessa forma, C. spectabilis é uma espécie com potencial para utilização em programas de revegetação de áreas contaminadas com As.The toxic effects of Arsenic (As on the growth and activities of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POX, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and glutathione reductase (GR of Cajanus cajan and Crotalaria spectabilsi were studied. AQUI Plants of the two species were exposed to different As concentrations in Hoagland's nutrient solution, pH 6.5. The relative growth rate (RGR of the two species reduced with the increase in As concentration in the nutrient solution, especially in C. cajan

  5. Initial growth of Eugenia stipitata, Inga spectabilis, and Inga edulis in Napo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinicio Abril Saltos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has been one of the causes of deforestation, causing environmental impact and soil degeneration, which leads to lower income earned by farmers; hence the need to implement agroforestry systems .This research aims to describe fromthe initial growth of Eugenia stipitata, Inga edulis, and Inga spectabilis to 320 days after emergence. The study took place at the Amazon Research and Conservation Center of the Amazonas State University, during 2014 and 2015. The growth process was evaluated in regards to plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, and branch length. Plant height and stem diameter were compared over time applying variance analysis. Precipitation was also compared to analyze whether its variations had a direct influence on plant growth. The linear and polynomial models fitted better for thespecies regarding plant height and sprout diameter. Predominance of green leaves compared to yellow and dry ones, as branch length showed significant differences over all the sampling periods. The two-way analysis of variance showed significant differences in the correlation between age and precipitation over plant height and stem diameter. The outcomes led to conclude that Eugenia stipitata had a lower growth than both Inga edulis and Inga spectabilis. Branch production and growth and the number of leaves were also important elements of the growth process.

  6. Biologia reprodutiva de Psychotria spectabilis Steyrm. e Palicourea cf. virens (Poepp & Endl.) Standl. (Rubiaceae) em uma floresta tropical úmida na região de Manaus, AM, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Otilene dos Anjos; Webber,Antonio Carlos; Costa,Flávia Regina Capellotto

    2008-01-01

    Este estudo descreve a fenologia reprodutiva, morfologia e biologia floral, polinização e sucesso reprodutivo de Psychotria spectabilis e Palicourea cf. virens. Psychotria spectabilis floresceu de setembro a dezembro enquanto Palicourea cf. virens floresceu de maio a outubro. As inflorescências de Psychotria spectabilis são inflorescências terminais do tipo capítulo, com brácteas amarelas, flores brancas e heterostilia associada a diferenças na papila estigmática. Palicourea cf. virens aprese...

  7. Leishmanicidal activity of the crude extract, fractions and major piperidine alkaloids from the flowers of Senna spectabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Melo, Gabriela Muniz; Silva, Marcela Campelo Rodrigues; Guimarães, Thaís Pereira; Pinheiro, Kátia Mantovani; da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; de Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Pivatto, Marcos; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana; Viegas, Claudio

    2014-02-15

    Senna spectabilis (sin. Cassia excelsa, C. spectabilis) is an endemic tree of South America and Africa, very common in Brazil, where it is known as "canafistula-de-besouro" and "cassia-do-nordeste". In folk medicine, this plant is indicated for the treatment of constipation, insomnia, anxiety, epilepsy, malaria, dysentery and headache. Phytopharmacological studies have also confirmed anticonvulsive, sedative, anti-malarial, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of many parts of S. spectabilis. In this communication, we present a comparative study of the leishmanicidal activity of the crude ethanolic extract, its fractions and also the two major alkaloidal metabolites (-)-cassine/(-)-spectaline, trying to establish a relationship between the presence of piperidine alkaloidal constituents and leishmanicidal activity. The growth inhibitory effect of promastigote forms of Leishmania major was determined for the crude extract, fractions of the flowers of S. spectabilis and a mixture of (-)-cassine/(-)-spectaline in comparison to pentamidine used as standard drug. The cytotoxic effects were assessed on macrophage strain J774 by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Fractions dichloromethane (FL-DCM) and n-butanol (FL-Bu) and a mixture of (-)-cassine/(-)-spectaline (∼7:3) exhibited significant activity against the parasite Leishmania major (IC50 values of 0.6±0.1 μg/ml, 1.6±0.9 μg/ml and 24.9±1.4 μg/ml, respectively), without toxic effects on murine macrophages. Due to the promising results elicited, further studies in vivo need to be performed to confirm the therapeutic potential of Senna spectabilis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Movements and foraging effort of Steller's Eiders and Harlequin Ducks wintering near Dutch Harbor, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J.A.; Flint, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the movements and foraging effort of radio-marked Steller's Eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to evaluate habitat quality in an area impacted by industrial activity near Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Foraging effort was relatively low, with Steller's Eiders foraging only 2.7 ± 0.6 (SE) hours per day and Harlequin Ducks 4.1 ± 0.5 hours per day. Low-foraging effort during periods of high-energetic demand generally suggests high food availability, and high food availability frequently corresponds with reductions in home range size. However, the winter ranges of Harlequin Ducks did not appear to be smaller than usual, with the mean range size in our study (5.5 ± 1.1 km2) similar to that reported by previous investigators. The mean size of the winter ranges of Steller's Eiders was similar (5.1 ± 1.3 km2), but no comparable estimates are available. Eutrophication of the waters near Dutch Harbor caused by seafood processing and municipal sewage effluent may have increased populations of the invertebrate prey of these sea ducks and contributed to their low-foraging effort. The threat of predation by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) that winter near Dutch Harbor may cause Steller's Eiders and Harlequin Ducks to move further offshore when not foraging, contributing to an increase in range sizes. Thus, the movement patterns and foraging behavior of these ducks likely represent a balance between the cost and benefits of wintering in a human-influenced environment.

  9. Tree ring variability and climate response of Abies spectabilis along an elevation gradient in Mustang, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharal, D.K.; Meilby, Henrik; Rayamajhi, S.

    2014-01-01

    In mountainous areas including the Himalayas, tree lines are expected to advance to higher altitudes due to global climate change affecting the distribution and growth of plant species. This study aimed at identifying the tree ring variability of Abies spectabilis (D. Don) and its response...... to the climate along an elevation gradient in the high Himalayas of central Nepal. Tree core samples were collected from four sites in Mustang district. All sites were located in the same valley and exposed to similar weather conditions. Out of 232 samples collected from the sites, Titi lower (2700 m), Titi......-elevation sites the correlation between pre-monsoon precipitation and tree growth was positive, and for the month of May this was statistically significant (ptree growth at all sites, and at the upper elevation...

  10. Climate-growth relationships of Abies spectabilis in a central Himalayan treeline ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Niels; Kaczka, Ryszard J.; Schickhoff, Udo

    2017-04-01

    Climate warming is expected to induce treelines to advance to higher elevations. Empirical studies in diverse mountain ranges, however, give evidence of both advancing alpine treelines as well as rather insignificant responses. The large spectrum of responses is not fully understood. In the framework of investigating the sensitivity and response of a near-natural treeline ecotone in Rolwaling Himal, Nepal, to climate warming we present results from dendroclimatological analyses of Abies spectabilis (Himalayan Fir) increment cores. Tree ring width was measured and cross-dated. After standardization, the chronology was correlated with temperature and precipitation variables. Preliminary results point to positive correlations with autumn temperature and precipitation. We will present improved climate-growth relationships. The resulting climate - tree growth relationships may be used as an indication of future growth patterns and treeline dynamics under climate change conditions.

  11. Effects of milk from goat fed Crotalaria spectabilis seeds on growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Maria Trindade de Medeiros

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Crotalaria spectabilis, containing the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA monocrotaline (MCT, were fed to a lactating dairy goat. Milk from this goat was fed to rats for 8 weeks to determine whether MCT or its toxic metabolites are transferred into the goat’s milk. Rats from the experimental group showed significantly higher (p<0.05 serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH and less weight gains (p<0.05 than control rats. The most significant lesions in rats consuming the experimental ration were mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia and a vacuolar degeneration and occasionally necrosis of periportal hepatocytes. The results of this study indicate that the PA and/or its metabolites are eliminated in milk.

  12. Estimation of Moisture Content & Metal Ions in White Flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Purple Flowers of Bougainvillea glabra in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    *S. A. Rashid; F. S. Rehmani; 1M. Arman; M. Ibrahim; 2S. Shafique

    2011-01-01

    Bougainvillea consists of 18 shrubby species, growing in different parts of Pakistan and is being used as Anti-ulcer, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-microbial, Anti- diabetic, Amylase Inhibition and as for low blood pressure but none of the studies on Bougainvillea focused on the estimation of metal ion concentration. The focus of the present study was to estimation of moisture content and comparative analysis of trace metal ions in white flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd and Purple flowers of...

  13. Larval development of Sabellastarte spectabilis (Grube, 1878 (Polychaeta: Sabellidae in Hawaiian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Bybee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The sabellid polychaete Sabellastarte spectabilis is common in bays and harbours throughout Hawaii. It has become one of the most harvested marine ornamental species in the State. Collection can be difficult and potentially damaging to the reef community. Understanding the reproduction and life history of this polychaete will benefit the marine ornamental trade by facilitating aquaculture of the species and coral reef conservation by decreasing destructive collecting practices. There is very little known about the biology of this species. Experiments were conducted at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology to induce and document spawning and larval development. Oocytes range between 150-200 µm in diameter and sperm have spherical heads. Cell division in fertilized eggs begins approximately twenty minutes after spawning. Developmental stages were documented using light and scanning electron microscopy. Swimming larvae are first seen 7-8 h after spawning. Larvae have a well-developed prototroch and a less conspicuous neurotroch and metatroch. Two chaetigers develop sequentially on days 4 and 5 and settlement occurs 6-7 days after spawning. Metamorphosis occurs gradually from days 6-8. This is the first reported induction of spawning and description of larval development from fertilized egg to settlement and metamorphosis for this species.

  14. Viability of the Alaskan breeding population of Steller’s eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Kylee; Grand, James B.

    2016-10-11

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is tasked with setting objective and measurable criteria for delisting species or populations listed under the Endangered Species Act. Determining the acceptable threshold for extinction risk for any species or population is a challenging task, particularly when facing marked uncertainty. The Alaskan breeding population of Steller’s eiders (Polysticta stelleri) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1997 because of a perceived decline in abundance throughout their nesting range and geographic isolation from the Russian breeding population. Previous genetic studies and modeling efforts, however, suggest that there may be dispersal from the Russian breeding population. Additionally, evidence exists of population level nonbreeding events. Research was conducted to estimate population viability of the Alaskan breeding population of Steller’s eiders, using both an open and closed model of population process for this threatened population. Projections under a closed population model suggest this population has a 100 percent probability of extinction within 42 years. Projections under an open population model suggest that with immigration there is no probability of permanent extinction. Because of random immigration process and nonbreeding behavior, however, it is likely that this population will continue to be present in low and highly variable numbers on the breeding grounds in Alaska. Monitoring the winter population, which includes both Russian and Alaskan breeding birds, may offer a more comprehensive indication of population viability.

  15. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium in common eider ducks in the eastern Canadian arctic: Influence of reproductive stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, Mark; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Neugebauer, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations and total organ content of mercury, selenium and cadmium, as well as liver, kidney and body mass were determined in female common eiders from 1997 to 2000 at the East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary in the eastern Canadian arctic. In 1997 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the pre-nesting period when they eat copious amounts of food and gain substantial weight in preparation for the rigours of nesting. In 1998 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the mid to late stages of the nesting period when they eat very little, if at all, and, as a consequence undergo dramatic weight loss. Total body mass, liver mass and kidney mass were highest in pre-nesting birds, especially in 1997. They were significantly lower in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast, mercury and cadmium concentrations were lowest in pre-nesting birds collected in 1997 and 1999 and increased to significantly higher concentrations in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast to these results, the total contents of mercury in liver and cadmium in kidney did not change significantly over the 4-year period. Hepatic selenium concentrations were relatively stable over the 4-year study period while changes in the total content of selenium in the liver paralleled changes in liver mass and body mass. The results suggest that mercury and cadmium concentrations in female common eiders change in response to normal changes in body and organ mass that occur during the reproductive period. Thus, it may be important to consider body condition or reproductive stage when using common eiders (and perhaps other species of sea ducks) in biomonitoring studies or when interpreting concentrations of metals in tissues in terms of the risk they pose to these ducks

  16. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium in common eider ducks in the eastern Canadian arctic: influence of reproductive stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Mark; Gilchrist, H Grant; Neugebauer, Ewa

    2005-12-01

    Concentrations and total organ content of mercury, selenium and cadmium, as well as liver, kidney and body mass were determined in female common eiders from 1997 to 2000 at the East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary in the eastern Canadian arctic. In 1997 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the pre-nesting period when they eat copious amounts of food and gain substantial weight in preparation for the rigours of nesting. In 1998 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the mid to late stages of the nesting period when they eat very little, if at all, and, as a consequence undergo dramatic weight loss. Total body mass, liver mass and kidney mass were highest in pre-nesting birds, especially in 1997. They were significantly lower in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast, mercury and cadmium concentrations were lowest in pre-nesting birds collected in 1997 and 1999 and increased to significantly higher concentrations in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast to these results, the total contents of mercury in liver and cadmium in kidney did not change significantly over the 4-year period. Hepatic selenium concentrations were relatively stable over the 4-year study period while changes in the total content of selenium in the liver paralleled changes in liver mass and body mass. The results suggest that mercury and cadmium concentrations in female common eiders change in response to normal changes in body and organ mass that occur during the reproductive period. Thus, it may be important to consider body condition or reproductive stage when using common eiders (and perhaps other species of sea ducks) in biomonitoring studies or when interpreting concentrations of metals in tissues in terms of the risk they pose to these ducks.

  17. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium in common eider ducks in the eastern Canadian arctic: Influence of reproductive stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, Mark [Environment Canada, Prairie and Northern Wildlife Research Centre, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada)]. E-mail: mark.wayland@ec.gc.ca; Gilchrist, H. Grant [Canadian Wildlife Service, Prairie and Northern Region, Suite 301, 5204-50th St., Yellowknife, NT, X1A 1E2 (Canada); Neugebauer, Ewa [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Dr., Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Concentrations and total organ content of mercury, selenium and cadmium, as well as liver, kidney and body mass were determined in female common eiders from 1997 to 2000 at the East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary in the eastern Canadian arctic. In 1997 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the pre-nesting period when they eat copious amounts of food and gain substantial weight in preparation for the rigours of nesting. In 1998 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the mid to late stages of the nesting period when they eat very little, if at all, and, as a consequence undergo dramatic weight loss. Total body mass, liver mass and kidney mass were highest in pre-nesting birds, especially in 1997. They were significantly lower in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast, mercury and cadmium concentrations were lowest in pre-nesting birds collected in 1997 and 1999 and increased to significantly higher concentrations in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast to these results, the total contents of mercury in liver and cadmium in kidney did not change significantly over the 4-year period. Hepatic selenium concentrations were relatively stable over the 4-year study period while changes in the total content of selenium in the liver paralleled changes in liver mass and body mass. The results suggest that mercury and cadmium concentrations in female common eiders change in response to normal changes in body and organ mass that occur during the reproductive period. Thus, it may be important to consider body condition or reproductive stage when using common eiders (and perhaps other species of sea ducks) in biomonitoring studies or when interpreting concentrations of metals in tissues in terms of the risk they pose to these ducks.

  18. Determination of the genetic diversity among accessions of Senna spectabilis (canafístula) by using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M F; Araújo Neto, R B; Nascimento, M P S B C; Lima, P S C

    2013-12-02

    Senna spectabilis (DC.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae; Caesalpinioideae), commonly known as "canafístula" or "cassia", is widely used in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil as a source of forage and timber. The plant presents a high nutritional content in comparison with other forage species that are native to the Brazilian Caatinga; thus, it represents a valuable resource during periods of drought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability among eight accessions of S. spectabilis available in the forage germplasm collection of Embrapa Meio-Norte using the random-amplified polymorphic DNA technique. The 15 primers selected for use in the analysis produced 107 bands, including 59 (55.14%) that were polymorphic. A similarity matrix was generated on the basis of Jaccard coefficients, and a dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering technique. The mean value of the similarity coefficients was 0.73, and the cophenetic correlation coefficient was 83.76%. Accessions CAN. 4 and CAN. 5 presented the greatest genetic similarity, while CAN. 6 and CAN. 8 were the most divergent. The S. spectabilis accessions were classified into two main groups with group I including accessions CAN. 1, CAN. 2, CAN. 4, CAN. 5, CAN. 7, CAN. 8, and CAN. 9, and group II comprising the single accession CAN. 6. The results presented herein revealed that, although the germplasm collection is presently limited, there is sufficient genetic variability among the accessions to permit future breeding programs.

  19. Enraizaimento de estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. com o uso de ácido indolbutírico

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Mendes Costa; Arcângelo Loss; Heitor Paulo Nascimento Pereira; Jander Ferreira Almeida

    2015-01-01

    O uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA) como estimulador do enraizamento em estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. pode propiciar aumento de raízes para a formação de mudas comercializáveis. Objetivou-se avaliar o enraizamento, a formação de brotos e a sobrevivência de estacas herbáceas, lenhosas e semi-lenhosas de Bougainvillea com o uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA). As estacas foram coletadas e tratadas com o IBA (1000 e 2000 mg/l). Aos 56 dias avaliaram-se a porcentagem de estacas vivas, e...

  20. SUSTAINABILITY EFFECTS OF Crotalaria juncea L. AND Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH ON SOIL FERTILITY AND SOIL CONSERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable agriculture is defined as the successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. A sustained increase of agricultural production becomes a great possibility for international community. In this process a green manure crops application for example crotalaria get a new chance for improvement process on soil fertility and soil conservation. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem soil (Experiment station Nagyhörcsök of RISSAC-HAS) in partly of experiment series (3 years) at Hungary in 1998. The soil with about 20% clay, 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 in its ploughed layer. To ensure a sufficient macro and micronutrient supply in the whole experiment, 100 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O were given hectare. The Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH were applied with 2 replications. Each plot has an area of 45 m2 with 230-230 individual plants. In vegetation grown period were measured green and dry matter yield. The soil and plant samples were analysed for the macro and microelements contents. The main results achieved in 1998 are summarized as follows: 1. The green matter yield at before flowering reached 63.8 t ha-1 in case of Crotalaria juncea L. 2. Total dry matter yield at harvest (without roots) fluctuated between 9.6 and 17.0 t ha-1, depending on the crotalaria species. 3. The average of element concentration (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH) before flowering reached to 3.2 % N, 2.3 % Ca, 1.3 % K, 0.39 % Mg, 0.22 % P and 0.24 % S. The content of Al and Fe total 14 - 25, while that of Sr, Mn, Na, B and Ba 2 - 6 ppm in dry matter. The Zn, Cu, Mo, Cr, Se, Ni, As, Pb, Cd and Co concentration did not reach here the value of 1 ppm. 4. The average of biological activated element uptake (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis

  1. Sexual reproduction as the cause of heat resistance in the food spoilage fungus Byssochlamys spectabilis (anamorph Paecilomyces variotii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Jos; Varga, János; Rico-Munoz, Emilia; Johnson, Shawn; Samson, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    Paecilomyces variotii is a common cosmopolitan species that is able to spoil various food- and feedstuffs and is frequently encountered in heat-treated products. However, isolates from heat-treated products rarely form ascospores. In this study we examined by using molecular techniques and mating tests whether this species can undergo a sexual cycle and form ascospores. The population structure of this species was examined by analyzing the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene, as well as partial beta-tubulin, actin, and calmodulin gene sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. variotii is a highly variable species. Partition homogeneity tests revealed that P. variotii has a recombining population structure. In addition to sequence analyses, mating experiments indicated that P. variotii is able to form ascomata and ascospores in culture in a heterothallic manner. The distribution of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes showed a 1:1 ratio in the progeny of the mating experiments. From the sequence analyses and mating data we conclude that P. variotii is the anamorph of Talaromyces spectabilis and that it has a biallelic heterothallic mating system. Since Paecilomyces sensu stricto anamorphs group within Byssochlamys, a new combination Byssochlamys spectabilis is proposed.

  2. Biologia reprodutiva de Psychotria spectabilis Steyrm. e Palicourea cf. virens (Poepp & Endl. Standl. (Rubiaceae em uma floresta tropical úmida na região de Manaus, AM, Brasil Reproductive biology of Psychotria spectabilis Steyrm. and Palicourea cf. virens (Poepp. & Endl. Standl. (Rubiaceae in a moist tropical forest at Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilene dos Anjos Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve a fenologia reprodutiva, morfologia e biologia floral, polinização e sucesso reprodutivo de Psychotria spectabilis e Palicourea cf. virens. Psychotria spectabilis floresceu de setembro a dezembro enquanto Palicourea cf. virens floresceu de maio a outubro. As inflorescências de Psychotria spectabilis são inflorescências terminais do tipo capítulo, com brácteas amarelas, flores brancas e heterostilia associada a diferenças na papila estigmática. Palicourea cf. virens apresenta inflorescências terminais do tipo corimbo, com flores amarelas homostílicas. Os recursos florais oferecidos foram néctar e pólen em ambas as espécies. Os beija-flores Phaethornis bourcieri e o macho de Thalurania furcata foram os principais visitantes florais de Psychotria spectabilis. Palicourea cf. virens também foi visitada por Thalurania furcata, com maior freqüência de visitas pela fêmea desta espécie. A abelha Trigona fulviventris visitou as flores das duas espécies, mas se comportou como pilhadora. O sucesso reprodutivo pré-emergente (SRPE das duas espécies foi baixo, embora tenham apresentado um alto potencial reprodutivo.This study describes the reproductive phenology, floral biology, pollination and reproductive success of Psychotria spectabilis and Palicourea cf. virens. Psychotria spectabilis flowered from September to December while P. cf. virens flowered from May to October. The terminal inflorescence of Psychotria spectabilis is of the capitate type with yellow bracts, white flowers and heterostyly associated with differences of stigmatic papillae. The terminal inflorescence of Palicourea cf. virens is a corymb with yellow, homostylous flowers. Flower resources include nectar and pollen for both species. The hummingbirds Phaethornis bourcieri and the male of Thalurania furcata were the main floral visitors of Psychotria spectabilis. Palicourea cf. virens was also visited by T. furcata, but the female was the main

  3. Intoxicação aguda com sementes de Crotalaria spectabilis (Leg. Papilionoideae em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Ubiali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se necrose hepatocelular em suínos após consumo de ração que continha grãos de sorgo-granífero (Sorghum bicolor acidentalmente contaminado com sementes de Crotalaria spectabilis. Morreram 76 suínos em quatro propriedades no município de Juscimeira, MT. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 24-48 horas após o consumo da ração contaminada e foram caracterizados por depressão, letargia, apatia, inapetência, vômito, mucosas ictéricas ou pálidas, ascite, decúbito esternal, decúbito lateral com movimentos de pedalagem e convulsões, a evolução clínica foi de 48-60 horas seguida de morte. As Principais alterações macroscópicas foram fígado aumentado de tamanho com evidenciação do padrão lobular, ascite e hidrotórax com líquido de coloração amarelo avermelhado contendo filamentos com aspecto de fibrina, linfonodos aumentados e edema pulmonar interlobular. A doença foi reproduzida utilizando-se 16 suínos divididos em seis grupos que receberam sementes de C. spectabilis em diferentes doses. Necrose hepatocelular ocorreu em sete suínos, sendo dois que receberam doses diárias 2,5g/kg e cinco que receberam doses únicas de 5,0 e 9,5g/kg. Dez doses diárias de 0,5 e 1,25g/kg causaram fibrose hepática.

  4. EXPLORANDO EL PAPEL DE LA HORMIGA GENERALISTA SOLENOPSIS GEMINATA (FORMICIDAE: MYRMICINAE EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE SENNA SPECTABILIS (FABACEAE: CAESALPINIOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La colonización de los potreros por especies vegetales diferentes a los pastos está limitada por la escasez de dispersores primarios y la poca disponibilidad de sitios adecuados para la germinación de las plantas. Las hormigas generalistas de potrero podrían promover la dispersión secundaria de árboles de interés para la rehabilitación ecológica mediante la manipulación y el transporte de semillas hacia sus nidos. En este estudio se examinó la necesidad de la escarificación mecánica para la germinación de semillas de tres especies de árboles de interés para la rehabilitación ecológica: Guazuma ulmifolia, Pithecellobium dulce y Senna spectabilis en condiciones de laboratorio. La escarificación potenció la germinación de G. ulmifolia (5% vs. 37% y S. spectabilis (0% vs. 98.5% y disminuyó la germinación de P. dulce (94% vs. 87%. Se concluye que la escarificación mecánica es necesaria para la germinación de S. spectabilis y G. ulmifolia. Con el objeto de explorar si las hormigas inciden en la germinación, en el laboratorio se ofrecieron semillas de S. spectabilis sin escarificar a colonias de la hormiga de fuego Solenopsis geminata. No se obtuvo germinación, lo que sugiere que esta especie de hormiga no realiza escarificación mecánica ni química a las semillas, pero tampoco hubo evidencia de daño físico a las semillas. Finalmente, se comparó la germinación de semillas escarificadas de S. spectabilis en suelo de nidos inactivos de S. geminata y en suelo adyacente al nido, en invernadero y campo. En invernadero la germinación fue mayor en suelo de nidos que en suelo adyacente (98% vs. 86%, respectivamente pero en el campo sucedió lo contrario (24% vs. 43%, respectivamente. No se encontró evidencia que los cambios provocados al suelo por S. geminata favorezcan la germinación de S. spectabilis. Se recomienda evaluar la contribución del suelo de nidos en etapas post-germinación de establecimiento, supervivencia y

  5. Linkage of the king eider population in Northeast Greenland: Migration, moult and discovery of a new offshore wintering area at Spitsbergenbanken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Sonne, Christian

    In late July 2009, two female king eiders were caught on the breeding grounds in Myggbukta, Northeast Greenland and equipped with satellite transmitters. Both individuals were tracked for approximately two years. The birds remained in the Myggbukta area until the onset of the autumn migration...... arrival 6 April) where they stayed for some time before returning on the spring migration to Greenland. During a ship-based survey in the offshore winter location at Spitsbergenbanken in April 2013, a previously unknown wintering ground with approximately 10.000 king eiders was discovered. The birds were...... concentrated in a partly ice-covered area 79 km from shore and of about 20 m depth. The number of king eiders indicated that Spitsbergenbanken is a wintering area for both the East Greenland and the Svalbard breeding populations. The discovery has important conservation implications due to the expanding...

  6. New ribosome-inactivating proteins with polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase and antiviral activities from Basella rubra L. and bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, A; Polito, L; Olivieri, F; Valbonesi, P; Barbieri, L; Battelli, M G; Carusi, M V; Benvenuto, E; Del Vecchio Blanco, F; Di Maro, A; Parente, A; Di Loreto, M; Stirpe, F

    1997-12-01

    New single-chain (type 1) ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were isolated from the seeds of Basella rubra L. (two proteins) and from the leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (one protein). These RIPs inhibit protein synthesis both in a cell-free system, with an IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) in the 10(-10) M range, and by various cell lines, with IC50S in the 10(-8)-10(-6) M range. All three RIPs released adenine not only from rat liver ribosomes but also from Escherichia coli rRNA, polyadenylic acid, herring sperm DNA, and artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV) genomic RNA, thus being polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidases. The proteins from Basella rubra had toxicity to mice similar to that of most type 1 RIPs (Barbieri et al., 1993, Biochim Biophys Acta 1154: 237-282) with an LD50 (concentration that is 50% lethal) Bougainvillea spectabilis had an LD50 > 32 mg.kg-1. The N-terminal sequence of the two RIPs from Basella rubra had 80-93% identity, whereas it differed from the sequence of the RIP from Bougainvillea spectabilis. When tested with antibodies against various RIPs, the RIPs from Basella gave some cross-reactivity with sera against dianthin 32, and weak cross-reactivity with momordin I and momorcochin-S, whilst the RIP from Bougainvillea did not cross-react with any antiserum tested. An RIP from Basella rubra and one from Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for antiviral activity, and both inhibited infection of Nicotiana benthamiana by AMCV.

  7. Efeitos dos estresses hidrico e salino e da ação de giberelina em sementes de Senna spectabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Jeller

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Senna spectabilis (DC. Irwin et Barn. variedade excelsa (Schrad. Irwin et Barn. is a leguminosae woody species of low frequency in cerrado and caatinga of the Brazilian northeast. It is used in landscaping designs due to it’s natural beauty, streets arborization and in reflorestation of degraded areas. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge about the biology of this species and to study the effects of water and salt stress and gibberellins on seed germination. Four replications of 50 seeds were used for each treatment and germination was carried out in 9cm Petri lived with filter paper moistened with test-solution. Senna espectabilis seeds did not present a wide tolerance to water stress and the germination was supressed at -0,7MPa. The reduction of NaCl osmotic potential decreased germination and synchrony of the process. The maximal tolerance limit was at -1,6MPa, when germination was totally inhibited. The addition of gibberellic acid reduced partially the effects of water and salt stress.

  8. New dereplication method applied to NMR-Based metabolomics on different fusarium species isolated from Rhizosphere of Senna spectabilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selegato, Denise M.; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Freire, Rafael T.; Tannús, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The search for new sources of natural products steadily increased the use of bioinformatics tools that enabled efficient analysis of complex matrices. In this context, dereplication methods emerged as a fast way of identifying known compounds, accelerating the identification of bioactive chemotypes. Although 1 H NMR is widely used as an analytical technique, few studies have been reported using it as a dereplication tool, primarily because of the spectral complexity. This work aims to create a new computational method that analyses 1 H NMR data from Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum isolated from Senna spectabilis' srhizosphere through principal component analysis (PCA). The algorithm uses loading values to select important peaks that distinguish both species in PCA, allowing compound dereplication, even in highly similar profiles. As a result, the method, associated with other NMR experiments and information from an in-house Fusarium's metabolite library was able to distinguish different mycotoxins produced by both fungi, identifying fusaric acid and beauvericin for F. oxysporum and the depsipeptide HA23 from F. solani. (author)

  9. Enraizaimento de estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. com o uso de ácido indolbutírico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Mendes Costa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA como estimulador do enraizamento em estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. pode propiciar aumento de raízes para a formação de mudas comercializáveis. Objetivou-se avaliar o enraizamento, a formação de brotos e a sobrevivência de estacas herbáceas, lenhosas e semi-lenhosas de Bougainvillea com o uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA. As estacas foram coletadas e tratadas com o IBA (1000 e 2000 mg/l. Aos 56 dias avaliaram-se a porcentagem de estacas vivas, enraizadas e com brotos; o número de brotos e de raízes por estaca e o comprimento da maior raiz e maior broto. As menores porcentagens de enraizamento foram verificadas nas estacas sem o uso de IBA. Maiores diferenças foram verificadas para as estacas lenhosas. O uso do IBA favorece o enraizamento de estacas de Bougainvillea, com melhor desempenho para as estacas lenhosas e na concentração de 2000 mg/l de IBA

  10. New dereplication method applied to NMR-Based metabolomics on different fusarium species isolated from Rhizosphere of Senna spectabilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selegato, Denise M.; Castro-Gamboa, Ian, E-mail: ian.castro@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (NuBBE/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Núcleo de Bioensaios, Biossíntese e Ecofisiologia de Produtos Naturais; Freire, Rafael T.; Tannús, Alberto [Universidade de São Paulo (CIERMag/USP), São Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Imagens e Espectroscopia in Vivo por Ressonância Magnética

    2016-07-01

    The search for new sources of natural products steadily increased the use of bioinformatics tools that enabled efficient analysis of complex matrices. In this context, dereplication methods emerged as a fast way of identifying known compounds, accelerating the identification of bioactive chemotypes. Although {sup 1}H NMR is widely used as an analytical technique, few studies have been reported using it as a dereplication tool, primarily because of the spectral complexity. This work aims to create a new computational method that analyses {sup 1}H NMR data from Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum isolated from Senna spectabilis' srhizosphere through principal component analysis (PCA). The algorithm uses loading values to select important peaks that distinguish both species in PCA, allowing compound dereplication, even in highly similar profiles. As a result, the method, associated with other NMR experiments and information from an in-house Fusarium's metabolite library was able to distinguish different mycotoxins produced by both fungi, identifying fusaric acid and beauvericin for F. oxysporum and the depsipeptide HA23 from F. solani. (author)

  11. Evaluating models of population process in a threatened population of Steller’s eiders: A retrospective approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Kylee; Grand, James B.

    2016-10-11

    The Alaskan breeding population of Steller’s eiders (Polysticta stelleri) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1997 in response to perceived declines in abundance throughout their breeding and nesting range. Aerial surveys suggest the breeding population is small and highly variable in number, with zero birds counted in 5 of the last 25 years. Research was conducted to evaluate competing population process models of Alaskan-breeding Steller’s eiders through comparison of model projections to aerial survey data. To evaluate model efficacy and estimate demographic parameters, a Bayesian state-space modeling framework was used and each model was fit to counts from the annual aerial surveys, using sequential importance sampling and resampling. The results strongly support that the Alaskan breeding population experiences population level nonbreeding events and is open to exchange with the larger Russian-Pacific breeding population. Current recovery criteria for the Alaskan breeding population rely heavily on the ability to estimate population viability. The results of this investigation provide an informative model of the population process that can be used to examine future population states and assess the population in terms of the current recovery and reclassification criteria.

  12. (-)-7-hydroxycassine: a new 2,6-dialkylpiperidin-3-ol alkaloid and other constituents isolated from flowers and fruits of Senna spectabilis (Fabaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas Junior, Claudio; Pivatto, Marcos; Rezende, Amanda de; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemical study of flowers and green fruits of Senna spectabilis furnished a new substituted 2,6-dialkylpiperidin-3-ol alkaloid, named (–)-7-hydroxycassine, along with five known piperidine alkaloids: (–)-cassine, (–)-spectaline, (–)-3-O-acetylspectaline, (–)-7-hydroxyspectaline and (–)-iso-6-spectaline. In addition to non-alkaloidal, chemical constituents from other chemical classes were also identified, including the steroid β-sitosterol, the flavonoids luteolin and 3-methoxyluteolin, the triterpene betulinic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. To our knowledge, compounds are being reported for the first time in this species. (author)

  13. (-)-7-hydroxycassine: a new 2,6-dialkylpiperidin-3-ol alkaloid and other constituents isolated from flowers and fruits of Senna spectabilis (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viegas Junior, Claudio, E-mail: viegas@unifal-mg.edu.br, E-mail: cvjviegas@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Laboratorio de Fitoquimica e Quimica Medica; Pivatto, Marcos [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Rezende, Amanda de; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (NuBBE/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Nucleo de Bioensaios, Biossintese e Ecofiologia de Produtos Naturais

    2013-02-15

    The phytochemical study of flowers and green fruits of Senna spectabilis furnished a new substituted 2,6-dialkylpiperidin-3-ol alkaloid, named (-)-7-hydroxycassine, along with five known piperidine alkaloids: (-)-cassine, (-)-spectaline, (-)-3-O-acetylspectaline, (-)-7-hydroxyspectaline and (-)-iso-6-spectaline. In addition to non-alkaloidal, chemical constituents from other chemical classes were also identified, including the steroid {beta}-sitosterol, the flavonoids luteolin and 3-methoxyluteolin, the triterpene betulinic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. To our knowledge, compounds are being reported for the first time in this species. (author)

  14. Ocorrência de Passalora bougainvilleae (Muntañola) Castañeda & Braun associado à Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. em Boa Vista, Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    Nechet,Kátia de Lima; Halfeld-Vieira,Bernardo A.

    2008-01-01

    O fungo Passalora bougainvilleae é relatado, pela primeira vez, na região de Boa Vista, Roraima, associado a manchas foliares na planta ornamental Bougainvillea spectabilis. As características do fungo são conidióforos agregados em fascículos, emergindo de um estroma subcuticular na face abaxial de lesões velhas. Os conidióforos são lisos, retos, de coloração marrom, não ramificados, maioria asseptados, medindo de 26-57µm x 4µm. Células conidiogênicas terminais de proliferação simpodial com c...

  15. Sensitivity mapping for oil spill response at the estuaries of the rivers Eider, Elbe, Weser and Ems; Sensitivitaetskartierung zur Oelbekaempfung an den Unterlaeufen von Eider, Elbe, Weser und Ems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernem, K.H. van; Krasemann, H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung; Fleischmann, J.; Krueger, D.; Luebbe, T.P.

    2007-07-01

    During this project the estuaries of the rivers Eider, Elbe, Weser and Ems, meeting the North Sea, were evaluated with respect to their vulnerability against oil accidents. Thus a corresponding intention concerning the ''Wadden Sea'' at the German North Sea Coast could be proceeded and completed (GKSS 2007/2). The assessment of different watersides shall provide decision support for oil spill response. Only comparatively near-natural areas of river banks were incorporated, with the basic evaluation of their importance for nature conservation as well as their oil spill sensitivity. Socioeconomic characteristics have not been evaluated, but some important properties are depicted on charts by symbols. The data used for the evaluation process cover the types of biotopes, tidal flats, nesting/non-nesting birds, rare plants as well as fishes, morphological conditions of watersides and official area-categories (i.e. protected natural area). Riverine and intertidal areas are fundamentally differentiated. With respect to seasonal aspects, the evaluation was established for three different times of the year. The result of the evaluation process is the classification of the individual watersides into 4 classes of priority (for oil spill response) and 8 classes of sensitivity. The priorityclasses are depicted by colours and the sensitivity-classes by numbers on sea-charts as topographic background (scale 1:25.000). The evaluation results are delayed on printed as well as GIS-based maps, connected to a data base. The amount of very sensitive areas is higher in the estuaries of the rivers Elbe and Eider compared to Ems and Weser and shows the highest values at all rivers during spring. The evaluation procedure is automated to a large extend by use of linked tables and a decision tree of if/then-functions. The underlying structure provides for a reliable transformation of new data into the corresponding evaluation during updating processes. (orig.)

  16. Effect of nectar pillaging by native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the abscission of flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae) =Efeito da pilhagem de néctar por abelhas nativas sem ferrão (Hymenoptera: Apidae) na abscisão floral de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Arand; Gisele Catian; Paulo Alexandre Bogiani; Igor Inforzato

    2011-01-01

    This study had as objective to evaluate whether the pillaging activity by native bees influences floral abscission. Samples were collected in ten individuals of Bougainvillea spectabilis. In the period between May 4 and June 1st, 2009, 2,874 flowers were collected on the ground and 2,895 from the plants, with three-day intervals between each collection and a total of 10 repetitions in each plant. We measured the total of closed flowers, open flowers, robbed flowers, normal flowers, open robbe...

  17. Chemical composition of canned heart of Cordyline spectabilis and the flour obtained from post-processing residue Caracterização da composição química de conserva de palmito de Cordyline spectabilis e da farinha obtida do resíduo após processamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Vieira Helm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The need for new products requires the use of local raw material, which is either processed rudimentarily, such as the heart of Cordyline spectabilis Kunth & Bouché, or sometimes not processed at all. The aim of this work was to store the heart of Cordyline spectabilis from the municipality of Campo Largo, state of Parana, Brazil, as canned food and evaluate the nutritional value. The residue obtained from this process was used to make flour. The nutritional composition of both products was determinade. Their chemical compositions, pH levels and acidity were also checked for quality and conservation. The canned uvarana heart featured high protein levels (4.68 g 100 g-1 and the flour presented high levels of fibre (69.11 g 100g-1. Both products presented low calorie levels (58.39 and 59.72 kcal 100 g-1, respectively, which suggests an interesting source of vitamin for food industry.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.265

    A necessidade de novos produtos estimula a utilização de matérias-primas regionais que não  são processadas ou que quando o são, é realizado de maneira bastante artesanal, como é o caso da uvarana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar uma conserva de palmito de uvarana (Cordyline spectabilis Kunth & Bouché procedentes do Município de Campo Largo, PR, e com o resíduo obtido do processamento da conserva elaborar uma farinha e determinar a composição nutricional dos dois produtos. Avaliaram-se a composição química dos produtos obtidos e o valor de pH e acidez das conservas, para avaliar o estado de conservação do produto. A conserva apresentou um alto teor proteico (4,68 g 100 g-1 e a farinha um alto teor de fibra alimentar (69,11 g 100 g-1 e ambos os produtos apresentaram um baixo valor calórico (58,39 e 59,72 kcal 100 g-1, respectivamente, o que sugere uma interessante fonte de suplemento alimentar para

  18. Fast and reliable detection of toxic Crotalaria spectabilis Roth. in Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. herbal products using DNA barcoding coupled with HRM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singtonat, Sahachat; Osathanunkul, Maslin

    2015-05-30

    Nowadays, medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs. Many medicinal plant products have now been commercialized throughout various markets. These products are commonly sold in processed or modified forms such as powders, dried material and capsules, making it almost impossible to accurately identify the constituent species. The herbal plant known as 'Rang Chuet' in Thai has been widely used as remedies for various ailments. However, two medicinal plants species, Thunbergia laurifolia and Crotalaria spectabilis share this name. Duo to the similarity in nomenclature, the commercial products labeled as 'Rang Chuet' could be any of them. Recently, the evidence of hepatotoxic effects linked to use of C. spectabilis were reported and is now seriously concern. There is a need to find an approach that could help with species identification of these herbal products to ensure the safety and efficacy of the herbal drug. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate T. laurifolia species. Four DNA barcodes including matK, rbcL, rpoC and trnL were selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Commercial products labeled as 'Rang Chuet' were purchased from Thai markets and authentication by HRM analyses. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed primers showed that the two 'Rang Chuet' species could easily be distinguished from each other. The melting profiles of the all four region amplicons of each species are clearly separated in all three replicates. The method was then applied to authenticate products in powdered form. HRM curves of all ten test samples indicated that three of the tested products did not only contain the T. laurifolia species. The herbal drugs derived from different plants must be distinguished from each other even they share the same vernacular name. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved

  19. Aspectos do Comportamento da Cigarrinha-das-Pastagens Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae na Produção de Espuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Batista

    2010-07-01

    Abstract. The spittlebug Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant synthesizes a protective froth against natural enemies and dry along the immature stage. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of grouping and forage type in the production of the froth made by the spittlebug, and the behavior exhibited during this period. Tests with individual nymphs were performed in which the average time to complete cover by the froth was 38’55’’ and 40’00’’ in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumach. and signal grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis Germain e Evrard, respectively; as well as tests with groups of nymphs where the average time to complete cover was 48’00’’ in elephant grass and in signal grass 41’06’’. The correlation analysis showed that the nymphs who later initiated the production of froth were those that took the most time to complete the cover within the two forage. The behavioral sequence exhibited by the nymphs was presented, since its release in the pot until the complete cover of the froth. The total time of coverage does not suffer significant change whether the nymphs feed on elephant grass or signal grass, or feeding in solitary or aggregated way.

  20. Effect of nectar pillaging by native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the abscission of flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae) - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.8191

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Rodrigo; UFMS; Catian, Gisele; Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul; Bogiani, Paulo Alexandre; Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul; Inforzato, Igor; Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul

    2011-01-01

    This study had as objective to evaluate whether the pillaging activity by native bees influences floral abscission. Samples were collected in ten individuals of Bougainvillea spectabilis. In the period between May 4 and June 1st, 2009, 2,874 flowers were collected on the ground and 2,895 from the plants, with three-day intervals between each collection and a total of 10 repetitions in each plant. We measured the total of closed flowers, open flowers, robbed flowers, normal flowers, open robbe...

  1. Effect of nectar pillaging by native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the abscission of flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae =Efeito da pilhagem de néctar por abelhas nativas sem ferrão (Hymenoptera: Apidae na abscisão floral de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arand

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study had as objective to evaluate whether the pillaging activity by native bees influences floral abscission. Samples were collected in ten individuals of Bougainvillea spectabilis. In the period between May 4 and June 1st, 2009, 2,874 flowers were collected on the ground and 2,895 from the plants, with three-day intervals between each collection and a total of 10 repetitions in each plant. We measured the total of closed flowers, open flowers, robbed flowers, normal flowers, open robbed flowers and nonrobber open flowers, in both soil and plant. For the statistical analysis, the T-test was used to see whether there was a difference between the averages obtained from the evaluated characteristics between the soil flowers and plant flowers. Simple linear regression was used to see whether there was a relationship between the closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant. There were significant differences regarding all variables measured between soil and plant.A correlation was found at both closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade de pilhagemde abelhas nativas influenciando a abscisão floral de Bougainvillea spectabilis. As coletas foram realizadas em dez indivíduos de B. spectabilis. Foram coletadas 2.874 flores no solo e 2.895 na planta no período de 4/5/2009 a 1/6/2009 com intervalo de três dias entre cada coleta, totalizando 10 repetições em cada indivíduo. Foram mensuradas as flores fechadas, flores abertas, flores fechadas pilhadas, flores fechadas não pilhadas, flores abertas pilhadas e flores abertas não pilhadas tanto no solo como na planta. Para as análises estatísticas foi utilizado o Teste-T para verificar se houve diferença entre as médias obtidas das características avaliadas entre as flores do solo e as

  2. Effect of nectar pillaging by native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the abscission of flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.8191 Effect of nectar pillaging by native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the abscission of flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.8191

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Inforzato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study had as objective to evaluate whether the pillaging activity by native bees influences floral abscission. Samples were collected in ten individuals of Bougainvillea spectabilis. In the period between May 4 and June 1st, 2009, 2,874 flowers were collected on the ground and 2,895 from the plants, with three-day intervals between each collection and a total of 10 repetitions in each plant. We measured the total of closed flowers, open flowers, robbed flowers, normal flowers, open robbed flowers and non-robber open flowers, in both soil and plant. For the statistical analysis, the T-test was used to see whether there was a difference between the averages obtained from the evaluated characteristics between the soil flowers and plant flowers. Simple linear regression was used to see whether there was a relationship between the closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant. There were significant differences regarding all variables measured between soil and plant. A correlation was found at both closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant.This study had as objective to evaluate whether the pillaging activity by native bees influences floral abscission. Samples were collected in ten individuals of Bougainvillea spectabilis. In the period between May 4 and June 1st, 2009, 2,874 flowers were collected on the ground and 2,895 from the plants, with three-day intervals between each collection and a total of 10 repetitions in each plant. We measured the total of closed flowers, open flowers, robbed flowers, normal flowers, open robbed flowers and non-robber open flowers, in both soil and plant. For the statistical analysis, the T-test was used to see whether there was a difference between the averages obtained from the evaluated characteristics between the soil flowers and plant flowers. Simple linear

  3. In vitro evaluation of the schistosomicidal effect of the extracts, fractions and major 3-hydroxy-2,6-dialkyl-substituted piperidine alkaloids from the flowers of Senna spectabilis (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Andreísa Teixeira; Castro, Aline Pereira; Silva, Matheus Siqueira; de Souza, Isabella Maria Monteiro; Martins-Souza, Raquel Lopes; Chagas-Paula, Daniela Aparecida; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; da Silva Bolzani, Vanderlan; Pivatto, Marcos; Viegas, Claudio; Marques, Marcos José

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present the in vitro schistosomicidal activity evaluation of the most active dichloromethane fraction (FDm) (ED50=83.5μg/mL) and of a mixture of the major alkaloids ((-)-cassine/(-)-spectaline, C/E) (ED50=37.4μg/mL) from the flowers of Senna spectabilis against adult worms and cercariae. We also demonstrate other toxic effects including paralysis of the adult worms, inhibition of the secretory activity, tegument lesions and cercaricidal activity. In the association test of Praziquantel (PZQ)-C/E, we observed up to 80% mortality of Schistosoma mansoni in comparison to PZQ monotherapy. Due to the diversity of the toxic effects, the schistosomicidal activity of C/E is likely a result of a multitarget mechanism involving the tegument, secretory system and neuromotor action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ocorrência de Passalora bougainvilleae (Muntañola Castañeda & Braun associado à Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. em Boa Vista, Roraima Repot of Passalora bougainvilleae (Muntañola Castañeda & Braun associated with Bougainvillea spectablis Willd. in Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Lima Nechet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Passalora bougainvilleae é relatado, pela primeira vez, na região de Boa Vista, Roraima, associado a manchas foliares na planta ornamental Bougainvillea spectabilis. As características do fungo são conidióforos agregados em fascículos, emergindo de um estroma subcuticular na face abaxial de lesões velhas. Os conidióforos são lisos, retos, de coloração marrom, não ramificados, maioria asseptados, medindo de 26-57µm x 4µm. Células conidiogênicas terminais de proliferação simpodial com cicatrizes escuras e pouco espessas. Os conídios são solitários, marrom claro, obclavados, retos a ligeiramente curvos, medindo de 32-70 µm x 4-5 µm, maioria com 3 septos, apresentando um hilo truncado e ápice obtuso.The fungi Passalora bougainvilleae is reported, for the first time, Boa Vista, Roraima state, causing leaf spots on ornamental specie Bougainvillea spectabilis. The fungi characteristics are conidiophores hypophyllous in fascicles arising from the upper cells of a stroma subcuticular at old spots. The conidiphores are smooth, straight, pale brown, non-branched, mostly aseptate, 26-57µm x 4µm. Conidiogenous cells terminal, sympodial with black and thin scars. Conidia solitary, pale brown, obclavate, straight to slightly flexuous, 32-70 µm x 4-5 µm, 3 septate, rounded at apex, truncate at base, with a conspicuous hilum.

  5. Avian cholera causes marine bird mortality in the Bering Sea of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Kimberlee Beckmen,; Gay Sheffield,; Kathy Kuletz,; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2015-01-01

    The first known avian cholera outbreak among wild birds in Alaska occurred during November 2013. Liver, intestinal, and splenic necrosis consistent with avian cholera was noted, and Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from liver and lung or spleen in Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella), Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), and Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens).

  6. Assessing the impact of marine wind farms on birds through movement modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Reeve, Richard; Desholm, Mark; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in technology and engineering, along with European Union renewable energy targets, have stimulated a rapid growth of the wind power sector. Wind farms contribute to carbon emission reductions, but there is a need to ensure that these structures do not adversely impact the populations that interact with them, particularly birds. We developed movement models based on observed avoidance responses of common eider Somateria mollissima to wind farms to predict, and identify potential measu...

  7. Assessing the Impact of the Tunø Knob Wind Park on Sea Ducks : the Influence of Food Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemette, M.; Larsen, J. K.; Clausager, I.

    Abstract This study deals with the influence of benthos abundance when assessing the potential impact of a small wind park on wintering sea ducks. Using the Before-After-Control-Impact design, it was suggested in a recent study (Guillemette et al. 1998) that the wind park provoked a decline...... at Tunø Knob to test the hypothesis that, if food abundance increases again, we should also observe an increase in duck abundance. The methods used in this study are similar to those applied in the aforementioned study. The results showed that the average number of common eiders increased considerably...... in the abundance and a change in the distribution of common eiders Somateria mollissima and common scoters Melanitta nigra. However, the observed decline in sea duck abundance occurred con-comitantly with a decline of benthic food supplies. We measured con-comitant food and common eider abundance for a fourth year...

  8. Biosorption of Hexavalent Chromium Using Bark of Cassia spectabilis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Profilicollis botulus (Van Cleave, 1916) from diving ducks and shore crabs of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, H L

    1989-02-01

    Adults of Profilicollis botulus were found in 6 species of diving ducks in British Columbia including 3 new hosts: common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula (L.); Barrow's goldeneye, B. islandica (Gmelin); and greater scaup, Aythya marila (L.). The identification of the species was verified by the examination of co-types and specimens from eider ducks, Somateria mollissima (L.), from Scotland and oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis (L.), from New Brunswick. Cystacanths from the hairy shore crab, Hemigrapsus oregonensis (Dana), were similar in morphology to those from Carcinus maenas (L.) from Scotland.

  10. Light-induced bird strikes on vessels in Southwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2011-01-01

    Light-induced bird strikes are known to occur when vessels navigate during darkness in icy waters using powerful searchlight. In Southwest Greenland, which is important internationally for wintering seabirds, we collected reports of incidents of bird strikes over 2–3 winters (2006–2009) from navy...... vessels, cargo vessels and trawlers (total n = 19). Forty-one incidents were reported: mainly close to land (birds were reported killed in a single incident. All occurred between 5 p.m. and 6 a.m. and significantly more birds were involved when...... visibility was poor (snow) rather than moderate or good. Among five seabird species reported, the common eider (Somateria mollissima) accounted for 95% of the bird casualties. Based on spatial analyses of data on vessel traffic intensity and common eider density we are able to predict areas with high risk...

  11. Effects of the Tunoe Knob offshore wind farm on birdlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemette, M.; Kyed Larsen, J.; Clausager, I.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the plans of the Danish government to expand offshore wind energy production, The Ministry of Environment and Energy, in collaboration with the Danish power companies, initiated a three-year study of the effects of the Tunoe Knob offshore wind farm on bird life. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential conflict between offshore wind farms and water birds. Danish coastal waters support very large, internationally important concentrations of moulting, migrating and wintering water birds which depend on shallow water areas as major feeding habitats. The wind farm was established at Tunoe Knob, a shoal in Aarhus Bugt, and consisted of ten 500 kW turbines erected in 3-5 m of water during the late summer of 1995. All studies were carried out during the winter period, and results are reported for eider Somateria mollissima and common scoter Melanitta nigra, which composed the great majority of the bird population. In the part of Tunoe knob where the wind farm was build, eider numbers decreased markedly over the study period. However, this decline was comparable to that observed on other parts of Tunoe Knob. Furthermore, detailed mapping showed a high degree of annual and within season variation in spatial distribution over the area, including occurrence in the immediate vicinity of the wind farm. These results suggest that the observed changes in eider numbers in the wind farm area were due to natural variation. (EG) 21 refs

  12. Costs of an immune challenge and terminal investment in a long-lived bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Sveinn Are

    2006-10-01

    An induced immune challenge can have two counteracting effects on an individual's reproductive investment. (1) The resource demand could increase to "fuel" the immunologic reaction, which in turn can lead to an adaptive decrease in investment in resource-costly activities, such as reproduction. One the other hand, (2) the individual could assume that the immune activity it experiences is indicative of a serious infection. The latter can lead to an adaptive increase in reproductive investment in response to the reduced prospects of survival and future reproduction, so called "terminal investment." To measure such life-history-related consequences of increased immune activity, one group of incubating female Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) was injected with a nonpathogenic antigen (sheep red blood cells, SRBC) while controls were injected with sterile saline. The eider is a long-lived sea-duck. Females, who incubate the eggs and care for young without assistance from the male, engage in facultative anorexia during incubation leading to a large reduction in body mass. Eiders can abandon their young to other females at the cost of reduced young survival. The immune challenge resulted in a larger mass loss, a prolonged incubation period, and reduced return rate, demonstrating both short- and long-term costs of immune challenge. Additionally, in response to what might have been interpreted as reduced survival chances in immune-challenged females, these females more often tended their own brood after hatching, despite having suffered higher costs during incubation.

  13. Cost of reproduction in a long-lived bird: incubation effort reduces immune function and future reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Hasselquist, Dennis; Folstad, Ivar; Erikstad, Kjell Einar

    2005-05-22

    Life-history theory predicts that increased current reproductive effort should lead to a fitness cost. This cost of reproduction may be observed as reduced survival or future reproduction, and may be caused by temporal suppression of immune function in stressed or hard-working individuals. In birds, consideration of the costs of incubating eggs has largely been neglected in favour of the costs of brood rearing. We manipulated incubation demand in two breeding seasons (2000 and 2001) in female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) by creating clutches of three and six eggs (natural range 3-6 eggs). The common eider is a long-lived sea-duck where females do not eat during the incubation period. Mass loss increased and immune function (lymphocyte levels and specific antibody response to the non-pathogenic antigens diphtheria and tetanus toxoid) was reduced in females incubating large clutches. The increased incubation effort among females assigned to large incubation demand did not lead to adverse effects on current reproduction or return rate in the next breeding season. However, large incubation demand resulted in long-term fitness costs through reduced fecundity the year after manipulation. Our data show that in eiders, a long-lived species, the cost of high incubation demand is paid in the currency of reduced future fecundity, possibly mediated by reduced immune function.

  14. Direct and indirect causes of sex differences in mercury concentrations and parasitic infections in a marine bird

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provencher, J.F.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Mallory, M.L.; Mitchell, G.W.; Forbes, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In many animal species, males and females differ in their levels of contaminants and/or parasitic infections. Most contaminants and gastro-intestinal parasites are obtained through prey ingestion, and thus the causes of sex differences in the distribution of these factors might follow similar pathways. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria molissima borealis) as an avian model, and used directed separation path analysis to explore the causes of sex differences in mercury (Hg) and gastro-intestinal helminths. Two trophically transmitted helminths were examined: a cestode (Lateriporus sp.) and an acanthocephalan (Polymorphus sp). We found that the number of Lateriporus sp. varied positively with stable isotope signature (as indicated by δ"1"5N in eider breast muscle tissue), and negatively with crustaceans being present in the short term diet. We also found that Polymorphus sp. varied positively with eider tissue stable isotope signature. However, Polymorphus sp. varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass. Similarly, Hg concentrations also varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass, with both Polymorphus sp. intensity and Hg concentrations significantly higher in males. We found that model fit increased when a negative relationship between the two helminth species was included, suggesting a yet unknown causal mechanism linking these parasites. Our findings suggest that although Hg and gastro-intestinal parasites are both trophically transmitted through the eider's prey items, the factors that contribute towards bioaccumulation of these two burdens differ in source, likely caused by several different factors and may potentially influence each other. - Highlights: • Contaminants and parasitic infections often co-occur in wildlife and have similar effects • Understanding the distribution of multiple burdens allows for better interpretation of effects • Path analysis was used to examine the

  15. Assessing the impact of the Tunoe Knob wind park on sea ducks: the influence of food resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laursen, K.; Guillemette, M.; Kyed larsen, J.; Clausager, I.

    1999-02-01

    This study deals with the influence of benthos abundance when assessing the potential impact of a small wind park on wintering sea ducks. Using the Before-After-Control-Impact design, it was suggested in a recent study that the wind park provoked a decline in the abundance and a change in the distribution of common eiders Somateria mollissima and common scoters Melanitta nigra. However, the observed decline in sea duck abundance occurred concomitantly with a decline of benthic food supplies. We measured concomitant food and common eider abundance for a fourth year at Tunoe Knob to test the hypothesis that, if food abundance increases again, we should also observe an increase in duck abundance. The methods used in this study are similar to those applied in the aforementioned study. The results showed that the average number of common eiders increased considerably in 1997-98 (3,361 individuals) compared to 1996-97 (458), even surpassing the level observed during the baseline years in 1994-95 (1,821). A significant increase in the abundance of common scoters occurred in 1997-98 compared to 1995-96 and 1996-97, but not in relation to the baseline year. The abundance of food for sea ducks also increased in 1997-98 where the frequency of occurrence of most potential prey reached the level observed during the baseline year. The density of blue mussels, a preferred prey species, was 1,113 individuals m -2 in 1997-98 compared to 11,111 individuals m -2 during the baseline year and only 100 individuals m -2 in 1996-97. Computations of the amount of food supply eaten by wintering common eiders suggest that, during the baseline year, prey were superabundant. This may explain why we observed a great abundance of common eiders in 1997-98 despite the fact that mussel abundance did not reach the level observed during the baseline year. Finally, the distribution of common eiders in 1997-98 on the study site as a whole was very similar to the distribution observed during the

  16. Radionuclides in Tissues of Marine Birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, N.; Matishov, D.

    2004-01-01

    The birds are higher links of trophic nets of marine ecosystems and are capable to store in organs and tissues radionuclides. We can inspect radionuclides contents in marine ecosystems on a their contents of in birds. Objects of our research were marine birds, including seagull (the Herring gull Larus aregentatus, the Great Blackback Larus marinus), the Black guillemot Cepphus grylle, the Eider Somateria mollissima, the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo and the Arctic Stercorarius parasiticus. Researches were conducted in August 2000 and 2001 near to the biological station of Murmansk Marine Biological Institute in a point Dalnije Zelentsy on the cost of the Sea Barents. Contents of plutonium-239, 240, cesium-137 and strontium-90 in bones, skin and fatherless and muscles of birds were researched. The contents of cesium - 137 varied from 0,99 Bq/kg in a skin and feathers of the Herring gull up to 177 Bq/kg in muscles of the Great Blackback, the contents strontium-90 varied from 25 mBq/kg in a skin and feathers of the Cormorant up to 7140 mBq/kg in bones the Eider. The contents of plutonium-239,240 varied from 1,8 mBq/kg in muscles of the Eider up to 23 mBq/kg in skeleton of the Great Blackback. The content of this radionuclide was higher for adult, i.e. was enlarged with age. Higher concentrations in tissues are founded for the Eider and the Great Blackback. So, the average concentrations of cesium - 137 in muscles the Eider have constituted 1,5 Bq/kg, the Great Blackback -73,5 Bq/kg, the Black guillemot -16 Bq/kg, the Arctic scua - 1,3 Bq/kg, the Herring gull - 8,7 Bq/kg. Average concentrations of cesium - 137 in bones of the Eider were1,6 Bq/kg, the Great Blackback - 19,8Bq/kg, the Herring gull - 2,2 Bq/kg. The average concentrations strontium-90 in a skin and feathers of the Cormorant were 20 mBq/kg, the Great Blackback - 1288 mBq/kg, the Herring gull - 690 mBq/kg. It is founded that distribution the contents of strontium-90 in bones significantly varies from species

  17. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  18. Is the distribution and abundance of waterbirds altered in and around Danish Offshore wind farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ib Krag

    programmes for Horns Rev 1 and the Nysted offshore wind farms were initiated, and after the erection of the turbines post-construction monitoring programmes were initiated. Data from these investigations will be touched upon. At Nysted offshore wind farm common eiders (Somateria mollissima) avoided flying...... and the near surroundings. Common scoters (Melanitta nigra) initially showed signs of avoidance, but in the spring of 2007 birds were seen in densities within the Horns Rev 1 wind farm that was equal to the densities found around the wind farm. Very recent findings from Horns Rev 2 indicate that this have......In 1999 a Danish demonstration programme concerning offshore wind farms was initiated. The aim was to evaluate environmental and technical aspects in relation to introducing these new structures at sea. Aarhus University was involved in ornithological investigations in that respect. Monitoring...

  19. Sex determination of duck embryos: observations on syrinx development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2013-01-01

    Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexing developing embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.

  20. Assessment of blue mussel Mytilus edulis fisheries and waterbird shellfish-predator management in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karsten; Kristensen, Per Sand; Clausen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    biomass and mussel bed areas in zones closed to fishery, (ii) decrease in eiders Somateria mollissima numbers and increase or stable numbers for oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus and herring gull Larus argentatus and (iii) that energy estimations based on ecological food requirements for the mussel-eating......We assessed the blue mussel Mytilus edulis fishery management scheme introduced in 1994 in the Danish Wadden Sea that regulate fishing vessels, fishery quota, set-aside for mussel-eating birds and established zones closed to mussel fishery. The results showed (i) a reduction in the blue mussel......, it is recommended to revise the present blue mussel management scheme in the Danish Wadden Sea, to continue and improve mussel stock and bird surveys, and to consider novel studies of the mussel-eating birds’ energetics for improved set-aside estimates and future assessments....

  1. Inter- and intraclutch variation in egg mercury levels in marine bird species from the Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akearok, Jason A.; Hebert, Craig E.; Braune, Birgit M.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that has been of increasing concern in the Canadian Arctic. We measured total Hg in eggs of three marine birds (Arctic terns Sterna paradisaea, common eiders Somateria mollissima borealis, long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that breed in the Canadian Arctic, to compare Hg laying order effects from the same clutch and to examine Hg among species. Early-laid eggs of all three species had 24-48% higher Hg concentrations than late laid eggs. Arctic terns had approximately twice the concentration of Hg in their eggs as the two duck species, and Hg in eider eggs from the High Arctic was higher than Hg in eggs from the Low Arctic. Higher Hg in tern eggs was consistent with this species occupying a higher trophic position in marine food webs, as indicated by stable nitrogen isotope (δ 15 N) values. The egg-laying sequence may need to be considered for Hg biomonitoring studies where small samples sizes are planned, and early eggs may be preferable for such studies since early eggs may be more representative of potential maximum levels of Hg in the marine food webs.

  2. Longer ice-free seasons increase the risk of nest depredation by polar bears for colonial breeding birds in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, H Grant; Smith, Paul A; Gaston, Anthony J; Forbes, Mark R

    2014-03-22

    Northern polar regions have warmed more than other parts of the globe potentially amplifying the effects of climate change on biological communities. Ice-free seasons are becoming longer in many areas, which has reduced the time available to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to hunt for seals and hampered bears' ability to meet their energetic demands. In this study, we examined polar bears' use of an ancillary prey resource, eggs of colonial nesting birds, in relation to diminishing sea ice coverage in a low latitude region of the Canadian Arctic. Long-term monitoring reveals that bear incursions onto common eider (Somateria mollissima) and thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) nesting colonies have increased greater than sevenfold since the 1980s and that there is an inverse correlation between ice season length and bear presence. In surveys encompassing more than 1000 km of coastline during years of record low ice coverage (2010-2012), we encountered bears or bear sign on 34% of eider colonies and estimated greater egg loss as a consequence of depredation by bears than by more customary nest predators, such as foxes and gulls. Our findings demonstrate how changes in abiotic conditions caused by climate change have altered predator-prey dynamics and are leading to cascading ecological impacts in Arctic ecosystems.

  3. Comparison of lead residues among avian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, A.L.M.; Braune, B.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bond, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 μg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 μg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. - Variability in Pb concentrations among avian bones

  4. Direct and indirect causes of sex differences in mercury concentrations and parasitic infections in a marine bird

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provencher, J.F., E-mail: jennifpro@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Gilchrist, H.G. [Wildlife Research Division, National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, M.L. [Department of Biology, Acadia University, 33 Westwood Ave, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Mitchell, G.W. [Wildlife Research Division, National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Forbes, M.R. [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2016-05-01

    In many animal species, males and females differ in their levels of contaminants and/or parasitic infections. Most contaminants and gastro-intestinal parasites are obtained through prey ingestion, and thus the causes of sex differences in the distribution of these factors might follow similar pathways. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria molissima borealis) as an avian model, and used directed separation path analysis to explore the causes of sex differences in mercury (Hg) and gastro-intestinal helminths. Two trophically transmitted helminths were examined: a cestode (Lateriporus sp.) and an acanthocephalan (Polymorphus sp). We found that the number of Lateriporus sp. varied positively with stable isotope signature (as indicated by δ{sup 15}N in eider breast muscle tissue), and negatively with crustaceans being present in the short term diet. We also found that Polymorphus sp. varied positively with eider tissue stable isotope signature. However, Polymorphus sp. varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass. Similarly, Hg concentrations also varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass, with both Polymorphus sp. intensity and Hg concentrations significantly higher in males. We found that model fit increased when a negative relationship between the two helminth species was included, suggesting a yet unknown causal mechanism linking these parasites. Our findings suggest that although Hg and gastro-intestinal parasites are both trophically transmitted through the eider's prey items, the factors that contribute towards bioaccumulation of these two burdens differ in source, likely caused by several different factors and may potentially influence each other. - Highlights: • Contaminants and parasitic infections often co-occur in wildlife and have similar effects • Understanding the distribution of multiple burdens allows for better interpretation of effects • Path analysis was used to

  5. Respons Pertumbuhan Berbagai Ukuran Diameter Batang Stek Bugenvil (Bougainvillea SpectabilisWilld.) terhadap Pemberian Zat Pengatur Tumbuh

    OpenAIRE

    H Panjaitan, Leo Richi; Ginting, Jasmani; Haryati, Haryati

    2014-01-01

    Successive percentage of bugenvil plant propagation by cutting method is low enough sincebugenvil is difficult to rooting plant. The availability of carbohydrate source and plant growthregulator in the stem cutting are factors that influencing the successive of cutting. Solution to solvethis problem is selection of the size of stem and giving the exsogen plant growth regulator. Theresearch was done in Screen House at Agricultural Faculty, University of North Sumatra, Medan inJanuary until Aug...

  6. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, Mark D; Zimmerman, Guthrie S; Dwyer, Chris P; Fleming, Kathleen K; Padding, Paul I; Devers, Patrick K; Johnson, Fred A; Runge, Michael C; Roberts, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  7. The status of sea ducks in the North Pacific Rim: Toward their conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, R. Ian; Brault, Solange; Conant, Bruce; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Vermeer, Kees; McCabe, Richard E.; Wadsworth, Kelly G.

    1994-01-01

    Sea ducks (tribe Mergini after Johnsgard 1960) are the most northerly distributed ducks, and species diversity is greatest in the North Pacific. They exploit a diversity of inshore and offshore marine habitats during the non-breeding season, and their use of habitat during breeding varies from coastal through freshwater wetlands of the tundra and taiga (Figure 1, Appendix 1). Non-breeding cohorts frequent marine habitats most of the year. Sea ducks thus are important indicators of the quality of freshwater and marine ecosystems of northern biomes.Of the 17 species discussed in this manuscript, at least 3 are reported to be declining (Appendix 2). However, the basis for many of those assessments is equivocal because there has been little effort to monitor populations. The efforts to more precisely assess their status point to catastrophic declines (Kertell 1991, Stehn et a 1993). Conservation problems related to sea ducks have a long history throughout the Holarctic. For example, the Labrador duck (Camptorhynchus labradorius) became extinct in 1875. (Phillips 1925); common eiders (Somateria mollissima) declined seriously throughout the northern hemisphere (Townsend 1914, Phillips 1925, Doughty 1979); harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) experienced declines in Iceland and Greenland (Gudmundsson1971, Salomonson 1950), and more recently have been designated endangered in eastern Canada (Committee On the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada 1990). In Russia, all species of eider and harlequin ducks have been closed to sport hunting since 1981, and the Chinese mergansers (Mergus squamatus) presently are extremely rare and fully protected, i.e. category one of the red book (Solomonov 1987).

  8. Mercury concentrations in seabird tissues from Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alexander L., E-mail: abond@mun.ca [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Diamond, Antony W. [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Mercury is a pervasive environmental contaminant, the anthropogenic portion of which is increasing globally, and in northeastern North America in particular. Seabirds frequently are used as indicators of the marine environment, including mercury contamination. We analysed paired samples for total mercury (Hg) concentrations in feathers and blood from adult and chick, albumen, and lipid-free yolk of seven seabirds breeding on Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada - Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea), Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), Leach's Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), and Razorbill (Alca torda). We also used stable-isotope ratios of carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C), and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) to evaluate the relationship between carbon source and trophic position and mercury. We found high Hg concentrations across tissue types in Leach's Storm-petrels, and Razorbills, with lower concentrations in other species, the lowest being in Common Eiders. Storm-petrels prey on mesopelagic fish that accumulate mercury, and Razorbills feed on larger, older fish that bioaccumulate heavy metals. Biomagnification of Hg, or the increase in Hg concentration with trophic position as measured by {delta}{sup 15}N, was significant and greater in albumen than other tissues, whereas in other tissues, {delta}{sup 15}N explained little of the overall variation in Hg concentration. Hg concentrations in egg components are higher on Machias Seal Island than other sites globally and in the Gulf of Maine region, but only for some species. Further detailed investigations are required to determine the cause of this trend.

  9. Predation on seabirds by red foxes at Shaiak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two Red Foxes (Vulpes fulva) that invaded Shaiak Island before the 1976 nesting season had a marked impact on the nesting success of five of seven species of seabirds breeding on the island that year. Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), and Common Murres (Uria aalge), that nest in areas accessible to foxes, did not raise any young to fledging. Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) were only slightly more successful; 13 (4.3%) of 300 pairs raised one or more young to fledging. Evidence suggested that 21 (35.6%) of 62 pairs of Tufted Puffins (Lunda cirrhata) lost eggs or chicks to foxes, and foxes killed at least 13 (8.3%) of 156 adult puffins on ten sample plots. Conversely, Black-Legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), which nested primarily on cliffs inaccessible to foxes, lost very few nests. There was no apparent change in general nest site selections by seabirds the following year, when foxes were no longer present. Any avoidance by birds of areas vulnerable to fox predation would probably be discernible only after several years of continuous predation.

  10. Molecular characterization of Giardia intestinalis haplotypes in marine animals: variation and zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Bogomolni, Andrea L; Gast, Rebecca J; Welch, David Mark; Ellis, Julie C; Sogin, Mitchell L; Moore, Michael J

    2008-08-19

    Giardia intestinalis is a microbial eukaryotic parasite that causes diarrheal disease in humans and other vertebrates worldwide. The negative effect on quality of life and economics caused by G. intestinalis may be increased by its potential status as a zoonosis, or a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. The zoonotic potential of G. intestinalis has been implied for over 2 decades, with human-infecting genotypes (belonging to the 2 major subgroups, Assemblages A and B) occurring in wildlife and domesticated animals. There are recent reports of G. intestinalis in shellfish, seals, sea lions and whales, suggesting that marine animals are also potential reservoirs of human disease. However, the prevalence, genetic diversity and effect of G. intestinalis in marine environments and the role that marine animals play in transmission of this parasite to humans are relatively unexplored. Here, we provide the first thorough molecular characterization of G. intestinalis in marine vertebrates. Using a multi-locus sequencing approach, we identify human-infecting G. intestinalis haplotypes of both Assemblages A and B in the fecal material of dolphins, porpoises, seals, herring gulls Larus argentatus, common eiders Somateria mollissima and a thresher shark Alopias vulpinus. Our results indicate that G. intestinalis is prevalent in marine ecosystems, and a wide range of marine hosts capable of harboring zoonotic forms of this parasite exist. The presence of G. intestinalis in marine ecosystems raises concerns about how this disease might be transmitted among different host species.

  11. Migration and opportunistic feeding increase PCB accumulation in Arctic seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

    2013-10-15

    It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses.

  12. Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon‐Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid‐June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

  13. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.

  14. Assessing the impact of marine wind farms on birds through movement modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masden, Elizabeth A; Reeve, Richard; Desholm, Mark; Fox, Anthony D; Furness, Robert W; Haydon, Daniel T

    2012-09-07

    Advances in technology and engineering, along with European Union renewable energy targets, have stimulated a rapid growth of the wind power sector. Wind farms contribute to carbon emission reductions, but there is a need to ensure that these structures do not adversely impact the populations that interact with them, particularly birds. We developed movement models based on observed avoidance responses of common eider Somateria mollissima to wind farms to predict, and identify potential measures to reduce, impacts. Flight trajectory data that were collected post-construction of the Danish Nysted offshore wind farm were used to parameterize competing models of bird movements around turbines. The model most closely fitting the observed data incorporated individual variation in the minimum distance at which birds responded to the turbines. We show how such models can contribute to the spatial planning of wind farms by assessing their extent, turbine spacing and configurations on the probability of birds passing between the turbines. Avian movement models can make new contributions to environmental assessments of wind farm developments, and provide insights into how to reduce impacts that can be identified at the planning stage.

  15. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Öst

    Full Text Available Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality, or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.

  16. High seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza viruses among wild waterfowl in Alaska: implications for surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather M.; Hall, Jeffery S.; Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998–2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics.

  17. Nest materials as a source of genetic data for avian ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J.M.; Fields, R.L.; Scribner, K.T.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the utility of feathers and egg shell membranes, deposited in the nests of Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri), as a source of DNA for genetic studies at both the population and individual level. The potential for feather DNA contamination as a result of female behavioral interactions (e.g. nest parasitism), reuse of nest sites from previous years, or other unknown occurrences was acknowledged and specifically tested. DNA was successfully extracted from both feathers and egg shell membranes and waterfowl microsatellite loci were used to construct individual genotypes. We found no difference in the genotypes obtained from nest feathers or blood of the incubating female. Detection of nest feather contamination was possible with as little as one feather when samples from multiple females were intentionally mixed. Triplicate DNA extractions from 33 nests provided a means of detecting contamination in 3 nests. Egg membranes proved a viable source of offspring DNA and can contribute valuable data to investigations of parentage when assayed jointly with maternal feather DNA. Nest materials provide an efficient, non-invasive method of genetic sampling that can be readily incorporated into field research. However, the natural history traits and mating strategies of a species must be considered during sample collection to identify the possible sources of nest materials (e.g., paternal, maternal, parasite, etc.). Specific experiments should also be designed to test sampling assumptions.

  18. Energetic Physiology Mediates Individual Optimization of Breeding Phenology in a Migratory Arctic Seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennin, Holly L; Bêty, Jöel; Legagneux, Pierre; Gilchrist, H Grant; Williams, Tony D; Love, Oliver P

    2016-10-01

    The influence of variation in individual state on key reproductive decisions impacting fitness is well appreciated in evolutionary ecology. Rowe et al. (1994) developed a condition-dependent individual optimization model predicting that three key factors impact the ability of migratory female birds to individually optimize breeding phenology to maximize fitness in seasonal environments: arrival condition, arrival date, and ability to gain in condition on the breeding grounds. While empirical studies have confirmed that greater arrival body mass and earlier arrival dates result in earlier laying, no study has assessed whether individual variation in energetic management of condition gain effects this key fitness-related decision. Using an 8-year data set from over 350 prebreeding female Arctic common eiders (Somateria mollissima), we tested this component of the model by examining whether individual variation in two physiological traits influencing energetic management (plasma triglycerides: physiological fattening rate; baseline corticosterone: energetic demand) predicted individual variation in breeding phenology after controlling for arrival date and body mass. As predicted by the optimization model, individuals with higher fattening rates and lower energetic demand had the earliest breeding phenology (shortest delays between arrival and laying; earliest laying dates). Our results are the first to empirically determine that individual flexibility in prebreeding energetic management influences key fitness-related reproductive decisions, suggesting that individuals have the capacity to optimally manage reproductive investment.

  19. A comparison of auditory brainstem responses across diving bird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sara E.; Berlin, Alicia; Carr, Catherine E.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Therrien, Ronald E.; Yannuzzi, Sally E.; Ketten, Darlene R.

    2015-01-01

    There is little biological data available for diving birds because many live in hard-to-study, remote habitats. Only one species of diving bird, the black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus), has been studied in respect to auditory capabilities (Wever et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 63:676–680, 1969). We, therefore, measured in-air auditory threshold in ten species of diving birds, using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The average audiogram obtained for each species followed the U-shape typical of birds and many other animals. All species tested shared a common region of the greatest sensitivity, from 1000 to 3000 Hz, although audiograms differed significantly across species. Thresholds of all duck species tested were more similar to each other than to the two non-duck species tested. The red-throated loon (Gavia stellata) and northern gannet (Morus bassanus) exhibited the highest thresholds while the lowest thresholds belonged to the duck species, specifically the lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis). Vocalization parameters were also measured for each species, and showed that with the exception of the common eider (Somateria mollisima), the peak frequency, i.e., frequency at the greatest intensity, of all species' vocalizations measured here fell between 1000 and 3000 Hz, matching the bandwidth of the most sensitive hearing range.

  20. New Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Obtained from Extracted Bracts of Bougainvillea Glabra and Spectabilis Betalain Pigments by Different Purification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Rodriguez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC based in a natural dye extracted from the Bougainvillea spectabilis’ bracts, is reported. The performance of this solar cell was compared with cells prepared using extract of the Bougainvillea glabra and mixture of both extracts; in both cases the pigments were betalains, obtained from Reddish-purple extract. These dyes were purified to different extents and used for the construction of solar cells that were electrically characterized. The materials were characterized using FTIR and UV-Vis. Solar cells were assembled using TiO2 thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO-coated glass; a mesoporous film was sensitized with the Bougainvillea extracts. The obtained solar energy conversion efficiency was of 0.48% with a current density JSC of 2.29 mA/cm2 using an irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 °C.

  1. Using life-histories to predict and interpret variability in yolk hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, O P; Gilchrist, H G; Bêty, J; Wynne-Edwards, K E; Berzins, L; Williams, T D

    2009-09-01

    Variation in yolk hormones is assumed to provide the plasticity necessary for mothers to individually optimize reproductive decisions via changes in offspring phenotype, the benefit being to maximise fitness. However, rather than routinely expecting adaptive variation within all species, the pattern and magnitude of yolk hormone deposition should theoretically relate to variation in life-histories. Here we present data on intra-clutch variation in yolk corticosterone in three species along a developmental continuum (European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): fully altricial; black guillemot (Cepphus grylle): semi-precocial; common eider (Somateria mollissima): fully precocial) to examine how and why variation in life-histories might relate to the evolution of variation in yolk steroids. Starlings and guillemots showed a significant increase in yolk corticosterone across the laying sequence; however, we found no pattern within eider clutches. Moreover, starlings showed the largest difference (94.6%) in yolk corticosterone between first- and last-laid eggs, whereas guillemots showed a moderate difference (58.9%). Despite these general species-specific patterns, individuals showed marked variation in the intra-clutch patterns of yolk corticosterone within each species indicating potential differences in intra-clutch flexibility among females. It is well documented that exposure to elevated yolk glucocorticoids reduces offspring quality at birth/hatching in many taxa and it has therefore been proposed that elevated yolk levels may modulate offspring competition and/or facilitate brood reduction under harsh conditions in birds. Our data suggests that intra-clutch variation in yolk corticosterone has the potential to act as an adaptive maternal effect in species where modulation of competition between nest-bound offspring would benefit mothers (starlings and guillemots). However, in precocial species where mothers would not benefit from a modulation of offspring quality

  2. Biogeochemical Indicators in High- and Low-Arctic Marine and Terrestrial Avian Community Changes: Comparative Isotopic (13C, 15N, and 34S) Studies in Alaska and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, D.; Bargmann, N. A.; Burnham, K. K.; Burnham, J. L.; Padula, V. M.; Johnson, J. A.; Welker, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the complex dynamics of environmental change in northern latitudes is of paramount importance today, given documented rapid shifts in sea ice, plant phenology, temperatures, deglaciation, and habitat fidelity. This knowledge is particularly critical for Arctic avian communities, which are integral components by which biological teleconnections are maintained between the mid and northern latitudes. Furthermore, Arctic birds are fundamental to Native subsistence lifestyles and a focus for conservation activities. Avian communities of marine and terrestrial Arctic environments represent a broad spectrum of trophic levels, from herbivores (eg., geese Chen spp.), planktivores (eg., auklets Aethia spp.), and insectivores (eg., passerines: Wheatears Oenanthe spp., Longspurs Calcarius spp.), to predators of marine invertebrates (eg., eiders Somateria spp.), nearshore and offshore fish (eg., cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, puffins Fratercula spp.), even other bird species (eg., gulls Larus spp., falcons Peregrinus spp.). This diversity of trophic interconnections is an integral factor in the dynamics of Arctic ecosystem ecology, and they are key indicators for the strength and trajectories of change. We are especially interested in their feeding ecology, using stable isotope-diet relations to examine historical diets and to predict future feeding ecology by this range of species. Since 2009, we have been studying the foodweb ecology using stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) of contemporaneous coastal and marine bird communities in High Arctic (Northwest Greenland) and Low Arctic (western Aleutian Islands, AK). We are quantifying the isotopic values of blood, organ tissues, and feathers, and have carried out comparisons between native and lipid-extracted samples. Although geographically distant, these communities comprise similar taxonomic and ecological congeners, including several species common to both (eg., Common Eider, Black-legged Kittiwake, Northern

  3. Persistent organic pollutants in biota samples collected during the Ymer-80 expedition to the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kylin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the 1980 expedition to the Arctic with the icebreaker Ymer, a number of vertebrate species were sampled for determination of persistent organic pollutants. Samples of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, n=34, glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus, n=8, common eider (Somateria mollissima, n=10, Brünnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia, n=9, ringed seal (Pusa hispida, n=2 and polar bear (Ursus maritimus, n=2 were collected. With the exception of Brünnich's guillemot, there was a marked contamination difference of birds from western as compared to eastern/northern Svalbard. Samples in the west contained a larger number of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners and also polychlorinated terphenyls, indicating local sources. Brünnich's guillemots had similar pollutant concentrations in the west and east/north; possibly younger birds were sampled in the west. In Arctic char, pollutant profiles from lake Linnévatn (n=5, the lake closest to the main economic activities in Svalbard, were similar to profiles in Arctic char from the Shetland Islands (n=5, but differed from lakes to the north and east in Svalbard (n=30. Arctic char samples had higher concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs than the marine species of birds and mammals, possibly due to accumulation via snowmelt. Compared to the Baltic Sea, comparable species collected in Svalbard had lower concentrations of PCB and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, but similar concentrations indicating long-range transport of hexachlorobenzene, HCHs and cyclodiene pesticides. In samples collected in Svalbard in 1971, the concentrations of PCB and DDT in Brünnich's guillemot (n=7, glaucous gull (n=2 and polar bear (n=2 were similar to the concentrations found in 1980.

  4. Climate change and the increasing impact of polar bears on bird populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouke eProp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is becoming warmer at a high rate, and contractions in the extent of sea ice are currently changing the habitats of marine top-predators dependent on ice. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus depend on sea ice for hunting seals. For these top-predators, longer ice-free seasons are hypothesized to force the bears to hunt for alternative terrestrial food, such as eggs from colonial breeding birds. We analyzed time-series of polar bear observations at four locations on Spitsbergen (Svalbard and one in east Greenland. Summer occurrence of polar bears, measured as the probability of encountering bears and the number of days with bear presence, has increased significantly from the 1970/80s to the present. The shifts in polar bear occurrence coincided with trends for shorter sea ice seasons and less sea ice during the spring in the study area. This resulted in a strong inverse relationship between the probability of bear encounters on land and the length of the sea ice season. Within ten years after their first appearance on land, polar bears had advanced their arrival dates by almost 30 days. Direct observations of nest predation showed that polar bears may severely affect reproductive success of the barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis, common eider (Somateria mollissima and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus. Nest predation was strongest in years when the polar bears arrived well before hatch, with more than 90% of all nests being predated. The results are similar to findings from Canada, and large-scale processes, such as climate and subsequent habitat changes, are pinpointed as the most likely drivers in various parts of the Arctic. We suggest that the increasing, earlier appearance of bears on land in summer reflects behavioral adaptations by a small segment of the population to cope with a reduced hunting range on sea ice. This exemplifies how behavioral adaptations may contribute to the cascading effects of climate change.

  5. Distribution patterns of wintering sea ducks in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation and local environmental characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Silverman, Emily D.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini) winter off the eastern coast of the United States and Canada. Yet, despite their seasonal proximity to urbanized areas in this region, there is limited information on patterns of wintering sea duck habitat use. It is difficult to gather information on sea ducks because of the relative inaccessibility of their offshore locations, their high degree of mobility, and their aggregated distributions. To characterize environmental conditions that affect wintering distributions, as well as their geographic ranges, we analyzed count data on five species of sea ducks (black scoters Melanitta nigra americana, surf scoters M. perspicillata, white-winged scoters M. fusca, common eiders Somateria mollissima, and long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that were collected during the Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey for ten years starting in the early 1990s. We modeled count data for each species within ten-nautical-mile linear survey segments using a zero-inflated negative binomial model that included four local-scale habitat covariates (sea surface temperature, mean bottom depth, maximum bottom slope, and a variable to indicate if the segment was in a bay or not), one broad-scale covariate (the North Atlantic Oscillation), and a temporal correlation component. Our results indicate that species distributions have strong latitudinal gradients and consistency in local habitat use. The North Atlantic Oscillation was the only environmental covariate that had a significant (but variable) effect on the expected count for all five species, suggesting that broad-scale climatic conditions may be directly or indirectly important to the distributions of wintering sea ducks. Our results provide critical information on species-habitat associations, elucidate the complicated relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation, sea surface temperature, and local sea duck abundances, and should be useful in assessing the impacts of climate

  6. Efeito da aplicação de maravilha (Mirabilis jalapa L., primavera (Bougainvillea spectabilis L. e isolados de Trichoderma na produção de alface Effect of four o'clock flowers (Mirabilis jalapa L., bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis L. and Trichoderma spp. isolates in production of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Azevedo Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar o efeito de extratos foliares de primavera (Bougainvillea spetabilis L. e maravilha (Mirabilis jalapa L. e de Trichoderma spp., isoladamente ou em combinação, no manejo de viroses e na produção de alface. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em área de produção de hortaliças folhosas no município de Pinhalzinho/SP. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com dez tratamentos comparados com controle químico convencional. Foram observadas reduções de 18% e 32% na população de bactérias da rizosfera nas plantas de alface tratadas com o isolado IB18/22 e extrato de primavera + isolados de Trichoderma spp., respectivamente. Verificou-se que o extrato de maravilha estimulou o aumento do número de UFC/g da população de fungos. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa na massa fresca da parte aérea e, apesar da pressão de inóculo e da alta densidade populacional de insetos vetores de vírus no local, não foi constatada a ocorrência de viroses, com exceção do espessamento de nervuras, que ocorreu em menor número em plantas tratadas, comparadas as do controle. Economicamente, houve 27,8% de lucratividade e margem bruta de 38,5%, indicando a viabilidade do uso de ferramentas de base ecológica no cultivo de alface. Além disso, os produtos usados são de fácil aquisição, seguros em termos de aplicação, meio ambiente e para o consumidor.The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of leaf extracts of bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spetabilis L. and of four o'clock flowers (Mirabilis jalapa L. plants and Trichoderma spp., alone or in combination, on viruses management and lettuce production. The tests were conducted in a producing area in Pinhalzinho-SP. The experimental design was randomized blocks with ten treatments in comparison with conventional chemical control. Reductions of 18% and 32% in the bacterial population of the lettuce rhizosphere treated with IB18/22 isolate and bougainvillea extract + Trichoderma spp. isolates, respectivelly, were observed. Four o'clock plant leaf extract stimulated growth of CFU / g number of fungi population. However, no significant change in fresh mass and size of lettuce was observed, and despite the inoculum pressure and high population density of virus vector insects in place, the occurrence of viruses was not found, except for big-vein syndrome which was higher in control than in treated plants. Economically, 27.8% net profit and 38.5% gross profit margin were verified, indicating that the use of ecological tools in lettuce crops is feasible. Moreover, the products are easy to obtain, safe to apply and safe for environment and human consumption.

  7. Regulation of stroke pattern and swim speed across a range of current velocities: Diving by common eiders wintering in polynyas in the Canadian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heath, J.P.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Swim speed during diving has important energetic consequences. Not only do costs increase as drag rises non-linearly with increasing speed, but speed also affects travel time to foraging patches and therefore time and energy budgets over the entire dive cycle. However, diving behaviour has rarely

  8. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, Aaron T.; Wit, Cynthia A. de; Wayland, Mark; Kuzyk, Zou Zou; Burgess, Neil; Letcher, Robert; Braune, Birgit; Norstrom, Ross; Blum, Susan Polischuk; Sandau, Courtney; Lie, Elisabeth; Larsen, Hans Jorgen S.; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds

  9. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, Aaron T. [Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152 (United States)]. E-mail: afisk@forestry.uga.edu; Wit, Cynthia A. de [Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Wayland, Mark [Prairie and Northern Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Kuzyk, Zou Zou [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Burgess, Neil [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 6 Bruce St. Mt. Pearl, NL, A1N4T3 (Canada); Letcher, Robert [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Braune, Birgit [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Norstrom, Ross [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Blum, Susan Polischuk [Office of Research Services, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 4J8 (Canada); Sandau, Courtney [Jacques Whitford Limited, Calgary, AB, T2R 0E4 (Canada); Lie, Elisabeth [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Larsen, Hans Jorgen S. [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Skaare, Janneche Utne [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Muir, Derek C.G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds

  10. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, Mark D.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Dwyer, Chris P.; Fleming, Kathleen K.; Padding, Paul I.; Devers, Patrick K.; Johnson, Fred A.; Runge, Michael C.; Roberts, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  11. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Koneff

    Full Text Available Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini. Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits, and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri, eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana and surf scoter (M. perspicillata, and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis. We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax, and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared

  12. Offshore Seabird Distributions during Summer and Autumn at West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.

    . During the autumn the numbers of seabirds increase as migrants from local and international populations of mainly thick-billed murre and little auk arrive to spend the winter in West Greenland waters. Huge concentrations of thick-billed murres, common eiders and king-eiders may occur then...

  13. Stable isotopes can be used to infer the overwintering locations of prebreeding marine birds in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenweg, Rolanda J.; Crossin, Glenn T.; Kyser, T. Kurt

    2017-01-01

    their arrival at our breeding colony, and used a k-means cluster analysis approach to match arriving eiders to an overwintering group. Samples from the claws of eiders were most effective for determining overwinter origin, due to this tissue's slow growth rate relative to the 40-day turnover rate of blood...

  14. AK-Contaminant exposure and habitat use by declining species of sea ducks wintering near industrial developments on the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Declines of Steller’s eiders (Polysticta stelleri) (STEIs) have resulted in listing the North American breeding population as Threatened under the Endangered Species...

  15. 75 FR 65599 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ...: April 2-May 31 and July 1-August 31. (ii) Closure: June 1-30. (k) Cook Inlet (Harvest area: portions of... Steller's eiders to be taken no longer exists. Dated: October 7, 2010. Thomas L. Strickland, Assistant...

  16. Absence of psilocybin in species of fungi previously reported to contain psilocybin and related tryptamine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Stijve, T.; Kuyper, Th.W.

    1988-01-01

    Seven taxa of agarics reported in literature to contain psilocybin (viz. Psathyrella candolleana, Gymnopilus spectabilis, G. fulgens, Hygrocybe psittacina var. psittacina and var. californica, Rickenella fibula, R. swartzii) have been analysed for psilocybin and related tryptamines with negative results.

  17. Absence of psilocybin in species of fungi previously reported to contain psilocybin and related tryptamine derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijve, T.; Kuyper, Th.W.

    1988-01-01

    Seven taxa of agarics reported in literature to contain psilocybin (viz. Psathyrella candolleana, Gymnopilus spectabilis, G. fulgens, Hygrocybe psittacina var. psittacina and var. californica, Rickenella fibula, R. swartzii) have been analysed for psilocybin and related tryptamines with negative

  18. Comparisons of stomatal parameters between normal and abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ED), guard cell length (GCL) and guard cell width (GCW) of normal and abnormal leaf of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd were studied. This can be useful for further research of physical mechanism of abnormal leaf. Epidermal cells were ...

  19. Responses of southeast Alaska understory species to variation in light and soil environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Hanley; Bernard T. Bormann; Jeffrey C. Barnard; S. Mark Nay

    2014-01-01

    Aboveground growth rates of seedlings of bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.), oval-leaf blueberry (Vaccinium ovalifolium Sm.), salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis Pursh), devilsclub (Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq.), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) were...

  20. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of south-west Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; DebRoy, Chitrita; Flint, Paul L.; Safine, David E.; Schamber, Jason L.; Riddle, Ann E.; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds.

  1. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of south-west Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E; Debroy, Chitrita; Flint, Paul L; Safine, David E; Schamber, Jason L; Riddle, Ann E; Trust, Kimberly A

    2011-04-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Espécies vegetais para cobertura do solo: influência sobre plantas daninhas e a produtividade do algodoeiro em sistema plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Cunha de Barcellos Ferreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a produção, a persistência e os efeitos de coberturas vegetais sobre as plantas daninhas e a produtividade do algodoeiro em sistema plantio direto. Os tratamentos consistiram das espécies de cobertura: milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown, Brachiaria ruziziensis Germain & Evrard, sorgo forrageiro (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, capim-pé-de-galinha (Eleusine coracana L. Gaerth, Crotalaria juncea L., Crotalaria spectabilis Roth, aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb., nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L., P. glaucum + C. juncea, P. glaucum + C. spectabilis, B. ruziziensis + C. juncea, B. ruziziensis + C. spectabilis, S. bicolor + C. juncea, S. bicolor + C. spectabilis, E. coracana + C. juncea, E. coracana + C. spectabilis, A. strigosa + R. sativus, P. glaucum + R. sativus e pousio. As espécies foram semeadas no final do verão, após a colheita de soja, e o algodoeiro BRS 269-Buriti, nove meses após. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. As espécies B. ruziziensis, B. ruziziensis + C. juncea, B. ruziziensis + C. spectabilis e P. glaucum + R. sativus produziram mais de 6,8 t ha-1 de biomassa seca. A palhada produzida pela B. ruziziensis garantiu boa cobertura do solo durante o ciclo do algodoeiro. A biomassa seca de B. ruziziensis, B. ruziziensis + C. juncea e B. ruziziensis + C. spectabilis reduziu a infestação de plantas daninhas até a época de semeadura do algodão e durante os estádios iniciais de seu desenvolvimento. Palhas de R. sativus e A. strigosa, solteiras e consorciadas, interferiram negativamente na produtividade do algodoeiro.

  3. Evidence for limited exchange of avian influenza viruses between seaducks and dabbling ducks at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Pearce, John M.; Reeves, A.B.; Franson, J. Christian; Petersen, Margaret R.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence and sequence data were analyzed for Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) to assess the role of this species in transporting virus genes between continents and maintaining a regional viral reservoir with sympatric northern pintails (Anas acuta). AIV prevalence was 0.2% at Izembek Lagoon and 3.9% at Nelson Lagoon for Steller's eiders and 11.2% for northern pintails at Izembek Lagoon. Phylogenetic analysis of 13 AIVs from Steller's eiders revealed that 4.9% of genes were of Eurasian origin. Seven subtypes were detected, including two also observed in northern pintails. No AIV strains were highly similar (> 99%) at all gene segments between species; however, highly similar individual genes were detected. The proportion of highly similar genes was greater within rather than between species. Steller's eiders likely transport AIV genes between continents through long-distance migratory movements. Differences in AIV prevalence, subtype distribution, and the proportion of highly similar genes suggest limited AIV exchange between Steller's eiders and northern pintails at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons during autumn.

  4. Photo Degradation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Abodunrin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous TiO2 of 20nm diameter is prepared in-tandem with organic dyes and based on Fluorine –doped SnO2 (FTO, conducting base is produced by hydrothermal process. The prepared mesoporous Cola Acuminata (C.acuminata, Lupinus Arboreus (L.arboreus and Bougainvillea Spectabilis (B.spectabilis films (0.16 cm2 are applied; individually and in combination as interfacial layer in-between nanocrystalline TiO2 (NC- TiO2 and the FTO anode in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. Absorbance index (A.I of all three dyes was studied within wavelength range 200-900 nm for a period of 11 months, equivalent to 352 sun exposure. C.acuminata had A.I value 4.00 that decreased to 2.32 under exposure to AM1.5 global conditions. B.spectabilis A.I was 1.19 but decreased to 0.520 within same period of study. Combination of C.acuminata and B.spectabilis gave A.I value 1.40, dye cocktails of C.acuminata, B.spectabilis and L.arboreus gave 2.00 A.I value for same wavelength range. A UV/Vis photo spectrometer was used to determine the prominent peaks and absorbance at such wavelengths. This exponential relationship is subject of our explorative study.

  5. High human exposure to lead through consumption of birds hunted with lead shot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, P.; Asmund, G.; Riget, F.

    2004-01-01

    Lead shot contaminates the edible parts of birds so that tolerable human lead intake is exceeded. - We assess lead contamination of Greenland seabirds killed with lead shot having studied thick-billed murre and common eider, the two most important species in the diet. The lead concentration is very high in meat of eiders killed with lead shot (mean 6.1 μg/g-wet wt, 95% CL 2.1-12). This level is about 44 times higher than in drowned eiders and eight times higher than in shot murres. Analyzing whole breasts instead of sub-samples reveals about seven times higher lead levels in birds' meat. We conclude that in some cases the lead intake by Greenland bird eaters will largely exceed the FAO/WHO tolerable lead intake guideline and that lead shot is a more important source of lead in the diet than previously estimated

  6. Aantallen eidereenden in en rond het Waddengebied in januari en maart 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.L.; Ens, B.J.; Kats, R.K.H.

    2002-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft het resultaat van vliegtuigtellingen die in januari en maart 2002 werden gehouden om de aantallen en de verspreiding vast te stellen van de in Nederland overwinterende eidereenden Somateria mollissima. Alleen de Voordelta werd niet geteld. In januari 2002 werden 105 821

  7. Fatal outbreak of botulism in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Tóra Hedinsdottir; Jespersen, Sanne; Kanstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    respiratory muscle paralysis. We present five cases of foodborne botulism occurring in Greenland, two with fatal outcome, caused by ingestion of tradionally preserved eider fowl. In the cases of the survivors, antitoxin and supportive care, including mechanical ventilation, were administered. In these cases...

  8. 78 FR 8577 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Izembek National Wildlife Refuge Proposed Land Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... the threatened Steller's eider, threatened sea otter, threatened Steller sea lion, tundra swan, black... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R7-R-2012-N206; FXRS12650700000-134.... SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of a final...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1178 - Closed waters, islands and other areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... southeast of Flapjack Island; or Eider Island; or Boulder Island; or Geikie Rock; or Lone Island; or the... islands) of the easternmost point of Russell Island; or Graves Rocks (on the outer coast); or Cormorant... and Preserve Vessel Operating Restrictions § 13.1178 Closed waters, islands and other areas. The...

  10. Determination of effective dose of antimalarial from Cassia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, further investigation is required to determine an effective dose of the administered extract for a higher inhibitory effect and increasing effectiveness of the extract. Material and Methods: To determine the effective dose of ethanol extract of C. spectabilis leaves, a "4-day suppressive test"of Peter was performed with ...

  11. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement, Flight Operations in the Sells Airspace Overlying the Tohono O’Odham Indian Reservation & Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Southern Arizona. Revised Draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    al. 1970. Endocrine and metabolic effects of noise in normal, hypertensive and psychotic subjects. IN: Physiological Effects of Noise. Welch, B. L...Perognathus baileyi Bannertail Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys spectabilis Cactus Mouse Peromyscus eremicus Canyon Mousea Peromyscus crinitus Desert Kangaroo Rat...Dipodomys deserti Desert Pocket Mouse Perognathus penicillatus Desert Woodrat Neotoma lepida Merriam Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys merriami Merriam Mouse

  12. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid increases reserve compounds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro culture system for Senna spectabilis and to quantify contents of storage compounds and spectaline in induced calli in relation to exogenous auxin. Explants (cotyledon, hypocotyl, epicotyl, and leaf) were cultured on MS medium containing different concentrations of 2 ...

  13. Influence of small-scale disturbances by kangaroo rats on Chihuahuan Desert ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. L. Schooley; B. T. Bestelmeyer; J. F. Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) are prominent ecosystem engineers that build large mounds that influence the spatial structuring of fungi, plants, and some ground-dwelling animals. Ants are diverse and functionally important components of arid ecosystems; some species are also ecosystem engineers. We investigated the effects of...

  14. Ephemeriden aus Java, gesammelt von Edw. Jacobson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulmer, Georg

    1913-01-01

    Aus Java waren bisher 8 Arten bekannt, nämlich Palingenia javanica Etn., Palingenia tenera Etn., Rhoënanthus speciosus Etn., Thalerosphyrus determinatus Walk. (alle durch Eaton, Rev. Monogr. Ephemeridae, genannt), Compsoneuria spectabilis Etn., Caenis nigropunctata Klap., Pseudocloëon Kraepelini

  15. Evaluation of methane production features and kinetics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the biomethane potential (BMP) of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd waste in Yunnan, China, when subjected to mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD). Three different categories of plant waste investigated were as follows: the flowers, leaves and stems of B. spectabilia.

  16. Ekasari et al., Afr., J. Infect. Dis. (2018) 12(S): 110-115 https://doi.org ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tutik

    2017-10-13

    Oct 13, 2017 ... Plasmodium berghei has been carried out by in vivo experiment. ... vector control programs and no available approved vaccines (Onguene et al.,. 2013). ... showed that C. spectabilis produced the highest inhibition against malaria parasite ... this value the extract will be given in a single and multiple doses.

  17. Test Area B-75 Final Range Environmental Assessment (REA), Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    impacts to Eglin ecosystems. Some of the main invasive non-native species of concern are Chinese tallow, cogon grass , Japanese climbing fern...lotor Saw Grass Cladium jamaicensis Florida Black Bear Ursus americanus floridanus Cattail Typha domingensis Sherman’s Fox Squirrel Sciuris niger...Cont’d Yellow Indian Grass Sorghastrum nutans Flycatchers Tyrannidae spp. Purple Lovegrass Eragrostis spectabilis Cotton Mouse Peromyscus gossypinus

  18. Rapid genetic restoration of a keystone species exhibiting delayed demographic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic founder effects are often expected when animals colonize restored habitat in fragmented landscapes, but empirical data on genetic responses to restoration are limited. We examined the genetic response of banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) to landscape-scale grassland restor...

  19. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  20. OSMUNDACEAE EN ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY Y URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Arana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se actualiza la taxonomía y distribución de las Osmundaceae, familia de helechos que habitan bosques y humedales subtropicales de la Argentina, Paraguay y Uruguay. Actualmente la familia comprende cuatro géneros, dos de ellos, con una especie cada uno, estan presentes en la región estudiada. Se acepta Osmunda spectabilis como una especie válida, diferente de O. regalis , la que no se encuentra presente en el área de estudio. Se reconoce a nivel de género a Osmundastrum con una única especie O. cinnamomeum var. cinnamomeum . Se incluyen una clave para los géneros, descripciones, la sinonimia relevante para América del Sur, distribuciones e ilustraciones de las especies. Se lectotipifica a Osmunda imbricata, Osmunda palustris y Osmunda spectabilis var. brasiliensis .

  1. Increasing nest predation will be insufficient to maintain polar bear body condition in the face of sea ice loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Cody J; Richardson, Evan; McGeachy, David; Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, Hugh G; Semeniuk, Christina A D

    2017-05-01

    Climate change can influence interspecific interactions by differentially affecting species-specific phenology. In seasonal ice environments, there is evidence that polar bear predation of Arctic bird eggs is increasing because of earlier sea ice breakup, which forces polar bears into nearshore terrestrial environments where Arctic birds are nesting. Because polar bears can consume a large number of nests before becoming satiated, and because they can swim between island colonies, they could have dramatic influences on seabird and sea duck reproductive success. However, it is unclear whether nest foraging can provide an energetic benefit to polar bear populations, especially given the capacity of bird populations to redistribute in response to increasing predation pressure. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and common eiders, a common and culturally important bird species for northern peoples. Our model is composed of two types of agents (polar bear agents and common eider hen agents) whose movements and decision heuristics are based on species-specific bioenergetic and behavioral ecological principles, and are influenced by historical and extrapolated sea ice conditions. Our model reproduces empirical findings that polar bear predation of bird nests is increasing and predicts an accelerating relationship between advancing ice breakup dates and the number of nests depredated. Despite increases in nest predation, our model predicts that polar bear body condition during the ice-free period will continue to decline. Finally, our model predicts that common eider nests will become more dispersed and will move closer to the mainland in response to increasing predation, possibly increasing their exposure to land-based predators and influencing the livelihood of local people that collect eider eggs and down. These results show that predator-prey interactions can have nonlinear responses to

  2. Adubação verde e alterações nas características químicas de um Cambissolo na região de Ji-Paraná-RO Green manure and changes on chemical characteristics of a soil in the Ji-Paraná-RO region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Almeida Delarmelinda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A adubação verde promove benefícios nas características químicas, físicas e biológicas do solo. O trabalho avaliou o efeito da incorporação de diferentes adubos verdes nas características químicas de um Cambissolo háplico eutrófico. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram das seguintes leguminosas: Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria juncea, C. spectabilis, Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma, Mucuna pruriens, Pueraria phaseoloides e a testemunha (sem leguminosa. As avaliações foram realizadas 60 dias após o corte e incorporação. A utilização de leguminosas como adubação verde proporcionou aumento nos teores de matéria orgânica, soma de bases e percentagem de saturação por bases, destacando-se a Pueraria phaseoloides, C. juncea e C. spectabilis.The green manure promotes benefits on the chemical, physical and biological properties of soil. The experiment evaluated the effect of incorporation of differents green manure on the chemistry characteristics of a soil. Experimental design used was a randomized block, with eight treatments and three replications. Treatments were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma axillare, Mucuna pruriens and Pueraria phaseoloides and the treatment control (without leguminous. Evaluations of soil samplings were performed in 60 days after handling were performed. The results showed significant effects of the leguminous crop Pueraria phaseoloides, C. juncea and C. spectabilis on the fertility of the soil, with significant increments of organic matter, exchangeable bases and in the base saturation.

  3. Germination, seed diameter and pregerminative treatments in species with different purposes of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinicio Abril-Saltos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of vegetal species germination consents to know its characteristics and permits to understand the factors that influence this process. The aim of this research was to know the germination’s characteristics of some species, such as Eugenia stipitata McVaugh, Inga edulis Mart, Inga spectabilis (Vahl Wild, Piptocoma discolor (Kunth Pruski, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, and Verbena officinalis L., and also their reaction to pregerminative treatments depending on the seed’s diameter. This study was carried out in Pastaza, Province of Pastaza, Ecuador, between February and June, 2014. Different diameters of seeds and pregerminative treatments were used in species, which did not present germination percentages higher than 40%. In the first practice I. edulis and I. spectabilis exceeded this value without treatment. Other species had lower values. Seeds were classified considering two diameters and two doses of gibberellin acid, this was applied to, and evaluated in the E. stipitata. In addition, scarification with sulfuric acid was done. After 45 days of its application, 100 ppm of gibberellic acid with larger seed diameter reported higher percentages of germination in S. cayenennsis, and in E. stipitata, which also interacted with the scarification. V. officinalis and P. discolor, did not present any response to the applications made. I. edulis and I. spectabilis presented high germination percentages without pregerminative treatments, E. stipitata and S. cayenennsis showed response to seed diameter and the applied treatments, while P discolor and V. officinalis did not show any response.

  4. Antinematicidal Efficacy Of Root Exudates Of Some Crotalaria Species On Meloidogyne Incognita Root-Knot Nematode Kofoid And White Chitwood Isolated From Infected Lycopersicum Esculentum L.Tomato Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S Danahap

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The antinematicidal efficacies of exudates of four common weeds Crotalaria breviflora Crotalaria juncea Crotalaria retusa and Crotalaria spectabilis were carried out against Meloidogyne incognita. The young actively growing seedling of the common weeds were uprooted and taken to the laboratory for analyses. The root exudates of test plants were prepared by growing the young actively growing seedlings in test tubes wrapped with black carbon paper for five days under lighted florescent bulbs. Root exudates of Crotalaria breviflora Crotalaria juncea Crotalaria retusa and Crotalaria spectabilis exhibited nematicidal properties against the Meloidogyne incognita. The effects varied with concentrations of the exudates P0.05 using analysis of variance ANOVA. The effects also differed among test plants with Crotalaria retusa topping in terms of reduction in nematode population. This was followed by C.breviflora C.juncea and C.spectabilis respectively. The results thus confirmed that all the test plants are potentially viable trap weeds and can be used for the control of Meloidogyne incognita and should be employed as such.

  5. Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, N. P.; Koirala, M.; Bhuju, D. R.; Borgaonkar, H. P.

    2013-10-01

    Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (3750-4003 m a.s.l.) in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal) area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long) were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old) compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr). A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89%) of younger plants (plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. Thus, two species presented species-specific responses to climate change and much wider differences anticipated in their population status as climate continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of May-August of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with May-August precipitation and January-April temperature of the current year. The reconstructed average summer temperature (May-August) using tree ring data revealed alternate period of cool and warm period with warming in the 2nd half of the 20th century. Further palynological and geochronological studies of sediments of the Kalchuman Lake would advance our understanding

  6. Pasteurella multocida from outbreaks of avian cholera in wild and captive birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Jørgensen, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of avian cholera was observed among wild birds in a few localities in Denmark in 2001. The highest mortalities were among breeding ciders (Somateria mollissima) and gulls (Larus spp.). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted using ApaI and SmaI as restriction enzymes...... the outbreak strain. Among 68 isolates from wild birds, only one PFGE and one REA pattern were demonstrated, whereas among 23 isolates from domestic poultry, 14 different SmaI, 12 different ApaI, and 10 different HpaII patterns were found. The results suggest that a P. multocida strain has survived during...

  7. Cyp1a-dependent activation of xenobiotics in endothelial linings of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annas, A.; Brittebo, E.B.

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic activation of the heterocyclic amine 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were examined in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 15-day-old chicken and 18-day-old eider duck embryos. The embryos were pretreated with an Ah receptor agonist, i.e. β-naphthoflavone (BNF) or 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), or vehicle in ovo. BNF and PCB 126 induced EROD activity and covalent binding of [ 3 H]Trp-P-1 seven- to tenfold in the CAM of chicken embryos. In the CAM of eider duck embryos, which are known to be nonresponsive to coplanar PCBs, PCB 126 treatment had no effect on EROD activity or covalent binding of [ 3 H]Trp-P-1 whereas BNF treatment increased these activities five- and threefold, respectively. Light microscopic autoradiography was used to identify the cellular localization of covalent binding of [ 3 H]Trp-P-1 in the CAM. Preferential binding was observed in endothelial cells in intraepithelial capillaries in the chorionic epithelium and in blood vessels in the mesenchymal layer. The addition of the CYP1A inhibitor ellipticine abolished the covalent binding of [ 3 H]Trp-P-1 in the CAM of BNF- and PCB 126-treated chicken and eider duck embryos. The results suggest that CYP1A-dependent metabolic activity can be induced in blood vessel endothelia in the CAM of bird embryos following exposure to Ah receptor agonists and that the CAM may be a target tissue for CYP1A-activated environmental pollutants. Furthermore, the highly vascularized CAM could be used as a model for studies of Ah receptor-mediated alterations in the vasculature. (orig.)

  8. Cyp1a-dependent activation of xenobiotics in endothelial linings of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annas, A.; Brittebo, E.B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Toxicology; Brunstroem, B. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-08-01

    Metabolic activation of the heterocyclic amine 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were examined in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 15-day-old chicken and 18-day-old eider duck embryos. The embryos were pretreated with an Ah receptor agonist, i.e. {beta}-naphthoflavone (BNF) or 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), or vehicle in ovo. BNF and PCB 126 induced EROD activity and covalent binding of [{sup 3}H]Trp-P-1 seven- to tenfold in the CAM of chicken embryos. In the CAM of eider duck embryos, which are known to be nonresponsive to coplanar PCBs, PCB 126 treatment had no effect on EROD activity or covalent binding of [{sup 3}H]Trp-P-1 whereas BNF treatment increased these activities five- and threefold, respectively. Light microscopic autoradiography was used to identify the cellular localization of covalent binding of [{sup 3}H]Trp-P-1 in the CAM. Preferential binding was observed in endothelial cells in intraepithelial capillaries in the chorionic epithelium and in blood vessels in the mesenchymal layer. The addition of the CYP1A inhibitor ellipticine abolished the covalent binding of [{sup 3}H]Trp-P-1 in the CAM of BNF- and PCB 126-treated chicken and eider duck embryos. The results suggest that CYP1A-dependent metabolic activity can be induced in blood vessel endothelia in the CAM of bird embryos following exposure to Ah receptor agonists and that the CAM may be a target tissue for CYP1A-activated environmental pollutants. Furthermore, the highly vascularized CAM could be used as a model for studies of Ah receptor-mediated alterations in the vasculature. (orig.)

  9. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, M. D.

    results compared to production cost of €209-672 kg-1 N removed and €1,013 kg-1 N removed for respectively Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta from extrapolated laboratory and field trials. However, a commercial seaweed (Saccharina latissima) producer claims that production costs are less than €10 kg-1...... N removed. This up-scaled and commercial figure makes the seaweed cost competitive to mussels for removal of nitrogen. Disadvantages such as predators (e.g. eider ducks) and bio-fouling should also be taken into account before choice of biofilter is made. These drawbacks can reduce overall biofilter...

  10. An assessment of the effects on seabirds of oil exploration in the Norwegian part of the Skagerrak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorentsen, S.-H.; Anker-Nilssen, T.; Kroglund, R.T.; Oestnes, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the effects on seabirds of possible petroleum exploration in the North Sea east of 7 o East (Skagerrak). Relative index values for the direct effects of oil spills were calculated by combining oil spill simulations with the distribution of the valued ecosystem components, Common Eider and auks, and their vulnerability indexes, using the analysis system SIMPACT. Based on these results and other considerations, recommendations for limiting possible drilling activity are given. 105 refs., 30 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Parasites of the flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) from the German Bight, North Sea, and their potential use in ecosystem monitoring. A. Infection characteristics of potential indicator species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, V.; Zander, S.; Körting, W.; Steinhagen, D.

    2003-10-01

    As part of integrated biological-effect monitoring, the parasite fauna of the flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) was investigated at five locations in the German Bight, with a view to using parasite species as bio-indicators. Over a period of 6 years, parasites from 30 different taxa were identified, but only 7 taxa of the parasite community occurred regularly at all locations and in sufficient abundance that they could be considered as potential indicator species. These species were the ciliophoran Trichodina spp., the copepods Acanthochondria cornuta, Lepeophtheirus pectoralis and Lernaeocera branchialis, the helminths Zoogonoides viviparus and Cucullanus heterochrous and metacercaria of an unidentified digenean species. Infection characteristics of these parasites are presented, with a comparison of the results from individual sampling periods and those of the long-term data set. Natural influences on the infection levels, such as temporal variations, habitat conditions and host-related factors, were evaluated. All of these parasite species showed significant differences in their infection levels between the Elbe estuary, as the most polluted site, and the less polluted coastal and marine locations: Helgoland, Outer Eider estuary and Spiekeroog, especially in the long-term data set. Gradual differences between the Elbe, the Outer Eider and Helgoland, which were not detected in individual sampling periods, also became evident in the pooled-data set. These were found in the prevalence of Trichodina spp., A. cornuta, Z. viviparus and C. heterochrous. Although salinity is considered as the most important natural factor, influencing the distribution pattern of the majority of the potential indicator species, infection levels of most of these species differed between locations with similar salinity conditions. Infection levels corresponded to a contamination gradient (Elbe > Inner Eider, Outer Eider > Helgoland) established across the locations. Seasonal variation in

  12. Potencial de espécies utilizadas como adubo verde no manejo integrado de plantas daninhas Potential of species used as green manure in the integrated weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.L. Erasmo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido na Estação Experimental da Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Gurupi-TO, Brasil. O experimento foi instalado com o objetivo de avaliar durante 60 dias, em campo, a interferência de oito espécies utilizadas freqüentemente como adubos verdes (Mucuna aterrima, Mucuna pruriens, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Crotalaria spectabilis, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum americanum e Sorghum bicolor, híbrido BR304 sobre a comunidade infestante. As espécies de plantas daninhas mais freqüentes na área do experimento foram: Digitaria horizontalis, Hyptis lophanta e Amaranthus spinosus. Foram realizadas amostragens aos 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após a formação da cobertura, utilizando um quadrado de amostragem equivalente a 0,25 m². As plantas daninhas foram devidamente identificadas, coletadas, secas e pesadas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado e constou de nove tratamentos, com quatro repetições cada. Verificou-se que as espécies C. spectabilis, S. bicolor, C. ochroleuca, M. aterrima e M. pruriens reduziram significativamente o número e o peso da matéria seca da população das plantas daninhas avaliadas (D. horizontalis, H. lophanta e A. Spinosus, principalmente as duas últimas, enquanto P. americanum mostrou-se a menos eficiente nesse aspecto.This work was carried out at the Experimental Station of the University of Tocantins, Gurupi-TO, Brazil, to evaluate the interference of eight species frequently used as green manure (Mucuna aterrima, Mucuna pruriens, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Crotalaria spectabilis, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum americanum and Sorghum bicolor, hybrid BR304 in the weed community, for sixty days under field conditions. The most frequent weed species in the experimental area were Digitaria horizontalis, Hyptis lophanta and Amaranthus spinosus. Samplings were made at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after formation of green manure covering, using

  13. Repot of Passalora bougainvilleae (Muntañola) Castañeda & Braun associated with Bougainvillea spectablis Willd. in Boa Vista, Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    Nechet, Kátia de Lima; Halfeld-Vieira, Bernardo A.

    2008-01-01

    O fungo Passalora bougainvilleae é relatado, pela primeira vez, na região de Boa Vista, Roraima, associado a manchas foliares na planta ornamental Bougainvillea spectabilis. As características do fungo são conidióforos agregados em fascículos, emergindo de um estroma subcuticular na face abaxial de lesões velhas. Os conidióforos são lisos, retos, de coloração marrom, não ramificados, maioria asseptados, medindo de 26-57µm x 4µm. Células conidiogênicas terminais de proliferação simpodial com c...

  14. Efeitos do substrato no enraizamento de estacas caulinares de Bougainvillea.

    OpenAIRE

    Kathia Maria Barbosa e Silva; Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva; Edineu Alves Bezerra de Almeida Sillva; Paulo Igor Barbosa e Silva

    2005-01-01

    A Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. é interessante, nas arborizações residencial e urbana, porque floresce durante todo o ano e apresenta variação de cores de brácteas e tolerância a estresses hídricos. A percentagem de pegamento das estacas da buganvília é, em geral, pequena e pode estar associada ao substrato usado. Oobjetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do substrato sobre a percentagem de enraizamento de estacas de buganvília. Dois experimentos foram realizados, num delineamento intei...

  15. Estudo sobre a sensibilidade dos caprinos à toxidez de crotalárias tóxicas para bovinos visando a sua utilização na profilaxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula C. Pires

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A intoxicação por plantas é sabidamente uma das principais causas de morte de bovinos adultos no Brasil. Uma vez que pouco pode ser feito no que diz respeito ao tratamento destas intoxicações, os esforços devem se concentrar na adoção de medidas profiláticas alternativas, como a utilização de uma espécie menos sensível no local de ocorrência de determinadas plantas. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho verificar a sensibilidade de caprinos às crotalárias (Crotalaria spectabilis e Crotalaria juncea para que estes possam ser utilizados na profilaxia da intoxicação por essas plantas em bovinos. Sementes de C. spectabilis e C. juncea foram fornecidas em doses únicas ou diárias a oito caprinos adultos jovens, de ambos os sexos, divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de quatro animais (um grupo para cada planta. Dos quatro caprinos que receberam as sementes de C. juncea, nenhum desenvolveu sinais clínicos de intoxicação ou apresentou alterações significativas no exame bioquímico. Entre os quatro caprinos que receberam sementes de C. spectabilis três morreram. Um animal recebeu uma dose única de 20g/kg de sementes da planta e desenvolveu sinais de intoxicação aguda, caracterizadas macro e microscopicamente por necrose hemorrágica centrolobular. Os outros dois caprinos desenvolveram um quadro de intoxicação crônica pela administração de doses diárias de 2g/kg de sementes da planta por 35 e 150 dias respectivamente. Um animal apresentou uma marcada pneumonia intersticial e lesões hepáticas leves, enquanto no outro caprino observaram-se apenas lesões hepáticas crônicas. Ambos os animais apresentaram alterações transitórias ao exame bioquímico. O quarto caprino recebeu a dose única de 10g/kg, sobreviveu e não apresentou alterações clínicas ou da bioquímica sanguínea significativas. Os resultados do trabalho mostraram que não se deve usar caprinos como medida profilática na intoxicação por C

  16. Sesquiterpenes produced by endophytic fungus Phomopsis cassiae with antifungal and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities; Sesquiterpenos produzidos pelo fungo endofitico Phomopsis cassiae com atividade antifungica e inibidora de acetilcolinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Lisineia M.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Cavalheiro, Alberto J.; Silva, Dulce H. Siqueira; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Silva, Geraldo H. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia; Teles, Helder L. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Young, Maria Claudia M., E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Seccao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2012-07-01

    Two new diastereoisomeric cadinanes sesquiterpenes 3,9-dihydroxycalamenene (1-2), along with the known 3-hydroxycalamen-8-one (3) and aristelegone-A (4), were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures, including relative stereochemistry, were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 2D NMR spectra and comparison with related known compounds. Compounds 1-4 displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. (author)

  17. Study of growth and development features of ten ground cover plants in Kish Island green space in warm season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shooshtarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Having special ecological condition, Kish Island has a restricted range of native species of ornamental plants. Expansion of urban green space in this Island is great of importance due to its outstanding touristy position in the South of Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and development of groundcover plants planted in four different regions of Kish Island and to recommend the most suitable and adaptable species for each region. Ten groundcover species included Festuca ovina L., Glaucium flavum Crantz., Frankenia thymifolia Desf., Sedum spurium Bieb., Sedum acre L., .Potentilla verna L., Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L. L. Bolus., Achillea millefolium L., Alternanthera dentata Moench. and Lampranthus spectabilis Haw. Evaluation of growth and development had been made by measurement of morphological characteristics such as height, covering area, leaf number and area, dry and fresh total weights and visual scoring. Physiological traits included proline and chlorophyll contents evaluated. This study was designed in factorial layout based on completely randomized blocks design with six replicates. Results showed that in terms of indices such as covering area, visual quality, height, total weight, and chlorophyll content, Pavioon and Sadaf plants had the most and the worst performances, respectively in comparison to other regions’ plants. Based on evaluated characteristics, C. acinaciformis, L. spectabilis and F. thymifolia had the most expansion and growth in all quadruplet regions and are recommend for planting in Kish Island and similar climates.

  18. Registros de ocorrência e novos hospedeiros de Gargaphia lunulata (Mayr (Hemiptera: Tingidae nos estados do Acre e Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos

    2017-12-01

    Abstract. The occurrence of Gargaphia lunulata (Mayr (Hemiptera: Tingidae was observed in leaves of four host plants: rue (Ruta graveolens L. and jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC in an urban residential garden, in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil and Crotalaria spectabilis (L., jack bean and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench in a greenhouse, in the municipality of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. The colonies were found exclusively on the abaxial face of the leaves, causing chlorosis, wilting and early senescence of the same. Because G. lunulata is considered to be an important passion fruit pest in Brazil, the planting of the mentioned plant species, in intercropping or near to passion fruit crops, would not be recommended, since they could serve as plant species inoculum to passion fruit cultivation. Therefore, the occurrence of G. lunulata associated to R. graveolens and jack bean in Acre State; and C. spectabilis, jack bean, and okra, in Paraná State is record for the first time. In addition, the present work reports the first occurrence of this tingid to the States of Acre and Paraná and reports two new hosts for this insect, R. graveolens and C. spectabillis in Brazil.

  19. Antidiabetic Indian Plants: A Good Source of Potent Amylase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG. Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly α-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L. Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L. (syn: Sanctum; Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana; Linum usitatissimum (L. and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant α-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor.

  20. Feeding and oviposition preference of Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) on several crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lenita J.; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to study food and oviposition preference by Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) on different plant species as Cajanus cajan L. (pigeon pea), Crotalaria juncea L. (sun hemp), Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (showy crotalaria), Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don (slenderleaf rattlebox), Glycine max [L.] Merrill (soybean), Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton), Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower), Stizolobium aterrimum [Mucuna aterrima] Piper and Tracey (velvetbean) and Zea mays L. (mayze). In no-choice experiments, the number of eggs layed in sunflower, C. juncea and soybean was larger compared to cotton. Despite the fact that the adults did not discriminate among plants, in dual-choice test, the proportion of eggs layed and leaf consumption by P. cuyabana adults in soybean were significantly higher than in C. spectabilis. The larval distribution in the soil was at random in multiple-choice, without any trend of preference, but in dual-choice, when soybean was the control, larvae always preferred to feed on its roots. P. cuyabana adults had preference for more suitable hosts and that could stand their offspring survival. This behaviour can be usefully exploited in an integrated management program for this pest. (author)

  1. The role of catchment vegetation in reducing atmospheric inputs of pollutant aerosols in Ganga river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubhashish, Kumar; Pandey, Richa; Pandey, Jitendra

    2012-08-01

    The role of woody perennials in the Ganga river basin in modifying the run-off quality as influenced by atmospheric deposition of pollutant aerosols was investigated. The concentration of seven nutrients and eight metals were measured in atmospheric deposits as well as in run-off water under the influence of five woody perennials. Nutrient retention was recorded maximum for Bougainvillea spectabilis ranged from 4.30 % to 33.70 %. Metal retention was recorded highest for Ficus benghalensis ranged from 5.15 % to 36.98 %. Although some species showed nutrient enrichment, all the species considered in the study invariably contribute to reduce nutrients and metal concentration in run-off water. Reduction in run off was recorded maximum for B. spectabilis (nutrient 6.48 %-40.66 %; metal 7.86 %-22.85 %) and minimum for Ficus religiosa (nutrient 1.68 %-27.19 %; metal 6.55 %-31.55 %). The study forms the first report on the use of woody perennials in reducing input of atmospheric pollutants to Ganga river and has relevance in formulating strategies for river basin management.

  2. Feeding and oviposition preference of Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) on several crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lenita J.; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B. [EMBRAPA Soja, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja]. E-mail: lenita@cnpso.embrapa.br; Garcia, Maria A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Zoologia; Amaral, Maria L.B. do [Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to study food and oviposition preference by Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) on different plant species as Cajanus cajan L. (pigeon pea), Crotalaria juncea L. (sun hemp), Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (showy crotalaria), Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don (slenderleaf rattlebox), Glycine max [L.] Merrill (soybean), Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton), Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower), Stizolobium aterrimum [Mucuna aterrima] Piper and Tracey (velvetbean) and Zea mays L. (mayze). In no-choice experiments, the number of eggs layed in sunflower, C. juncea and soybean was larger compared to cotton. Despite the fact that the adults did not discriminate among plants, in dual-choice test, the proportion of eggs layed and leaf consumption by P. cuyabana adults in soybean were significantly higher than in C. spectabilis. The larval distribution in the soil was at random in multiple-choice, without any trend of preference, but in dual-choice, when soybean was the control, larvae always preferred to feed on its roots. P. cuyabana adults had preference for more suitable hosts and that could stand their offspring survival. This behaviour can be usefully exploited in an integrated management program for this pest. (author)

  3. Cneo Pompeyo hijo en Hispania antes de la batalla de Munda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Amela Valverde

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los periodos peor conocidos y menos tratados de las guerras civiles que azotaron Hispania durante el siglo I a.C. fue la actividad de Cneo Pompeyo hijo previa a la campaña de Munda (45 a.C. El presente artículo intenta ofrecer una visión coherente de los hechos.One of the periods worse known and less treaties of the civil wars that flogged Hispania during the i century B.C. it was the activity of Cnaeus Pompeius l\\/lagnus, eider son of Pompey, previous to the campaign of Munda (45 B.C. The present article attemps to offer a coherent visión of the facts.

  4. Monitoring the impact of the Gordon C. Leitch oil spill on the breeding bird populations of the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve, (QC) Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, B.; Chapdelaine, G.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a monitoring study of the impact of a 1999 oil spill on the breeding bird population in the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec, are discussed. The common eider, the black guillemot and the bald eagle were the three species studied by observing and comparing the status of these bird populations on islands located inside and outside of the contaminated area. Data from before and after the oil spill were compared. Results show that an estimated 211 to 777 breeding birds have died as a result of the oil spill, however, the overall impact on the reproductive potential of the breeding bird population was insignificant. Various protective measures to mitigate the effects of future oil spills are proposed. 38 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, Maeve D.

    2014-01-01

    seaweed with regard to the amount of nitrogen assimilated. Furthermore, in optimized systems, areal requirement for mussels is similar to the cultivation of the same tonnage (1,000 t) of seaweed (approximately 8 ha). The cost-effectiveness of a mussel biofilter is €11–30 kg−1 nitrogen (N) removed based...... on various examples compared to production costs of €209–672 removed and €1,013 kg−1 N removed, respectively, for Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta from extrapolated laboratory and field trials. However, commercial seaweed (Saccharina latissima) producers claim that production costs are less than €10......–38 kg−1 N removed. These up-scaled and commercial figures make the seaweed cost competitive to mussels for removal of nitrogen. Disadvantages such as predators (e.g. eider ducks) and biofouling should also be taken into account before choice of biofilter is made. These drawbacks can reduce overall...

  6. Lead sources in human diet in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert

    2004-01-01

    Although blood lead levels have declined in Greenland, they are still elevated despite the fact that lead levels in the Greenland environment are very low. Fragments of lead shot in game birds have been suggested as an important source of dietary exposure, and meals of sea birds, particularly eider......, contain high concentrations of lead. In a cross-sectional population survey in Greenland in 1993-1994, blood lead adjusted for age and sex was found to be associated with the reported consumption of sea birds. Participants reporting less than weekly intake of sea birds had blood lead concentrations...... of approximately 75 microg/L, whereas those who reported eating sea birds several times a week had concentrations of approximately 110 microg/L, and those who reported daily intake had concentrations of 170 microg/L (p = 0.01). Blood lead was not associated with dietary exposure to other local or imported food...

  7. Biodiversity Loss in the Orion Radio Zoo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henney, W. J.; García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Kurtz, S. E.

    2001-03-01

    We re-examine radio observations of compact sources in the core of the Orion nebula and find that 70% of the sources correspond to known proplyds. For all of these sources, including many that have been previously classified as variable and non-thermal, the radio flux between 1.5 and 86 Ghz is fully accounted for by thermal free-free emission from the photoevaporation flow. We therefore suggest that many of the proposed Orion FOXES are in fact EIDERS, and that their apparent variability reflects observational difficulties in detecting the lower surface-brightness portions of the proplyds. The PIGs turn out to be extinct in Orion, and the hybrid creatures that we dub PANTHERS (Proplyds Associated with Non-THErmal Radio Sources) remain elusive.

  8. X-ray investigations of lead shot pellets in the tissues of various species of birds found dead in Northern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averbeck, C.; Kempen, E.; Petermann, S.; Prueter, J.; Vaur, G.; Visse, C.

    1990-01-01

    Within the period 1985-1988 467 specimens of dead or moribund birds including 51 species were collected in northern Germany, and x-rayed to ascertain lead pellet damage. In 15.8% of the cases evidence of lead bullets was found in the tissues. In over 80% of the cases lead pellets were found, and in 11 (14.9%) of the animals air rifle ammunition was discovered. Along with wood cock, greylag geese, and eider ducks several species of sea gulls were especially affected. The exact causes of death of the lead damaged birds could usually not be determined. The problems with lead pellet ammunition are presented and a legally designated maximum shooting distance is recommended. The replacement of lead pellets with small caliber ammunition for hunting from blinds is also discussed. Bullets are considered more effective for the hunting of knob-billed swans

  9. Chemical Characteristics of Six Woody Species for Alley Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosango, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of six woody species (Leguminosae for alley cropping have been chemically analysed in order to evaluate their potentiality in the restoration of soil fertility. These species are : Acacia mangium, Cajanus cajan, Flemingia grahamiana, F. macrophylla, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nitrogen, carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, active fraction and ash contents were determined as well as C/N and L/N ratios. AH these species appear to be rich in N and C. Fiber contents (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are globally low but variable from one species to another. C/N and L/N ratios are globally low. Among these species, Leucaena leucocephala and Senna spectabilis show the lowest C/N and LIN ratios. Such low values of C/N and L/N are normally found in species with rapid decomposition of organic matter.

  10. Produtividade do cafeeiro Mundo Novo enxertado e submetido à adubação verde antes e após recepa da lavoura Productivity of grafted coffee during intercropping with five leguminous species in the western region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Martins Paulo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se a produção e o crescimento do cafeeiro Mundo Novo (Coffea arabica L. enxertado sobre o Apoatã IAC 2258 (Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner submetido à adubação verde com as seguintes espécies leguminosas: crotalária espectábilis (Crotalaria spectabilis Roth., crotalária júncea (Crotalaria juncea L., guandu [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.], mucuna anã (Stizolobium deeringeanum Bort. e soja IAC 9 [Glycine max (L. Merril] e um tratamento testemunha sem plantas leguminosas. As leguminosas foram semeadas a 50 cm da projeção da copa dos cafeeiros e incorporadas no florescimento. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Pólo Regional de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico dos Agronegócios da Alta Paulista, em Adamantina, no período de 1989 a 1995. Adotou-se o delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os adubos verdes crotalária espectábilis, crotalária júncea, mucuna anã e soja, durante o período experimental, e a crotalária espectábilis após a recepa, não diminuíram a produção do cafeeiro. O guandu, embora tenha aumentado o teor de matéria orgânica do solo, foi a única leguminosa que diminuiu a produção e o diâmetro do caule dos cafeeiros. O guandu e a crotalária júncea, respectivamente, produziram as maiores quantidades de fitomassa seca. A produção do café se correlacionou inversamente com a fitomassa seca das leguminosas e positivamente com altura e diâmetro do caule do cafeeiro.Yield of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica of grafted onto robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner Apoatã IAC 2258 was evaluated during six years of intercropping with five leguminous species: sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., Crotalaria spectabilis Roth., dwarf velvet bean (Stizolobium deeringeanum Bort., soybean Glycine max (L. Merryl] and pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.] in the Western region of São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1989 to 1995. Leguminous species were sown 50 cm

  11. Antimalarial efficacy of nine medicinal plants traditionally used by the Karens of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Punnam Chander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antimalarial activity of nine medicinal plants used by Karens of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive MRC-2 isolate. The methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and in vitro antimalarial activity was assessed using M-III method. The results indicated that out of nine plant species tested, four plants, viz., Z. spectabilis, S. wallichiana, C. pulcherrima and Amomum sp. demonstrated significant antimalarial activity (50% inhibitory concentration values were 5.5 ± 0.7, 12.0 ± 2.5, 14.6 ± 1.3 and 37.3 ± 2.5 μg/mL respectively with no toxicity effect on erythrocytes.

  12. Methods to obtain radiolabelled monocrotaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lame, M.W.; Morin, D.; Wilson, D.W.; Segall, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Crotalaria spectabilis, a plant found in many areas of the world is associated with the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline. Monocrotaline when injected subcutaneously in Sprague Dawley rats has been utilized for years to create a condition known to mimic pulmonary hypertension in humans. We attempted to determine the optimum conditions for the biosynthesis of radiolabelled monocrotaline. Our work describes the plant growth conditions and the time periods associated with the production of radiolabelled monocrotaline. In addition, the incorporation of 14 CO 2 or [2,3- 3 H]-putrescine dihydrochloride and the specific activity plus the amount(s) of recovered radiolabelled monocrotaline are discussed. We conclude that the most efficient and cost effective method for the biosynthesis of radiolabelled monocrotaline is still the utilization of 14 CO 2 . (author)

  13. Cloning and expression of cDNA coding for bouganin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Marcel T; Lubelli, Chiara; Boon, Louis; Heerkens, Sijmie; Ortiz Buijsse, Antonio P; de Boer, Mark; Stirpe, Fiorenzo

    2002-03-01

    Bouganin is a ribosome-inactivating protein that recently was isolated from Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. In this work, the cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding for bouganin is described. From the cDNA, the amino-acid sequence was deduced, which correlated with the primary sequence data obtained by amino-acid sequencing on the native protein. Bouganin is synthesized as a pro-peptide consisting of 305 amino acids, the first 26 of which act as a leader signal while the 29 C-terminal amino acids are cleaved during processing of the molecule. The mature protein consists of 250 amino acids. Using the cDNA sequence encoding the mature protein of 250 amino acids, a recombinant protein was expressed, purified and characterized. The recombinant molecule had similar activity in a cell-free protein synthesis assay and had comparable toxicity on living cells as compared to the isolated native bouganin.

  14. Fitomassa e acúmulo de nitrogênio, em espécies vegetais de cobertura do solo para um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico de Cerrado = Biomass and nitrogen accumulation in cover crops species used in Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicarlos Damacena de Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Espécies vegetais com alta produção de fitomassa são de fundamentalimportância para o desenvolvimento sustentável do plantio direto no cerrado. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção de fitomassa e o acúmulo de nitrogênio em 17 espécies vegetais em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico da região do Cerrado. O trabalho foi realizado no campoexperimental da Universidade Federal de Goiás, localizado no Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Biológicas no Campus de Jataí – Estado de Goiás. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Foram utilizadas as espécies: Aveia pretacomum, Aveia preta IAPAR61, Braquiaria brizantha, Braquiaria decumbens, Capim-pé-degalinha, Milheto BN2, Milheto BRS 1501, Milheto MT, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria juncea, Guandu normal, Guandu super N, Girassol selvagem, Kenaf 1, Kenaf 2, Nabo forrageiro e Niger. O milheto BRS 1501 obteve a maior fitomassa entre as gramíneas, a C. spectabilis, entre as leguminosas e o nabo forrageiro, entre as outras famílias. O milheto BRS1501, C. spectabilis e nabo forrageiro também obtiveram o maior acúmulo de N na parte aérea. As espécies nabo forrageiro, kenaf 1 e milheto BRS 1501 são as mais recomendadas como cobertura do solo para a região do cerrado goiano.Plant species that have high biomass production are of fundamentalimportance to the sustainable development of no-tillage systems in the cerrado region. This experiment had the objective of evaluating the biomass production and nitrogen accumulation in 17 plant species in a Oxisol of the cerrado region. This experiment was conducted in an experimental field of the Federal University of Goiás, located in the Agricultural and Biological Cientific Center of Jataí - State of Goiás. The experimental layout was a randomized block with 5 replicates. The following species were used: two species of Avena strigosa, Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens, Eleusine indica, three

  15. Effects of Tropical Rotation Crops on Meloidogyne arenaria Population Densities and Vegetable Yields in Microplots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Dickson, D W; de Brito, J A; Hewlett, T E; Frederick, J J

    1994-06-01

    The effects of 12 summer crop rotation treatments on population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and on yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in microplots. The crop sequence was: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991 ; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The 12 rotation treatments were castor (Ricinus communis), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis), fallow, hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), soybean (Glycine max), horsebean (Canavalia ensiformis), sesame (Sesamum indicum), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Compared to peanut, the first eight rotation treatments resulted in lower (P crops may provide a means for depressing M. arenaria population densities on a short-term basis to enhance yields in a subsequent susceptible vegetable crop.

  16. Microbial activity in soil cultivated with different summer legumes in coffee crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted for ten years in a sandy soil in the north part of the Paraná State, Brazil. The soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth, both under the coffee canopy and in the inter row space between the coffee plants, in the following treatments: Control, Leucaena leucocephala, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria breviflora, Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna deeringiana, Arachis hypogaea and Vigna unguiculata. The legume crops influenced the microbial activity, both under the coffee canopy and in the inter row space. The cultivation of Leucaena leucocephala increased the microbial biomass C, N and P. Although L. leucocephala and Arachis hypogaea provided higher microbial biomass, the qCO2 decreased by up to 50% under the coffee canopy and by about 25% in the inter row space. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P due to green manure residue addition.

  17. Produção de biomassa por cultivos de cobertura do solo e produtividade do algodoeiro em plantio direto Cover crops biomass production and cotton yield in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Cunha de Barcellos Ferreira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção, a persistência da matéria seca e a eficiência da dessecação em espécies vegetais utilizadas para cultivos de cobertura do solo, e quantificar seus efeitos sobre a produtividade do algodoeiro em plantio direto. O trabalho foi realizado em Santa Helena de Goiás, GO, com 16 tratamentos: Panicum maximum, cultivares Mombaça, Tanzânia e Massai; Urochloa brizantha, cultivares Piatã, Xaraés, Marandu e MG4; U. decumbens; Paspalum atratum cv. Pojuca; Sorghum bicolor cultivares Santa Eliza e BRS 700; Pennisetum glaucum cv. ADR 500; Raphanus sativus; Eleusine coracana, Crotalaria spectabilis, além da testemunha em pousio. As espécies foram semeadas no início de março (2007. As espécies com menores produtividades e persistência da matéria seca foram C. spectabilis, E. coracana e R. sativus. As produtividades de algodão em caroço e fibra foram maiores no cultivo sobre palhas residuais das cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de P. maximum, em comparação às observadas com uso de P. atratum cv. Pojuca, R. sativus e pousio. Em geral, S. bicolor, P. glaucum e as cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de P. maximum, e MG4, Piatã e Xaraés de U. brizantha apresentam produção e persistência da matéria seca adequadas para o cultivo do algodoeiro no sistema de plantio direto, no cerrado brasileiro.The objectives of this work were to evaluate biomass production and persistence and the desiccation efficiency in plant species used as cover crops, and to quantify its effects on cotton yield in a no-tillage system. The study was carried out in Santa Helena de Goiás, GO, Brazil, using 16 plant species: Panicum maximum, cultivars Mombaça, Tanzânia and Massai; Urochloa brizantha, cultivars Piatã, Xaraés, Marandu and MG4; U. decumbens; Paspalum atratum cv. Pojuca; Sorghum bicolor cultivars Santa Eliza and BRS 700; Pennisetum glaucum cv. ADR 500; Raphanus sativus; Eleusine coracana, Crotalaria spectabilis

  18. Methods to obtain radiolabelled monocrotaline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lame, M.W.; Morin, D.; Wilson, D.W.; Segall, H.J. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Crotalaria spectabilis, a plant found in many areas of the world is associated with the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline. Monocrotaline when injected subcutaneously in Sprague Dawley rats has been utilized for years to create a condition known to mimic pulmonary hypertension in humans. We attempted to determine the optimum conditions for the biosynthesis of radiolabelled monocrotaline. Our work describes the plant growth conditions and the time periods associated with the production of radiolabelled monocrotaline. In addition, the incorporation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} or [2,3-{sup 3}H]-putrescine dihydrochloride and the specific activity plus the amount(s) of recovered radiolabelled monocrotaline are discussed. We conclude that the most efficient and cost effective method for the biosynthesis of radiolabelled monocrotaline is still the utilization of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. (author).

  19. Checklist of spider fauna of FR Peshawar, FATA, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Perveen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The spiders are known as poisonous arthropods, but they also act as the predator or biological pests control agent. Their 23 species belonging to 15 genera and 09 families were reported during 2009-2010 from FR Peshawar, FATA, Pakistan. The reported families Clubionidae, Scytodidae and Sprassidae covered each 4%, Araneidae, Gnaphosidae, Pholicidae and Salticidae each 9%, Thomisidae 13% and Lycosidae 43% biodiversity of spiders of FATA. However, the largest spider collected was huntsman, Isopoda tuhodnigra (Barrion with total body length 15.80+-0.83 mm. Moreover, the smallest spider was wolf spider, Pardosa birmanica (Simon with total body length 4.20+-1.30 mm. Further, the crab spiders, Thomisus pugilis (Stoliczka, T. spectabilis (Doleschall and Diaea evanida (Thorell were the most colorful species belonging to family Thomisidae. A detail study is required for further exploration of spider fauna of FATA.

  20. Does feather corticosterone reflect individual quality or external stress in arctic-nesting migratory birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legagneux

    Full Text Available The effects of environmental perturbations or stressors on individual states can be carried over to subsequent life stages and ultimately affect survival and reproduction. The concentration of corticosterone (CORT in feathers is an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during the molting period, providing information on the total baseline and stress-induced CORT secreted during the period of feather growth. Common eiders and greater snow geese replace all flight feathers once a year during the pre-basic molt, which occurs following breeding. Thus, CORT contained in feathers of pre-breeding individuals sampled in spring reflects the total CORT secreted during the previous molting event, which may provide insight into the magnitude or extent of stress experienced during this time period. We used data from multiple recaptures to disentangle the contribution of individual quality vs. external factors (i.e., breeding investment or environmental conditions on feather CORT in arctic-nesting waterfowl. Our results revealed no repeatability of feather CORT within individuals of either species. In common eiders, feather CORT was not affected by prior reproductive investment, nor by pre-breeding (spring body condition prior to the molting period. Individual feather CORT greatly varied according to the year, and August-September temperatures explained most of the annual variation in feather CORT. Understanding mechanisms that affect energetic costs and stress responses during molting will require further studies either using long-term data or experiments. Although our study period encompassed only five years, it nonetheless provides evidence that CORT measured in feathers likely reflects responses to environmental conditions experienced by birds during molt, and could be used as a metric to study carry-over effects.

  1. Does feather corticosterone reflect individual quality or external stress in arctic-nesting migratory birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legagneux, Pierre; Harms, N Jane; Gauthier, Gilles; Chastel, Olivier; Gilchrist, H Grant; Bortolotti, Gary; Bêty, Joël; Soos, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The effects of environmental perturbations or stressors on individual states can be carried over to subsequent life stages and ultimately affect survival and reproduction. The concentration of corticosterone (CORT) in feathers is an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during the molting period, providing information on the total baseline and stress-induced CORT secreted during the period of feather growth. Common eiders and greater snow geese replace all flight feathers once a year during the pre-basic molt, which occurs following breeding. Thus, CORT contained in feathers of pre-breeding individuals sampled in spring reflects the total CORT secreted during the previous molting event, which may provide insight into the magnitude or extent of stress experienced during this time period. We used data from multiple recaptures to disentangle the contribution of individual quality vs. external factors (i.e., breeding investment or environmental conditions) on feather CORT in arctic-nesting waterfowl. Our results revealed no repeatability of feather CORT within individuals of either species. In common eiders, feather CORT was not affected by prior reproductive investment, nor by pre-breeding (spring) body condition prior to the molting period. Individual feather CORT greatly varied according to the year, and August-September temperatures explained most of the annual variation in feather CORT. Understanding mechanisms that affect energetic costs and stress responses during molting will require further studies either using long-term data or experiments. Although our study period encompassed only five years, it nonetheless provides evidence that CORT measured in feathers likely reflects responses to environmental conditions experienced by birds during molt, and could be used as a metric to study carry-over effects.

  2. Avaliação in vitro da atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas e óleo de eucalipto sobre Trichophyton mentagrophytes In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of plant extracts and eucalyptus oil on Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.R. Frias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a ação antifúngica de extratos de plantas medicinais e óleo de eucalipto frente ao dermatófito Trichophyton mentagropytes, visando a utilização da fitoterapia no controle. As plantas utilizadas na obtenção dos extratos foram arruda (Ruta graveolens, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, cravo de defunto (Tagetes minuta, eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp, graviola (Annona muricata, fruta do conde (Annona spp, manga (Mangifera indica, romã (Punica granatum, flores e folhas de primavera (Bougainvillea spectabilis. Verificou-se que uso de 0,5% óleo de eucalipto no combate ao T. mentagropytes foi eficaz, já os extratos de citronela (4% eucalipto (5% e romã (8% atuaram como fungistáticos e os restantes não devem ser usados contra este dermatófito porque não causaram nenhum efeito.The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal action of medicinal plant extracts and eucalyptus oil against the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes in order to employ phytotherapy for its control. The plants used for extract production were common rue (Ruta graveolens, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, wild marigold (Tagetes minuta, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp, sweetsop (Annona muricata, custard apple (Annona spp, mango (Mangifera indica, pomegranate (Punica granatum, besides flowers and leaves of bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis. The use of 0.5% eucalyptus oil was effective in controlling Trichophyton mentagrophytes; however, citronella (4%, eucalyptus (5% and pomegranate (8% extracts acted as fungistatic, and the remaining extracts should not be used against this dermatophyte since they did not have any effect.

  3. Aspectos agronômicos de leguminosas para adubação verde no Cerrado do Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges Teodoro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo e inadequado dos solos acelera sua degradação, sendo necessária a intervenção por meio de práticas conservacionistas para restaurar a capacidade produtiva dos mesmos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o comportamento e desenvolvimento de diferentes leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes em solos de Cerrado, Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha, em Turmalina, MG. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas leguminosas: mucuna-cinza (Mucuna nivea, mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima, lablabe (Dolichos lablab, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis e guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan. O ciclo precoce de C . juncea, C. spectabilis e feijão-de-porco favorece a inserção destes nos sistemas de cultivo. Aos 40 dias, o feijão-de-porco e mucuna-cinza já cobriam o solo, com 67 e 63 %; já o guandu-anão e C. juncea apresentaram os maiores desenvolvimentos, nesse período. Os teores de N, P e K tendem a diminuir nas avaliações realizadas nas diferentes fases vegetativas, o que contribui para melhor escolha da época de manejo das leguminosas. Crotalaria juncea, mucuna-cinza, feijão-de-porco e mucuna-preta foram as leguminosas que se destacaram na produção de matéria seca, o que torna essas espécies promissoras para adubação verde na região. As leguminosas, em sua maioria, apresentam potencial para reciclagem dos macronutrientes e aporte de N aos sistemas de produção.

  4. Respuesta de cinco leguminosas de cobertura a la fertilización fosfórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Gómez Gómez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de cobertura de especies leguminosas son sembradas para el control de malezas, prevención de la erosión del suelo y aporte de nitrógeno al suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta de las leguminosas de cobertura Mucuna pruriens cv. cinza, Mucuna pruriens cv. preta, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vigna radiata y Pueraria phaseoloides a la fertilización fosfórica, en dos épocas del año. El experimento se realizó en un invernadero en la Estación Experimental Agrícola Fabio Baudrit Moreno (EEAFBM de la Universidad de Costa Rica, en Alajuela, Costa Rica, en el periodo de noviembre del 2012 a enero del 2013, y se repitió de abril a mayo del 2013. Se aplicaron dosis de 0, 30, 60 y 90 kg P2O5/ha en suelo esterilizado con vapor y posteriormente, utilizado para llenar potes de 2 kg de capacidad. Se evaluó altura de planta, número de hojas verdaderas y peso seco luego de 18-26 días de la siembra, según la especie de leguminosa. Tuvieron un mayor crecimiento C. spectabilis Ruth, V. radiata (L Wilczek y P. phaseoloides (Roxb, cuando fueron fertilizadas con 60 kg P2O5/ha, mientras que, los dos cultivares de M. pruriens no incrementaron su crecimiento con la fertilización fosfórica. El fósforo a la siembra de las leguminosas de semilla pequeña aceleró su crecimiento, lo que indica la importancia de validar el empleo de este fertilizante para la obtención de una rápida cobertura del suelo, lo cual podría disminuir la competencia con las malezas.

  5. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos H Z; Cunha, Beatriz P; Solferini, Vera N; Trigo, José R

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense.

  6. Potential of trees leaf/ bark to control atmospheric metals in a gas and petrochemical zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mojgan; Ramavandi, Bahman; Sanati, Ali Mohammad; Sorial, George A; Hashemi, Seyedenayat; Tahmasebi, Saeid

    2018-05-22

    Leaf and bark of trees are tools for assessing the effects of the heavy metals pollution and monitoring the environmental air quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Ni, Pb, V, and Co metals in four tree/shrub species (Conocarpus erectus, Nerium oleander, Bougainvillea spectabilis willd, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) in the heavily industrial zone of Asaloyeh, Iran. Two industrial zones (sites 1 and 2), two urban areas (sites 3 and 4), and two rural areas (sites 5 and 6) in the Asaloyeh industrial zone and an uncontaminated area as a control were selected. Sampling from leaf and bark of trees was carried out in spring 2016. The metals content in the washed and unwashed leaf and bark was investigated. The results showed that four studied metals in N. oleander, C. erectus, and B. spectabilis willd in all case sites were significantly higher than that of in the control site (p < 0.05). The highest concentration of metals was found in sites 3, 4, and 6; this was due to dispersion of the pollutants from industrial environments by dominant winds. The highest comprehensive bio-concentration index (CBCI) was found in leaf (0.37) and bark (0.12) of N. oleander. The maximum metal accumulation index (MAI) in the samples was found in leaf of N. oleander (1.58) and in bark of H. rosa-sinensis (1.95). The maximum bio-concentration factor (BCF) was seen for cobalt metal in the N. oleander leaf (0.89). The nickel concentration in washed-leaf samples of C. erectus was measured to be 49.64% of unwashed one. In general, the N. oleander and C. erectus species were found to have the highest absorption rate from the atmosphere and soil than other studied species, and are very suitable tools for managing air pollution in highly industrialized areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The greening of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Pramod; Kumar, Lalit; Shabani, Farzin; Atreya, Kishor

    2017-12-01

    The possible disruption of climate change (CC) on the ecological, economic and social segments of human interest has made this phenomenon a major issue over the last couple of decades. Mountains are fragile ecosystems, projected to endure a higher impact from the increased warming. This study presents modelled CC projections with respect to the suitability for the growth of nine near-treeline plant species of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau through niche modelling technique using CLIMEX and estimates their potential future distribution and the extent of greening in the region. Two global climate models, CSIRO-MK 3.0 (CS) and MIROCH-H (MR) were used under IPCC A1B and A2 emission scenarios for the year 2050 and 2100. The results indicate that climatic suitability of the nine species expands towards higher elevations into areas that are currently unsuitable while currently suitable areas in many regions become climatically unsuitable in the future. The total climatically suitable area for the nine species at current time is around 1.09 million km2, with an additional 0.68 and 0.35 million km2 becoming suitable by 2050 and 2100 respectively. High elevation belts, especially those lying above 3500 m, will see more climatically suitable areas for the nine species in the future. Cold stress is the main factor limiting current distribution and its decrease will affect the overall expansion of climatic suitability in the region. Impacts on nature conservation and water and food security could be expected from such shift of climatic suitability in the region. The species includes (i) Abies spectabilis, (ii) Acer campbellii, (iii) Betula utilis, (iv) Juniperus indica, (v) Quercus semecarpifolia, (vi) Tsuga dumosa, (vii) Rhododendron campanulatum, (viii) Ephedra gerardiana, and (ix) Cassiope fastigiata. The species list from top to bottom are (i) Abies spectabilis, (ii) Acer campbellii, (iii) Betula utilis, (iv) Juniperus indica, (v) Quercus semecarpifolia, (vi) Tsuga

  8. Bactérias amonificantes e nitrificantes e teores de amônio e nitrato afetados por plantas de cobertura e fertilizantes nitrogenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edemar Moro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das plantas de cobertura e da fonte de nitrogênio nas bactérias nitrificantes e amonificantes do solo, bem como nos teores de nitrato e amônio. O experimento foi conduzido em um latossolo vermelho distrófico sobre sistema plantio direto (SPD por seis anos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis espécies de plantas de cobertura do solo (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria humidicola, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Pennisetum americanum e Crotalaria spectabilis e as subparcelas pelo controle e três fontes de nitrogênio (1- controle, sem aplicação de N, 2- nitrato de cálcio, 3- sulfato de amônio e 4- sulfato de amônio + dicianodiamida (DCD aplicadas imediatamente após a emergência do arroz na dose de 40 kg ha-1 de N. Foram avaliadas a atividade das bactérias e os teores de nitrato e amônio no solo aos 15 DAE. As plantas de cobertura milheto (Pennisetum americanum, crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis; Brachiaria brizantha, B. decumbens; e B. humidicola proporcionaram os maiores teores de amônio no solo; O uso do inibidor de nitrificação (dicianodiamida-DCD inibiu parte das bactérias nitrificantes e proporcionou os maiores teores de amônio no solo; A atividade das bactérias amonificantes e nitrificantes foi maior nas parcelas cultivadas com braquiárias; Plantas de cobertura aliada ao uso de DCD pode ser uma estratégia para aumentar os teores de amônio do solo cultivado sobre SPD

  9. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Z Martins

    Full Text Available Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina, and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves which is reflected in the adult defense.

  10. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum

  11. Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Legumes and N Uptake by Coffee Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Sá Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Green manures are an alternative for substituting or supplementing mineral nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of this study was to quantify biological N fixation (BNF and the N contribution derived from BNF (N-BNF to N levels in leaves of coffee intercropped with legumes grown on four family farms located in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Forest Biome in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following green manures were evaluated: pinto peanuts (Arachis pintoi, calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides, crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis, Brazilian stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, lablab beans (Dolichos lablab, and velvet beans (Stizolobium deeringianum, and spontaneous plants. The experimental design was randomized blocks with a 4 × 8 factorial arrangement (four agricultural properties and eight green manures, and four replications. One hundred grams of fresh matter of each green manure plant were dried in an oven to obtain the dry matter. We then performed chemical and biochemical characterizations and determined the levels of 15N and 14N, which were used to quantify BNF through the 15N (δ15N natural abundance technique. The legumes C. mucunoides, S. guianensis, C. cajan, and D. lablab had the highest rates of BNF, at 46.1, 45.9, 44.4, and 42.9 %, respectively. C. cajan was the legume that contributed the largest amount of N (44.42 kg ha-1 via BNF.C. cajan, C. spectabilis, and C. mucunoides transferred 55.8, 48.8, and 48.1 %, respectively, of the N from biological fixation to the coffee plants. The use of legumes intercropped with coffee plants is important in supplying N, as well as in transferring N derived from BNF to nutrition of the coffee plants.

  12. Produção de fitomassa de diferentes espécies de cobertura e suas alterações na atividade microbiana de solo de cerrado Phytomass yield of different cover crops and alterations in the microbial activity in a cerrado soil in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a produção de fitomassa de nove espécies de cobertura do solo e verificar as alterações na atividade e biomassa microbiana de solo de cerrado. O trabalho foi desenvolvido de março a dezembro de 2004, em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, sendo semeadas as seguintes espécies de cobertura: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa, guandu (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria juncea, lablabe (Lablab purpureum, milheto (Pennicetum americanum, nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus, níger (Guizotia abyssinica (L.F. Cass., feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis. e Crotalatia spectabilis. Uma área em pousio foi considerada como referência. Na ocasião do florescimento, determinou-se a quantidade de fitomassa e, a partir de agosto, parte dela foi acondicionada em sacos de polietileno, ficando no solo por 120 dias, para se avaliar a razão de decomposição. Durante esse período, no inicio de cada mês, foram avaliados o carbono da biomassa microbiana e a respiração microbiana do solo. As espécies mais promissoras para produção de fitomassa foram o guandu, milheto, feijão-de-porco e niger. O carbono da biomassa microbiana foi negativamente afetado nas áreas com resíduos de milheto, nabo forrageiro, crotalária espectábilis e naquela em pousio. Na área sob pousio, verificou-se a menor produção de fitomassa, além da redução no carbono da biomassa microbiana e mais perda de carbono, sendo esta prática não indicada para a região de cerrado.The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytomass yield of nine species of cover crops of the soil and to verify the alterations in the activity and microbial biomass of Cerrado soil, in the State of Goiás, Brazil. The work was developed from March to December, 2004, being sowed the following covering species: Avena strigosa, Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria juncea, Lablab purpureum, Pennicetum americanum, Raphanus sativus, Guizotia abyssinica, Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalatia

  13. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in terrestrial biota from the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, YT, Y1A 7A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: mary.gamberg@northwestel.net; Braune, Birgit [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Davey, Eric [Athabasca Tribal Council, Environmental Affairs, 9206 McCormick Drive, Fort McMurray, AB, T9H 1C7 (Canada); Elkin, Brett [Northwest Territories Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development, Yellowknife, NT X1A 3S8 (Canada); Hoekstra, Paul F. [Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Kennedy, David [Northwest Territories Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development, Yellowknife, NT X1A 3S8 (Canada); Macdonald, Colin [Northern Environmental Consulting, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Muir, Derek [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Nirwal, Amar [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Wayland, Mark [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Prairie and Northern Region, 115 Perimeter Road, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    wildlife. Two new classes of persistent fluorinated contaminants, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were found in arctic carnivores and were most abundant in arctic fox and least abundant in mink. Although trace element concentrations in king and common eider ducks were low and not of toxicological concern, the number of nematode parasites in common eiders was positively correlated with total and organic mercury concentrations. Future research should focus on cadmium in moose and caribou, mercury in caribou, and emerging contaminants, with an effort to sample moose and caribou annually where possible to explore the role of naturally occurring cycles in apparent temporal trends.

  14. Self-Reported Interview-Assisted Diet Records Underreport Energy Intake in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Bryan B; Bross, Rachelle; Morrison, Gillian; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kopple, Joel D

    2015-07-01

    Studies suggest that maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients report dietary energy intakes (EIs) that are lower than what is actually ingested. Data supporting this conclusion have several important limitations. The present study introduces a novel approach of assessing underreporting of EI in MHD patients. Comparisons of EI of free-living MHD patients determined from food records to their measured energy needs. Metabolic research ward. Thirteen clinically stable MHD patients with unchanging weights whose EI was assessed by dietitian interview-assisted 3-day food records. EI was compared with (1) patients' resting energy expenditure (REE), measured by indirect calorimetry, and estimated total energy expenditure (TEE) and (2) patients' dietary energy requirements (DER) measured while patients underwent nitrogen balance studies and consumed a constant energy diet in a research ward for a mean duration of 89.5 days. DER was calculated as the actual EI during the research study corrected for changes in body fat and lean body mass measured by Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry. Underreporting of EI was determined by an EI:REE ratio <1.27 and an EI:TEE ratio or EI:DEE ratio <1.0. Seven of the 13 MHD patients studied were male. Patient's ages were 47.7 ± standard deviation 9.7 years; body mass index averaged 25.4 ± 2.8 kg/m2, and dialysis vintage was 53.3 ± 37.1 months. The EI:REE ratio (1.03 ± 0.23) was significantly less than the cutoff value for underreporting of 1.27 (P = .001); 12 of 13 patients had EI:REE ratios <1.27. The mean EI:TEE ratio was significantly less than the cutoff value of 1.0 (0.73 ± 0.17, P < .0001), and 12 MHD patients had EI:TEE ratios <1.0. The EI:DER ratio was also <1.0 (0.83 ± 0.25, P = .012), and 10 MHD had EI:DER ratios <1.0. Dietitian interview-assisted diet records by MHD patients substantially underestimate the patient's dietary EI. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Potencial de espécies vegetais para a remediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron-sodium Potential of plant species for remediation of trifloxysulfuron-sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Procópio

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de espécies vegetais na remediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron-sodium em solos, utilizando o feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris como planta indicadora. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação entre as espécies Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Medicago sativa, Dolichus lab lab, Penisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus e Lupinus albus. Todas as espécies foram semeadas em vasos no dia seguinte à aplicação do trifloxysulfuron-sodium em três doses (0,00; 3,75; e 15,00 g ha-1. Após 80 dias da semeadura, as espécies vegetais foram cortadas na altura do coleto e a parte aérea destas descartada. A seguir, foi realizada a semeadura do feijão (cultivar Pérola. Aos 45 dias após a emergência das plantas de feijão avaliaram-se a altura e a massa seca da parte aérea das plantas. Melhor eficiência na descontaminação do trifloxysulfuron-sodium em solo foi obtida pelas espécies M. aterrima e C. ensiformis.This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of vegetable species in the remediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron-sodium in soils using the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as a bio indicator. The treatments were composed by the combination of the species Calopogonium mucunoides,Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Medicago sativa, Dolichus lab lab, Penisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus and Lupinus albus, sown in vases the day following application of the herbicide at three doses (0.00; 3.75; and 15.00 g ha-1. Eighty days after sowing, the plants were cut and the shoot discarded, followed by bean ("Perola" cultivar sowing. At 45 days post emergence, bean height and shoot dry matter were

  16. Abnormal meiotic behavior in three species of Crotalaria Comportamento meiótico anormal em três espécies de Crotalaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the meiotic behavior and pollen grain viability of three species of Crotalaria. Slides for meiotic analysis were prepared by the air-drying technique. Pollen grain viability was measured by three staining procedures (Alexander's solution, tetrazolium chloride and fluorescein diacetate and in vitro germination in a sucrose solution. Eight bivalents were observed, confirming previous reports on populations from other regions of Brazil, as well as from other countries. All species showed abnormal meiotic behavior as follows: in Crotalaria micans, cytomixis and abnormal chromosome pairing in diakinesis; in C. spectabilis, abnormal chromosome pairing in diplotene; in C. zanzibarica, shrunk nuclei in leptotene and zygotene. Pollen grains of all three species show low viability, which may be associated with the irregularities of the meiotic behavior.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o comportamento meiótico e a viabilidade dos grãos de pólen de três espécies de Crotalaria. A análise meiótica foi realizada por meio da técnica de secagem ao ar. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi avaliada por testes de coloração (corante de Alexander, cloreto de tetrazólio e diacetato de fluoresceína e por teste de germinação em solução de sacarose. Foram observados oito bivalentes, confirmando relatos prévios em populações de outras regiões do Brasil e de outros países. As três espécies apresentaram comportamento meiótico irregular: em Crotalaria micans, citomixia e pareamento irregular na diacinese; em C. spectabilis, pareamento irregular no diplóteno; e em C. zanzibarica, núcleo fortemente condensado nas fases de leptóteno e zigóteno. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen das três espécies é baixa, o que pode estar associado às irregularidades do comportamento meiótico.

  17. Levantamento de plantas aquáticas no reservatório de Salto Grande, Americana-SP Aquatic plant survey in Salto Grande reservoir in Americana-SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a frequência relativa e o nível de infestação de cada espécie da flora aquática presente no reservatório de Salto Grande, Americana-SP. O levantamento e a identificação das plantas aquáticas foram realizados percorrendo-se as margens do reservatório em uma embarcação. Ao longo dele foram estabelecidos 20 pontos de avaliação, sendo todos eles fotografados e georreferenciados. Foram atribuídos valores de 0 a 100% tanto para as espécies presentes como para os espaços livres de macrófitas aquáticas que eventualmente pudessem ocorrer dentro dos pontos amostrados. Com os dados referentes ao número de indivíduos e pontos avaliados, foi determinada a frequência relativa de cada espécie. Foram identificadas 13 espécies em todo o reservatório, sendo 12 vasculares e uma de alga-verde (Chlorella spp.. Entre as espécies vasculares, nove eram plantas emersas flutuantes, as quais poderiam estar ou não ancoradas no leito do reservatório: Alternanthera philoxeroides, Brachiaria subquadripara, Cyperus difformis, Echinochloa polystachia var. spectabilis, Eichhornia crassipes, Panicum rivulare, Pistia stratiotes, Salvinia auriculata e Typha angustifolia. Outras três espécies foram encontradas somente em solo firme alagado: Aeschynomene sensitiva, Hedychium coronarium e Mimosa pigra.The objectives of this work were to determine the relative frequency and infestation level of each species present in the Salto Grande Reservoir in Americana-SP. The survey and identification of the aquatic plants were carried out in the Salto Grande reservoir on a boat. Twenty evaluation sites were established along the reservoir, photographed and geo-referenced. Values from 0 to 100% were assigned for both the species present and for the aquatic plants that could possibly occur within the sampled sites. Based on the number of individuals and points evaluated, the relative frequency of each species was determined

  18. Fitorremediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium Phytoremediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de espécies vegetais na fitorremediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium em solos, utilizando o milho como planta indicadora. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação de espécies (Calopogonium muconoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Helianthus annus, Dolichus lablab, Pennisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus e Lupinus albus, semeadas anteriormente à cultura do milho, mais um tratamento controle (sem cultivo prévio e três doses do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium (0,00; 3,75; e 15,00 g ha-1. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial, sendo utilizadas três repetições. A semeadura das espécies vegetais nos vasos foi feita no dia seguinte à aplicação do trifloxysulfuron sodium. Após 80 dias da semeadura, as espécies vegetais foram cortadas na altura do coleto, descartando-se a sua parte aérea. A seguir, foi realizada a semeadura do milho (cultivar AG-122. Aos 45 dias após a emergência das plantas de milho foram avaliadas a altura de plantas e a sua biomassa seca da parte aérea. Verificou-se que as espécies M. aterrima e C. ensiformis foram eficientes na descontaminação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium em solo.This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of plant species in the phytoremediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron sodium in soils, by using corn crop as a bioindicator. The treatments were composed by the combination of the species (Calopogonium muconoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Helianthus annus, Dolichus lablab, Pennisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus and Lupinus albus sowed before the corn, without previous cultivation (control

  19. Alleviating soil acidity through plant organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson R. Meda

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water soluble plant extracts on soil acidity. The plant materials were: black oat, oil seed radish, white and blue lupin, gray and dwarf mucuna, Crotalaria spectabilis and C. breviflora, millet, pigeon pea, star grass, mato grosso grass, coffee leaves, sugar cane leaves, rice straw, and wheat straw. Plant extracts were added on soil surface in a PVC soil column at a rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both soil and drainage water were analyzed for pH, Ca, Al, and K. Plant extracts applied on the soil surface increased soil pH, exchangeable Ca ex and Kex and decreased Al ex. Oil seed radish, black oat, and blue lupin were the best and millet the worst materials to alleviate soil acidity. Oil seed radish markedly increased Al in the drainage water. Chemical changes were associated with the concentrations of basic cations in the plant extract: the higher the concentration the greater the effects in alleviating soil acidity.Foram conduzidos experimentos de laboratórios para avaliar os efeitos de extratos de plantas solúveis em água na acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram: aveia preta, nabo, tremoço branco e azul, mucuna cinza e anã, Crotalaria spectabilis e C. breviflora, milheto, guandu, grama estrela, grama mato grosso, folhas de café, folhas de cana-de-açúcar, palhada de arroz e palhada de trigo. Foi utilizado o seguinte procedimento para o extrato da planta solúvel em água: pesar 3g de material de planta, adicionar 150 ml de água, agitar por 8h e filtrar. Os extratos de plantas foram adicionados na superfície do solo em uma coluna de PVC (1 ml min-1. Após, adicionou-se água deionizada em quantidade equivalente a três volumes de poros. Os extratos de plantas aumentaram o pH, Ca e K trocável e diminuíram Al. Nabo, aveia preta e tremoço azul foram os melhores e milheto o pior material para amenizar a acidez do solo. Nabo aumentou Al na água de drenagem. As altera

  20. Adubação verde em tomateiro cultivado em sistema de agricultura orgânica / Green fertilization in tomato plant tilled in organic agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano André Pot

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de tomate-cereja em sistema de agricultura orgânica cultivado sob diferentes doses e épocas de aplicação da fi tomassa de ervilha forrageira, ervilhaca comum e crotalaria spectabilis. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Guarapuava, PR, no período de outubro de 2005 a fevereiro de 2006 em delineamento de blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos foram: ØFT – sem adição de resíduos de adubos verdes; 3EF – 3,0 Mg ha-1 de fi tomassa de ervilha forrageira (Pisum sativum var. arvense; 6EF – 6,0 Mg ha-1 de fi tomassa de ervilha forrageira; 9EF – 9,0 Mg ha-1 de fi tomassa de ervilha forrageira; 3EF+3EC – 3,0 Mg ha-1 de fi tomassa de ervilha forrageira + 3,0 Mg ha-1 de fi tomassa de ervilhaca (Vicia sativa; 3EF+3EC+3CS – 3,0 Mg ha-1 de fi tomassa de ervilha forrageira + 3,0 Mg ha-1 de fi tomassa de ervilhaca + 3,0 Mg ha-1 de fi tomassa de crotalária (Crotalaria spectabilis. Houve resposta crescente linear nos tratamentos ØFT, 3EF, 6EF, 9EF para as variáveis produtividade de tomate, número de tomates por planta e massa média do fruto de tomate-cereja. Os resultados evidenciaram que a adição de fi tomassa de leguminosas foi efi ciente para aumentar a produtividade de tomateiro-cereja em sistema de agricultura orgânica. A aplicação de fi tomassa em uma única aplicação foi mais eficiente do que o parcelamento da fi tomassa ao longo do ciclo da cultura.

  1. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus) in China with multiple gene markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qing-Yan; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Chesters, Douglas; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes (ITS1 and ITS2). Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML)/Neighbor-joining (NJ), "best close match" (BCM), Minimum distance (MD), and BP-based method (BP)), representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based) in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In addition, our

  2. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus in China with multiple gene markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Yan Dai

    Full Text Available Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS genes (ITS1 and ITS2. Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML/Neighbor-joining (NJ, "best close match" (BCM, Minimum distance (MD, and BP-based method (BP, representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In

  3. A Study of Allelopathy of Some Shade Trees to Coffea arabicaL. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of social economic judgment, many coffee planters nowadays grow Cassia spectabilisand in the certain regions used Cinnamomum burmani, Macadamia integrifolia, Tectona grandisand Cassia siameaas shade trees or intercrops. Before being used in large scale, allelopathy study is appropriate to be done because this effect is much more difficult to be overcome than competiton as growing factor. Research on allelopathy of those species had been conducted in glasshouse of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Salisbury & Ross method. Leachate of Cassia spectabilis Cinnamomum burmani, Macadamia integrifolia, Tectona grandisand Cassia siamea, pure media (without plant and control (well water were used as treatments. Planting material of Cinnamomum burmani, Macadamia integrifolia, Tectona grandisand Cassia siameawere as seedlings of one year old, whereas C. spectabiliswas 3 months old. Those materials were planted in polybags 20 cm x 30 cm and replicated five times. The media was a mixture of top soil, manure and sand 1 : 1 : 1 (v/v. After those species were maintained for one months and Arabica seedlings for three month old, watering of coffee seedlings then using leachate from shade trees media. Every two days, each seedling was applied with 200 ml. Control was applied with well water. Pure media was used to study the effect of nutrient supply contained in the leachate. The experiment was stopped at seven month old of the coffee seedlings. The result showed that C. spectabilisreleased chemicals which showed allelopathic effect to Arabica coffee, their growth was inhibited 10% to control. The growth decreament from Cassia siameaand D. zibethinustreatment mainly caused by lower mineral content in the leachate and indicated by weak allelopathic. On the other hand M. integrifoliaand C. burmanidid not show allelopathic to Arabica coffee. Thus, based on allelopathy aspect, it can be included that C. spectabilisand C. siamea were not

  4. Atividade microbiana do solo em pomar de laranja em resposta ao cultivo de adubos verdes Soil microbialactivities in orchard citrus as a response to green manure cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Nucci Buzinaro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Adubos verdes (AVs são condicionadores do solo utilizados para a melhoria da estrutura e fertilidade do solo. Este estudo avaliou o efeito de Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (crotalária, Cajanus cajan (L Millsp (guandu e Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (braquiária nas propriedades microbiológicas e bioquímicas do solo sob laranjal. As leguminosas foram plantadas nas entrelinhas do laranjal e, após 3 meses, cortadas e lançadas nas entrelinhas. A braquiária, já estabelecida, foi roçada e lançada nas entrelinhas. Após 5 meses, as amostras de solo foram coletadas na entrelinha e na linha, na profundidade de 0-20 cm. O delineamento experimental foi em parcela subdividida. Efeito significativo (pGreen manure (GM is a soil conditioner used to improve soil structure and fertility. This study evaluated the effect of Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (showy rattlebox, Cajanus cajan (L Millsp (pigeonpea and Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (brachiaria on soil microbial and biochemical attributes of the citrus orchard. The leguminous was planted at the intercrops and, after 3 months, they were cut and applied in the intercrops. The grown brachiaria was cut and applied in the intercrops. After 5 months, the soil samples were taken from the rows and intercrops in the depth of 0-20 cm. A split-plot design was used. Significant effect (p < 0.05% from the GM application on the bacteria counts and dehydrogenase and nitrifying activities was obtained an it increased, on average, 20, 39, and 190%, respectively. Fungi number decreased 57%. Urease and solubilizing activities and organic matter and moisture contents were not influenced by the GM application. Among the plants, significant responses were found due to the stimulating activities of dehydrogenase of 57% by pigeonpea, urease 58% by brachiaria, solubilizing 346% by showy rattlebox and nitrifying 236% by pigeonpea or brachiaria in relation to the others GM. These results suggest that GM application for successive

  5. Year-to-year correlations in blood metal levels among individuals of two species of North American sea ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, M.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Kellett, D.; Traylor, J.; Swoboda, C.; Neugebauer, E.; Mehl, K.

    2007-01-01

    Sea duck populations have declined in North America. Contaminants, especially metals, have been listed as possible contributing factors. Sea ducks are long-lived. Thus, individuals chronically exposed to elevated metal levels may be at greatest risk. Information about long-term exposure (≥1 year) of individuals to metals is absent. To address this information gap, we examined year-to-year correlations among individual White-Winged Scoters and King Eiders in levels of blood cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium. Positive correlations (r ≥ 0.43), were found in six, five, five and two of seven correlations for cadmium, selenium, lead and mercury. Thus, certain individuals of these species may be exposed over two or more years to higher levels of cadmium, selenium and lead (but apparently not mercury) than other individuals. Single blood samples are appropriate metrics of exposure for studies that examine long-term effects of certain metals on these birds. - Some individuals of two species of sea ducks experience greater long-term (≥1 year) exposure to cadmium, selenium and lead compared to other individuals

  6. Bioaccumulation of uranium 234U and 238U in marine birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borylo, A.; Skwarzec, B.

    2010-01-01

    In the paper was presented results of our study about uranium 234 U and 238 U radioactivity in the marine birds samples, collected in the Polish area of the southern Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The obtained results indicated that uranium is very irregularly distributed in organs and tissues of marine birds. The highest uranium content is characterized in liver, rest of viscera and feathers, the smallest in skin and muscles. The uranium concentration was higher for carnivorous species (long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis), common eider (S. mollissima), lower for species eating fish (great cormorant (P. carbo), common guillemot (U. aalge), red-throated diver (G. stellata) and razorbill (A. tarda)), but the biggest amounts for herbivorous species [tufted duck (A. fuligula) and eurasian coot (F. atra)]. About 63-67% of uranium, which was located in feathers of two species of marine birds: razorbill (A. tarda) and long-tailed duck (C. hymealis), was apparently adsorbed, which suggests that uranium adsorption on the feathers may be an important transfer from air to water. (author)

  7. A new detector for the measurement of neutron flux in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Labeyrie, J.; Tarassenko, S.

    1958-01-01

    The detector described is designed for the instantaneous measurement of thermal neutron fluxes, in the presence of high γ ray activity; this detector can withstand temperatures as high as 500 deg. C. It is based on the following principle: radioactive atoms resulting from heavy-nucleus fission are carried by a gas flow to a detector recording their β and γ disintegration. Thermal neutron fluxes as low as few neutrons per cm 2 per second can be measured. This detector may be used to control a nuclear reactor, to plot the thermal flux distribution with an excellent definition (1 mm 2 ) for fluxes higher than 10 8 n/cm 2 /s. The time response of the system to a sharp variation of flux is limited, in case of large fluxes, to the transit time of the gas flow between the fission product emitter and the detector; of the order of one tenth of a sec per meter of piping. The detector may also be applied for spectroscopy of fission products eider than 0,1 s. (author) [fr

  8. Avian cholera, a threat to the viability of an Arctic seabird colony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Descamps

    Full Text Available Evidence that infectious diseases cause wildlife population extirpation or extinction remains anecdotal and it is unclear whether the impacts of a pathogen at the individual level can scale up to population level so drastically. Here, we quantify the response of a Common eider colony to emerging epidemics of avian cholera, one of the most important infectious diseases affecting wild waterfowl. We show that avian cholera has the potential to drive colony extinction, even over a very short period. Extinction depends on disease severity (the impact of the disease on adult female survival and disease frequency (the number of annual epidemics per decade. In case of epidemics of high severity (i.e., causing >30% mortality of breeding females, more than one outbreak per decade will be unsustainable for the colony and will likely lead to extinction within the next century; more than four outbreaks per decade will drive extinction to within 20 years. Such severity and frequency of avian cholera are already observed, and avian cholera might thus represent a significant threat to viability of breeding populations. However, this will depend on the mechanisms underlying avian cholera transmission, maintenance, and spread, which are currently only poorly known.

  9. Aktivitas Antivirus Beberapa Ekstrak Tanaman terhadap Bean Common Mosaic Virus strain Black Eye Cowpea (BCMV-BIC pada Kacang Panjang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Asmira Damayanti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Antivirus actitivity of several plant extracts against Bean common mosaic virus strain Black eye cowpea (BCMV-BlC on Yard long bean.  Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV is an important virus on yard long bean and it is difficult to control. One of control effort way by utilizing antiviral substances of plant origin. The research was done to select and test the effectiveness of plant extracts in suppressing BCMV infection on yard long bean. Twenty two plant extracts were selected by (1 spraying the crude extract to Chenopodium amaranticolor leaves, then plant inoculated by BCMV 1 hour after spraying, and (2 mixturing the crude extract with sap containing BCMV, then inoculated mechanically to C. amaranticolor.  Local necrotic lesion  number and inhibition percentage are measured. All plant extract treatments were able to reduce Necrotic lokal lesion  formation significantly  compared to untreatment control. Further, fifteen plant extracts were selected to test their effectiveness in controlling BCMV on yard long bean in green house trial. The results showed that except geranium and red ginger treatment, other extract treatments were able to reduce significantly the disease incidence and severity, symptoms, and  BCMV titer, respectively. Among tested extracts, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Mirabilis jalapa, and Celosia cristata are the most effective crude extracts in suppressing BCMV infection.

  10. Outbreaks of forest defoliating insects in Japan, 1950-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, N; Kamata, N

    2002-04-01

    In Japan, several forest-defoliating insects reach outbreak levels and cause serious defoliation. Stand mortality sometimes occurs after severe defoliation. However, in general, tree mortality caused by insect defoliation is low because of the prevailing moist climate in Japan. Evergreen conifers are more susceptible to tree mortality as a result of insect defoliation whereas deciduous broad-leaved trees are seldom killed. Insect defoliation occurs more frequently in man-made environments such as among shade trees, orchards, and plantations than in natural habitats. Outbreaks of some defoliators tend to occur in stands of a particular age: e.g. outbreaks of the pine caterpillar, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) occur more frequently in young pine plantations. In contrast, defoliation caused by outbreaks of lepidopterous and hymenopterous pests in larch plantations is more frequent with stand maturation. There is a relationship between outbreaks of some defoliators and altitude above sea level. Most outbreaks of forest defoliators were terminated by insect pathogens that operated in a density-dependent fashion. Since the 1970s, Japan has been prosperous and can afford to buy timber from abroad. More recently, there has been an increasing demand for timber in Japan, that coincides with a huge demand internationally, so that the country will need to produce more timber locally in the future. The increasing pressure on the forestry industry to meet this demand will require more sophisticated methods of pest control coupled with more sustainable methods of silviculture.

  11. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigaj, Lubomír; Zach, Peter; Honěk, Alois; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year(-1), similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

  12. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae in Slovakia, Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Panigaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year-1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea was dominant along alongitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

  13. Anti-TNF-α Activity of Brazilian Medicinal Plants and Compounds from Ouratea semiserrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Priscilla R V; Mansur, Daniel S; Gusman, Grasielle S; Ferreira, Daneel; Teixeira, Mauro M; Braga, Fernão C

    2015-10-01

    Several plant species are used in Brazil to treat inflammatory diseases and associated conditions. TNF-α plays a pivotal role on inflammation, and several plant extracts have been assayed against this target, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of 11 Brazilian medicinal plants on TNF-α release by LPS-activated THP-1 cells was evaluated. The plant materials were percolated with different solvents to afford 15 crude extracts, whose effect on TNF-α release was determined by ELISA. Among the evaluated extracts, only Jacaranda caroba (Bignoniaceae) presented strong toxicity to THP-1 cells. Considering the 14 non-toxic extracts, TNF-α release was significantly reduced by seven of them (inhibition > 80%), originating from six plants, namely Cuphea carthagenensis (Lythraceae), Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Mansoa hirsuta (Bignoniaceae), Ouratea semiserrata (Ochnaceae), Ouratea spectabilis and Remijia ferruginea (Rubiaceae). The ethanol extract from O. semiserrata leaves was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 and RP-HPLC to give three compounds previously reported for the species, along with agathisflavone and epicatechin, here described for the first time in the plant. Epicatechin and lanceoloside A elicited significant inhibition of TNF-α release, indicating that they may account for the effect produced by O. semiserrata crude extract. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Plantio direto de alface americana sobre plantas de cobertura dessecadas ou roçadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Silva Hirata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o plantio direto de alface americana no verão sobre plantas de cobertura dessecadas ou roçadas em cultivos sucessivos. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no município de Álvares Machado, São Paulo, Brasil. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. O fator da parcela principal foram dois manejos das plantas de cobertura (dessecadas com herbicida ou roçadas e as subparcelas, seis espécies de plantas de cobertura (Cajanus cajan cv. IAPAR 43, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria juncea, Mucuna pruriens, Pennisetum glaucum e vegetação natural, além da testemunha sem plantas de cobertura. O manejo roçado apresentou desempenho inferior no primeiro cultivo da alface, todavia não diferiu do manejo químico no segundo cultivo. A cobertura do solo com mucuna apresentou maior produtividade da alface no primeiro cultivo devido ao excesso de palha das demais coberturas, o qual prejudicou o estabelecimento da alface. No segundo cultivo não houve diferenças entre as coberturas. A roçagem de plantas de cobertura é uma opção viável para plantio direto de alface sem herbicidas.

  15. Dendroecological studies of rhododendron campanulatum d. don along the elevational gradient of manaslu conservation area, nepal himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabinarana, A.; Koirala, M.; Boonchird, C.

    2017-01-01

    The increase in temperature due to global warming is affecting forest ecosystems worldwide. At the treeline ecotone growth is usually restricted by low temperatures. Recently, the impacts of climate change have been visible with the upward shift of the Himalaya fir (Abies spectabilis) in Nepal. Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don grows at the treeline ecotone and subalpine forest. Hardly any studies have been carried on this species in Nepal. The local people have reported that this species has been seen colonizing upper altitude in recent years, however, these needs to be verified with dendroecological studies. The study aims to assess the response of R. campanulatum to climatic variability and to evaluate the relationship of its basal diameter (Groundline) and age using dendroecological methods. Results reveal that the basal diameter was found to be significantly correlated with age (r2= 0.824, p<0.00001). Using the basal diameter age equations, attempts were made to study the age distribution along the altitudinal gradient. The species limit was observed at 4090 m asl. The age structure differed along the altitudinal gradient with multi age cohorts below the treeline and younger cohorts above the treeline. Results show that this species is migrating up at a rate of 24.7m per decade. (author)

  16. Nitrogen fixation in Leucaena leucocephala and effects of pruning s on cereal yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekunda, M.

    1998-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala was interplanted with reference tree species, Cassia siamea and Cassia spectabilis, and estimates of percent N derived from N 2 fixation (%Ndfa) were made, by the isotope-dilution method, at 4, 6, 14, 20 and 30 months after transplanting. The %Ndfa values were low and variable throughout the growth period, except after thinning at 14 months when there was a five-fold increase. The two non-fixing reference species outperformed the N 2 -fixing Leucaena in above-ground vegetative production, and provided different fixed-N estimates. Prunings from the L. leucocephala and C. Siamea trees were applied separately to soil as green manure. Maize was planted to test the effects of the Leucaena green manure on soil fertility, and millet was the test crop for the Cassia. Whether surface-applied or incorporated, the prunings significantly improved yields, which were generally similar among rates and methods of application. The proportions of cereal N obtained from prunings ranged from 8 to 33%, with no cereal-yield correlation. The data indicate that multipurpose tree prunings are of potential use to farmers as organic sources of nutrients, even at relatively low application rates, without need for incorporation into the soil. (author)

  17. Toxicity of dietary Heliotropium dolosum seed to Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroksuz, Y; Eroksuz, H; Ozer, H; Ilhan, N; Cevik, A; Yaman, I; Ceribasi, A O

    2002-10-01

    Five groups of 30 male Japanese quail, each 7-w-old, were fed diets containing 0, 1, 3, 5, or 10% (w/w) of dehulled H dolosum seed. Half of the birds from the each group were killed at 6 and 24 w after beginning of the trial. At the end of 6th w, neither mortality nor clinical sign occurred in test groups. In the 5 and 10% inclusion levels, mild to moderate hepatic injury was detected as evidenced by mild karyomegaly, moderate fatty change, focal or portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasie, and ovalocyte proliferation along with lower serum protein and albumin levels. By the termination of the experiment (24 w), 5 birds died in the 10% dosed group. Hepatic cirrhosis was the most prominent finding in the 5 and 10% group; at these levels, serum protein and albumin values decreased significanty while billuribin and ALP levels increased. Based on relative weights and histological evaluations, testicularatrophywasdosedependent. These results partly affirm earlier studies that the quail is highly resistant to the toxic effects of H dolosumseed. However, the resistance to H dolosum is less than Senecio Jacobae and Crotalaria spectabilis when considering tissue injury.

  18. Engineering and biological characterization of VB6-845, an anti-EpCAM immunotoxin containing a T-cell epitope-depleted variant of the plant toxin bouganin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizeau, Jeannick; Grenkow, Danielle M; Brown, Jennifer G; Entwistle, Joycelyn; MacDonald, Glen C

    2009-01-01

    The clinical development of immunotoxins in the treatment of solid tumors has been impeded in part, by the induction of an immune response directed primarily against the toxin moiety. Bouganin, a type I ribosome inactivating protein isolated from the leaf of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd, was mutated to remove the T-cell epitopes while preserving the biological activity of the wild-type molecule. The T-cell epitope-depleted variant of bouganin (de-bouganin) was genetically linked to an anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) Fab moiety via a peptidic linker containing a furin proteolytic site to create the fusion construct VB6-845. To determine the optimal construct design for VB6-845, several dicistronic units where de-bouganin was genetically linked to either the N-terminal or C-terminal of either the heavy or light chain were engineered. Only the C-terminal variants expressed the full-length molecule. An in vitro assessment of the biological activity of VB6-845 showed that it bound and selectively killed EpCAM-positive cell lines with a greater potency than many commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated using an EpCAM-positive human tumor xenograft model in SCID mice with the majority of the mice treated being tumor free at the end of the study.

  19. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.

  20. Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriel, Analía; Lagorio, María Gabriela

    2010-10-01

    Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield ( Φ f) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides ( Φ f = 0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals ( Φ f = 0.014) and stigma ( Φ f = 0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors.

  1. Streptomyces lasiicapitis sp. nov., an actinomycete that produces kanchanamycin, isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lan; Zhao, Shanshan; Li, Yao; Jiang, Shanwen; Zhao, Yue; Li, Jinmeng; Yan, Kai; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2017-05-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a kanchanamycin-producing actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 3H-HV17(2)T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 3H-HV17(2)T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424T (98.90 %, with which it phylogenetically clustered, Streptomyces alboflavus NRRL B-2373T (98.65 %) and Streptomyces flavofungini NBRC 13371T (98.36 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene also supported the close relationship of these strains. The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the strain are also consistent with those members of the genus Streptomyces. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 3H-HV17(2)T and its phylogenetically closely related strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 3H-HV17(2)T could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, strain 3H-HV17(2)T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lasiicapitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3H-HV17(2)T (=CGMCC 4.7349T=DSM 103124T).

  2. Possibilities of cultivating ornamental trees and shrubs under conditions of air pollution with oxides of sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialobok, S.; Bartkowiak, S.; Rachwal, L.

    1974-01-01

    The field work conducted has shown that high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ in the air can be withstood by the following trees and shrubs. Trees: Acer campestris, A. platanoides, Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus hippocastanum, Morus alba, Platanus acerifolia, Pinus strobur, P. nigra, Populus Berolinensis, P. candicans, P. Hybr. 27, P. Marilandica, P. simonii, P. Serotina, Quercus robus, Robinia pseudoacacia. Shrubs: Caragana arborescens, Crataegus oxyacantha, C. monogyna, Cerasus mehaleb, Forsythia/most of the species and varieties/, Ligustrum vulgare, Philadelphus coronaria, Ptelea trifoliata, Sambucus nigra, Salix caprea, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Sorbus aucuparia, Taxus baccata. For the selection of trees and shrubs in the laboratory, high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ were used (60-150 ppm for a period of 10 minutes). Experiments were conducted on cut shrubs kept in the gas chambers. In order to estimate the degree of their injury, they were transferred to a shaded greenhouse. A concentration of 65 ppm of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by the following Forsythias: Forsythia intermedia Primulina, F. Densiflora, F. Spectabilis, F. giraldina, F. suspensa, F. koreana, F. ovata, F. japonica and Hippophae rhamnoides. A concentration of 130 ppm could be withstood only by F. intermedia Vitelina. A similarly high concentration of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by shoots and leaves of Ailanthus girladii Duclouxii and by Platanus acerifolia. From among the lilacs Syringa pekinensis and S. amurensis proved resistant to high concentrations of SO/sub 2/.

  3. UPLC-MS/MS Profile of Alkaloids with Cytotoxic Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants of the Berberidaceae and Papaveraceae Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Och

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most occurring diseases in developed and developing countries. Plant-based compounds are still researched for their anticancer activity and for their quantity in plants. Therefore, the modern chromatographic methods are applied to quantify them in plants, for example, UPLC-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the content of sanguinarine, berberine, protopine, and chelidonine in Dicentra spectabilis (L. Lem., Fumaria officinalis L., Glaucium flavum Crantz, Corydalis cava L., Berberis thunbergii DC., Meconopsis cambrica (L. Vig., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh Nutt., Macleaya cordata Willd., and Chelidonium majus L. For the first time, N,N-dimethyl-hernovine was identified in M. cambrica, B. thunbergii, M. aquifolium, C. cava, G. flavum, and C. majus; methyl-hernovine was identified in G. flavum; columbamine was identified in B. thunbergii; and methyl-corypalmine, chelidonine, and sanguinarine were identified in F. officinalis L. The richest source of protopine among all the examined species was M. cordata (5463.64 ± 26.3 μg/g. The highest amounts of chelidonine and sanguinarine were found in C. majus (51,040.0 ± 1.8 μg/g and 7925.8 ± 3.3 μg/g, resp., while B. thunbergi contained the highest amount of berberine (6358.4 ± 4.2 μg/g.

  4. UPLC-MS/MS Profile of Alkaloids with Cytotoxic Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants of the Berberidaceae and Papaveraceae Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Och, Anna; Szewczyk, Katarzyna; Pecio, Łukasz; Stochmal, Anna; Załuski, Daniel; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most occurring diseases in developed and developing countries. Plant-based compounds are still researched for their anticancer activity and for their quantity in plants. Therefore, the modern chromatographic methods are applied to quantify them in plants, for example, UPLC-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the content of sanguinarine, berberine, protopine, and chelidonine in Dicentra spectabilis (L.) Lem., Fumaria officinalis L., Glaucium flavum Crantz, Corydalis cava L., Berberis thunbergii DC., Meconopsis cambrica (L.) Vig., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt., Macleaya cordata Willd., and Chelidonium majus L. For the first time, N,N-dimethyl-hernovine was identified in M. cambrica , B. thunbergii , M. aquifolium , C. cava , G. flavum , and C. majus ; methyl-hernovine was identified in G. flavum ; columbamine was identified in B. thunbergii ; and methyl-corypalmine, chelidonine, and sanguinarine were identified in F. officinalis L. The richest source of protopine among all the examined species was M. cordata (5463.64 ± 26.3  μ g/g). The highest amounts of chelidonine and sanguinarine were found in C. majus (51,040.0 ± 1.8  μ g/g and 7925.8 ± 3.3  μ g/g, resp.), while B. thunbergi contained the highest amount of berberine (6358.4 ± 4.2  μ g/g).

  5. 37Ar monitoring techniques and on-site inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Rongliang; Chen Yinliang; Li Wei; Wang Hongxia; Hao Fanhua

    2001-01-01

    37 Ar is separated, purified and extracted from air sample with a low temperature gas-solid chromatographic purifying method, prepared into a radioactive measurement source and its radioactivity is measured with a proportional counter. Based on the monitoring result, a judgement can be made if an nuclear explosion event has happened recently in a spectabilis area. A series of element techniques that are associated the monitoring of the trace element 37 Ar have been investigated and developed. Those techniques include leaked gas sampling, 37 Ar separation and purification, 37 Ar radioactivity measurement and the on-site inspection of 37 Ar. An advanced 37 Ar monitoring method has been developed, with which 200 liters of air can be treated in 2 hours with sensitivity of 0.01 Bq/L for 37 Ar radioactivity measurement. A practical 37 Ar On-site Inspection system has been developed. This research work may provide technical and equipment support for the verification protection, verification supervision and CTBT verification

  6. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Braga, Ana Carolina Linhares; Nascimento, Maria Thayana dos Santos Canuto do; Sousa, Ana Márjory Paiva; Lima, Adriano Rodrigues; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Cavalcante, Antônio Cézar Rocha; Egito, Antonio Silvio do; Andrade, Lúcia Betânia da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (Albizia lebbeck, Ipomoea asarifolia, Jatropha curcas, Libidibia ferrea, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis (P0.05, Bonferroni test). Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties.

  7. Beneficial use of industrial by-products for phytoremediation of an arsenic-rich soil from a gold mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, G; Ferreira, P A A; Pereira, F G; Curi, N; Rangel, W M; Guilherme, L R G

    2016-08-02

    This study investigated two industrial by-products - red mud (RM) and its mixture with phosphogypsum (RMG), as amendments in an As((5+))-contaminated soil from a gold mining area in Brazil in order to grow three plant species: Brachiaria decumbens, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande. These amendments were applied to reach a soil pH of 6.0. Using RM and RMG increased shoot dry matter (SDM) and root dry matter (RDM) of most plants, with RMG being more effective. Adding RMG increased the SDM of Brachiaria and Crotalaria by 18 and 25% and the RDM by 25 and 12%, respectively. Stylosanthes was sensitive to As toxicity and grew poorly in all treatments. Arsenic concentration in shoots of Brachiaria and Crotalaria decreased by 26% with the use of RMG while As in roots reduced by 11 and 30%, respectively. Also, the activities of the plant oxidative stress enzymes varied following treatments with the by-products. The plants grew in the As-contaminated soil from the gold mining area. Thus, they might be employed for phytoremediation purposes, especially with the use of RMG due to its potential advantage in terms of nutrient supply (Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) from phosphogypsum).

  8. Floristic study of Cheondeungsan Mountain in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro-Young Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of native plants of Cheondeungsan Mountain (807 m, N 37°05'00“–37°05'30”, E 128°00'0“–128°02'0” in Chungcheongbuk-do was determined and the major flora were identified. During field investigations carried out from May 2011 to October 2011, 87 families, 254 genera, and 369 taxonomic groups (327 species, 4 subspecies, 33 varieties, and 5 forms were confirmed, and the distribution of 219 taxonomic groups was discovered for the first time. The distribution of four endemic plants of Korea, including Ajuga spectabilis Nakai and Salvia chanryoenica Nakai, and that of Penthorum chinense Pursh, a Grade V specific plant species, was found. There were 20 taxa of naturalized plants at Cheondeungsan; the growth and development of plants that are harmful to the ecosystem, such as Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Ambrosia trifida L., Eupatorium rugosum Houtt., and Aster pilosus Willd., was observed around the forest paths and lowlands.

  9. Sucessão entre cultivos orgânicos de milho e couve consorciados com leguminosas em plantio direto Organic crop succession of maize and collard greens intercropped with legumes in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EE Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Práticas agrícolas têm sido desenvolvidas para reduzir a aplicação de insumos químicos e minimizar as agressões ao meio ambiente, produzindo alimentos mais saudáveis e ecologicamente corretos. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho da sucessão entre couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala e milho (Zea may L., em consórcio com leguminosas para fins de adubação verde, sob plantio direto em manejo orgânico. O estudo foi conduzido em Seropédica, Região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, em dois anos. Utilizaram-se, como adubos verdes, mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana e crotalária spectabilis (Crotalaria spectabilis em consórcio com couve e em sucessão crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea e mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens em consórcio com milho. Como controles utilizaram-se os monocultivos de couve e milho. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, constituindo fatorial 3 (sistema de cultivo x 2 (doses de cama-de-frango, com quatro repetições, em parcelas de 20 m². Na couve, aplicou-se em cobertura cama-de-frango nas doses 0 e 5,4 t ha-1 (2,7 t ha-1 em duas aplicações em 2003 e 0 e 2,7 t ha-1 em 2004. Em monocultivo, a produtividade da couve foi de 37,7 e 18,4 t ha-1; consorciada com mucuna-anã, foi de 40,3 e 38,8 t ha-1 e com crotalária spectabilis, de 42,9 e 24,8 t ha-1, em 2003 e 2004, respectivamente. O milho beneficiou-se do efeito residual da adubação com cama-de-frango, aumentando o número de espigas produzidas de 25.625 para 27.916 ha-1. O cultivo de couve em sucessão ao milho, consorciada com leguminosas anuais, sob adubação orgânica com cama-de-frango, resultou em aumento de produtividade das culturas de couve e milho.New farming practices have been developed to reduce the application of fertilizer and pesticides and minimize the aggression to the environment, producing healthy foods and environmentally correct. We evaluated the performance of the succession of collard greens (Brassica

  10. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended.

  11. Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 transitorily reduces tomato bacterial wilt incidence caused by Ralstonia solanacearum under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chave, Marie; Crozilhac, Patrice; Deberdt, Péninna; Plouznikoff, Katia; Declerck, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the world's most important soil-borne plant diseases. In Martinique, French West Indies, a highly virulent new pathogenic variant of this bacterium (phylotype IIB/4NPB) severely impacts tomato production. Here we report on the effect of R. solanacearum CFBP 6783, classified in phytotype IIB/4NPB, on tomato plantlets grown under strict in vitro culture conditions in the presence or absence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833. A mycelium donor plant (i.e. Crotalaria spectabilis) was used for rapid, uniform mycorrhization of tomato plantlets that were subsequently infected by the bacterium. Bacterial wilt was significantly delayed and the incidence of the disease consequently reduced in the mycorrhizal tomato plantlets. Conversely, R. solanacearum did not affect root colonization by the AMF within the 16 days of the experiment. These results suggested that the mycorrhizal fungus was able to reduce bacterial wilt symptoms, probably by eliciting defence mechanisms in the plant.

  12. Ecological and Genetic Divergences with Gene Flow of Two Sister Species (Leucomeris decora and Nouelia insignis) Driving by Climatic Transition in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yujuan; Yin, Genshen; Pan, Yuezhi; Gong, Xun

    2018-01-01

    Understanding of the processes of divergence and speciation is a major task for biodiversity researches and may offer clearer insight into mechanisms generating biological diversity. Here, we employ an integrative approach to explore genetic and ecological differentiation of Leucomeris decora and Nouelia insignis distributed allopatrically along the two sides of the biogeographic boundary 'Tanaka Line' in Southwest China. We addressed these questions using ten low-copy nuclear genes and nine plastid DNA regions sequenced among individuals sampled from 28 populations across their geographic ranges in China. Phylogenetic, coalescent-based population genetic analyses, approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework and ecological niche models (ENMs) were conducted. We identified a closer phylogenetic relationship in maternal lineage of L. decora with N. insignis than that between L . decora and congeneric Leucomeris spectabilis . A deep divergence between the two species was observed and occurred at the boundary between later Pliocene and early Pleistocene. However, the evidence of significant chloroplast DNA gene flow was also detected between the marginal populations of L. decora and N. insignis . Niche models and statistical analyses showed significant ecological differentiation, and two nuclear loci among the ten nuclear genes may be under divergent selection. These integrative results imply that the role of climatic shift from Pliocene to Pleistocene may be the prominent factor for the divergence of L . decora and N . insignis , and population expansion after divergence may have given rise to chloroplast DNA introgression. The divergence was maintained by differential selection despite in the face of gene flow.

  13. Review of the East Palaearctic and North Oriental Psyttalia Walker, with the description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Tan, Jiang-Li; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: Psyttalia latinervis Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n . and Psyttalia majocellata Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n . from China, and Psyttalia spectabilis van Achterberg, sp. n. from Japan. Coeloreuteus formosanus Watanabe, 1934, Opius (Lissosema) proclivis Papp, 1981, Opius (Psyttalia) subcyclogaster Tobias, 1998, Opius (Psyttalia) darasunicus Tobias, 1998, Opius (Psyttalia) cyclogastroides Tobias, 1998, Psyttalia extensa Weng & Chen, 2001, and Rhogadopsis longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, 2013, are new synonyms of Psyttalia cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895); Opius (Psyttalia) ophthalmicus Tobias, 1977, and Opius (Psyttalia) brevitemporalis Tobias, 1998, of Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895) and both Opius (Psyttalia) vacuus Tobias, 1998, and Opius (Lissosema) longurius Chen & Weng, 1995, of Rhogadopsis mediocarinata (Fischer, 1963). Phaedrotoma daghestanicum (Telenga, 1950), Rhogadopsis mediocarinata (Fischer, 1963) and Rhogadopsis mystica (Fischer, 1963) are new combinations. New records are Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895) from The Netherlands and Norway, and Psyttalia cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895) from Japan. A lectotype is designated for Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895) and Psyttalia cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895). A key to the East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker is included.

  14. Review of the East Palaearctic and North Oriental Psyttalia Walker, with the description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: P. latinervis Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. and P. majocellata Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. from China, and P. spectabilis van Achterberg, sp. n. from Japan. Coeloreuteus formosanus Watanabe, 1934, Opius (Lissosema proclivis Papp, 1981, O. (Psyttalia subcyclogaster Tobias, 1998, O. (P. darasunicus Tobias, 1998, O. (P. cyclogastroides Tobias, 1998, Psyttalia extensa Weng & Chen, 2001, and Rhogadopsis longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, 2013, are new synonyms of Psyttalia cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895; Opius (Psyttalia ophthalmicus Tobias, 1977, and O. (P. brevitemporalis Tobias, 1998, of Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895 and both O. (P. vacuus Tobias, 1998, and O. (Lissosema longurius Chen & Weng, 1995, of Rhogadopsis mediocarinata (Fischer, 1963. Phaedrotoma daghestanicum (Telenga, 1950, Rhogadopsis mediocarinata (Fischer, 1963 and R. mystica (Fischer, 1963 are new combinations. New records are Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895 from The Netherlands and Norway, and P. cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895 from Japan. A lectotype is designated for Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895 and P. cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895. A key to the East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker is included.

  15. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hévila Oliveira Salles

    Full Text Available Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (0.05, Bonferroni test. Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties.

  16. EFFECT OF COVER CROPS ON SOIL ATTRIBUTES, PLANT NUTRITION, AND IRRIGATED TROPICAL RICE YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRE FROES DE BORJA REIS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In flood plains, cover crops are able to alter soil properties and significantly affect rice nutrition and yield. The aims of this study were to determine soil properties, plant nutrition, and yield of tropical rice cultivated on flood plains after cover crop cultivation with conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage system (NTS at low and high nitrogen (N fertilization levels. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-split-plot scheme with four replications. In the main plots were cover crops sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis, velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima, jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and a fallow field. In the subplots were the tillage systems (CT or NTS. The nitrogen fertilization levels in the sub-subplots were (10 kg N ha-1 and 45 kg N ha-1. All cover crops except Japanese radish significantly increased mineral soil nitrogen and nitrate concentrations. Sunhemp, velvet bean, and cowpea significantly increased soil ammonium content. The NTS provides higher mineral nitrogen and ammonium content than that by CT. Overall, cover crops provided higher levels of nutrients to rice plants in NTS than in CT. Cover crops provide greater yield than fallow treatments. Rice yield was higher in NTS than in CT, and greater at a higher rather than lower nitrogen fertilization level.

  17. DESEMPENHO AGRONÔMICO DO REPOLHO SOB EFEITO RESIDUAL DO CULTIVO CONSORCIADO DE TARO E CROTALARIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Costa de Sant'Ana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito residual do consórcio taro (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott e crotalarias sob duas posições de plantio no desempenho agronômico do repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata. O experimento foi conduzido no Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo – campus Santa Teresa no período de agosto a novembro de 2015. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial com dois fatores para posição (distribuição espacial nos sentidos norte-sul e leste-oeste e três fatores para a cultura (efeito residual do consórcio taro com a Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, mais o taro solteiro correspondendo a 6 tratamentos com 4 repetições. Pressupõe-se que os nutrientes disponibilizados pela decomposição da massa de crotalarias que não foram aproveitados pela cultura do taro, proporcionaram um efeito residual para o desenvolvimento da cultura do repolho, cultivado em sucessão. Apesar de não atingir cabeças de padrão comercial, os tratamentos com efeito residual das leguminosas proporcionaram maior peso de cabeças e produtividade quando comparado ao tratamento de efeito residual do taro solteiro.

  18. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Half-size ABCG Genes in Malus × domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan MA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Half-size adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter subgroup G (ABCG genes play crucial roles in regulating the movements of a variety of substrates and have been well studied in several plants. However, half-size ABCGs have not been characterized in detail in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.. Here, we performed a genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the half-size ABCG gene family in apple. A total of 46 apple half-size ABCGs were identified and divided into six clusters according to the phylogenetic analysis. A gene structural analysis showed that most half-size ABCGs in the same cluster shared a similar exon–intron organization. A gene duplication analysis showed that segmental, tandem and whole-genome duplications could account for the expansion of half-size ABCG transporters in M. domestica. Moreover, a promoter scan, digital expression analysis and RNA-seq revealed that MdABCG21 may be involved in root's cytokinin transport and that ABCG17 may be involved in the lateral bud development of M. spectabilis ‘Bly114’ by mediating cytokinin transport. The data presented here lay the foundation for further investigations into the biological and physiological processes and functions of half-size ABCG genes in apple. Keywords: apple, ABCG gene, duplication, gene expression

  19. Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

  20. Características químicas de solo e rendimento de fitomassa de adubos verdes e de grãos de milho, decorrente do cultivo consorciado Soil chemical characteristics and green manure yield in a corn intercropped system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reges Heinrichs

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A adubação verde é uma das formas de aporte de matéria orgânica ao solo. O sistema de cultivo consorciado de culturas pode ser uma alternativa para aumentar a reciclagem de nutrientes e melhorar a produtividade. Para avaliar o sistema consorciado de adubos verdes com o milho, foram estudadas as características químicas do solo, a produção de matéria seca, a composição mineral de adubos verdes e o rendimento de grãos de milho, num experimento realizado em campo, entre 1995 e 1997, em solo classificado como Nitossolo Vermelho eutrófico. O milho foi semeado no espaçamento de 90 cm nas entrelinhas, perfazendo, aproximadamente, 50.000 plantas por hectare. Os tratamentos constaram de quatro espécies de adubos verdes: mucuna anã [Mucuna deeringiana (Bort. Merr], guandu anão (Cajanus cajan L., crotalária (Crotalaria spectabilis Roth e feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis L. e um tratamento-testemunha, sem cultivo consorciado. Essas espécies foram semeadas sem adubação, no meio da entrelinha, em duas épocas: simultânea ao milho e 30 dias após. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. O feijão-de-porco apresentou maior produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. No primeiro ano de cultivo, o rendimento de grãos de milho não foi influenciado pelo cultivo consorciado com adubos verdes; no entanto, no segundo, a produção foi beneficiada pelo consórcio com feijão-de-porco.Green manure is one way of supplying organic matter to soil. The mixed cultivation of crops may be an alternative to increase nutrient cycling and to improve productivity. To evaluate intercrops of green manure and corn, soil chemical characteristics, green manure dry matter production and its mineral composition and corn yield were determined in a field experiment carried out between 1995 and 1997 on an Aleudalf Soil in Piracicaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Corn was sown in

  1. Enzymatic activity and mineralization of carbon and nitrogen in soil cultivated with coffee and green manures Atividade enzimática e mineralização do carbono e nitrogênio sob solo cultivado com adubos verdes na cultura do cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There are great concerns about degradation of agricultural soils. It has been suggested that cultivating different plant species intercropped with coffee plants can increase microbial diversity and enhance soil sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate enzyme activity (urease, arylsulfatase and phosphatase and alterations in C and N mineralization rates as related to different legume cover crops planted between rows of coffee plants. Soil samples were collected in a field experiment conducted for 10 years in a sandy soil in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. Samples were collected from the 0-10 cm layer, both from under the tree canopy and in-between rows in the following treatments: control, Leucaena leucocephala, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria breviflora, Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna deeringiana, Arachis hypogaea and Vigna unguiculata. The soil was sampled in four stages of legume cover crops: pre-planting (September, after planting (November, flowering stage (February and after plant residue incorporation (April, from 1997 to 1999. The green manure species influenced soil enzyme activity (urease, arylsulfatase and phosphatase and C and N mineralization rates, both under the tree canopy and in-between rows. Cultivation of Leucaena leucocephala increased acid phosphatase and arilsulfatase activity and C and N mineralization both under the tree canopy and in-between rows. Intercropped L. leucocephala increased urease activity under the tree canopy while C. breviflora increased urease activity in-between rows.Existe grande preocupação sobre a degradação dos solos agrícolas. Tem sido sugerido que o cultivo de plantas intercalares no cafeeiro aumenta a diversidade microbiana e a sustentabilidade do solo. No presente trabalho foi avaliada a alteração na atividade de enzimas do solo (urease, arilsulfatase e fosfatase e na mineralização do C e N devido ao cultivo intercalar de diferentes leguminosas de verão na cultura do

  2. Selection of species tolerant to the herbicide sulfentrazone with potential for phytoremediation of contaminated soilsSeleção de espécies tolerantes ao herbicida sulfentrazone com potencial para a fitorremediação de solos contaminados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Madalão

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to select species with potential for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with the herbicide sulfentrazone. Eight species were evaluated: Arachis pintoi, Eleusine coracana, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Cajanus cajan, Leucaena leucocephala, Stizolobium cinereum, and Raphanus sativus. The experiment was set-up inside a greenhouse, using pots with a capacity of 6dm3 filled with soil samples collected at a depth of 0-20cm. The experimental design was arranged into randomised blocks in a factorial scheme (8 × 5 with four replications, which consisted of the combination between the species and five doses of sulfentrazone (0, 200, 400, 800, and 1,600g ha-1. The herbicide phytotoxicity, plant heights, and dry masses of shoots and roots were evaluated. The species Cajanus cajan and Leucaena leucocephala had a higher tolerance to sulfentrazone up to a dose of 400g ha-1, showing minor symptoms of phytotoxicity and smaller decreases in plant heights and in dry matter accumulation, both in the shoots and roots, when compared to the control treatment, indicating, thus, the potential to be used for further studies on phytoremediation of sulfentrazone in soil. Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar espécies com potencial para a fitorremediação de solos contaminados com o herbicida sulfentrazone. Foram avaliadas oito espécies: Arachis pintoi, Eleusine coracana, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Cajanus cajan, Leucaena leucocephala, Stizolobium cinereum e Raphanus sativus. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, com a utilização de vasos com capacidade para 6 dm3 preenchidos com porções de solo coletadas na profundidade de 0-20 cm. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 8 × 5, com quatro repetições, composto pela combinação entre as espécies e cinco doses do sulfentrazone (0, 200, 400, 800 e 1.600 g ha-1. Foram avaliadas a fitotoxicidade do

  3. Sistemas de cultivo, sucessões de culturas, densidade do solo e sobrevivência de patógenos de solo Cropping systems and previous crops on soil density and survival of soil-borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Divina de Toledo-Souza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de manejo do solo e de cultivos prévios ao plantio do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. sobre a densidade do solo e as populações de Rhizoctonia spp. e de Fusarium spp. Os cultivos prévios incluíram as leguminosas: guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan, estilosantes (Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão e crotalária (Crotalaria spectabilis; e as gramíneas: milheto (Pennisetum glaucum cv. BN-2, sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor cv. BR 304, capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça, braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e milho (Zea mays consorciado com braquiária. As culturas utilizadas no cultivo prévio foram semeadas nos verões de 2002, 2003 e 2004, e os plantios de feijoeiro, cultivar BRS Valente, foram realizados nos invernos subseqüentes de 2003, 2004 e 2005, com irrigação por pivô central. Os restos culturais dos cultivos eram incorporados ao solo, no plantio convencional, e ficavam à superfície, no plantio direto. De modo geral, as maiores populações de Fusarium spp. e Rhizoctonia spp. e as maiores densidades de solo foram encontradas no solo cultivado em plantio direto. As maiores populações de Rhizoctonia spp. foram observadas em solos mais adensados. As leguminosas geralmente aumentaram populações desses patógenos e devem ser evitadas como culturas prévias ao cultivo do feijoeiro, em ambos os sistemas de cultivo. Plantios prévios de gramíneas, em geral, são supressores das populações de Rhizoctonia spp. e de Fusarium spp. no solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of cropping systems and crops cultivated previously to common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on soil density and soil populations of Rhizoctonia spp. and Fusarium spp. Previous crops included the following legumes: Cajanus cajan,Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão and Crotalaria spectabilis; and the following grasses: Pennisetum glaucum (cv. BN-2, millet, Sorghum bicolor

  4. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  5. Chromosome studies on Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Regina Forni-Martins

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado is the Brazilian name for the neotropical savanna, which occurs mainly in Brazilian Central Plateau, composed of herbaceous-subshrubby and shrubby-arboreal floras, both of which are heliophilous, highly diverse and regionally differentiated. Considering species distribution and chromosome numbers, some authors have proposed that the herbaceous-subshrubby flora of the neotropical savanna is quite old, while the shrubby-arboreal flora is derived from forests, a hypothesis that implies higher chromosome numbers in the savanna than in the forest. If, however, chromosome numbers are similar in the cerrado and in forests, both could be similarly old, indicating that bi-directional flow of flora occurred in the past. This paper presents data on chromosome numbers and microsporogenesis for 20 species in 13 families collected in the States of São Paulo, Goiás and Minas Gerais, providing previously unpublished data for Myrcia (Myrtaceae, Luxemburgia (Ochnaceae and Hortia (Rutaceae. Meiosis proved to be normal, indicating regularity in the sexual reproductive process. Chromosome numbers varied from 2n = 18 (Allamanda angustifolia: Apocynaceae to 2n = ca. 104 (Ouratea spectabilis: Ochnaceae, being low (20 Cerrado é a palavra que, no Brasil, designa a savana neotropical, com área nuclear no Planalto Central, constituída de uma flora herbáceo-subarbustiva e outra arbustivo-arbórea, ambas heliófilas, altamente diversificadas e regionalmente diferenciadas. Considerando a distribuição de espécies e de números cromossômicos, alguns autores propuseram que a flora herbáceo-subarbustiva da savanna neotropical seria bastante antiga, enquanto a flora arbustivo-arbórea seria derivada das florestas Atlântica e Amazônica, uma hipótese que implica na ocorrência de números cromossômicos mais altos no cerrado que nas florestas. Porém, se os números cromossômicos forem similares no cerrado e nas florestas, ambos os tipos de formação poderiam

  6. Crescimento e produtividade do sorgo forrageiro BR 601 sob adubação verde Growth and yield of forage sorghum cv. BR 601 under green manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu C. Andrade Neto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da adubação verde sobre o crescimento e a produtividade do sorgo forrageiro BR 601, foi estudado em experimento desenvolvido na UFERSA, em Mossoró, RN, no qual o delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados completos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo com três repetições. Testaram-se sete espécies de leguminosas, Mucuna aterrima, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lab-lab, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis e Vigna unguiculata, uma mistura das leguminosas mais milho, sorgo e girassol, e a vegetação espontânea, como testemunha. Determinaram-se, para cada tratamento, a quantidade de massa verde, massa seca e teores de N, P, K, Na, Ca e Mg da parte aérea, a partir dos quais foi calculada a quantidade de nutrientes acumulada por hectare. As quantidades de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea, altura de plantas e número de folhas do sorgo semeado após a incorporação dos adubos verdes, foram avaliadas aos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias após o plantio. A Mucuna aterrima mostrou-se a melhor opção como adubo verde em virtude de proporcionar os maiores valores das características avaliadas ao final do ciclo do sorgo podendo-se, também, recomendar a Crotalaria juncea e o Dolichos lab-lab, o qual apresentou a maior massa seca e quantidade de nutrientes na parte aérea.The effect of green manure on growth and yield of forage sorghum BR 601 was studied in a trial carried out at the UFERSA, Mossoró, RN, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks in a scheme of split plots in time, with three replications. Treatments tested were seven legume species, Mucuna aterrima, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lab-lab, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Vigna unguiculata, a mixture of the legumes plus corn, sorghum and sunflower, and spontaneous vegetation as a control. For each treatment the amount of fresh mass, dry mass and contents of N, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg in

  7. Seleção de espécies de adubos verdes visando à fitorremediação de diclosulam Selection of green manure species aiming at diclosulam phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A Monquero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de adubos verdes tolerantes ao herbicida diclosulam podem ser utilizadas em rotação de culturas para diminuir o efeito fitotóxico subsequente desse herbicida em plantas sensíveis, como o girassol ou milho. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância de adubos verdes ao diclosulam e a capacidade dessas plantas em diminuir o efeito fitotóxico do herbicida no bioindicador Helianthus annuus. Foram avaliadas, em casa de vegetação, três doses do herbicida diclosulam (0, 0,035 e 0,070 kg i.a. ha-1 em pré-emergência dos adubos verdes Dolichos lablab, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria juncea, C. breviflora, C. spectabilis, Mucuna deeringiana, M. cinerea, M. aterrima, Lupinus albus, Helianthus annuus, Pennisetum glaucum, Avena strigosa, Raphanus sativus e Calopogonium muconoides. Entre estas espécies, C. cajan, C. ensiformis, M. cinerea e M. aterrima foram selecionadas como as mais tolerantes, sendo avaliadas no campo com o herbicida diclosulam nas doses de 0, 0,035 e 0,070 kg i.a. ha¹, em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 e quatro repetições. A parte aérea dessas plantas foi coletada após 60 dias da emergência, sendo semeado H. annuus como bioindicador do herbicida diclosulam. Os resultados evidenciaram C. cajan como a espécie mais promissora em diminuir o efeito fitotóxico do diclosulam em culturas agrícolas sensíveis.The tolerance of green manure species to diclosulam can be used in crop rotation schemes aiming to reduce the subsequent phytotoxic effect of this herbicide on sensitive plants, such as sunflower or corn plants. This study evaluated the tolerance of green manure to diclosulan and the capacity of these plants in reducing the phytotoxic effect of this herbicide on Helianthus annuus (sunflower. Three rates of diclosulam (0; 0.035, and 0.070 kg a.i. ha-1 were evaluated under greenhouse conditions in pre-emergence of the following green manures: Dolichos lablab, Cajanus cajan, Canavalis ensiformis

  8. Palinologia de espécies de Nyctaginaceae Juss. ocorrentes nas restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Palynology of species of Nyctaginaceae Juss. from the restingas of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Albuquerque de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas oito espécies de Nyctaginaceae Juss., com o objetivo de caracterizá-las palinologicamente e, assim, contribuir para a elaboração de um catálogo polínico da flora das restingas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As espécies examinadas foram Boerhavia diffusa L., Bougainvillea glabra Choisy, B. spectabilis Willd., Guapira obtusata (Jacq. Little, G. opposita (Vell. Reitz, G. pernambucencis (Casar. Lund., Leucaster caniflorus (Mart. Choisy e Mirabilis jalapa L. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, mensurados, descritos e fotomicrografados. A análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi utilizada em grãos de pólen não acetolisados, para confirmar as descrições feitas sob microscopia de luz e, em alguns casos para confirmar as descrições de abertura e ornamentação. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen da espécie B. diffusa L. são grandes, apolares, esferoidais, 12-18-porados, com sexina espiculada; as espécies de Bougainvillea possuem grãos de pólen médios, isopolares, suboblatos, âmbito subtriangular, área polar grande, 3-colpados, sexina reticulada contendo espinhos diminutos sobre o muro e báculos livres no interior dos lumens; em Guapira os grãos de pólen são médios, isopolares, prolato-esferoidais, âmbito subtriangular, área polar grande, 3-colpados, colpos apresentando opérculo, sexina espinhosa em G. obtusata e G. pernambucensis, e microrreticulada em G. opposita; L. caniflorus apresenta grãos de pólen pequenos, isopolares, prolato-esferoidais, âmbito subtriangular, área polar pequena, 3-colpados, sexina reticulada; M. jalapa apresenta grãos de pólen muito grandes, apolares, esferoidais, pantoporados (ca. 32 poros, sexina espinhosa. Pela análise dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que as espécies analisadas apresentam certa heterogeneidade polínica quanto à forma, aos atributos das aberturas e à ornamentação da sexina, podendo-se usar estes caracteres na taxonomia da fam

  9. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenset, A., E-mail: anita.evenset@akvaplan.niva.no [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Hallanger, I.G. [University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Tessmann, M. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Research, University of Hamburg (Germany); Warner, N. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Ruus, A. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Borgå, K. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern 0316, Oslo (Norway); Gabrielsen, G.W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ{sup 15}N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ{sup 15}N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ{sup 15}N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  10. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenset, A.; Hallanger, I.G.; Tessmann, M.; Warner, N.; Ruus, A.; Borgå, K.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Christensen, G.; Renaud, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ"1"5N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ"1"5N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ"1"5N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  11. Food selection among Atlantic Coast seaducks in relation to historic food habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Kidwell, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Food selection among Atlantic Coast seaducks during 1999-2005 was determined from hunter-killed ducks and compared to data from historic food habits file (1885-1985) for major migrational and wintering areas in the Atlantic Flyway. Food selection was determined by analyses of the gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) and gizzard of 860 ducks and summarized by aggregate percent for each species. When sample size was adequate comparisons were made among age and sex groupings and also among local sites in major habitat areas. Common eiders in Maine and the Canadian Maritimes fed predominantly (53%) on the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). Scoters in Massachusetts, Maine, and the Canadian Maritimes fed predominantly on the blue mussel (46%), Atlantic jackknife clam (Ensis directus; 19%), and Atlantic surf clam (Spisula solidissima; 15%), whereas scoters in the Chesapeake Bay fed predominantly on hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum; 42%), the stout razor clam (Tagelus plebeius; 22%), and dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis; 15%). The amethyst gem clam (Gemma gemma) was the predominant food (45%) of long-tailed ducks in Chesapeake Bay. Buffleheads and common goldeneyes fed on a mixed diet of mollusks and soft bodied invertebrates (amphipods, isopods and polychaetes). No major differences were noticed between the sexes in regard to food selection in any of the wintering areas. Comparisons to historic food habits in all areas failed to detect major differences. However, several invertebrate species recorded in historic samples were not found in current samples and two invasive species (Atlantic Rangia, Rangia cuneata and green crab, Carcinas maenas) were recorded in modem samples, but not in historic samples. Benthic sampling in areas where seaducks were collected showed a close correlation between consumption and availability. Each seaduck species appears to fill a unique niche in regard to feeding ecology, although there is much overlap of prey species selected. Understanding

  12. The Bering Strait Region: A Window into Changing Benthic Populations in Response to Varying Subarctic-Arctic Connectivity and Ecosystem Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Moore, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    A key ecological organizing principle for the northern Bering Sea and the adjoining southern Chukchi Sea just north of Bering Strait is that the shallow, seasonally productive waters lead to strong pelagic-benthic coupling to the sea floor, with deposition of fresh chlorophyll coinciding with the spring bloom as sea ice retreats. Both in situ production and advection of upstream phytodetritus to these regions support persistent biological hotspots that connect benthic prey to upper trophic benthivores. This northern marine ecosystem is dominated by marine macroinvertebrates (e.g. clams, polychaetes, sipunculids, and amphipods) that feed on the high production deposited rapidly to the seafloor, which in turn serve as food resources for diving mammals and seabirds, such as gray whales, bearded seals, eiders, and walruses. Between St. Lawrence Island and Bering Strait and northwards into the Chukchi Sea, the persistence of seasonal sea ice has significantly declined over the past two decades, and along with warming seawater temperatures, these changes have potential ramifications to ecosystem structure. Times-series data over the last 25 years indicate that these regions have experienced a northward shift in macrofaunal composition and a decline in core benthic biomass that matches patterns of reduced sea ice, warming seawater, and changing sediment grain size that relates to varying current patterns. This presentation will discuss these data in the context of both process studies from the region and results from the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO), an international network of time series transects that is providing a framework to evaluate status and trends on a latitudinal bases in the Pacific Arctic region.

  13. CULTIVO DE FEIJÃO E MILHO EM SUCESSÃO A PLANTAS DE COBERTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ LUIZ RODRIGUES TORRES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing cover crops preceding planting common beans and corn may influence the yield of these cash crops. This study aimed to evaluate the biomass production and decomposition of crop residue cover and yield of maize and beans grown on these soils as coverings of plants. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in the 2011/12 harvest in Uberaba. With a randomized block designed in a split - plot scheme, seven cover crops were used : sunn hemp ( Crotalaria spectabilis , jack bean ( Canavalia ensiformis DC., mil- let ADR300, ADR500 and ENA2 ( Pennisetum glaucum L., Sorgo (S orghum bicolor L. and brachiária ( Urochloa brizantha cv Marandú, and subplots in annual succession crops (maize and bean. The millets ADR300, ADR500 and ENA2 among Poaceae and jack beans between Fabaceae produced more dry biomass (9.8, 8.9, 8.6 and 3.8 t ha - 1 , respectively; after 150 days of decomposition of plant residues of sunn hemp, jack bean, sorghum, brachiaria, millet ADR500, millet ENA2 and millet ADR300 were in the order of 67.9; 71.7; 53.8; 61.7; 49.9; 45.5 and 46.7%, respectively; the maize yield was higher when the culture was grown on resi- dues of millet ENA2 (7.2 t ha - 1 and jack bean (6.8 t ha - 1 , while the bean was higher when grown on millet ADR300 (1.3 t ha - 1 and sunn hemp (1.2 t ha - 1 .

  14. Distribution and habitat use of red panda in the Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Damber; Shrestha, Saroj; Sherpa, Peema; Thapa, Gokarna Jung; Kokh, Manish; Lama, Sonam Tashi; Khanal, Kapil; Thapa, Arjun; Jnawali, Shant Raj

    2017-01-01

    In Nepal, the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has been sparsely studied, although its range covers a wide area. The present study was carried out in the previously untapped Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) situated in central Nepal with an aim to explore current distributional status and identify key habitat use. Extensive field surveys conducted in 10 red panda range districts were used to estimate species distribution by presence-absence occupancy modeling and to predict distribution by presence-only modeling. The presence of red pandas was recorded in five districts: Rasuwa, Nuwakot, Myagdi, Baglung and Dhading. The predictive distribution model indicated that 1,904.44 km2 of potential red panda habitat is available in CHAL with the protected area covering nearly 41% of the total habitat. The habitat suitability analysis based on the probability of occurrence showed only 16.58% (A = 315.81 km2) of the total potential habitat is highly suitable. Red Panda occupancy was estimated to be around 0.0667, indicating nearly 7% (218 km2) of the total habitat is occupied with an average detection probability of 0.4482±0.377. Based on the habitat use analysis, altogether eight variables including elevation, slope, aspect, proximity to water sources, bamboo abundance, height, cover, and seasonal precipitation were observed to have significant roles in the distribution of red pandas. In addition, 25 tree species were documented from red panda sign plots out of 165 species recorded in the survey area. Most common was Betula utilis followed by Rhododendron spp. and Abies spectabilis. The extirpation of red pandas in previously reported areas indicates a need for immediate action for the long-term conservation of this species in CHAL.

  15. Efeito de coberturas do solo sobre a sobrevivência de Macrophomina phaseolina no feijão-caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheyla Magdala de Sousa Linhares

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o objetivo de avaliar a sobrevivência de Macrophomina phaseolina em solo submetido a diferentes coberturas, conduziu-se dois experimentos em casa de vegetação, no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com cinco coberturas (Brachiaria brizantha, Pennisetum glaucum, Crotalaria spectabilis, solo coberto com filme de polietileno e solo sem cobertura e solo esterilizado e não esterilizado. No primeiro experimento, as plantas foram cultivadas em vasos e dessecadas, para posterior plantio do feijão-caupi e no segundo, a semeadura da cultura foi realizada em sucessão ao primeiro cultivo. Nos dois experimentos foram colocadas em cada vaso a 10 cm de profundidade, no dia do plantio da cultura, quatro bolsas de tecido contendo, cada uma, 10 gramas de inóculo de M. phaseolina, das quais, duas foram retiradas aos 30 dias após o plantio e duas no final do ciclo da cultura, para posterior plaqueamento e determinação da sobrevivência. Realizou-se também o monitoramento das temperaturas máximas e mínimas diárias do solo. Os tratamentos com solo coberto com material vegetal apresentaram menor elevação da temperatura em relação ao solo coberto com filme de polietileno e sem cobertura, que elevaram a temperatura em até 5,9 e 3,9 ºC, respectivamente, em relação ao solo coberto com palhada de P. glaucum. O solo coberto com filme de polietileno e sem cobertura apresentaram maiores taxas de sobrevivência de M. phaseolina e o solo coberto com palhada de P. glaucum a menor taxa. Maior sobrevivência foi observada no solo não esterilizado.

  16. Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macêdo; Rabelo, Luciana Maria Araujo; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Fátima de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos.

  17. Environmental niche divergence among three dune shrub sister species with parapatric distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chozas, Sergio; Chefaoui, Rosa M; Correia, Otília; Bonal, Raúl; Hortal, Joaquín

    2017-05-01

    The geographical distributions of species are constrained by their ecological requirements. The aim of this work was to analyse the effects of environmental conditions, historical events and biogeographical constraints on the diversification of the three species of the western Mediterranean shrub genus Stauracanthus , which have a parapatric distribution in the Iberian Peninsula. Ecological niche factor analysis and generalized linear models were used to measure the response of all Stauracanthus species to the environmental gradients and map their potential distributions in the Iberian Peninsula. The bioclimatic niche overlap between the three species was determined by using Schoener's index. The genetic differentiation of the Iberian and northern African populations of Stauracanthus species was characterized with GenalEx. The effects on genetic distances of the most important environmental drivers were assessed through Mantel tests and non-metric multidimensional scaling. The three Stauracanthus species show remarkably similar responses to climatic conditions. This supports the idea that all members of this recently diversified clade retain common adaptations to climate and consequently high levels of climatic niche overlap. This contrasts with the diverse edaphic requirements of Stauracanthus species. The populations of the S. genistoides-spectabilis clade grow on Miocene and Pliocene fine-textured sedimentary soils, whereas S. boivinii , the more genetically distant species, occurs on older and more coarse-textured sedimentary substrates. These patterns of diversification are largely consistent with a stochastic process of geographical range expansion and fragmentation coupled with niche evolution in the context of spatially complex environmental fluctuations. : The combined analysis of the distribution, realized environmental niche and phylogeographical relationships of parapatric species proposed in this work allows integration of the biogeographical

  18. Atividade farmacológica da monocrotalina isolada de plantas do gênero Crotalaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. R. Honório Júnior

    Full Text Available Crotalaria retusa é uma planta encontrada no Nordeste brasileiro, pertence ao gênero Crotalaria e à família Leguminosae, e possuem mais de seissentas espécies no mundo e mais de quarenta no Brasil. As variedades tóxicas mais conhecidas são C. spectabilis, C. crispata, C. retusa, C. dura e C. globifera. Plantas do gênero Crotalaria são de interesse porque são usadas na medicina popular. Esses gêneros são ricos em alcaloides pirrolizidínicos (AP, que são as principais toxinas e apresentam efeitos pneumotóxicos, nefrotóxicos, cardiotóxicos, fetotóxicos, carcinogênicos, inflamação, hemorragia e fibrose. A monocrotalina é o principal alcaloide pirrolizidínico encontrado nessas plantas e é ativamente oxidada in vivo pelo citocromo P450 no fígado, formando intermediários altamente reativos tipo pirrólicos que são responsáveis pela ligação cruzada do DNA-DNA e DNA-proteína. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fazer um levantamento bibliográfico via internet, utilizando bancos de dados, programas de pesquisa científica e pesquisa em livros relacionados, acerca da atividade farmacológica e do mecanismo de ação da monocrotalina extraída de plantas do gênero Crotalaria, ressaltando desde os aspectos botânicos da planta, estrutura química dos alcaloides pirrolizidínicos, exemplos experimentais de toxicidade e provável mecanismo de ação.

  19. Phytomonitoring of air pollution around a thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, M.; Agrawal, S. B.

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the impact of air pollutants on vegetation around Obra thermal power plant (1550 M W capacity) in the Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. For this purpose, Mangifera indica, Citrus medico and Bouganvillaea spectabilis plants, most common at all sites, were selected as test plants. Five study sites were selected northeast (prevailing wind) of the thermal power plant. A control site was also selected at a distance of 30 km north of Obra. Responses of plants to pollutants in terms of presence of foliar injury symptoms and changes in chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and S content were measured. These changes were correlated with ambient SO 2 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations and the amount of dust settled on leaf surfaces. The SO 2 and SPM concentrations were quite high in the immediate vicinity of the power plant. There also exists a direct relationship between the concentration of SPM in air and amount of dust deposited on leaf surfaces. Maximum dust deposition was observed on M. indica plants. The levels of foliar injury, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid were found to decrease and that of S increase in plants around the power plant in comparison to those growing at a control site. The magnitude of such changes was maximum in M. indica and minimum in C. medica. A species specific direct relationship between the increase in the amount of S and decrease in chlorophyll content was observed. The study suggests that differential sensitivity of plants to SO 2 may be used in evaluating the air pollution impact around emission sources and M. indica plants can be used as an indicator plant for quantifying biological changes.

  20. Food habits of rodents inhabiting arid and semi-arid ecosystems of central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Parmenter, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe seasonal dietary composition for 15 species of rodents collected in all major habitats on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (Socorro County) in central New Mexico. A comprehensive literature review of food habits for these species from throughout their distribution also is provided. We collected rodents in the field during winter, spring and late summer in 1998 from six communities: riparian cottonwood forest; piñon-juniper woodland; juniper-oak savanna; mesquite savanna; short-grass steppe; and Chihuahuan Desert scrubland. Rodents included Spermophilus spilosoma (Spotted Ground Squirrel), Perognathus flavescens (Plains Pocket Mouse), Perognathus flavus (Silky Pocket Mouse), Dipodomys merriami (Merriam’s Kangaroo Rat), Dipodomys ordii (Ord’s Kangaroo Rat), Dipodomys spectabilis (Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat), Reithrodontomys megalotis (Western Harvest Mouse), Peromyscus boylii (Brush Mouse), Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus Mouse), Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse), Peromyscus truei (Piñon Mouse), Onychomys arenicola (Mearn’s Grasshopper Mouse), Onychomys leucogaster (Northern Grasshopper Mouse), Neotoma albigula/leucodon (White-throated Woodrats), and Neotoma micropus (Southern Plains Woodrat). We collected stomach contents of all species, and cheek-pouch contents of heteromyids, and quantified them in the laboratory. We determined seasonal diets in each habitat by calculating mean percentage volumes of seeds, arthropods and green vegetation (plant leaves and stems) for each species of rodent. Seeds consumed by each rodent were identified to genus, and often species, and quantified by frequency counts. Comparisons of diets between and among species of rodents, seasons, and ecosystems were also examined. We provide an appendix of all plant taxa documented.

  1. Efeitos do substrato no enraizamento de estacas caulinares de Bougainvillea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathia Maria Barbosa e Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. é interessante, nas arborizações residencial e urbana, porque floresce durante todo o ano e apresenta variação de cores de brácteas e tolerância a estresses hídricos. A percentagem de pegamento das estacas da buganvília é, em geral, pequena e pode estar associada ao substrato usado. Oobjetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do substrato sobre a percentagem de enraizamento de estacas de buganvília. Dois experimentos foram realizados, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições. No primeiro, os tratamentos foram: ‘areia vermelha’ (AV, ‘areia grossa’ (AG, AV + AG, AV + palha de carnaubeira Copernicia cerifera Mart. curtida (PC, AG + PC e AV + AG + PC. A análise de uma amostra de AG indicou densidade aparente de 1,21 mg m-3, retenção de umidade de 8,00 (0,01 Mpa, 10,2 mm e 51,03 mm m-1 de água disponível e, em g kg-1: 904 de areia grossa, 85 de areia fina, 4 de silte e 7 de argila. Os valores respectivos para AV foram de 1,20 mg m-3, 10,96 (0,01 Mpa, 13,1 mm, 65,28 mm m-1 e 405, 556, 5 e 34 nas frações granulométricas. Maiores percentagens de estacas enraizadas foram obtidas com o uso de AG (24% ou AG + AV (28%. No segundo experimento, PC foi substituída por húmus de minhoca (HM. Maior percentagem de estacas enraizadas foi obtida com AG + HM (73%.

  2. Comparative phytosociological investigation of subalpine alder thickets in southwestern Alaska and the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, F. J. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first vegetation analysis of subalpine alder (Alnus viridis) thickets in southwestern Alaska. The data are primarily from mesic, hilly and mountainous sites ranging from the westernmost tip of the Alaska Peninsula to the northern Kenai Peninsula, spanning 1,000 km on an E–W gradient and 700 km on a N–S gradient. 127 relevés from 18 sites represent the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform diversity. Data were analyzed by multivariate and traditional Braun-Blanquet methods. One association is distinguished, Sambuco racemosi-Alnetum viridis ass. nov. with three new subassociations, oplopanacetosum horridi, typicum, and rubetosum spectabilis with the latter subdivided into four variants. These phytocoena are well-differentiated, although they form a syntaxonomical continuum. The composition and structure of these communities are described and interpreted in relation to complex environmental factors; these are analyzed using Jancey's ranking on F-values. Community composition is primarily related to elevation, longitude, soil moisture, and latitude. Phytogeographic comparison of southwestern Alaska alder communities with those elsewhere in the North Pacific suggests a close floristic relationship to those of southcentral, southeastern Alaska and coastal British Columbia, Canada. All these communities belong to the same association, while those of the eastern and southern parts of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia belong to a different association. Syntaxonomy of the 4 major communities is discussed. Within the Northern Hemisphere, vascular plant species of southwestern Alaska alder thickets primarily occur in East Asia and North America, 36 %; while 26 % are circumpolar, and 22 % are restricted to North America. From a latitudinal perspective, the distribution of vascular plant species within these alder thickets peaks in the high-subarctic, low-subarctic, and temperate latitudinal zones, with low

  3. Positive interactions between desert granivores: localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Edelman

    Full Text Available Facilitation, when one species enhances the environment or performance of another species, can be highly localized in space. While facilitation in plant communities has been intensely studied, the role of facilitation in shaping animal communities is less well understood. In the Chihuahuan Desert, both kangaroo rats and harvester ants depend on the abundant seeds of annual plants. Kangaroo rats, however, are hypothesized to facilitate harvester ants through soil disturbance and selective seed predation rather than competing with them. I used a spatially explicit approach to examine whether a positive or negative interaction exists between banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis mounds and rough harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus colonies. The presence of a scale-dependent interaction between mounds and colonies was tested by comparing fitted spatial point process models with and without interspecific effects. Also, the effect of proximity to a mound on colony mortality and spatial patterns of surviving colonies was examined. The spatial pattern of kangaroo rat mounds and harvester ant colonies was consistent with a positive interspecific interaction at small scales (<10 m. Mortality risk of vulnerable, recently founded harvester ant colonies was lower when located close to a kangaroo rat mound and proximity to a mound partly predicted the spatial pattern of surviving colonies. My findings support localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats, likely mediated through ecosystem engineering and foraging effects on plant cover and composition. The scale-dependent effect of kangaroo rats on abiotic and biotic factors appears to result in greater founding and survivorship of young colonies near mounds. These results suggest that soil disturbance and foraging by rodents can have subtle impacts on the distribution and demography of other species.

  4. Genetic diversity among eight Dendrolimus species in Eurasia (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) inferred from mitochondrial COI and COII, and nuclear ITS2 markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononov, Alexander; Ustyantsev, Kirill; Wang, Baode; Mastro, Victor C; Fet, Victor; Blinov, Alexander; Baranchikov, Yuri

    2016-12-22

    Moths of genus Dendrolimus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) are among the major pests of coniferous forests worldwide. Taxonomy and nomenclature of this genus are not entirely established, and there are many species with a controversial taxonomic position. We present a comparative evolutionary analysis of the most economically important Dendrolimus species in Eurasia. Our analysis was based on the nucleotide sequences of COI and COII mitochondrial genes and ITS2 spacer of nuclear ribosomal genes. All known sequences were extracted from GenBank. Additional 112 new sequences were identified for 28 specimens of D. sibiricus, D. pini, and D. superans from five regions of Siberia and the Russian Far East to be able to compare the disparate data from all previous studies. In total, 528 sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis. Two clusters of closely related species in Dendrolimus were found. The first cluster includes D. pini, D. sibiricus, and D. superans; and the second, D. spectabilis, D. punctatus, and D. tabulaeformis. Species D. houi and D. kikuchii appear to be the most basal in the genus. Genetic difference among the second cluster species is very low in contrast to the first cluster species. Phylogenetic position D. tabulaeformis as a subspecies was supported. It was found that D. sibiricus recently separated from D. superans. Integration of D. sibiricus mitochondrial DNA sequences and the spread of this species to the west of Eurasia have been established as the cause of the unjustified allocation of a new species: D. kilmez. Our study further clarifies taxonomic problems in the genus and gives more complete information on the genetic structure of D. pini, D. sibiricus, and D. superans.

  5. Invasioni biologiche. Il caso drammatico delle palme e di due specie di insetti, il Punteruolo rosso delle palme (Rynchophorus ferrugineus, Coleotteri e il castnide delle palme (Paysandisia archon, Lepidotteri in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Di Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological invasions represent today a serious ecological problem, and is one of the main threats to biodiversity, in Italy as in the rest of the world. In the last century several species of palm trees have been introduced in gardens, parks and lanes of great part of Italy, where climate allows their life and growth. Among the others Phoenix canariensis, P. dactylifera, Washingtonia robusta, W. filifera, Jubaea spectabilis and Trachycarpus fortunei. All of these species are exotic, as the only indigenous palm in Italy is the dwarf fan palm (Chamaerops humilis, which occurs along the tirrenian coast from Sicily to Liguria, in Sardinia and most of the smaller islands. Palm trees have become by now part of the Italian landscape, as do pine tree in Rome or cypress in Tuscany. Recently, two different species of exotic insects where recorded for the first time in Italy: the south American moth Paysandisia archon and the chinese beetle Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Both of them lay their eggs on palm trees, and their larvae feed into the stem and kill the palms. Both arrived in Italy and in other Mediterranean countries as larvae or eggs hidden into the plants imported from the native regions. These insects are rapidly spreading through Italy, following palm plantations, and destroying palms from north to south, with a huge economic damage. Furthermore, they are locally changing probably for ever the Italian landscape. More recently, there is evidence of infestation on dwarf fan palm by both the moth and the beetle. This could cause a local extinction of the palm.

  6. Plant establishment on unirrigated green roof modules in a subtropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Bruce D.; Volder, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The application of green roof technology has become more common in the central, northwestern and eastern USA, and is now being employed across the southern USA as well. However, there is little research in the literature that evaluated plant survival on unirrigated green roofs in subtropical climates that experience frequent drought and heat stress. Here, we summarize the results of a study of plant establishment on a modular green roof in south-central Texas. Methodology Fifteen plant species were field tested in 11.4-cm-deep green roof modules on a four-storey building in College Station, Texas, with irrigation limited to the first several weeks of establishment. Climate data, plant growth and species survival were measured over three growing seasons. Principal results Four species survived growing seasons without any losses: Graptopetalum paraguayense, Malephora lutea, Manfreda maculosa and Phemeranthus calycinus. Six species experienced varying levels of mortality: Bulbine frutescens, Delosperma cooperi, Lampranthus spectabilis, Sedum kamtschaticum, Sedum mexicanum and Nassella tenuissima. Five species had no survivors: Dichondra argentea, Stemodia lanata, Myoporum parvifolium, Sedum moranense and Sedum tetractinum. Conclusions The establishment and survival of several plant species without any mortality suggests that irrigation limited to the first few weeks after planting may be an effective approach on green roofs in spite of the more challenging climatic conditions in the southern USA. Since the climate in south-central Texas had been consistently drier and warmer than normal during the study period, longer-term research on these species is recommended to expand knowledge of establishment requirements for these species under a wider range of conditions, including wetter than normal years.

  7. Estrutura de um cerrado strico sensu na Gleba Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis Alessandra Tomaselli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado ocupa aproximadamente 23% do território brasileiro e 70% do bioma correspondem a cerrado stricto sensu (s.s., sendo relevantes os estudos que buscam o entendimento da estrutura da vegetação nessas áreas. Com esse objetivo, foram estudadas cinco parcelas (10×25m em um hectare de cerrado s.s., amostrando-se todos os indivíduos com perímetro no nível do solo igual ou acima de 3cm (exceto lianas e indivíduos mortos. Alguns parâmetros fitossociológicos foram analisados, assim como a distribuição de classes de diâmetro dos indivíduos amostrados e a estrutura vertical. Foram amostradas 1.747 indivíduos, distribuídos em 75 espécies, pertencentes a 31 famílias. A densidade total absoluta encontrada foi de 13.976 ind.ha-1 e a área basal total, de 4,902m². Leguminosae foi a família com o maior número de espécies (16. As espécies que apresentaram os maiores valores de Índice do Valor de Importância (IVI foram Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Altschul, Myrcia guianensis (Aubl. DC., Xylopia aromatica (Lm. Mart., Ouratea spectabilis (Mart. Engl. e Pouteria ramiflora (Mart. Radlk. O Índice de Shannon encontrado foi de 3,623. A distribuição de classes de diâmetro apresentou curva na forma de "J" invertido, estando a maioria dos indivíduos na primeira classe. A área estudada não apresentou estratos bem definidos, estando a maioria dos indivíduos entre 1 e 3m de altura.

  8. Evaluation for Multi Purpose Free Species for Inter Cropping with Maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimotho, L.M

    2002-01-01

    The continued increase in Kenya's population has forced people to move into the dry lands and hence increasing demand for food and tree products in these areas. This has forced farmers to clear the existing natural forests to pave way for agricultural activities. In order to address this problem an integrated approach of planting both trees and crops on farm has been adopted. A trial was established to compare the growth performance of some local and exotic timber tree species as well as examine their effect on maize (Zea mays) crop yield. the tree treatments included Acacia polyacantha, caesalpinia velutina, Grevillae robusta, melia azaderach, senna spectabilis and senna siamea, planted at 5m x 5m spacing, in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three (3) replicates. Maize crop (Dry Land Hybrid 1 -DH1) was used as inter-crop during November-January seasons. The maize was planted at a spacing of 90 cm by 40 cm. There was a control with no trees. Growth of the trees was based on increase in both height and girth while whilst the crop yield was asses d by estimating average plot yield under each species. Results indicated that, different tree species affected the maize grain yield differently: i.e. there was no tre effect on maize yield in the earlier stages but as the trees increased in age and hence size some species caused reduction in the maize grain yields while others did not cause any reduction as yet. However, depending on the individual needs various decisions could be made on whether to compromise the crop yields, which are minimal in order to attain some timber products in addition to food. The trial is continuing in order to establish how long each tree species would permit a maize crop

  9. Intrachromosomal rearrangements in two representatives of the genus Saltator (Thraupidae, Passeriformes) and the occurrence of heteromorphic Z chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Michelly da Silva; Kretschmer, Rafael; Silva, Fabio Augusto Oliveira; Ledesma, Mario Angel; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Del Valle Garnero, Analía; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2015-10-01

    Saltator is a genus within family Thraupidae, the second largest family of Passeriformes, with more than 370 species found exclusively in the New World. Despite this, only a few species have had their karyotypes analyzed, most of them only with conventional staining. The diploid number is close to 80, and chromosome morphology is similar to the usual avian karyotype. Recent studies using cross-species chromosome painting have shown that, although the chromosomal morphology and number are similar to many species of birds, Passeriformes exhibit a complex pattern of paracentric and pericentric inversions in the chromosome homologous to GGA1q in two different suborders, Oscines and Suboscines. Hence, considering the importance and species richness of Thraupidae, this study aims to analyze two species of genus Saltator, the golden-billed saltator (S. aurantiirostris) and the green-winged saltator (S. similis) by means of classical cytogenetics and cross-species chromosome painting using Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis probes, and also 5S and 18S rDNA and telomeric sequences. The results show that the karyotypes of these species are similar to other species of Passeriformes. Interestingly, the Z chromosome appears heteromorphic in S. similis, varying in morphology from acrocentric to metacentric. 5S and 18S probes hybridize to one pair of microchromosomes each, and telomeric sequences produce signals only in the terminal regions of chromosomes. FISH results are very similar to the Passeriformes already analyzed by means of molecular cytogenetics (Turdus species and Elaenia spectabilis). However, the paracentric and pericentric inversions observed in Saltator are different from those detected in these species, an observation that helps to explain the probable sequence of rearrangements. As these rearrangements are found in both suborders of Passeriformes (Oscines and Suboscines), we propose that the fission of GGA1 and inversions in GGA1q have occurred very

  10. Molecular phylogenetics, vocalizations, and species limits in Celeus woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Brett W; Robbins, Mark B

    2011-10-01

    Species limits and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped diversification of woodpeckers and allies (Picidae) remain obscure, as inter and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships have yet to be comprehensively resolved for most genera. Herein, we analyzed 5020 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Celeus woodpeckers. Broad geographic sampling was employed to assess species limits in phenotypically variable lineages and provide a first look at the evolution of song and plumage traits in this poorly known Neotropical genus. Our results strongly support the monophyly of Celeus and reveal several novel relationships across a shallow phylogenetic topology. We confirm the close sister relationship between Celeus spectabilis and the enigmatic Celeus obrieni, both of which form a clade with Celeus flavus. The Mesoamerican Celeus castaneus was placed as sister to a Celeus undatus-grammicus lineage, with the species status of the latter drawn into question given the lack of substantial genetic, morphological, and vocal variation in these taxa. We recovered paraphyly in Celeus elegans; however, this result appears to be the consequence of mitochondrial introgression from Celeus lugubris considering the monophyly of elegans at the ß-FIBI7 locus. A second instance of paraphyly was observed in Celeus flavescens with deep genetic splits and substantial phenotypic variation indicating the presence of two distinct species in this broadly distributed lineage. As such, we advocate elevation of Celeus flavescens ochraceus to species status. Our analysis of Celeus vocalizations and plumage characters demonstrates a pattern of lability consistent with a relatively recent origin of the genus and potentially rapid speciation history. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Spider Movement, UV Reflectance and Size, but Not Spider Crypsis, Affect the Response of Honeybees to Australian Crab Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llandres, Ana L.; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the crypsis hypothesis, the ability of female crab spiders to change body colour and match the colour of flowers has been selected because flower visitors are less likely to detect spiders that match the colour of the flowers used as hunting platform. However, recent findings suggest that spider crypsis plays a minor role in predator detection and some studies even showed that pollinators can become attracted to flowers harbouring Australian crab spider when the UV contrast between spider and flower increases. Here we studied the response of Apis mellifera honeybees to the presence of white or yellow Thomisus spectabilis Australian crab spiders sitting on Bidens alba inflorescences and also the response of honeybees to crab spiders that we made easily detectable painting blue their forelimbs or abdomen. To account for the visual systems of crab spider's prey, we measured the reflectance properties of the spiders and inflorescences used for the experiments. We found that honeybees did not respond to the degree of matching between spiders and inflorescences (either chromatic or achromatic contrast): they responded similarly to white and yellow spiders, to control and painted spiders. However spider UV reflection, spider size and spider movement determined honeybee behaviour: the probability that honeybees landed on spider-harbouring inflorescences was greatest when the spiders were large and had high UV reflectance or when spiders were small and reflected little UV, and honeybees were more likely to reject inflorescences if spiders moved as the bee approached the inflorescence. Our study suggests that only the large, but not the small Australian crab spiders deceive their preys by reflecting UV light, and highlights the importance of other cues that elicited an anti-predator response in honeybees. PMID:21359183

  12. Spider movement, UV reflectance and size, but not spider crypsis, affect the response of honeybees to Australian crab spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llandres, Ana L; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A

    2011-02-16

    According to the crypsis hypothesis, the ability of female crab spiders to change body colour and match the colour of flowers has been selected because flower visitors are less likely to detect spiders that match the colour of the flowers used as hunting platform. However, recent findings suggest that spider crypsis plays a minor role in predator detection and some studies even showed that pollinators can become attracted to flowers harbouring Australian crab spider when the UV contrast between spider and flower increases. Here we studied the response of Apis mellifera honeybees to the presence of white or yellow Thomisus spectabilis Australian crab spiders sitting on Bidens alba inflorescences and also the response of honeybees to crab spiders that we made easily detectable painting blue their forelimbs or abdomen. To account for the visual systems of crab spider's prey, we measured the reflectance properties of the spiders and inflorescences used for the experiments. We found that honeybees did not respond to the degree of matching between spiders and inflorescences (either chromatic or achromatic contrast): they responded similarly to white and yellow spiders, to control and painted spiders. However spider UV reflection, spider size and spider movement determined honeybee behaviour: the probability that honeybees landed on spider-harbouring inflorescences was greatest when the spiders were large and had high UV reflectance or when spiders were small and reflected little UV, and honeybees were more likely to reject inflorescences if spiders moved as the bee approached the inflorescence. Our study suggests that only the large, but not the small Australian crab spiders deceive their preys by reflecting UV light, and highlights the importance of other cues that elicited an anti-predator response in honeybees.

  13. Evaluación de la capacidad antioxidante y metabolitos secundarios de extractos de dieciséis plantas medicinales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echavarría, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of sixteen medicinal plants: Escoba amarga (Parthenium hysterophons, ajenjo (Artemisia absinthium, guarumo (Cecropia obtusifolia, chaya (Cnidoscolus chayamansa, borraja (Borago officinalis, balsa (Ochroma sp., linaza (Linum usitatissimum, hierba Luisa (Cymbopogon citratus, toronjil (Melissa officinalis, buganvilla (Bougainvillea spectabilis, alcachofa (Cynara scolymus, guaviduca (Piper carpunya, altamisa (Ambrosia cumanensis, diente de León (Taxacum officinales, buscapina (Parietaria officinalisand moringa (Moringa oleifera. For this, the DPPH (radical 1, 1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil method was used; furthermore, recognition assays of secondary metabolites were performed, in order to obtain the first signs of phytochemical compounds of interest. The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was expressed as IC value (g/mL (necessary amount to inhibit the formation of 50% of DPPH radical. The low value of IC50 reflects better free radical scavenging action. Although most of the samples tested showed good antioxidant capacity with this method (DPPH, tests of hydroalcoholic extracts show that alcachofa (IC50 9.89 mg/mL, moringa (IC50 11.4 mg/mL and borraja (IC50 14.0 mg/mL were those with higher antioxidant capacity. Through chemical characterization tests, the presence of flavonoids, tannins, triterpenes, alkaloids and saponins were detected in most of the analyzed species (approximately 56-69%; only 20% of them showed the presence of polyphenols, cyanogenic glycosides, lactones, coumarins, anthraquinones and sterols. According to the results obtained, these plants might be considered as promising sources of secondary metabolites with antioxidant activity.

  14. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev: results and conclusions 2000/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I. [NERI, Dept. of Coastal Zone Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the combined results of two years of base-line investigations of birds performed during August 1999 - April 2001 in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 13 aerial surveys, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers occurring on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although the common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affects less than 1% of the different species, except divers of which 1.65% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrate through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with less pronounced variation in

  15. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, and results from the year of construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The present report presents the base-line investigations of birds conducted during August 1999-April 2001 in relation to construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, 14 km west-south-west of Blaevandshuk, in the Danish North Sea. The report also presents data collected during the period September 2001-April 2002, when construction of the wind farm was in progress. The wind farm will consist of 80 wind turbines, each of 2 MW, and cover an area of c. 20 km 2 . The eastern part of the North Sea constitutes major staging and wintering grounds for huge numbers of water- and seabirds. The area is also known to be an important site for migrating birds, which especially in autumn pass in large numbers. As Denmark has obligations to protect and maintain the bird populations it was laid down in the approval for erection of the wind farm that the impact on birds should be investigated. According to the 1% criteria defined in the Ramsar Convention, the eastern part of the North Sea including the wind farm area is of international importance to divers, Common Tern, and Sandwich Tern. A number of other species, e.g. Common Eider, Common Scoter, Guillemot and Razorbill, are present in the area in significant numbers as well, though these numbers do not make up 1% of the populations. Detailed distributions of birds in the area around and at Horns Rev were virtually unknown until initiation of this project. Previous bird counts in this area have been carried out almost exclusively from the coast and detailed knowledge exists concerning the numbers of roosting at and migrating birds from the westernmost point of Jutland, Blaevandshuk. To describe the numbers and distributions of birds staging and wintering in the Horns Rev area, bird investigations were initiated in 1999 by using standardised transect counts from aircraft. Up to April 2002, 18 aerial counts have been carried out over an area of c. 1,700 km 2 centred on the Horns Rev project area. (au)

  16. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev: results and conclusions 2000/2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the combined results of two years of base-line investigations of birds performed during August 1999 - April 2001 in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 13 aerial surveys, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers occurring on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although the common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affects less than 1% of the different species, except divers of which 1.65% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrate through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with less pronounced variation in

  17. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, and results from the year of construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2003-04-15

    The present report presents the base-line investigations of birds conducted during August 1999-April 2001 in relation to construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, 14 km west-south-west of Blaevandshuk, in the Danish North Sea. The report also presents data collected during the period September 2001-April 2002, when construction of the wind farm was in progress. The wind farm will consist of 80 wind turbines, each of 2 MW, and cover an area of c. 20 km{sup 2}. The eastern part of the North Sea constitutes major staging and wintering grounds for huge numbers of water- and seabirds. The area is also known to be an important site for migrating birds, which especially in autumn pass in large numbers. As Denmark has obligations to protect and maintain the bird populations it was laid down in the approval for erection of the wind farm that the impact on birds should be investigated. According to the 1% criteria defined in the Ramsar Convention, the eastern part of the North Sea including the wind farm area is of international importance to divers, Common Tern, and Sandwich Tern. A number of other species, e.g. Common Eider, Common Scoter, Guillemot and Razorbill, are present in the area in significant numbers as well, though these numbers do not make up 1% of the populations. Detailed distributions of birds in the area around and at Horns Rev were virtually unknown until initiation of this project. Previous bird counts in this area have been carried out almost exclusively from the coast and detailed knowledge exists concerning the numbers of roosting at and migrating birds from the westernmost point of Jutland, Blaevandshuk. To describe the numbers and distributions of birds staging and wintering in the Horns Rev area, bird investigations were initiated in 1999 by using standardised transect counts from aircraft. Up to April 2002, 18 aerial counts have been carried out over an area of c. 1,700 km{sup 2} centred on the Horns Rev project area. (au)

  18. Human exposure to contaminants in the traditional Greenland diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul; Muir, Derek; Asmund, Gert; Riget, Frank

    2004-09-20

    The traditional diet is a significant source of contaminants to people in Greenland, although contaminant levels vary widely among species and tissue from very low in many to very high in a few. Our study has included cadmium, mercury, selenium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dichlorophenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), chlorobenzenes, dieldrin and toxaphene in the major species and tissues consumed by Greenlanders. In general, the levels of these are very low in terrestrial species and in muscle of many marine species. High organochlorines concentrations are typically found in blubber of marine mammals and high metal levels in liver and kidney of seals and whales. In this study, the mean intakes of cadmium, chlordanes and toxaphene significantly exceed 'acceptable/tolerable intakes' (ADI/TDI) by a factor between 2.5 and 6. Mean intakes of mercury, PCB and dieldrin also exceed ADI/TDI by up to approximately 50%. However as these figures are mean intakes and as variation in both food intake and contaminant levels is large, the variation of contaminant intake among individuals is also large, and some individuals will be exposed to significantly higher intakes. The mean intakes of DDT, HCH and chlorobenzenes are well below the ADI/TDI values, and it seems unlikely that the TDI for these contaminants normally is exceeded in the Greenland population. The evaluation of contaminant intake in this study points to seal muscle, seal liver, seal kidney, seal blubber and whale blubber as the dominant contributors of contaminants in the traditional diet. Levels in liver from Greenland halibut, snow crab, king eider, kittiwake, beluga and narwhal and kidney of beluga and narwhal are also high but were, with the exception of toxaphene in Greenland halibut liver, not important sources in this study, because they were eaten in low quantities. A way to minimize contaminant intake would be to avoid or limit the consumption of diet items

  19. Human exposure to contaminants in the traditional Greenland diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Poul; Muir, Derek; Asmund, Gert; Riget, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The traditional diet is a significant source of contaminants to people in Greenland, although contaminant levels vary widely among species and tissue from very low in many to very high in a few. Our study has included cadmium, mercury, selenium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dichlorophenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), chlorobenzenes, dieldrin and toxaphene in the major species and tissues consumed by Greenlanders. In general, the levels of these are very low in terrestrial species and in muscle of many marine species. High organochlorines concentrations are typically found in blubber of marine mammals and high metal levels in liver and kidney of seals and whales. In this study, the mean intakes of cadmium, chlordanes and toxaphene significantly exceed 'acceptable/tolerable intakes' (ADI/TDI) by a factor between 2.5 and 6. Mean intakes of mercury, PCB and dieldrin also exceed ADI/TDI by up to approximately 50%. However as these figures are mean intakes and as variation in both food intake and contaminant levels is large, the variation of contaminant intake among individuals is also large, and some individuals will be exposed to significantly higher intakes. The mean intakes of DDT, HCH and chlorobenzenes are well below the ADI/TDI values, and it seems unlikely that the TDI for these contaminants normally is exceeded in the Greenland population. The evaluation of contaminant intake in this study points to seal muscle, seal liver, seal kidney, seal blubber and whale blubber as the dominant contributors of contaminants in the traditional diet. Levels in liver from Greenland halibut, snow crab, king eider, kittiwake, beluga and narwhal and kidney of beluga and narwhal are also high but were, with the exception of toxaphene in Greenland halibut liver, not important sources in this study, because they were eaten in low quantities. A way to minimize contaminant intake would be to avoid or limit the consumption of diet items with high

  20. Eurajoki Olkiluoto birdlife survey 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yrjoelae, R.

    2009-02-01

    The study of birds in Olkiluoto in the summer of 2008 repeated the study of the same area conducted in 1997 (Yrjoelae 1997), and was complemented with two new line transect routes and six new waterfowl counting points for the eastern region of the Olkiluoto island. Using this method the research project covered the whole area of the Olkiluoto island. By repeating the earlier routes and counting points it presented an opportunity to clarify any possible changes in the area. A wide variety of different biotypes are evident in the mixed-growth forests of the whole Olkiluoto island and after that are both spruce and pine forests. There are regionally, however, great differences in the division. In the western sector of the island, on the first three lines, the share of industrial areas and the road network are noticeable. The methods used were line transects for the bird species found on the ground and point checks for the aquatic species of birds (Koskimies and Vaeisaenen 1998), which are the established methods used for the monitoring of birdlife in Finland. In these calculations, the bird observations were 1429 altogether, covering 65 species. The results of the checkpoint census for waterfowl are presented in this study. Altogether, 23 species were interpreted in the census for waterfowl as pairs appearing to nest in the area of the checkpoints. The endangered, or other species mentioned in the EU bird directive, sighted in Olkiluoto in summer 2008 are listed in this study. The Redbacked Shrike and Common Chiffchaff were clearly the most common among these species. The birdlife in Olkiluoto is both rather varied and abundant. A few clear tendencies can be distinguished in the changes within the species of birds. Amongst the waterfowl and gulls, the species favouring flourishing watercourses have increased. The species in the outer archipelago, such as the Common Eider and Velvet Scoter have declined compared to 1997. Probably the waders of the archipelago will

  1. Tracking Biological and Ecosystem Responses to Changing Environmental Conditions in the Pacific Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Moore, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Changing seasonal sea ice conditions and seawater temperatures strongly influence biological processes and marine ecosystems at high latitudes. In the Pacific Arctic, persistent regions termed "hotspots", are localized areas with high benthic macroinfaunal biomass that have been documented over four decades (see Figure). These regions are now being more formally tracked to relate physical forcing and ecosystem response as an Arctic Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) supported by the US National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan and international partners. These hotspots are important foraging areas for upper trophic level benthic feeders, such as marine mammals and seabirds. South of St. Lawrence Island (SLI) in the northern Bering Sea, benthic feeding spectacled eiders, bearded seals and walruses are important winter consumers of infauna, such as bivalves and polychaetes. Gray whales have historically been a major summer consumer of benthic amphipods in the Chirikov Basin to the north of SLI, although summertime sightings of gray whales declined in the Chirikov from the 1980s up until at least 2002. The SE Chukchi Sea hotspot, as are the other hotspots, is maintained by export of high chlorophyll a that is produced locally as well as advected by water masses transiting northward through the system. Both walrus and gray whales are known to forage in this hotspot seasonally on high biomass levels of benthic prey. Notably the center of the highest benthic biomass regions has shifted northward in three of the DBO hotspots in recent years. This has coincided with changing sediment grain size, an indicator of current speed, and is also likely a response to changes in primary production in the region. Studies of these broad biological responses to changing physical drivers have been facilitated through development of the DBO cooperative effort by both US and international scientists. The DBO includes a series of coordinated, multi-trophic level observations that

  2. A new detector for the measurement of neutron flux in nuclear reactors; Nouvelle methode de mesure des flux de neutrons dans les reacteurs atomiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L; Labeyrie, J; Tarassenko, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The detector described is designed for the instantaneous measurement of thermal neutron fluxes, in the presence of high {gamma} ray activity; this detector can withstand temperatures as high as 500 deg. C. It is based on the following principle: radioactive atoms resulting from heavy-nucleus fission are carried by a gas flow to a detector recording their {beta} and {gamma} disintegration. Thermal neutron fluxes as low as few neutrons per cm{sup 2} per second can be measured. This detector may be used to control a nuclear reactor, to plot the thermal flux distribution with an excellent definition (1 mm{sup 2}) for fluxes higher than 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}/s. The time response of the system to a sharp variation of flux is limited, in case of large fluxes, to the transit time of the gas flow between the fission product emitter and the detector; of the order of one tenth of a sec per meter of piping. The detector may also be applied for spectroscopy of fission products eider than 0,1 s. (author)Fren. [French] On decrit un appareil permettant la mesure instantanee des flux de neutrons thermiques accompagnes de flux intenses de rayons {gamma} et situes dans des enceintes pouvant etre portees a des temperatures superieures a 500 deg. C. On utilise la radioactivite des atomes resultant de la fission des noyaux lourds; ces atomes sont entraines par un courant gazeux vers un detecteur de radioactivite qui enregistre leurs desintegrations {beta} et {gamma}. On peut mesurer des flux partir de quelques neutrons thermiques par cm{sup 2} et par seconde. L'appareil permet de suivre la puissance d'un reacteur atomique, de tracer des cartes de densite de neutrons avec une tres bonne definition (1 mm{sup 2}) dans le cas de flux superieurs a 10{sup 8} cm{sup 2}/s. Le temps de reponse du systeme a une variation du flux de neutrons est limite, poes flux importants, par le temps de transit du gaz entre l'emetteur de produits de fission et le detecteur: soit quelques dizaines de

  3. Use of the rice husk as an alternative substrate for growing media on green walls drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrey Rivas-Sánchez, Yair; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán Cañas, José

    2017-04-01

    In the last years, we have been looking for alternatives to traditional growing mediums for green walls. Commercially available systems for green walls are commonly made with Sphagnum, rock wool or polymers that are unsustainable materials. In the design of the green wall, local components such as agricultural by-products should be considered more often. The objective of this research is to use alternative materials available in Andalusia that are suitable for use as a growing medium in green walls, using organic residues generated by agriculture as in this case the rice husk, compared to conventional and used materials as a growing media in green walls such as coconut fiber and rock wool. The physical-chemical characteristics of the water were analyzed through the collection of excess irrigation water, after passing through the prototypes of green walls, installed in the Rabanales Campus of the University of Córdoba between April and July 2016 and thus observe the feasibility of using rice husk as an alternative material. The 16 mm diameter irrigation pipes are at the top and middle of each module, with 12 adjustable drippers of 4 l / h for each module, 72 drippers in the whole experimental green wall prototype installed at every 15 centimeters of tube. Two different species of plant material (Lampranthus spectabilis) and (Lavandula stoechas), were selected, taking into account the solar exposition of the place of establishment of the prototype of the green wall and the easy acquisition of these plants in the region. Water samples were collected every day twice a day for 10 weeks of the experiment, taking a sample of the surplus runoff water from six green wall prototypes.PH 40 - pH - conductivity - TDS - temperature, CRISON. Differences in pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and total solids of the treatments were examined by ANOVA with the test of normality and homogeneity of variances. It was observed that the substrates used in the prototypes of the

  4. Plantas daninhas como hospedeiras alternativas para Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Braga Pereira Braz

    Full Text Available RESUMO Uma das ações indiretas exercidas pelas plantas daninhas na interferência sob espécies cultivadas é o potencial de hospedar agentes causadores de enfermidades. O nematoide das lesões radiculares (Pratylenchus brachyurus vem causando uma série de danos em diversas culturas no Brasil. Para o manejo deste fitoparasita, o cultivo de diferentes espécies de crotalárias tem sido empregado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a hospedabilidade de plantas daninhas para P. brachyurus, bem como o efeito de supressão de diferentes espécies de crotalária. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação no delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (2x17, com seis repetições. O primeiro fator consistiu na presença ou ausência da inoculação do nematoide. O segundo correspondeu a dezessete espécies vegetais, sendo onze plantas daninhas, quatro crotalárias (C. breviflora, C. juncea, C. ochroleuca e C spectabilis e duas variedades de soja, as quais serviram como testemunha sendo hospedeiras de P. brachyurus. A inoculação do nematoide das lesões radiculares não influenciou a altura de plantas e massa seca de parte aérea das diferentes espécies avaliadas. Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus viridis e Sida rhombifolia foram as espécies com maior número de nematoides por sistema radicular, e apenas a S. rhombifolia apresentou comportamento semelhante a testemunha (variedade de soja BMX Potência RR®. Com relação ao número de nematoides por grama de raiz, os maiores valores foram observados para A. viridis, seguido por P. oleracea. Excluindo-se a C. juncea, todas as demais espécies de crotalária apresentaram-se como boas opções para o manejo em áreas infestadas com P. brachyurus.

  5. Estrategias para la prevención y el control de intoxicaciones naturales por plantas fotosensibilizantes en bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M Aparicio

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la Empresa Pecuaria Bacuranao, del municipio Habana del Este (provincia La Habana, Cuba, con el objetivo de establecer una estrategia para la prevención y el control de intoxicaciones naturales por plantas fotosensibilizantes en bovinos. Para esto se realizó un diagnóstico presuntivo sobre fotosensibilización, mediante el inventario florístico de las plantas presentes en el pastoreo y con el uso del método clínico. Se identificaron diversas plantas productoras de fotosensibilización hepatógena en los animales, con destaque para Ageratum houstonianum Mill., Lantana camara L., Crotalaria retusa L. Crotalaria incana L. y Crotalaria spectabilis Roth. A través del Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (SIVE, mediante cuadrantes y cuadrículas, se determinó la densidad de bovinos por cuadrante, las áreas con mayor incidencia de ese tipo de plantas y los animales con dermatitis. En la evaluación del riesgo relativo (RR con y sin la presencia del sol y en relación con el consumo de forraje verde, se encontró que los animales expuestos al sol y los que consumieron forraje tuvieron 1,85 y 3,17 veces más incidencia respectivamente de signos clínicos relacionados con la dermatitis fotodinámica hepatógena, con mayores niveles para los que ingirieron la planta tóxica A. houstonianum Mill junto con el forraje. A partir de estos resultados se elaboró un plan de medidas generales y específicas para el control de la toxicosis en las áreas contaminadas con estas plantas. Se concluye que el empleo del SIVE, el censo botánico, los tratamientos de sostén a animales con síntomas severos y las medidas de manejo y alimentación pueden mejorar la eficacia en el control de la toxicosis y, a su vez, la protección de los animales en riesgo.

  6. Evaluation of hedgerow trees in alley cropping for phosphorus use efficiency and N{sub 2} fixation in low P soils in moist savanna in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanginga, N [International Inst. of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria); Danso, S K.A. [Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Soil Fertility and Crop Production Section; Zapata, F [FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Lab., Seibersdorf (Austria). Soils Science Unit; Bowen, G D [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Glen Osmond (Australia). Div. of Soils

    1996-07-01

    Soils low in P and N are common in the moist savanna climatic zones and consequently growth of hedgerow trees in alley cropping systems might require addition of N and P fertilizers. This is difficult for small scale farmers who have limited access to fertilizers and therefore depend only on limited input cropping systems. Exploiting genetic differences in P use efficiency and using hedgerow trees selected for high N{sub 2} fixation ability can improve tree establishment and growth on N and P-poor soils, restore soil fertility and preserve soil from degradation. Field experiments carried out at Fashola (moist savanna) have shown that large differences in growth and P use efficiency occurred between N{sub 2} fixing trees such as Gliricidia sepium, and non N{sub 2}-fixing trees such as Senna siamea and Senna spectabilis. Provenances or isoline differences in P use efficiency also occurred within species and was also influenced by level of P and period of growth. Differences between species and provenances in P uptake and growth were largely related to differences in physiological P-use efficiency (PPUE), root length and VAM infection rate, especially at low P. In general, nodulation was improved by P application, but varied among provenances. Gliricidia Sepium fixed about 61% of its N from atmospheric N{sub 2} in the pot experiment and 40% in the field. The percentage of N fixed was not affected by rate of P application. Differences in P and N accumulation and use efficiency were also influenced by management practices such as pruning. The distribution of total P followed the same trend as that of dry matter yield, while no significant correlations were found between partitioning of dry matter and total N. Uncut and cut G. Sepium derived 35 and 54% respectively of their N from atmospheric N{sub 2}. About 54% of the fixed N{sub 2} was partitioned to shoots and roots and this was not proportional to the size of these organs relative the whole plant. 17refs,2figs,2tabs.

  7. Using organic matter to increase soil fertility in Burundi: potentials and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboneka, Salvator

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture production in Burundi is dominated by small scale farmers (0.5 ha/household) who have only very limited access to mineral inputs. In the past, farmers have relied on fallow practices combined with farm yard manures to maintain and improve soil fertility. However, due to the high population growth and high population density (370/km²), fallow practices are nowadays no longer feasible, animal manures cannot be produced in sufficient quantities to maintain soil productivity and food insecurity has become a quasi permanent reality. Most Burundian soils are characterized by 1:1 types of clay minerals (kaolinite) and are acidic in nature. Such soils are of very low cation exchange capacity (CEC). To compare the effect of % clays and % organic matter (% C), correlations tests have been conducted between the two parameters and the CEC. It was found that in high altitude kaolinitic and acidic soils, CEC was highly correlated to % C and less correlated to % clay, suggesting that organic matter could play an important role in improving fertility and productivity of these soils. Based on these findings, additional studies have been conducted to evaluate the fertilizer and soil amendment values of animal manures (cattle, goat, chicken), and leguminous (Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Senna simea, Senna spectabilis) and non-leguminous (Tithonia diversifolia) foliar biomass. It was observed that chicken manure significantly reduces Al3+ levels in acidic soils, while Tithonia diversifolia outperforms in nutrient releases compared to the commonly known leguminous agroforestry shrubs and trees indicated above. Although the above mentioned organic sources can contribute to the soil nutrients supply, the quantities potentially available on farm are generally small. The only solution is to supplement these organic sources with other organic sources (compost, organic household waste), chemical fertilizers and mineral amendments (lime) to achieve Integrated Soil

  8. Produção e estado nutricional do milho em cultivo intercalar com adubos verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heinrichs

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilização da adubação verde para estabelecer a diversidade e o equilíbrio do sistema de produção é um dos paradigmas da agricultura moderna. Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção e o estado nutricional da cultura de milho sob cultivo intercalar com adubos verdes, foi realizado, entre 1995 e 1997, um experimento em campo, em Piracicaba (SP, em um Litossolo Vermelho eutrófico. O milho foi semeado no espaçamento de 0,90m nas entrelinhas, perfazendo aproximadamente 50.000plantas por hectare. Os tratamentos constaram de uma testemunha, sem cultivo intercalar, e quatro espécies de adubos verdes: mucuna anã (Mucuna deeringiana (Bort. Merr, guandu anão (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp, crotalária (Crotalaria spectabilis Roth e feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC., semeados sem adubação, no meio da entrelinha, distante 45cm da linha do milho, em duas épocas: simultânea à semeadura do milho e 30dias após. O solo, no primeiro ano, foi preparado sob sistema convencional e, no segundo, cultivaram-se as culturas sob semeadura direta. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. O estado nutricional e a produção de grãos do milho apresentaram melhores resultados no cultivo consorciado com feijão-de-porco. Os efeitos positivos desta espécie na produtividade de grãos de milho foram mais acentuados no segundo ano de adoção do cultivo consorciado, quando o sistema de manejo do solo foi semeadura direta. A semeadura dos adubos verdes simultânea ao milho foi o manejo mais recomendável, por não prejudicar o desenvolvimento do milho e reduzir a operação pós-plantio.

  9. Growth Promotion and Disease Suppression Ability of a Streptomyces sp. CB-75 from Banana Rhizosphere Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufeng; Zhou, Dengbo; Qi, Dengfeng; Gao, Zhufen; Xie, Jianghui; Luo, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    An actinomycete strain, CB-75, was isolated from the soil of a diseased banana plantation in Hainan, China. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, and 99.93% sequence similarity with Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424 (AB184393), the strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. This strain exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity against 11 plant pathogenic fungi. Type I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) were detected, which were indicative of the antifungal compounds that Streptomyces sp. CB-75 could produce. An ethyl acetate extract from the strain exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Colletotrichum musae (ATCC 96167) (0.78 μg/ml) and yielded the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (ATCC 16330) (50.0 μg/ml). Also, spore germination was significantly inhibited by the crude extract. After treatment with the crude extract of Streptomyces sp. CB-75 at the concentration 2 × MIC, the pathogenic fungi showed deformation, shrinkage, collapse, and tortuosity when observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the crude extract, 18 chemical constituents were identified; (Z)-13-docosenamide was the major constituent. Pot experiments showed that the incidence of banana seedlings was reduced after using Streptomyces sp. CB-75 treatment. The disease index was 10.23, and the prevention and control effect was 83.12%. Furthermore, Streptomyces sp. CB-75 had a growth-promoting effect on banana plants. The chlorophyll content showed 88.24% improvement, the leaf area, root length, root diameter, plant height, and stem showed 88.24, 90.49, 136.17, 61.78, and 50.98% improvement, respectively, and the shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight showed 82.38, 72.01, 195.33, and 113.33% improvement, respectively, compared with treatment of fermentation broth without Streptomyces sp. CB-75

  10. Status report of seabird surveys at Horns Rev, 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2002-01-01

    The present report presents the results of three bird surveys conducted in the Horns Rev area during the second half of 2001. Due to poor weather conditions in December 2001, the last survey was, however, performed on 7 January 2002. The surveys are part of the base-line investigations of birds performed in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. The results of the surveys during August 2001 - January 2002 are presented together with the results obtained during the period August 2000 - April 2001, and are also compared to results obtained during the period August 1999 - April 2000. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 16 aerial surveys performed during August 1999 - January 2002, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, mainly occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common Scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of the Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Common scoters occurred in very high numbers in January 2002. This was probably related to increased immigration of birds from the inner Danish waters during a cold period in late December 2001. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affect less than 1% of the various species, except divers where 1.58% will be

  11. Kiel Canal: Past and future threats for shipping resulting from precipitation, wind surge and sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganske, Anette; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Möller, Jens; Schade, Nils; Heinrich, Hartmut; Tinz, Birger

    2017-04-01

    The Kiel Canal is the most frequented artificial waterway in the world. It connects the North Sea and the Hamburg Harbor with the Baltic Sea and has a length of about 100 km. The Canal receives its water from the upper catchment of the river Eider. Discharge from the Canal towards the North Sea is via the sluices at Brunsbüttel (90%) into river Elbe and into the Baltic Sea via the sluices at Kiel-Holtenau. A risk of closure of the Canal occurs when high precipitation in the catchment meets high water levels in the river Elbe and/or the Baltic preventing the discharge of excess Canal water. Future sea level rise jointly with other effects such as possibly increasing wind surge and precipitation will close the gap between the inner and outer water levels, so that someday the outside levels will surmount the inner one. The German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) tasked its internal Network of Experts to run a case study on the evolution of critical water levels in order to estimate risks and vulnerabilities for adaptation measures. First step of the investigation is a search for factors or combination of factors responsible for closures in the past. Candidates are factors such as higher water levels at low tides, high precipitation events on land, soil moisture and human factors like preventive water management measures. Second step will be the search for the natural criteria in climate projections. Here we report on the results of the first step of the case study with a focus on the exit towards the North Sea. There, discharge is possible only during low tide. Presently still sufficient difference in height exists between the levels in the Canal and the river Elbe allowing for a free flow of excess Canal water. Shipping is ceased when levels in the Canal surpass safety limits due to high precipitation events in the catchment jointly with high outer water levels. We used atmospheric data from ERA-Interim reanalysis instead of gauge data

  12. A revision of dragon millipedes I: genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, with the description of eight new species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruttapon Srisonchai

    2018-05-01

    , comb. n., H. simplipodus (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016, comb. n., H. specialis (Nguyen, Golovatch & Anichkin, 2005, comb. n., H. spectabilis (Attems, 1937, comb. n., H. spinitergus (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016, comb. n., H. spinissimus (Golovatch, Li, Liu & Geoffroy, 2012, comb. n. and H. variabilis (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016, comb. n. Desmoxytes s.s. includes the following species: D. breviverpa Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; D. cervina (Pocock,1895; D. delfae (Jeekel, 1964; D. des Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; D. pinnasquali Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; D. planata (Pocock, 1895; D. purpurosea Enghoff, Sutcharit & Panha, 2007; D. takensis Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; D. taurina (Pocock, 1895; D. terae (Jeekel, 1964, all of which are re-described based mainly on type material. Two new synonyms are proposed: Desmoxytes pterygota Golovatch & Enghoff, 1994, syn. n. (= Desmoxytes cervina (Pocock, 1895, Desmoxytes rubra Golovatch & Enghoff, 1994, syn. n. (= Desmoxytes delfae (Jeekel, 1964. Six new species are described from Thailand: D. aurata Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. corythosaurus Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. euros Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. flabella Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. golovatchi Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. octoconigera Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., as well as one from Malaysia: D. perakensis Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., and one from Myanmar: D. waepyanensis Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n. The species can mostly be easily distinguished by gonopod structure in combination with other external characters; some cases of particularly similar congeners are discussed. All species of Desmoxytes s.s. seem to be endemic to continental Southeast Asia (except the ‘tramp’ species D. planata. Some biological observations (relationship with mites, moulting are recorded for the first time. Complete illustrations of external morphological characters, an identification key

  13. A revision of the New Zealand weevil genus Irenimus Pascoe, 1876 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Samuel D J

    2017-05-08

    Irenimus), C. spectabilis (Broun, 1914) (from Catoptes), C. spermophilus (Broun, 1895), revised status (from Irenimus), C. stolidus (Broun, 1886) (from Irenimus), C. tenebricus (Broun, 1893) (from Catoptes), C. vastator (Broun, 1893) (from Irenimus). Numerous new synonyms with species of Chalepistes are also proposed: Brachyolus fuscipictus Broun, 1914 and Brachyolus terricola Broun, 1917 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes asperatus (Broun); Brachyolus cervalis Broun, 1903 and Brachyolus sylvaticus Broun, 1910 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes costifer (Broun); Inophloeus tricostatus Broun, 1915 is a junior subjective synonym of Chalepistes pensus (Broun); Catoptes pallidipes Broun, 1917, Catoptes flaviventris Broun, 1917 and Catoptes nigricans Broun, 1917 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes placidus (Broun); Inophloeus longicornis Broun, 1904, Inophloeus medius Broun, 1893, Inophloeus sulcicollis Broun, 1914 and Inophloeus suturalis Broun, 1893 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes rhesus (Pascoe); Inophloeus albonotata Broun, 1893, Catoptes asperellus Broun, 1893, Irenimus bicostatus Broun, 1886, Catoptes caliginosus Broun, 1893, Catoptes chalmeri Broun, 1893, Catoptes decorus Broun, 1893, Inophloeus discrepans Broun, 1904, Catoptes fumosus Broun, 1914, Catoptes furvus Broun, 1893, Catoptes humeralis Broun, 1893, Catoptes longulus Sharp, 1886, Inophloeus nigellus Broun, 1881, Irenimus pilosellus Broun, 1886 and Catoptes scutellaris Sharp, 1886 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes rubidus (Broun); Catoptes subnitidus Broun, 1914 and Catoptes curvatus Broun, 1914 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes spermophilus (Broun); Catoptes brevicornis Sharp, 1886 and Catoptes vexator Broun, 1904 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes stolidus (Broun); and Catoptes aemulator Broun, 1893 and Catoptes argentalis Broun, 1914 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes tenebricus (Broun). Additional new combinations

  14. Marine wind farms - seabirds, white-tailed eagles, Eurasian eagle-owl and waders. A screening of potential conflict areas; Offshore vindenergianlegg - sjoefugl, havoern, hubro og vadere. En screening av potensielle konfliktomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, S.; Lorentsen, S.-H.; Dahl, E.L.; Follestad, A.; Hanssen, F.O.; Systad, G.H.

    2010-06-15

    sufficient quality to be used for this method. For the species where less data was available (e.g. geese, waders, white-tailed eagle and the Eurasian eagle-owl) we have chosen to illustrate potential conflicts by means of maps of the major functional areas. The results are presented in maps, where the WSI is given for 10x10 km squares. The results of the study showed a clear difference in WSI between areas and seasons. For the seabirds it was shown that especially the large breeding colonies in Vesteraalen, Roest and Runde were areas with high WSI. In Vesteraalen, the gannets and some of the puffin colonies resulted in a high WSI, while on Roest auks and for Runde gannets and gulls resulted in high WSI-values. Further south it was mainly gulls and terns that caused high WSI-values on the coast of Vest- Agder and between Jaeren and Karmoey. The results for the breeding season were as expected, as other studies have previously pointed to these sites as valuable areas. There were some similarities between important localities in summer and winter, for example between Jaeren and Vesteraalen. But during the winter season, areas such as Lista, Nordoeyerne and Gossen (Moere and Romsdal), Smoela, Froan, Oerlandet, Frost, Vikna and Vega also showed a high vulnerability. For the white-tailed sea eagle especially the islands of Smoela, Hitra and Froeya, as well as the area from Bodoe to Steigen were very important. For the Eurasian eagle-owl the coast of Helgeland and the areas surrounding Karmoey in Rogaland were most important. For waders and geese the focus was on important resting and moulting sites. Such sites for geese and eiders are distributed across the study area, with the most important and largest areas being the coast of central Norway and northwards. For waders a number of important resting areas are spread over the entire study area, but with a concentration of localities along the coast of Moere and Romsdal and Rogaland, especially along the coast of Jaeren. In our

  15. Climate Change and Potassium Effects Under Different N-Fertilization Input on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in a Long Term Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    achieved with poor N, P, K and Mg nutrient supply even with a normal quantity and distribution of rainfall. Yield was influenced by rainfall to a greater extent (Table 4) than by 150 kg ha-1 potassium combinations (NK, NPK, NPKMg). Drought and over rainfall negative effects were decreased by increasing N- doses with combinations of potassium, phosphorous and magnesium from 13 to 32% (Table 5 and 6). With the help of regression analysis it was found the polynomial correlation between rainfall and yield could be observed in the case of NK (Y'=381.65-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95), NPK (Y'=390.87-3.07x+0.0060x2, n=72, R2=0.96) and NPKMg (Y'=390.45-3.06x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96) nutrition systems. The optimum yield ranges between 17-20 t ha-1 at 280-330 mm of rainfall. From 1962 to 1979 the weather was highly variable, with particularly frequent droughts and over rainfall resulting in yield losses of 13 to 32 percentin in this period. Thus it is important to analyse the consequences of possible future climate change on crop in Hungary. REFERENCES A.E. Johnston. 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139: 8. Kádár, I-Márton, L.-Horváth, S. 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49: 291-306. László, M. 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 81-93. László, M. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality. EAPR. Hamburg. In press László, M. 2001b. Year and N- fertilizer effect on winter rye (Secale cereale L.) yield in a long term field experiment. XLIII. Georgikon Days. University of Veszprém. Keszthely László, M.-Imre, K.-Jose, E.M. 2000a. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH. on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 99

  16. Climate Change: Precipitation and Plant Nutrition Interactions on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in North-Eastern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    László, M., 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42, 81-93. László, M., 2001. Year and N- fertilizer effect on winter rye (Secale cereale L.) yield in a long term field experiment. XLIII. Georgikon Days. University of Veszprém. Keszthely László, M., Imre, K., Jose, E. M., 2000a. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH. on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. In press László, M., Silva, J. B. C., José, A. B., 2000b. Ecological friendly dragée technics on different crops and vegetables seeds. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. In press László, M., Silva, J. B. C., Jose, A. B., 2000c. Ecological friendly dragée technics to sustainable precision agriculture. Fertilization in the Third Millenium. CASISCF. Beijing Márton, L., 2000a. Effects of NPK fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Doctoral Ph.D Dissertation. University of Veszprém, Keszthely. Márton, L., 2000b. Effects of NPK fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Doctoral Ph.D Thesis. University of Veszprém, Keszthely. Márton, L., 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effect analysis at Tisza-river basin in a long term field experiment. Szent István University, Gödöllő, 21. p. Márton, L., 2001b. Climate change effets on rye (Secale cereale L.) yield. Agrochemistry and Soil Science. In press Márton, L., 2001c. Climate change and fertilization effect analysis at the Tisza- river basin on rye yield. SZINET. University of Szent István. Gödöllő. Márton, L., Kádár, I., Estáquio, M. J., 2000. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH on soil fertility and soil conservation. ESSC. Man and Soil at the Third Millennium. Abstract Book. 195. Valencia Szemes, I., Kádár, I., 1990. Műtrágyázás és meszezés tartamhatásának vizsgálata savanyú homoktalajon. Növénytermelés. 39: 147-155.

  17. Biological N2-FIXATION and Mineral N-Fertilization Effects on Soybean (Glicine max L. Merr.) Yield Under Temperate Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    -fundamental processes and how to control them. Conference at the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry. April 12th. 1999. (Ed's Jan Persson). 9-23. Kungl Skogs-och Lantbruksakademiens Tidskrift. Stockholm. Kádár, I. & Márton, L., 1999. Mineral Nutrient Cycle of Soya. Agrochemistry and Soil Science. 48:67-82. Kováts, A., Márton, L. & Szabó, L., 1985. Analysis of the relation between humus and pH on the ground of results of soil investigations on farm-scale plots. Plant Production. 34:507-512. László, M., Silva, J.B.C. & José, A.B., 2001. Ecological friendly dragée technics on different crops and vegetables seeds. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 43:9-13. László, M., & Jose, E.M., 2001. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH on soil fertility and siol conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 43:1-8. Márton, L., 2000. Effect of NPK fertilization on potao (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Ph.D dissertation. University of Veszprém, Keszthely, 136. p. Márton, L., 2001. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effect analysis at Tisza-river basin in a long term field experiment. Szent István University, Gödöllő, 21. p. Márton, L. & Kádár, I., 1998. Effect of nitrogen supplies on the yield components of soya. Plant production. 47:677-687. Reeves, T.G., 1998. Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. Mexico city. Mexico. Wilcox, J.R., 1987. Soybeans: Improvement, Production, and Uses. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

  18. Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L.) Heavy Metal Uptake in Eastern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    of our soils has never been more important than it is today. Acknowledgement This study was supported by Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences H-Budapest, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, Department of Soil and Water Sciences I-Rehovot and Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the University of Agricultural Sciences, I-Bangalore References [1] Horst M. 1986. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, London Orlando San Diego New York Austin Boston Sydney Tokyo Toronto [2] Kádár I. 1992. Principles and methods in plant nutrition. RISSAC-HAS, Budapest, 398p. [3] Lakanen E. & Erviö R. 1971. A comparison of eight extractants for the determination of plant available micronutrients in soils. Acta Agr. Fenn, 123, 223-232. [4] Márton L. 2001. Scientific report. RISSAC-HAS, Budapest [5] Márton L. & Jose E.M. 2001. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH on soil ferility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis, 43, 1-8. [6] Márton L. & Pekli J. 2003. Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L.) production. SZIE, Gödöllő [7] NPAG. 2001. Databank, Basie [8] Purseglove J.W. 1974. Tropical crops. I-II. Longman Group Limited, London [9] Shenker M., Hadar Y. & Chen Y. 1996. Stability constants of the fungal siderophore rhizoferrin with various microelements and calcium. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 60, 1140-1144. [10] Werner B. 1992. Nutritional disorders of plants development, visual and analytical diagnosis. Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena, Stuttgart, New York. 741p.

  19. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    -93. László M. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality. EAPR. Hamburg. In press László M. 2001b. Year and fertilization effect analysis in long field term experiments. XLIII. Georgikon Days. University of Veszprém. Keszthely László M.-Imre K.-Jose E.M. 2000a. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH. on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 99-106. László M.-Silva J.C.-Jose A.B. 2000b. Ecological friendly dragée technics on different crops and vegetables seeds. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 107-111. László M.-Silva J.B.C.-Jose A.B. 2000c. Ecological friendly dragée technics to sustainable precision agriculture. Fertilization in the Third Millenium. CASISCF. Beijing Márton L. 2000a. Effects of NPK fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Doctoral Ph.D Dissertation. University of Veszprém, Keszthely Márton L. 2000b. Effects of NPK fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Doctoral Ph.D Thesis. University of Veszprém, Keszthely Márton L. 2001a. Climete change effets on rye (Secale cereale L.) yield. Agrochemistry and Soil Science. Budapest. In press Márton L. 2001b. Climate change and fertilization effect analysis at the Tisza- river basin on rye yield. SZINET. University of Szent István. Gödöllő Márton L.-Kádár I.-Estáquio M.J. 2000. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH on soil fertility and soil conservation. ESSC. Man and Soil at the Third Millennium. Abstract Book. 195. Valencia Reifschneider F.J.B. 1987. Produção de batata. Linha Gráfica e Editora. Brasília. p. 239. Tabela 1. Tratamentos do experimento 1. (Brasília-DF, 1990) ------------------------------------------------------------------ Numero de Composição em % Tratamento Solo novo Palha de arroz queimado Esterco de curral ------------------------------------------------------------------ 1

  20. Effects of Nitrogen and Desferal Treatments on CROTALARIA's (Crotalaria juncea Roth) Biomass Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    dry biomass yield. By experimental results can be summarised that we was able to increase with a great rate Crotalaria juncea L. total green biomass yield and total air dry biomass yield by N and Desferal treatments. As well as so we can show and offer different nutrition systems -with input of low, mean, high level- to different sustainable farming managements next future. Acknowledgements This research was supported by Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest Hungary, National Vegetable Crops Research Centre, Brazília-DF Brazíl and University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore India References Arnalds, O. and Archer, S. 1999. Case studies of Rangeland desertification. Rala report 200. Agricultural Research Institute. Reykjavik Kiyoko, H. 1996. Study of the utilization of sunn hemp, Crotalaria juncea, in different sowing dates, 1995 and 1996, Okinawa-II, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. CETABOL. Santa Cruz. Bolivia Márton, L. 1997. Soil conservation research in a long term field experiment. Work paper. UAD. Karcag Márton, L. 1999. Diseases information of an alternative -Crotalaria juncea L.- crop. Plant Protection. 35:529-531. Márton, L. 2001. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 43:1-8. Shenker, M., Hadar, Y. and Chen, Y. 1996. Stability Constants of the Fungal Siderophore Rhizoferrin with Various Microelements and Calcium. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60:1140-1144.