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Sample records for ehrlichia canis isolates

  1. In vitro isolation and molecular characterization of an Ehrlichia canis strain from São Paulo, Brazil Isolamento e caracterização molecular de um isolado de Ehrlichia canis

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    Daniel M. Aguiar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An Ehrlichia canis isolate was obtained from an naturally infected dog exhibiting clinical signs of ehrlichiosis in São Paulo Municipality, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolate was characterized by PCR and DNA sequencing of portions of the ehrlichial genes dsb, 16SrRNA, and p28. Partial dsb and 16S rRNA sequences were identical to three and five other E. canis strains, respectively, from different countries and continents (including North America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Conversely, the p28 partial sequence for this E. canis (São Paulo differed by 1, 2, and 2 nucleotides from the corresponding sequences of the E. canis strains Jake (from USA, Oklahoma (USA, and VHE (Venezuela, respectively. The results in this study indicate that E. canis is the only recognized Ehrlichia species infecting dogs in Brazil.Foi obtido um isolado de Ehrlichia canis a partir de um cão naturalmente infectado com sinais clínicos de erliquiose, oriundo do município de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. O isolado foi caracterizado molecularmente pela PCR e seqüenciamento de porções dos genes dsb,16S rRNA, e p28. A seqüência parcial dos genes dsb e 16Sr RNA apresentaram-se idênticas a três e cinco seqüências respectivamente, de E. canis provenientes de diferentes países e continentes (América do Norte, África, Ásia e Europa. Contrariamente, a seqüência parcial do gene p28 do isolado São Paulo diferiu em um nucleotídeo do isolado Jake (EUA e dois nucleotídeos dos isolados Oklahoma (EUA e VHE (Venezuelan Human Ehrlichia Venezuela. Atualmente, a E. canis é a única espécie de Ehrlichia que acomete cães no Brasil.

  2. In vitro culture and structural differences in the major immunoreactive protein gp36 of geographically distant Ehrlichia canis isolates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zweygarth, E.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Josemans, A.I.; Oosthuizen, M.C.; Matjila, P.T.; Lis, K.; Broniszewska, M.; Schöl, H.; Ferrolho, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Passos, L.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2014), s. 423-431 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ehrlichia canis * In vitro culture * IDE8 tick cells * DH82 * 16S rRNA * gp36 Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  3. The glycoprotein TRP36 of Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV and related cattle pathogen Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV evolved from a highly variable clade of E. canis under adaptive diversifying selection.

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    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J; de la Fuente, José

    2014-12-10

    A new species of Ehrlichia, phylogenetically distant from E. ruminantium, was found in 2010 infecting cattle in Canada. In 2012 and 2013, we reported the in vitro propagation, molecular and ultrastructural characterization of Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV (E. mineirensis), a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from the haemolymph of Brazilian Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. A new organism, named Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV, closely related to Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV, was recently described in Brazil and after experimental infection it was shown to be pathogenic for cattle. This new emerging clade of cattle Ehrlichia pathogens is closely related to E. canis. The major immunogenic Tandem Repeat Protein (TRP36; also known as gp36) is extensively used to characterize the genetic diversity of E. canis. Homologs of TRP36 were found in both Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV and Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV. Herein, we characterized the evolution of this new Ehrlichia clade using TRP36 sequences. Our working hypothesis is that Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV and related microorganisms evolved from a highly variable E. canis clade. In support of our hypothesis we found that Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV and Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV TRP36 evolved from a highly divergent and variable clade within E. canis and this clade evolved under episodic diversifying selection with a high proportion of sites under positive selection. Our results suggest that Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV and Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV evolved from a variable clade within E. canis.

  4. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii in dogs in North America

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    Beall Melissa J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the exposure of dogs to three different Ehrlichia spp. in the south and central regions of the United States where vector-borne disease prevalence has been previously difficult to ascertain, particularly beyond the metropolitan areas. Methods Dog blood samples (n = 8,662 were submitted from 14 veterinary colleges, 6 private veterinary practices and 4 diagnostic laboratories across this region. Samples were tested for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii specific antibodies using peptide microtiter ELISAs. Results Overall, E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seroprevalence was 0.8%, 2.8%, and 5.1%, respectively. The highest E. canis seroprevalence (2.3% was found in a region encompassing Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas. E. chaffeensis seroreactivity was 6.6% in the central region (Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma and 4.6% in the southeast region (Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia. Seroreactivity to E. ewingii was also highest in the central region (14.6% followed by the southeast region (5.9%. The geospatial pattern derived from E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seropositive samples was similar to previous reports based on E. chaffeensis seroreactivity in white-tailed deer and the distribution of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME cases reported by the CDC. Conclusions The results of this study provide the first large scale regional documentation of exposure to E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii in pet dogs, highlighting regional differences in seroprevalence and providing the basis for heightened awareness of these emerging vector-borne pathogens by veterinarians and public health agencies.

  5. Molecular identification and characterization of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Mexico.

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    Almazán, Consuelo; González-Álvarez, Vicente H; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    The tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the causative agents of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine cyclic thrombocytopenia (CCT). Although molecular evidence of E. canis has been shown, phylogenetic analysis of this pathogen has not been performed and A. platys has not been identified in Mexico, where the tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) is common. The aim of this research was to screen, identify and characterize E. canis and A. platys by PCR and phylogenetic analysis in dogs from La Comarca Lagunera, a region formed by three municipalities, Torreon, Gomez-Palacio and Lerdo, in the Northern states of Coahuila and Durango, Mexico. Blood samples and five engorged R. sanguineus s.l. ticks per animal were collected from 43 females and 57 male dogs presented to veterinary clinics or lived in the dog shelter from La Comarca Lagunera. All the sampled dogs were apparently healthy and PCR for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, Ehrlichia 16S rRNA, and E. canis trp36 were performed. PCR products were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. PCR products were successfully amplified in 31% of the samples using primers for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, while 10% and 4% amplified products using primers for Ehrlichia 16S rRNA and E. canis trp36 respectively. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these products showed that three samples corresponded to A. platys and four to E. canis. Based on the analysis of trp36 we confirmed that the E. canis strains isolated from Mexico belong to a conservative clade of E. canis and are closely related to strains from USA. In conclusion, this is the first molecular identification of A. platys and the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of both A. platys and E. canis in dogs in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis infection in stray dogs from Serbia

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    Nataša Bogićević

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease with worldwide distribution. With regards to the population of stray dogs, the disease is facilitated due to their lifestyle and the lack of anti-parasitic protection. The aim of this study was to provide serological data on the presence of a specific Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs, originating from 7 municipalities in Serbia. During the period from April 2013 to June 2014, 217 canine sera were submitted to the laboratory of the Department of Infectious Diseases of Animals and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Belgrade. An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was performed to detect antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (cut off, 1:50. Seropositive dogs were found in 5 out of 7 counties with a seroprevalence varying from 3.57% to 20% and an overall seroprevalence of 11.06% (24/217. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of infection and the host age or gender. Results showed that stray dogs contribute to maintaining and spreading of Ehrlichia canis in Serbia. Due to the close relationship between people and dogs, it is of great importance to constantly monitor and improve prevention of this disease.

  7. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia

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    Rutendo Manyarara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories. The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6% compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6% (P = 0.00. Location of habitation was significant (P < 0.017, with a high percentage of dogs exposed to E. canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia.

  8. First detection and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Nigeria.

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    Kamani, Joshua; Lee, Chung-Chan; Haruna, Ayuba M; Chung, Ping-Jun; Weka, Paul R; Chung, Yang-Tsung

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to detect the presence of Ehrlichia canis in naturally infected dogs in Nigeria, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and two genes encoding the tandem repeat-containing proteins (TRPs), TRP19 and TRP36. Out of a total of 100 blood samples collected from domestic dogs presented to veterinary hospitals in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State of Nigeria, 11 were positive in nested PCR for E. canis. Sequencing results for these amplicons showed that all of the 16S rDNA sequences (1623 bp) or the TRP19 coding sequences (414 bp) were identical to each other and had very high similarities (99.3-100%) with those from other E. canis strains accessible in GenBank. The TRP36 gene sequences derived from the 11 Nigerian isolates were identical to each other except for the number of the 27-bp repeat unit in a tandem repeat region, which was found to be 8, 12 or 18. Without considering the number of tandem repeats, these sequences had 100% identity to that of the reported Cameroon 71 isolate, but distinctly differed from those obtained from other geographically distant E. canis strains previously published. A phylogenetic tree of E. canis based on the TRP36 amino acid sequences showed that the Nigerian isolates and the Cameroon 71 isolate fell into a separate clade, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. Overall, this study not only provides the first molecular evidence of E. canis infections in dogs from Nigeria but also highlights the value of the TRP36 gene as a tool to classify E. canis isolates and to elucidate their phylogeographic relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. First phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia canis in dogs and ticks from Mexico. Preliminary study

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    Carolina G. Sosa-Gutiérrez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Phylogenetic characterization of Ehrlichia canis in dogs naturally infected and ticks, diagnosed by PCR and sequencing of 16SrRNA gene; compare different isolates found in American countries. Materials and methods. Were collected Blood samples from 139 dogs with suggestive clinical manifestations of this disease and they were infested with ticks; part of 16SrRNA gene was sequenced and aligned, with 17 sequences reported in American countries. Two phylogenetic trees were constructed using the Maximum likelihood method, and Maximum parsimony. Results. They were positive to E. canis 25/139 (18.0% dogs and 29/139 (20.9% ticks. The clinical manifestations presented were fever, fatigue, depression and vomiting. Rhipicephalus sanguineus Dermacentor variabilis and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris ticks were positive for E. canis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences of dogs and ticks in Mexico form a third group diverging of sequences from South America and USA. Conclusions. This is the first phylogenetic analysis of E. canis in Mexico. There are differences in the sequences of Mexico with those reported in South America and USA. This research lays the foundation for further study of genetic variability.

  10. Transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks feeding on dogs and on artificial membranes.

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    Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Luus, Herman G; Beugnet, Frederic; Wijnveld, Michiel; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-11-08

    A South African strain of Ehrlichia canis was isolated and used to infect a laboratory-bred Beagle dog. Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs, which fed on this dog, moulted to adult ticks which carried infection rates of E. canis between 12% and 19% and were used in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Five groups of 6 dogs were challenged with the infected R. sanguineus ticks, which were removed 24h, 12h, 6h or 3h after the ticks had been released onto the dogs. The animals were monitored for fever and thrombocytopenia and were considered infected if they became serologically positive for E. canis antibodies as well as PCR positive for E. canis DNA. Seven dogs became infected with E. canis in the following groups: Group 1 (24h tick challenge) 1 out of 6; Group 2 (12h) 1 of 6; Group 3 (6h) 2 of 6; Group 4 (6h) 2 of 6 and Group 5 (3h) 1 out of 6. Six of those 7 infected dogs developed fever and a significant thrombocytopenia. One dog did not show any symptoms, but seroconverted and was found PCR positive on several occasions. Five additional dogs were PCR positive on one test sample only but were not considered infected because they did not develop any specific E. canis antibodies. In vitro, R. sanguineus ticks attached and fed on bovine blood through silicone membranes with attachment rates up to 72.5% after 24h increasing to 84.2% at 72 h. The ticks transmitted E. canis as soon as 8h post application as demonstrated by E. canis DNA found in the nutritive blood medium. In conclusion, transmission of E. canis by R. sanguineus ticks starts within a few hours after attachment, which is earlier than previously thought. These findings underpin the need for acaricides to provide either a repellent, an anti-attachment and/or a rapid killing effect against ticks in order to decrease the risk of transmission of E. canis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Failure to transmit Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) with Otobius megnini (Acari: Argasidae).

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    Ewing, S A; Harkess, J R; Kocan, K M; Barker, R W; Fox, J C; Tyler, R D; Cowell, R L; Morton, R B

    1990-09-01

    An ear tick, Otobius megnini (Dugès) recovered from a child who had serologic evidence of ehrlichiosis, was examined for Ehrlichia species microscopically and by inoculation into a susceptible dog; no evidence of infection was found in the tick. Experimental transmission of E. canis by laboratory-reared O. megnini was attempted; neither transstadial nor transovarial transmission occurred.

  12. Apoptose na infecção experimental de cães domésticos com Ehrlichia canis Apoptosis in experimental infection with Ehrlichia canis in domestic dogs

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    Irma Ximena Barbosa Sanchez

    2012-08-01

    , Ehrlichia sp. and Anaplasma sp. can modulate apoptosis to extend their survival. To evaluate the role of apoptosis in canine ehrlichiosis, 7 dogs were assigned into 2 groups, one with 4 animals inoculated intravenously with blood infected with Ehrlichia canis (Jaboticabal isolate and a control with 3 dogs, inoculated with sterile PBS. Blood samples were collected weekly and 35 days post-inoculation to confirm the infection by nPCR and immunofluorescence. Thirty-six days after inoculation the animals were euthanized and samples from spleen, lymph nodes, kidney and liver were collected to carry out the TUNEL technique and immunohistochemistry (Bcl-2, Bax. Inoculated animals became positive for E. canis by nPCR already in the second week and by immunofluorescence in the third week after inoculation. The control group showed negative for E. canis in all tests. The TUNEL reaction showed a higher incidence of apoptosis in the inoculated group, with stronger labeling in the spleen and lymph nodes. The results of immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2 and Bax suggest that the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis is not important in the analyzed organs.

  13. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

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    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Ehrlichia canis infection in a dog with no history of travel outside the United Kingdom.

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    Wilson, H E; Mugford, A R; Humm, K R; Kellett-Gregory, L M

    2013-08-01

    A two-year-old female neutered Tibetan terrier was referred following a one-month history of lethargy, inappetence and pancytopenia, which had been poorly responsive to immunosuppressive and fluoroquinolone treatment. The dog was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia and was found to be positive for Ehrlichia canis by both antibody titre measurement and polymerase chain reaction. The dog lived in London and had not travelled outside the UK. The dog was treated with doxycycline, prednisolone and ciclosporin, but died as a result of gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first reported case of Ehrlichia canis in a dog in the UK with no previous travel history. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SEROPREVALENCE OF Ehrlichia canis AND Babesia vogeli IN DOGS

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    Fonseca, Juliana Pierangeli; Bruhn,Fábio Raphael Pascoti; Ribeiro,Manoel Junqueira Maciel; Hirsch, Christian; Rocha,Christiane Maria Barcelos Magalhães; Guedes,Elizângela; Guimarães,Antônio Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Ehrlichia canis and anti-Babesia vogeli IgG antibodies in dogs and correlate this prevalence with risk factors to evaluate the relation of serological status to hematological findings. Blood samples of dogs attended from September 2011 to March 2012 at the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Lavras, Brazil, were analyzed using an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Of the total 160 dog serum samples, 2...

  16. Ehrlichia canis infection in two dogs that emigrated from endemic areas.

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    Baba, Kenji; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Amimoto, Akiteru; Kitagawa, Kozue; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Mizuno, Takuya; Sato, Hiroshi; Okuda, Masaru

    2012-06-01

    Two dogs, emigrated from Zambia and China to Japan, were diagnosed with Ehrlichia canis infection. Both cases had thrombocytopenia, non-regenerative anemia, and hypergloblinemia with polyclonal gammopathy. Case 1 had ataxia of the hind limbs. Severe meningitis was revealed by magnetic resonance imaging examination. Intracytoplasmic inclusions were observed in mononuclear cells of cerebrospinal fluid. Case 2 had a history of bilateral epistaxis, and severe pancytopenia was noticed in complete blood count. Diagnosis was finally achieved by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Thus, even in non-endemic areas, E. canis infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of clinically ill dogs that emigrated from endemic areas.

  17. Diagnóstico sorológico de erliquiose canina com antígeno brasileiro de Ehrlichia canis Serological diagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis with Brazilian antigen of Ehrlichia canis

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    Daniel Moura Aguiar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata o isolamento de Ehrlichia canis em cultivo de células DH82 e posterior padronização da Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI. Leucócitos de uma cadela experimentalmente infectada com o isolado Jaboticabal de E. canis foram inoculados em cultivo de células DH82. A inoculação foi monitorada após a segunda semana, a cada 5-6 dias, através de exames citológicos e pela amplificação de um fragmento do gene dsb de Ehrlichia pela Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR para confirmação da infecção. A cultura apresentou-se positiva aos 27 dias pós-inoculação pela PCR e aos 28 dias pela citologia. No 33o dia pós-inoculação, observou-se 20% de células infectadas e, aos 53 dias, 60% de infecção. Atualmente, o isolado encontra-se estabelecido em células DH82, com várias passagens atingindo 90-100% de células infectadas entre 7-10 dias após a inoculação. Após o seqüenciamento do produto de PCR, o isolado apresentou-se 100% similar à seqüência correspondente de E. canis depositada no GenBank. As células infectadas foram utilizadas como antígeno para a padronização da RIFI para detecção da infecção em cães.The present study describes a successful isolation of Ehrlichia canis and its establishment in DH82 cells, followed by the development of an Indirect Fluorescent Antibodies Test (IFAT. Leukocytes collected from an experimentally infected dog with the Jaboticabal strain of E. canis were used to inoculate a DH82 cell monolayer. Two weeks later, the inoculated culture was checked for infectivity, every 5-6 days by both cytological staining and PCR, targeting a fragment of the dsb gene. The cell culture showed to be infected by Ehrlichia on day 27 by PCR and on day 28 by cytological staining. By the day 33, the infection rate reached 20% and on day 53, 60%. Currently, the isolate is established in DH82 cells, with several passages reaching 90-100% of infected cells, within 7 to 10

  18. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in bone marrow aspirates of experimentally infected dogs Detecção de Ehrlichia canis em aspirados de medula óssea de cães experimentalmente infectados

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    Simone Magela Moreira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the detection of infected cells in the bone marrow aspirates of dogs experimentally infected with a Brazilian isolate of Ehrlichia canis. Dogs were monitored twice a day by clinical evaluation and peripheral blood smear examination. Every three days, blood samples were collected for cell counts. Weekly, aspirates from the bone marrow were examined and serum samples were tested by IFAT. The clinical signs observed were fever, pallid membranes, lymphadenopathy, serous nasal secretions, and pronounced weight loss. Hematological alterations included normocytic normochromic anemia, decrease of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and thrombocytopenia. Few E. canis infected cells were seen in blood smears. However, stages of E. canis were visualized in bone marrow aspirates 15 days post infection.O presente trabalho descreve a detecção de células infectadas em aspirados de medula óssea de cães experimentalmente infectados com uma amostra brasileira de Ehrlichia canis. Os cães foram monitorados duas vezes por dia através de avaliação clínica e exames de esfregaços de sangue periférico. A cada três dias, amostras de sangue foram coletadas para contagem celular. Semanalmente foram feitas punções de medula óssea para exame microscópico direto do material aspirado e coleta de sangue para exames sorológicos através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta. Os sinais clínicos observados foram febre, membranas pálidas, linfadenopatias, secreções nasais serosas e acentuada perda de peso. As alterações hematológicas incluíram anemia normocítica normocrômica, redução de neutrófilos e linfócitos e trombocitopenia. Poucas células infectadas com E. canis foram observadas em esfregaços sanguíneos, entretanto várias formas de desenvolvimento de E. canis foram visualizadas em aspirados de medula óssea 15 dias após a infecção.

  19. Occurrence of Leishmania chagasi, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis vogeli, Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia canis in canine blood donors

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    Felipe Augusto Constantino Seabra da Cruz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transfusion of blood components is common in a veterinary clinic; however, the safety of this therapeutic measure cannot always be guaranteed. Studies show a high risk of haemoparasite transmission during blood transfusion in canines. These parasites include Leishmania chagasi, Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia canis, which are endemic to the city of Cuiabá. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of L. chagasi, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia (canis vogeli, A. platys, and E. canis in canine blood donor candidates, and identify possible factors associated with the infection of these agents. Sixty-six canines were evaluated using serologic and molecular tests, for the presence of the Leishmania species. While one canine sample showed a positive result for L. chagasi with indirect fluorescent antibody test, with titer of 1:40, and seven canine samples were positive using DPP, all other samples were negative when using PCR and ELISA. All canines were negative for T. cruzi when using PCR. The B. (c. vogeli infection was identified in one canine and A. platys was identified in six canines. E. canis was identified in 17 canines, with a prevalence of 25.7%. There were no significant factors associated with the infection of the pathogens investigated. Given the observation of infection, even in the absence of clinical symptoms, emphasis must be placed on the need for the use of more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods for the screening of donor canines.

  20. HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SEROPREVALENCE OF Ehrlichia canis AND Babesia vogeli IN DOGS

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    Juliana Pierangeli Fonseca; Fábio Raphael Pascoti Bruhn Pascoti Bruhn; Manoel Junqueira Maciel Ribeiro; Christian Hirsch; Christiane Maria Barcelos Magalhães Rocha; Elizangela Guedes; Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Ehrlichia canis and anti-Babesia vogeli IgG antibodies in dogs and correlate this prevalence with risk factors to evaluate the relation of serological status to hematological findings. Blood samples of dogs attended from September 2011 to March 2012 at the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Lavras, Brazil, were analyzed using an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Of the total 160 dog serum samples, 23.7% (38 ...

  1. Molecular survey of Ehrlichia canis and Coxiella burnetii infections in wild mammals of southern Italy.

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    Santoro, Mario; Veneziano, Vincenzo; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Lucibelli, Maria Gabriella; Borriello, Giorgia; Cerrone, Anna; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Otranto, Domenico; Galiero, Giorgio

    2016-11-01

    Ehrlichiosis and Q fever caused by the intracellular bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Coxiella burnetii, respectively, are tick-borne diseases with zoonotic potential and widespread geographical distribution. This study investigated the prevalence of both infections in wild mammals in southern Italy. Tissue samples obtained from the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), European badger (Meles meles), gray wolf (Canis lupus), beech marten (Martes foina), and crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) were processed for molecular detection of both pathogens. E. canis was detected in 55 out of 105 (52 %) red foxes and three out of six gray wolves. Four sequence types were identified, three of which were found in the spleen and liver samples of red foxes and wolves, and one in the kidney of a red fox. None of the examined mammals was positive to C. burnetii type. This represents the first report of E. canis in free-ranging wolves worldwide, as well as the first evidence of this pathogen in red foxes in the peninsular Italy. Our results suggest that E. canis infection is common in free-ranging canids in southern Italy and that a sylvatic life cycle of this pathogen may occur.

  2. Molecular Diagnosis of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs and Ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

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    Pat-Nah, Henry; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel Emilio; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the etiological agent behind canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) is its main vector. Blood smear and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify E. canis infection in dogs and R. sanguineus, and explore factors possibly associated with infection in dogs in Yucatan, Mexico. Blood samples were taken and ticks R. sanguineus collected from 50 dogs (10 house dogs and 40 in an animal control center). Data were collected on dog age, sex, body condition, and signs associated with platelet deficiencies (epistaxis). Blood smears were analyzed to identify E. canis morulae and generate platelet counts. Nested PCR analysis was done on blood samples and 200 ticks. A χ(2) test was done to identify factors associated with the E. canis infection in the tested dogs. The overall prevalence for infection, as determined by PCR, was 36% (18 out of 50). All positive dogs were from samples collected from the animal shelter, representing prevalence, for this sampling site, of 45% (18 out of 40). Morulae in monocytes were identified in only 4% of samples. Dog origin (i.e. animal control center) was the only variable associated with E. canis infection (P Yucatan, Mexico. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis in dogs from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira Dos; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Witter, Rute; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the presence of Ehrlichia DNA in the blood samples of 320 dogs from the urban and rural areas of the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal region, Mato Grosso state, by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), targeting the ehrlichial dsb gene. Risk factors for infection in dogs were also evaluated. Forty-eight (15%, 95% CI: 11.4-19.5%) dogs were positive: 25 (15.6%, 95% CI: 10.4-22.2%) from the urban area and 23 (14.4%, 95% CI: 9.3-20.8%) from the rural area (P > 0.05). Partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products of 18 samples from the urban area and 16 samples from the rural area were 100% identical to E. canis from Brazil and the USA. This study reports the first E. canis molecular detection in dogs from the northern Pantanal region.

  4. Case report of canine co-infection with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis

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    Stefanovska Jovana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine leishmaniasis (CanL due to Leishmania infantum and canine monocytic ehrilichiosis (CME due to Ehrlichia canis are common diseases with zoonotic potential in the Mediterranean area. Their prevalence in R. Macedonia as a neighboring Mediterranean county is expected. In both diseases similar clinical symptoms can be manifested in dogs such as: lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, epistaxis, fever, pale mucous membranes, enlarged lymph nodes, splenomegaly, ocular signs. This case report present an atypical case of 11 year old female Samoyed with starting single clinical symptom epistaxys. Initial diagnostic procedures revealed the presence only of CanL, which was diagnosed using indirect immunofluorescence method and ELISA. First laboratory findings showed normal hematological and renal profiles. Dog was put on a treatment with Allopurinol (20mg/kg, p/o for at least 9 months. Termination of the therapy after 6 months brought a numerous clinical symptoms involving weakness, dehydration, pale mucous membranes lost pupilar reflex, uremic breath and biochemical parameters revealed a renal failure. Using a commercial ELISA kit Ehrlichia canis as a co infection was diagnosed. Most probably the second infectious agent was induced in the past 6 months, causing more severe pathological effects than CanL infection alone.

  5. Antibodies reactive with Bartonella henselae and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from the communal lands of Zimbabwe

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    P.J. Kelly

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalences of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Ehrlichia canis were determined in sera from 228 dogs in 5 communal lands of Zimbabwe, areas where traditional subsistence agro-pastoralism is practised. The sera were collected from apparently healthy dogs during routine rabies vaccination programmes and tested with indirect fluorescent antibody assays using B. henselae (Houston-I and E. canis (Oklahoma as antigens. We found reactive antibodies (>1:80 against B. henselae in 14 % of the dogs tested. Seropositive animals were found in Bikita (41 %; 17/42, Omay (13 %; 6/48, Chinamora (5 %; 2/38 and Matusadona (15 %; 7/48. No seropositive dogs were found in Chiredzi (0 %; 0/52. Antibodies reactive with E. canis (>1:80 were found in 34%of the dogs tested, from Bikita (88 %; 37/42, Chiredzi (31 %; 16/52, Omay (17 %; 8/48, Chinamora (26 %; 10/38 and Matusadona (15 %; 7/48. Our survey shows dogs in the communal lands of Zimbabwe are frequently exposed to E. canis and B. henselae or closely related species. Further studies are indicated to determine the pathogenicity of the organisms infecting these dogs and their clinical significance.

  6. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from Kabylie, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Loudahi, Abdelghani; Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family that cause acute, self-limiting and sometimes fatal vector-borne infections in dogs. These bacteria have been reported worldwide and are transmitted mainly by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Aside from a report on E. canis once in 1935, no other Anaplasmataceae bacteria have been reported in Algeria to date. The aim of this study was to identify the microbial species implicated in ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis by a molecular epidemiological survey in dogs. The study was carried out in Kabylie, in northeast Algeria. Sampling was performed in 11 municipalities in the province of Tizi Ouzou and 2 municipalities in the province of Béjaïa. Peripheral blood samples from 110 dogs were screened by qPCR, which is capable of identifying most Anaplasmataceae bacteria. Out of 110, a total of 13 samples screened positive (7/110 E. canis and 6/110 A. platys), and two genetic variants of A. platys and one of E. canis were identified. This is the first study to report the presence of A. platys in dogs from Algeria using a molecular investigative method. This survey was conducted in early spring. As tick activity can affect the prevalence of these pathogens in dogs, further investigations are needed to establish the year-round prevalence of these infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Apoptose na infecção experimental de cães domésticos com Ehrlichia canis

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    Sanchez,Irma Ximena Barbosa; Socarras,Teresa de Jesus Oviedo; Silva,Miguel Ladino; Pereira,Nubia Braga; Machado,Rosangela Zacarias; Vasconcelos,Anilton Cesar

    2012-01-01

    A Erliquiose canina é uma zoonose causada pela Ehrlichia canis, bactéria Gram negativa de distribuição mundial. Alguns cães com erliquiose se tornam portadores assintomáticos enquanto outros desenvolvem uma doença aguda com morte rápida. A apoptose pode ser importante na eliminação de patógenos intracelulares, podendo, nas infecções por Ehrlichia sp. e Anaplasma sp., ocorrer modulação da apoptose celular para prolongar a sobrevivência desses organismos. Para avaliação do papel da apoptose na ...

  8. Factores asociados a la infección por Ehrlichia canis en perros infestados con garrapatas en la ciudad de Huánuco, Perú

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    Edward Huerto-Medina

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia y factores asociados a la infección por Ehrlichia canis en perros. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre de 150 perros infestados con garrapatas en 10 consultorios veterinarios de la ciudad de Huánuco en Perú, los perros fueron seleccionados al azar sin distinción de raza, edad ni sexo. Se detectó anticuerpos contra Ehrlichia canis mediante inmunoensayo cromatográfico. El 51,3% de perros estuvieron infectados por Ehrlichia canis. En el análisis multivariado se encontraron asociados a la presencia Ehrlichia canis, el mal estado de salud del perro (p=0,049, un promedio mayor de infestación por garrapatas (p=0,018, perros de edad adulta (p=0,038. La frecuencia de Ehrlichia canis en perros de esta ciudad es alta. Se recomienda el control de la garrapata marrón del perro (Rhipicephalus sanguineus vector de la Ehrlichia canis

  9. Experimental Ehrlichia canis infection changes acute-phase proteins A infecção experimental por Ehrlichia canis altera as proteínas de fase aguda

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    Thiago Demarchi Munhoz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis favors prompt institution of treatment and improves the prognosis for the animal, since this disease causes mortality among dogs. Studies have shown that determining the concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs may contribute towards early detection of disease and aid in predicting the prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the APP profile in dogs experimentally infected with Ehrlichia canis, at the start of the infection and after treatment. It also investigated whether any correlation between APP levels and the clinical and laboratory alterations over the course of the disease would be possible. The results obtained showed abnormal levels of all the APPs on the third day after infection (D3, with the highest levels being reached on D18, with the exception of ceruloplasmin and acid glycoprotein, which presented their peaks on D6 and D12 respectively. We concluded that assessment of APP levels could contribute towards establishing an early diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis, particularly regarding acid glycoprotein and ceruloplasmin, since these proteins were detected at increased levels even before the onset of clinical and laboratory findings of the disease.O diagnóstico precoce da erliquiose canina favorece a pronta instituição do tratamento e melhora o prognóstico do animal, pois se trata de uma doença de alta mortalidade em cães. Estudos têm apontado que a determinação da concentração de proteínas de fase aguda (PFA pode contribuir para detecção precoce de doenças e auxiliar na predição do prognóstico. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o perfil de proteínas de fase aguda (PFA em cães experimentalmente infectados com Ehrlichia canis, no início da infecção e após o tratamento. Além disso, se seria possível associá-las com as alterações clínico-laboratoriais durante o curso da doença. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que todas as PFA estudadas alteraram suas concentra

  10. The genome of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia canis revealsthemes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.

    2005-09-01

    Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).

  11. Colorimetric Detection of Ehrlichia Canis via Nucleic Acid Hybridization in Gold Nano-Colloids

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    Ajima Muangchuen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME is a major thick-bone disease of dog caused by Ehrlichia canis. Detection of this causal agent outside the laboratory using conventional methods is not effective enough. Thus an assay for E. canis detection based on the p30 outer membrane protein gene was developed. It was based on the p30 gene amplification using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP. The primer set specific to six areas within the target gene were designed and tested for their sensitivity and specificity. Detection of DNA signals was based on modulation of gold nanoparticles’ surface properties and performing DNA/DNA hybridization using an oligonucleotide probe. Presence of target DNA affected the gold colloid nanoparticles in terms of particle aggregation with a plasmonic color change of the gold colloids from ruby red to purple, visible by the naked eye. All the assay steps were completed within 90 min including DNA extraction without relying on standard laboratory facilities. This method was very specific to target bacteria. Its sensitivity with probe hybridization was sufficient to detect 50 copies of target DNA. This method should provide an alternative choice for point of care control and management of the disease.

  12. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Wolbachia sp. but not Ehrlichia canis in Croatian dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Doroteja; Reil, Irena; Duvnjak, Sanja; Jurković, Daria; Lukačević, Damir; Pilat, Miroslav; Beck, Ana; Mihaljević, Željko; Vojta, Lea; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beck, Relja

    2017-11-01

    The bacteria Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis are tick-borne agents that cause canine vector-borne disease. The prevalence of these pathogens in South Eastern Europe is unknown with the exception of an isolated case of A. platys detected in a dog imported into Germany from Croatia. To gain a better insight into their presence and prevalence, PCR-based screening for these bacterial pathogens was performed on domesticated dogs from different regions of Croatia. Blood samples from 1080 apparently healthy dogs from coastal and continental parts of Croatia as well as tissue samples collected from 63 deceased dogs with a history of anaemia and thrombocytopenia were collected for molecular screening by an Anaplasmataceae-specific 16S rRNA conventional PCR. Positive samples were confirmed using a second Anaplasmataceae-specific PCR assay with the PCR product sequenced for the purpose of bacterial species identification. All sequenced isolates were georeferenced and a kernel intensity estimator was used to identify clusters of greater case intensity. 42/1080 (3.8%; CI 2.7-5.0) of the healthy dogs were PCR positive for bacteria in the Anaplasmataceae. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplified from these positive samples revealed the presence of A. platys in 2.5% (CI 1.6-3.4%, 27 dogs), A. phagocytophilum in 0.3% (CI 0-0.6%, 3 dogs) and a Wolbachia endosymbiont in 1.1% (CI 0.4-1.6%, 12 dogs) of dogs screened in this study. Necropsied dogs were free from infection. Notably, no evidence of E. canis infection was found in any animal. This survey represents a rare molecular study of Anaplasmataceae in dogs in South Eastern Europe, confirming the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum but not E. canis. The absence of E. canis was surprising given it has been described in all other Mediterranean countries surveyed and raises questions over the regional vector capacity of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick.

  13. Experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings

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    Diniz PPVP

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy in dogs infected with one or both organisms. Six dogs per group were either uninfected, A. platys infected, E. canis infected, A. platys and E. canis co-infected, A. platys infected and E. canis challenged or E. canis infected and A. platys challenged at day 112 post-infection (PI. Doxycycline treatment was initiated at 211 days PI, followed by dexamethasone immunosuppression beginning 410 days PI. Results Initially, transient decreases in hematocrit occurred in all groups infected with E. canis, but the mean hematocrit was significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. All dogs except the controls developed marked thrombocytopenia after initial infection followed by gradually increased platelet counts by 112 days PI in groups with the single infections, while platelet counts remained significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. Both sequential and simultaneous infections of A. platys and E. canis produced an enhanced humoral immune response to A. platys when compared to infection with A. platys alone. Likewise, co-infection with E. canis and A. platys resulted in a more persistent A. platys infection compared to dogs infected with A. platys only, but nearly all A. platys infected dogs became A. platys PCR negative prior to doxycycline treatment. E. canis infected dogs, whether single or co-infected, remained thrombocytopenic and E. canis PCR positive in blood for 420 days. When treated with doxycycline, all E. canis infected dogs became E. canis PCR negative and the

  14. Ehrlichia canis em cães atendidos em hospital veterinário de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Ehrlichia canis in dogs attended in a veterinary hospital from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Tatiana E. H. Ueno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a etiologia da erliquiose monocítica canina em 70 cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual Paulista, na cidade de Botucatu, durante 2001 e 2002. Os cães foram avaliados segundo achados clínicos, epidemiológicos e laboratoriais e pela amplificação parcial e sequenciamento do gene dsb de Ehrlichia. DNA de Ehrlichia canis foi amplificado e sequenciado em 28 (40,0% cães. Observou-se maior frequência deanimais positivos com idade até 12 meses (P 0,05 e 42,2% (P > 0,05 dos cães PCR positivos, respectivamente. Vinte e cinco cães com anemia ( 0,05 frente à infecção por E. canis. Todos os 28 cães positivos na PCR apresentaram trombocitopenia (This study investigated the etiology of canine ehrlichiosis and possible clinical and epidemiological data associated with the infection in 70 dogs suspect of ehrlichiosis attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the São Paulo State University in Botucatu city during 2001 and 2002. Dogs were evaluated by clinical-epidemiological and hematological data and molecular analysis by partial amplification and DNA sequencing of the ehrlichial dsb gene. E. canis DNA was amplified and sequenced in 28 (40.0% dogs. Dogs younger than 12 months old showed significantly higher infection rates (65.0%; P 0.05, and 42.4% (P > 0.05 of the PCR-positive dogs, respectively. Twenty-five anemic ( 0.05. All 28 PCR-positive dogs showed thrombocytopenia (<175 × 10³ platelets.µL-1 and revealed statistical significance (P < 0.05. E. canis was the only Ehrlichia species found in dogs in the studied region, with higher infection rates in younger dogs, and statisticallyassociated with thrombocytopenia.

  15. Recombinant gp19 as a potential antigen for detecting anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies in dog sera

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    Rômulo Silva de Oliveira

    Full Text Available The canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia canis, is endemic in several regions of Brazil. Some serological diagnostic techniques using immunodominant proteins of E. canis as antigens are available, but their specificities and sensitivities are questionable. Based on this, the objective of this study was to test the antigenic potential of the recombinant gp19 protein (rGP19 for subsequent use in diagnostic tests. The rGP19 expressed in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3 C41 was recognized in the sera from experimentally infected dogs using ELISA and Western blotting. Thus, it was possible to obtain a promising antigen with the ability to differentiate between E. canis-positive and -negative animals, even 1 week after infection.

  16. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Ehrlichia canis Infection among Companion Dogs of Mashhad, North East of Iran, 2009–2010

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    Maneli Ansari-Mood

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis and risk factors of this disease in companion dogs’ population of Mashhad, North East of Iran. Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME is a zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia canis.Methods: During September 2009 until November 2010, 250 companion dogs from Mashhad, North-East of Iran, were examined for serum antibody detection against E. canis by means of immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT and factors associated with a positive antibody response.Results: There was a very low prevalence of anti-E. canis antibodies (0.8%, 2/250 among studied dogs. The antibody titers for two seropositive dogs were 1:80 and 1:160, respectively. One (0.4% of seropositive dogs was infested with, R. sanguineus. In blood smears from one of infested dogs (0.4%, typical morulae of E. canis was observed in lymphocytes. The results confirm that the lowest occurrence of reactive dogs indoors probably related to low tick infestion.Conclusion: This is the first report that describes serological evidences of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in North- East of Iran. Results suggested that E. canis infection in owned pet dogs from North of Khorasan was not endemic from 2009 to 2010. Additional molecular studies are necessary to confirm E. canis infection and to identify the local strains of the organism.

  17. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Ehrlichia canis Infection among Companion Dogs of Mashhad, North East of Iran, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Mood, Maneli; Khoshnegah, Javad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis and risk factors of this disease in companion dogs' population of Mashhad, North East of Iran. Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME) is a zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia canis. During September 2009 until November 2010, 250 companion dogs from Mashhad, North-East of Iran, were examined for serum antibody detection against E. canis by means of immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT) and factors associated with a positive antibody response. There was a very low prevalence of anti-E. canis antibodies (0.8%, 2/250) among studied dogs. The antibody titers for two seropositive dogs were 1:80 and 1:160, respectively. One (0.4%) of seropositive dogs was infested with, R. sanguineus. In blood smears from one of infested dogs (0.4%), typical morulae of E. canis was observed in lymphocytes. The results confirm that the lowest occurrence of reactive dogs indoors probably related to low tick infestion. This is the first report that describes serological evidences of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in North-East of Iran. Results suggested that E. canis infection in owned pet dogs from North of Khorasan was not endemic from 2009 to 2010. Additional molecular studies are necessary to confirm E. canis infection and to identify the local strains of the organism.

  18. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Ehrlichia canis Infection among Companion Dogs of Mashhad, North East of Iran, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Mood, Maneli; Khoshnegah, Javad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis and risk factors of this disease in companion dogs’ population of Mashhad, North East of Iran. Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME) is a zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia canis. Methods: During September 2009 until November 2010, 250 companion dogs from Mashhad, North-East of Iran, were examined for serum antibody detection against E. canis by means of immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT) and factors associated with a positive antibody response. Results: There was a very low prevalence of anti-E. canis antibodies (0.8%, 2/250) among studied dogs. The antibody titers for two seropositive dogs were 1:80 and 1:160, respectively. One (0.4%) of seropositive dogs was infested with, R. sanguineus. In blood smears from one of infested dogs (0.4%), typical morulae of E. canis was observed in lymphocytes. The results confirm that the lowest occurrence of reactive dogs indoors probably related to low tick infestion. Conclusion: This is the first report that describes serological evidences of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in North-East of Iran. Results suggested that E. canis infection in owned pet dogs from North of Khorasan was not endemic from 2009 to 2010. Additional molecular studies are necessary to confirm E. canis infection and to identify the local strains of the organism. PMID:26623430

  19. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil

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    Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100 of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100 of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10% and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01. None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  20. Serological cross-reactivity of Trypanosoma cruzi, Ehrlichia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Babesia canis to Leishmania infantum chagasi tests in dogs

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    Maurício Franco Zanette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the serological cross-reactivity between Leishmania sp. and other canine pathogens. Methods: Positive serum samples for Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Trypanosoma cruzi were tested using three serological methods enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and Kalazar Detect™, for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Results: Of the 57 dog samples tested, 24 (42.1% tested positive using one of the three serological methods: 10/57 (17.5% for ELISA, 11/57 (19.3% for IFAT and 3/57 (5.3% for Kalazar Detect™. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the presence of other infectious agents may lead to cross-reactivity on leishmaniasis serological tests.

  1. Surveillance for Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs From Three Cities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael E; Monterroso, Victor H; Cardona, Wilder

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases are made up in large proportion by vector-borne diseases (VBD). Dogs are parasitized by disease vectors such as ticks and mosquitoes, making dogs adequate reservoirs for zoonoses. Risk of exposure to VBD exists for the U.S. military personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWD) when deployed globally. The importance of canine VBD surveillance relates to veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for the U.S. troops and MWDs. The objective of this work was to survey dogs from the cities of Medellin, Barranquilla, and Cartagena in Colombia to determine the prevalence of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum). Canine (n=498) blood samples (1? 3 mL) were collected during July 2011 from Medellin (n=175), Barranquilla (n=223), and Cartagena (n=100) and were tested on-site using IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? Test Kits. The overall combined sample prevalence of E. canis, A. phagocytophilum, D. immitis, and B. burgdorferi was 62%, 33%, 1.6%, and 0%, respectively. In Medellin, 26% of the samples were positive for E. canis, 12% for A. phagocytophilum, and 0% for D. immitis. In Barranquilla, sample prevalence for E. canis, A. phagocytophilum, and D. immitis was 83%, 40%, and 2%, respectively. In Cartagena, E. canis, A. phagocytophilum, and D. immitis prevalence was 80%, 51%, and 3%, respectively. E. canis and A. phagocytophilum are present in all three surveyed cities. There is a higher sample prevalence for E. canis and A. phagocytophilum than for D. immitis. In addition, the prevalence for these organisms is higher in Barranquilla and Cartagena than in Medellin. Overall, this study emphasizes the value of surveillance for VBDs in order to determine disease prevalence, develop risk assessments, and implement control measures. 2014.

  2. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks of dogs in Cuiaba, Mato GrossoEhrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em carrapatos de cães de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso

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    Valéria Dutra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by arthropods such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, are caused by a spectrum of pathogens. Among these are the canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclical thrombocytopenia with a cosmopolitan distribution. Aiming to verify the presence of DNA of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in ticks R. sanguineus collected in the period 2008 to 2009 of 380 infected dogs. Ticks, after maceration, were subjected to DNA extraction and then nested PCR was performed for amplification of A. platys and E. canis. Of these, 81 (29.7% amplified DNA from ehrlichiais agents, where 38 (17.9% amplified in E. canis and 32 (15.7% for A. platys. The observation of two pathogens, combined with worldwide distribution of the tick R. sanguineus, demonstrates the high risk of infection with these pathogens in dogs in the city of Cuiaba. Doenças transmitidas por artrópodes, como o Rhipicephalus sanguineus, são causadas por um espectro de patógenos. Dentre estas, estão a erliquiose monocítica canina e trombocitopenia cíclica com distribuição cosmopolita. Com o objetivo de verificar a presença de DNA de Anaplasma platys e Ehrlichia canis em carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados no período de 2008 a 2009 de 380 cães infestados. Os carrapatos, após a maceração, foram submetidos a extração de DNA e, em seguida, foi realizada a Nested PCR para a amplificação da espécie A. platys e E. canis. Destes, 81 (29.7% amplificaram o DNA dos agentes ehrlichiais, onde 38 (17.9% amplificaram para E. canis e 32 (15.7% para A. platys. A observação dos dois patógenos, combinado com distribuição mundial do carrapato R. sanguineus, demonstra o elevado risco de infecção por esses patógenos de cães na cidade de Cuiabá.

  3. Soroprevalência de anticorpos anti-Ehrlichia canis em cães de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso Seroprevalence anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies in dogs of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso

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    José Nivaldo da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A erliquiose canina é uma doença transmitida por carrapatos Rhipicephalus sanguineus e ocasionada pela Ehrlichia canis, bactéria intracelular obrigatória. O presente estudo verificou a prevalência de anticorpos anti-E. canis em 254 cães de quatro regiões administrativas de Cuiabá, Estado de Mato Grosso, por imunofluorescência indireta, observando-se uma prevalência de 42,5% (108/254 sem diferença significativa entre as regiões. As variáveis idade, raça, sexo, hábitat, acesso à zona rural e presença de carrapatos foram analisadas. Os títulos de anticorpos variaram entre 1:40 a 1:2.560. Somente 32 (29,63% cães soropositivos estavam infestados por carrapatos, todos R. sanguineus. O resultado encontrado confirma que não há predisposição racial, sexual ou etária, enquanto a menor ocorrência de cães reagentes no intradomicílio provavelmente está relacionada à baixa infestação por carrapato, apesar de não ter sido observada diferença significativa entre os cães com ou sem a infestação com o carrapato vetor.Canine ehrlichiosis is a disease transmitted by ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus and caused by Ehrlichia canis, obligatory intracellular bacteria. The present study examined the prevalence of anti-E. canis in 254 dogs from four administrative regions of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, by indirect immunofluorescence assay. There was a prevalence of 42.5% (108/254 without significant difference between the studied regions. The variables age, breed, sex, habitat, access to rural and ticks were analyzed. The antibody titers ranged from 1:40 to 1:2,560. Only 32 (29.63% seropositive dogs were infested with ticks, all R. sanguineus. The results confirm that do not have breed, sex or age predisposition to ehrlichiosis due E. canis, while the lowest occurrence of reactive dogs indoors probably related to low tick infestation, although no significant difference between dogs with or without infestation with the tick vector.

  4. Pathology of dogs in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis

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    Gisele Braziliano Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Different parasites that commonly occur concomitantly can influence one another, sometimes with unpredictable effects. We evaluated pathological aspects of dogs naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis. The health status of the dogs was investigated based on histopathological, hematological and biochemical analyses of 21 animals infected solely with L. infantum and 22 dogs co- infected with L. infantum and E. canis. The skin of both groups showed chronic, predominantly lymphohistioplasmacytic inflammatory reaction. The plasmacytosis in the lymphoid tissues was likely related with the hypergammaglobulinemia detected in all the dogs. The disorganization of extracellular matrix found in the reticular dermis of the inguinal region and ear, characterized by the substitution of thick collagen fibers for thin fibers, was attributed to the degree of inflammatory reaction, irrespective of the presence of parasites. In addition, the histopathological analysis revealed that twice as many dogs in the co-infected group presented Leishmania amastigotes in the ear skin than those infected solely with Leishmania, increasing the possibility of becoming infected through sand fly vectors. Our findings highlight the fact that the health of dogs infected concomitantly with L. infantum and E. canis is severely compromised due to their high levels of total plasma protein, globulins, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase, and severe anemia.

  5. Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in household dogs from northern Parana Ocorrência de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães domiciliados da região norte do Paraná

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    Gislaine Cristina Ferreira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused primarily by Ehrlichia canis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis induced by Anaplasma platys are important emerging zoonotic tick-borne diseases of dogs. There is evidence that these pathogens can also affect humans. This study evaluated the presence of E. canis and A. platys in blood samples collected from 256 domiciled dogs in the municipality of Jataizinho, located in north region of the State of Parana, Brazil, by PCR assay. The occurrence of E. canis and A. platys was 16.4% (42/256 and 19.4% (49/256, respectively; while 5.47% (14/256 of the dogs evaluated were co-infected by these two organisms. The presence of E. canis and A. platys was not significantly associated with the variables evaluated (sex, age, outdoor access, and presence of ticks during blood collection. Infection of dogs by E. canis was associated with anemia and thrombocytopenia, while infection induced by A. platys was related only to thrombocytopenia. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnoses when these hematological alterations are observed during routine laboratory evaluation of dogs.Erliquiose monocítica canina, causada principalmente por Ehrlichia canis, e anaplasmose trombocítica canina, devida a infecção com Anaplasma platys, são importantes doenças transmitidas por carrapatos que acometem os cães, com evidências que podem também acometer o homem. O presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência desses agentes em amostras de sangue de 256 cães domiciliados na cidade de Jataizinho, na região Norte do Paraná, Brasil, utilizando a técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR. A ocorrência de E. canis e A. platys foi de 16,4% (42/256 e 19,4% (49/256, respectivamente, com 5,47% (14/256 dos animais apresentando coinfecção. Não foi observada associação significativa com as variáveis sexo, idade, acesso à rua e presença de carrapatos no momento da

  6. Comparative efficacy of oral administrated afoxolaner (NexGard™) and fluralaner (Bravecto™) with topically applied permethrin/imidacloprid (Advantix(®)) against transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jongejan, Frans; Crafford, Dionne; Erasmus, Heidi; Fourie, Josephus J; Schunack, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the topical spot-on Advantix(®) (50 % permethrin/10 % imidacloprid) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs has previously been reported...

  7. Prevalence of antibodies to spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in coyotes (Canis latrans) in Oklahoma and Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Lindsay A; West, Misti D; Barrett, Anne W; Saucier, Jill M; O'Connor, Tom P; Paras, Kelsey L; Reiskind, Michael H; Reichard, Mason V; Little, Susan E

    2013-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are commonly infested with ticks, including Amblyomma americanum, the predominant vector of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii; Dermacentor variabilis, an important vector of Rickettsia rickettsii; and Amblyomma maculatum, a major vector of Rickettsia parkeri, a spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia. To determine the degree to which coyotes are infected with or exposed to tick-borne bacterial disease agents, serum samples collected from coyotes in Oklahoma and Texas were tested for antibodies reactive to R. rickettsii, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) testing or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of the coyotes tested, 60% (46/77) and 64% (47/74) had antibodies reactive to R. rickettsii and E. chaffeensis, respectively, on IFA. Additionally, 5% (4/77) had antibodies reactive to E. canis, but not B. burgdorferi or A. phagocytophilum, on SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) ELISA; subsequent serologic analysis by plate ELISA using species-specific peptides revealed antibodies to E. ewingii, E. canis, and E. chaffeensis in 46% (23/50), 18% (9/50), and 4% (2/50) of serum samples, respectively. Taken together, these data indicate that coyotes in this region are commonly exposed to SFG Rickettsia and E. ewingii and that further consideration of coyotes as a component of the maintenance cycle for these pathogens may be warranted.

  8. Ehrlichia canis (Jaboticabal strain) induces the expression of TNF-α in leukocytes and splenocytes of experimentally infected dogs Amostra Ehrlichia canis (Jaboticabal) induz a expressão de TNF-α em leucócitos e esplenócitos de cães experimentalmente infectados

    OpenAIRE

    Joice Lara Maia Faria; Thiago Demarchi Munhoz; Carolina Franchi João; Giovanny Vargas-Hernández; Marcos Rogério André; Wanderson Adriano Biscola Pereira; Rosângela Zacarias Machado; Mirela Tinucci-Costa

    2011-01-01

    Canine ehrlichiosis is caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia canis and is characterized by a systemic febrile disease of unknown pathogenesis. This study evaluated the expression of cytokines TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-γ, in splenic cells and blood leukocytes during the acute phase of ehrlichiosis and after treatment with doxycycline hyclate in dogs experimentally infected with the E. canis Jaboticabal strain. The study results showed a significant expression of TNF-α 18 days post-inoculati...

  9. Detection of Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia species in coyotes (Canis latrans), from rural Oklahoma and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paras, Kelsey L; Little, Susan E; Reichard, Mason V; Reiskind, Michael H

    2012-07-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia spp. in coyotes in Oklahoma and Texas. Documenting the prevalence of these vector-borne disease agents in coyotes from Oklahoma and Texas underscores the importance of wild canids as reservoir hosts that infect companion animals and humans. To learn more about the sylvatic cycle of D. immitis and Ehrlichia spp. in coyotes from Oklahoma and Texas, we tested for infection with and exposure to, respectively, these disease agents. Coyote carcasses were collected opportunistically from animal control experts and hunters in seven counties in Oklahoma and Texas from January to March, 2010. Serum samples from 77 coyotes were tested with a commercial ELISA test. Five (6.5%) coyotes had D. immitis antigens, and four (5.2%) had antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. The overall prevalence of D. immitis was low relative to studies from the eastern United States. Little is known about the prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. throughout the United States, but coyotes from rural Oklahoma in the current study had a higher exposure rate than those reported from California, and a lower rate than data from an earlier study from Oklahoma.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in stray dogs in Paraná, Brazil

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    Claudia M. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Hemoparasitic infections are tick-borne diseases, which affect animals and humans. Considering the importance of canine hemoparasitic infections in veterinary clinics, this study aimed to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in blood samples from 182 dogs not domiciled in the city of Pato Branco, southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The prevalence of A. platys and B. vogeli was 32.9% and 10.9% respectively, and A. platys infection prevailed (p<0.001. The number of dogs positive for A. platys was larger in Winter (p<0.05. All blood samples were negative for E. canis. In the dogs, infestation by Amblyomma cajennense predominated over that by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (p<0.001; but there was no significant association between PCR and the variables presence of ticks, sex and age. Dogs infected by A. platys and B. vogeli showed thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and leukocytosis; but there was no correlation between such hematological changes and infection by hemoparasites. This appears to be the first molecular study that demonstrates the existence of A. platys and B. vogeli in dogs from the southwestern region of Paraná.

  11. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in pet dogs, racing greyhounds, and shelter dogs in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzipory, Nirit; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K

    2010-07-15

    Arthropod vectors of canine infectious diseases are present throughout Florida. Since crowded housing has the potential to bring vectors and infected dogs into close proximity, it is possible that prevalence of infection is higher in intensely housed dogs. In this study, the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs residing in two types of intensive housing, greyhound kennels and animal shelters, was compared to dogs residing in low-intensity housing, private homes. Serum was collected from a cross-section of 1500 adult dogs from Florida, including 500 pet dogs referred to the Veterinary Medical Center of the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Florida, 500 racing greyhounds, and 500 dogs residing in animal shelters. Serum was tested for D. immitis antigen, E. canis antibodies, and B. burgdorferi antibodies by ELISA. Seroprevalence of D. immitis was significantly higher (14.6%) in shelter dogs and in pet dogs (1.4%) than in racing greyhounds (0.2%) (Pdogs were more than twice as likely to be infected than other breeds (P=0.003). Evidence for vector-borne infections, particularly D. immitis, was found in dogs throughout the state. The prevalence was greatest for D. immitis infection in shelter dogs, likely due to lack of preventive medications prior to impoundment. Although heartworm infection is considered to be a treatable condition, insufficient resources in shelters may lead to euthanasia of infected dogs that would otherwise be considered adoptable. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Retrospective analyses of dogs found serologically positive for Ehrlichia canis in Cebu, Philippines from 2003 to 2014

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    Adrian P. Ybañez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to document the clinical and hematological observations of dogs found serologically positive for Ehrlichia canis and to identify parameters or factors that are associated with the disease with focus on the anemic and thrombocytopenic state of the infected dogs. Materials and Methods: From 7 participating veterinary establishments, a total of 913 cases from 2003 to 2014 were initially assessed using inclusion criteria, including E. canis diagnosis by the attending veterinarian and the presence of ticks or history of infestation, thrombocytopenia, and/or anemia. From these, 438 cases that were found serologically positive for E. canis using commercial test kits were selected. Profile, clinical observations and hematological test results were obtained from the selected cases. Computations for statistical associations between the anemic and thrombocytopenic state of the infected dogs and their profile, observed clinical signs and other hematological values were performed. Results: Most of the dogs were purebred (60.0% and female (51.1% and were within the age range of 1-5 years (38.4%. The mean packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC count, and platelet count were lower than the normal values while the absolute count of basophils were higher than normal values. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN appear to be elevated. The most common clinical signs observed were inappetence (41.3%, lethargy/depression (35.6%, vomiting (32.4%, fever (18.5%, paleness (8.2%, and epistaxis (6.6%. Analyses showed that there were no significant differences on the hematological values and clinical signs between thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic seropositive dogs. Moreover, very weak correlations between platelet count and RBC count, absolute lymphocyte count, and neutrophil count were found. On the other hand, only paleness (p=0.008 and epistaxis (p=0.004 were found to be significantly different between anemic and non-anemic patients

  13. Ehrlichia canis detection in dogs from Várzea Grande: a comparative analysis of blood and bone marrow samples

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    Herica Makino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The objective of this study was to compare the DNA detection ofEhrlichia canisin blood and bone marrow to determine the prevalence of the agent in Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso. Blood samples and bone marrow from 80 dogs of both sexes, different breeds and age, were collected and processed for a cross-sectional study performed using nested PCR. Of the 80 dogs, 61 (76.3% had E. canisDNA in one of the samples. The buffy coat was positive in 42 dogs (52.5% and the bone marrow was positive in 33 (41.3%. There was no significant association between the positive biological samples of either the buffy coat or bone marrow and the presence or absence of clinical signs (P=0.49. No risk factor was associated with infection in the studied area. The bone marrow samples were efficient for the molecular diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis, particularly when there was a negative blood sample, although infection was present.

  14. A novel combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®) reduces risk of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus and of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongejan, Frans; de Vos, Christa; Fourie, Josephus J; Beugnet, Frederic

    2015-11-19

    The ability of Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®, a topical ectoparasiticide containing fipronil and permethrin for dogs, to prevent the transmission of Babesia canis as well as Ehrlichia canis was evaluated by infesting dogs with infected vector ticks. For the Babesia canis study, 16 dogs were randomly allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated on day 0 with a topical spot-on formulation containing 6.76 % w/v fipronil plus 50.48 % w/v permethrin and eight dogs served as the untreated control group. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, with a B. canis infection rate ranging between 2 and 10 %, were placed onto dogs on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. In situ tick counts were performed on Days 9, 16 and 23. Ticks were counted and removed on Day 30. Infection of the dogs with B. canis was monitored by rectal temperature readings, clinical examinations and blood smears as well as PCR and IFA (indirect fluorescent antibody assay). For the Ehrlichia canis study, another 16 dogs were allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated with the fipronil and permethrin combination on days 0 and 28 and eight dogs served as untreated controls. Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, carrying an infection rate of 13 % for E. canis, were released in the sleeping kennels of the dogs on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56. Ticks were counted in situ on the dogs on a weekly basis. All ticks were removed and counted on the final assessment day 58. Infection of the dogs with E. canis was monitored by rectal temperature, clinical examinations, and testing of blood samples by PCR, IFA and platelet counts. B. canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus ticks to all eight untreated control dogs and to one treated dog, which was confirmed by blood smears, PCR and IFA. E.canis was transmitted by R. sanguineus ticks to all eight untreated control dogs. Two of the dogs in the treated group were found positive based on PCR and/or IFA. Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® significantly lowered the risk for dogs to

  15. Countrywide serological evaluation of canine prevalence for Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia canis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movilla, Rebeca; García, Carlos; Siebert, Susanne; Roura, Xavier

    2016-07-29

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD) have become a major concern for canine and human public health. The aim of the study described here is to add epidemiological data regarding four pathogens responsible for CVBD, namely anaplasmosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis and ehrlichiosis in a national survey conducted in Mexico. Seventy-four veterinary centres located in 21 federal Mexican states were asked to test dogs with clinical signs suspect for CVBD and healthy dogs, for detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and Ehrlichia canis using the SNAP® 4DX® from IDEXX® Laboratories. A total of 1706 dogs were tested, including 943 apparently healthy and 722 CVBD-suspect dogs. Infected dogs were 36.7 %. The highest percentages of infection with E. canis (51.0 %) and Anaplasma spp. (16.4 %) were obtained in the northwestern region, while D. immitis was most frequently found in the northeastern region of the country (8.9 %). Four dogs from the northwestern, northeastern, eastern and southeastern regions, respectively, were positive for B. burgdorferi (sensu lato). Northcentral regions showed lowest overall prevalence of infection (2.4 %). Co-infections were detected in 8.8 % of the dogs tested. Statistically significant lower positivity was found among dogs aged less than one year (23.2 %) and small-sized dogs (27.6 %), while higher prevalence of infection was found in dogs living outdoors (42.0 %), dogs with detectable tick infestation (43.3 %) and dogs that received treatment for tick-transmitted infections (58.8 %). Seropositivity was a risk factor for the presence of clinical signs as follows: Anaplasma spp. (OR = 2.63; 95 % CI: 1.88-3.67; P immitis (OR = 2.52; 95 % CI: 1.61-3.95; P immitis and/or E. canis, while B. burgdorferi (sensu lato) transmission is minimal in the country. Practitioners play a fundamental role in the detection and control of these diseases to protect

  16. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs with Suspected Infection by Tick-Borne Pathogens in Medellín, 2012-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Lina María María Cartagena Yarce; Leonardo Alberto Ríos Osorio; Jaiberth Antonio Cardona Arias

    2015-01-01

    Research is meager on canine ehrlichiosis in Colombia and it is absent in Medellín. This research aims to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis and its distribution by sex, age, race and size in dogs diagnosed in a veterinary laboratory in Medellín, between 2012 and 2014. To the effect, a cross-sectional study was designed in 781 dogs. Overall seroprevalence of infection and specific by sex, age, size, and canine breed were calculated. In the bivariate analysis, Z test, Pearson’s ch...

  17. Comparative efficacy of oral administrated afoxolaner (NexGard?) and fluralaner (Bravecto?) with topically applied permethrin/imidacloprid (Advantix?) against transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan, Frans; Crafford, Dionne; Erasmus, Heidi; Fourie, Josephus J.; Schunack, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability of the topical spot-on Advantix? (50?% permethrin/10?% imidacloprid) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs has previously been reported. The recent market introduction of chewable tablets containing the novel compounds, afoxolaner (NexGard?) and fluralaner (Bravecto?) enabled us to conduct a comparative efficacy study with respect to the ability of these three products to block transmission of E. canis by ticks to ...

  18. Effects of doxycycline on haematology, blood chemistry and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of healthy dogs and dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaescusa, A; García-Sancho, M; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Tesouro, M Á; Sainz, Á

    2015-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by Ehrlichia canis, is a vector-borne disease with a worldwide distribution. It has been proposed that the pathogenesis, clinical severity and outcome of disease caused by Ehrlichia spp. can be attributed to the immune response rather than to any direct rickettsial effect. Moreover, doxycycline, the antimicrobial of choice for the treatment of CME, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties associated with blood leukocyte proliferation function, cytokine synthesis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. In order to assess the potential effects of doxycycline, dependent and independent of its antimicrobial activity, the present study compared changes in haematology, blood chemistry and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in 12 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CME after doxycycline therapy. Some changes were recorded only in the CME affected dogs, probably due to the antimicrobial effect of doxycycline. However, increases in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelet count and α2-globulins, and decreased plasma creatinine were observed in both healthy and CME affected dogs. The absolute count of B lymphocytes (CD21(+)) increased initially, but then decreased until the end of the study period in both groups. A potential effect of doxycycline unrelated to its antimicrobial activity against E. canis is suggested, taking into account the results observed both in healthy dogs and in dogs with CME. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA detection in whole blood and spleen aspiration samples Detecção de mórulas e DNA de Ehrlichia canis em sangue e em aspirado de baço em cães naturalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Lara Maia Faria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA by nPCR in whole blood and spleen aspiration. The sample included 40 dogs showing thrombocytopenia associated to clinical signs suggestive of canine ehrlichiosis. Morulae detection showed that in 35 of the dogs studied, 17 had morulae in spleen tissue, and two in buffy coat smears. E. canis DNA was detected in 29/40 blood samples. We verified that morulae detection is more efficient in cytological preparations from spleen aspiration. On the other hand, nPCR on spleen and blood samples were equally efficient for disease diagnosis.O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar a pesquisa de mórulas de Ehrlichia canis e a nPCR em sangue total e em aspirado de baço. Selecionaram-se 40 cães apresentando trombocitopenia associada a sinais e sintomas sugestivos de erliquiose canina. A pesquisa de mórula mostrou que dentre 35 amostras, 17 apresentaram mórulas nas preparações do baço, e duas nos esfregaços feitos a partir da papa leucocitária. O DNA de Ehrlichia canis foi detectado em 29 de 40 amostras de baço e em 30 de 40 no sangue. No presente estudo observou-se que a pesquisa de mórula é mais eficiente nas preparações citológicas obtidas da punção aspirativa do baço e que tanto a nPCR de baço quanto a de sangue foram eficientes no diagnóstico da doença.

  20. Evaluation of a commercial in-clinic point-of-care polymerase chain reaction test for Ehrlichia canis DNA in artificially infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waner, Trevor; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-12-01

    A novel in-clinic point-of-care (ICPOC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was evaluated for its ability to detect Ehrlichia canis DNA in artificially infected dogs compared to a real-time PCR assay. Six Beagle dogs negative for E. canis antibodies and PCR negative were artificially infected with an Israeli E. canis strain (611). All dogs developed IgG antibodies 8 days post infection (PI), and clinical and hematological abnormalities on day 10 PI. Only the real-time PCR detected E. canis DNA in the blood of five dogs at days 3 and 5 PI. At day 12 PI during the acute phase of the disease, 1 day after the initiation of doxycycline treatment, the ICPOC PCR assay detected E. canis DNA in all infected dogs, which were also positive by the real-time PCR. Two days later the ICPOC PCR assay was able to detect only 3/6 infected dogs, which were all positive by the real-time PCR. At days 17 and 19 PI, the ICPOC PCR assay did not detect E. canis DNA in the dogs while the real-time PCR detected all dogs as positive on day 17 PI and two dogs on day 19 PI. In conclusion, the sensitivity of the ICPOC PCR assay was 75% for the acute phase of the disease and 30% for the whole study, suggesting that this ICPOC assay has a potential utility for the diagnosis of acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Serological survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis infections in rural and urban dogs in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Torracca, Beatrice; Cerri, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are well known zoonotic pathogens, whereas Ehrlichia canis is usually considered to be of veterinary concern, although on the basis of recent reports it also seems to be able to infect humans. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l., A. phagocytophilum and E. canis in an Italian canine population, and to verify if there are differences between dogs living in urban areas and those from a rural environment. Blood sera of 1,965 dogs, 1,235 from cities and 730 from rural areas, were tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFAT). The overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (7.07%), followed by A. phagocytophilum (4.68%), and B. burgdorferi s.l. (1.47%). Rural dogs showed the highest seroprevalence to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum. No significant differences were observed between rural and urban E. canis-positive dogs. A low percentage (1.32%) of dogs with dual seropositivity was detected, and no triple positive reactions were observed. No significant differences were detected in the seroprevalence of the three agents in relationship to the age and gender of the dogs. Seroprevalence in the five years considered were not statistically different, except for the lowest rate for E. canis observed in 2012. The results confirm the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l., A. phagocytophilum and E. canis in Italian dogs in both urban and rural areas. Monitoring pet dogs, which share the same environment with their owners, is useful for identifying the presence of tick-borne disease agents of both veterinary and public health significance.

  2. Genetic polymorphism characteristics of Brucella canis isolated in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Dongdong; Cui, Buyun; Wang, Heng; Zhao, Hongyan; Piao, Dongri; Tian, Lili; Tian, Guozhong; Kang, Jingli; Mao, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Du, Pengfei; Zhu, Lin; Zhao, Zhuo; Mao, Lingling; Yao, Wenqing; Guan, Pingyuan; Fan, Weixing; Jiang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease typically caused by Brucella melitensis infection (biovars 1 and 3). Brucella canis infection in dogs has not traditionally recognized as a major problem. In recent years however, brucellosis resulting from Brucella canis infection has also been reported, suggesting that infections from this species may be increasing. Data concerning the epidemiology of brucellosis resulting from Brucella canis infection is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the diversity among Chinese Brucella canis strains for epidemiological purposes. First, we employed a 16-marker VNTR assay (Brucella MLVA-16) to assess the diversity and epidemiological relationship of 29 Brucella canis isolates from diverse locations throughout China with 38 isolates from other countries. MLVA-16 analysis separated the 67 Brucella canis isolates into 57 genotypes that grouped into five clusters with genetic similarity coefficients ranging from 67.73 to 100%. Moreover, this analysis revealed a new genotype (2-3-9-11-3-1-5-1:118), which was present in two isolates recovered from Guangxi in 1986 and 1987. Second, multiplex PCR and sequencing analysis were used to determine whether the 29 Chinese Brucella canis isolates had the characteristic BMEI1435 gene deletion. Only two isolates had this deletion. Third, amplification of the omp25 gene revealed that 26 isolates from China had a T545C mutation. Collectively, this study reveals that considerable diversity exists among Brucella canis isolates in China and provides resources for studying the genetic variation and microevolution of Brucella.

  3. Genetic polymorphism characteristics of Brucella canis isolated in China.

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    Dongdong Di

    Full Text Available In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease typically caused by Brucella melitensis infection (biovars 1 and 3. Brucella canis infection in dogs has not traditionally recognized as a major problem. In recent years however, brucellosis resulting from Brucella canis infection has also been reported, suggesting that infections from this species may be increasing. Data concerning the epidemiology of brucellosis resulting from Brucella canis infection is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the diversity among Chinese Brucella canis strains for epidemiological purposes. First, we employed a 16-marker VNTR assay (Brucella MLVA-16 to assess the diversity and epidemiological relationship of 29 Brucella canis isolates from diverse locations throughout China with 38 isolates from other countries. MLVA-16 analysis separated the 67 Brucella canis isolates into 57 genotypes that grouped into five clusters with genetic similarity coefficients ranging from 67.73 to 100%. Moreover, this analysis revealed a new genotype (2-3-9-11-3-1-5-1:118, which was present in two isolates recovered from Guangxi in 1986 and 1987. Second, multiplex PCR and sequencing analysis were used to determine whether the 29 Chinese Brucella canis isolates had the characteristic BMEI1435 gene deletion. Only two isolates had this deletion. Third, amplification of the omp25 gene revealed that 26 isolates from China had a T545C mutation. Collectively, this study reveals that considerable diversity exists among Brucella canis isolates in China and provides resources for studying the genetic variation and microevolution of Brucella.

  4. Avaliação da sensibilidade da PCR em uma etapa com base no gene p28 de Ehrlichia canis e sua aplicação no diagnóstico da erliquiose canina

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    Nakaghi, Andrea Cristina Higa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Chryssafidis, Andreas Lazaros; André, Marcos Rogério; Baldani, Cristiane Divan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize a PCR assay that amplifies an 843 pb fragment from the p28 gene of Ehrlichia canis and compare it with two other PCR methods used to amplify portions of the 16S rRNA and dsb genes of Ehrlichia. Blood samples were collected from dogs suspected of having a positive diagnosis for canine ehrlichiosis. Amplification of the p28 gene by PCR produced an 843-bp fragment and this assay could detect DNA from one gene copy among 1 billion cells. All positive samples ...

  5. Serological detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in a countrywide survey in dogs in Poland.

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    Krämer, Friederike; Schaper, Roland; Schunack, Bettina; Połozowski, Andrzej; Piekarska, Jolanta; Szwedko, Aleksandra; Jodies, Robert; Kowalska, Dagmara; Schüpbach, Dörte; Pantchev, Nikola

    2014-09-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of attention in the past few years. Nevertheless, in many parts of Europe information on their occurrence is still scarce. In a large study in Poland 3,094 serum samples taken from dogs throughout all 16 Polish provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. A total of 12.31% (381/3,094; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.18-13.52%) and 3.75% (116/3,094; 95% CI: 3.11-4.48%) of the dogs were positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies, respectively. Furthermore, 0.26% (8/3,094; 95% CI: 0.11-0.51%) were positive for E. canis antibodies and 0.16% (5/3,094; 95% CI: 0.05-0.38%) for D. immitis antigen. The highest percentages of A. phagocytophilum-positive dogs were noted in Lesser Poland, Silesia and Łódź Provinces. For B. burgdorferi s.l., the highest prevalence was recorded in Łódź Province. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. were recorded in 1.71% of all examined dogs (53/3,094; 95% CI: 1.29-2.23%). One dog even had a triple infection, testing positive for E. canis too. Both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. have previously been reported in Poland and were confirmed in the present study by positive samples from all 16 provinces. Concerning E. canis and D. immitis travel history or importation cannot be excluded as factors which may have determined the occurrence of these pathogens in the relevant animals. Practitioners in Poland should be aware of the above mentioned CVBDs and of prophylactic measures to protect dogs and their owners.

  6. Serological survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis infections in rural and urban dogs in Central Italy

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    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[i][/i][/b][i]. Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are well known zoonotic pathogens, whereas[i] Ehrlichia canis[/i] is usually considered to be of veterinary concern, although on the basis of recent reports it also seems to be able to infect humans. [b]objective[/b]. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l., A. phagocytophilum and [i]E. canis[/i] in an Italian canine population, and to verify if there are differences between dogs living in urban areas and those from a rural environment. [b]materials and method.[/b] Blood sera of 1,965 dogs, 1,235 from cities and 730 from rural areas, were tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFAT. [b]results[/b]. The overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (7.07%, followed by [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] (4.68%, and [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. (1.47%. Rural dogs showed the highest seroprevalence to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. and [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i]. No significant differences were observed between rural and urban [i]E. canis[/i]-positive dogs. A low percentage (1.32% of dogs with dual seropositivity was detected, and no triple positive reactions were observed. No significant differences were detected in the seroprevalence of the three agents in relationship to the age and gender of the dogs. Seroprevalence in the five years considered were not statistically different, except for the lowest rate for [i]E. canis[/i] observed in 2012. [b]conclusions[/b]. The results confirm the presence of [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] and [i]E. canis[/i] in Italian dogs in both urban and rural areas. Monitoring pet dogs, which share the same environment with their owners, is useful for identifying the presence of tick-borne disease agents of both veterinary and public health significance

  7. Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis using the nested-PCR, correlation with the presence of morulae and thrombocytopenia in dogs treated in Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Espirito Santo

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    Mara Rúbia Rocha Pereira Sales

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Sales M.R.R.P., Ignacchiti M.D.C., Mendes Junior A.F., Suhett W.G., Porfírio L.C., Marins M., Aptekmann K.P. & Pereira Júnior O.S. [Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis using the nested-PCR, correlation with the presence of morulae and thrombocytopenia in dogs treated in Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Espirito Santo.] Prevalência de Ehrlichia canis pela Nested- -PCR, correlação com a presença de mórula e trombocitopenia em cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(1:47-51, 2015. Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Rua Projetada s/nº, Caixa Postal 25, Pontal, Marataízes, ES 29349-000, Brasil. E-mail: mararrps@yahoo.com.br Ehrlichia canis, is the primary etiologic agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. The disease is mainly transmitted by the brown dog ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus in different endemic regions of Brazil. The purpose of this study was determinated using the Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nested-PCR the prevalence of Ehrlichia canis in 85 dogs, regardless of race, age, sex or health status, treated at the Veterinary Hospital of Federal University of Espirito Santo, in Alegre-ES and evaluate its correlation with the presence of morulae and thrombocytopenia. It was observed that 1.17% of the samples were positive by blood smear, for the presence of morulae. However, the nested-PCR showed 5.88% positivity of samples. And 17.64% samples showed thrombocytopenia. By analyzing all the techniques, it was concluded that the introduction of diagnostic techniques such as nested-PCR is an important method for aid in early diagnosis of pathologies.

  8. Serological detection of antibodies to Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Víctor M; Bonilla, Marta C; Kaminsky, Darwin; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan José; Siebert, Susanne; Krämer, Friederike

    2017-03-15

    In a study in Costa Rica 314 serum samples from dogs throughout all seven provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis, and of circulating antigen of Dirofilaria immitis. A total of 6.4% (20/314) and 38.2% (120/314) were positive for Anaplasma spp. (An) and E. canis (Ec) antibodies. Overall, 8.0% (25/314) were positive for D. immitis (Di) antigen. One single dog reacted positive with B. burgdorferi s.l. (Bb) antigen (0.3%, 1/314). E. canis positive dogs were detected in all provinces (highest percentages in Guanacaste, Puntarenas [both significantly different compared to the overall] and Limón). Guanacaste and Puntarenas also showed the highest prevalences of Anaplasma spp. (both significantly different compared to the overall). The highest prevalence of D. immitis was detected in Puntarenas (significantly different compared to the overall). Double pathogen exposure (Ec plus An; Ec plus Di; Ec plus Bb) were recorded in 8.9% (28/314). Two dogs showed a triple pathogen exposure (0.6%, 2/314; An, Ec and Di). There was a significant difference between male (11.5%, 18/156) and female (4.4%, 7/158) animals for D. immitis positive results. There was also a significant difference between breed and no breed dogs regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to the single pathogens of Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Finally there was a significant difference in the presence of clinical signs again regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Practitioners in Costa Rica should be aware of the canine vector-borne diseases mentioned as dogs are at risk of becoming infected. Concerning the positive B. burgdorferi s.l. dog, an autochthonous occurrence cannot be confirmed due to a history of adoption and an unusual tattoo number

  9. Sensitivity evaluation of a single-step PCR assay using Ehrlichia canis p28 gene as a target and its application in diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis Avaliação da sensibilidade da PCR em uma etapa com base no gene p28 de Ehrlichia canis e sua aplicação no diagnóstico da erliquiose canina

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    Andrea Cristina Higa Nakaghi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize a PCR assay that amplifies an 843 pb fragment from the p28 gene of Ehrlichia canis and compare it with two other PCR methods used to amplify portions of the 16S rRNA and dsb genes of Ehrlichia. Blood samples were collected from dogs suspected of having a positive diagnosis for canine ehrlichiosis. Amplification of the p28 gene by PCR produced an 843-bp fragment and this assay could detect DNA from one gene copy among 1 billion cells. All positive samples detected by the p28-based PCR were also positive by the 16S rRNA nested-PCR and also by the dsb-based PCR. Among the p28-based PCR negative samples, 55.3% were co-negatives, but 27.6% were positive in 16S rRNA and dsb based PCR assays. The p28-based PCR seems to be a useful test for the molecular detection of E. canis, however improvements in this PCR sensitivity are desired, so that it can become an important alternative in the diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis.O objetivo deste estudo foi aperfeiçoar um ensaio de PCR que amplificasse um fragmento de 843 pares de bases do gene p28 da Ehrlichia canis e compará-lo com outros dois métodos de PCR utilizados para amplificar partes do gene 16S rRNA e dsb do gênero Ehrlichia. Amostras sanguíneas foram colhidas de cães com diagnóstico clínico de erliquiose. A amplificação do gene p28 pela PCR produziu um fragmento de 843pb e esse ensaio permitiu a detecção do DNA de um parasita dentre 1 bilhão de células. Todas as amostras positivas detectadas pela PCR baseada no gene p28 foram também positivas pela nested PCR para detecção do gene 16S rRNA e também pela PCR dsb. Dentre as amostras negativas para a PCR p28, 55,3% foram co-negativas, mas 27,6% foram positivas pela PCR baseada nos genes 16S rRNA e dsb. A PCR p28 parece ser um teste útil para detecção molecular de E. canis, entretanto otimizações na sensibilidade nesta PCR são necessárias, para que esta técnica se torne uma importante

  10. Ehrlichia canis (Jaboticabal strain induces the expression of TNF-α in leukocytes and splenocytes of experimentally infected dogs Amostra Ehrlichia canis (Jaboticabal induz a expressão de TNF-α em leucócitos e esplenócitos de cães experimentalmente infectados

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    Joice Lara Maia Faria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine ehrlichiosis is caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia canis and is characterized by a systemic febrile disease of unknown pathogenesis. This study evaluated the expression of cytokines TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-γ, in splenic cells and blood leukocytes during the acute phase of ehrlichiosis and after treatment with doxycycline hyclate in dogs experimentally infected with the E. canis Jaboticabal strain. The study results showed a significant expression of TNF-α 18 days post-inoculation, reducing by approximately 70% after treatment. There was a unique peak of expression of IL-10 and IFN-γ 18 and 30 days post-inoculation, respectively. This study suggests that TNF-α plays a role in the pathogenesis of the acute phase of canine ehrlichiosis and that treatment with doxycycline hyclate reduces the systemic effects of this cytokine, possibly by reducing or eliminating parasitemia.A erliquiose canina é causada pela bactéria Ehrlichia canis, que desencadeia no hospedeiro uma doença febril e sistêmica, de patogênese pouco conhecida. O presente estudo avaliou a expressão das citocinas TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-γ, em células esplênicas e em leucócitos sanguíneos, durante a fase aguda da erliquiose e após o tratamento com hiclato de doxiciclina, em cães experimentalmente infectados com a amostra E. canis Jaboticabal. Os resultados mostraram expressão significativa de TNF-α 18 dias após a inoculação, reduzindo aproximadante 70% após o tratamento. Houve um único pico de expressão de IL-10 e de IFN-γ entre 18 e 30 dias após a inoculação, respectivamente. Este estudo sugere que o TNF-α participa da patogenia da fase aguda da erliquiose canina, e que o tratamento com hiclato de doxiciclina reduz os efeitos sistêmicos dessa citocina, possivelmente por reduzir ou eliminar a parasitemia.

  11. A serological survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs in North America and the Caribbean as assessed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia burgdorferi species-specific peptides

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    Barbara A. Qurollo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tick-borne pathogens cause a spectrum of disease manifestations in both dogs and humans. Recognizing regional and temporal shifts in exposure are important as tick distributions change. To better delineate regional exposure to canine tick-borne pathogens, an expanded set of species-specific peptides were used to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Aph, Anaplasma platys (Apl, Ehrlichia canis (Ec, Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ech, Ehrlichia ewingii (Eew, and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb antibodies in canine serum. Methods: Archived canine serum samples (n=6,582 collected during 2008–2010 and in 2012 from the US, Canada, and the Caribbean were retrospectively screened for antibodies against Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species-specific peptides. Overall, regional and temporal seroprevalence rates were determined. Results: Overall Bb and Eew were the most seroprevalent pathogens. During 2008–2010, seroprevalence rates increased overall for Aph and Ech, and regionally, Bb and Aph seroprevalence rates increased in the South. Canada had unexpectedly high seroprevalence rates for Ec and Apl. The most common co-exposures were Eew+Ech, followed by Aph+Bb and Eew+Bb. Conclusions: This study demonstrated significant shifts in canine vector-borne disease seroprevalence rates. The use of specific peptides facilitated improved geographic delineation of tick-borne pathogen distributions among dogs, which may enhance epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne pathogens shared by dogs and humans.

  12. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs with Suspected Infection by Tick-Borne Pathogens in Medellín, 2012-2014

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    Lina María María Cartagena Yarce

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research is meager on canine ehrlichiosis in Colombia and it is absent in Medellín. This research aims to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis and its distribution by sex, age, race and size in dogs diagnosed in a veterinary laboratory in Medellín, between 2012 and 2014. To the effect, a cross-sectional study was designed in 781 dogs. Overall seroprevalence of infection and specific by sex, age, size, and canine breed were calculated. In the bivariate analysis, Z test, Pearson’s chi-square test, and the Mann-Whitney U test were used. In the multivariate analysis, binary logistic regression was performed. 57 races were included, of which the most frequent were Creoles, Labradors, and French poodles; 54.9% were males, and 56.9% were adults. Overall prevalence of infection was 24.8%; highest specific seroprevalences were observed in females (25.9%, senile dogs (29.7%, and those belonging to large breeds (27.6%. The risk of infection in adult and senile dogs was two times higher than in puppies; the probability of infection was 6.4 times higher in cocker spaniels than in French bulldogs; the risk of infection in Siberian wolf, pug and Labrador was 7.8, 5.5 and 4.1 times higher than in bulldogs. High seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis and the identification of adult and senile dogs, and cocker spaniel, Siberian wolf, pug and Labrador breeds as of higher risk show the need to develop programs for prevention and treatment of this infection in the city.

  13. Freqüência de anticorpos anti-Erhlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi e antígenos de Dirofilaria immitis em cães na microrregião Ilhéus-Itabuna, Bahia, Brasil Frequency of antibodies anti-Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis antigens in dogs from microrregion Ilhéus-Itabuna, State of Bahia, Brazil

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    Renata S.A. Carlos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliação de positividade para antígenos de Dirofilaria immitis, anticorpos anti-Borrelia burgdorferi e anti-Ehrlichia canis foram coletadas 200 amostras de sangue de cães, 100 no município de Ilhéus e 100 no de Itabuna. Foi utilizado o "kit" Snap 3DX (IDEXX Laboratories para realização das sorologias. Não se observou nenhum animal positivo para antígenos de D. immitis. Apenas dois dos cães estavam positivos para anticorpos anti-B. burgdorferi. Do total de amostras analisadas, 72 (36% estavam positivas para anticorpos anti-E. canis, sendo 43 em Ilhéus e 29 em Itabuna (p=0,027.In order to detect the positivity to antigens of Dirofilaria immitis, antibodies anti-Borrelia burgdorferi and anti-Ehrlichia canis, 200 canine blood samples were collected as followed: 100 from the municipality of Ilhéus and 100 from Itabuna, State of Bahia. The kit Snap 3DX (IDEXX Laboratories was used to performe serology. None of the tested animals were positive for antigens of D. immitis. Only two dogs of them were positive for antibodies anti-B. burgdorferi. From all the samples analyzed, 72 (36% were positive for antibodies anti-E. canis, 43 from Ilhéus and 29 from Itabuna (p=0,027.

  14. In vitro culture of a novel genotype of Ehrlichia sp. from Brazil.

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    Zweygarth, E; Schöl, H; Lis, K; Cabezas Cruz, A; Thiel, C; Silaghi, C; Ribeiro, M F B; Passos, L M F

    2013-11-01

    Ehrlichiae are obligate intracytoplasmic Gram-negative, tick-borne bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. Ehrlichioses are considered emerging diseases in both humans and animals. Several members of the genus Ehrlichia have been isolated and propagated in vitro. This study describes the continuous propagation of a Brazilian Ehrlichia sp. isolate in IDE8 tick cells, canine DH82 cells and bovine aorta cells. Initially, the organisms were isolated from the haemolymph of a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick into IDE8 cells. Infected IDE8 cells were brought from Brazil to Germany, where the organisms were continuously propagated in IDE8, DH82 and bovine aorta cells. Bovine aorta cells were infected and propagated for 3 months, corresponding to six subcultures, whereas the other two infected cell lines were kept for more than 1 year. During the cultivation period, 36 and 14 subcultures were carried out in IDE8 and DH82 cell cultures, respectively. Reinfection of IDE8 cells with organisms grown in DH82 cells was achieved. Sequence analysis made with a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene showed that this Ehrlicha sp. is closely related to Ehrlichia canis. However, the maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree shows that it falls in a separate phylogenetic clade from E. canis. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii, -Neospora caninum, -Leishmania spp. and -Ehrlichia canis antibodies in free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus in the northeastern region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Solange Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available O lobo-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus habita o ecossistema de Cerrado e é considerado o maior canídeo da América do Sul e uma espécie ameaçada de extinção pela "International Union for Conservation of Nature" (IUNC. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar a presença de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii, -Neospora caninum, -Leishmania spp. e -Ehrlichia canis em lobos-guará da região nordeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Das 17 amostras de soro testadas por meio da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, 88,2% (15/17, 17,6% (3/17 e 52,9% (9/17 apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii, -Leishmania spp. e -E. canis, respectivamente. Todos os animais testados foram soronegativos para N. caninum. Esses resultados indicam a exposição dos lobos-guará dessa região aos agentes pesquisados. A presença de um complexo industrial, agricultura extensiva e fragmentação de habitat na região nordeste do estado de São Paulo, favorece a proximidade desses animais silvestres a ambientes urbanos o que pode contribuir para a transmissão de doenças entre os animais silvestres, domésticos e o homem.

  16. Comparative efficacy of oral administrated afoxolaner (NexGard™) and fluralaner (Bravecto™) with topically applied permethrin/imidacloprid (Advantix(®)) against transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs.

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    Jongejan, Frans; Crafford, Dionne; Erasmus, Heidi; Fourie, Josephus J; Schunack, Bettina

    2016-06-17

    The ability of the topical spot-on Advantix(®) (50 % permethrin/10 % imidacloprid) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs has previously been reported. The recent market introduction of chewable tablets containing the novel compounds, afoxolaner (NexGard™) and fluralaner (Bravecto™) enabled us to conduct a comparative efficacy study with respect to the ability of these three products to block transmission of E. canis by ticks to dogs. The speed of kill, immediate drop-off rate and anti-attachment efficacy of the respective products were also studied. The study was a blinded parallel group design, wherein 32 dogs were randomised into four different groups of eight dogs. Group 1 served as negative placebo control, group 2 and 3 were treated on Days 0, 28 and 56 with NexGard™ and Advantix(®), respectively. Group 4 was dosed once on Day 0 with Bravecto™. For tick efficacy assessments 50 non-infected ticks were placed onto the dogs on Days 30, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 and on animal tick counts were performed at 3 h, 6 h and 12 h after infestation. To evaluate the ability to block transmission of E. canis, each dog was challenged by releasing 80 adult E. canis-infected R. sanguineus ticks into their sleeping kennels on Days 31, 38, 45 and 52. The animals were monitored for clinical signs of monocytic ehrlichiosis (pyrexia and thrombocytopenia) and were tested for E. canis DNA by PCR and for specific antibodies using IFA. A dog was considered infected with E. canis if both PCR and IFA yielded positive test results up to Day 84. Mean arithmetic tick counts on dogs treated with the Advantix(®) spot-on were significantly (P < 0.0005) lower throughout the study as compared with the negative controls and was, with respect to the speed of kill and resulting onset of acaricidal efficacy, superior over NexGard™ and Bravecto™ at all time points in the 12 h period observed (3 h, 6 h and 12

  17. Genetic Polymorphism Characteristics of Brucella canis Isolated in China

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    Di, Dongdong; Cui, Buyun; Wang, Heng; Zhao, Hongyan; Piao, Dongri; Tian, Lili; Tian, Guozhong; Kang, Jingli; Mao, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Du, Pengfei; Zhu, Lin; Zhao, Zhuo; Mao, Lingling; Yao, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease typically caused by Brucella melitensis infection (biovars 1 and 3). Brucella canis infection in dogs has not traditionally recognized as a major problem. In recent years however, brucellosis resulting from Brucella canis infection has also been reported, suggesting that infections from this species may be increasing. Data concerning the epidemiology of brucellosis resulting from Brucella canis infection is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this st...

  18. MLVA and LPS Characteristics of Brucella canis Isolated from Humans and Dogs in Zhejiang, China

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    Dongri Piao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBrucella canis is a pathogenic bacterium that causes brucellosis in dogs, and its zoonotic potential has been increasing in recent years. B. canis is a rare source of human brucellosis in China, where Brucella melitensis has been the major pathogen associated with human brucellosis outbreaks. In late 2011, a case of a B. canis infection was detected in a human patient in Zhejiang Province, China. To compare the genotypes between strains of B. canis isolated from the patient and from dogs, a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA-16 was performed. In addition, the lipopolysaccharide-synthesis-related genes were analyzed with the B. canis reference strain RM6/66.Results32 B. canis strains were divided into 26 genotypes using MLVA-16 [Hunter-Gaston Diversity Index (HGDI = 0.976]. The HGDI indexes for various loci ranged between 0.000 and 0.865. All four Hangzhou isolates were indistinguishable using panel 1 (genotype 3 and panel 2A (genotype 28. However, these strains were distinctly different from other isolates from Beijing, Jiangsu, Liaoning, and Inner Mongolia at Bruce 09. The emergence of a human B. canis infection was limited to an area. Comparative analysis indicated B. canis from canines and humans have no differences in lipopolysaccharide-synthesis locus.ConclusionThe comprehensive approaches have been used to analyze human and canine B. canis isolates, including molecular epidemiological and LPS genetic characteristics. Further detailed analysis of the whole genomic sequencing will contribute to understanding of the pathogenicity of B. canis in humans.

  19. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal - a national serological study

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    Cardoso Luís

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. Many CVBD-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. The present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in dogs in Portugal. Methods Based on 120 veterinary medical centres from all the regions of mainland and insular Portugal, 557 apparently healthy and 628 CVBD-suspect dogs were sampled. Serum, plasma or whole blood was tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and antibodies to E. canis, B. burgdorferi s. l., Anaplasma spp. and L. infantum with two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Odds ratios (OR were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors of exposure to the vector-borne agents. Results Total positivity levels to D. immitis, E. canis, B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., L. infantum, one or more agents and mixed agents were 3.6%, 4.1%, 0.2%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 14.0% and 2.0% in the healthy group, and 8.9%, 16.4%, 0.5%, 9.2%, 25.2%, 46.3% and 11.6% in the clinically suspect group, respectively. Non-use of ectoparasiticides was a risk factor for positivity to one or more agents both in the apparently healthy (OR = 2.1 and CVBD-suspect (OR = 1.5 dogs. Seropositivity to L. infantum (OR = 7.6, E. canis (OR = 4.1 and D. immitis (OR = 2.4 were identified as risk factors for the presence of clinical signs compatible with CVBDs. Positivity to mixed agents was not found to be a risk factor for disease. Conclusions Dogs in Portugal are at risk of becoming infected with vector-borne pathogens, some of which are of zoonotic concern. CVBDs should be considered by practitioners and prophylactic measures must be put in

  20. Rangelia vitalii, Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs in Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Juliana Gottlieb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pathogens transmitted by ticks are an emerging problem worldwide, this study aimed to diagnose the causal agents of infection in dogs presenting suspected hemoparasitoses. Fifty-eight dogs with clinical signs such as depression, hemorrhagic diathesis and fever were evaluated regarding clinical presentation, hemogram, blood smears and serological tests, using the indirect immunofluorescence method for the agents Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis and conventional PCR for Babesia spp. (gene 18S rRNA, Rangelia vitalii (gene 18S rRNA and Ehrlichia spp. (gene dsb. Five (8.6% of the 58 dogs were serologically positive for Babesia spp. and three (5.1% for E. canis. Four dogs (6.8% were positive for R. vitalii through the molecular diagnosis. The PCR products were sequenced and the DNA from R. vitalii was found to be 99% genetically identical to samples of R. vitalii that had been isolated in Brazil. No presence of Babesia spp. or E. canis was observed through PCR on the dogs evaluated here. The results indicate the presence of R. vitalii and exposure to Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. among the dogs analyzed.

  1. Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2014-03-17

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Pasteurella canis Isolation following Penetrating Eye Injury: A Case Report

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    Noor-Khairul Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old boy presented with history of trauma to the left eye after he accidentally injured his eye with a broom stick made up from coconut skewers. There was history of cats as their pets but not dogs. Ocular examination revealed left superonasal conjunctival laceration and scleral perforation with prolapsed vitreous. Fundus examination showed minimal vitreous haemorrhage and flat retina. Conjunctiva swab at the wound site was sent for gram staining, culture, and sensitivity. He underwent scleral suturing, vitreous tap, and intravitreal injection of Ceftazidime and Amikacin. Vitreous tap was sent for gram stained, culture and sensitivity. Postoperatively, he was started empirically on IV Ciprofloxacin 160 mg BD, Guttae Ciprofloxacin, and Guttae Ceftazidime. Conjunctiva swab grew Pasteurella canis which was sensitive to all Beta lactams, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Aminoglycoside. Post-operative was uneventful, absent signs of endophthalmitis or orbital cellulitis.

  3. Serological survey of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infection of feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuma, Hisashi; Makino, Takashi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Nogami, Sadao; Fujita, Hiromi; Asano, Makoto; Inoue, Satoshi; Maruyama, Soichi

    2007-04-10

    Numbers of feral raccoon; the possible reservoir animal of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma, are increasing in Japan. Thus serological methods were utilized to examine Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infection in raccoons from Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. By using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, among 187 feral raccoons examined, 1 (0.5%) serologically reacted with Ehrlichia canis, 3 (1.6%) with Ehrlichia chaffeensis and 1 (0.5%) with Anaplasma phagocytophilum with the titers of 1:40 or more. Although screening PCR for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species failed to detect the presence of ehrlichial DNA in serum samples, results of the serological tests suggested that the feral raccoons might be infected with some species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma.

  4. Predominance of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from kennel-confined dogs in Limbe, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndip, Lucy M; Ndip, Roland N; Esemu, Seraphine N; Walker, David H; McBride, Jere W

    2010-02-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (n = 63) collected from five dogs (two adults and three puppies) housed in a kennel were screened for Ehrlichial agents (Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. ewingii) using a species-specific multicolor real-time TaqMan PCR amplification of the disulphide bond formation protein (dsb) gene. Ehrlichia chaffeensis DNA was detected in 33 (56%) ticks, E. canis DNA was detected in four (6%) ticks, and one tick was coinfected. The E. chaffeensis and E. canis nucleotide sequences of the amplified dsb gene (374 bp) obtained from the Cameroonian R. sanguineus ticks were identical to the North American genotypes.

  5. Development of an in vitro, isolated, infected spore testing model for disinfectant testing of Microsporum canis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Karen A; Deboer, Douglas J; Volk, Lynn M; Sparkes, Andrew; Robinson, Ann

    2004-06-01

    The isolated infected hair model is a commonly used technique to test the fungicidal efficacy of topical therapies against Microsporum canis. The most commonly used model uses mats of infective hairs, and results from various laboratories have differed. The objectives of this study were to develop a method to produce spores for testing when only mycelial forms were available and to develop a semiquantitative testing method that used only infective spores from hairs, and not pooled hair samples for testing. Ten isolates of M. canis were used in this study. Juvenile guinea pigs were easily infected using mycelial forms of M. canis and large numbers of spores were easily harvested for testing. Eight dilutions of disinfectants were tested. Fungal culture data were evaluated using an endpoint dilution at which there was 100% fungicidal activity, i.e. no growth on the plates. The 10 samples showed identical results. Chlorhexidine and Virkon(R) S were ineffective even when used at x4 the manufacturer's recommended dilution. Lime sulphur (1 : 33), enilconazole (20 microL mL(-1)), and bleach (1 : 10) were consistently effective when used at the recommended dilution. In addition, lime sulphur and enilconazole were 100% fungicidal even when the recommended concentration was diluted 1 : 4 or x4 as dilute as recommended.

  6. Relationship between clinical manifestations and pulsed-field gel profiles of Streptococcus canis isolates from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, E Freya; Byrne, Barbara A; Pesavento, Patricia; Hurley, Kate F; Lindsay, Leanne L; Sykes, Jane E

    2010-11-20

    Little is known regarding the degree of genotypic relatedness between Streptococcus canis isolates from dogs and cats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether correlations existed between the genotypes of canine and feline S. canis isolates as determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and different clinical manifestations of disease. Eighty-two isolates of S. canis were examined that had been collected from dogs and cats presenting to the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH) between 1998 and 2005. Associated clinical manifestations included sepsis, otitis, pyometra, skin infections, necrotizing fasciitis, respiratory disease, and urinary tract infections. In addition, 9 feline isolates from a southern California shelter that experienced an outbreak of S. canis infection manifesting as necrotizing fasciitis and death were examined. Bacterial isolates were characterized by PFGE analysis using the restriction enzyme SmaI. The relationships between banding patterns were analyzed using gel analysis software combined with visual interpretation. The feline shelter isolates of S. canis were 99% similar in bacterial PFGE profile. The remainder of samples had less than 80% similarity in PFGE banding patterns. The relatedness of the PFGE profile in the feline shelter isolates suggested a clonal origin. In the isolates from the VMTH population, there was no relationship between specific disease manifestations and PFGE profile. PFGE typing does not appear to be useful for identifying isolates associated with specific disease presentations; however may be more useful to identify outbreaks of S. canis infections or to detect clonal populations in outbreaks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The pCS20 PCR assay for Ehrlichia ruminantium does not cross-react with the novel deer ehrlichial agent found in white-tailed deer in the United States of America

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    S.M. Mahan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer are susceptible to heartwater (Ehrlichia [Cowdria] ruminantium infection and are likely to suffer high mortality if the disease spreads to the United States. It is vital, therefore, to validate a highly specific and sensitive detection method for E. ruminantium infection that can be reliably used in testing white-tailed deer, which are reservoirs of antigenically or genetically related agents such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma (Ehrlichia phagocytophilum (HGE agent and Ehrlichia ewingii. Recently, a novel but as yet unnamed ehrlichial species, the white-tailed deer ehrlichia (WTDE, has been discovered in deer populations in the United States. Although the significance of WTDE as a pathogen is unknown at present, it can be distinguished from other Ehrlichia spp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In this study it was differentiated from E. ruminantium by the use of the pCS20 PCR assay which has high specificity and sensitivity for the detection of E. ruminantium. This assay did not amplify DNA from the WTDE DNA samples isolated from deer resident in Florida, Georgia and Missouri, but amplified the specific 279 bp fragment from E. ruminantium DNA. The specificity of the pCS20 PCR assay for E. ruminantium was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Similarly, the 16S PCR primers (nested that amplify a specific 405-412 bp fragment from the WTDE DNA samples, did not amplify any product from E. ruminantium DNA. This result demonstrates that it would be possible to differentiate between E. ruminantium and the novel WTDE agent found in white tailed deer by applying the two respective PCR assays followed by Southern hybridizations. Since the pCS20 PCR assay also does not amplify any DNA products from E. chaffeensis or Ehrlichia canis DNA, it is therefore the method of choice for the detection of E. ruminantium in these deer and other animal hosts.

  8. Fungalysin and dipeptidyl-peptidase gene transcription in Microsporum canis strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, Anne; Baldo, Aline; Schoofs, Laura; Cambier, Ludivine; Defaweux, Valérie; Tabart, Jérémy; Maréchal, Françoise; Symoens, Françoise; Mignon, Bernard

    2010-11-20

    Microsporum canis is the main pathogenic fungus that causes a superficial cutaneous infection called dermatophytosis in domestic carnivores. In cats, M. canis causes symptomatic or asymptomatic infection. Recent conflicting data raise the question of whether the clinical status of the infected cat (symptomatic or asymptomatic) is directly correlated to the proteolytic activity of M. canis strains. Here, the transcription of fungalysin and dipeptidyl-peptidase genes (DPP) of M. canis was compared between four strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic cats during the first steps of the infection process, namely in arthroconidia, during adherence of arthroconidia to corneocytes and during early invasion of the epidermis, using a new ex vivo model made of feline epidermis. There was no detectable transcription of the fungalysin genes in arthroconidia or during the first steps of the infection process for any of the tested strains, suggesting that these proteases play a role later in the infection process. Among DPP, the DPP IV gene was the most frequently transcribed both in arthroconidia and later during infection (adherence and invasion), but no significant differences were observed between M. canis strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic cats. This study shows that the clinical aspect of M. canis feline dermatophytosis depends upon factors relating to the host rather than to the proteolytic activity of the infective fungal strain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome Sequence of Canine Adenovirus Type 1 Isolated from a Wolf (Canis lupus) in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzurro, Federica; Marcacci, Maurilia; Zaccaria, Guendalina; Orsini, Massimiliano; Cito, Francesca; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Di Renzo, Ludovica; Malatesta, Daniela; Di Sabatino, Daria; Lorusso, Alessio

    2017-04-20

    Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1), a DNA virus of the family Adenoviridae, causes infectious canine hepatitis, a highly contagious disease primarily affecting canids. In this report, we describe the isolation and whole-genome sequence of a CAdV-1 isolate from the liver of a free-ranging wolf (Canis lupus). Copyright © 2017 Pizzurro et al.

  10. Biotypes and ScM types of isolates of Streptococcus canis from diseased and healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, J F; Velineni, S; Ulrich, B; Blanchard, P

    2017-04-08

    Lancefield group G Streptococcus canis is a component of the normal urogenital and pharyngeal flora of the cat. It is also frequently implicated in epizootics of severe disease in closed cat colonies and animal shelters. Given the importance of S canis as a feline pathogen and relative lack of published information on characteristics potentially associated with virulence, the authors have compared isolates from healthy and diseased cats in New York and California using fermentation profiles (biotype) and ScM sequences. With few exceptions, isolates associated with disease were biotype 1. Four alleles of scm were identified of which type 1 dominated in diseased cats. Type 4 allelic variants were found only in healthy cats and all but one were biotype 2. Type 2 and 3 alleles showed extensive N-terminal variation suggesting a plasminogen-binding site as found on the type 1 allele was absent. Cat antisera to ScM were opsonobactericidal, and these potentially protective antibodies increased during convalescence. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Development of a generic Ehrlichia FRET-qPCR and investigation of ehrlichioses in domestic ruminants on five Caribbean islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilei; Kelly, Patrick; Guo, Weina; Xu, Chuanling; Wei, Lanjing; Jongejan, Frans; Loftis, Amanda; Wang, Chengming

    2015-10-06

    The Ehrlichia are obligate intracellular Gram-negative tick-borne bacteria that are important human and animal pathogens. There is a need for assays to rapidly and reliably detect and differentiate the five generally recognized species into groups in a single reaction: E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, E. muris and E. ruminantium. We developed primers and probes against the 16S rRNA gene to enable us to reliably detect the five major Ehrlichia spp. in a single FRET-qPCR. We tested the Ehrlichia FRET-qPCR on reference strains and on DNA from the blood of domestic ruminants from five Caribbean islands. The Ehrlichia present were determined using melting point analysis and by sequencing the Ehrlichia FRET-qPCR products as well as those of a nested PCR against the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Our Ehrlichia FRET-qPCR was negative for the closely related Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum but gave positive reactions with reference strains of the most generally recognized species and with other less characterized Ehrlichia of domestic ruminants, mainly E. ovina, the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia, and Ehrlichia sp. BOV2010. Melting point analysis revealed 4 distinct groups: E. ruminantium (T m ~55.8 °C); E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii (T m ~57.7 °C); E. canis, E. muris, E. ovina and Ehrlichia sp. BOV 2010 (T m ~62.0 °C); and the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia (T m ~65.5 °C). The detection limit of the FRET-qPCR was ~ 5 gene copies in a reaction and the sequences of the FRET-qPCR products were as expected. With DNA from domestic ruminants from the Caribbean we found 12.2 % (134/1,101) positive: cattle (76/385; 19.7 %), sheep (45/340; 13.2 %) and goats (13/376; 3.5 %). Melting point analysis and sequencing of the FRET-qPCR and nested PCR gltA products showed the Ehrlichia we detected were E. canis or very closely related organisms. In a single reaction, our Ehrlichia FRET-qPCR can detect the Ehrlichia spp. we studied and differentiate them into four groups

  12. Detection of Ehrlichia spp. in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Vivien G; Gaydos, Joseph K; Stallknecht, David E; Little, Susan E; Beall, Ashley D; Mead, Daniel G; Hurd, Colin C; Davidson, William R

    2005-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyonis lotor) and opossums (Didelphis virginianus) acquired from six contiguous counties in the Piedmont physiographic region of Georgia were investigated for their potential role in the epidemiology of ehrlichial and anaplasmal species. Serum was tested by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay for the presence of antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (HGA agent). Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to test whole blood or white blood cell preparations for the presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA (rDNA) gene fragments. In addition, ticks were collected from these animals and identified. Twenty-three of 60 raccoons (38.3%) had E. chaffeensis-reactive antibodies (>1:64), 13 of 60 raccoons (21.7%) had E. canis-reactive antibodies, and one of 60 raccoons (1.7%) had A. phagocytophilum- reactive antibodies. A sequence confirmed E. canis product was obtained from one of 60 raccoons and a novel Ehrlichia-like 16S rDNA sequence was detected in 32 of 60 raccoons. This novel sequence was most closely related to an Ehrlichia-like organism identified from Ixodes ticks and rodents in Asia and Europe. Raccoons were PCR negative for E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii DNA. Five tick species, including Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum, Ixodes texanus, I. cookei, and I. scapularis, were identified from raccoons and represent potential vectors for the ehrlichiae detected. Opossums (n = 17) were free of ticks and negative on all IFA and PCR assays. This study suggests that raccoons are potentially involved in the epidemiology of multiple ehrlichial organisms with known or potential public health and veterinary implications.

  13. Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

  14. Isolation and RFLP genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Kwok, O C H; Butler, E; Carstensen, M; Yu, L; Su, C

    2013-11-08

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test (cut-off titer of 25). Tissues (hearts, brains or both) of 109 wolves were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 25 and the isolates were further propagated in cell culture. T. gondii DNA from these isolates was characterized using 10 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). Four genotypes were detected. Twenty-one isolates were Type 12 (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #5), 2 were Type II clonal (ToxoDB #1), 1 was Type II variant (ToxoDB #3), and 1 was a new genotype designated as ToxoDB genotype #219. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Molecular diagnosis and species identification of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections in dogs from Panama, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Annamaria; Calzada, Jose E; Saldaña, Azael; Yabsley, Michael J; Gottdenker, Nicole L

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence and distribution of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia were estimated in 201 symptomatic dogs from Panama by nested PCR and DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 163 dogs (70.6%; 163/201) were infected with either Anaplasma or Ehrlichia. On the basis of PCR results, the majority of cases were infected with E. canis (64.2%; 129/201) followed by 21.4% (43/201) with A. platys, whereas 7.5% (15/201) had Anaplasma/Ehrlichia co-infections. Further analyses of 16S rDNA partial sequences show sequence homology with E. canis and A. platys from other countries. Hematology findings from 79 E. canis PCR-positive dogs included anemia (74.7%), thrombocytopenia (81.9%), macroplatelets (29.1%), and leukopenia (6.3%). Among 16 A. platys PCR-positive dogs with available hematology, 62.5% were anemic, 75% had thrombocytopenia, and 100% had macroplatelets. On the basis of E.canis serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) (n=92 dogs), 30 dogs that were seropositive for E. canis were also PCR-positive, whereas among seronegatives (n=62), 10 were PCR-positive for E. canis. This study provides the first characterization of canine anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis infections in Panama and is important to veterinary public health and comparative studies of these pathogens in the Americas.

  16. Comparison of Babesia rossi and Babesia canis isolates with emphasis on effects of vaccination with soluble parasite antigens : a review : review article

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    T.P.M. Schetters

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available abesia canis and B. rossi are large Babesia species that infect dogs and cause clinical disease. The spectrum of disease is highly diverse with either parasite, but upon evaluation of field cases it has been suggested that in general B. rossi is more virulent than B. canis. This difference was also found in experimental infections using B. canis and B. rossi isolates and appeared to be related to a difference in parasitaemia. Whether this difference reflects the essential difference between B. canis and B. rossi species in general, or merely reflects the variability in virulence of individual isolates cannot be discerned. Comparative in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a number of qualitative differences between the B. canis and B. rossi isolates studied; however, more research is required to determine any causal relationship between in vitro and in vivo characteristics. Vaccination with a bivalent vaccine (containing soluble parasite antigen [SPA] from supernatants of in vitro cultures of B. canis and B. rossi induced protection against clinical babesiosis upon challenge infection with either parasite. The dynamics of parasitaemia upon challenge infection of vaccinated animals indicated a biological difference between the B. canis and B. rossi isolates studied. Vaccinated dogs that were challenged with B. rossi parasites (2 isolates tested effectively controlled parasitaemia. By contrast, in vaccinated dogs that were challenged with B. canis isolates (2 isolates tested there was little or no effect on parasitaemia but levels of SPA in plasma were reduced. Apparently the nature of vaccine-induced immunity differs with respect to the challenge species.

  17. Molecular Detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Ruminants from Twelve Provinces of China

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    Haixiang Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. There is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in China. 16S rRNA FRET-qPCRs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of China for Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Positive samples were further analyzed with a standard PCR for the gltA. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in the sheep (11.7%; 13/111, goats (81.8%; 219/270, cattle (13.2%; 241/1,830, and water buffaloes (6.9%; 2/29. Ehrlichia spp. DNA was detected in sheep (1.8%; 2/111, goats (1.1%; 3/270, and cattle (3.6%; 65/1830 but not in water buffaloes (0/29. Sequencing of gltA PCR products showed that A. marginale, A. ovis, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia sp. (JX629807 were present in ruminants from China, while the 16S rRNA FRET-qPCR sequence data indicated that there might also be A. platys, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma sp. BL126-13 (KJ410243, and Anaplasma sp. JC3-6 (KM227012. Our study shows that domestic ruminants from China are not uncommonly infected with a variety of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp.

  18. Molecular Detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Ruminants from Twelve Provinces of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haixiang; Kelly, Patrick John; Zhang, Jilei; Luo, Qinghua; Yang, Yi; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Li, Jing; Wu, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. There is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in China. 16S rRNA FRET-qPCRs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of China for Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Positive samples were further analyzed with a standard PCR for the gltA. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in the sheep (11.7%; 13/111), goats (81.8%; 219/270), cattle (13.2%; 241/1,830), and water buffaloes (6.9%; 2/29). Ehrlichia spp. DNA was detected in sheep (1.8%; 2/111), goats (1.1%; 3/270), and cattle (3.6%; 65/1830) but not in water buffaloes (0/29). Sequencing of gltA PCR products showed that A. marginale, A. ovis, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia sp. (JX629807) were present in ruminants from China, while the 16S rRNA FRET-qPCR sequence data indicated that there might also be A. platys, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma sp. BL126-13 (KJ410243), and Anaplasma sp. JC3-6 (KM227012). Our study shows that domestic ruminants from China are not uncommonly infected with a variety of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. PMID:28096822

  19. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  20. Intravascular persistence of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia ewingii DNA in the blood of a dog and two family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Hegarty, Barbara C; Qurollo, Barbara A; Saito, Tais B; Maggi, Ricardo G; Blanton, Lucas S; Bouyer, Donald H

    2014-07-01

    Anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys, and ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, the "Panola Mountain Ehrlichia" and Ehrlichia muris-like pathogens have been identified as emerging tick borne infectious diseases in dogs and human patients. Persistent intravascular infection with these bacteria is well documented in dogs, but is less well documented in human beings. Serology and PCR targeting multiple microbial genes, followed by DNA sequencing, was used to test sequential blood samples. Tissue culture isolation was attempted in two laboratories. A. platys, E. chaffeensis, and E. ewingii DNA was amplified from two Anaplasma and Ehrlichia seronegative family members and their dog, all lacking typical symptoms of anaplasmosis or ehrlichiosis. Following treatment with doxycycline, the dog and mother were Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. PCR negative. Sequential PCR testing provided molecular evidence supporting intravascular persistence of A. platys and Ehrlichia spp. in two humans and their dog. Diagnosticians and clinicians should consider the potential for co-infections due to these tick borne organisms.

  1. Two novel Ehrlichia strains detected in Amblyomma tigrinum ticks associated to dogs in peri-urban areas of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, M Nazarena; Nava, Santiago

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work was to describe two novel strains of Ehrlichia associated to Amblyomma tigrinum from Argentina. Molecular detection of agents belonging to the family Anaplasmataceae was performed targeting three different loci: 16S rRNA gene, dsb gene and a fragment of groESL heat shock operon. The results have shown that two different strains of Ehrlichia sp. associated to A. tigrinum are circulating in peri-urban areas of Argentina. The Ehrlichia strain detected in ticks from San Luis Province, named as Ehrlichia sp. strain San Luis, is closely related to the Ehrlichia chaffeensis. The novel Ehrlichia strain detected in Córdoba Province, named as Ehrlichia sp. strain Córdoba, is phylogenetically related to three Ehrlichia strains from Brazil, two of them isolated from wild carnivorous and the third one isolated from horse. Even though Ehrlichia sp. strain Córdoba was clustered with the three Ehrlichia strains from Brazil, the genetic similarity was too low to consider them as the same taxonomic entity. Blood samples of dogs were positive to Anaplasma platys. The association of these two novel strains with A. tigrinum has epidemiological relevance because adult stages of this tick species are common parasite of dogs in rural and peri-urban areas and they are aggressive to humans. The presence of these two novel Ehrlichia strains implies a potential epidemiological risk in Argentina because the species of the genus Ehrlichia are known to be pathogenic to both domestic mammals and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of antibodies to and PCR detection of Ehrlichia spp. in dogs following natural tick exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Lindsay A; Barrett, Anne W; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Stillman, Brett A; Tyrrell, Phyllis; Thatcher, Brendon; Beall, Melissa J; Gruntmeir, Jeff M; Meinkoth, James H; Little, Susan E

    2014-10-10

    Dogs exposed to ticks in the southern US may become infected with multiple species of Ehrlichia. To better define infection risk, blood samples collected from 10 dogs infested with ticks via a natural infestation model were evaluated by blood smear examination, PCR, patient-side ELISAs (SNAP® 4Dx® and SNAP® 4Dx® Plus), IFA, and peptide based ELISA for evidence of infection with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and/or E. ewingii. Although morulae were rarely identified in blood smears, every dog (10/10) became infected with Ehrlichia spp. as evidenced by nested PCR detection of E. chaffeensis (7/10) and E. ewingii DNA (10/10); real-time PCR detection of E. chaffeensis (0/10) and E. ewingii (9/10); seroconversion on two different patient-side ELISAs (4/10 or 10/10); seroconversion on IFA to E. canis (10/10, maximum inverse titer=128-4096, GMTMAX=548.7) and E. chaffeensis (10/10, maximum inverse titer=1024-32,768, GMTMAX=4096); and seroconversion on peptide specific ELISA to E. chaffeensis VLPT (7/10) and E. ewingii p28 (9/10). Rickettsemia with E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii, as determined by nested PCR, persisted in dogs for an average of 3.2 or 30.5 days, respectively. Ehrlichia canis was not detected in any dog by any method, and no dogs developed signs of clinical disease. Our data suggest that in areas where ticks are common, dogs are at high risk of infection with Ehrlichia spp., particularly E. ewingii and E. chaffeensis, and can serve as a sentinel for monitoring for the presence of these zoonotic pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Potentially novel Ehrlichia species in horses, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nion, Victoria L; Montilla, Hernan J; Qurollo, Barbara A; Maggi, Ricardo G; Hegarty, Barbara C; Tornquist, Susan J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2015-02-01

    Ehrlichia sp. DNA was amplified from 4 Ehrlichia-seroreactive horses from Mérida, Nicaragua. Sequencing of 16S rDNA, sodB, and groEL genes indicated that the bacterium is most likely a novel Ehrlichia species. The tick vector and the potential for canine and human infection remain unknown.

  4. Leishmania, Babesia and Ehrlichia in urban pet dogs: co-infection or cross-reaction in serological methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Krawczak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study was designed to assess the occurrence of co-infection or cross-reaction in the serological techniques used for detecting the anti-Leishmania spp., -Babesia canis vogeli and -Ehrlichia canis antibodies in urban dogs from an area endemic to these parasites. METHODS: The serum samples from dogs were tested for the Babesia canis vogeli strain Belo Horizonte antigen and Ehrlichia canis strain São Paulo by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT and by anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody detection to assess Leishmania infection. We used the following four commercial kits for canine visceral leishmaniasis: ELISA, IFAT, Dual Path Platform (DPP (Bio Manguinhos(r/FIOCRUZ/MS and a rK39 RDT (Kalazar Detect Canine Rapid Test; Inbios. RESULTS : Of 96 serum samples submitted to serological assays, 4 (4.2% were positive for Leishmania as determined by ELISA; 12 (12.5%, by IFAT; 14 (14.6% by rK39 RDT; and 20 (20.8%, by DPP. Antibodies against Ehrlichia and Babesia were detected in 23/96 (23.9% and 30/96 (31.2% samples, respectively. No significant association was identified between the results of tests for detecting Babesia or Ehrlichia and those for detecting Leishmania (p-value>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we demonstrated co-infection with Ehrlichia or Babesia and Leishmania in dogs from Minas Gerais (Brazil; we also found that the serological tests that were used did not cross-react.

  5. Bacteriemia por Brucella canis: Aislamiento con el Sistema Bact-Alert Bacteriemia by Brucella canis: Isolation with the Bact-Alert System

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    R. Soloaga

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available B.canis puede causar enfermedad en humanos, pero esto es poco frecuente aún en países donde la infección es común en perros. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 15 años de edad que ingresa por fiebre de quince días de evolución sin foco aparente. El exámen físico mostró dolor hepático a la palpación y adenomegalias axilares, cervicales e inguinales. La ecografía abdominal evidenció esplenomegalia, la radiografía de tóraxy el ecocardiograma transtorácico no presentaron anormalidades. Se tomaron 5 hemocultivos (sistema Bact-Alert, Biomerieux, Marcy, l’Etolie, Francia los cuales resultaron positivos; los mismos correspondieron a 2 botellas estándares (tiempo de positivización de 72 y 64,8 horas y a 3 pediátricas FAN (tiempo de positivización de 74,5; 72 y 67,2 hs. El microorganismo fue identificado en forma presuntiva por pruebas bioquímicascomo B. canis y la identificación fue confirmada en el Instituto Malbrán. Luego de 14 días de tratamiento con ceftriaxona el paciente evolucionó afebril;al tener documentación bacteriológica de B.canis, se realizó tratamiento ambulatorio durante 21 días con doxiciclina (100 mg cada 12 hs y rifampicina (600 mg/día durante 6 semanas. Se descartó compromiso óseo y la evolución fue favorable desapareciendo todos los síntomas.Brucella canis and other species of the genus Brucella can cause human disease. However, this species infrequently cause human disease, including in countries where dogs population is highly infected. A 15 years old male was admitted to the hospital with 15 days history of fever without visible focus. Physical examination revealed pain at liver palpation and axillar, cervical and inguinal lymphoadenomegalies. Abdominal ultrasonography showed spleenomegally, the chest Rx and the trans thoracic echocardiogram were normal. Five blood samples were obtained and cultured in 2 standards bottles (time of positivization 72 - 64,8 hours, and 3 pediatric FAN bottles

  6. Vector-Borne Diseases in Stray Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia and Molecular Detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. from Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Fui Xian; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-01-01

    Little data are available on the prevalence and transmission of vector-borne diseases in stray dogs in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens in Malaysian stray dogs using serological and molecular approaches. In total, 48 dog blood samples were subjected to serological analysis using SNAP 4Dx kit (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME). The presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma DNA in the dog blood samples and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Positive serological findings against Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were obtained in 17 (39.5%) and four (9.3%) of 43 dog samples, respectively. None of the dog blood samples were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis. DNA of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 (25.5%) and two (4.3%) of 47 dog blood samples, and 17 (51.5%) and one (3.0%) of 33 R. sanguineus ticks, respectively. Additionally, DNA of Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis was detected in two (6.1%) R. sanguineus ticks. This study highlights the prevalence of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in dogs in Malaysia. Due to the zoonotic potential of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp., appropriate measures should be instituted for prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in dogs. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Investigation of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. in ectoparasites collected from domestic animals, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayssa Keren da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of emerging arthropod-borne pathogens Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia infection in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera collected from dogs and horses within municipality of Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro State, Southern Brazil. Samples from 280 ticks and two fleas were subjected to family or/and genus specific PCR for Anaplasmataceae, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia, followed by DNA sequencing to ensure pathogen identity. In ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from dogs the DNA of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis was detected in 6.8% and 2.2% samples respectively. In two R. sanguineus confection with two pathogens was observed. In Dermacentor nitens ticks, collected from horses Francisella-like endosymbiont was found in 42.8% samples. DNA of Rickettsia felis and Wolbachia pi-petens was detected in fleas Ctenocephalides canis fleas. No DNA of Rickettsia was found in tested ticks. The findings contribute to our knowledge of tick-borne bacteria, ticks and endosymbionts distribution in Brazil.

  8. Molecular survey of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia infections of feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashika, Mariko; Abe, Go; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2011-04-01

    Infection by Anaplasma and Ehrlichia in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan, was examined by molecular methods. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screen for Anaplasmataceae, based on 16S rRNA, showed that 38 (5.4%) of 699 raccoons examined were positive. These 38 positive samples were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia canis infection by species-specific nested PCR. Nested PCR results indicated that 36 of the 38 samples were positive for A. bovis. All 38 samples were PCR negative for A. phagocytophilum, E. chaffeensis, and E. canis. This is the first report of the detection of A. bovis in the peripheral blood of raccoons. A total of 124 raccoons were infested with ticks, including Ixodes ovatus, Ixodes persulcatus, and Haemaphysalis spp. The rate of A. bovis infection in raccoons infested with Haemaphysalis spp. (46.7%, 7/15) was significantly higher than that in raccoons without Haemaphysalis spp. infestation (3.7%, 4/109, p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in A. bovis infection rates between raccoons infested with I. ovatus or I. persulcatus and those not so infested. A total of four ticks (two males and two nymphs) and one larval pools from four raccoons showed positive for A. bovis-specific nested PCR. This results support the correlation between the A. bovis infection of raccoons and Haemaphysalis infestation. In conclusion, raccoons could be possible reservoir animals for A. bovis, and A. bovis infection in raccoons may be related to infestation with Haemaphysalis spp.

  9. Helicobacter canis colonization in sheep: a Zoonotic link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennes, Alton G; Turk, Michelle L; Trowel, Elise M; Cullin, Cassandra; Shen, Zeli; Pang, Jassia; Petersson, Katherine H; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Fox, James G

    2014-02-01

    Helicobacter canis has been associated with hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal disease in dogs, cats, and humans. Infection has not been documented in other species. Sheep feces subjected to microaerobic culture. Isolates were characterized by genus-specific PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism, biochemical profiling, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Helicobacter canis was isolated from sheep feces and confirmed by the above methods. These isolates are distinct from other sheep-origin enterohepatic Helicobacter species previously isolated. This study identifies sheep as H. canis reservoirs potentially important in zoonotic or foodborne transmission. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparação entre os métodos de coloração panótico rápido e giemsa para o diagnóstico de protozoários do gênero Babesia (Starcovici, 1893) e de riquétsias do gênero Ehrlichia (Ehrlich, 1888) em cães (Canis familiaris) no município de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Tarnowski Olicheski

    2003-01-01

    O trabalho realizado determinou a freqüência dos gêneros Babesia e Ehrlichia, em 250 caninos com suspeita clínica de hemoparasitose, atendidos no Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (HCV–UFRGS), clínicas e hospitais veterinários particulares. Foi analisada a influência da faixa etária e do gênero dos animais na positividade, assim como comparadas as colorações de Giemsa e Panótico Rápido. A pesquisa dos parasitas no sangue de caninos foi realizada at...

  11. Prevalence of ehrlichial infection among dogs and ticks in Northeastern Brazil Prevalência da infecção por Ehrlichia em cães e carrapatos no Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Maria Paraná da Silva Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the epidemiology of canine ehrlichiosis in Northeastern Brazil, focusing the identification of the Ehrlichia species and vectors involved. Samples were collected from 472 domestic dogs residing in the health districts of Cajazeiras and Itapuã of Salvador city. The average prevalence of antibodies reactive to E. canis by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT (titer > 1:80 was 35.6% (168/472. Blood samples from the E. canis-seropositive animals were tested by nested PCR in order to identify the Ehrlichia species responsible for the infection. Among the seropositives, 58 (34.5% were found to be PCR-positive for E. canis. Ticks were found in 32 dogs. Nested-PCR analysis showed that 21.9% (7/32 of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus were infected by E. canis. In both dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, nested-PCR for E. ewingii and E. chaffeensis was negative, with no amplification of DNA fragment.Este estudo objetivou pesquisar a epidemiologia da erliquiose canina no Nordeste do Brasil, com especial atenção na identificação da espécie de Ehrlichia envolvida nas infecções caninas e vetoriais detectadas. Para isso foram coletadas amostras de 472 cães domiciliados nos distritos sanitários de Cajazeiras e Itapuã. A prevalência de anticorpos anti-E. canis, pela imunofluorescência indireta (título > 1:80, em cães foi de 35,6% (168/472. Os animais soropositivos foram analisados por uma nested-PCR para identificação da espécie de Ehrlichia responsável pela infecção. Dentre os positivos, 58 (34,5% cães foram PCR-positivos para E. canis. Foram coletados e classificados os carrapatos em 32 cães. A nested-PCR de Rhipicephalus sanguineus resultou em 21,9% (7/32 de infecção por E. canis. A nested-PCR de amostras de sangue de cães e Rhipicephalus sanguineus para E. chaffeensis e E. ewingii foi negativa, não havendo amplificação de fragmento de DNA.

  12. Serological and molecular investigation of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. in ticks and blood of dogs, in the Thrace Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Handan; Matur, Erdal; Akyazi, İbrahim; Ekiz, Elif Ergul; Aydin, Levent; Toparlak, Mufit

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, tick-borne diseases like ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis became widespread worldwide threatening the health of both human and companion animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. A total of 400 blood samples and 912 ticks were collected from dogs living in shelters that are located in four cities (Istanbul, Edirne, Tekirdag and Kirklareli) of the Thrace Region. Blood and buffy coat smears were prepared for microscopic examination. Hematologic and serologic analyses were performed using cell counter and commercial Snap3Dx test kit, respectively. Eight hundred fifty of collected ticks were classified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 33 as Rhipicephalus turanicus and 29 as Ixodes ricinus. After DNA extraction from blood samples and pooled ticks (127 tick pools, in total), nested PCR was performed to detect the DNA of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. The seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis was 27.25% (109) by Snap3Dx test and the total molecular positivity was 11.75% (47) in dog blood samples and 21.25% (27) in tick pools by nested PCR. The frequencies of the infected blood samples with E. canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys were detected as 6%, 4% and 6%, respectively. E. canis and A. platys were detected in R. sanguineus pools with a ratio of 15.75% and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, A. platys was also detected in R. turanicus pools (0.7%). A. phagocytophilum was found only in I. ricinus pools (3.93%). Morulae of three species were detected in buffy coat and blood smears. While anemia was observed in dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected (with one or more species), thrombocytopenia was observed only in co-infected dogs. This is the first study providing evidence for the presence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. Based on the results of the tests used in this study

  13. Ectoparasite Infestations and Canine Infection by Rickettsiae and Ehrlichiae in a Semi-Arid Region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araes-Santos, Ana Isabel; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Peixoto, Renata M; Spolidorio, Mariana G; Azevedo, Sérgio S; Costa, Mateus M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Horta, Mauricio C

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs and their ectoparasites from rural and urban areas of two municipalities, Petrolina and Juazeiro, within a semiarid region (Caatinga biome) of northeastern Brazil, by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 12.1% (61/504) and 23.0% (116/504) of canine plasma samples had antibodies reactive to Rickettsia spp. and E. canis. E. canis DNA was detected by PCR in 8.3% (42/504) of canine blood samples, whereas no blood sample was positive for Rickettsia spp. The infection by E. canis was determined by PCR in 4.9% (14/285) Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) ticks and by Rickettsia felis in 1.1% (3/285) and 40.6% (74/182) ticks and fleas, respectively. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that canine seropositivity to Rickettsia spp. was associated statistically with the variables "to reside in Petrolina" and "presence of ectoparasites." Our results indicate that canine infection by E. canis might be endemic in the Caatinga biome as it is in other Brazilian biomes. Although no previous serosurvey for Rickettsia spp. has been conducted on dogs from the Caatinga biome, our values are much lower than the ones reported for rural dogs from other Brazilian biomes. These differences are likely related to the semiarid climate of the aatinga biome, which minimizes the exposure of rural dogs to Amblyomma spp. ticks, the most common vectors of Rickettsia spp. in Brazil. Considering that dogs are excellent sentinels for human exposure to Rickettsia spp., we can infer that the risks of human acquiring tick-borne rickettsiosis in the Caatinga region of the present study are low. The rickettsial infection rates in fleas and ticks were not related to canine seropositivity; i.e., areas with higher Rickettsia infection rates in fleas had the lowest canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp.

  14. Spatial distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Sréter-Lancz, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from Hungary. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by R. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The spleen samples of the animals were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, E. canis and H. canis infection. Positive results were confirmed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing. The prevalence of H. canis infection was 22.2% (95% CI=18.4-26.4%), and this parasite was detected in all areas including the mountain regions of Hungary. These findings indicate that other tick species or other transmission routes (oral and transplacental) might be in the background of the countrywide distribution of H. canis. Anaplasma platys was not found; nevertheless, the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection transmitted by Ixodes ricinus was 12.5% (95% CI=9.7-16.1%) in foxes. B. vogeli and E. canis infection was not detected. There was no correlation between environmental parameter values in the home range of foxes and A. phagocytophilum or H. canis infection, which is in line with that observed in the case of tick species infesting foxes in Hungary. The results of this study indicate that R. sanguineus, if present, might be rare in Hungary. Our baseline study can be used for future evaluation of the effect of climate change on the spreading and emergence of R. sanguineus transmitted pathogens in Hungary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of persons with serologic evidence of E. canis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, B W; Harkess, J R; Ewing, S A; Kudlac, J; McKee, G L; Istre, G R

    1990-04-01

    The results of a serosurvey of Oklahomans for the presence of antibody to Ehrlichia canis is reported. Paired serum specimens, from patients lacking the serologic criteria for diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), were tested. A four-fold increase in E. canis-IFA antibody was found in 16/144 (11 percent) of these paired serum samples. Patients with serologic evidence of E. canis infection had a mean age of 34 years, 69 percent were male, and 63 percent lived in a town less than 10,000 population. Signs and symptoms included: fever 94 percent, headache 94 percent, fatigue 94 percent, anorexia 81 percent, nausea 60 percent, and rash 44 percent. When compared to control patients, whose sera were submitted for RMSF testing but did not meet serologic criteria for RMSF or E. canis, case-patients were more likely to have had leukopenia (OR = 4.9, 95 percent Cl = 1.2, 19.0) and tick exposure (OR = 9.5, 95 percent Cl = 1.4, 62.7). The results suggest E. canis, or a closely related agent, is a cause of human illness. Ticks are probable vector.

  16. Multiplex PCR-based identification of Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriconi, M; Acke, E; Petrelli, D; Preziuso, S

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus canis (S. canis), Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies (S. dysgalactiae subspecies) are β-haemolytic Gram positive bacteria infecting animals and humans. S. canis and S. zooepidemicus are considered as two of the major zoonotic species of Streptococcus, while more research is needed on S. dysgalactiae subspecies bacteria. In this work, a multiplex-PCR protocol was tested on strains and clinical samples to detect S. canis, S. dysgalactiae subspecies and S. equi subspecies bacteria in dogs. All strains were correctly identified as S. canis, S. equi subspecies or S. dysgalactiae subspecies by the multiplex-PCR. The main Streptococcus species isolated from symptomatic dogs were confirmed S. canis. The multiplex-PCR protocol described is a rapid, accurate and efficient method for identifying S. canis, S. equi subspecies and S. dysgalactiae subspecies in dogs and could be used for diagnostic purposes and for epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Demodex canis: redescription and reevaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutting, W B; Desch, C E

    1978-04-01

    A brief review of the taxonomy of Demodex canis is followed by a complete redescription. Demodex canis is diagnosed with D. odocoilei of the white-tailed deer. In view of the continued speculation that dogs and man share the same demodicid, simple morphological characters are noted which distinguish D. canis from D. folliculorum and D. brevis in all stages of their life cycles.

  18. Experimentally induced clinical Cystoisospora canis coccidiosis in dogs with prior natural patent Cystoisospora ohioensis-like or C. canis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Alice E; O'Connor, Thomas; Pena, Hilda F J; Gennari, Solange Maria; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2013-10-01

    Diarrhea caused by intestinal coccidia (Cystoisospora species) is a common problem in pet dogs and in dogs in animal shelters. Cystoisospora canis has the largest oocysts of the 4 named species of coccidia infecting dogs. The present study examined an isolate of C. canis obtained from a dog from São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Oocysts sporulated within 2 days at room temperature, and 20 sporulated oocysts were measured at 37.6 by 28.6 μm (range 35-42 by 26-31 μm). Most sporulated oocysts contained 2 sporocysts, each with 4 sporozoites, although a few (coccidiosis using sulfadimethoxine was recommended. Dog CRU had a natural C. canis infection and did not develop clinical disease after oral infection with C. canis oocysts. This dog had a prepatent period of 9 days and a patent period of 3 days, corresponding to experimental infection with the new isolate of C. canis. It excreted fewer C. canis oocysts than did the other dogs. The 4 dogs with natural C. ohioensis-like infection all developed clinical disease, and 1 required treatment. The prepatent period was 9-10 days, and the patent period was 10-11 days in these dogs. All 6 dogs not naturally infected with Cystoisospora developed clinical disease, and 2 required treatment. The prepatent period was 9-10 days, and the patent period was 8-12 days. The present study confirms that C. canis is a primary pathogen for young dogs. It demonstrates that prior infection with C. canis but not C. ohioensis-like coccidia confers some resistance to clinical disases and a decrease in oocyst production in dogs challenged with C. canis.

  19. Hacker Within! Ehrlichia chaffeensis Effector Driven Phagocyte Reprogramming Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslima Taher Lina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a small, gram negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects mononuclear phagocytes. It is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME, an emerging life-threatening tick-borne zoonosis. Mechanisms by which E. chaffeensis establishes intracellular infection, and avoids host defenses are not well understood, but involve functionally relevant host-pathogen interactions associated with tandem and ankyrin repeat effector proteins. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie Ehrlichia host cellular reprogramming strategies that enable intracellular survival.

  20. Hacker within! Ehrlichia chaffeensis Effector Driven Phagocyte Reprogramming Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, Taslima T; Farris, Tierra; Luo, Tian; Mitra, Shubhajit; Zhu, Bing; McBride, Jere W

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a small, gram negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects mononuclear phagocytes. It is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME), an emerging life-threatening tick-borne zoonosis. Mechanisms by which E. chaffeensis establishes intracellular infection, and avoids host defenses are not well understood, but involve functionally relevant host-pathogen interactions associated with tandem and ankyrin repeat effector proteins. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie Ehrlichia host cellular reprogramming strategies that enable intracellular survival.

  1. Fungal ovicidal activity on Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Nunes Vieira, Juliana; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Stoll, Franciele Elisa; Da Silva Nascente, Patricia; Pötter, Luciana; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Visceral toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxocara canis. The prevalence of this parasite in dogs, soil contamination and the resistance of eggs increase human exposure to the disease. Moreover, the difficulties of the control measures justify the need for alternative ones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal activity of fungi isolated from soils from public places in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on Toxocara canis. Samples of soil from ten localities were inoculated onto Petri dishes with 2% water-agar (WA) that contained antibiotics, and incubated at 25°C/21 days. Isolated fungi were tested in vitro for ovicidal activity, with five replicates. One mL of an embryonated Toxocara canis egg suspension (10(3) eggs) was poured over the fungal cultures after 10 days of growth. At intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days, 100 eggs were removed from each plaque and evaluated by optical microscopy. Acremonium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Mucor and Trichoderma were isolated from the soil. A significant ovicidal type 3 effect was observed in Trichoderma, Fusarium solani complex and Acremonium. Those isolates from the genus Trichoderma showed their ovicidal effect on the 14th day of fungus-egg interaction. The other fungal genera tested showed a type 2 effect. These results suggest that the use of Trichoderma and Fusarium solani complex in biological control of T. canis is promising; however, further studies should be performed. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. The reservoir status of rabbits for the maintenance of Ehrlichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reservoir status of rabbits for a strain of Ehrlichia ruminantium was investigated using six experimental and four controlled rabbits. Each of the experimental animals was intraperitoneally inoculated with 1.5 ml of infective blood from a febrile goat. The effect of the parasite on body weight, packed cell volume, total protein ...

  3. Molecular epidemiology of heartwater (Ehrlichia ruminantium infection) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faburay, B.

    2007-01-01

    Heartwater is caused by Ehrlichia ruminantium and transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyomma. It occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and in the Caribbean and affects domestic ruminants. There is general lack of information on the epidemiology of the disease in The Gambia. Results of a countrywide

  4. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...... of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine...

  5. Efficient high-throughput molecular method to detect Ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nídia Cangi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causal agent of heartwater, a fatal tropical disease affecting ruminants with important economic impacts. This bacterium is transmitted by Amblyomma ticks and is present in sub-Saharan Africa, islands in the Indian Ocean and the Caribbean, where it represents a threat to the American mainland. Methods An automated DNA extraction method was adapted for Amblyomma ticks and a new qPCR targeting the pCS20 region was developed to improve E. ruminantium screening capacity and diagnosis. The first step in the preparation of tick samples, before extraction, was not automated but was considerably improved by using a Tissue Lyser. The new pCS20 Sol1 qPCR and a previously published pCS20 Cow qPCR were evaluated with the OIE standard pCS20 nested PCR. Results pCS20 Sol1 qPCR was found to be more specific than the nested PCR, with a 5-fold increase in sensitivity (3 copies/reaction vs 15 copies/reaction, was less prone to contamination and less time-consuming. As pCS20 Sol1 qPCR did not detect Rickettsia, Anasplasma and Babesia species or closely related species such as Panola Mountain Ehrlichia, E. chaffeensis and E. canis, its specificity was also better than Cow qPCR. In parallel, a tick 16S qPCR was developed for the quality control of DNA extraction that confirmed the good reproducibility of the automated extraction. The whole method, including the automated DNA extraction and pCS20 Sol1 qPCR, was shown to be sensitive, specific and highly reproducible with the same limit of detection as the combined manual DNA extraction and nested PCR, i.e. 6 copies/reaction. Finally, 96 samples can be tested in one day compared to the four days required for manual DNA extraction and nested PCR. Conclusions The adaptation of an automated DNA extraction using a DNA/RNA viral extraction kit for tick samples and the development of a new qPCR increased the accuracy of E. ruminantium epidemiological studies, as well as the

  6. Prevalence of Babesia canis and Hepatozoon canis in Zaria, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2013-06-24

    Jun 24, 2013 ... Abstract. The study was carried out to show the prevalence of Babesia canis and Hepatozoon canis in dogs within Zaria. Between the months of May and August 2010, blood samples collected from 150 dogs were processed using. Giemsa stained thin blood smear and examined for the presence of B.

  7. First detection of Brucella canis infections in a breeding kennel in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Erwin; Bag, Zolt N; Revilla-Fern Ndez, Sandra; Melzer, Falk; Tomaso, Herbert; L Pez-Go I, Igniacio; Fasching, Gerhard; Schmoll, Friedrich

    2012-10-01

    Brucella canis occurs almost worldwide and is a potential danger to the health of dogs and humans. The pathogen was detected in the placenta and fetuses of a Standard Poodle by direct culture and immunohistochemistry. Further, Brucellae were also isolated from the blood samples of two asymptomatic female Medium Poodles. The isolates were identified as B. canis by conventional microbiological methods and a novel Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR. Genotyping was performed by multiple locus variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA).

  8. Brucella canis: inquéritos sorológico e bacteriológico em população felina Brucella canis: serological and bacteriological surveys in the feline population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available De 134 soros de felinos domésticos examinados pela prova de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, 4 (3% foram positivos para Brucella canis, todos com título igual a 100. Não se obteve êxito na tentativa de isolamento de Brucella canis através de hemocultura desses animais.Of the 134 feline sera tested by tube agglutination test, 4 (3% were positive for Brucella canis antibodies, all with titer 100. It was not possible to isolate Brucella canis by blood culture in the case of these animals.

  9. Streptococcus canis infections in humans: retrospective study of 54 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpérine, Tatiana; Cazorla, Cécile; Blanchard, Elodie; Boineau, Françoise; Ragnaud, Jean-Marie; Neau, Didier

    2007-07-01

    This 5-year retrospective study reports 54 patients with infection, caused by Streptococcus canis, a pyogenic Lancefield group G streptococcus initially isolated from various animal sources. During 1997-2002, Streptococcus canis accounted for 1% of all streptococci isolated. The clinical signs, outcome and bacteriological characteristics were reviewed. All except eight were symptomatic. Clinical manifestations were: soft tissue infection (n=35), bacteremia (n=5), urinary infection (n=3), bone infection (n=2) and pneumonia (n=1). The course was favorable in 52 cases while two died from sepsis. Cultures were often polymicrobial (n=42, 77.8%) apart from hemocultures. The isolates were sensitive to most antibiotics. Presence of the bacteria did not always signify infection owing to the possible occurrence of colonization. The frequency of S. canis infections is rare and likely underestimated owing to the fact that streptococci are sought only on the basis of the Lancefield classification. The search for S. canis is recommended whenever patients present with symptoms evocative of exposure to a potentially contaminated animal.

  10. SCM-positive Streptococcus canis are predominant among pet-associated group G streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkühlen, Gerd-Josef; Pägelow, Dennis; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Fulde, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) canis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen with increasing impor- tance. Since knowledge about its distribution in pets in Germany is scant, we designed a study and tested 335 dogs and 71 cats for colonization by S. canis. S. canis was isolated from swabs taken from the perianal region by culture and subsequent identification was performed biochemically as well as by PCR. In total, 15.8% (53) of the canine and 8.5% (six) of the feline strains grown on Staphlyo- coccus/Streptococcus Selective Agar were tested positive for the Lancefield group G antigen. The vast majority of strains expressing the Lancefield Group G carbohy- drate (56 out of 59) were further identified as S. canis underlining their outstanding role among animal-associated Group G streptococci (GGS). Furthermore, 90.0% of the canine and 83.3% of the feline S. canis strains harbour the species-specific anti- phagocytic M protein homologue SCM, which has been described as an important virulence factor. In contrast, emm-genes typically encoded by human-specific GGS could not be detected in any of the S. canis isolates. Taken together, this study provides insights into the distribution of the neglected zoonotic pathogen S. canis in a population of pets in Germany. The presence of SCM in the vast majority of strains indicates their pathogenic potential.

  11. Revised description and classification of atypical isolates of Pasteurella multocida from bovine lungs based on genotypic characterization to include variants previously classified as biovar 2 of Pasteurella canis and Pasteurella avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Angen, Øystein; Olsen, John E.

    2004-01-01

    , xylose and mannitol, 18 strains of Pasteurella canis biovar 2 and variants of this taxon, five strains of P multocida subsp. septica showing variations in indole and ornithine decarboxylase, nine strains of P. multocida subsp. multocida showing variation in ornithine decarboxylase and mannitol, and type...... and that the existence of the biovar 2 variants of P. avium and P. canis is highly questionable. It is concluded that the redefined P. multocida is genotypically homogeneous, although phenotypically diverse lineages exist with respect to ornithine decarboxylase, indole and mannitol, characters that have been regarded...

  12. The genetical history of an isolated population of the endangered grey wolf Canis lupus: a study of nuclear and mitochondrial polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegren, H; Savolainen, P; Rosén, B

    1996-12-29

    The grey wolf was thought to have been exterminated in the Scandinavian peninsula when the sudden appearance of a few animals in southern Sweden was reported in 1980. These wolves founded a new Swedish population which currently numbers at least 25 individuals, one of the world's smallest populations of the species. The sudden occurrence of the founder animals caused speculation that these had not appeared by 'natural' means but rather were Swedish zoo animals deliberately released by man. To analyse if this was the case and to elucidate the genetic status of this small and isolated population, we assessed nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) genetic variability in wild and captive grey wolves, using microsatellite typing and sequence analysis of the mtDNA D-loop. The new population was found to be monomorphic for a mtDNA haplotype which also was present in the Swedish zoo population. A total of four different mtDNA haplotypes were found among all captive and wild wolves (including two animals from an occasional establishment of a few wolves in northern Sweden in the late 1970s), with a maximum sequence divergence of 3.1%. Despite the mtDNA congruence, animals from the zoo population could most likely be excluded as founders for the wild population since the latter group of animals displayed several unique microsatellite alleles (i.e. alleles not found in the zoo population). Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of individual wolves, using microsatellite allele sharing as distance measure, placed all wild animals on a branch separated from that of the captive animals. The average degree of nuclear variability as well as allelic diversity was similar in the wild and the captive populations, respectively, but was lower than that reported for North-American populations of grey wolves. Polymorphism has declined in wild wolves born in recent years suggesting that this small population is currently suffering from a loss of genetic variability due to inbreeding. Inbreeding

  13. Inter-specific territoriality in a Canis hybrid zone: spatial segregation between wolves, coyotes, and hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R

    2013-12-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) generally exhibit intraspecific territoriality manifesting in spatial segregation between adjacent packs. However, previous studies have found a high degree of interspecific spatial overlap between sympatric wolves and coyotes. Eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) are the most common wolf in and around Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada and hybridize with sympatric gray wolves and coyotes. We hypothesized that all Canis types (wolves, coyotes, and hybrids) exhibit a high degree of spatial segregation due to greater genetic, morphologic, and ecological similarities between wolves and coyotes in this hybrid system compared with western North American ecosystems. We used global positioning system telemetry and probabilistic measures of spatial overlap to investigate spatial segregation between adjacent Canis packs. Our hypothesis was supported as: (1) the probability of locating wolves, coyotes, and hybrids within home ranges ([Formula: see text] = 0.05) or core areas ([Formula: see text] wolves and coyotes, highlighting the novel relationships between Canis types in the Ontario hybrid zone relative to areas where wolves and coyotes are reproductively isolated. Territoriality among Canis may increase the likelihood of eastern wolves joining coyote and hybrid packs, facilitate hybridization, and could play a role in limiting expansion of the genetically distinct APP eastern wolf population.

  14. Brucella spp. isolation from dogs from commercial breeding kennels in São Paulo state, Brazil Detecção de Brucella em cães provenientes de canis comerciais do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara B. Keid

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dogs from 12 commercial breeding kennels were submitted to clinical investigation and laboratorial tests for diagnosis of Brucella spp. infection. The sampling was carried out between April 2000 and February 2002 and the laboratorial tests employed were agar gel immunediffusion test (AGID and blood culture. From 171 dogs examinated, 39 (22.8% showed at least one clinical sign compatible with brucellosis, 58 (33.91% were AGID positive and 24 (14.03% were positive by blood culture. Gram negative bacterial cells with a biochemical pattern compatible with that of bacteria belonging to genus Brucella were isolated from blood specimens of 24 animals. According to Kappa index and McNemar test, the association between AGID and blood culture (k=0.360 with 95% of confidence interval; X²=25.93, p=0.000, between AGID and clinical test (k=0.248 with 95% of confidence interval; X²=6.11, p=0.013, and between blood culture and clinical examination (k=0.442 with 95% of confidence interval; X²=6.76, p=0.009 were not statistically significant. Qui-Square test indicated no association of sex and the results of clinical examination (X²=1.35 and p=0.2447, AGID (X²=1.58 and p=0.2086 or bacterial isolation (X²=1.48 and p=0.2230. Within 12 kennels, seven had at least one dog positive by blood culture and nine had at least one animal positive by AGID. The association of epidemiological data with direct and indirect methods of diagnosis is necessary to perform a definitive diagnosis of Brucella infection in dogs, as positive results by AGID can be consequence of non-specific reactions and must be confirmed by blood culture. Negative results by AGID must also be confirmed using direct methods of diagnosis or repeating the serologic test after 30 days, because of the low sensitivity of this test.Cães provenientes de 12 canis comerciais do estado de São Paulo foram submetidos à investigação clínica e a provas laboratoriais para o diagnóstico de infecção por

  15. Detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Associated with Exotic Reptiles and Amphibians Imported into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Masako; Sakata, Akiko; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiromi; Une, Yumi; Goka, Koichi; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ando, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan. Ninety-three ticks representing nine tick species (genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma) were isolated from at least 28 animals spanning 10 species and originating from 12 countries (Ghana, Jordan, Madagascar, Panama, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uzbekistan, and Zambia). None of the nine tick species are indigenous in Japan. The genes encoding the common rickettsial 17-kDa antigen, citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein A (ompA) were positively detected in 45.2% (42/93), 40.9% (38/93), and 23.7% (22/93) of the ticks, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genes encoding ehrlichial heat shock protein (groEL) and major outer membrane protein (omp-1) were PCR-positive in 7.5% (7/93) and 2.2% (2/93) of the ticks, respectively. The p44 gene, which encodes the Anaplasma outer membrane protein, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that several of the rickettsial and ehrlichial sequences isolated in this study were highly similar to human pathogen genes, including agents not previously detected in Japan. These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks. These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life. These results highlight the need to control the international transportation of known and

  16. Countrywide serological evaluation of canine prevalence for Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia canis in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Movilla, Rebeca; García, Carlos; Siebert, Susanne; Roura, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of the study described here is to add epidemiological data regarding four pathogens responsible for CVBD, namely anaplasmosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis and ehrlichiosis in a national...

  17. Naturally occurring Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in two prosimian primate species: ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Cathy V; Van Steenhouse, Jan L; Bradley, Julie M; Hancock, Susan I; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2002-01-01

    A naturally occurring infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in lemurs is described. DNA of Ehrlichia chaffeensis was identified by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood from six of eight clinically ill lemurs...

  18. Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, James M; Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

    2006-06-01

    Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. PCR-amplified fragments of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence analysis for species/genotype determination. Seven coyotes (32%) were positive for G. duodenalis: three assemblage C, three assemblage D, and one assemblage B. Six coyotes (27%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. One isolate shared 99.7% homology with C. muris, whereas five others (23%) shared 100% homology with C. canis, coyote genotype. This is the first report on multiple genotypes of Giardia spp. in coyotes and on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in coyotes.

  19. SCM, the M Protein of Streptococcus canis Binds Immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Simone; Eichhorn, Inga; Kohler, Thomas P; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The M protein of Streptococcus canis (SCM) is a virulence factor and serves as a surface-associated receptor with a particular affinity for mini-plasminogen, a cleavage product of the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin. Here, we report that SCM has an additional high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding activity. The ability of a particular S. canis isolate to bind to IgG significantly correlates with a scm-positive phenotype, suggesting a dominant role of SCM as an IgG receptor. Subsequent heterologous expression of SCM in non-IgG binding S. gordonii and Western Blot analysis with purified recombinant SCM proteins confirmed its IgG receptor function. As expected for a zoonotic agent, the SCM-IgG interaction is species-unspecific, with a particular affinity of SCM for IgGs derived from human, cats, dogs, horses, mice, and rabbits, but not from cows and goats. Similar to other streptococcal IgG-binding proteins, the interaction between SCM and IgG occurs via the conserved Fc domain and is, therefore, non-opsonic. Interestingly, the interaction between SCM and IgG-Fc on the bacterial surface specifically prevents opsonization by C1q, which might constitute another anti-phagocytic mechanism of SCM. Extensive binding analyses with a variety of different truncated SCM fragments defined a region of 52 amino acids located in the central part of the mature SCM protein which is important for IgG binding. This binding region is highly conserved among SCM proteins derived from different S. canis isolates but differs significantly from IgG-Fc receptors of S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae sub. equisimilis, respectively. In summary, we present an additional role of SCM in the pathogen-host interaction of S. canis. The detailed analysis of the SCM-IgG interaction should contribute to a better understanding of the complex roles of M proteins in streptococcal pathogenesis.

  20. Associated Factors to Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in Dogs of Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pablo Martínez-Vega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence to Ehrlichia spp. in dogs from Xcalak, Quintana Roo, Mexico, and the associated factors. Serum samples were obtained from 118 dogs and used in an indirect immunofluorescent assay test for the detection of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about possible variables associated with seroprevalence. These variables were analyzed through Chi2 test and logistic regression. Dog seroprevalence of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. was 64% (75/118. Fifty-two percent (61/118 of dogs had tick infestation which was identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Anemia was observed in 36% of dogs. Leucopenia (2.5%, thrombocytopenia (70%, and hemorrhage (14% were also observed. Thirty-one percent (23/75 of dogs with anemia, 4% (3/75 of dogs with leucopenia, 80% (60/75 of dogs with thrombocytopenia, 17% (13/75 of dogs with hemorrhages, and 59% (44/75 of dogs with ticks were positive for Ehrlichia spp. antibodies. The factors associated with seroprevalence were age (1–3 and >3 years old, OR = 7.77 and OR = 15.39, resp., tick infestation (OR = 3.13, and thrombocytopenia (OR = 3.36. In conclusion, seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. was high in the community of Xcalak and its associated factors were age, tick infestation, and thrombocytopenia.

  1. Natural history of zoonotic Ehrlichia species in the United States and discovery of a novel ehrlichial pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loftis, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Ehrlichia are obligate intracellular pathogens, transmitted by ixodid ticks, of both animals and humans. Ehrlichiae are emerging diseases in the USA, and the discovery of new species proceeds more rapidly than the development of models to study these agents. Laboratory animals were evaluated as

  2. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie

    2010-01-01

    ; 25 routine specimens from patients suspected of having dermatophytosis; 10 hair specimens from guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis; and two samples from un-infected control animals. DNA was prepared by a 10-min procedure from pure cultures as previously described. The 302 bp PCR product......Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control samples...... was obtained for 35/35 Trichophyton isolates (10 species included) and the 279 bp for 3/3 M. canis and 4/4 M. audouinii samples. None of the 2 E. floccosum, 11 M. gypseum, 3 M M. persicolor or 12 control samples (yeast, mould, human DNA) were positive with either of the two PCR tests. Among the patient...

  3. Detection of Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Babesia spp. in dogs of Cebu, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Haidee D. Ybanez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Babesia spp. are canine pathogens transmitted by the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick which can cause varied clinical signs. These pathogens have been investigated in the Philippines, but coinfection has not been reported yet. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp. in Philippine dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dogs from seven different veterinary establishments in Cebu, Philippines, were examined for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp. infection using peripheral blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Inclusion criteria included a history or presence of tick infestation, anemia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Clinical signs were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed between PCR positivity and clinical signs and hematological results. Results: A total of 10 and 18 dogs were found to be positive for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp., respectively. One animal was PCR positive for both pathogens, which is the first report of coinfection in the country. The most common clinical signs observed include inappetence (89%, lethargy (80%, thrombocytopenia (85%, and anemia (74%. Analyses revealed that inappetence (p=0.044 and weight loss (p=0.028 were found statistically significant with Ehrlichia/Anaplasma infection. Basophil (p=0.001 and eosinophil counts (p=0.000 were also found significantly different between Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.-positive and -negative dogs. On the other hand, differential monocyte count (p=0.009 was found significantly different between Babesia spp.-positive and -negative dogs. Conclusion: The present study showed low infection rates of canine ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis and babesiosis and provided additional evidence for the presence of the pathogens in the area.

  4. Proteomic analysis of the Ehrlichia chaffeensis phagosome in cultured DH82 cells.

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    Yan Cheng

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that resides and multiplies within cytoplasmic vacuoles of phagocytes. The Ehrlichia-containing vacuole (ECV does not fuse with lysosomes, an essential condition for Ehrlichia to survive inside phagocytes, but the mechanism of inhibiting the fusion of the phagosome with lysosomes is not clear. Understanding the ECV molecular composition may decipher the mechanism by which Ehrlichia inhibits phagosome-lysosome fusion. In this study, we obtained highly purified ECVs from E. chaffeensis-infected DH82 cells by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and analyzed their composition by mass spectrometry-based proteomics. The ECV composition was compared with that of phagolysosomes containing latex beads. Lysosomal proteins such as cathepsin D, cathepsin S, and lysosomal acid phosphatase were not detected in E. chaffeensis phagosome preparations. Some small GTPases, involved in membrane dynamics and phagocytic trafficking, were detected in ECVs. A notable finding was that Rab7, a late endosomal marker, was consistently detected in E. chaffeensis phagosomes by mass spectrometry. Confocal microscopy confirmed that E. chaffeensis phagosomes contained Rab7 and were acidified at approximately pH 5.2, suggesting that the E. chaffeensis vacuole was an acidified late endosomal compartment. Our results also demonstrated by mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence analysis that Ehrlichia morulae were not associated with the autophagic pathway. Ehrlichia chaffeensis did not inhibit phagosomes containing latex beads from fusing with lysosomes in infected cells. We concluded that the E. chaffeensis vacuole was a late endosome and E. chaffeensis might inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion by modifying its vacuolar membrane composition, rather than by regulating the expression of host genes involved in trafficking.

  5. Effect of Saprotrophic Soil Fungi on Toxocara canis Eggs

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    Ciarmela, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the ovicidal activity of Chrysosporium merdarium, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme and F. sulphureum isolated from public areas in the city of La Plata, Argentina, on Toxocara canis eggs in vitro. Each species were cultured on water agar 2% with a suspension of immature-stage T. canis eggs. At 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-culture, they were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. One hundred eggs were evaluated and scored according to Lỳsek’s ovicidal effect classification. These procedures were repeated three times which each fungal species. Chrysosporium merdarium and F. oxysporum showed very high ovicidal activity, F. sulphureum high ovicidal activity, F. moniliforme intermediate ovicidal activity and T. harzianum did not affect the viability of T. canis eggs. Taking into account the effects on human and animal health and the environment, the species with better prospects for studying its potential use as biological control was F. sulphureum.

  6. Prevalence of Ehrlichia ruminantium in adult Amblyomma variegatum collected from cattle in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esemu, Seraphine N; Besong, Willington O; Ndip, Roland N; Ndip, Lucy M

    2013-03-01

    Ehrlichia ruminantium, the etiologic agent of the economically important disease heartwater, is an obligate intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyomma, particularly A. hebraeum and A. variegatum. Although serologic and microscopic evidence of the presence of heartwater have been reported in ruminants in Cameroon, knowledge of E. ruminantium infection in the tick vector, A. variegatum, is lacking. In order to determine the infectivity of A. variegatum ticks by E. ruminantium, we analysed 500 un-engorged A. variegatum ticks collected by hand-picking from predilection sites from 182 cattle [115 ticks from 82 cattle at Société de Développement et d'Exploitation des Productions Animales (SODEPA) Dumbo ranch (SDR) and 385 ticks from 100 cattle at the Upper Farms ranch (UFR)] by amplification of the open reading frame (ORF) 2 of the pCS20 region of E. ruminantium. PCR amplification of the 279 bp fragment of the pCS20 region detected E. ruminantium DNA in 142 (28.4 %) of the 500 ticks with a higher infection rate (47/115; 40.9 %) observed in ticks from SDR and 24.7 % (95/385) of ticks collected from cattle at UFR. Twenty five randomly selected PCR products were sequenced and results indicated that some of the isolates shared homology with one another and to sequences of E. ruminantium in the GenBank. This report represents the first molecular evidence of E. ruminantium infection in A. variegatum ticks in Cameroon and suggests possible exposure of cattle to this pathogen in our environment.

  7. Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus canis, and Arcanobacterium phocae of healthy Canadian farmed mink and mink with pododermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, Gabhan; McLean, John; Hunter, D. Bruce; Brash, Marina; Slavic, Durda; Pearl, David L; Boerlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pododermatitis is a disease of concern for mink breeders in Canada and worldwide, as it causes discomfort and lowers the breeding rates on farms affected by the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology and pathogenesis of pododermatitis are still unknown. In this study, we compared Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus canis isolates from healthy mink with isolates from animals with pododermatitis on 2 farms in Ontario. Almost all hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. isolated were shown to be Staphyloco...

  8. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie

    2010-01-01

    Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control sample...

  9. Genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus canis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. It is also an emerging human pathogen. Results Here we provide characterization of the first genome sequence for this species, strain FSL S3-227 (milk isolate from a cow with an intra-mammary infection). A diverse array of putative virulence factors was encoded by the S. canis FSL S3-227 genome. Approximately 75% of these gene sequences were homologous to known Streptococcal virulence factors involved in invasion, evasion, and colonization. Present in the genome are multiple potentially mobile genetic elements (MGEs) [plasmid, phage, integrative conjugative element (ICE)] and comparison to other species provided convincing evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT) between S. canis and two additional bovine mastitis causing pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae), with this transfer possibly contributing to host adaptation. Population structure among isolates obtained from Europe and USA [bovine = 56, canine = 26, and feline = 1] was explored. Ribotyping of all isolates and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of a subset of the isolates (n = 45) detected significant differentiation between bovine and canine isolates (Fisher exact test: P = 0.0000 [ribotypes], P = 0.0030 [sequence types]), suggesting possible host adaptation of some genotypes. Concurrently, the ancestral clonal complex (54% of isolates) occurred in many tissue types, all hosts, and all geographic locations suggesting the possibility of a wide and diverse niche. Conclusion This study provides evidence highlighting the importance of LGT in the evolution of the bacteria S. canis, specifically, its possible role in host adaptation and acquisition of virulence factors. Furthermore, recent LGT detected between S. canis and human bacteria (Streptococcus

  10. Genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Vincent P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. It is also an emerging human pathogen. Results Here we provide characterization of the first genome sequence for this species, strain FSL S3-227 (milk isolate from a cow with an intra-mammary infection. A diverse array of putative virulence factors was encoded by the S. canis FSL S3-227 genome. Approximately 75% of these gene sequences were homologous to known Streptococcal virulence factors involved in invasion, evasion, and colonization. Present in the genome are multiple potentially mobile genetic elements (MGEs [plasmid, phage, integrative conjugative element (ICE] and comparison to other species provided convincing evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT between S. canis and two additional bovine mastitis causing pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, with this transfer possibly contributing to host adaptation. Population structure among isolates obtained from Europe and USA [bovine = 56, canine = 26, and feline = 1] was explored. Ribotyping of all isolates and multi locus sequence typing (MLST of a subset of the isolates (n = 45 detected significant differentiation between bovine and canine isolates (Fisher exact test: P = 0.0000 [ribotypes], P = 0.0030 [sequence types], suggesting possible host adaptation of some genotypes. Concurrently, the ancestral clonal complex (54% of isolates occurred in many tissue types, all hosts, and all geographic locations suggesting the possibility of a wide and diverse niche. Conclusion This study provides evidence highlighting the importance of LGT in the evolution of the bacteria S. canis, specifically, its possible role in host adaptation and acquisition of virulence factors. Furthermore, recent LGT detected between S. canis and human

  11. The Microbiome of Ehrlichia-Infected and Uninfected Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum.

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    R T Trout Fryxell

    Full Text Available The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, transmits several bacterial pathogens including species of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia. Amblyomma americanum also hosts a number of non-pathogenic bacterial endosymbionts. Recent studies of other arthropod and insect vectors have documented that commensal microflora can influence transmission of vector-borne pathogens; however, little is known about tick microbiomes and their possible influence on tick-borne diseases. Our objective was to compare bacterial communities associated with A. americanum, comparing Anaplasma/Ehrlichia -infected and uninfected ticks. Field-collected questing specimens (n = 50 were used in the analyses, of which 17 were identified as Anaplasma/Ehrlichia infected based on PCR amplification and sequencing of groEL genes. Bacterial communities from each specimen were characterized using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries. There was a broad range in diversity between samples, with inverse Simpson's Diversity indices ranging from 1.28-89.5. There were no statistical differences in the overall microbial community structure between PCR diagnosed Anaplasma/Ehrlichia-positive and negative ticks, but there were differences based on collection method (P < 0.05, collection site (P < 0.05, and sex (P < 0.1 suggesting that environmental factors may structure A. americanum microbiomes. Interestingly, there was not always agreement between Illumina sequencing and PCR diagnostics: Ehrlichia was identified in 16S rRNA gene libraries from three PCR-negative specimens; conversely, Ehrlichia was not found in libraries of six PCR-positive ticks. Illumina sequencing also helped identify co-infections, for example, one specimen had both Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. Other taxa of interest in these specimens included Coxiella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia. Identification of bacterial community differences between specimens of a single tick species from a single geographical site indicates that

  12. Novel Anaplasma and Ehrlichia organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Barbieri, Amália R M; Minervino, Antonio H H; Malheiros, Antonio F; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-10-01

    During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in the Amazon biome of Brazil. Animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting DNA of the bacterial family Anaplasmataceae (genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia) and the genus Borrelia. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. All birds and reptiles were negative by all PCR assays, as well as all mammals for the Borrelia PCR assay. Anaplasmataceae agents were searched by PCR assays targeting two different genes, the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene and the protein-coding dsb gene. Three dsb closely related haplotypes were generated from 3 white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from dsb partial sequences, these haplotypes grouped with previously reported Ehrlichia haplotypes from jaguar (Panthera onca) and horse from Brazil, suggesting that they could all represent a single species, yet to be properly characterized. A unique dsb haplotype was generated from a sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), and could also represent a different Ehrlichia species. All these dsb haplotypes formed a clade sister to the Ehrlichia ruminantium clade. Three distinct 16S rRNA gene haplotypes were generated from a wild guinea pig (Cavia sp.), a woolly mouse opossum (Micoureus demerarae), and two from robust capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from 16S rRNA gene partial sequence, these haplotypes grouped within the Wolbachia clade, and are likely to represent Wolbachia organisms that were infecting invertebrate metazoarians (e.g., filarids) associated with the sampled mammals. Two deer (Mazama americana) samples yielded two distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences, one identical to several sequences of Anaplasma bovis, and an unique sequence that grouped in a clade with different Anaplasma species. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Anaplasmataceae organisms

  13. Molecular systematics of Mesocestoides sPP (cestoda: mesocestoididae) from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, P R; Nadler, S A; Platzer, E G; Kerner, C; Mariaux, J; Boyce, W M

    2000-04-01

    The genus Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 includes tapeworms of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and with poorly defined life histories. We previously documented 11 cases of peritoneal cestodiasis in dogs (Canis familiaris L.) in western North America caused by metacestodes of Mesocestoides spp. In the current study, DNA sequences were obtained from metacestodes collected from these dogs (n = 10), as well as proglottids from dogs (n = 3) and coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823 [n = 2]), and tetrathyridia representing laboratory isolates of M. corti (n = 3), and these data were analyzed phylogenetically. Two nuclear genetic markers, 18S ribosomal DNA and the second internal-transcribed spacer (ITS 2), were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA data recovered a monophyletic group composed of all samples of Mesocestoides spp., distinct from closely related outgroup taxa (Amurotaenia Akhmerov, 1941 and Tetrabothrius Rudolphi, 1819). Initial analysis of the ITS 2 data resolved 3 clades within Mesocestoides. Two proglottids from dogs formed a basal clade, a second clade was represented by tetrathyridial isolates, and a third clade included all other samples. Interpretation of these data from an apomorphy-based perspective identified 6 evolutionary lineages. We also assessed whether metacestodes from dogs (n = 4) are capable of asexual proliferation in laboratory mice. One tetrathyridial and 2 acephalic isolates from dogs proliferated asexually. Further investigation is warranted to determine which of the lineages represent distinct species and to determine the life history strategies of Mesocestoides spp.

  14. Detection of Brucella canis-induced reproductive diseases in a kennel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Szeredi, Levente; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Dénes, Béla; Dencso, László; Dán, Ádám; Pálmai, Nimród; Hauser, Zsófia; Lami, Erzsébet; Makrai, László; Erdélyi, Károly; Jánosi, Szilárd

    2011-01-01

    Brucella spp. were isolated from an abortion case submitted for laboratory examination 8 months after the first clinical symptoms appeared in a kennel consisting of 31 dogs. Pathological investigations revealed the parallel presence of necrotic placentitis and the strong immunostaining of trophoblast cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using hyperimmune rabbit anti-Brucella canis primary antibodies. The rapid slide agglutination test was positive in 7 of 31 (23%) cases. The organism B. canis was successfully cultured from the blood, tissues, or vaginal swabs of only 3 of 31 (10%) cases. The isolated strains were identified as B. canis based on their colony morphology and agglutination with R sera. The strains were initially misidentified as B. suis with the "Bruce-ladder" method, and were subsequently correctly identified as B. canis with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing test. Three culture-positive cases and 3 culture-negative cases with histories of reproductive disorders were selected and examined for the presence of B. canis infection using histopathology, IHC, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Characteristic histologic lesions were found in all of the 6 animals, whereas IHC and PCR yielded positive results only in single cases from both groups. The results imply that all cases of canine abortion should be examined for brucellosis by bacterial culture of aborted fetuses and placentas. Immunohistochemical examination of placentas is also recommended because it is a quick and sensitive technique compared with bacterial culture. Multiple methods (i.e., serology, blood, and genital bacterial cultures) should be applied simultaneously and repeatedly for the reliable screening of B. canis infection in live individuals.

  15. Within-host evolution of Brucella canis during a canine brucellosis outbreak in a kennel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Rannals, Brandy D; Allen, Christina A; Jánosi, Szilárd; Keim, Paul S; Foster, Jeffrey T

    2013-04-12

    Little is currently known about Brucella evolution within the host during infection. The current study is the first to employ fine-scale genotyping on an isolate collection derived from a Brucella canis outbreak. Eight isolates of B. canis, cultured from different tissues of three dogs (female, stud dog, puppy of another female) from a single kennel over three months were genetically characterized with a 15-marker multi-locus, variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) to assess the genetic relatedness of isolates and potential rapid mutational changes. MLVA discriminated among the otherwise indistinguishable isolates from different animals and from isolates collected at different time points within each host, with different VNTR alleles being detected at multiple dates and tissue sites. We suspect that all isolates cultured from the female, puppy, and stud dogs originated from the same strain, with subsequent rapid in vivo mutations. However, high mutation rates and apparent in several of the loci prevented making definitive epidemiological relationships among isolates. This investigation highlights the rapid in vivo genetic mutations of several VNTRs of B. canis over a short time period in the host and the emergence of alternate alleles. However, this work also suggests the challenges of using highly mutable VNTRs to infer epidemiological relationships of strains within a short duration outbreak.

  16. The wolf reference genome sequence (Canis lupus lupus) and its implications for Canis spp. population genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo; Sinding, Mikkel Holger Strander

    2017-01-01

    - that of a boxer dog (Canis lupus familiaris). We generated the first de novo wolf genome (Canis lupus lupus) as an additional choice of reference, and explored what implications may arise when previously published dog and wolf resequencing data are remapped to this reference. Results Reassuringly, we find...

  17. Correlación entre hemograma y frotis sanguíneo para determinar E. canis en la vereda Peñitas de Puente Nacional

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    Adriana Milena González-G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio serológico de Ehrlichia canis en la vereda Peñitas, del municipio de Puente Nacional, Santander, mediante la correlación de frotis sanguíneo y cuadro hemático. Se recolectaron 80 muestras de sangre en caninos para el cuadro hemático y el frotis sanguíneo, buscando encontrar en este último mórulas de E. canis, y en el hemograma, los cambios a nivel sanguíneo en aquellos individuos que resultaran positivos. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo tabulando la información con datos positivos y negativos obtenidos de cada animal; los resultados se interpretaron de acuerdo con las variables: raza, edad, sexo, antecedentes clínicos, estado general, planes de vermifugación y las variaciones del cuadro hemático. Para determinar la relación entre los casos positivos y cada una de las variables se utilizó la prueba de Probabilidad de Fisher. Las pruebas positivas arrojaron un resultado de 26,25% de presencia de E. Canis. No se encontraron diferencias significativas de prevalencia asociadas a las variables de los resultados del hemograma. Se demuestra la presencia de E. canis en la vereda Peñitas. Se confirma la importancia de implementar un programa de control y prevención de la diseminación del agente causal, mejorando los planes de vermifugación de los caninos.

  18. Comparative Genomics of the Zoonotic Pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis Reveals Candidate Type IV Effectors and Putative Host Cell Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroy, Christophe; Meyer, Damien F

    2016-01-01

    During infection, some intracellular pathogenic bacteria use a dedicated multiprotein complex known as the type IV secretion system to deliver type IV effector (T4E) proteins inside the host cell. These T4Es allow the bacteria to evade host defenses and to subvert host cell processes to their own advantage. Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a tick-transmitted obligate intracellular pathogenic bacterium, which causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Using comparative whole genome analysis, we identified the relationship between eight available E. chaffeensis genomes isolated from humans and show that these genomes are highly conserved. We identified the candidate core type IV effectome of E. chaffeensis and some conserved intracellular adaptive strategies. We assigned the West Paces strain to genetic group II and predicted the repertoires of T4Es encoded by E. chaffeensis genomes, as well as some putative host cell targets. We demonstrated that predicted T4Es are preferentially distributed in gene sparse regions of the genome. In addition to the identification of the two known type IV effectors of Anaplasmataceae, we identified two novel candidates T4Es, ECHLIB_RS02720 and ECHLIB_RS04640, which are not present in all E. chaffeensis strains and could explain some variations in inter-strain virulence. We also identified another novel candidate T4E, ECHLIB_RS02720, a hypothetical protein exhibiting EPIYA, and NLS domains as well as a classical type IV secretion signal, suggesting an important role inside the host cell. Overall, our results agree with current knowledge of Ehrlichia molecular pathogenesis, and reveal novel candidate T4Es that require experimental validation. This work demonstrates that comparative effectomics enables identification of important host pathways targeted by the bacterial pathogen. Our study, which focuses on the type IV effector repertoires among several strains of E. chaffeensis species, is an original approach and provides rational putative targets

  19. Molecular survey of Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma infection of domestic cats in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiromi; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Sakata, Yoshimi; Endo, Yasuyuki; Nishigaki, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma in 1764 DNA samples extracted from feline peripheral blood from all 47 prefectures in Japan was evaluated by screening real-time PCR, genus-specific PCR, and DNA nucleotide sequencing. The survey revealed that all cats were negative for Rickettsia infection. Two cats were positive for Ehrlichia or Anaplasma based on the screening PCR assay. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA including the divergent region near the 3'-end revealed that the 2 positives were most similar to Anaplasma bovis with percent identities of 99.8% and 99.2%. This was the first detection of A. bovis DNA fragments in cats. Although these 2 cats showed stomatitis, both were also infected with feline immunodeficiency virus. The relationship between A. bovis carriage and clinical disease is not yet understood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxocara canis: anthelmintic activity of quinone derivatives in murine toxocarosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Santos, T; Mata-Santos, H A; Carneiro, P F; De Moura, K C G; Fenalti, J M; Klafke, G B; Cruz, L A X; Martins, L H R; Pinto, N F; Pinto, M C F R; Berne, M E A; Da Silva, P E A; Scaini, C J

    2016-04-01

    Human toxocarosis is a chronic tissue parasitosis most often caused by Toxocara canis. The seroprevalence can reach up to 50%, especially among children and adolescents. The anthelmintics used in the treatment have moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of quinones and their derivatives against T. canis larvae and the cytotoxicity of the larvicidal compounds. The compounds were evaluated at 1 mg mL(-1) concentration in microculture plates containing third stage larvae in an Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 h. Five naphthoxiranes were selected for the cytotoxicity analysis. The cell viability evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays using murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice revealed that the naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) were less cytotoxic at a concentration of 0.05 mg mL(-1). The efficacy of naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) was examined in murine toxocarosis also. The anthelmintic activity was examined by evaluating the number of larvae in the brain, carcass, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and eyes. Compound (3) demonstrated anthelmintic activity similar to that of albendazole by decreasing the number of larvae in the organs of mice and thus could form the basis of the development of a new anthelmintic drug.

  1. Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus canis, and Arcanobacterium phocae of healthy Canadian farmed mink and mink with pododermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Gabhan; McLean, John; Hunter, D Bruce; Brash, Marina; Slavic, Durda; Pearl, David L; Boerlin, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Pododermatitis is a disease of concern for mink breeders in Canada and worldwide, as it causes discomfort and lowers the breeding rates on farms affected by the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology and pathogenesis of pododermatitis are still unknown. In this study, we compared Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus canis isolates from healthy mink with isolates from animals with pododermatitis on 2 farms in Ontario. Almost all hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. isolated were shown to be Staphylococcus delphini Group A by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) did not reveal any S. delphini or S. canis clonal lineages specifically associated with pododermatitis, which suggests that these bacteria do not act as primary pathogens, but does not dismiss their potential roles as opportunistic pathogens. While S. delphini and S. canis were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in mink pododermatitis, they were also present in samples from healthy mink. Arcanobacterium phocae is occasionally isolated from pododermatitis cases, but is difficult to recover with conventional culture methods due to its slow growth. A quantitative real-time PCR was developed for the detection of A. phocae and was tested on 138 samples of footpad tissues from 14 farms. The bacterium was detected only in pododermatitis-endemic farms in Canada and was at higher concentrations in tissues from infected footpads than in healthy tissues. This finding suggests that A. phocae is involved in the pathogenesis of pododermatitis.

  2. Oral papillomatosis in coyotes (Canis latrans) and wolves (Canis lupus) of Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, W M; Chalmers, G A; Gunson, J R

    1978-04-01

    Twelve cases of oral papillomatosis were detected in wild carnivores of Alberta, ten in coyotes (Canis latrans) and two in wolves (Canis lupus). Lesions ranged from mild with a few small papillomas to severe with much of the surface of the lips, tongue and buccal cavity covered with papillomas. Three of five coyotes with severe papillomatosis were in obvious poor health. The gross and histologic lesions are described and the significance of this disease in wild carnivores is discussed.

  3. Naturally Occurring Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection in Two Prosimian Primate Species: Ring-tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta) and Ruffed Lemurs (Varecia variegata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenhouse, Jan L.; Bradley, Julie M.; Hancock, Susan I.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2002-01-01

    A naturally occurring infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in lemurs is described. DNA of Ehrlichia chaffeensis was identified by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood from six of eight clinically ill lemurs. Organisms were cultured from the blood of one lemur exhibiting clinical and hematologic abnormalities similar to those of humans infected with E. chaffeensis. PMID:12498671

  4. The mitochondrial genome of Toxocara canis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R Jex

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda, which parasitizes (at the adult stage the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mitochondrial genomic data have been lacking for T. canis and its congeners. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome of T. canis was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (long PCR and sequenced using a primer-walking strategy. This circular mitochondrial genome was 14162 bp and contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes consistent for secementean nematodes, including Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex (Ascaridida. The mitochondrial genome of T. canis provides genetic markers for studies into the systematics, population genetics and epidemiology of this zoonotic parasite and its congeners. Such markers can now be used in prospecting for cryptic species and for exploring host specificity and zoonotic potential, thus underpinning the prevention and control of toxocariasis in humans and other hosts.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and population history of the grey wolf Canis lupus

    OpenAIRE

    Vilà, Carles; Amorim, Isabel R.; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Posada, D.; Castroviejo, Javier; Petrucci-Fonseca, F.; Crandall, K. A.; Ellegren, H.; Wayne, Robert K.

    1999-01-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) and coyote (C. latrans) are highly mobile carnivores that disperse over great distances in search of territories and mates. Previous genetic studies have shown little geographical structure in either species. However, population genetic structure is also influenced by past isolation events and population fluctuations during glacial periods. In this study, control region sequence data from a worldwide sample of grey wolves and a more limited sample of coyotes were a...

  6. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia species infections in cats: European guidelines from the ABCD on prevention and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Radford, Alan D; Tasker, Séverine; Belák, Sándor; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2017-05-01

    Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species and Rickettsia species are vector-borne pathogens infecting a wide variety of mammals, but causing disease in very few of them. Infection in cats: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the most important feline pathogen among these rickettsial organisms, and coinfections are possible. Little information is available on the pathogenesis of these agents in cats. Clinical signs are usually reported soon after tick infestation. They are mostly non-specific, consisting of fever, anorexia and lethargy. Joint pain may occur. Infection in humans: Some rickettsial species ( A phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis) are of zoonotic concern. Direct contact with cat saliva should be avoided because of potential contamination by R felis. Infected cats are 'sentinels' of the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks and fleas in a given geographical area, and they signal a risk for people exposed to vectors.

  7. The Dog Mite, Demodex canis: Prevalence, Fungal Co-Infection, Reactions to Light, and Hair Follicle Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

  8. Prevalence of Ehrlichia, Borrelia, and Rickettsial agents in Amblyomma americanum (Acari : Ixodidae) collected from nine states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixson, T.R.; Campbell, S.R.; Gill, J.S.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Reichard, M.V.; Schultz, T.L.; Dasch, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ambyomma antericanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) is an aggressive tick that feeds on humans during all postembryonic life stages. In many regions of the United States, it is the tick most commonly found attached to humans. Public health interest has grown recently, due to the recognition of new human pathogens transmitted by A. antericanum and the expanding distribution of the tick. A. americanum is a vector of several bacteria pathogenic to humans. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii cause moderate-to-severe febrile illness. 'Rickettsia amblyommii,' a member of the spotted fever group Rickettsia, also has recently been implicated as a possible human pathogen based on serologic evidence from persons recovering from illness after a tick bite. We have determined the prevalence of infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, 'Borrelia lonestari,' and R. amblyommii within A. americanum ticks from 29 sites in nine states. Overall infection prevalences were 4.7% for E. chaffeensis (range, 0-27%), 3.5% for E. ewingii (range, 0-18.6%), 2.5% for B. lonestari (range, 0-12.2%), and 41.2% for R. amblyommii (range, 0-84.0%). In addition, 87 ticks (4.3%) were infected with two or more bacteria. This report documents new distribution records for E. ewingii, B. lonestari, and R. amblyommii and underscores the nonhomogeneous distribution of pathogen foci of infection. Additional surveillance throughout the range of A. antericanum is warranted to increase physician and public awareness of the risk of disease to humans from exposure to the agents transmitted by this tick.

  9. Proteomic profiling of the outer membrane fraction of the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Ehrlichia ruminantium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Moumène

    Full Text Available The outer membrane proteins (OMPs of Gram-negative bacteria play a crucial role in virulence and pathogenesis. Identification of these proteins represents an important goal for bacterial proteomics, because it aids in vaccine development. Here, we have developed such an approach for Ehrlichia ruminantium, the obligate intracellular bacterium that causes heartwater. A preliminary whole proteome analysis of elementary bodies, the extracellular infectious form of the bacterium, had been performed previously, but information is limited about OMPs in this organism and about their role in the protective immune response. Identification of OMPs is also essential for understanding Ehrlichia's OM architecture, and how the bacterium interacts with the host cell environment. First, we developed an OMP extraction method using the ionic detergent sarkosyl, which enriched the OM fraction. Second, proteins were separated via one-dimensional electrophoresis, and digested peptides were analyzed via nano-liquid chromatographic separation coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF. Of 46 unique proteins identified in the OM fraction, 18 (39% were OMPs, including 8 proteins involved in cell structure and biogenesis, 4 in transport/virulence, 1 porin, and 5 proteins of unknown function. These experimental data were compared to the predicted subcellular localization of the entire E. ruminantium proteome, using three different algorithms. This work represents the most complete proteome characterization of the OM fraction in Ehrlichia spp. The study indicates that suitable subcellular fractionation experiments combined with straightforward computational analysis approaches are powerful for determining the predominant subcellular localization of the experimentally observed proteins. We identified proteins potentially involved in E. ruminantium pathogenesis, which are good novel targets for candidate vaccines. Thus, combining bioinformatics and proteomics, we

  10. A new typing technique for the Rickettsiales Ehrlichia ruminantium: multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilet, Héloïse; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Berrich, Moez; Bouchouicha, Rim; Durand, Benoît; Pruneau, Ludovic; Pinarello, Valérie; Saldana, Angélique; Carasco-Lacombe, Catherine; Lefrançois, Thierry; Meyer, Damien F; Martinez, Dominique; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Haddad, Nadia

    2012-02-01

    Ehrlichia ruminantium (ER) is a member of the order Rickettsiales transmitted by Amblyomma ticks. This obligatory intracellular bacterium is the causative agent of a fatal disease in ruminants, named heartwater. It represents a constraint on breeding development in sub-Saharan Africa and in the Caribbean. The genetic diversity of the strains of ER, which could be a limiting factor to obtain effective vaccines, needs to be better characterized. For this purpose, we developed a molecular typing technique based on the polymorphism of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences, MLVA (multiple locus VNTR analysis). Eight (out of 21) VNTR candidates were validated using 17 samples representing a panel of ER strains from different geographical origins from West, South Africa, and Caribbean areas and in ER infected ticks and goat tissues. This result demonstrated the ability of these VNTRs to type a wide range of strains. The stability of the selected VNTR markers was very good, at the time scale needed for epidemiological purposes: in particular, no difference in the VNTR profiles was observed between virulent and attenuated strains (for Gardel and Senegal strains) and between strains (Gardel and Blonde strains) isolated in the same area 19years apart. We validated the strong discriminatory power of MLVA for ER and found a high level of polymorphism between the available strains, with 10 different profiles out of 13 ER strains. The MLVA scheme described in this study is a rapid and efficient molecular typing tool for ER, which allows rapid and direct typing of this intracellular pathogen without preliminary culture and gives reliable results that can be used for further epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Migratory Behaviour of Toxocara Canis and Toxocara Vitulorum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The larvae of T. canis and T. vitulorum were recovered in the liver on day one post infection (pi) until 10 days pi. In the lungs the larvae of T. canis were recovered on day 1 pi whereas those of T. vitulorum were recovered 3 days pi. Toxocara canis and T. vitulorum larvae were recovered in the brain from day 3 pi up to day 10 ...

  12. Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves' performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber's law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves' quantity discrimination conforms to Weber's law.

  13. Quantity discrimination in wolves (Canis lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina eUtrata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans, our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current setup are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

  14. Investigating the Adult Ixodid Tick Populations and Their Associated Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia Bacteria at a Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Hotspot in Western Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout Fryxell, Rebecca T; Hendricks, Brain M; Pompo, Kimberly; Mays, Sarah E; Paulsen, Dave J; Operario, Darwin J; Houston, Allan E

    2017-08-01

    Ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are two common bacterial tick-borne diseases in the southeastern United States. Ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichiae transmitted by Amblyomma americanum and rickettsiosis is caused by rickettsiae transmitted by Amblyomma maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis. These ticks are common and have overlapping distributions in the region. The objective of this study was to identify Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species associated with questing ticks in a Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) hotspot, and identify habitats, time periods, and collection methods for collecting questing-infected ticks. Using vegetation drags and CO2-baited traps, ticks were collected six times (May-September 2012) from 100 sites (upland deciduous, bottomland deciduous, grassland, and coniferous habitats) in western Tennessee. Adult collections were screened for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia (simultaneous polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) and Rickettsia using genus-specific PCRs, and resulting positive amplicons were sequenced. Anaplasma and Ehrlichia were only identified within A. americanum (Ehrlichia ewingii, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Panola Mountain Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov.); more Ehrlichia-infected A. americanum were collected at the end of June regardless of habitat and collection method. Rickettsia was identified in three tick species; "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" from A. americanum, R. parkeri and R. andeanae from A. maculatum, and R. montanensis ( = montana) from D. variabilis. Overall, significantly more Rickettsia-infected ticks were identified as A. americanum and A. maculatum compared to D. variabilis; more infected-ticks were collected from sites May-July and with dragging. In this study, we report in the Tennessee RMSF hotspot the following: (1) Anaplasma and Ehrlichia are only found in A. americanum, (2) each tick species has its own Rickettsia species, (3) a majority of questing-infected ticks are collected May-July, (4) A

  15. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-31

    Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (pCosta Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ehrlichia Meningitis Mimicking Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Study for Medical Decision-Making Heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dredla, Brynn; Freeman, William D

    2016-04-01

    Thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. Patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan to ascertain SAH bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells (RBCs), which would be consistent with an aneurysmal leak. If the initial CT is negative and CSF is positive for RBCs, patients are usually admitted to the hospital for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm. We encountered a patient with thunderclap headache whose initial head CT was negative for SAH and whose CSF tested positive for RBCs. The patient was referred to our center for evaluation and management of aneurysmal SAH. However, on careful review of the patient's medical history, serum laboratory values, and spinal fluid values, the patient was diagnosed with Ehrlichia chaffeensis meningitis. While Ehrlichia meningitis is rare, it is important to recognize the clinical clues that could help avoid formal cerebral angiography, a costly and potentially unnecessary procedure. We present how this case represented a cognitive framing bias and anchoring heuristic as well as steps that medical providers can use to prevent such cognitive errors in diagnosis.

  17. Detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. anibodies, and Dirofilaria immitis antigens in dogs from seven locations of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamiani Khatat, Sarah; Khallaayoune, Khalid; Errafyk, Nabil; Van Gool, Frans; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie; Kachani, Malika; El Amri, Hamid; Azrib, Rahma; Sahibi, Hamid

    2017-05-30

    In Morocco no data has been published on canine exposure to Anaplasma spp., Borrrelia burgdorferi, and Ehrlichia spp., and only one report is available on the occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to collect current data on the canine exposure to these vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) in Morocco. A total of 217 urban (n=57), rural (n=110) and military (n=50) dogs from seven Moroccan locations were screened for Anaplasma spp., B. burgdorferi and Ehrlichia spp. antibodies and for D. immitis antigens using a commercial in-clinic ELISA test. Of these dogs, 182 (83.9%) tested positive for at least one pathogen and positivity to two or three pathogens was found in 14.3% and 2.3% of the dogs, respectively. Ehrlichia spp. antibodies (34.6%) were the most frequently detected followed by Anaplasma spp. antibodies (16.6%) and D. immitis antigens (16.1%). None of the dogs was tested seropositive to B. burgdorferi. Statistically significant differences in seropositivity rates were found for Ehrlichia spp. and D. immitis in rural dogs especially those from the north central region (p<0.001) but not for Anaplasma spp. No significant difference was found according to the health status of the dog. This study demonstrates that Moroccan dogs are at high risk of acquiring a vector-borne infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis: an emerging zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacave, Guillaume; Coutard, Aymeric; Troché, Gilles; Augusto, Sandrine; Pons, Stéphanie; Zuber, Benjamin; Laurent, Virginie; Amara, Marlène; Couzon, Brigitte; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Pangon, Béatrice; Grimaldi, David

    2016-02-01

    We report a human case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis. Identification was carried out from positive blood culture using mass spectrometry and SodA gene sequencing. S. canis related zoonotic invasive infections may have been previously underdiagnosed due to inadequate identification of group G Streptococcus species.

  19. Septicemia caused by Streptococcus canis in a human.

    OpenAIRE

    Bert, F; Lambert-Zechovsky, N

    1997-01-01

    We describe a case of septicemia due to Streptococcus canis in a 77-year-old man. The organism was presumably transmitted from a domestic animal. Ulcers of the lower limbs were the likely portals of entry. The differentiation between Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae was based on biochemical properties and DNA macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

  20. Experimental evidence against transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mencke, Norbert; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Hepatozoon canis is among the most widespread tick-borne protozoa infecting domestic and wild carnivores. Its distribution is related to the occurrence of its major vector, the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. However, the role of Ixodes ricinus as a vector of H. canis has been hypothesized. In the present study, the development of H. canis was investigated in I. ricinus and R. sanguineus nymphs collected from a naturally infested dog. All I. ricinus ticks examined (n=133) were negative by cytological examination at days 20, 30, and 90 post collection, although H. canis DNA was detected in one nymph at day 20 and in 2 nymphs at day 30 post collection. On the other hand, H. canis sporogony was documented by cytology, and H. canis DNA was detected by PCR in R. sanguineus at day 30 post collection. These results indicate that H. canis sporogony does not occur in I. ricinus, but in R. sanguineus, suggesting that I. ricinus does not act as a vector of H. canis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Reproduction in the jackals Canis adustus Sundevall, 1846, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of reproduction in two species of jackals (Canis adustus and Canis mesomelas) from Zimbabwe were studied using reproductive organs of jackal carcasses submitted for rabies testing or collected during culls. In C. adustus, parturition took place from early September to early October and in C. mesomelas during ...

  2. Age determination in jackals ( Canis adustus Sundevall, 1846, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods for determining the age of individual jackals using canine teeth were assessed as part of a study of the population structure of jackal species (side striped jackal, Canis adustus, and black backed jackal, Canis mesomelas), the main wildlife species maintaining rabies in Zimbabwe. Specimens of both species of ...

  3. Endocarditis por Brucella canis: primer caso documentado en un paciente adulto en Argentina Brucella canis endocarditis: first documented case in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Manias

    2013-03-01

    unable to classify the isolate as to genus and species. The strain was sent to the INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbran" where it was identified as Brucella canis. The antimicrobial treatment was switched to doxycycline, rifampicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with good evolution of the patient. The clinical significance of this case report lies in the possible failure of the empiric antibiotic therapy administered for endocarditis, since B. canis did not respond to the conventional antimicrobial treatment for this pathology.

  4. CanisOme--The protein signatures of Canis lupus familiaris diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Mónica; Rosa, Nuno; Esteves, Eduardo; Correia, Maria José; Arrais, Joel; Ribeiro, Paulo; Vala, Helena; Barros, Marlene

    2016-03-16

    Although the applications of Proteomics in Human Biomedicine have been explored for some time now, in animal and veterinary research, the potential of this resource has just started to be explored, especially when companion animal health is considered. In the last years, knowledge on the Canis lupus familiaris proteome has been accumulating in the literature and a resource compiling all this information and critically reviewing it was lacking. This article presents such a resource for the first time. CanisOme is a database of all proteins identified in Canis lupus familiaris tissues, either in health or in disease, annotated with information on the proteins present on the sample and on the donors. This database reunites information on 549 proteins, associated with 63 dog diseases and 33 dog breeds. Examples of how this information may be used to produce new hypothesis on disease mechanisms is presented both through the functional analysis of the proteins quantified in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors and through the study of the interactome of C. lupus familiaris and Leishmania infantum. Therefore, the usefulness of CanisOme for researchers looking for protein biomarkers in dogs and interested in a comprehensive analysis of disease mechanisms is demonstrated. This paper presents CanisOme, a database of proteomic studies with relevant protein annotation, allowing the enlightenment of disease mechanisms and the discovery of novel disease biomarkers for C. lupus familiaris. This knowledge is important not only for the improvement of animal health but also for the use of dogs as models for human health studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia spp. in ticks in northeast Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudman, D A; Sargentini, N J

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) and Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick) in northeast Missouri for the presence of Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia bacteria. We collected actively questing ticks from four sites within Adair County, Missouri. A total of 15,162 ticks were collected, of which 13,980 were grouped in 308 pools (lone star ticks, 288 pools; American dog ticks, 20 pools) and tested for presence/absence of bacteria using polymerase chain reaction. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 308 pools tested, 229 (74.4%) were infected with bacteria and the overall MLE of the infection rate per 100 ticks was calculated as 2.9% (CI 2.61-3.21). Infection rates varied among life stages, 28.6% (CI 23.89-33.97) in adults, 7.0% (CI 5.10-9.86) in nymphs, and 1.0% (CI 0.75-1.20) in larvae. In the 116 adult lone star pools, infection rates were calculated for Borrelia lonestari (1.4%), Borrelia spp. (2.7%), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (6.1%), Ehrlichia ewingii (3.3%), Rickettsia amblyommii (18.3%), and Rickettsia montanensis (0.4%). Infection rates for the 52 nymphal lone star pools were calculated as B. lonestari (1.03%), Borrelia spp. (0.40%), E. chaffeensis (2.02%), E. ewingii (0.24%), and R. amblyommii (2.70%). In the 20 adult American dog tick pools, infection rates were determined as E. chaffeensis (9.47%), E. ewingii (5.47%), and R. montanensis (8.06%). Eight Borrelia samples were sequenced with five 99-100% identical to B. burgdorferi (s.l.) and three 99% identical to B. lonestari. Eight samples were sequenced for E. chaffeensis (all 99-100% identical) and one sample was sequenced for E. ewingii (99% identical). Seven samples were sequenced for Rickettsia and three were 99% identical to R. montanensis and four were 100% identical to R. amblyommii. This study demonstrates B. lonestari, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, R. amblyommii, and R. montanensis in northeast

  6. Morphological and molecular identification of Dirofilaria immitis from Jackal (Canis aureus) in North Khorasan, northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Kia, Eshrat B; Arzamani, Kourosh; Sharifdini, Meysam; Mobedi, Iraj; Zarei, Zabihollah; Kamranrashani, Bahareh

    2015-12-01

    The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is an important mosquito-borne zoonotic nematode of domestic and wild mammals throughout the world, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. This parasite has been reported from carnivores in some provinces of Iran. However, in the present study, the occurrence of this filarial nematode is reported for the first time in wild canids of the North Khorasan Province, located in northeast Iran, based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The carcasses of 45 golden jackals (Canis aureus), 16 foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 15 dogs (Canis familiaris), and one wolf (Canis lupus) were necropsied between 2013 and 2014. By gross examination, adult filarial nematodes were found in the cardiovascular system of four jackals (8.9%). The morphological characteristics of the recovered heartworms were compatible with D. immitis. DNA sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene of all four isolates was identical, showing 100% homology with several sequences registered in GenBank from other countries. No adult D. immitis was found in any of the other animals examined. D. immitis is circulating in wildlife of the study area, suggesting the relevance of developing control programmes to prevent transmission of the disease to humans and domestic animals.

  7. Proteomic Profiling of the Outer Membrane Fraction of the Obligate Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Ehrlichia ruminantium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumène, Amal; Marcelino, Isabel; Ventosa, Miguel; Gros, Olivier; Lefrançois, Thierry; Vachiéry, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Gram-negative bacteria play a crucial role in virulence and pathogenesis. Identification of these proteins represents an important goal for bacterial proteomics, because it aids in vaccine development. Here, we have developed such an approach for Ehrlichia ruminantium, the obligate intracellular bacterium that causes heartwater. A preliminary whole proteome analysis of elementary bodies, the extracellular infectious form of the bacterium, had been performed previously, but information is limited about OMPs in this organism and about their role in the protective immune response. Identification of OMPs is also essential for understanding Ehrlichia’s OM architecture, and how the bacterium interacts with the host cell environment. First, we developed an OMP extraction method using the ionic detergent sarkosyl, which enriched the OM fraction. Second, proteins were separated via one-dimensional electrophoresis, and digested peptides were analyzed via nano-liquid chromatographic separation coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF). Of 46 unique proteins identified in the OM fraction, 18 (39%) were OMPs, including 8 proteins involved in cell structure and biogenesis, 4 in transport/virulence, 1 porin, and 5 proteins of unknown function. These experimental data were compared to the predicted subcellular localization of the entire E. ruminantium proteome, using three different algorithms. This work represents the most complete proteome characterization of the OM fraction in Ehrlichia spp. The study indicates that suitable subcellular fractionation experiments combined with straightforward computational analysis approaches are powerful for determining the predominant subcellular localization of the experimentally observed proteins. We identified proteins potentially involved in E. ruminantium pathogenesis, which are good novel targets for candidate vaccines. Thus, combining bioinformatics and proteomics, we discovered new OMPs

  8. The prevalence and impact of Babesia canis and Theileria sp. in free-ranging grey wolf (Canis lupus) populations in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ana; Huber, Doroteja; Polkinghorne, Adam; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Benko, Valerija; Mrljak, Vladimir; Reljić, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Reil, Irena; Beck, Relja

    2017-04-04

    Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. are important emerging causes of disease in dogs. Alongside these domesticated hosts, there is increasing recognition that these piroplasms can also be found in a range of wild animals with isolated reports describing the presence of these pathogen in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and captive grey wolves (Canis lupus). The prevalence and impact of these infections in free-ranging populations of canids are unknown. To gain a better insight into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of piroplasm infections in free-ranging grey wolves, pathological and molecular investigations into captive and free-ranging grey wolves in Croatia were performed. The carcasses of 107 free-ranging wolves and one captive wolf were the subjects of post-mortem investigations and sampling for molecular studies. A blood sample from one live captured wolf for telemetric tracking was also used for molecular analysis. PCR amplification targeting the 18S RNA gene revealed that 21 of 108 free-ranging wolves and one captive animal were positive for Theileria/Babesia DNA. Subsequent sequencing of a fragment of the 18S RNA gene revealed that 7/22 animals were positive for Babesia canis while the other amplified sequence were found to be identical with corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of Theileria capreoli isolated from wild deer (15/22). Haematological and cytological analysis revealed the presence of signet-ring shaped or pear-shaped piroplasms in several animals with the overall parasite burden in all positive animals assessed to be very low. Pathological investigation of the captive animal revealed fatal septicemia as a likely outcome of hemolytic anaemia. There was little or no evidence of hemolytic disease consistent with babesiosis in other animals. Importantly, the presence of B. canis in free-ranging grey wolves has not been described before but has been reported in a single fox and domestic dogs only. That B. canis infections cause disease in dogs but have little impact

  9. DNA barcoding of three species (Canis aureus, Canis lupus and Vulpes vulpes) of Canidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksöyek, Eren; İbiş, Osman; Özcan, Servet; Moradi, Mohammad; Tez, Coşkun

    2017-09-01

    Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene have been used for DNA barcoding and determining the genetic diversity of mammal species. In the current study, our intention was to test the validity of COI barcodes for detecting genetic divergence and to reveal whether or not there is a genetic variation at this marker within canids. Three species (Canis aureus, Canis lupus and Vulpes vulpes) from the family Canidae were selected for DNA barcoding using samples collected from Iran and Turkey. All three species had unique barcoding sequences and none of the sequences were shared among these species. The mean sequence divergences within and among the species were 0.61% and 12.32%, respectively, which fell into the mean divergence ranges found in some mammal groups. The genetic diversity of these three canid species was relatively higher than that found in previously reported studies.

  10. The wolf reference genome sequence (Canis lupus lupus) and its implications for Canis spp. population genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo; Sinding, Mikkel Holger Strander

    2017-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies are addressing the evolutionary genomics of dog domestication, principally through resequencing dog, wolf and related canid genomes. There is, however, only one de novo assembled canid genome currently available against which to map such data...... - that of a boxer dog (Canis lupus familiaris). We generated the first de novo wolf genome (Canis lupus lupus) as an additional choice of reference, and explored what implications may arise when previously published dog and wolf resequencing data are remapped to this reference. Results Reassuringly, we find......, then using the boxer reference genome is appropriate, but if the aim of the study is to look at the variation within wolves and their relationships to dogs, then there are clear benefits to using the de novo assembled wolf reference genome....

  11. The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, R.M.; Federoff, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the past, the gray wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecies lupus or italicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dog Canis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies, Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

  12. Infection by Microsporum canis in Paediatric Patients: A Veterinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquetti, Mario; Min, Anna Rita Molinar; Scacchetti, Stefania; Dogliero, Andrea; Peano, Andrea

    2017-09-19

    Microsporum canis is a dermatophyte fungus of which cats and dogs are recognized as the natural hosts. M. canis is also easily transmitted to humans, causing lesions to the glabrous skin (tinea corporis) and to the head (tinea capitis). The present study describes some cases of infection with M. canis in children from a veterinary perspective, highlighting some important features of this clinical entity (e.g., the necessity to identify the animal source of infection with appropriate diagnostic tests; the fact that infected cats may present with no or atypical dermatological signs; and the importance of the environment as a fungal reserve).

  13. Phylogeography of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, B.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Cook, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Glacial cycles in the late Pleistocene played a dominant role in sculpting the evolutionary histories of many high-latitude organisms. The refugial hypothesis argues that populations retracted during glacial maxima and were isolated in separate refugia. One prediction of this hypothesis is that populations inhabiting different refugia diverged and then, during interglacial periods, rapidly expanded into deglaciated regions. The range of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) was modified by these expansion and contraction cycles in the late Pleistocene. Our analyses of variation of mitochondrial control region sequences corroborate previous microsatellite analyses supporting independent evolutionary histories for Coastal and Continental wolves in North America. Coastal wolves represent the remnants of a formerly widespread and diverse southern clade that expanded into coastal Southeast Alaska, likely in the early Holocene. In contrast, extant northern Continental populations appear to be admixed, composed of lineages independently arising from ancestors that persisted in either southern or northern (Beringia) refugia. This pattern of diversification suggests the possibility of 3 temporally independent colonizations of North America by wolves from Asia. Coastal wolves are the last vestige of a formerly widespread phylogroup that largely was extirpated in North America by humans during the last century. The independent phylogeographic history of these Coastal wolves has yet to be characterized. Their distinctiveness among North American wolf populations may warrant a reevaluation of their conservation status and management. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  14. Cross-fostering in gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharis, Inger; Amundin, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Cross-fostering in canids, with captive-bred pups introduced into endangered wild populations, might aid conservation efforts by increasing genetic diversity and lowering the risk of inbreeding depression. The gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus) population in Scandinavia suffers from severe inbreeding due to a narrow genetic base and geographical isolation. This study aimed at evaluating the method to cross-foster wolf pups from zoo-born to zoo-born litters. The following was assessed: female initial acceptance of foster pups, growth rate in relation to age difference between foster pups and pups in recipient litters and survival over the first 33 weeks. The study included four litters added by two foster pups in each. The age differences between the foster pups and the recipient litters were 2-8 days. After augmentation, all four females accepted the foster pups, demonstrated by her moving the entire litter to a new den site. Growth rate was dependent on the age difference of the pups in the foster litters, with a considerably slower growth rate in the 8 days younger pups. However, these pups later appeared to be at no disadvantage. Foster pups had a higher survival rate than females' pups, however, the causes of death were probably not kin or non-kin related. The results indicate that cross-fostering works in gray wolves and that this might be a plausible way to increase genetic variation in the wild population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Secreted dipeptidyl peptidases as potential virulence factors for Microsporum canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermout, Sandy; Baldo, Aline; Tabart, Jérémy; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Dermatophytoses caused by Microsporum canis are frequently encountered in cats and dogs; they are highly contagious and readily transmissible to humans. In this study, two single genes, respectively coding for dipeptidyl peptidases IV and V (DppIV and DppV), were isolated and characterized. Both proteins share homology with serine proteases of the S9 family, some of which display properties compatible with implication in pathogenic processes. Both genes are expressed in vivo in experimentally infected guinea-pigs and in naturally infected cats, and when the fungus is grown on extracellular matrix proteins as the sole nitrogen and carbon source. DppIV and V were produced as active recombinant proteases in the yeast Pichia pastoris; the apparent molecular weight of rDppV is 83 kDa, whereas rDppIV appears as a doublet of 95 and 98 kDa. Like other members of its enzymatic subfamily, rDppIV has an unusual ability to cleave Pro-X bonds. This activity does not enhance the solubilization of keratin by fungal secreted endoproteases, and the protease probably acts solely on small soluble peptides. RDppV showed no ability to induce delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reactions in guinea-pigs, despite the known immunogenic properties of homologous proteins.

  16. Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Daisuke; Abe, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Takahide; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm(A), erm(B), or mef(A), macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.

  17. Bacteria of the genera Ehrlichia and Rickettsia in ticks of the family Ixodidae with medical importance in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Patrick S; Tarragona, Evelina L; Bottero, María N Saracho; Mangold, Atilio J; Mackenstedt, Ute; Nava, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to get an overview about the occurrence of bacteria from the genus Ehrlichia and Rickettsia in ixodid ticks with medical importance in Argentina. Therefore, in 2013 and 2014, free-living ticks were collected in different provinces of northern Argentina. These ticks were determined as Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma neumanni, Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma triste, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma tonelliae and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi. All samples were tested to determine the infection with Ehrlichia spp. and Rickettsia spp. by PCR assays. Rickettsial DNA was detected in all tested tick species, with the exception of A. tonelliae. 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', 'Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae', and Rickettsia parkeri were found in A. neumanni, A. parvum, and A. triste, respectively. Another rickettsial species, Rickettsia bellii, was found in A. sculptum, A. ovale and H. juxtakochi. None of the tested ticks showed infection with Ehrlichia. The results of the study demonstrate that Rickettsia species belonging to the spotted fever group are associated with various species of Amblyomma throughout a wide area of northern Argentina, where cases of Amblyomma ticks biting humans are common.

  18. Detection of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the Thai-Myanmar border and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parola, Philippe; Cornet, Jean-Paul; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Miller, R Scott; Thien, Huynh Van; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Raoult, Didier; Telford III, Sam R; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2003-04-01

    A total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the Thai-Myanmar border and in Vietnam. They were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the order RICKETTSIALES: Three Anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in Thailand, including (i) Anaplasma sp. strain AnDa465, which was considered a genotype of Anaplasma platys (formerly Ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from dogs; (ii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnAj360, which was obtained from Amblyomma javanense ticks collected on a pangolin; and (iii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnHl446, which was closely related to Anaplasma bovis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks collected from a bear. Three Ehrlichia spp. were identified, including (i) Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52, which was obtained from Boophilus microplus ticks collected from cattle from Thailand; (ii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh324, which was closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam; and (iii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh317, which was closely related to Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52 and which was also detected in H. hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam. Two Rickettsia spp. were detected in Thailand, including (i) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla420, which was detected in Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from a bear, and (ii) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla440, which was identified from two pools of Dermacentor larvae collected from a wild pig nest. Finally, two bacteria named Eubacterium sp. strain Hw124 and Eubacterium sp. strain Hw191 were identified in Haemaphysalis wellingtoni ticks collected from chicken in Thailand; these strains could belong to a new group of bacteria.

  19. First record of coccidiosis in Wolves, Canis Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mech L.; Kurtz, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three 4-month-old Wolf (Canis lupus) pups in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota died during August and September 1997, apparently from coccidiosis. This appears to be the first record of coccidiosis in Wolves.

  20. TROMBOCITOPENIA IMMUNOMEDIATA SECONDARIA IN CANI NATURALMENTE INFETTI DA LEISHMANIA INFANTUM

    OpenAIRE

    Prisco, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Lo studio si prefigge di indagare, mediante immunofluorescenza indiretta e citometria a flusso, se la presenza di anticorpi anti-piastrine può essere associata all’occorrenza di trombocitopenia immunomediata in cani naturalmente infetti da Leishmania infantum.

  1. Demodicosis caused by Demodex canis and Demodex cornei in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Sivajothi, S.; B. Sudhakara Reddy; Rayulu, V. C.

    2013-01-01

    Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears ...

  2. Meningitis by Toxocara canis after Ingestion of Raw Ostrich Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Young; Hong, Sung-Tae; Yun, Ji Young; Park, Hong-Kyun; Oh, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Young Eun; Jeon, Beom S

    2012-01-01

    Recently reports on toxocariasis are increasing by serodiagnosis in Korea. A previously healthy 17-yr-old boy complained of headache, fever, dyspnea, and anorexia. He showed symptoms and signs of eosinophilic meningitis with involvement of the lungs and liver. Specific IgG antibody to Toxocara canis larval antigen was positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by ELISA. He took raw ostrich liver with his parents 4 weeks before the symptom onset. His parents were seropositive for T. canis antig...

  3. Babesia canis and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) co-infection in a sled dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Rodo, Anna; Bednarska, Malgorzata; Mierzejewska, Ewa; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Sporting dogs, including sled dogs, are particularly prone to tick-borne infection either due to training/racing in forest areas or through visits to endemic areas. The aim was to present tick-borne infections in a 6-dog racing team after a race in Estonia. On the 4th day after return to Poland, the first dog presented with babesiosis symptoms and was diagnosed and treated accordingly. Next morning, the dog showed neurological symptoms and was diagnosed with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Diagnosis was confirmed by a high level of IgG antibodies (922 IU/ml), detected in serum 3 months later. The second dog presented with babesiosis symptoms on the 7th day after return. Babesia DNA was extracted from blood, amplified and sequenced to answer the question of whether the dogs became infected during the race in Estonia or in Poland. Sequencing of a fragment of Babesia 18S rDNA revealed that these two isolates were identical to one another and closely related to the B. canis sequence originally isolated from the dog and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Poland. Thus, this is the first confirmed case of B.canis and TBEV co-infection and first confirmed case of TBE in a dog in Poland.

  4. Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) infection in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromdahl, E Y; Randolph, M P; O'Brien, J J; Gutierrez, A G

    2000-05-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is a sometimes fatal, emerging tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis. It is frequently misdiagnosed because its symptoms mimic those of the flu. Current evidence indicates that Amblyomma americanum (L.), the lone star tick, is the major vector of HME. To determine if E. chaffeensis is present in ticks at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, questing A. americanum ticks were collected from 33 sites. Nucleic acid was extracted from 34 adult and 81 nymphal pools. Sequences diagnostic for E. chaffeensis from three different loci (16S rRNA, 120-kDa protein, and a variable-length polymerase chain reaction [PCR] target, or VLPT) were targeted for amplification by the PCR. Fifty-two percent of the collection sites yielded pools infected with E. chaffeensis, confirming the presence and widespread distribution of E. chaffeensis at Aberdeen Proving Ground. Analysis with the both the 120-kDa protein primers and the VLPT primers showed that genetic variance exists. A novel combination of variance for the two loci was detected in two tick pools. The pathogenic implications of genetic variation in E. chaffeensis are as yet unknown.

  5. Proteomic analyses of Ehrlichia ruminantium highlight differential expression of MAP1-family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Isabel; de Almeida, André Martinho; Brito, Catarina; Meyer, Damien F; Barreto, Mónica; Sheikboudou, Christian; Franco, Catarina F; Martinez, Dominique; Lefrançois, Thierry; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Coelho, Ana Varela; Alves, Paula M

    2012-05-04

    The Rickettsiales Ehrlichia ruminantium (ER) is the causative agent of heartwater, a fatal tick-borne disease of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa and in the Caribbean, posing strong economical constraints to livestock production. In an attempt to identify the most prominent proteins expressed by this bacterium, especially those encoded by the major antigenic protein 1 (map1) multigene family, a proteome map of ER cultivated in endothelial cells was constructed by using two dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry. Among the sixty-four spots detected, we could identify only four proteins from the MAP1-family; the other proteins detected were mainly related to energy, amino acid and general metabolism (26%), to protein turnover, chaperones and survival (21%) and to information processes (14%) or classified as hypothetical proteins (23%). Additional studies on MAP1-family protein using immunochemical labeling also revealed that these proteins are differentially expressed along the bacterium life cycle, presenting different structural organization. Interestingly, when infectious elementary bodies (EBs) are released from host cells, MAP1 appears to be organized in SDS and heat-resistant dimers and trimers stabilized by disulfide bridges. Overall, the results presented herein not only reveal the first partial proteome map of ER but provide new insights on the expression ER MAP1-family proteins in host endothelial cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lorelei L; Ballweber, Lora R; Allen, Kelly; Little, Susan E; Lappin, Michael R

    2014-09-11

    Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Ehrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs.

  7. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and the matching law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Norton, Lynne B; Shahan, Timothy A; Shivik, John A

    2009-10-01

    Environmental change is accelerating due to anthropogenic influence. Species that have greater behavioral flexibility may be better adapted to exploit new or constantly changing habitats. There are few mammals and even fewer carnivores that better illustrate widespread adaptability and behavioral flexibility in the wake of human disturbance than coyotes (Canis latrans). Yet how such predators successfully track resources, enabling them to survive and extend their range in stochastic environments remains unknown. We tested eight wild-born, captive coyotes individually on an operant two-choice test using concurrent variable interval (VI) schedules. We held the overall rate of reinforcement constant but manipulated the ratio of reinforcement available from the two choices. We analyzed sensitivity of coyotes' tracking of resource change by fitting the generalized matching equation to the data. Results showed all coyotes efficiently tracked changes in reinforcement ratios within the first few sessions of each new condition and matched their relative rate of foraging time to relative rate of resources. We suggest the matching paradigm provides a methodology to explore coyote foraging strategies, and a potential framework to compare behavioral flexibility across species, by measuring the ability to track resource change under variable resource conditions.

  8. Comparison of the Biological Properties of Two Strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom Samson Associated to Their Antagonistic Effect onto Toxocara canis Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gortari, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of nematodes by fungi is a promising field of application at large scale. Nematode egg is probably the most resistant stage in the nematode life-cycle, however they are susceptible to colonization and destruction by fungal egg-parasites. Fungal extra-cellular enzymes are able to degrade the main chemical constituents of nematode eggshell and at least they are partly responsible for fungal penetration and/or digestion of the internal tissues. Paecilomyces lilacinus was reported as an ovicidal fungus of Toxocara canis eggs in vitro, a parasite of dogs causing toxocarosis. Two wild-type P. lilacinus LPSC # 876 and LPSC # 44 strains, isolated from soil in the main park in the city of La Plata and an agricultural field, respectively, in Argentina, showed antagonism onto T. canis eggs. Besides from the isolation source, both strains showed similar hydrolytic profiles activities, ovicidal effect, and grew well on chitin agar, although no chitinolytic activity was detected. Nevertheless, both strains displayed proteolytic and chitinolytic activities in liquid cultures, with maximum values at 14 days of growth. Variable enzyme activities were observed on carboxymethylcellulose and starch agars, whereas the lipolytic activity was poor in both. Percentage of infected T. canis eggs was found 65.6% and 63.2% for P. lilacinus LPSC # 876 and # 44 strains respectively. Our results a priori indicate that P. lilacinus LPSC # 876 shows suitable characteristics as a potential agent for biocontrol of T. canis.

  9. Iron Starvation Conditions Upregulate Ehrlichia ruminantium Type IV Secretion System, tr1 Transcription Factor and map1 Genes Family through the Master Regulatory Protein ErxR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Moumène

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia ruminantium is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes heartwater, a fatal disease in ruminants. Due to its intracellular nature, E. ruminantium requires a set of specific virulence factors, such as the type IV secretion system (T4SS, and outer membrane proteins (Map proteins in order to avoid and subvert the host's immune response. Several studies have been conducted to understand the regulation of the T4SS or outer membrane proteins, in Ehrlichia, but no integrated approach has been used to understand the regulation of Ehrlichia pathogenicity determinants in response to environmental cues. Iron is known to be a key nutrient for bacterial growth both in the environment and within hosts. In this study, we experimentally demonstrated the regulation of virB, map1, and tr1 genes by the newly identified master regulator ErxR (for Ehrlichia ruminantium expression regulator. We also analyzed the effect of iron depletion on the expression of erxR gene, tr1 transcription factor, T4SS and map1 genes clusters in E. ruminantium. We show that exposure of E. ruminantium to iron starvation induces erxR and subsequently tr1, virB, and map1 genes. Our results reveal tight co-regulation of T4SS and map1 genes via the ErxR regulatory protein at the transcriptional level, and, for the first time link map genes to the virulence function sensu stricto, thereby advancing our understanding of Ehrlichia's infection process. These results suggest that Ehrlichia is able to sense changes in iron concentrations in the environment and to regulate the expression of virulence factors accordingly.

  10. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

  11. Fatal acute babesiosis in captive grey wolves (Canis lupus) due to Babesia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdélyi, Károly; Mezősi, László; Vladov, Sztojkov; Földvári, Gábor

    2014-04-01

    Two adult male Eurasian grey wolves belonging to a group of 12 animals, kept in an open air 15,000-m(2) enclosure at the Bear Farm facility near Veresegyháza, Hungary, were found dead in September 2002. Another 2 wolves died during the same period, but laboratory examination of their carcasses was not possible. During necropsy both animals were found to be in a good body condition. Oral mucosa, conjunctiva, sclera, and subcutaneous tissues revealed severe jaundice. The liver, gall bladder, and spleen were enlarged. The kidneys were paler than normal, and petechial haemorrhages were also seen under their fascia. Small, round Babesia-like organisms, 1.5-2 μm in diameter, were demonstrated in large numbers in stained impression smears made from the spleens of both animals. PCR amplification and sequencing identified Babesia canis. There are very few reports on babesiosis in the grey wolf, and our findings draw attention to the potential threat posed by B. canis that will probably have to be taken into account in future ex situ and in situ wolf conservation efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. The wolf reference genome sequence (Canis lupus lupus) and its implications for Canis spp. population genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Samaniego Castruita, Jose A; Sinding, Mikkel-Holger S; Kuderna, Lukas F K; Räikkönen, Jannikke; Petersen, Bent; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Larson, Greger; Orlando, Ludovic; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Hansen, Anders J; Dalén, Love; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2017-06-29

    An increasing number of studies are addressing the evolutionary genomics of dog domestication, principally through resequencing dog, wolf and related canid genomes. There is, however, only one de novo assembled canid genome currently available against which to map such data - that of a boxer dog (Canis lupus familiaris). We generated the first de novo wolf genome (Canis lupus lupus) as an additional choice of reference, and explored what implications may arise when previously published dog and wolf resequencing data are remapped to this reference. Reassuringly, we find that regardless of the reference genome choice, most evolutionary genomic analyses yield qualitatively similar results, including those exploring the structure between the wolves and dogs using admixture and principal component analysis. However, we do observe differences in the genomic coverage of re-mapped samples, the number of variants discovered, and heterozygosity estimates of the samples. In conclusion, the choice of reference is dictated by the aims of the study being undertaken; if the study focuses on the differences between the different dog breeds or the fine structure among dogs, then using the boxer reference genome is appropriate, but if the aim of the study is to look at the variation within wolves and their relationships to dogs, then there are clear benefits to using the de novo assembled wolf reference genome.

  13. Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) detection methods in Alaska gray wolves

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa M. Woldstad; Dullen, Kimberly N.; Hundertmark, Kris J.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.

    2014-01-01

    Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) was first documented on Alaska (USA) gray wolves (Canis lupus) on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) hide digestion for T. canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T. canis detection. Wolf hid...

  14. Quantitative Real-Time PCR for Detection of Members of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila Genogroup in Host Animals and Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Pusterla, Nicola; Huder, Jon B.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Braun, Ueli; Madigan, John E.; Lutz, Hans

    1999-01-01

    A TaqMan PCR was established for identification and quantitation of members of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila group in experimentally infected cows and in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The TaqMan PCR identified a 106-bp section of the 16S rRNA gene by use of a specific fluorogenic probe and two primers. This technique was specific for members of the E. phagocytophila group, which include E. phagocytophila, Ehrlichia equi, and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. The TaqMan system identified 10...

  15. Toxocara canis infection: Unusual trigger of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michaël; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Baudouin, Véronique; Guillem, Colette; Peuchmaur, Michel; Deschênes, Georges; Fila, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Infection by Toxocara canis can cause systemic vasculitis. We report here a unique case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) triggered by T. canis infection. An 8-year-old girl was treated with albendazole therapy for common toxocariasis, but she developed two weeks later, asthenia, fever, infiltrated maculopapular eruption of the face, peripheral vascular disease with necrosis of the fingers and inflammatory anemia with proteinuria. Anti-nuclear, anti-DNA and anti-Sm antibodies positivity, together with minimal change nephritis with mesangial exclusive IgM deposit on renal biopsy and clinical relapse after initially successful steroid therapy, led to the diagnosis of SLE. T. canis infection can trigger systemic lupus but must also be ruled out of the differential diagnosis given its association with autoimmunity. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Book review, Amati cani, José Jorge Letria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con Amati cani ci discostiamo per una volta dalle pubblicazioni a carattere scientifico, per dare il giusto risalto ad un’interessante raccolta di narrativa che esplora il rapporto tra l'uomo e il suo miglior amico. José Jorge Latria, noto soprattutto per essere un esponente di spicco della canzone politica portoghese e per le sue opere poetiche, teatrali e di letteratura per ragazzi, nello scrivere questo libro compie un vero e proprio atto d’amore verso i cani, con il preciso intento di costringere i lettori ad eliminare dal proprio vocabolario il gratuito modo di dire ‘mondo cane’. L’Autore delinea brevi ritratti di cani che, da Argo in poi, hanno accompagnato da amici veri i loro celebri padroni nella buona e nella cattiva sorte: racconta cioè la storia di quei cani che non sono sprofondati nella voragine dell’oblio perchè i loro padroni hanno raggiunto la celebrità nel mondo della letteratura, della politica, del cinema, delle scienze o della musica. Con a fianco un amico fedele come un cane, la vita ha avuto un sapore diverso per Ernest Hemingway, Isaac Newton, Sigmund Freud, Buster Keaton, Marilyn Monroe, Pablo Picasso, John Steinbeck, Lord Byron, Tim Burton e altri ancora, tutti personaggi che sono presenti in questo libro grazie ai cani che hanno condiviso con loro la vita e le memorie. La lettura di Amati cani dà piacere poichè in ognuno di questi racconti batte, affettuoso e delicato, il cuore di un cane; ma dà anche un pò da pensare in quanto celebra in maniera molto tenera l’amore, la fedeltà e la solidarietà tra l’uomo e il suo speciale amico a quattro zampe.

  17. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Figueiredo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes, in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina, and a protozoa (Balantidium coli were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  18. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-08-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina), and a protozoa (Balantidium coli) were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  19. Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, Peter R; Gaasenbeek, Cor; Fonville, Manoj; Boer, Albert de; Vries, Ankje de; Dimmers, Wim; Akkerhuis Op Jagers, Gerard; Schouls, Leo M; Borgsteede, Fred; Giessen, Joke W B van der

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, ticks were collected by dragging a blanket in four habitat areas in The Netherlands: dunes, heather, forest, and a city park. Tick densities were calculated, and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species was investigated by reverse line blot analysis.

  20. [Toxocara canis eggs as bait for soil fungus in a subtropical city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María Viviana; Sarmiento, María Mercedes; Giusiano, Gustavo; Mangiaterra, Magdalena; Basualdo, Juan Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The use of different isolation techniques allows the recovery of fungi based on their ability to use selective substrates. The sprinkle method is a technique for the recovery of nematophagous fungi in the soil. These fungi are natural predators of nematodes and are widely distributed in nature. To detect possible fungi with nematophagous ability in the soil of city parks in Corrientes (Argentina). The soil samples were taken from an area of ground between two trees and to no more than 2cm deep. The isolation was performed according to the sprinkle method with Toxocara canis eggs as bait. Eighteen soil samples were collected, and 6 genera and 8 species of fungi were isolated. The sprinkle method, simple and efficient, has the advantage of using a small amount of untreated soil for the isolation of fungi that can grow on the eggs of geohelminths. The genera Bipolaris, Fusarium, Purpureocillium, Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium were isolated in this study. No other studies describing the interaction between the genera Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium with nematode eggs have been found in the literature, thus more studies are required to determine what is their real action on these eggs. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Long daily movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a daily round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long daily movements by Wolves rearing pups.

  2. Infection of dogs with Babesia canis in Gwagwalada metropolis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-10-30

    Oct 30, 2014 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +2348037023920, E-mail: ocjegede@yahoo.com. Abstract. Epidemiological investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence of infection with Babesia canis in dogs in Gwagwalada metropolis of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja Nigeria, from November 2013 to January ...

  3. Infection of Dogs with Hepatozoon canis and Other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatozoon canis gametocytes were identified in the circulating neutrophils of eight naturally infected dogs presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The dogs were aged between four months and three years and showed varied clinical signs and haematological findings. Clinical ...

  4. Systematic B-metal substitution in CaNi5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Bjerrum, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work has been to study the effect of B metal substitutions in CaNi5 (AB(5)) which is known to suffer from poor cycling stability as a hydride electrode material. Systematic monosubstitutions of nickel with the most common other B metals (i.e. Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Sn...

  5. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) death by stick impalement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Schmidt, Lori; Mech, L. David

    2017-01-01

    Although Canis lupus L. (Gray Wolf) individuals are sometimes impaled by sticks, we could find no documentation of natural impalement by sticks as a cause of death for wild Wolves. Here we report on a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota that died due to stick puncture of its thorax and abdomen.

  6. Infection of dogs with Babesia canis in Gwagwalada metropolis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-10-30

    Oct 30, 2014 ... in relation to age, sex, breed, degree of confinement and level of tick infestation. Values of P<0.05 were considered significant. Results. The infection of dogs by Babesia canis in. Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital. Territory based on age is as shown in Table 1. A total of one hundred and one ...

  7. FOOD OF CANIS MESOMELAS IN SOUTH AFRICA Transvaal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOOD OF CANIS MESOMELAS IN SOUTH AFRICA. J. DU P. BOTHMA. Transvaal Division of Nature Conservation-. INTRODUCTION. The black-backed jackal is probably the most important problem animal in the sheep-farming areas of South Africa and especially in the Transvaal. To detennine the extent of damage.

  8. Detection of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Ehrlichia muris in Estonian ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna; Geller, Julia; Katargina, Olga; Värv, Kairi; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    So far neglected bacteria like Candidatud Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Ehrlichia muris-like agents get increased attention in the recent past. Ixodid ticks were demonstrated to harbor both of these pathogens. Estonia is populated by two medically important tick species, I. ricinus and I. persulcatus. In this study the presence of E. muris and Candidatus N. mikurensis in these two tick species was investigated. Tick DNA was analyzed by nested PCR and subsequent sequencing for the presence of 16S rRNA of E. muris and Candidatus N. mikurensis. Positive samples were further confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the partial groESL-operon. The obtained partial groESL sequences were used for construction of a maximum likelihood tree. In total, 776 ticks from 36 collection sites situated in 7 counties on the mainland of Estonia and 2 sites situated in one county on the island Saaremaa were collected. 548 were I. ricinus and 228 were I. persulcatus. Only in 5 counties (11 sites) samples positive for the Anaplasmataceae 16S rRNA gene were found. The percentage of Candidatus N. mikurensis positive ticks varied from 1% to 9.1% at different sites. In Eastern and South-Eastern Estonia, the area where I. ricinus and I. persulcatus are sympatric, no Candidatus N. mikurensis was found. Ticks carrying E. muris were found in three counties, the site-specific percentage of positive ticks varied from 1.2% to 25.6%. This is the first study revealing the presence of Candidatus N. mikurensis and E. muris in Estonian ticks. Candidatus N. mikurensis was found only in the western part of the country exclusively in I. ricinus and the phylogenetic analysis revealed close relatedness of the Estonian sequences to other European Candidatus N. mikurensis strains. E. muris was detected mostly in I. persulcatus and only in one I. ricinus in the sympatric area of both tick species. This is in correspondence with the observation that this pathogen is more often found in I. persulcatus than in I

  9. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Rajendran, C; Miska, K; Ferreira, L R; Martins, J; Kwok, O C H; Choudhary, S

    2011-09-27

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. Neospora-like oocysts were found microscopically in the feces of three of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy. N. caninum-specific DNA was amplified from the oocysts of all three wolves. Oocysts from one wolf were infective for the gamma interferon gene knock out (KO) mice. Viable N. caninum (designated NcWolfUS1) was isolated in cell cultures seeded with tissue homogenate from the infected mouse. Typical thick walled tissue cysts were found in outbred mice inoculated with the parasite from the KO mouse. Tissue stages in mice stained positively with N. caninum-specific polyclonal antibodies. Our observation suggests that wolves may be an important link in the sylvatic cycle of N. caninum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Predatory activity of chlamydospores of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia on Toxocara canis eggs under laboratory conditions Atividade predatória de clamidósporos do fungo Pochonia chlamydosporia sobre ovos de Toxocara canis em condições laboratoriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Milani Araujo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use chlamydospores of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolates VC1 and VC4 against Toxocara canis eggs in a 15-day in vitro assay. One thousand T. canis eggs were placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water agar medium with different concentrations of chlamydospores (1,000, 10,000 or 100,000 of each fungal isolate of P. chlamydosporia (treated groups and 1,000 eggs in Petri dishes without fungus (control group. Egg counts were performed to determine the ovicidal activity, which was classified as three effect levels: type 1, type 2 and type 3. Significant differences (P O objetivo do trabalho foi utilizar clamidósporos do fungo Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolados VC1 e VC4 na destruição de ovos de Toxocara canis, num ensaio in vitro, realizado no intervalo de 15 dias. Em cada placa de Petri com ágar-água 2% foram vertidos 1.000 ovos de T. canis em 1.000, 10.000 ou 100.000 clamidósporos de cada isolado do fungo (grupos tratados. Foram realizadas as contagens para verificar a atividade ovicida, classificada em três níveis de efeito: tipo 1, tipo 2 e tipo 3. Os resultados demonstraram que houve diferença significativa (P < 0,01 na destruição dos ovos em relação aos ovos observados nas placas do grupo controle. O maior percentual de ovos destruídos foi observado nas placas contendo 100.000 clamidósporos (68,5% para VC1 e 70,5% para VC4. Clamidósporos do fungo P. chlamydosporia foram efetivos na destruição dos ovos de T. canis podendo contribuir no futuro para o combate aos ovos deste parasito.

  11. MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS IN A GRAY WOLF (CANIS LUPUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marc; Glass, Eric N; Castro, Fernando A; Miller, Andrew D; de Lahunta, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    A 10-yr-old male, neutered gray wolf ( Canis lupus ) was presented for atrophy of the temporalis and masseter muscles. Clinical signs and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a myopathy. Positive serology for antibody titers directed against Type 2M myofibers, and the observation of a mixed mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate along with eosinophils and neutrophils within the temporalis muscle, were diagnostic for masticatory muscle myositis. Importantly, protozoal myositis was excluded based on other clinicopathologic data. The case highlights the potential for immune-mediated polymyositis in canids other than the domesticated dog ( Canis lupus familaris). Additionally, awareness of a diet in which raw meat is used should prompt a thorough investigation for an underlying infectious myositis in the gray wolf.

  12. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vimalraj, P. G.; Latchumikanthan, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were iden...

  13. Recovery of Toxocara canis larvae from mouse tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáris Maroni Nunes

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Two techniques, peptic digestion and homogenization, were tested for the recovering of Toxocara canis larvae from mice tissue. Twenty mice were fed 1.000 embryonated eggs, and after 44-46 hours the animals were euthanised and liver and lungs were evaluated for the presence of larvae. Recovery rate from liver was greater than from lungs. Homogenization technique resulted in better percentage of larvae recovered, regardless of the organ evaluated.

  14. Vertical transmission of Toxocara canis in successive generations of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenardie, Elizandra Roselaine; Scaini, Carlos James; Pepe, Michele Soares; Borsuk, Sibele; de Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa; Villela, Marcos; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires

    2013-01-01

    Visceral toxocariasis is a neglected zoonosis caused by Toxocara canis larvae in unusual hosts. In dogs, the definitive host, the infection occurs mainly through transplacental and transcolostral transmission. Studies on experimental models have shown that vertical transmission may result from acute infections. Considering that toxocariasis is characterized as a chronic infection, with possible reactivation of larvae present in the brain, this study evaluated the presence of larvae in the brain of female BALB/c mice and their offspring with chronic infection during three successive pregnancies. ELISA-TES was used to evaluate the antibody levels. T. canis larvae were detected in the brain tissue of the mice during the three successive generations evaluated. The offspring's IgG level gradually decreased, and mean absorbance (ABS) above the cutoff point (0.070) was observed only at 30 (0.229) and 50 (0.096) days of age, while IgM was not detected. The infections in the offspring confirmed that vertical transmission of T. canis larvae occurred during chronic toxocariasis in three successive generations of mice.

  15. ENCUESTA EXPLORATORIA DE INFECCION POR Brucella canis EN PERROS DE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pardo D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de anticuerpos a B. canis en perros domésticos y callejeros del municipio de Villavicencio, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó la prueba de aglutinación rápida en placa con antígeno menos mucoide (M- en 201 muestras de suero. En dos animales seropositivos se realizó intento de aislamiento por hemocultivo en medio selectivo para Brucella (oxoid®. En un animal seropositivo, con crecimiento bacteriano con características morfológicas sugestivas a B. canis se realizó histopatología de testículo, bazo e hígado. Resultados. La seropositividad general fue de 1.49% y correspondió a tres caninos machos, dos de los cuales presentaron signos clínicos de epididimitis y orquitis (unilateral. El cultivo y la histopatología no fueron concluyentes para el diagnostico de B. canis. Conclusiones. La seropositividad fue baja y sugiere que la población estudiada no ha estado en contacto con la bacteria. La presencia de reactores puede estar asociado con falsos positivos. El no aislamiento de la bacteria no indica que la enfermedad no exista por lo que se requiere de nuevos estudios.

  16. Hybridization among three native North American Canis species in a region of natural sympatry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hailer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans, Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi and red wolf (C. rufus, were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear.We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small.Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves.

  17. Hybridization among three native North American Canis species in a region of natural sympatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2008-10-08

    Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans), Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi) and red wolf (C. rufus), were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear. We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites) in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small. Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves.

  18. First evidence of hybridization between golden jackal (Canis aureus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as revealed by genetic markers

    OpenAIRE

    Galov, Ana; Fabbri, Elena; Caniglia, Romolo; Arbanasi?, Haidi; Lapalombella, Silvana; Florijan?i?, Tihomir; Bo?kovi?, Ivica; Galaverni, Marco; Randi, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent in nature and numerous cases of hybridization between wild canids and domestic dogs have been recorded. However, hybrids between golden jackals (Canis aureus) and other canids have not been described before. In this study, we combined the use of biparental (15 autosomal microsatellites and three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci) and uniparental (mtDNA control region and a Y-linked Zfy intron) genetic markers to assess the admixed o...

  19. The first evidence for vertical transmission of [i]Babesia canis[/i] in a litter of Central Asian Shepherd dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa J Mierzejewska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Tick-borne infections constitute an increasing health problem in dogs and may lead to death, especially in young or elderly individuals. Canine babesiosis constitutes a serious health problem in dogs worldwide. The aim of the study was to verify the probability of vertical transmission of [i]Babesia canis[/i] between the bitch and the pups. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. In Autumn 2011, cases of babesiosis were diagnosed in a litter of 6-week-old puppies of a Central Asian Shepherd dog. Immediately following the first case of infection, blood samples were collected from all the pups in the litter (n=10 and from the female. Detection of Babesia infection was performed by molecular and microscopical techniques. [b]Results.[/b] The presence of[i] B. canis [/i]DNA was detected using PCR in three pups, presenting at the time or 24–48 hours later with babesiosis symptoms, and in their asymptomatic mother. The isolates derived from the pups and the female – 520 bp 18S rRNA gene fragment – were compared and analyzed. All isolates from the pups and their mother were identical and showed 100% homology with [i]B. canis[/i] group B (EU622793, supporting the same source of infection. Additionally, the USG of the peritoneal cavity was performed in the female, presenting evidence for splenomegaly. [b]Conclusions.[/b] On the basis of (1 the same timing of three pup cases; (2 the identical [i]B. canis[/i] sequences derived from all positive dogs; (3 evident splenomegaly in the asymptomatic female, this provides the first evidence of the vertical transmission of this piroplasm in dogs.

  20. 76 FR 81665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) in the Western...-AX57 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus... Minnesota population of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to conform to current statutory and policy requirements...

  1. 78 FR 60813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Maintaining Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi). On September 5, 2013, we announced three public hearings on...

  2. 78 FR 54614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ...; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Maintaining Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... endangered status for the Mexican wolf by listing it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi), and we announced...

  3. Novel Papillomaviral Sequence Detected within Epidermal Plaques in a Wolf (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Myers, Sherry; Lockerbie, Betty; Wobeser, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe numerous pale plaques affecting the inguinal skin of a grey wolf (Canis lupus). Histologically, these were consistent with papillomaviral plaques. Immunohistochemistry confirmed papillomavirus antigens, and partial sequencing of the L1 gene suggests this is a novel papillomavirus most-closely related to Canis familiaris Papillomavirus 5.

  4. A critical reflection on current control of Toxocara canis in household dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, E.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314103198

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a roundworm that is common worldwide and also in Dutch household dogs. Adult stages of T. canis can be present in the small intestines of dogs where they produce large numbers of eggs that are shed in the environment (patent infection). Because very young dogs and humans can

  5. Recurrent patent infections with Toxocara canis in household dogs older than six months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs

  6. Recurrent patent infections with Toxocara canis in household dogs older than six months : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314103198; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Ploeger, Harm W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074170244

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs more

  7. Canis lupus familiaris involved in the transmission of pathogenic Yersinia spp. in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liang, Junrong; Xi, Jinxiao; Yang, Jinchuan; Wang, Mingliu; Tian, Kecheng; Li, Jicheng; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Duan, Ran; Yang, Haoshu; Li, Kewei; Cui, Zhigang; Qi, Meiying; Jing, Huaiqi

    2014-08-06

    To investigate canines carrying pathogens associated with human illness, we studied their roles in transmitting and maintaining pathogenic Yersinia spp. We examined different ecological landscapes in China for the distribution of pathogenic Yersinia spp. in Canis lupus familiaris, the domestic dog. The highest number of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was shown from the tonsils (6.30%), followed by rectal swabs (3.63%) and feces (1.23%). Strains isolated from plague free areas for C. lupus familiaris, local pig and diarrhea patients shared the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern, indicating they may be from the same clone and the close transmission source of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica infections in these areas. Among 226 dogs serum samples collected from natural plague areas of Yersinia pestis in Gansu and Qinghai Provinces, 49 were positive for F1 antibody, while the serum samples collected from plague free areas were all negative, suggested a potential public health risk following exposure to dogs. No Y. enterocolitica or Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from canine rectal swabs in natural plague areas. Therefore, pathogenic Yersinia spp. may be regionally distributed in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rescue of a severely bottlenecked wolf (Canis lupus) population by a single immigrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Carles; Sundqvist, Anna-Karin; Flagstad, Øystein; Seddon, Jennifer; Björnerfeldt, Susanne; Kojola, Ilpo; Casulli, Adriano; Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Ellegren, Hans

    2003-01-07

    The fragmentation of populations is an increasingly important problem in the conservation of endangered species. Under these conditions, rare migration events may have important effects for the rescue of small and inbred populations. However, the relevance of such migration events to genetically depauperate natural populations is not supported by empirical data. We show here that the genetic diversity of the severely bottlenecked and geographically isolated Scandinavian population of grey wolves (Canis lupus), founded by only two individuals, was recovered by the arrival of a single immigrant. Before the arrival of this immigrant, for several generations the population comprised only a single breeding pack, necessarily involving matings between close relatives and resulting in a subsequent decline in individual heterozygosity. With the arrival of just a single immigrant, there is evidence of increased heterozygosity, significant outbreeding (inbreeding avoidance), a rapid spread of new alleles and exponential population growth. Our results imply that even rare interpopulation migration can lead to the rescue and recovery of isolated and endangered natural populations.

  9. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected by Toxocara canis larvae Alterações de comportamento em Rattus norvegicus experimentalmente infectados por larvas de Toxocara canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Chieffi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara canis is a common canine nematode parasite and one of its possible transmission mechanisms is the predation of infected rodents by canids. Fifty Rattus norvegicus were used to study behavioral alterations in rodents infected by T. canis larvae. The rats were divided into three groups: G1, 20 rats infected with 300 T. canis eggs; G2, 20 rats infected with 2,000 T. canis eggs; and G3, 10 non-infected rats. Thirty and 60 days post-infection, rats from all the groups were submitted to an open-field apparatus for five min and subsequently, to an elevated plus-maze apparatus, again for five min. The data obtained indicated improvement in mobility (total locomotion time and rearing frequency and exploratory behavior in infected rats, principally in G2, which provides some support for the hypothesis that behavioral alterations in rodents infected by Toxocara canis larvae enhance the transmission rate of this ascarid to dogs.Toxocara canis é um nematódeo parasita habitual do intestino delgado de cães. Um dos mecanismos conhecidos de transmissão para cães é representado pela predação de pequenos roedores que, como hospedeiros paratênicos albergam larvas de Toxocara canis em seus tecidos. Para avaliar a ocorrência de alterações de comportamento em roedores infectados por Toxocara canis 50 exemplares de Rattus norvegicus foram utilizados no experimento. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos: G1 - 20 ratos infectados com 300 ovos de Toxocara canis; G2 - 20 ratos infectados com 2.000 ovos de Toxocara canis e G3 - 10 ratos sem infecção. Trinta e 60 dias após a infecção avaliou-se a ocorrência de alterações comportamentais nos três grupos submetendo os animais, primeiramente, a uma arena de campo aberto durante cinco minutos e, a seguir, a labirinto em cruz elevado por mais cinco minutos. Os resultados obtidos indicaram aumento significativo da mobilidade (tempo total de movimentação e número de vezes em que os animais se

  10. Secreted subtilisins of Microsporum canis are involved in adherence of arthroconidia to feline corneocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Aline; Tabart, Jérémy; Vermout, Sandy; Mathy, Anne; Collard, Alfred; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

    2008-09-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus that causes a superficial cutaneous infection called dermatophytosis, mainly in cats and humans. The mechanisms involved in adherence of M. canis to epidermis have never been investigated. Here, a model was developed to study the adherence of M. canis to feline corneocytes through the use of a reconstructed interfollicular feline epidermis (RFE). In this model, adherence of arthroconidia to RFE was found to be time-dependent, starting at 2 h post-inoculation and still increasing at 6 h. Chymostatin, a serine protease inhibitor, inhibited M. canis adherence to RFE by 53%. Moreover, two mAbs against the keratinolytic protease subtilisin 3 (Sub3) inhibited M. canis adherence to RFE by 23%, suggesting that subtilisins, and Sub3 in particular, are involved in the adherence process.

  11. Toxocara canis myelitis involving the lumbosacral region: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Yu; Yoshimura, Michiyoshi; Saigo, Ryuji; Arata, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Yuji; Matsuura, Eiji; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Toxocara canis is a parasite known to cause visceral larva migrans. The infection rarely affects the central nervous system but there have been several reports of myelitis caused by visceral larva migrans due to Toxocara canis. In previous reported cases, the lesions were located in the thoracic or cervical spinal cord. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a lesion involving the lumbosacral region. A 60-year-old man developed weakness and dysesthesia in the lower limbs. The symptoms resolved spontaneously, but recurred after five months. One month later, the patient developed pollakiuria and constipation. He was a dog owner and frequently ate raw chicken meat and beef liver. Sagittal T2-weighted image (T2WI) showed swelling and hyperintensity in the spinal cord from T10 to the lumbosacral region and focal nodular enhancement on the posterior segment of the lumbar spinal cord. Blood cell counts showed slight eosinophilia and elevated serum immunoglobulin E level. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed slight pleocytosis with eosinophilia. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed high levels of anti-Toxocara antibodies in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In addition, confirmatory test by Western blot was positive. The patient was initially treated with intravenous methylprednisolone with slight improvement in muscle weakness. Albendazole was added with a second course of intravenous methylprednisolone. The muscle weakness in the lower limbs improved considerably, and swelling and hyperintensity on T2WI almost disappeared. Our results suggest that Toxocara canis myelitis cannot be discounted even if the myelitis involves the lumbosacral region.

  12. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalraj, P G; Latchumikanthan, A

    2015-03-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were identified as belonging to Schistosoma spindale and as per the standard keys (Soulsby 1982).

  13. Accessory carpal bone luxation in two gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dominique L; Ellison, Michelle; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta S

    2012-09-01

    Two sibling male castrated gray wolves (Canis lupus) developed acute onset right forelimb lameness, one at 8 and the other at 11 yr of age. In both cases, the right carpus was swollen, carpal hyperextension was notable, and the wolves exhibited significant intermittent lameness of the affected limb. Radiographs revealed right accessory carpal bone luxation in both cases, with type III fracture of the accessory carpal bone in one wolf. Although carpal bone luxation in domestic dogs is frequently treated surgically, conservative medical management resolved the lameness in both wolves with no further complications.

  14. Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a coyote (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, K S; Schelling, S H

    1999-06-01

    A 19-yr-old spayed female coyote (Canis latrans) was evaluated for an elliptical swelling of the skin beneath its right eye and an elevated mass that involved the soft and hard palate and gingivae around the upper right carnassial tooth and molars. Histopathologic analysis revealed a squamous cell carcinoma, and a postmortem examination revealed no evidence of vascular invasion or dissemination to the regional lymph nodes or viscera. This report describes the biology and progresion of an oral squamous cell carcinoma in an aged captive coyote.

  16. Systematic status of wild Canis in North-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Skulls of wild Canis collected 2003–2004 in north-central Texas are morphometrically similar to a series taken there and in nearby areas in 1964–1971, which was considered to represent a population of Coyotes (C. latrans) modified through introgression from Red Wolves (C. rufus). A few of the new specimens closely resemble small examples of Red Wolves. Such affinity is supported by authoritative examination of living and videotaped animals. The persistence of influence of Red Wolves, long after presumed extirpation through hybridization and human persecution, may be relevant to wolf conservation.

  17. Acute-phase response in Babesia canis and Dirofilaria immitis co-infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zorana; Ilić, Anja; Andrić, Jelena Francuski; Radonjić, Vladimir; Beletić, Anđelo; Filipović, Milica Kovačević

    2017-10-01

    Babesia canis and Dirofilaria immitis are emerging and geographically overlapping vector-borne pathogens in dogs. Infection with B. canis leads to acute-phase response (APR) that can be mild to severe and results in either non-complicated or complicated forms of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether acute B. canis infection is more severe in dogs with underlying asymptomatic D. immitis infection. Dogs of both sexes, different ages and breeds, with naturally occurring mono-infections with B. canis (n=13) and D. immitis (n=18) and co-infected dogs (n=7) were enrolled as well as healthy controls (n=15). Routine haematology and biochemistry, agarose gel electrophoresis (agEF) protein fraction separation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serum amyloid A (SAA) were performed. Based on clinical and laboratory findings, sepsis was diagnosed in the majority of dogs with acute B. canis infection with or without underlying asymptomatic D. immitis infection. Overall, haematology, biochemistry and agEF pattern changes were induced and dictated by acute B. canis infection whether or not the dogs had an asymptomatic D. immitis infection. D. immitis infection slightly influenced the level of anaemia, slightly aggravated the level of dehydration and increased the concentration of γ-globulins in acute-phase B. canis infection. D. immitis infection prevented B. canis-induced leukopenia. SAA equally increased in dogs with acute B. canis infection with or without underlying D. immitis infection. The level of SAA was not changed in dogs with asymptomatic D. immitis when compared to the controls. In conclusion, asymptomatic D. immitis infection does not influence overall APR after acute B. canis infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Solution NMR Structures of Oxidized and Reduced Ehrlichia chaffeensis thioredoxin: NMR-Invisible Structure Owing to Backbone Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

    2018-01-02

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small ubiquitous proteins that participate in a diverse variety of redox reactions via the reversible oxidation of two cysteine thiol groups in a structurally conserved active site, CGPC. Here, we describe the NMR solution structures of a Trx from Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ec-Trx, ECH_0218), the etiological agent responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis, in both the oxidized and reduced states. The overall topology of the calculated structures is similar in both redox states and similar to other Trx structures, a five-strand, mixed -sheet (1:3:2:4:5) surrounded by four -helices. Unlike other Trxs studied by NMR in both redox states, the 1H-15N HSQC spectra of reduced Ec-Trx was missing eight amide cross peaks relative to the spectra of oxidized Ec-Trx. These missing amides correspond to residues C32-E39 in the active site containing helix (2) and S72-I75 in a loop near the active site and suggest a substantial change in the backbone dynamics associated with the formation of an intramolecular C32-C35 disulfide bond.

  19. Demodicosis caused by Demodex canis and Demodex cornei in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C

    2015-12-01

    Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears examination large number of adult short-tail Demodex mites were found. D. cornei was identified by based on the morphological characters including short opisthosoma with blind and round terminal end. Mean length of total body, opisthosoma of both types of the mites were differed statistically significant (P  0.05). Dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin @ 500 μg/kg/day, external application of amitraz along with supportive therapy. After completion of 45 days of therapy dogs were recovered completely without any side effects.

  20. Toxocara canis: una zoonosis frecuente a nivel mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Rojas-Salamanca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La toxocariasis, causada principalmente por Toxocara canis, es una de las zoonosis más comunes a nivel mundial; se presenta con mayor frecuencia en niños, asociada a condiciones desfavorables de higiene, hacinamiento, convivencia con perros parasitados, el nivel socioeconómico, la ubicación geográfica y los entornos en los cuales los animales depositan sus heces, lo que se convierte en un gran foco de contaminación para los humanos. El Toxocara canis ingresa al ser humano por contacto directo con heces de perro o por contaminación de alimentos. La carga parasitaria es de vital importancia, ya que está relacionada directamente con la gravedad de la enfermedad, con los diferentes síndromes que se producen y con la respuesta inmune desencadenada por el organismo, teniendo en cuenta el ciclo de vida que se lleva a cabo en el organismo humano. Para esta enfermedad no se puede realizar un diagnóstico por técnicas coproparasitológicas, por lo cual es necesario utilizar otros métodos, como el aumento de leucocitos con presencia de eosinofilia, la prueba de ELISA y, en algunos casos, por medio de biopsias.

  1. Memory-Based Quantity Discrimination in Coyotes (Canis latrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salif Mahamane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that the ratio between competing quantities of food significantly mediates coyotes‘ (Canis latrans ability to choose the larger of two food options. These previous findings are consistent with predictions made by Weber‘s Law and indicate that coyotes possess quantity discrimination abilities that are similar to other species. Importantly, coyotes‘ discrimination abilities are similar to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, indicating that quantitative discrimination may remain stable throughout certain species‘ evolution. However, while previously shown in two domestic dogs, it is unknown whether coyotes possess the ability to discriminate visual quantities from memory. Here, we address this question by displaying different ratios of food quantities to 14 coyotes before placing the choices out of sight. The coyotes were then allowed to select one of either non-visible food quantities. Coyotes‘ discrimination of quantity from memory does not follow Weber‘s Law in this particular task. These results suggest that working memory in coyotes may not be adapted to maintain information regarding quantity as well as in domestic dogs. The likelihood of a coyote‘s choosing the large option increased when it was presented with difficult ratios of food options first, before it was later presented with trials using more easily discriminable ratios, and when the large option was placed on one particular side. This suggests that learning or motivation increased across trials when coyotes experienced difficult ratios first, and that location of food may have been more salient in working memory than quantity of food.

  2. Prevalence of Demodex canis-positive healthy dogs at trichoscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondati, Alessandra; De Lucia, Michela; Furiani, Nicla; Monaco, Moira; Ordeix, Laura; Scarampella, Fabia

    2010-04-01

    Demodex canis is thought to be present in small numbers in the skin of most healthy dogs; however, available data on the prevalence of normal dogs harbouring D. canis are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using microscopic examination of plucked hairs, the prevalence of healthy dogs harbouring D. canis. Seventy-eight clinically healthy dogs with no history of dermatological problems and clinically normal skin and hair coat were included in the study. Five areas (perioral skin 2-3mm from both labial commissures, periungual skin of the third digit of both anterior paws and chin) were examined in each dog. Fifty to sixty hairs were plucked from each skin site and microscopically examined. No D. canis mites were observed and only one adult form of Demodex injai was found in the labial commissure of one dog. Based on these results, the estimated prevalence of healthy dogs harbouring D. canis in clinically normal skin should not exceed the threshold of 5.4%, with 95% confidence level. Considering our and previous findings, we propose that, although small numbers of D. canis might inhabit the skin of normal dogs, the probability of finding these mites in normal dogs is low. Consequently, in most cases, the presence of a D. canis mite in the skin should not be considered as indicative of normality.

  3. Pedigree-based assignment tests for reversing coyote (Canis latrans) introgression into the wild red wolf (Canis rufus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig R; Adams, Jennifer R; Waits, Lisette P

    2003-12-01

    The principal threat to the persistence of the endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) in the wild is hybridization with the coyote (Canis latrans). To facilitate idengification and removal of hybrids, assignment tests are developed which use genotype data to estimate identity as coyote, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 or full red wolf. The tests use genotypes from the red wolves that founded the surviving population and the resulting pedigree, rather than a contemporary red wolf sample. The tests are evaluated by analysing both captive red wolves at 18 microsatellite loci, and data simulated under a highly parameterized, biologically reasonable model. The accuracy of assignment rates are generally high, with over 95% of known red wolves idengified correctly. There are, however, tradeoffs between ambiguous assignments and misassignments, and between misidengifying red wolves as hybrids and hybrids as red wolves. These result in a compromise between limiting introgression and avoiding demographic losses. The management priorities and level of introgression determine the combination of test and removal strategy that best balances these tradeoffs. Ultimately, we conclude that the use of the assignment tests has the capacity to arrest and reverse introgression. To our knowledge, the presented approach is novel in that it accounts for genetic drift when the genotypes under analysis are temporally separated from the reference populations to which they are being assigned. These methods may be valuable in cases where reference databases for small populations have aged substantially, pedigree information is available or data are generated from historical samples.

  4. Infestivity of Demodex canis to hamster skin engrafted onto SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kenji; Une, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Adachi, Makoto; Kanda, Naoko; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Taura, Yasuho

    2005-04-01

    We demonstrated that Demodex canis was transferred to skin xenografts of a dog and a hamster onto severe combined immunodeficiency mice. After the transfer of mites, the number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites per gram of canine and hamster xenografts increased, whereas no live mites were detected on murine allograft. These results indicate that D. canis proliferates in hair follicles of dog and hamster skins but not in murine allograft. Therefore, D. canis may have host preference but not strict host-specificity.

  5. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and population history of the grey wolf canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila; Amorim; Leonard; Posada; Castroviejo; Petrucci-Fonseca; Crandall; Ellegren; Wayne

    1999-12-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) and coyote (C. latrans) are highly mobile carnivores that disperse over great distances in search of territories and mates. Previous genetic studies have shown little geographical structure in either species. However, population genetic structure is also influenced by past isolation events and population fluctuations during glacial periods. In this study, control region sequence data from a worldwide sample of grey wolves and a more limited sample of coyotes were analysed. The results suggest that fluctuating population sizes during the late Pleistocene have left a genetic signature on levels of variation in both species. Genealogical measures of nucleotide diversity suggest that historical population sizes were much larger in both species and grey wolves were more numerous than coyotes. Currently, about 300 000 wolves and 7 million coyotes exist. In grey wolves, genetic diversity is greater than that predicted from census population size, reflecting recent historical population declines. By contrast, nucleotide diversity in coyotes is smaller than that predicted by census population size, reflecting a recent population expansion following the extirpation of wolves from much of North America. Both species show little partitioning of haplotypes on continental or regional scales. However, a statistical parsimony analysis indicates local genetic structure that suggests recent restricted gene flow.

  7. Classification of Babesia canis strains in Europe based on polymorphism of the Bc28.1-gene from the Babesia canis Bc28 multigene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcy, B; Randazzo, S; Depoix, D; Adaszek, L; Cardoso, L; Baneth, G; Gorenflot, A; Schetters, T P

    2015-07-30

    The vast majority of clinical babesiosis cases in dogs in Europe is caused by Babesia canis. Although dogs can be vaccinated, the level of protection is highly variable, which might be due to genetic diversity of B. canis strains. One of the major merozoite surface antigens of B. canis is a protein with a Mr of 28 kDa that belongs to the Bc28 multigene family, that comprises at least two genes, Bc28.1 and a homologous Bc28.2 gene. The two genes are relatively conserved but they are very distinct in their 3' ends, enabling the design of specific primers. Sequencing of the Bc28.1 genes from 4 genetically distinct B. canis laboratory strains (A8, B, 34.01 and G) revealed 20 mutations at conserved positions of which three allowed the classification of B. canis strains into three main groups (A, B and 34.01/G) by RFLP. This assay was subsequently used to analyze blood samples of 394 dogs suspected of clinical babesiosis from nine countries in Europe. All blood samples were first analyzed with a previously described assay that allowed detection of the different Babesia species that infect dogs. Sixty one percent of the samples contained detectable levels of Babesia DNA. Of these, 98.3% were positive for B. canis, the remaining cases were positive for B. vogeli. Analysis of the Bc28.1 gene, performed on 178 of the B. canis samples, revealed an overall dominance of genotype B (62.4%), followed by genotypes A (37.1%) and 34 (11.8%). Interestingly, a great variation in the geographical distribution and prevalence of the three B. canis genotypes was observed; in the North-East genotype A predominated (72.1% A against 27.9% B), in contrast to the South-West where genotype B predominated (10.3% A against 89.7% B). In the central part of Europe intermediate levels were found (26.0-42.9% A against 74.0-57.1% B, from West to East). Genotype 34 was only identified in France (26.9% among 78 samples) and mostly as co-infection with genotypes A or B (61.9%). A comparative analysis of

  8. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor in a female wolf (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Ayako; Yoshida, Toshinori; Kawashima, Masahi; Murayama, Hirotada; Nagahara, Rei; Ito, Nanao; Shibutani, Makoto

    2017-03-23

    A 17-year-old female wolf (Canis lupus lupus) had a right lung mass that was adhered to the thoracic cavity. Histopathological examination revealed that the mass consisted of sheets, cord or ribbon-like structures of monotonous, small, cuboidal cells with round, oval or short-spindle nuclei and scant clear cytoplasm, demarcated by a fine fibrovascular stroma. Focal necrosis, congestion and thrombi were observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells diffusely expressed cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and some expressed chromogranin A, neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) and thyroid transcription factor-1. The number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive tumor cells was low. A diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor was based on the resemblance to carcinoids.

  9. Probable Pulmonary Blastomycosis in a Wild Coyote (Canis latrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Rodríguez-Tovar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A female coyote (Canis latrans was fatally injured by a vehicle on a road in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Because of deteriorating clinical signs, the animal was euthanized. Postmortem examination of the lungs showed numerous small multifocal white nodules (0.5–1 cm diameter disseminated throughout. Histopathologic examination revealed multifocal coalescing granulomas with abundant macrophages, numerous neutrophils, fibroblasts, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. Abundant intracellular and extracellular thick-walled, refractile, spherical yeasts (10–15 μm were observed within the granulomas. The yeasts were intensely PAS-positive, with granular protoplasm. Broad-based single budding yeasts were occasionally present. Based on the microscopic findings of the pulmonary lesions and the morphological features of the organism, a diagnosis of chronic pyogranulomatous pneumonia caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis was made. To our knowledge, the case described herein is the first report of pulmonary blastomycosis in a wild coyote.

  10. Developmental changes in associations among timber wolf (Canis lupus) postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, P J

    1996-11-01

    I examined developmental changes in associations among components of timber wolf (Canis lupus) postural communication in two hand-reared pups between 15 and 85 days of age. The frequency with which select postural components co-occurred was scored from 180 randomly sampled frames of video records of these pups made during social interactions. I used this index of association as the basis for multidimensional scaling and cluster analyses. Relations among postural components became more structured with age. Two-dimensional models were found to account for associations among postures displayed at 69-85 and 32-67 days of age but not at 15-32 days of age. I interpret these orthogonal dimensions as continua of dominance to submission and seriousness to playfulness. These data suggest the intended messages contained in postural displays may depend on the specific combinations of components used.

  11. Myotonic dystrophy in two European grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pákozdy, A; Leschnik, M; Nell, B; Kolm, U S; Virányi, Z; Belényi, B; Molnár, M J; Bilzer, T

    2007-03-01

    Two related European Grey wolves (Canis lupus) with the history of muscle stiffness beginning at 2 weeks of age were examined in this study. Muscle tone and muscle mass were increased in both animals. Muscle stiffness was worsened by stress so that the animals fell into lateral recumbency. Blood chemistry revealed mildly increased serum creatine kinase activity. Abnormal potentials typical of myotonic discharges were recorded by electromyography. Cataract, first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block and inhomogeneous myocardial texture by ultrasound suggested extramuscular involvement. Myopathology demonstrated dystrophic signs in the muscle biopsy specimen. The presumptive diagnosis based on the in vivo findings was myotonic dystrophy. Immunochemistry of the striated muscles revealed focal absence of dystrophin 1 and beta-dystroglycan in both cases. Cardiac and ophthalmologic involvement suggested a disorder very similar to a human form of myotonic dystrophy. This is the first description of myotonic dystrophy in wolves.

  12. Contraception has gone to the coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Marjorie J; Perkins, Elsey G; Asa, Cheryl; Skinner, Donal C

    2013-12-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are predators of livestock. Current management programs, primarily lethal control, are ineffective for long-term management of predation. Controlling reproduction of coyotes may reduce depredations if territory fidelity is maintained by breeding pairs. Surgical sterilization is successful in altering predatory behaviors of coyotes but may provide a challenge for field implementation. An alternative approach is the development of a one-time non-transferable chemical contraceptive. This research is investigating the efficacy of a single high dose treatment of a sustained release gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, deslorelin, on coyotes as a long term contraceptive. Male coyotes were administered 47 mg deslorelin subcutaneously. Preliminary data show full suppression of the reproductive axis for over 12 mo as indicated by complete absence of sperm.

  13. Helminth parasites of the coyote (Canis latrans) in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bussche, R A; Kennedy, M L; Wilhelm, W E

    1987-04-01

    From 1980 to 1984, 267 coyotes (Canis latrans) from Tennessee were examined for helminth parasites. Hearts were examined for the presence of Dirofilaria immitis, diaphragms for Trichinella spiralis, and digestive tracts for other helminths. Six species were found including 5 nematodes (D. immitis, Physaloptera rara, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostoma caninum, and Toxascaris leonina) and 1 cestode (Taenia pisiformis). Univariate and multivariate statistical techniques were used to assess parasite prevalence and intensity. For prevalence data, a matrix of correlation among characters was computed, and the first 3 principal components were extracted from the original distance matrix. These accounted for 93.7% of the variation in the character set. Three-dimensional projections of localities showed spatial variability on each component. Significant relationships were found between principal component I and longitude, component II and latitude and mean January temperature, and component III and mean July precipitation and mean January actual evapotranspiration. For intensity data, no spatial variability was determined.

  14. Experimental Babesia gibsoni infection in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Holly V; Kocan, A Alan; Reichard, Mason V; Meinkoth, James H

    2003-10-01

    Four 5 mo old captive raised coyotes (Canis latrans) were experimentally inoculated with approximately 1 x 10(6) Babesia gibsoni organisms. Parasites were detected 1 wk post-inoculation in all coyotes with maximum parasitemia of 8-11% occurring at 34 wk. Parasitemias remained at or above 1% for at least 12 wk and were still detectable 20 wk post-inoculation. All experimentally infected coyotes developed pale mucous membranes, splenomegaly, and a positive heme reaction in urine while one coyote exhibited mild depression and inappetence. Infected coyotes also developed a regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. The mild clinical signs coupled with the high level and long duration of parasitemia indicate that coyotes could serve as reservoirs for B. gibsoni. Entrance of this foreign parasite into the United States suggests the need for strict quarantines and thorough health and blood film examinations for imported animals.

  15. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acid Knockdown and Intra-host Cell Complementation of Ehrlichia Type IV Secretion System Effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pratibha; Teymournejad, Omid; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2017-01-01

    Survival of Ehrlichia chaffeensis depends on obligatory intracellular infection. One of the barriers to E. chaffeensis research progress has been the inability, using conventional techniques, to generate knock-out mutants for genes essential for intracellular infection. This study examined the use of Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) technology to interrupt type IV secretion system (T4SS) effector protein expression in E. chaffeensis followed by intracellular complementation of the effector to determine its requirement for infection. Successful E. chaffeensis infection depends on the E. chaffeensis-specific T4SS protein effector, ehrlichial translocated factor-1 (Etf-1), which induces Rab5-regulated autophagy to provide host cytosolic nutrients required for E. chaffeensis proliferation. Etf-1 is also imported by host cell mitochondria where it inhibits host cell apoptosis to prolong its infection. We designed a PNA specific to Etf-1 and showed that the PNA bound to the target region of single-stranded Etf-1 RNA using a competitive binding assay. Electroporation of E. chaffeensis with this PNA significantly reduced Etf-1 mRNA and protein, and the bacteria's ability to induce host cell autophagy and infect host cells. Etf-1 PNA-mediated inhibition of ehrlichial Etf-1 expression and E. chaffeensis infection could be intracellularly trans-complemented by ectopic expression of Etf-1-GFP in host cells. These data affirmed the critical role of bacterial T4SS effector in host cell autophagy and E. chaffeensis infection, and demonstrated the use of PNA to analyze the gene functions of obligate intracellular bacteria.

  17. Ehrlichia chaffeensis TRP120 Activates Canonical Notch Signaling To Downregulate TLR2/4 Expression and Promote Intracellular Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslima T. Lina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis preferentially targets mononuclear phagocytes and survives through a strategy of subverting innate immune defenses, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown E. chaffeensis type 1 secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP effectors are involved in diverse molecular pathogen-host interactions, such as the TRP120 interaction with the Notch receptor-cleaving metalloprotease ADAM17. In the present study, we demonstrate E. chaffeensis, via the TRP120 effector, activates the canonical Notch signaling pathway to promote intracellular survival. We found that nuclear translocation of the transcriptionally active Notch intracellular domain (NICD occurs in response to E. chaffeensis or recombinant TRP120, resulting in upregulation of Notch signaling pathway components and target genes notch1, adam17, hes, and hey. Significant differences in canonical Notch signaling gene expression levels (>40% were observed during early and late stages of infection, indicating activation of the Notch pathway. We linked Notch pathway activation specifically to the TRP120 effector, which directly interacts with the Notch metalloprotease ADAM17. Using pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs against γ-secretase enzyme, Notch transcription factor complex, Notch1, and ADAM17, we demonstrated that Notch signaling is required for ehrlichial survival. We studied the downstream effects and found that E. chaffeensis TRP120-mediated activation of the Notch pathway causes inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways required for PU.1 and subsequent Toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4 expression. This investigation reveals a novel mechanism whereby E. chaffeensis exploits the Notch pathway to evade the host innate immune response for intracellular survival.

  18. [Detection of Brucella canis by immunochromatography method in vague dogs captured in Temuco city, Chile, 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuemmers, Christian; Lüders, Carlos; Rojas, Claudio; Serri, Michel; Castillo, Carolina; Espinoza, Rodrigo

    2013-08-01

    Brucella canis is responsible for brucellosis in dogs, causing reproductive disorders and is considered a zoonoses, as described in several countries. The epidemiological data are scarce in our country. To determine the prevalence of Brucella canis in vague dogs in Temuco city and housed in the Temuco Kennel. Quantitative and cross-section study. We used 400 samples of dogs of both sexes, different ages and mainly mixed race, which were tested by immunochromatography. Antibodies were detected in 4 samples Brucella canis which represented 1% of the population studied, 2 females (0.5%) and 2 males (0.5%). We conclude that dogs are infected by B. canis in a low range but remains a risk condition to the health of the human population if not maintained adequate sanitary control of pets, like vague dogs.

  19. Interspecific cooperation in human (Homo sapiens) hunting: the benefits of a barking dog (Canis familiaris)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vesa Ruusila; Mauri Pesonen

    2004-01-01

    The first wild animal humans domesticated was the wolf (Canis lupus). The benefits of dog presence for human hunting success is often mentioned as a probable factor initiating the domestication of the wolf...

  20. The Ilnik Canis lupus pack: use of marine mammals and offshore sea ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Most wolf Canis lupus studies have been conducted in inland regions and comparatively little data are available for wolves inhabiting coastal areas. We monitored...

  1. CHROMOSOMAL COMPLEMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF A WOLF (CANIS LUPUS L. IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Dzuev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomal complement of a Canis lupus L. in the North Caucasus is described for the first time in this work. The data about modern distribution of a wolf in this territory taking into account mountain ecosystems of caucasus is also cited. The data about number of Canis lupus L., on its regulation in natural and anthropogenic ecosystems of the North Caucasus is cited.

  2. The Use of Ozonized Oil in the Treatment of Dermatophitosis Caused by Microsporum Canis in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Daud, Fernanda Vasquez; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko; Navarini, Alessandra; M?mica, Lycia Mara Jenn?

    2011-01-01

    The ozone is effective against most microorganisms due to its high oxidant power. Low concentrations and short-term contact are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, mold, yeast, parasites, seaweeds, protozoa and fungi. Microsporum canis is an important agent of dermatophitosis in human and animal. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of ozonized oil over Microsporum canis in rabbits. Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits, weight ranging from 2 to 3.2 kg were depilated in th...

  3. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  4. RAD sequencing and genomic simulations resolve hybrid origins within North American Canis

    OpenAIRE

    Rutledge, L. Y.; Devillard, S.; Boone, J. Q.; Hohenlohe, P. A.; White, B N

    2015-01-01

    Top predators are disappearing worldwide, significantly changing ecosystems that depend on top-down regulation. Conflict with humans remains the primary roadblock for large carnivore conservation, but for the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon), disagreement over its evolutionary origins presents a significant barrier to conservation in Canada and has impeded protection for grey wolves (Canis lupus) in the USA. Here, we use 127 235 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from restriction-si...

  5. Mammalia, Carnivora, Canidae, Canis latrans (Say, 1823) : actual distribution in Panama.

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez-Carvajal, P G; Moreno, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the occurrence of Canis latrans on eastern Panama, including the first report of it presence across the Panama Canal, which expands the known distribution for this species to its southernmost point. The presence of Canis latrans on this region suggests that it is expanding its range Southwards by using deforested areas and areas of cattle ranching alongside the Panamerican Highway. This highway crosses the isthmus up to the Darien Province.

  6. Feline polymorphonuclear neutrophils produce pro-inflammatory cytokines following exposure to Microsporum canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Ludivine; Mathy, Anne; Baldo, Aline; Bagut, Elena Tatiana; Tabart, Jérémy; Antoine, Nadine; Mignon, Bernard

    2013-03-23

    The mechanisms involved in the establishment of the specific immune response against dermatophytes remain unknown. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are recruited early during the infection process and participate in the elimination of dermatophytes. They could therefore be involved in the induction of the immune response during dermatophytoses by producing specific cytokines. The aim of this work was to assess the in vitro cytokine production by feline PMNs exposed to living arthroconidia from the dermatophyte species Microsporum canis or stimulated with either a secreted or a structural component of M. canis, the latter consisting of heat-killed arthroconidia. The levels of specific cytokines produced by PMNs were determined by capture ELISA and/or quantitative RT-PCR. Results showed that PMNs secrete TNFα, IL-1β and IL-8 following exposure to M. canis living arthroconidia and stimulation with both a secreted component and heat-killed arthroconidia. The level of IL-8 mRNA was also increased in PMNs stimulated with M. canis living arthroconidia. In conclusion, infective M. canis arthroconidia induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by feline PMNs that can be activated either by secreted or structural fungal components. Our results suggest that these granulocytes are involved in the initiation of the immune response against M. canis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Carbohydrate assimilation pattern in Iranian typical and atypical strains of Microsporum Canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini F

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The values of fourteen carbohydrates assimilation patterns were investigated for typical and atypical strains of Microsporum canis. Thiry eight strains of typical and twenty two strains of atypical Microsporum canis, Microsporum canis NCPF 352 and one Microsporum distortum were included in this study. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that despite limited variations within the pattern of carbohydrate utilization, no correlation. The results also revealed that erythritol and trehalose were best utilized for sporulation by the typical and atypical strains of Microsporum canis. Production of obundant macroconidia, microconidia and chlamydoconidia by use of erythritol and trehalose suggested that these two carbohydrates were effective in production of fluffly appearance in colonies examined. The Microsporum canis NCPF 352 strongly utilized glucose, mannitol and melibiose in addition to the two above-mentioned carbohydrates. Weak erythritol assimilation was observed by Microsporum distortum.Carbohydrate utilization pattern is unable to differentiate typical and atypical strains of Microsporum canis. But it could be regarded as a valuable aid for identification of Microsporum distortum as well as marker in epidemiological investigations.

  8. Relation of antioxidant status at admission and disease severity and outcome in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnogaj, Martina; Cerón, José Joaquin; Šmit, Iva; Kiš, Ivana; Gotić, Jelena; Brkljačić, Mirna; Matijatko, Vesna; Rubio, Camila Peres; Kučer, Nada; Mrljak, Vladimir

    2017-04-24

    infected with B. canis canis. These biomarkers could be used as indicators of disease severity and outcome in dogs suffering from babesiosis.

  9. IgG Antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Zevallos Lescano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii. Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.. Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES, obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  10. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decaprariis Donato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling. In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season, the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively, with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8% out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to

  11. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation

  12. Efficacy of Zingiber officinale ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity of Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity Toxocara canis (T. canis) eggs. It was carried out both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiment, unembryonated T. canis eggs were incubated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL Z. officinale extract at 25 °C for 6, 12, and 24 h to assess the effect of Z. officinale on their viability and for two weeks to assess the effect of Z. officinale on their embryogenesis. In vivo experiment was performed to assess the effect of Z. officinale on infectivity of T. canis eggs. Treated embryonated eggs by Z. officinale extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL for 24 h were inoculated into mice and their livers were examined for the presence of T. canis larvae on the 7th day after infection and for histopathological evaluation at 14th day post-infection. Z. officinale showed a significant ovicidal activity on T. canis eggs. The best effect was observed with 100 mg/mL concentration after 24 h with an efficacy of 98.2%. However, the treated eggs by 25, 50 mg/mL of Z. officinale extract after 24 h showed ovicidal activity by 59.22 and 82.5% respectively. Moreover, this extract effectively inhibited T. canis eggs embryogenesis by 99.64% and caused their degeneration at the concentration of 100 mg/mL after 2 weeks of treatment. However, the lower concentrations, 25 and 50 mg/mL inhibited embryogenesis by 51.19 and 78.57% respectively. The effect of Z. officinale on the infectivity T. canis eggs was proven by the reduction of larvae recovery in the livers by 35.9, 62.8 and 89.5% in mice groups inoculated by Z. officinale treated eggs at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively. Histopathologically, the liver tissues of mice infected with Z. officinale treated eggs at the concentration of 100 mg/mL appeared healthy with slight degenerative changes of hepatocytes, opposite to that recorded in the infected mice with

  13. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibek Yumnam

    Full Text Available The golden jackal (Canis aureus is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp of control region (CR and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55, Israel (n = 2 and Bulgaria (n = 5, to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history

  14. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  15. Digital gene expression analysis of Microsporum canis exposed to berberine chloride.

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    Chen-Wen Xiao

    Full Text Available Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illumina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05 in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson's disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis.

  16. A case of wound dual infection with Pasteurella dagmatis and Pasteurella Canis resulting from a dog bite - limitations of Vitek-2 system in exact identification of Pasteurella species

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    Akahane T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pasteurella species, widely known as indigenous orgganisms in the oral and gastrointestinal floras of many wild and domestic animals, are important pathogens in both animals and humans. Human infections due to Pasteurella species are in most cases associated with infected injuries following animal bites. We encountered a rare case of dual infections caused by different two Pasteurella species occurred in a previously healthy 25-year-old female sustaining injury by a dog-bite. Methodology Exudates from the open wound of her dog-bite site, together with the saliva of the dog were submitted for bacteriological examination. Predominantly appearing grayish-white smooth colonies with almost the same colonial properties but slightly different glistening grown on chocolate and sheep blood agar plates were characterized morphologically by Gram's stain, biochemically by automated instrument using Vitek 2 system using GN cards together with commercially available kit system, ID-Test HN-20 rapid panels, and genetically by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes of the organism using a Taq DyeDeoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing and a model 3100 DNA sequencer instrument. Results The causative isolates from the dog-bite site were finally identified as P. canis and P. dagmatis from the findings of the morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties together with the comparative sequences of the 16S rRNA genes. Both the isolates were highly susceptible to many antibiotics and the patient was successfully treated with the administration of so-called the first generation cephalosporin, cefazolin followed by so-called the third generation cephalosporin, cefcapene pivoxil. The isolate from the dog was subsequently identified as P. canis, the same species as the isolate from the patient. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this was the second report of a dual infection with Pasteurella species consisting of P. dagmatis and P. canis resulting from a

  17. Kennel Disinfectants for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp.

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    Karen A. Moriello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal efficacy of commonly used kennel disinfectants for large surfaces was tested using naturally infective material from untreated animals (M. canis and Trichophyton sp. soaked and macerated but unfiltered leaving visible fluorescing hairs and/or scales in the test inoculum to create a robust challenge. Disinfectants included sodium hypochlorite (1 : 32 and 1 : 100, enilconazole (1 : 100, accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1 : 16, potassium peroxymonosulfate (1% and 2%, and calcium hypochlorite “dry bleach.” Disinfectants were tested at a 1 : 10, 1 : 5, and 1 : 1 dilution of test inoculum to disinfectant with a 10 min contact time. Good efficacy was defined as a disinfectant resulting in no growth. Control plates grew >300 colonies of each pathogen per plate. Enilconazole, sodium hypochlorite (all dilutions, accelerated hydrogen peroxide, and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate (but not 1% inhibited all growth of both pathogens at 1 : 10, 1 : 5, and 1 : 1 dilutions. Calcium hypochlorite showed no antifungal efficacy (>300 colonies per plate. Enilconazole (1 : 100, sodium hypochlorite (1 : 32 or 1 : 100, accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1 : 16, and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate are recommended for decontamination of kennels exposed to dermatophyte pathogens.

  18. Kennel Disinfectants for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal efficacy of commonly used kennel disinfectants for large surfaces was tested using naturally infective material from untreated animals (M. canis and Trichophyton sp.) soaked and macerated but unfiltered leaving visible fluorescing hairs and/or scales in the test inoculum to create a robust challenge. Disinfectants included sodium hypochlorite (1 : 32 and 1 : 100), enilconazole (1 : 100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1 : 16), potassium peroxymonosulfate (1% and 2%), and calcium hypochlorite "dry bleach." Disinfectants were tested at a 1 : 10, 1 : 5, and 1 : 1 dilution of test inoculum to disinfectant with a 10 min contact time. Good efficacy was defined as a disinfectant resulting in no growth. Control plates grew >300 colonies of each pathogen per plate. Enilconazole, sodium hypochlorite (all dilutions), accelerated hydrogen peroxide, and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate (but not 1%) inhibited all growth of both pathogens at 1 : 10, 1 : 5, and 1 : 1 dilutions. Calcium hypochlorite showed no antifungal efficacy (>300 colonies per plate). Enilconazole (1 : 100), sodium hypochlorite (1 : 32 or 1 : 100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1 : 16), and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate are recommended for decontamination of kennels exposed to dermatophyte pathogens.

  19. Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy in Two Red Wolf (Canis rufus Pups

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    Jenessa L. Gjeltema

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-month-old red wolf (Canis rufus pup presented for evaluation of progressive thoracic and pelvic limb lameness, joint swelling, and decreased body condition. Radiographic evaluation revealed medullary sclerosis centered at the metaphyses of multiple long bones, well-defined irregular periosteal proliferation, and ill-defined lucent zones paralleling the physes, consistent with hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD. Biopsies of affected bone revealed medullary fibrosis and new bone formation. The pup improved following treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, opioids, and supportive care over the course of 4 weeks. Metaphyseal periosteal bone proliferation persisted until the animal was humanely euthanized several years later for poor quality of life associated with bilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture. A second red wolf pup of 4.5 months of age presented for evaluation of lethargy, kyphotic posture, and swollen carpal and tarsal joints. Radiographs revealed bilateral medullary sclerosis and smooth periosteal reaction affecting multiple long bones, suggestive of HOD. Further diagnostics were not pursued in this case to confirm the diagnosis, and the clinical signs persisted for 4 weeks. In light of these two case reports, HOD should be recognized as a developmental orthopedic disease in growing red wolves.

  20. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus) Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis).

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    Gable, Thomas D; Windels, Steve K; Bruggink, John G; Homkes, Austin T

    2016-01-01

    Beavers (Castor canadensis) can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus) in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58%) kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80%) kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1) waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails) until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2) using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3) immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers.

  1. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis.

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    Thomas D Gable

    Full Text Available Beavers (Castor canadensis can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58% kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80% kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1 waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2 using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3 immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers.

  2. Inbreeding and inbreeding depression in endangered red wolves (Canis rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeski, Kristin E; Rabon, David R; Chamberlain, Michael J; Waits, Lisette P; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2014-09-01

    In natural populations, the expression and severity of inbreeding depression can vary widely across taxa. Describing processes that influence the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression aid in our understanding of the evolutionary history of mating systems such as cooperative breeding and nonrandom mate selection. Such findings also help shape wildlife conservation theory because inbreeding depression reduces the viability of small populations. We evaluated the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression in a small, re-introduced population of red wolves (Canis rufus) in North Carolina. Since red wolves were first re-introduced in 1987, pedigree inbreeding coefficients (f) increased considerably and almost every wild born wolf was inbred (average f = 0.154 and max f = 0.383). The large inbreeding coefficients were due to both background relatedness associated with few founders and numerous close relative matings. Inbreeding depression was most evident for adult body size and generally absent for direct fitness measures such as reproductive success and survival; no lethal equivalents (LE = 0.00) were detected in juvenile survival. The lack of strong inbreeding depression in direct measures of fitness could be due to a founder effect or because there were no outbred individuals for comparison. Our results highlight the variable expression of inbreeding depression across traits and the need to measure a number of different traits when evaluating inbreeding depression in a wild population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Accounts of famous North American Wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    We examined historical accounts of 59 famous North American Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) reported during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Fifty of the 59 wolves were purportedly responsible for great losses to livestock, but for 29 reports, evidence suggested that ???2 wolves (e.g., packs) were responsible for the purported kills; in addition, seven wolves had traits that suggested they were hybrids with dogs, and one wolf was probably not from the area where the damage purportedly occurred. Reported livestock losses, especially to Longhorn cattle, from individual wolves appeared excessively high in relation to current literature. Most famous wolves were old and/or impaired from past injuries: 19 were reportedly ???10 years old, 18 had mutilated feet from past trap injuries, and one had a partially severed trachea from being in a snare. Old age and physical impairments probably contributed to livestock depredations by some famous wolves. Several accounts appeared exaggerated, inaccurate, or fabricated. Historical accounts of famous wolves should be interpreted with great caution, especially when considering impacts of wolf reintroductions or when modeling predation rates.

  4. Urbanization, Grassland, and Diet Influence Coyote (Canis latrans) Parasitism Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Alexander G; Lukasik, Victoria M; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Alexander, Shelley M

    2015-12-01

    Land use change can alter the ecological mechanisms that influence infectious disease exposure in animal populations. However, few studies have empirically integrated the environmental, spatial, and dietary patterns of wildlife epidemiology. We investigate how urbanization, habitat type, and dietary behavior are associated with coyote (Canis latrans) parasitism structure along a gradient of rural to urban land cover using multivariate redundancy analyses. Coyote fecal samples were collected in eight urban and six rural sites in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Parasite and diet components were identified using common flotation procedures and fecal dietary analysis, respectively. Redundancy analysis was used to identify the best land cover, connectivity, and dietary predictors. We tested for significance using multiple permutation tests and ANOVAs. Significant factors affecting enteric parasite prevalence included dietary and land cover factors (R (2) = 0.4130, P < 0.05). Variation in dietary behavior was observed between urban and rural sites (R (2) = 0.4712, P < 0.05), as anthropogenic diet items (i.e., garbage, crabapples) were strongly influenced by urbanization. Our research supports that developed habitat, grassland cover, and dietary choice interact to possibly influence the exposure of coyote hosts to enteric parasites and pioneers future investigation of disease ecology for natural populations in anthropogenic landscapes.

  5. Medical management of pyometra in three red wolves (Canis rufus).

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    Anderson, Kadie; Wolf, Karen N

    2013-12-01

    Pyometra is a serious, life-threatening disease of both domestic and non-domestic species often requiring ovariohysterectomy to preserve the life of the animal. Medical management of pyometra has been successful in domestic and non-domestic species, and the consideration of such treatment is of marked importance in a critically endangered species. Of the canids, the red wolf (Canis rufus) is second only to African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus) in terms of the prevalence of both cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra. In this report, three red wolves were medically managed for pyometra. Aside from vaginal discharge, none of the wolves exhibited clinical signs, nor were there reflective inflammatory changes in the laboratory findings. All wolves received standard treatment for pyometra, including prostaglandin F2alpha and antibiotic therapy, while one wolf was more aggressively managed with uterine lavage. Pyometra recurred in two of the treated wolves, while the most aggressively managed wolf continues to show ultrasonographic resolution 2 yr posttreatment. Aggressive medical management of pyometra should be considered a treatment option in certain red wolf females, as it may preserve the animal's reproductive potential.

  6. Mating System of Free-Ranging Dogs (Canis familiaris

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    S. K. Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen females belonging to five groups were selected for the study of mating system in free-ranging domestic dogs (Canis familiaris All the matings occurred between August and December with a peak in late monsoon months (September to November. Both males and females differed in their degree of attractiveness to the opposite sex. The duration of courting association increased with the number of courting males in an association. The females exhibited selectivity by readily permitting some males to mate and avoiding, or even attacking others, if they attempted to mount. Frequency of mounting in courting association increased with the number of males present. There was a positive correlation between the duration of courting association and the frequency of mounting. The young adult males were more likely to copulate successfully than the old adult males. There was a negative correlation between the number of males present in an association and the number of successful copulations. In this study, six types of mating (monogamy, polygyny, promiscuity, polyandry, opportunity and rape were recorded. Mean (±S.E. duration of copulatory ties was 25.65 (±1.43 min. Several natural factors influencing the duration of copulatory ties were identified.

  7. Toxocara canis, o passageiro clandestino de um voo…

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    Andreia Filipa Mota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A toxocarose humana é uma helmintozoonose, frequente em idade pediátrica, transmitida por ingestão de ovos presentes no solo. Crianças residentes em zonas com condições de saneamento precárias, que coabitem com animais de estimação não desparasitados e que apresentem geofagia, incorrem em elevado risco de desenvolvimento de toxocarose. Apresenta-se o caso de um rapaz de 5 anos, residente até há um mês em Cabo Verde, que recorreu ao serviço de urgência por febre, tosse e síndrome de dificuldade respiratória. Analiticamente destacava-se leucocitose e eosinofilia. A tomografia computorizada torácica revelava hiperdensidade irregular na base pulmonar direita. Perante serologia do Toxocara canis sugestiva de infeção aguda admitiu-se o diagnóstico de larva migrans visceral, atuando-se em conformidade terapêutica. A síndrome de larva migrans visceral atinge diversos órgãos, sendo o envolvimento pulmonar grave raro. Apesar de maioritariamente assintomática e autolimitada, quando sintomática a apresentação inespecífica e as limitações da interpretação serológica dificultam o diagnóstico e a abordagem terapêutica adequada.

  8. North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V.; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A.; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A.; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D.

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part. PMID:24146871

  9. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  10. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus.

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    Astrid V Stronen

    Full Text Available European wolves (Canis lupus show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  11. Trichoderma virens as a biocontrol of Toxocara canis: In vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; da Silva Fonseca, Anelise Oliveira; Persici, Beatriz Maroneze; de Souza Silveira, Julia; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Pötter, Luciana; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    Microorganisms have been widely studied as biological control agents of parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Coprophagous arthropods, bacteria and fungi are among the different organisms evaluated as potential biological control agents. Nematophagous fungi capture and digest the free forms of nematodes in the soil. Due to its zoonotic potential, Toxocara canis have been brought to the attention of researchers. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the nematophagous fungus Trichoderma virens reduces parasite infection in experimental animals. Embryonated T. canis eggs were exposed to T. virens mycelium for 15 days at 25°C. Subsequently, 100 fungus-exposed eggs were orally administered to 20 Swiss mice. As a positive control, another 20 mice received 100 embryonated eggs that were not exposed to the fungus. After 48h, the animals were killed, and heart, lungs and liver were harvested for the recovery of larvae. The organs of the animals that received embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the fungus showed a lower mean larval recovery when compared with the animals that received embryonated eggs without fungus exposure (p<0.05). The exposure of T. canis eggs to T. virens reduces the experimental infection, demonstrating the potential of this nematophagous fungus as a biocontrol agent. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection and molecular identification of Hepatozoon canis and Babesia vogeli from domestic dogs in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Kifaya; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Abdelkader, Ahmad; Zaid, Taher; Ereqat, Suheir; Sawalha, Samer S; Baneth, Gad; Abdeen, Ziad

    2017-04-01

    Dogs serve as hosts for a great number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. This study aimed to observe tick borne pathogens in dogs from Palestine including Hepatozoon canis and Babesia species. The prevalence of both H. canis and Babesia species infections in apparently healthy dogs, from ten districts of the West Bank was surveyed. DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from dogs (n = 362) and ticks (n = 213) collected from dogs (n = 77). A primer set that amplifies a partial sequence of the Babesia and Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene was used for PCR and the DNA sequences of the PCR products of all samples were determined. Twenty-nine (8·0%) of the dogs were found infected including 20 with H. canis (5·5%), seven with Babesia vogeli (1·9%) and two with undefined Babesia spp. (0·6%). Twelve Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l ticks were pathogen-positive, including ten with H. canis (4·7%), one with B. vogeli (0·5%), and one with Hepatozoon felis (0·5%). The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens is circulating in the canine population in the surveyed region. This study is the first report on the prevalence of H. canis, B. vogeli and Babesia spp. in dogs in Palestine and its results will assist in the management of diseases associated with these blood parasites.

  13. Babesia canis vogeli infection in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Andreina C. Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This study aimed to report the prevalence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the urban and rural areas of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Serum and peripheral blood samples of 404 dogs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and by blood smears, respectively. The presence of tick infestation was evaluated, and some specimens were submitted to DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The presence of antibodies anti-B. canis vogeli was determinate in 57.9% (234/404 of dogs. The direct detection of Babesia spp was obtained in 0.5% (2/404 dogs by visualization of intraerythrocytic forms. Infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was observed in 54.5% (220/404 of dogs in both urban and rural areas. DNA of Babesia canis vogeli were obtained by PCR in 6% individual (3/50 and 8.7% of pool of ticks (7/80. The risk factors for the presence of anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies, as determined through the application of logistic regression models (P<0.05, were the following: medium breed size variables (P<0.001; contact with areas of forest (P=0.021; and access on the street (P=0.046. This study describes, for the first time, the confirmation of infection of B. canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil.

  14. Reconstructed interfollicular feline epidermis as a model for the screening of antifungal drugs against Microsporum canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabart, Jeremy; Baldo, Aline; Vermout, Sandy; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

    2008-06-01

    A fully differentiated reconstructed interfollicular feline epidermis (RFE) was recently developed in vitro. It was shown to be relevant for the study of Microsporum canis-epidermal interactions. In this study, RFE was evaluated as a potential model for the in vitro screening of drugs against M. canis. As a preliminary step, the minimum inhibitory concentration of miconazole nitrate against M. canis IHEM 21239 grown on Sabouraud's dextrose agar was determined to be 0.3 microg mL(-1). RFE grown at the air-liquid interface was cultured for 24 h in RFE culture medium, supplemented with either miconazole (range 0.1-1 microg mL(-1)) or its solvent (dimethylsulfoxide). Then, RFE was inoculated in triplicate with 1 x 10(5 )M. canis arthroconidia and incubated for five additional days. To evaluate fungal growth, RFE was processed for routine histopathology, three serial sections being performed across the block at 100 microm intervals. No fungal growth was detected invading or on the surface of infected RFE in the presence of miconazole concentrations equal to or higher than 0.3 microg mL (final concentration in the culture medium). This study demonstrates that RFE is an adequate model for the in vitro screening of drugs against M. canis and potentially against other skin pathogens.

  15. Subtilisin Sub3 is involved in adherence of Microsporum canis to human and animal epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Băguţ, Elena Tatiana; Baldo, Aline; Mathy, Anne; Cambier, Ludivine; Antoine, Nadine; Cozma, Vasile; Mignon, Bernard

    2012-12-07

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of the secreted keratinolytic subtilisin-like protease Sub3 in adherence of Microsporum canis to epidermis from various susceptible species, in addition to cat for which this role was recently demonstrated. Firstly, we showed by immunostaining that Sub3 is not expressed in arthroconidia from an M. canis SUB3 RNA-silenced strain but is present on the surface of arthroconidia from a SUB3 non-silenced parental strain. Secondly, comparative adherence assays using arthroconidia from both M. canis strains and skin explants from humans, dogs, horses, rabbits, guinea pigs, mice and cats revealed that only 8-16% of arthroconidia from the SUB3 silenced strain adhered to different types of epidermis when compared to the control strain. Attempts to restore fungal adherence by the addition of recombinant Sub3 failed in the tested conditions. Overall results show for the first time that Sub3 is necessary for the adherence of M. canis arthroconidia to epidermis from humans and other animal species than cat, supporting the idea that Sub3 plays a central role in colonization of keratinized host structures by M. canis, whatever the host. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. First evidence of hybridization between golden jackal (Canis aureus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as revealed by genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galov, Ana; Fabbri, Elena; Caniglia, Romolo; Arbanasić, Haidi; Lapalombella, Silvana; Florijančić, Tihomir; Bošković, Ivica; Galaverni, Marco; Randi, Ettore

    2015-12-01

    Interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent in nature and numerous cases of hybridization between wild canids and domestic dogs have been recorded. However, hybrids between golden jackals (Canis aureus) and other canids have not been described before. In this study, we combined the use of biparental (15 autosomal microsatellites and three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci) and uniparental (mtDNA control region and a Y-linked Zfy intron) genetic markers to assess the admixed origin of three wild-living canids showing anomalous phenotypic traits. Results indicated that these canids were hybrids between golden jackals and domestic dogs. One of them was a backcross to jackal and another one was a backcross to dog, confirming that golden jackal-domestic dog hybrids are fertile. The uniparental markers showed that the direction of hybridization, namely females of the wild species hybridizing with male domestic dogs, was common to most cases of canid hybridization. A melanistic 3bp-deletion at the K locus (β-defensin CDB103 gene), that was absent in reference golden jackal samples, but was found in a backcross to jackal with anomalous black coat, suggested its introgression from dogs via hybridization. Moreover, we demonstrated that MHC sequences, although rarely used as markers of hybridization, can be also suitable for the identification of hybrids, as long as haplotypes are exclusive for the parental species.

  17. Comparação antigênica entre extratos de Toxocara canis e Ascaris suum

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    Felix R. Zyngier

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta a comparação de dois extratos de Toxocara canis e um de Ascaris suum do ponto de vista antigênico. O método usado foi a imunodifusão em gel segundo Ouchtehlöny. O extrato de T. canis obtido pela técnica de Jeska mostrou 7 faixas de precipitação contra o anti-soro homólogo. O extrato de A. suum obtido pela mesma técnica apenas revelou 3 faixas, uma das quais com identidade parcial com o antígeno anterior. O extrato de T. canis segundo Woodruff e Thacker revelou 3 faixas de precipitação contra o anti-soro homólogo, todas elas com identidade total com o outro extrato do mesmo parasita.

  18. PARASITOLOGY AND SEROLOGY OF FREE-RANGING COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) IN NORTH CAROLINA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, M Colter; Swingen, Morgan B; Lashley, Marcus A; Flowers, James R; Palamar, Maria B; Apperson, Charles S; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern US and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. We examined free-ranging coyotes from central North Carolina, US, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. We detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with Amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. Fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), with a greater detection rate in adults (75%) than juveniles (22%). Serology revealed antibodies against canine adenovirus (71%), canine coronavirus (32%), canine distemper virus (17%), canine parvovirus (96%), and Leptospira spp. (7%). We did not detect antibodies against Brucella abortus/suis or Brucella canis. Our results showed that coyotes harbor many common pathogens that present health risks to humans and domestic animals and suggest that continued monitoring of the coyote's role in pathogen transmission is warranted.

  19. Scanning electron microscopy description of a new species of Demodex canis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Y; Kawamura, Y; Inoue, I; Ishino, S

    2001-10-01

    Between 1997 and 1999, the prevalence of Demodex canis mites was determined in 150 dogs. In two dogs, we found two different species of mites; Demodex canis and another, unidentified, Demodex mite. The unidentified Demodex mite species had several different morphological features. First, it had a short opisthosoma and an obtuse end. In addition, the fourth coxisternal plate was rectangular and there was a band-like segmental plate between the fourth coxisternal plate and opisthosoma. Although all of the morphology and the development of male mites could not be investigated in this study, the location of the opisthosoma and the genital pore clearly differed from Demodex canis, suggesting that this unidentified mite is a new species.

  20. Establishment of Demodex canis on canine skin engrafted onto scid-beige mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, J L; Yager, J A; Barta, J R; Parker, W

    1996-12-01

    A small animal model of canine demodicosis is described. Normal canine skin was engrafted onto scid (severe combined immunodeficient)-beige mice, which lack functional B and T lymphocytes and have reduced natural killer cell activity. The xenografts were later infected with Demodex canis collected from a dog with demodicosis. At 30-112 days following infection, mites were seen histologically in the canine hair follicles of the engrafted skin. Demodex canis adults, nymphs, larvae, and eggs were present in samples macerated in sodium hydroxide. Mite infestations could not be demonstrated in the mouse skin, nor were mites passed from the infected graft to uninfected skin grafts on in-contact mice. This model may be utilized to assess the efficacy of miticidal treatments, to evaluate the importance of specific components of the immune response, and to study the biology of D. canis.

  1. Tinea Corporis, Caused by Microsporum Canis - a Case Report From Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokollari, Fatime; Daka, Aferdita; Blyta, Ymrane; Ismajli, Fellanza; Haxhijaha-Lulaj, Kujtesa

    2015-10-01

    Tinea corporis (B35.6) caused by Microsporum canis which is fungal species that causes numerous forms of disease. It is part of a group of fungi known as Dermatophytes. Though mostly well known for ringworm in pets, it is also known to infect humans. This fact makes this pathogen both anthrophilic and zoophilic in nature. Microsporum canis is a communicable pathogen. We will report about a case, 22-year-old female, residing in a village, with typical changes of a mycotic infection caused by M. Canis. Dermatological description can be summarized with polymorphic erythematous, papulosquamous changes, erosions mainly on genital organ and spread to the thighs and lower abdomen which are accompanied with itching and burning. Diagnosis B35.6 was determined on the basis of clinical appearance complemented with anamnesis, microscopic examination and culture. The patient was treated successfully with general and local antimycotics and antibiotics.

  2. Ehrlichia secretes Etf-1 to induce autophagy and capture nutrients for its growth through RAB5 and class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mingqun; Liu, Hongyan; Xiong, Qingming; Niu, Hua; Cheng, Zhihui; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2016-11-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes a potentially fatal emerging zoonosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis. E. chaffeensis has a limited capacity for biosynthesis and metabolism and thus depends mostly on host-synthesized nutrients for growth. Although the host cell cytoplasm is rich with these nutrients, as E. chaffeensis is confined within the early endosome-like membrane-bound compartment, only host nutrients that enter the compartment can be used by this bacterium. How this occurs is unknown. We found that ehrlichial replication depended on autophagy induction involving class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) activity, BECN1 (Beclin 1), and ATG5 (autophagy-related 5). Ehrlichia acquired host cell preincorporated amino acids in a class III PtdIns3K-dependent manner and ehrlichial growth was enhanced by treatment with rapamycin, an autophagy inducer. Moreover, ATG5 and RAB5A/B/C were routed to ehrlichial inclusions. RAB5A/B/C siRNA knockdown, or overexpression of a RAB5-specific GTPase-activating protein or dominant-negative RAB5A inhibited ehrlichial infection, indicating the critical role of GTP-bound RAB5 during infection. Both native and ectopically expressed ehrlichial type IV secretion effector protein, Etf-1, bound RAB5 and the autophagy-initiating class III PtdIns3K complex, PIK3C3/VPS34, and BECN1, and homed to ehrlichial inclusions. Ectopically expressed Etf-1 activated class III PtdIns3K as in E. chaffeensis infection and induced autophagosome formation, cleared an aggregation-prone mutant huntingtin protein in a class III PtdIns3K-dependent manner, and enhanced ehrlichial proliferation. These data support the notion that E. chaffeensis secretes Etf-1 to induce autophagy to repurpose the host cytoplasm and capture nutrients for its growth through RAB5 and class III PtdIns3K, while avoiding autolysosomal killing.

  3. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Peťko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Attempted treatment of tigers (Panthera tigris) infected with Microsporum canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, John M; Ramsay, Edward C

    2007-06-01

    An outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis occurred in tigers (Panthera tigris) at an exotic felid sanctuary in 2003. In an attempt to find an effective, practical, safe, and affordable method for controlling this epizootic, a clinical treatment trial was conducted. Nonalopecic tigers were studied to address the inapparent carrier state observed at the facility. The efficacy of three topical and environmental treatment combinations of a 2% lime sulfur solution and a peroxide-based cleaner were evaluated in nonalopecic, culture-positive tigers (n = 18) housed in four separate enclosures. Lime sulfur solution was applied topically to all of these animals. As a control, nonalopecic but culture-positive tigers (n = 6) housed in two other enclosures were not treated. Environmental treatments included lime sulfur solution (n = 1), a peroxide-based cleaner (n = 1), and no treatment (n = 2). All solutions were applied at 2-wk intervals for seven treatments. The 2% lime sulfur solution treatments were unsuccessful in resolving infections in most tigers. Lime sulfur was effective in suppressing environmental fungal growth immediately posttreatment, whereas the peroxide-based cleaner was not effective. A follow-up survey of all study tigers and their enclosures was conducted 2 yr later, at which time 22 of 24 tigers (92%) had attained resolution, defined as two sequential negative hair cultures. Review of the culture results during the clinical trial and follow-up study suggests that nonalopecic dermatophytosis in tigers that are housed outdoors may not warrant aggressive individual or environmental treatment, as the infection may clear with time.

  5. Sarcoptic mange in the Scandinavian wolf Canis lupus population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Boris; Zimmermann, Barbara; Wabakken, Petter; Bornstein, Set; Månsson, Johan; Evans, Alina L; Liberg, Olof; Sand, Håkan; Kindberg, Jonas; Ågren, Erik O; Arnemo, Jon M

    2016-07-27

    Sarcoptic mange, a parasitic disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, is regularly reported on wolves Canis lupus in Scandinavia. We describe the distribution and transmission of this parasite within the small but recovering wolf population by analysing 269 necropsy reports and performing a serological survey on 198 serum samples collected from free-ranging wolves between 1998 and 2013. The serological survey among 145 individual captured Scandinavian wolves (53 recaptures) shows a consistent presence of antibodies against sarcoptic mange. Seropositivity among all captured wolves was 10.1 % (CI. 6.4 %-15.1 %). Sarcoptic mange-related mortality reported at necropsy was 5.6 % and due to secondary causes, predominantly starvation. In the southern range of the population, seroprevalence was higher, consistent with higher red fox densities. Female wolves had a lower probability of being seropositive than males, but for both sexes the probability increased with pack size. Recaptured individuals changing from seropositive to seronegative suggest recovery from sarcoptic mange. The lack of seropositive pups (8-10 months, N = 56) and the occurrence of seropositive and seronegative individuals in the same pack indicates interspecific transmission of S. scabiei into this wolf population. We consider sarcoptic mange to have little effect on the recovery of the Scandinavian wolf population. Heterogenic infection patterns on the pack level in combination with the importance of individual-based factors (sex, pack size) and the north-south gradient for seroprevalence suggests low probability of wolf-to-wolf transmission of S. scabiei in Scandinavia.

  6. The High Amplitude delta Scuti Star AD Canis Minoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, R. A.; Napier-Munn, T.

    2016-12-01

    The high amplitude delta Scuti star AD Canis Minoris was studied by photoelectric photometry (PEP) during one night in in February 2011 and by digital single lens reflex (DSLR) photometry during seven nights in January and February 2016. Nine light curve peaks were captured, eight of them by DSLR photometry. A review of the literature enabled us to tabulate 109 times of maximum since 1959, to which we added 9 times of maximum from our data, thus creating the largest dataset to date for this star. Assuming a linear ephemeris, the period of AD CMi was calculated to be 0.122974511 (+/- 0.000000004) d, almost identical to that quoted in earlier literature. We constructed an observed minus computed (O-C) diagram which exhibited a quasi-sinusoidal shape, and fitted a weighted model characterised by combined quadratic and trigonometric functions. The fit indicates that the shape of the O-C diagram is attributable to the effects of a slow increase in the pulsation period of AD CMi at a constant rate, and the light time effect of a binary pair, confirming the results from previous authors, and updating most of the coefficients of the equation for the fitted model. The values of all of the coefficients in the function are statistically significant. The rate of increase in the pulsation period of AD CMi was calculated from the entire dataset to be dP/dt = 6.17 (+/- 0.75) x 10-9 d yr-1 or dP/Pdt = 5.01 (+/- 0.61) x 10-8 yr-1.

  7. Detection of larvae of Toxocara canis in milk: an experimental study in rabbits

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    Vamilton Alvares Santarém

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis, caused most commonly by Toxocara canis, is an important cosmopolitan zoonosis. Paratenic hosts have been employed to provide knowledge regard to the transmission of toxocariasis. Transmammary transmission in murine experimentally infected was observed based on the recovery of larvae from the tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of transmammary transmission of Toxocara canis in rabbits by detecting larvae directly in milk. Seventeen sexually mature virgin white New Zealand female rabbits were divided into two groups. Twelve animals were orally inoculated with 1,000 T. canis embryonated eggs (infected group, and five animals remained uninfected (control group. One month following the infection, the females were mated. Manual collection of 500 ?L of milk from each rabbit was performed on days +7, +14 and +21 of lactation for three consecutive lactations. The recovery of larvae was determined via a centrifuge-sedimentation technique using ether and formalin solutions. ELISA test was run to confirm the production of anti-T. canis antibodies (IgG by infected rabbits. The presence of larvae was observed in milk samples from 5 (41.7% of the 12 infected rabbits. The total number of recovered larvae was 20, ranging from 1 to 4 larvae per lactation/rabbit. Larvae were recovered exclusively on days 7 and 14 of lactation. Recovery was verified in different lactations. No significant difference was observed with respect to the number of larvae either in the same lactation period or in different lactation periods. Anti-T. canis antibodies were detected in all infected rabbits. In conclusion, the presence of larvae in rabbit milk samples suggests the possibility of galactogenic transmission of T. canis in paratenic hosts. Moreover, the technique employed in this study allows for the recovery of larvae directly from milk.

  8. ELEVATED TRANS-MAMMARY TRANSMISSION OF Toxocara canis LARVAE IN BALB/c MICE

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    Paula de Lima Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis and is considered an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of trans-mammary Toxocara canis infection in newborn BALB/c mice nursed by females experimentally infected with 1,200 eggs after delivery. After 50 days of age, the presence of larvae in different organs of the offspring was investigated. Trans-mammary infection was confirmed in 73.9% of the mice that had been nursed by infected females. These data show a high trans-mammary transmission of T. canis and confirm the significance of this transmission route in paratenic hosts.

  9. Uji Efektivitas Beberapa Minyak Atsiri terhadap Pertumbuhan Microsporum canis secara in Vitro

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    Bunga Saridewi Nurmansyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDermatofitosis merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang penting di daerah tropis. Minyak atsiri merupakan salah satu potensi alam Indonesia yang diketahui memiliki daya antifungi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui efektivitas beberapa minyak atsiri (serai wangi, kayu manis dan cengkeh sebagai antijamur dalam mengendalikan pertumbuhan Microsporum canis penyebab dermatofitosis secara in vitro. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Fitopatologi KP Balittro Laing Solok dari  Februari sampai April 2014. Studi eksperimental ini dilakukan dengan metode pengenceran disusun  dalam Desain Rancang Acak Lengkap dalam Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah jenis minyak atsiri (daun serai wangi, daun kayu manis, daun cengkeh. Faktor kedua adalah tingkat konsentrasi minyak atsiri (100 ppm, 250 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm dan 2000 ppm. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa minyak atsiri daun serai wangi, daun kayu manis dan daun sarasah cengkeh efektif dalam menekan pertumbuhan M. canis secara in vitro. Ketiga minyak atsiri pada konsentrasi 500 ppm telah mampu menghambat pertumbuhan M. canis hingga 100%. Minyak atsiri daun sarasah cengkeh memiliki efek antifungi paling tinggi (89,17%, diikuti minyak atsiri daun serai wangi (80,98% dan kayu manis (77,07%.                Kata kunci: minyak atsiri, serai wangi, cengkeh, kayumanis, microsporum canis AbstractDermatophytosis is an important public health problem in tropical areas. Essential oil is one of natural potential from Indonesia has been predicted as antifungal. The objective of this study was to detect effectivity some essential oils such as citronella, cinnamon and clove as antifungal to control the growth of dermatophyte infections caused by Microsporum canis by in vitro . The study was done  in the Laboratory of Phytopathology KP Balitro of Laing Solok from February until April 2014. This is an experimental study with dilution method arranged in Complete Randomized Design in

  10. Prevalence of Toxocara canis in Dogs, North West Bank of Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of Toxocara canis in local districts in North West Bank of Palestine. Fecal samples from 132 dogs were collected in Nablus, Tulkarm, and Jenin cities from September 2008 to April 2009 and examined for T. canis eggs with the floating technique. The overall infection rate of toxocariasis in dogs was 36.4%. The dogs less than 6 months old showed higher infection rates than those older than 12 months (P=0.04). Vigorous interventions are necessary, such as routine coprological examinations of dogs and prescription of anthelmintics to infected dogs. PMID:21738276

  11. Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

    2009-10-01

    This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (Pcanis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada.

  12. Henoch-Schönlein purpura associated with Toxocara canis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidou, M A; Gueglio, B; Cassagneau, E; Trewick, D; Grolleau, J Y

    1999-02-01

    We describe a case of Henoch-Schönlein purpura in the onset of Toxocara canis infection. The diagnosis was made in a 17-year-old boy based on the association of palpable purpura, oligoarthritis, acute abdominal pain, microhematuria, and cutaneous vasculitis. Toxocariasis, suggested by hypereosinophilia and domestic contact with a puppy, was confirmed by anti-Toxocara IgG and IgE and Western blot. Complete spontaneous resolution occurred within a few days. Transient presence of antinuclear antibodies and the absence of larvae in the skin biopsy favor an immunologic parasite induced disorder. A hypersensitivity vasculitis to Toxocara canis is suggested.

  13. A report of a Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog with transmissible venereal tumour

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    Namakkal Rajamanickam Senthil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a case of a Hepatozoan canis infection in a dog with a sexually transmissible venereal tumour is reported. Haematological examination revealed marked decrease in haemoglobin, PCV and RBC counts and the blood smear revealed rouleaux formation of RBC, hypochromasia, leptocytes and neutrophilia. Neutrophils were parasitized with both non-nucleated and stained nucleated forms of H. canis. Serum biochemistry results showed elevated levels of alkaline phosphatise, whereas blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, albumin and globulin were in the normal range.

  14. An alternate technique for isolation of Toxocara canis excretory-secretory antigens

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    Cristiane Maria Colli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a sausage-casing membrane for dialysis of Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens (TES. The protein concentrated by the tested membrane was compared with that obtained using a Sigma commercial membrane, as were the protein fractions found by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Standard positive and negative serum samples were evaluated in an ELISA immunoassay, and equivalent data were obtained in all steps, indicating that the sausage-casing membrane is efficient, besides being less expensive to process.O objetivo do presente estudo foi testar a eficácia de uma membrana utilizada para o preparo de embutidos, na obtenção do antígeno de excreção e secreção de Toxocara (TES. A concentração protéica foi comparada com a obtida com a membrana Sigma tanto quanto as frações protéicas separadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. Amostras de soros padrão positivo e negativo foram avaliadas no teste imunoenzimático ELISA. Dados equivalentes foram observados em todas as etapas, sugerindo que a membrana possa ser utilizada para diálise por ser eficiente e de menor custo no preparo do antígeno.

  15. Assessing the prevalence of hybridization between sympatric Canis species surrounding the red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery area in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, Justin H; Waits, Lisette P

    2011-05-01

    Predicting spatial patterns of hybridization is important for evolutionary and conservation biology yet are hampered by poor understanding of how hybridizing species can interact. This is especially pertinent in contact zones where hybridizing populations are sympatric. In this study, we examined the extent of red wolf (Canis rufus) colonization and introgression where the species contacts a coyote (C. latrans) population in North Carolina, USA. We surveyed 22,000km(2) in the winter of 2008 for scat and identified individual canids through genetic analysis. Of 614 collected scats, 250 were assigned to canids by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing. Canid samples were genotyped at 6-17 microsatellite loci (nDNA) and assigned to species using three admixture criteria implemented in two Bayesian clustering programs. We genotyped 82 individuals but none were identified as red wolves. Two individuals had red wolf mtDNA but no significant red wolf nDNA ancestry. One individual possessed significant red wolf nDNA ancestry (approximately 30%) using all criteria, although seven other individuals showed evidence of red wolf ancestry (11-21%) using the relaxed criterion. Overall, seven individuals were classified as hybrids using the conservative criteria and 37 using the relaxed criterion. We found evidence of dog (C. familiaris) and gray wolf (C. lupus) introgression into the coyote population. We compared the performance of different methods and criteria by analyzing known red wolves and hybrids. These results suggest that red wolf colonization and introgression in North Carolina is minimal and provide insights into the utility of Bayesian clustering methods to detect hybridization. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Canis mtDNA HV1 database: a web-based tool for collecting and surveying Canis mtDNA HV1 haplotype in public database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Quan Ke; Chung, Dung Anh; Tran, Hoang-Dung

    2017-06-26

    Canine and wolf mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, which can be used for forensic or phylogenetic analyses, have been defined in various schemes depending on the region analyzed. In recent studies, the 582 bp fragment of the HV1 region is most commonly used. 317 different canine HV1 haplotypes have been reported in the rapidly growing public database GenBank. These reported haplotypes contain several inconsistencies in their haplotype information. To overcome this issue, we have developed a Canis mtDNA HV1 database. This database collects data on the HV1 582 bp region in dog mitochondrial DNA from the GenBank to screen and correct the inconsistencies. It also supports users in detection of new novel mutation profiles and assignment of new haplotypes. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database (CHD) contains 5567 nucleotide entries originating from 15 subspecies in the species Canis lupus. Of these entries, 3646 were haplotypes and grouped into 804 distinct sequences. 319 sequences were recognized as previously assigned haplotypes, while the remaining 485 sequences had new mutation profiles and were marked as new haplotype candidates awaiting further analysis for haplotype assignment. Of the 3646 nucleotide entries, only 414 were annotated with correct haplotype information, while 3232 had insufficient or lacked haplotype information and were corrected or modified before storing in the CHD. The CHD can be accessed at http://chd.vnbiology.com . It provides sequences, haplotype information, and a web-based tool for mtDNA HV1 haplotyping. The CHD is updated monthly and supplies all data for download. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database contains information about canine mitochondrial DNA HV1 sequences with reconciled annotation. It serves as a tool for detection of inconsistencies in GenBank and helps identifying new HV1 haplotypes. Thus, it supports the scientific community in naming new HV1 haplotypes and to reconcile existing annotation of HV1 582 bp sequences.

  17. Investigação molecular de Ehrlichia spp. e Anaplasma platys em felinos domésticos: alterações clínicas, hematológicas e bioquímicas

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    Elisabete S Correa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia sp. e Anaplasma platys são micro-organismos Gram negativos, parasitos intracelulares obrigatórios, residindo em vacúolos citoplasmáticos de leucócitos e plaquetas, encontrados no sangue periférico ou em tecidos. Poucos relatos têm sido feitos sobre erliquiose e anaplasmose em gatos no Brasil, os quais são baseados na presença de mórulas em leucócitos e plaquetas, ou pela detecção de anticorpos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a infecção natural por Ehrlichia sp. e A.platys em gatos no Município de Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, através da hematoscopia e pela detecção do DNA desses agentes. Foram utilizadas amostras de sangue total e de soro de 91 gatos, independente de raça, sexo e idade. Realizaram-se hemograma, bioquímica sérica e PCR, utilizando oligonucleotídes para Ehrlichia sp. e A.platys. Os dados de hematoscopia mostraram que 9,89% dos gatos apresentaram mórulas em macroplaquetas. O DNA de A.platys foi detectado em 13,18% dos 91 animais e em 44,44% das amostras positivas à hematoscopia. O DNA de Ehrlichia sp. não foi detectado em nenhuma amostra. Nenhuma alteração foi observada nos sinais clínicos nem nos resultados laboratoriais nos animais estudados. Os dados sugerem que os felinos domésticos podem atuar como potenciais reservatórios para A. platys, como forma não sintomática das enfermidades relacionadas

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0479 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0479 ref|YP_302844.1| hypothetical protein Ecaj_0196 [Ehrlichia canis ...str. Jake] gb|AAZ68246.1| protein of unknown function UPF0118 [Ehrlichia canis str. Jake] YP_302844.1 0.006 22% ...

  19. Wilderness discount on livestock compensation costs for imperiled gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Christopher Haney; Timm Kroeger; Frank Casey; Alysa Quarforth; Gina Schrader; Suzanne Asha Stone

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that Wilderness reduces costs for livestock depredations caused by the endangered and threatened gray wolf (Canis lupus) in the northern Rockies and upper Midwest, U.S.A. From 1995 to 2004, direct costs for compensation in the northern Rockies came to only 47 to 78 percent of losses anticipated at wolf reintroduction and projected...

  20. Multi-colour photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of the WN5 star EZ Canis Majoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijsens, MFJ; vanderHucht, KA; vanGenderen, AM; Schwarz, HE; Linders, HPJ; Kolkman, OM

    1996-01-01

    We present and analyse photometric and spectroscopic observations of the WN5 star EZ Canis Majoris obtained over a period of 7 years. We discuss the changing light curve, the shift in phase of the maxima and point to flare type variability seen in one night. Small amplitude variations are reported

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Toxocara canis Infection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Núñez, Camilo; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Yañez Arteaga, Selene; Ponce Macotela, Martha; Bustamante Montes, Patricia; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2–16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P = 0.02) in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.). Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P 1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR = 1.78). Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and 2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%). Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs. PMID:23844404

  2. Serological survey of diseases of free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested serologic samples from 387 free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) from 2007–2013 for exposure to 8 canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota’s wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenovirus 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups...

  3. The use of ozonized oil in the treatment of dermatophitosis caused by Microsporum canis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vasquez Daud

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone is effective against most microorganisms due to its high oxidant power. Low concentrations and short-term contact are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, mold, yeast, parasites, seaweeds, protozoa and fungi. Microsporum canis is an important agent of dermatophitosis in human and animal. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of ozonized oil over Microsporum canis in rabbits. Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits, weight ranging from 2 to 3.2 kg were depilated in the cranial dorso-lateral and right caudal, and cranial and left caudal regions. The regions were inoculated with Microsporum canis, excepting the right caudal region, and were denominated TM, O, OM and M, respectively. After seven days, the treatment of lesions in TM began with 0.12g of terbinaphine 1% cream; in OM and O with 0.12g of ozonized oil; all animals were treated once a day for 28 days. Region M was not treated. Material was collected from those regions for cultivation in Sabouraud agar at day 28 of treatment. In the evolution of the treatment with terbinaphine, of 14 contaminated regions with Microsporum canis ten evolved to cure. With the ozonized oil, of 15 contaminations, four were cured. Clinically, that is, the macroscopic evaluation of lesions showed improvement in the TM and OM treated regions. We can conclude that there was statistical evidence of the protection action of the oil against the dermatophyte.

  4. The use of ozonized oil in the treatment of dermatophitosis caused by microsporum canis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Fernanda Vasquez; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko; Navarini, Alessandra; Mímica, Lycia Mara Jenné

    2011-01-01

    The ozone is effective against most microorganisms due to its high oxidant power. Low concentrations and short-term contact are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, mold, yeast, parasites, seaweeds, protozoa and fungi. Microsporum canis is an important agent of dermatophitosis in human and animal. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of ozonized oil over Microsporum canis in rabbits. Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits, weight ranging from 2 to 3.2 kg were depilated in the cranial dorso-lateral and right caudal, and cranial and left caudal regions. The regions were inoculated with Microsporum canis, excepting the right caudal region, and were denominated TM, O, OM and M, respectively. After seven days, the treatment of lesions in TM began with 0.12g of terbinaphine 1% cream; in OM and O with 0.12g of ozonized oil; all animals were treated once a day for 28 days. Region M was not treated. Material was collected from those regions for cultivation in Sabouraud agar at day 28 of treatment. In the evolution of the treatment with terbinaphine, of 14 contaminated regions with Microsporum canis ten evolved to cure. With the ozonized oil, of 15 contaminations, four were cured. Clinically, that is, the macroscopic evaluation of lesions showed improvement in the TM and OM treated regions. We can conclude that there was statistical evidence of the protection action of the oil against the dermatophyte.

  5. Development of a real-time PCR to detect Demodex canis DNA in different tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Ivan; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga; Bardagí, Mar; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís

    2011-02-01

    The present study reports the development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Demodex canis DNA on different tissue samples. The technique amplifies a 166 bp of D. canis chitin synthase gene (AB 080667) and it has been successfully tested on hairs extracted with their roots and on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded skin biopsies. The real-time PCR amplified on the hairs of all 14 dogs with a firm diagnosis of demodicosis and consistently failed to amplify on negative controls. Eleven of 12 skin biopsies with a morphologic diagnosis of canine demodicosis were also positive. Sampling hairs on two skin points (lateral face and interdigital skin), D. canis DNA was detected on nine of 51 healthy dogs (17.6%) a much higher percentage than previously reported with microscopic studies. Furthermore, it is foreseen that if the number of samples were increased, the percentage of positive dogs would probably also grow. Moreover, in four of the six dogs with demodicosis, the samples taken from non-lesioned skin were positive. This finding, if confirmed in further studies, suggests that demodicosis is a generalized phenomenon in canine skin, due to proliferation of local mite populations, even though macroscopic lesions only appear in certain areas. The real-time PCR technique to detect D. canis DNA described in this work is a useful tool to advance our understanding of canine demodicosis.

  6. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  7. Diet of the black backed jackal Canis mesomelas in the central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of Canis mesomelas was studied in the central Namib Desert, South West Africa. A sample of 772 scats was collected from three main sites (coastal, dry riverine and open plains) and two minor sites (Diamond Area 2). Scats from the coastal site contained predominantly bird material whereas scats from the riverine ...

  8. Failure of imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril/emodepside plus clindamycin in treating Hepatozoon canis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tommasi, Anna Sara; Giannelli, Alessio; de Caprariis, Donato; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-03-01

    Hepatozoonosis caused by Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida, Hepatozoidae) is among the most widespread vector-borne infections of dogs, primarily transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks. Based on the absence of a consensus on the treatment regimes for canine hepatozoonosis, the present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate (5-6 mg/kg subcutaneously once a week for 6 weeks), and of toltrazuril/emodepside (Procox(®), 15 mg/kg once a day for 6 days) in association with clindamycin (15 mg/kg once a day for 21 days) in treating naturally infected dogs. At the enrollment time (T0), 32 dogs, cytologically or molecularly positive for H. canis, were assigned to test and control groups. Animals were treated according to the specific therapeutic protocol, and the presence of H. canis gamonts was assessed weekly by cytology and PCR throughout six months (T1-T19). In addition, any abnormality in leucocyte morphology was evaluated and recorded. Results indicate that, in spite of a reduction in the percentage of infected dogs, both treatments did not provide parasitological cure. Accordingly, new treatment protocols or active compounds against H. canis should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. RAD sequencing and genomic simulations resolve hybrid origins within North American Canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, L Y; Devillard, S; Boone, J Q; Hohenlohe, P A; White, B N

    2015-07-01

    Top predators are disappearing worldwide, significantly changing ecosystems that depend on top-down regulation. Conflict with humans remains the primary roadblock for large carnivore conservation, but for the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon), disagreement over its evolutionary origins presents a significant barrier to conservation in Canada and has impeded protection for grey wolves (Canis lupus) in the USA. Here, we use 127,235 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) of wolves and coyotes, in combination with genomic simulations, to test hypotheses of hybrid origins of Canis types in eastern North America. A principal components analysis revealed no evidence to support eastern wolves, or any other Canis type, as the product of grey wolf × western coyote hybridization. In contrast, simulations that included eastern wolves as a distinct taxon clarified the hybrid origins of Great Lakes-boreal wolves and eastern coyotes. Our results support the eastern wolf as a distinct genomic cluster in North America and help resolve hybrid origins of Great Lakes wolves and eastern coyotes. The data provide timely information that will shed new light on the debate over wolf conservation in eastern North America. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Space Use and Habitat Selection by Resident and Transient Coyotes (Canis latrans)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hinton, Joseph W; van Manen, Frank T; Chamberlain, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Little information exists on coyote (Canis latrans) space use and habitat selection in the southeastern United States and most studies conducted in the Southeast have been carried out within small study areas (e.g., ≤1,000 km2...

  11. Space Use and Habitat Selection by Resident and Transient Coyotes (Canis latrans): e0132203

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph W Hinton; Frank T van Manen; Michael J Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

      Little information exists on coyote (Canis latrans) space use and habitat selection in the southeastern United States and most studies conducted in the Southeast have been carried out within small study areas (e.g., ≤1,000 km2...

  12. A specimen of Canis cf. C. etruscus (Mammalia, Carnivora) from the Middle Villafranchian of the Oosterschelde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reumer, J.W.F.; Piskoulis, P.

    A recent find of a Middle Villafranchian (c. 2.35–2.10 Ma) Canis cf. C. etruscus in the trawlings from the Oosterschelde concerns the oldest dog known from the Netherlands and is the first appearance record of this canid in the North Sea Basin. It shows that the tribe Canini was dispersed beyond

  13. Behavioral and memory changes in Mus musculus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Flávia Motta; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Santos, Sergio Vieira dos

    2014-01-01

    Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c) eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice.

  14. Lambdapapillomavirus 2 in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota with oral papillomatosis and sarcoptic mange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Susan N.; Windels, Steve K.; Adams, Marie; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Oral papillomatosis was diagnosed in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) with sarcoptic mange from Minnesota, USA found dead in February 2015. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident histologically, and papillomaviral antigens were confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Sequencing of the L1 papillomavirus gene showed closest similarity to Lambdapapillomavirus 2.

  15. Habitat use and home range of black-backed jackals ( Canis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) are an abundant mesopredator on farmlands (croplands and rangelands) across South Africa. Given their adaptability in a changing anthropogenic landscape, knowledge of spatial movements can provide important ecological information on the species. We captured, collared and ...

  16. Sarcocystis arctica (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae): ultrastructural description and its new host record, the Alaskan wolf (Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcocystis sarcocysts are common in muscles of herbivores but are rare in muscles of carnivores. Here, we report sarcocysts in muscle of an Alaskan wolf (Canis lupus) from Alaska, USA for the first time. Sarcocysts extracted from tongue of the wolf were up to 900 µm long, slender, and appeared to h...

  17. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Toxocara canis Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Romero Núñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2–16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P=0.02 in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR=1.78. Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and 2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%. Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs.

  19. Hair Contamination of Sheepdog and Pet Dogs with Toxocara Canis Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Khezri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We tried to investigate the hair contamination of pet dogs and farm sheepdog with Toxocara eggs in terms of the different sex and age groups in north-west of Iran (Urmia and its sub­urbs.Methods: Hair samples were collected from a total of 138 pet and farm sheepdogs from November 2008 to June 2009 in Urmia City and the suburb (West Azerbaijan-Iran and examined for the pres­ence of T. canis eggs.Results: T. canis eggs found in 60 samples altogether (pet and shepherd dogs showed a contamina­tion rate of 36.2%. The number of observed T. canis eggs in each microscope field was va­ried from 1 to > 400. The age of the dog was found a significant factor to influence the prevalence and intensity of contamination, with 82% of all the eggs recovered from puppies (six months and younger. Additionally, the numbers of eggs in farm sheepdogs were significantly higher than pet dogs (P<0.05.Conclusions: This report shows that direct contact with T. canis infected dogs, particularly puppies from shepherd dogs, may pose a serious hazard to human. Besides, as they may harbor a considera­ble number of eggs on their hair, they can contaminate the soil and the environment.

  20. Abnormal neurobehaviour and impaired memory function as a consequence of Toxocara canis- as well as Toxocara cati-induced neurotoxocarosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Janecek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinvasive larvae of the worldwide occurring zoonotic roundworms Toxocara canis and T. cati may induce neurotoxocarosis (NT in humans, provoking a variety of symptoms including cognitive deficits as well as neurological dysfunctions. An association with neuropsychological disorders has been discussed. Similar symptoms have been described in T. canis-infected mice, whereas data on T. cati-induced NT are rare. Therefore, it was aimed to obtain insights into the impact on neurobehaviour as well as progression of neurological symptoms and behavioural alterations during the course of NT directly comparing T. canis- and T. cati-infected mice as models for human NT.C57BL/6 mice were orally infected with 2000 embryonated T. canis or T. cati eggs, respectively, the control group received tap water. Mice were screened weekly for neurobehavioural alterations and memory function starting one day prior infection until 97 days post infection (pi; T. canis-infection and day 118 pi (T. cati-infection, uninfected control. Mostly motoric and neurological parameters were affected in T. canis-infected mice starting day 20 pi with severe progression accompanied by stereotypical circling. In contrast, T. cati-infected mice mostly showed reduced response to sudden sound stimulus (indicator for excitability and flight behaviour starting day 6 pi. Interestingly, enhanced grooming behaviour was observed exclusively in T. cati-infected mice, indicating a possible role of neurotransmitter dysregulation. Reduced exploratory behaviour and memory impairment was observed in both infection groups with delayed onset and less severe progression in T. cati- compared to T. canis-infected mice.Results highlight the need to consider T. cati beside T. canis as causative agent of human NT. Findings provide valuable hints towards differences in key regulatory mechanisms during T. canis- and T. cati-induced NT, contributing to a comprehensive picture and consequently a broader

  1. [Microsporum canis: Current data on the prevalence of the zoophilic dermatophyte in central Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrlaß, S; Krüger, C; Nenoff, P

    2015-11-01

    Microsporum (M.) canis, whose source of infection is mostly cats, is still considered as the most frequently occurring zoophilic dermatophyte in Germany and Europe. In distinct areas of Germany, the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton (T.) anamorph of Arthroderma (A.) benhamiae also presents a frequent and emerging causative agent of dermatophytoses. Over a period of 3 years, from March 2010 to March 2013, skin samples from scalp, face, trunk, and limbs were investigated using mycological cultivation and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for dermatophytes. Materials originated in particular from the German Free States Saxony and Thuringia, and from the Federal State Saxony-Anhalt, but also included samples submitted from around Germany. The cultural detection of dermatophytes was performed on Sabouraud's 4% glucose agar with and without cycloheximide. For dermatophyte DNA detection, a uniplex PCR-ELISA was used. In all, 8464 samples from a total of 7680 patients were investigated. In 114 (1.5%) of 7680 patients, M. canis could be detected both by culture and/or PCR. M. canis was detected culturally in 100 samples, in 107 samples by PCR, in 91 samples both culturally and by PCR. For 12 patients, only cultural detection was done (without PCR). Also detected was tinea corporis due to M. canis in 59 patients, tinea capitis 8, tinea faciei 5, and tinea manus 2 patients. Of the patients, 45% were younger than 20 years, 42% were 20-49 years old, and 13% were 50 years or older. In comparison, T. anamorph of A. benhamiae was detectable by culture and/or PCR in 231 of 7680 patients (2.9%). M. canis was the second most common zoophilic dermatophyte. M. canis is still a frequent zoophilic dermatophyte in Germany. Since a few years ago, a rise of infections due to T. anamorph of A. benhamiae has been observed in Germany and other European countries. At least in distinct regions of Germany, this zoophilic dermatophyte, which is transferred from guinea pigs to human beings

  2. The first case of Brucella canis in Sweden: background, case report and recommendations from a northern European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holst Bodil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infection with Brucella canis has been diagnosed in Sweden for the first time. It was diagnosed in a three-year-old breeding bitch with reproductive disturbances. Fifteen in-contact dogs were tested repeatedly and all of them were negative for B. canis. The source of infection could not be defined. The present article describes the case and the measures undertaken and gives a short review over B. canis. Recommendations on how to avoid the infection in non-endemic countries are given.

  3. The first case of Brucella canis in Sweden: background, case report and recommendations from a northern European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Bodil Ström; Löfqvist, Karin; Ernholm, Linda; Eld, Karin; Cedersmyg, Maria; Hallgren, Gunilla

    2012-03-27

    Infection with Brucella canis has been diagnosed in Sweden for the first time. It was diagnosed in a three-year-old breeding bitch with reproductive disturbances. Fifteen in-contact dogs were tested repeatedly and all of them were negative for B. canis. The source of infection could not be defined. The present article describes the case and the measures undertaken and gives a short review over B. canis. Recommendations on how to avoid the infection in non-endemic countries are given.

  4. Draft Genome of Toxocara canis, a Pathogen Responsible for Visceral Larva Migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jinhwa; Won, Jungim; Yoon, Jeehee; Lee, UnJoo; Kim, Jong-Il; Huh, Sun

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at constructing a draft genome of the adult female worm Toxocara canis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and de novo assembly, as well as to find new genes after annotation using functional genomics tools. Using an NGS machine, we produced DNA read data of T. canis. The de novo assembly of the read data was performed using SOAPdenovo. RNA read data were assembled using Trinity. Structural annotation, homology search, functional annotation, classification of protein domains, and KEGG pathway analysis were carried out. Besides them, recently developed tools such as MAKER, PASA, Evidence Modeler, and Blast2GO were used. The scaffold DNA was obtained, the N50 was 108,950 bp, and the overall length was 341,776,187 bp. The N50 of the transcriptome was 940 bp, and its length was 53,046,952 bp. The GC content of the entire genome was 39.3%. The total number of genes was 20,178, and the total number of protein sequences was 22,358. Of the 22,358 protein sequences, 4,992 were newly observed in T. canis. Following proteins previously unknown were found: E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase cbl-b and antigen T-cell receptor, zeta chain for T-cell and B-cell regulation; endoprotease bli-4 for cuticle metabolism; mucin 12Ea and polymorphic mucin variant C6/1/40r2.1 for mucin production; tropomodulin-family protein and ryanodine receptor calcium release channels for muscle movement. We were able to find new hypothetical polypeptides sequences unique to T. canis, and the findings of this study are capable of serving as a basis for extending our biological understanding of T. canis.

  5. Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbarashe Chinyoka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5–21.7 were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% – 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0–26.4 compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9–18.5 but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07. Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05. Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis other than B. canis is also recommended.

  6. Erliquiose no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Guimarães, Ana Marcia Sá; Santos, Andrea Pires dos; Santos, Rodrigo Pires dos; Dutra, Leonardo Hermes; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Morais, Helio Autran de; Messick, Joanne Belle; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Vidotto, Odilon

    2011-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis is a disease caused by rickettsial organisms belonging to the genus Ehrlichia. In Brazil, molecular and serological studies have evaluated the occurrence of Ehrlichia species in dogs, cats, wild animals and humans. Ehrlichia canis is the main species found in dogs in Brazil, although E. ewingii infection has been recently suspected in five dogs. Ehrlichia chaffeensis DNA has been detected and characterized in mash deer, whereas E. muris and E. ruminantium have not yet been identi...

  7. Feasibility of using coyotes (Canis latrans) as sentinels for bovine mycobacteriosis (Mycobacterium bovis) infection in wild cervids in and around Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Cheryl; Bergeson, Doug; Lutze-Wallace, Cyril; Crichton, Vince; Wobeser, Gary

    2007-07-01

    Elk (Cervus elaphus manitobensis) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP) region of southwestern Manitoba have been identified as a likely wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine mycobacteriosis in livestock. The feasibility of using coyotes (Canis latrans) collected from trappers as a sentinel species was investigated. Retropharyngeal, mesenteric, and colonic lymph nodes and tonsils collected at necropsy from 82 coyotes were examined by bacterial culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and acid-fast histopathology. Mycobacterium bovis was not identified in any animal by culture or PCR although Mycobacterium avium species were isolated. A single acid-fast organism was identified on histopathologic examination of one animal. Based on the methods used in this study, trapper-caught coyotes do not appear to be a sensitive sentinel species of M. bovis infection in cervids in and around RMNP.

  8. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creel, Scott; Rotella, Jay J

    2010-01-01

    Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009...

  9. PREVALENCIA DEL ENDO Y ECTOPARASITISMO EN CANIS FAMILIARIS ATENDIDOS EN DOS CENTROS VETERINARIOS DE TRUJILLO (PERU), 2015

    OpenAIRE

    HUAMAN DÁVILA, ANGÉLICA MARÍA

    2016-01-01

    Parasitism is a common phenomenon in domestic animals, among them the dog, Canis familiaris; however, no data regarding the frequency of infestation and infection by ecto and endoparasites in different parts of Peru. In this research, we was determinated the prevalence of endo and ectoparasitism in Canis familiaris treated at two veterinary centers in Trujillo (Peru): Clinican located in urban area and San Francisco, located in marginal area between July and September 2015 and its distributio...

  10. Evidence of genetic distinction and long-term population decline in wolves (Canis lupus) in the Italian Apennines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, V; Galov, A; Randi, E

    2004-03-01

    Historical information suggests the occurrence of an extensive human-caused contraction in the distribution range of wolves (Canis lupus) during the last few centuries in Europe. Wolves disappeared from the Alps in the 1920s, and thereafter continued to decline in peninsular Italy until the 1970s, when approximately 100 individuals survived, isolated in the central Apennines. In this study we performed a coalescent analysis of multilocus DNA markers to infer patterns and timing of historical population changes in wolves surviving in the Apennines. This population showed a unique mitochondrial DNA control-region haplotype, the absence of private alleles and lower heterozygosity at microsatellite loci, as compared to other wolf populations. Multivariate, clustering and Bayesian assignment procedures consistently assigned all the wolf genotypes sampled in Italy to a single group, supporting their genetic distinction. Bottleneck tests showed evidences of population decline in the Italian wolves, but not in other populations. Results of a Bayesian coalescent model indicate that wolves in Italy underwent a 100- to 1000-fold population contraction over the past 2000-10,000 years. The population decline was stronger and longer in peninsular Italy than elsewhere in Europe, suggesting that wolves have apparently been genetically isolated for thousands of generations south of the Alps. Ice caps covering the Alps at the Last Glacial Maximum (c. 18,000 years before present), and the wide expansion of the Po River, which cut the alluvial plains throughout the Holocene, might have provided effective geographical barriers to wolf dispersal. More recently, the admixture of Alpine and Apennine wolf populations could have been prevented by deforestation, which was already widespread in the fifteenth century in northern Italy. This study suggests that, despite the high potential rates of dispersal and gene flow, local wolf populations may not have mixed for long periods of time.

  11. Descripción de características reproductivas en tres perros seropositivos a Brucella canis Description of reproductive characteristics of three Brucella canis seropositive dogs

    OpenAIRE

    C. BORIE; R. CEPEDA; M. VILLARROEL; M. DE LOS REYES

    2002-01-01

    Se describen las características reproductivas a nivel histológico y seminal en tres perros seropositivos a Brucella canis. A nivel seminal se observaron alteraciones en volumen y en la morfología espermática, encontrándose en un perro ausencia total de espermatozoides. Esta situación concordó con los estudios histológicos, donde se encontró alteración de la línea espermatogénica, además de infiltración eritrocitaria tubular indicativo de alteración de la barrera hematotesticular. Los resulta...

  12. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus and B. canis in household dogs in southwestern Nigeria: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. B. Cadmus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary serological study of 366 household dogs in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, was carried out to determine antibodies due to exposure to Brucella abortus and B. canis, using the rose bengal test (RBT and the rapid slide agglutination (RSA test, respectively. Results showed that 5.46 % (20/366 and 0.27 % (1/366 of the dogs screened were seropositive to B. abortus and B. canis, respectively.Of all dogs, 36 had a history of being fed foetuses from cows and 11 (30.6 % of these tested positive in the RBT. Our findings, although based on a limited sample size and a dearth of clinical details, revealed that dogs in Nigeria may be infected with Brucella spp. given the wide range of risk factors. Further studies are recommended to elucidate the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in the country.

  13. Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

    2014-10-01

    We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted.

  14. CANIS LUPUS (MAMMALIA, CANIDAE FROM THE LATE PLEISTOCENE DEPOSIT OF AVETRANA (TARANTO, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVIDE F.BERTÈ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we described the remains of Canis lupus from the bed 8 of Avetrana karst filling (Late Pleistocene; Taranto, Southern Italy. The studied specimens are larger than those collected from the early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities and those referred to the recent Italian wolf. Moreover, the remains from Avetrana are morphometrically close to Canis lupus maximus from France and to C. lupus collected from Central and Northern Italian localities, chronologically related to MIS 2 and MIS 3. Morphologically, the studied specimens slightly differ from both C. l. maximus and other Pleistocene Apulian wolves. The dimensional differences between the Avetrana wolves and those collected from the other early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities could be explained through a spread of a large-sized morphotype from the Northern Italy.

  15. Skin impression with acetate tape in Demodex canis and Scarcoptes scabiei var. vulpes diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the efficacy of skin impression with acetate tape and the deep skin scraping test to find D. canis and S. scabiei in dogs. During six months, 134 samples were collected by both techniques from 115 dogs treated at the dermatology service of the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Maria (HVU-UFSM. Of these patients, 27 had demodicosis and 12 had scabies. The impression with acetate tape test (ITT was shown to be significantly superior to the deep skin scraping test (DSST in finding D. canis and S. scabiei mites (p = 0.007. Based on our results we could conclude that acetate tape impression is a reliable method for diagnosing and monitoring therapy of dermatopathies caused by mites and can be used to replace the traditional deep skin scraping method. In addition, since it is less traumatic for the dog, this method shows more acceptance by the owner.

  16. Population dynamics of Toxocara canis in pigs receiving a single or multiple infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taira, K.; Saeed, I.; Lind, Peter

    2003-01-01

    receiving a challenge infection, in contrast to the challenge control pigs. The fact that T. canis larvae migrate and persist in the tissues of pigs for more than 1 month suggests a zoonotic risk in infected pigs. The relevance of these data to the population biology and immunology of porcine and human......The population dynamics of Toxocara canis in pigs, and their immune response to a primary and a challenge infection, were studied by parasitological, haematological and serological parameters. Seventy pigs were divided into 4 groups; 35 pigs received a primary infection (group A), 15 pigs received...... both a primary and a challenge infection (group B), 15 pigs received the challenge infection only (group C), and 5 pigs served as helminth-free controls (group NC). A dose of 50000 eggs was administered for the primary infection (day 0) and a dose of 10000 eggs was given for the challenge infection...

  17. Weight changes in wild Wolves, Canis lupus, from ages 2 to 24 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mech L.

    2008-01-01

    Weights of 118 female and 141 male Minnesota Wolves (Canis lupus) aged 2-24 months increased almost linearly from about 8 kg for females and 10 kg for males at 3 months to 30 kg for females and 32 kg for males at 10-12 months and then tended to increase much more slowly in an overall curvilinear trend. Considerable variation was apparent for both sexes during their first year.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus laniger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Honghai; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Yang, Xiufeng; Liu, Guangshuai

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus laniger) was sequenced using blood samples obtained from a wild female Tibetan wolf captured from Lhasa in Tibet, China. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with an average elevation above 3500 m, is the highest plateau in the world. Sequence analysis showed that its structure is in accordance with other Canidae species, but GTG is used as the start codon in ND4L gene which is different from many canide animals.

  19. In vitro effect of Chrysosporium indicum and Chrysosporium keratinophylum on Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María V; Basualdo, Juan A; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2017-12-05

    The degree of antagonism exercised by fungi on geohelminth development varies according to the morphological alterations caused by different fungal species. Saprophytic fungi may exert ovicidal or ovistatic effects. The aim of this study was to apply scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the action of two soil saprophytic species of Chrysosporium (C. indicum and C. keratinophylum) on Toxocara canis eggs. The fungal strains to be tested were incubated for 28 days at 28°C in 2% water agar with a suspension of unembryonated T. canis eggs. A suspension of T. canis eggs in 2% water agar was used as control group. The assay was done in triplicate for each fungus and the control group. SEM observations were performed on the 4th, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day after inoculation. The effect of the fungi on eggs was evaluated in accordance with the alterations observed on the surface and the changes in the normal characteristics of the eggs. Hyphae around the eggs, appresoria penetrating the shell and changes in the typical egg membrane were observed in this assay. Type 3 effect (alterations that occur both in the embryo and the shell, and hyphal penetration of the eggs) was the prevalent effect. SEM allowed us to observe clearly the morphological alterations in T. canis eggs due to the effect of C. indicum and C. keratinophylum. Both saprophytic species of Chrysosporium alter the egg structure and alterations increase as exposure increases. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae detection methods in Alaska gray wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Woldstad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae was first documented on Alaska (USA gray wolves (Canis lupus on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH hide digestion for T. canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T. canis detection. Wolf hides were subjected to lice enumeration using KOH hide digestion. Thirty nine of the 120 wolves examined had lice. Of these 39, total louse burdens ranged from 14 to an extrapolated 80,000. The hides of 12 infested animals were divided into 10 cm by 10 cm subsections and the lice enumerated on a subsection from each of four regions: neck; shoulder; groin; and rump. Combining the data from these 12 wolves, the highest mean proportions of the total louse burdens on individual wolves were found on the rump and differed significantly from the lowest mean proportion on the neck. However, examination of the four subsections failed to detect all infested wolves. Hides from 16 of the 39 infested animals were cut into left and right sides, and each side then cut into four, approximately equal sections: neck and shoulder; chest; abdomen; and rump. Half hides were totally digested from 11 wolves, and whole hides from 5. For these 21 half hides, the highest mean proportions of total louse burdens were found on the rump, and this section had the highest sensitivity for louse detection, regardless of burden. However, removal of this large section from a hide would likely be opposed by hunters and trappers.

  1. Can sleep and resting behaviours be used as indicators of welfare in shelter dogs (Canis lupusfamiliaris)?

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarczak-Garstecka, Sara C.; Burman, Oliver H. P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on humans and animals suggests that the analysis of sleep patterns may reliably inform us about welfare status, but little research of this kind has been carried out for non-human animals in an applied context. This study explored the use of sleep and resting behaviour as indicators of welfare by describing the activity patterns of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) housed in rescue shelters, and comparing their sleep patterns to other behavioural and cognitive measures of welfar...

  2. Breed Differences in Domestic Dogs' (Canis familiaris) Comprehension of Human Communicative Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Wobber, Victoria Elizabeth; Wrangham, Richard W.; Hare, Brian; Koler-Matznick, Janice; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that some human-like social skills evolved in dogs (Canis familiaris) during domestication as an incidental by-product of selection for “tame” forms of behavior. It is still possible, however, that the social skills of certain dog breeds came under direct selection that led to further increases in social problem solving ability. To test this hypothesis, different breeds of domestic dogs were compared for their ability to use various human communicative behaviors to fi...

  3. Successful treatment of mitral valve endocarditis in a dog associated with 'Actinomyces canis-like' infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, N; Alexander, K; Keene, B; Kolluru, S; Fauls, M L; Rawdon, I; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2016-09-01

    Infective endocarditis, an inflammation of the endocardial surface due to invasion by an infectious agent, is more common in middle sized to large breed dogs. We herein report a case of mitral valve endocarditis in a 9-year-old male-castrated Weimaraner caused by an Actinomyces canis-like bacterium, not previously reported in association with infection in dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The geographical distribution of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in China: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lu; Ma, Ya-ping; ZHOU, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping; SAVOLAINEN, Peter; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China, published by Princeton University Pres...

  5. Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) detection methods in Alaska gray wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldstad, Theresa M; Dullen, Kimberly N; Hundertmark, Kris J; Beckmen, Kimberlee B

    2014-12-01

    Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) was first documented on Alaska (USA) gray wolves (Canis lupus) on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) hide digestion for T. canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T. canis detection. Wolf hides were subjected to lice enumeration using KOH hide digestion. Thirty nine of the 120 wolves examined had lice. Of these 39, total louse burdens ranged from 14 to an extrapolated 80,000. The hides of 12 infested animals were divided into 10 cm by 10 cm subsections and the lice enumerated on a subsection from each of four regions: neck; shoulder; groin; and rump. Combining the data from these 12 wolves, the highest mean proportions of the total louse burdens on individual wolves were found on the rump and differed significantly from the lowest mean proportion on the neck. However, examination of the four subsections failed to detect all infested wolves. Hides from 16 of the 39 infested animals were cut into left and right sides, and each side then cut into four, approximately equal sections: neck and shoulder; chest; abdomen; and rump. Half hides were totally digested from 11 wolves, and whole hides from 5. For these 21 half hides, the highest mean proportions of total louse burdens were found on the rump, and this section had the highest sensitivity for louse detection, regardless of burden. However, removal of this large section from a hide would likely be opposed by hunters and trappers.

  6. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    OpenAIRE

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Lora R. Ballweber; Moses, Sara K.; Craig A. Stricker; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signat...

  7. Bilateral cataracts in a coyote (Canis latrans) pup from Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granson, Hilary; Grahn, Bruce; Parker, Dennilyn; Himsworth, Chelsea

    2010-06-01

    A free-ranging coyote (Canis latrans) pup was found in rural Saskatchewan and was subsequently presented to a veterinary teaching hospital by a wildlife rehabilitator. On physical examination, the pup was found to be blind as a result of bilateral, mature cataracts, which were confirmed on postmortem examination. No other significant intraocular or extraocular disease was detected, resulting in a presumptive diagnosis of congenital cataract. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of congenital cataract in any wild canid species.

  8. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Lu?s; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-01-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from bo...

  9. Hybridization among Three Native North American Canis Species in a Region of Natural Sympatry

    OpenAIRE

    Hailer, Frank; Leonard, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans), Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi) and red wolf (C. rufus), were historically sympatric in Texas, United...

  10. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification as a reliable assay for Toxocara canis infection in pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshakhlagh, Paria; Spotin, Adel; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Shahbazi, Abbas; Ozlati, Maryam

    2017-07-09

    Keeping of infected dogs as pet results in the potential transmission risk factors for shedding helminthic infections such as toxocariasis. Lack of accurate identification of Toxocara canis eggs in non-dewormed infected pet dogs remains a diagnostic concern among researchers. In this study, dog owners were asked to fill up a questionnaire regarding their pets and their attitude towards the deworming regimen. One hundred faecal samples were collected from pet dogs (Northwest Iran) and were subsequently identified by the ZnSo4 flotation technique, PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. The DNA of the recovered T. canis eggs was then extracted and amplified by LAMP and PCR. Furthermore, ITS2 amplicons were sequenced for appraisal of the phylogenetic analysis. Nine, 5 and 11% of T. canis infections were identified by microscopy, PCR and LAMP, respectively. It was detected that LAMP was 10 times (10(-10)to 10(-13) g/μl) more sensitive than PCR (10(-10)to 10(-12) g/μl). The kappa value between LAMP and PCR indicated a faint concurrence (0.463). The kappa coefficient between LAMP and flotation technique indicated a strong agreement (0.667). The highest infection rate (n = 11) was detected in non-dewormed pet dogs, particularly those less than 3 months old (P dogs had a history of walking and kennelled behaviours in public places. The LAMP assay can address as a simple, rapid and highly sensitive technique for detecting low burden of T. canis eggs in infected pet dogs. It was proposed that the dog holder's awareness is insufficient to implement regular deworming schedules. Additionally, regional policymakers should broadly revise anthelmintic treatment guidelines.

  11. Epidemiological Survey of Brucella canis Infection in Different Breeds of Dogs in Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Behzadi and Asghar Mogheiseh1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella canis antibodies in different breeds, sex and ages of dogs in southern of Iran. A total of 113 whole blood samples were taken from different breeds based on exotic or native sources. The samples were examined with immunochromatography assay for detection of B. canis antibodies. Twelve dogs were serologically positive (10.62%. There was significant differences in ratio of infected dogs between breeds (exotic or native, ages (less, equal or more than 2 years old and the history of vaccination (against rabies, leptospirosis, parvovirus, adenovirus type 2, canine distemper, parainfluenza (P<0.001. However, the results were not significant statistically, among both sex (P=0.058 and the history of clinical signs (P=0.456 in seropositive dogs. Based on this study and the other investigation in companion dogs from southwest of Iran, it seems that the mixed and spray (native breeds are not infected with B. canis, yet. Conversely, the exotic breeds would be the source of bacterium in Iran. Therefore, preventive and control measures are strongly recommended.

  12. Oslerus osleri (metastrongyloidea; filaroididae) in gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Schock, Danna M; Lejeune, Manigandan; Warren, Amy L; Duignan, Pádraig J; Kutz, Susan J

    2013-04-01

    Oslerus osleri is a filaroid parasite of the respiratory tract of canids. In North America, it is most commonly reported from coyotes (Canis latrans) and domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), but reports in gray wolves (Canis lupus) are infrequent. We report a new geographic record for O. osleri in four gray wolves from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Adult nematodes found in nodules in the submucosa of the trachea and bronchi were identified as O. osleri based on morphometry of spicules of males. We sequenced two segments of the genome of adult nematodes: a 1,111-base pair (bp) segment of the 18S region that was 100% identical to the 18S region of O. osleri from a coyote in California and a 537-bp segment that included the ITS-2 region and partial 5.8S and 28S genes. Histopathologically, there were submucosal nodules of adult nematodes surrounded by fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. These findings are consistent with O. osleri infections in other canids. The importance of this parasite in wild canid populations is unknown, but prevalence may be underestimated because many studies have focused on gastrointestinal parasites or used routine fecal flotation that has low sensitivity for this parasite. The ecology and population genetics of this parasite where multiple species of canids are sympatric warrant closer investigation to determine potential for interspecies transmission.

  13. Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.; Weisberg, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970–1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of rabies: focus on domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) from northern South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, G C; Sabeta, C T; Nel, L H

    2009-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of rabies viruses recovered from black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in northern South Africa were investigated to determine whether the black-backed jackal is an emerging maintenance host species for rabies in this region. A panel of 123 rabies viruses obtained from the two host species between 1980 and 2006 were characterised by nucleotide sequencing of the cytoplasmic domain of the glycoprotein gene and the non-coding G-L intergenic region. Through phylogenetic analysis a viral cluster specific to black-backed jackals and spanning a 5-year period was delineated in western Limpopo. Virus strains associated with domestic dogs prevail in densely populated communal areas in north-eastern Limpopo and in south and eastern Mpumalanga. The data presented in this study indicated the likelihood that black-backed jackals are capable of sustaining rabies cycles independent of domestic dogs. It is proposed that wildlife rabies control strategies, in synergy with domestic animal vaccination should be considered for effective control of rabies in South Africa.

  15. Comparative Foraging Efficiency of Two Sympatric Jackals, Silver-Backed Jackals (Canis mesomelas and Golden Jackals (Canis aureus, in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Temu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The foraging efficiency of two sympatric species of jackals, silver-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas and golden jackals (Canis aureus, was studied in the Ngorongoro crater from July 2014 through May 2015. The focal animal observation method was used and individuals of both species were followed as they foraged from morning to evening. Observations of individuals of both jackal species were made from a vehicle using binoculars and a spotting scope. Three major parameters were used for determination of foraging efficiency: distance travelled while foraging, time spent foraging, and amount of food secured in foraging period. The Mann–Whitney U test showed no significant difference (P>0.05 in distance travelled per unit time of foraging between the two species in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Golden jackals secured a significantly higher amount of food than the silver-backed jackals in the wet season (Mann–Whitney U test, P<0.05, U=1035.4. Hunting of prey larger than Thomson’s gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii fawns was not common. Both species mainly fed on smaller prey such as invertebrates and rodents and scavenged opportunistically. Efficient foraging is crucial for both jackal species especially during their breeding season when they are provisioning dependent pups.

  16. Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in the reservoir host (white-tailed deer and in an incidental host (dog is impacted by its prior growth in macrophage and tick cell environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy D S Nair

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis, transmitted from Amblyomma americanum ticks, causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis. It also infects white-tailed deer, dogs and several other vertebrates. Deer are its reservoir hosts, while humans and dogs are incidental hosts. E. chaffeensis protein expression is influenced by its growth in macrophages and tick cells. We report here infection progression in deer or dogs infected intravenously with macrophage- or tick cell-grown E. chaffeensis or by tick transmission in deer. Deer and dogs developed mild fever and persistent rickettsemia; the infection was detected more frequently in the blood of infected animals with macrophage inoculum compared to tick cell inoculum or tick transmission. Tick cell inoculum and tick transmission caused a drop in tick infection acquisition rates compared to infection rates in ticks fed on deer receiving macrophage inoculum. Independent of deer or dogs, IgG antibody response was higher in animals receiving macrophage inoculum against macrophage-derived Ehrlichia antigens, while it was significantly lower in the same animals against tick cell-derived Ehrlichia antigens. Deer infected with tick cell inoculum and tick transmission caused a higher antibody response to tick cell cultured bacterial antigens compared to the antibody response for macrophage cultured antigens for the same animals. The data demonstrate that the host cell-specific E. chaffeensis protein expression influences rickettsemia in a host and its acquisition by ticks. The data also reveal that tick cell-derived inoculum is similar to tick transmission with reduced rickettsemia, IgG response and tick acquisition of E. chaffeensis.

  17. [Molecular-genetic characterization of canine and rangiferine brucella isolates from different regions of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, Iu K; Tsirel'son, L E; Zheludkov, M M

    2012-01-01

    Comparative molecular-genetic characterization of Brucella isolates from dogs and reindeers in Russia by molecular-genetic typing methods. 19 canine and 2 rangiferine Brucella isolates were studied by molecular typing methods based on PCR for differential species and biovar specific molecular targets and MLVA (multiple locus variable number tandem repeats analysis) using primers to 12 known variable loci. Using PCR for differential molecular targets, canine Brucella isolates were characterized as B. canis and rangiferine isolates as B. suis biovar 4. MLVA revealed 5 identical and 7 variable MLVA loci. Using the dendrogram. all the isolates on the data of 12 loci were classified into the close related cluster. On the other hand, high discrimination power of MLVA with a resulting Hunter and Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI) of 0.9842 was shown to reveal genetic diversity for the isolates of 17 MLVA genotypes. B. canis and B. suis isolates from different geographical regions in Russia were genetically close related, thereby confirming known genetic relationship between these species. Related MLVA genotypes of isolates were connected to certain regions of preliminary isolation in Russia. To improve the system ofbrucellosis surveillance in Russia MLVA typing of more canine and rangiferine Brucella isolates having epidemiological danger for humans is required to be studied.

  18. Update and Commentary on Four Emerging Tick-Borne Infections: Ehrlichia muris-like Agent, Borrelia miyamotoi, Deer Tick Virus, Heartland Virus, and Whether Ticks Play a Role in Transmission of Bartonella henselae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormser, Gary P; Pritt, Bobbi

    2015-06-01

    Emerging tick-borne infections continue to be observed in the United States and elsewhere. Current information on the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and treatment of infections due to Ehrlichia muris-like agent, deer tick virus, Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato, and Heartland virus was provided and critically reviewed. More research is needed to define the incidence and to understand the clinical and the laboratory features of these infections. There is also a growing need for the development of sensitive and specific serologic and molecular assays for these infections that are easily accessible to clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Ehrlichia ruminantium Pathogenic Strain and Its High-Passaged Attenuated Strain Reveals Virulence and Attenuation-Associated Proteins.

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    Isabel Marcelino

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia ruminantium (ER causes heartwater, a fatal tick-borne disease in livestock. In the field, ER strains present different levels of virulence, limiting vaccine efficacy, for which the molecular basis remains unknown. Moreover, there are no genetic tools currently available for ER manipulation, thus limiting the knowledge of the genes/proteins that are essential for ER pathogenesis and biology. As such, to identify proteins and/or mechanisms involved in ER virulence, we performed the first exhaustive comparative proteomic analysis between a virulent strain (ERGvir and its high-passaged attenuated strain (ERGatt. Despite their different behaviors in vivo and in vitro, our results from 1DE-nanoLC-MS/MS showed that ERGvir and ERGatt share 80% of their proteins; this core proteome includes chaperones, proteins involved in metabolism, protein-DNA-RNA biosynthesis and processing, and bacterial effectors. Conventional 2DE revealed that 85% of the identified proteins are proteoforms, suggesting that post-translational modifications (namely glycosylation are important in ER biology. Strain-specific proteins were also identified: while ERGatt has an increased number and overexpression of proteins involved in cell division, metabolism, transport and protein processing, ERGvir shows an overexpression of proteins and proteoforms (DIGE experiments involved in pathogenesis such as Lpd, AnkA, VirB9 and B10, providing molecular evidence for its increased virulence in vivo and in vitro. Overall, our work reveals that ERGvir and ERGatt proteomes are streamlined to fulfill their biological function (maximum virulence for ERGvir and replicative capacity for ERGatt, and we provide both pioneering data and novel insights into the pathogenesis of this obligate intracellular bacterium.

  20. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Ehrlichia ruminantium Pathogenic Strain and Its High-Passaged Attenuated Strain Reveals Virulence and Attenuation-Associated Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Isabel; Ventosa, Miguel; Pires, Elisabete; Müller, Markus; Lisacek, Frédérique; Lefrançois, Thierry; Vachiery, Nathalie; Coelho, Ana Varela

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia ruminantium (ER) causes heartwater, a fatal tick-borne disease in livestock. In the field, ER strains present different levels of virulence, limiting vaccine efficacy, for which the molecular basis remains unknown. Moreover, there are no genetic tools currently available for ER manipulation, thus limiting the knowledge of the genes/proteins that are essential for ER pathogenesis and biology. As such, to identify proteins and/or mechanisms involved in ER virulence, we performed the first exhaustive comparative proteomic analysis between a virulent strain (ERGvir) and its high-passaged attenuated strain (ERGatt). Despite their different behaviors in vivo and in vitro, our results from 1DE-nanoLC-MS/MS showed that ERGvir and ERGatt share 80% of their proteins; this core proteome includes chaperones, proteins involved in metabolism, protein-DNA-RNA biosynthesis and processing, and bacterial effectors. Conventional 2DE revealed that 85% of the identified proteins are proteoforms, suggesting that post-translational modifications (namely glycosylation) are important in ER biology. Strain-specific proteins were also identified: while ERGatt has an increased number and overexpression of proteins involved in cell division, metabolism, transport and protein processing, ERGvir shows an overexpression of proteins and proteoforms (DIGE experiments) involved in pathogenesis such as Lpd, AnkA, VirB9 and B10, providing molecular evidence for its increased virulence in vivo and in vitro. Overall, our work reveals that ERGvir and ERGatt proteomes are streamlined to fulfill their biological function (maximum virulence for ERGvir and replicative capacity for ERGatt), and we provide both pioneering data and novel insights into the pathogenesis of this obligate intracellular bacterium. PMID:26691135

  1. Hematological disorders detected in dogs infected by Hepatozoon canis in a municipality in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    L.M. Paiz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A retrospective review of hematological reports of nine dogs detected with Hepatozoon canis infection by microscopic examination of blood smears in a laboratory in the municipality of Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil was conducted. This study aimed to evaluate the hematological profile of these infected dogs, in addition to the occurrence of coinfections with other agents that infect blood cells, since studies concerning canine hepatozoonosis in Brazil are scarce and there are some divergences regarding H. canis infection that still require a resolution. The nine cases of H. canis infection were identified among all dogs examined at the studied laboratory in 2009 and 2010, with an occurrence of 7/1,192 (0.59%; 95% CI 0.15 - 1.02% positive dogs in the first year and 2/1,313 (0.15%; 95% CI 0.02 - 0.55% cases in 2010. The analysis of the hematological reports showed an occurrence of coinfection between H. canis and other agents in two (2/9; 22.22%; 95% CI 2.81 - 60.00% dogs, one with E. canis and another with Babesia spp. (1/9; 11.11%; 95% CI 0.28 - 48.24%. Only the blood test of one dog had no alterations, based on reference values. Anemia was the most frequent hematological alteration (6/9; 66.67%; 95% CI 29.93 - 92.51%. Although the occurrence of H. canis infection was low, significative hematological alterations were observed in most infected dogs. Coinfection with Babesia spp. and E. canis was detected in two dogs and the hematological alterations cannot be attributed exclusively to H. canis in these animals. Longitudinal studies would be of fundamental importance to determine the causality of these alterations. These results highlight the importance of differential diagnosis in dogs when there is clinical suspicion of infection by hemoparasites, since the hematological changes in dogs infected by H. canis are quite variable.

  2. Cardiac markers: profile in rats experimentally infected with Toxocara canis Marcadores cardíacos: perfil em ratos infectados experimentalmente com Toxocara canis

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    Cecília Braga Laposy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of the enzymes creatine kinase (CK, creatine kinase MB (CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in Wistar rats infected with 250 (GI, n = 24 or 1000 (GII, n = 24 Toxocara canis eggs. Animals were evaluated on days 7, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 post-infection (DPI. Only the GI rats showed an increase in CK and CK-MB, at 15 and 30 DPI, respectively. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies were detected by ELISA in infected animals. Despite of the presence of eosinophilic infiltrate in the heart of three infected animals, none larva was recovered from the organ neither by acid digestion nor by Baermann procedure. Eosinophilia was observed in both groups but there was no significant difference in the eosinophil counts between GI and GII (p = 0.2239. It is possible to consider that cardiac lesion is an eventual finding in murine model for toxocariasis.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o perfil das enzimas creatinoquinase (CK, creatinoquinase-MB (CK-MB e lactato desidrogenase (LDH em ratos Wistar infectados com 250 (GI, n = 24 ou 1000 (GII, n = 24 ovos de Toxocara canis. Os animais foram avaliados nos dias 7, 15, 30, 60, 120 e 180 pós-infecção (DPI. Observou-se que apenas os animais do GI apresentaram aumento da atividade de CK e CK-MB aos 15 e 30 DPI, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-T. canis foram detectados por ELISA nos animais infectados. Apesar da presença de infiltrado eosinofílico em três animais infectados, nenhuma larva foi recuperada do coração pela digestão ácida ou pela técnica de Baermann. Eosinofilia foi observada em todos os momentos em GI e GII, sem diferença significativa entre os grupos (p = 0,2239. Pode-se considerar que as lesões cardíacas foram um achado eventual no modelo murino para toxocaríase.

  3. Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals.

  4. Revisiting the concept of behavior patterns in animal behavior with an example from food-caching sequences in wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbois, Simon; Sievert, Olivia; Reeve, Catherine; Harrington, F H; Fentress, J C

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the history, conceptualization, and relevance of behavior patterns in modern ethology by explaining the evolution of the concepts of fixed action patterns and modal action patterns. We present the movement toward a more flexible concept of natural action sequences with significant degrees of (production and expressive) freedom. An example is presented with the food caching behavior of three Canidae species: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), coyote (Canis latrans) and gray wolf (Canis lupus). Evolutionary, ecological, and neuroecological/neuroethological arguments are presented to explain the difference in levels of complexity and stereotypy between Canis and Vulpes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Coyote (Canis latrans) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mortality and morbidity due to a Karenia brevis red tide in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Kevin T; Flewelling, Leanne J; Bryan, John; Kramer, Adam; Lindsay, James; Nevada, Cheyenne; Stablein, Wade; Wong, David; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    In October 2009, during a Karenia brevis red tide along the Texas coast, millions of dead fish washed ashore along the 113-km length of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS). Between November 2009 and January 2010, at least 12 coyotes (Canis latrans) and three domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) died or were euthanized at PAIS or local veterinary clinics because of illness suspected to be related to the red tide. Another red tide event occurred during autumn 2011 and, although fewer dead fish were observed relative to the 2009 event, coyotes again were affected. Staff at PAIS submitted carcasses of four coyotes and one domestic dog from November 2009 to February 2010 and six coyotes from October to November 2011 for necropsy and ancillary testing. High levels of brevetoxins (PbTxs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in seven of the coyotes and the dog, with concentrations up to 634 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in stomach contents, 545 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in liver, 195 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in kidney, and 106 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL in urine samples. Based on red tide presence, clinical signs, and postmortem findings, brevetoxicosis caused by presumptive ingestion of toxic dead fish was the likely cause of canid deaths at PAIS. These findings represent the first confirmed report of terrestrial mammalian wildlife mortalities related to a K. brevis bloom. The implications for red tide impacts on terrestrial wildlife populations are a potentially significant but relatively undocumented phenomenon.

  6. Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from raccoons (Procyon lotor), coyotes (Canis latrans), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in Wisconsin identified several atypical genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Sundar, N; Nolden, C A; Samuel, M D; Velmurugan, G V; Bandini, L A; Kwok, O C H; Bodenstein, B; Su, C

    2007-12-01

    During 2005-2006, sera and tissues from raccoons (Procyon lotor), coyotes (Canis latrans), and skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from the state of Wisconsin were tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 32 of 54 (59.2%) raccoons, 18 of 35 (51.4%) coyotes, and 5 of 7 (71.4%) skunks using the modified agglutination test and a cut-off titer of 1:20. Pooled tissues (brains, hearts, and tongues) from 30 raccoons, 15 coyotes, and 1 skunk were bioassayed for T. gondii infection in mice or cats. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 5 of 30 (16.7%) raccoons, 6 of 15 (40.0%) coyotes, and the skunk. Genetic characterization of the 12 parasite isolates by multilocus PCR-RFLP markers revealed 6 different genotypes including 5 atypical and I archetypal II lineages. The results indicate the prevalence of T. gondii in wildlife mammals is high and that these animals may serve as an important reservoir for transmission of T. gondii.

  7. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-24

    Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Tick species were identified based on morphologic and genetic criteria. Detection of tick-borne bacteria belonging to Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia genera was performed by PCRs. Our ticks included 91 Amblyomma multipunctum, 4 Amblyomma spp., 60 Rhipicephalus microplus, 5 Ixodes spp. and 1 Ixodes boliviensis. A potential Candidatus Rickettsia species closest to Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia tamurae (designated Rickettsia sp. 12G1) was detected in 3 R. microplus (3/57, 5.3%). In addition, Anaplasma spp., assigned at least to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (or closely related genotypes) and Anaplasma marginale, were found in 2 A. multipunctum (2/87, 2.3%) and 13 R. microplus (13/57, 22.8%). This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks.

  8. Outbreak of Tinea capitis by Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis in Niterói, RJ, Brazil Microepidemia de tinha do couro cabeludo por Trichophyton tonsurans e Microsporum canis em Niterói, RJ, Brasil

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    Loan Towersey

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available 18 girls from an orphanage (Orfanato Santo Antônio in Niterói presented tinea capitis due to Trichophyton tonsurans (15 cases - 83.3% and Microsporum canis (3 cases - 26.7%. Comments are made about clinical, mycological and therapeutic aspects of this microepidemy18 meninas internas do Orfanato Santo Antônio em Niterói apresentaram tinha do couro cabeludo causada por Trichophyton tonsurans (15 casos - 83,3% e Microsporum canis (3 casos - 26,7%. São discutidos aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos desta microepidemia

  9. The dog mite, Demodex canis: prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3.

  10. Presence of Toxocara canis eggs on the hair of dogs: a risk factor for Visceral Larva Migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Hugo Leonardo da Cunha; Rassier, Gabriela Lopes; Pepe, Michele Soares; Gallina, Tiago; Villela, Marcos Marreiro; Nobre, Márcia de Oliveira; Scaini, Carlos James; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires

    2010-11-24

    The close contact between dogs and humans poses a high risk of exposure to Toxocara canis eggs, which can lead to Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM) syndrome. The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of these nematode eggs on the hair of the perianal region in stray and owned dogs. Samples of hair from 104 dogs of different ages were collected: 25 (24%) were positive for T. canis eggs, with mean of 614.8 eggs per gram of hair. Puppies were responsible for 99% of the total number of eggs. The ages of the animal and hair length were factors that influenced the intensity of the observed eggs. This study showed that dog hair contaminated by T. canis eggs in different developmental stages represents a potential source of VLM infection for humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Mahoney, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. We studied intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP. Mortality risk for eastern wolves in areas adjacent to APP was significantly higher than for other sympatric Canis types outside of APP, and for eastern wolves and other canids within APP. Outside of APP, the annual mortality rate of all canids by harvest (24%) was higher than for other causes of death (4-7%). Furthermore, eastern wolves (hazard ratio = 3.5) and nonresidents (transients and dispersing animals, hazard ratio = 2.7) were more likely to die from harvest relative to other Canis types and residents, respectively. Thus, eastern wolves dispersing from APP were especially vulnerable to harvest mortality. For residents, eastern wolf survival was more negatively influenced by increased road density than for other Canis types, further highlighting the sensitivity of eastern wolves to human disturbance. A cycle of dispersal from APP followed by high rates of mortality and hybridization appears to maintain eastern wolves at low density adjacent to APP, limiting the potential for expansion beyond the protected area. However, high survival and numerical dominance of eastern wolves within APP suggest that protected areas can allow rare hybridizing species to persist even if their demographic performance is compromised and barriers to hybridization are largely

  12. Overexpression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNA in feline polymorphonuclear neutrophils exposed to Microsporum canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Ludivine C; Heinen, Marie-Pierre A-L; Bagut, Elena T; Antoine, Nadine A; Mignon, Bernard R

    2016-04-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), along with macrophages, are the first leukocytes recruited to the site of infection in dermatophytoses and are responsible for the in fine elimination of the fungus. It has been demonstrated that feline PMNs produce pro-inflammatory cytokines after stimulation with Microsporum canis. The activation of these cells results from the recognition of specific PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns) from M. canis by PRRs (pattern recognition receptors) of PMNs. The C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the two main PRRs in phagocytic cells that recognize fungal components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of TLR-2, TLR-4 and dectin-1 mRNA in feline PMNs exposed to different components from M. canis. Feline PMNs were stimulated for 2 h or 4 h with either live arthroconidia, heat-killed arthroconidia or secreted components from M. canis. The levels of TLR-2, TLR-4 and dectin-1 mRNA were assessed by RT-qPCR. Results showed an increase of TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNA levels in feline PMNs stimulated with live and heat-killed arthroconidia, but not in those stimulated with the secreted components from M. canis. No significant variation in dectin-1 mRNA expression was observed in PMNs stimulated with the different fungal components. The overexpression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNAs in stimulated feline PMNs suggests that these receptors are involved in the host immune response through the recognition of M. canis PAMPs. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, Scott; Miller, Karl V.

    2007-07-01

    Abstract – A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and paracites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguinations. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote.

  14. Extinguishing a learned response in a free-ranging gray wolf (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2017-01-01

    A free-ranging Gray Wolf (Canis lupus), habituated to human presence (the author) on Ellesmere Island, Canada, learned to anticipate experimental feeding by a human, became impatient, persistent, and bold and exhibited stalking behaviour toward the food source. Only after the author offered the wolf about 90 clumps of dry soil over a period of 45 minutes in three bouts, did the wolf give up this behaviour. To my knowledge, this is the first example of extinguishing a learned response in a free-ranging wolf and provides new insight into the learning behaviour of such animals.

  15. Figurative and spatial information and search behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, C

    1998-02-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) were administered a variant of the delayed matching-to-sample task in which they had to recover a hidden object and in which both spatial and figurative information were kept constant at the outset of each trial. Thereafter, either spatial (i.e. spatial condition) or figurative cues (i.e. figurative condition) became relevant to solve the task. The results revealed that dogs rapidly associated a spatial cue with the recovery of the object. The discussion emphasizes the role of cognitive and ecological constraints to account for the fact that figurative information was not readily used as a cue to guide search behavior.

  16. Zhodnocení chovu vlka (Canis lupus) v ČR

    OpenAIRE

    PRŮŠOVÁ, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of my study was to evaluate breeding of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in human care in the Czech Republic based on the data from the Union of Czech and Slovak Zoos (UCSZOO) Yearbooks and the data from individual zoos. After processing the data from the yearbooks since 1973 till 2012, I visited zoos´ and evaluated e. g. size of wolf-run, diet composition, chance to create a pack. The following subspecies C. l. lupus, C. l. pambasileus, C. l. occidentalis, C. l. arctos, C. l. signatus and i...

  17. San Francisco 's Golden Gate: A bridge between historically distinct coyote (Canis latrans) populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N.; Ernest, Holly B.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2006-01-01

    Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are wellknown for their adaptability to human-modified landscapes (Riley et al. 2003), as with any medium to large-sized carnivore, they typically avoid highly urbanized areas (Crooks 2002), preferring instead to use habitat fragments linked by vegetated corridors (Tigas et al. 2002). However, recent observations of coyotes in San Francisco indicate their willingness to traverse even the most densely urbanized terrain (Rubenstein 2003). Herein we use DNA to show, in an extreme example, that an adult male coyote caught in the northern tip of the San Francisco peninsula traversed the 2-km Golden Gate Bridge, potentially linking historically distinct coyote populations.

  18. Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, H Scott; Miller, Karl V

    2007-09-01

    A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with parasites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and parasites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguination. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote.

  19. Joint manifestations in children infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara canis – single centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Janicka-Szczepaniak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joint disorders in children are a frequent cause of parents’ concern and a reason of visiting family doctors and rheumatologists. In search for the correct diagnosis, a wide differential diagnosis should be conducted, including bacterial, parasitic, but also rheumatoid or proliferative process. However, the majority of complaints reported by children are reactive in nature. Diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and serology tests results. Ascaris lumbricoides or Toxocara canis infection may manifest itself not only with gastrointestinal, but also musculoskeletal symptoms, depending on the period of the disease. The aim of the paper was to assess the frequency of complaints associated with the locomotor system in children with the presence of serum antibodies against Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Toxocara canis and to analyse their relationship with selected laboratory tests (eosinophilia and the final diagnosis. Material and methods: Medical records of 86 children hospitalised in 2013–2015 at the Department of Paediatric Cardiology and Rheumatology, Medical University of Łódź, were analysed. Children with musculoskeletal symptoms and positive serum antibody titres against Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Toxocara canis were included in the study. Results: Among the infected patients, the most frequently reported complaint from the locomotor system was knee (51% and wrist (19% pain. Ascaris lumbricoides infection was the dominant human parasitosis (66%, while in 15 patients (17% Toxocara canis co-infestation was detected. Rheumatoid process was the most common suspicion (36%, but the final diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis was determined in only 12 patients (14%. Conclusions: Parasitic infections often coexist with articular symptoms reported by children and should always be excluded in the differential diagnosis. In some cases, a parasitic infection may be one of the factors that initiate the rheumatoid

  20. White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn risk from Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) predation during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Morris, Aaron; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how often various prey animals are at risk of predation by Gray Wolves (Canis lupus). We used a system to monitor the presence during the day of two radio-collared Gray Wolves within 2 km of a radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with a fawn or fawns in August 2013 in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota. We concluded that the fawn or fawns were at risk of predation by at least one wolf at least daily.

  1. Serosurvey for the Prevalence of Brucella Canis Antibodies in Dogs in Central Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    picture was further confused by the additional finding of sores over both shoulders, fever, heart murmur, and hip dysplasia . Pathologic findings following...Canis THESIS/P Fjff7P Antibodies In Dogs In Central Ohio S. PERFORMING 01G. REPORT NUM4BER 7. AU~OR~s)S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Howard L. Pue. S...ANTIBODIES IN DOGS IN CENTRAL 011o A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science b-, Accession For

  2. Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs after topical administration of fluralaner spot-on solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenzler, Janina; Liebenberg, Julian; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2016-05-31

    The preventive effect of fluralaner spot-on solution against transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated. Sixteen dogs, tested negative for B. canis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT), were allocated to two study groups. On day 0, dogs in one group (n = 8) were treated once topically with fluralaner spot-on solution (Bravecto™ Spot-on Solution) according to label recommendations and dogs in the control group (n = 8) remained untreated. On days 2, 28, 56, 70 and 84, all dogs were infested with 50 (±4) D. reticulatus ticks harbouring B. canis, with tick in situ thumb counts 48 ± 4 h after each infestation. On day 90, ticks were removed from all dogs and counted. Prior to each infestation, the presence of B. canis in the respective tick batch was confirmed by PCR, and 12-16 % of ticks were found to be infected with B. canis. Efficacy against ticks was 99.5 and 99.3 % on days 4 and 58 after treatment, respectively and 100 % on all other days. Replacement dogs were included for any B. canis infected control dog (in total 19). All control dogs (n = 27) became infected with B. canis, as confirmed by PCR, performed every 7 days, and by IFAT, performed every 14 days after treatment. None of the eight treated dogs became infected with B. canis, as they were tested negative by PCR and IFAT throughout the study until day 112. By comparing infected dogs in the treated group with infected dogs in the untreated control group, a 100 % preventive effect against B. canis transmission was demonstrated. A single topical administration of fluralaner spot-on solution effectively prevented the transmission of B. canis by infected D. reticulatus ticks over a 12-week period.

  3. Vaginal isolation of beta-haemolytic Streptococcus from bitches with and without neonatal deaths in the litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, A E; Stornelli, M C; Jurado, S B; Giacoboni, G; Sguazza, G H; de la Sota, R L; Stornelli, M A

    2018-02-18

    The aim of the study was to identify beta-haemolytic streptococci in the vagina of bitches who had delivered healthy litters and bitches who had delivered litters in which neonatal deaths occurred. Fifty-one bitches divided into two groups were used. Group 1 (G1) included 28 bitches that had delivered healthy litters and group 2 (G2) included 23 bitches that had delivered puppies who died in the neonatal period. Two vaginal samples were taken, one in proestrus and the other at the end of gestation (EG). Beta-haemolytic Streptococcus (BS) was isolated from 16 bitches (57%) in G1 and from 21 bitches (91%) in G2. The bacteriological cultures, serological tests (Streptex ® ) and PCR assay allowed identification of Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in G1 and G2. Ultramicroscopic studies allowed the observation of M Protein and capsules in strains of S. dysgalactiae and S. canis in G1 and G2. The S. canis strains isolated from G2 showed thicker capsules than S. canis strains isolated from G1 (234 ± 24.2 vs 151.23 ± 28.93 nm; p  .70). All strains of beta-haemolytic Streptococcus isolated were penicillin sensitive. Penicillin was administered from EG to 5 days post-partum in 10 G2 females with isolation of BS (G2A). Saline solution was administered in eleven G2 females with isolation of BS (G2B). Ninety per cent of the puppies survived in G2A and 25% survived in G2B. Our results suggest BS is involved in canine neonatal deaths. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated orally with fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenzler, Janina; Liebenberg, Julian; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2015-06-04

    The preventive effect of fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™) against transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated. Sixteen dogs, tested negative for B. canis by PCR and IFAT, were allocated to two study groups. On day 0, dogs in one group (n = 8) were treated once orally with a fluralaner chewable tablet according to label recommendations and dogs in the control group (n = 8) remained untreated. On days 2, 28, 56, 70 and 84, dogs were infested with 50 (±4) B. canis infected D. reticulatus ticks with tick in situ thumb counts 48 ± 4 h post-infestation. Prior to each infestation, the D. reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour B. canis by PCR analysis. On day 90, ticks were counted and removed from all dogs. Efficacy against ticks was calculated for each assessment time point. After treatment, all dogs were physically examined in conjunction with blood collection for PCR every 7 days, blood samples for IFAT were collected every 14 days and the dog's rectal body temperature was measured thrice weekly. From dogs displaying symptoms of babesiosis or were PCR positive, a blood smear was taken, and, if positive, dogs were rescue treated and replaced with a replacement dog. The preventive effect was evaluated by comparing infected dogs in the treated group with infected dogs in the untreated control group. All control dogs became infected with B. canis, as confirmed by PCR and IFAT. None of the 8 treated dogs became infected with B. canis, as IFAT and PCR were negative throughout the study until day 112. Fluralaner chewable tablet was 100 % effective against ticks on days 4, 30, 58, and 90 and an efficacy of 99.6 % and 99.2 % was achieved on day 72 and day 86 after treatment, respectively. Over the 12-week study duration, a 100 % preventive effect against B. canis transmission was demonstrated. A single oral administration of fluralaner chewable tablets effectively prevented the transmission of B. canis by infected

  5. Helminth infections in faecal samples of wolves Canis lupus L. from the western Beskidy Mountains in southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiołek, Marcin; Szczesnaa, Justyna; Nowaka, Sabina; Mysłajeka, Robert W

    2007-12-01

    Eighty-nine samples of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) faeces were collected between 2002 and 2004 from two areas in the western Beskidy Mts (south Poland). Helminth eggs were observed in 56.2% of faeces examined. These included: Alaria alata (2.2%), taeniid eggs (11.2%), Toxocara canis (5.6%), Toxascaris leonina (1.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (14.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (12.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (37%) and unidentified roundworm eggs of the family Strongyloididae (1.1%). Eucoleus aerophilus is recorded for the first time from Poland. The results are compared with the helminth fauna of other wolf populations in Europe.

  6. Rural Residents in China Are at Increased Risk of Exposure to Tick-Borne Pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As emerging tick born rickettsial diseases caused by A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis have become a serious threat to human and animal health throughout the world. In particular, in China, an unusual transmission of nosocomial cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis occurred in Anhui Province in 2006 and more recent coinfection case of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis was documented in Shandong Province. Although the seroprevalence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (former human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, HGE has been documented in several studies, these data existed on local investigations, and also little data was reported on the seroprevalence of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME in China. In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA proposed by WHO was used to detect A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis IgG antibodies for 7,322 serum samples from agrarian residents from 9 provinces/cities and 819 urban residents from 2 provinces. Our data showed that farmers were at substantially increased risk of exposure. However, even among urban residents, risk was considerable. Seroprevalence of HGA and HME occurred in diverse regions of the country and tended to be the highest in young adults. Many species of ticks were confirmed carrying A. phagocytophilum organisms in China while several kinds of domestic animals including dog, goats, sheep, cattle, horse, wild rabbit, and some small wild rodents were proposed to be the reservoir hosts of A. phagocytophilum. The broad distribution of vector and hosts of the A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, especially the relationship between the generalized susceptibility of vectors and reservoirs and the severity of the disease’s clinical manifestations and the genetic variation of Chinese HGA isolates in China, is urgently needed to be further investigated.

  7. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jnawali, Shant R; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal's Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal's entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape.

  8. Neospora caninum exposure in overlapping populations of coyotes (Canis latrans) and feral swine (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Sarah; Blizzard, Emily; Bazan, Luis; Whitley, Pat

    2013-10-01

    Limited information exists on Neospora caninum transmission dynamics in wildlife. This coccidian parasite, whose presence can lead to substantial economic losses in cattle operations, requires a canid definitive host for reproduction. We examined exposure in a definitive host, coyotes (Canis latrans), and in overlapping populations of feral swine (Sus scrofa) to determine if spatial proximity between a definitive and incidental host influences the likelihood of parasite exposure. Eighteen percent of coyotes (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.2-21.8) and 15.8% of feral swine (95% CI = 12.5-19.2) had been exposed to N. caninum, and this is the first report of exposure in US feral swine populations. Analyses suggest that the parasite is present throughout the environment and that exposure is not temporally or spatially linked to antibody-positive coyotes. Antibody-positive feral swine were found in an area where the only definitive host is domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), indicating that wild canids are not required to maintain the parasite in the environment.

  9. Using diets of Canis breeding pairs to assess resource partitioning between sympatric red wolves and coyotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Ashley, Annaliese K.; Dellinger, Justin A.; Gittleman, John L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Chamberlain, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Foraging behaviors of red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are complex and their ability to form congeneric breeding pairs and hybridize further complicates our understanding of factors influencing their diets. Through scat analysis, we assessed prey selection of red wolf, coyote, and congeneric breeding pairs formed by red wolves and coyotes, and found that all 3 had similar diets. However, red wolf and congeneric pairs consumed more white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) than coyote pairs. Coyotes forming breeding pairs with red wolves had 12% more white-tailed deer in their diet than conspecifics paired with coyotes. Contrary to many studies on coyotes in the southeastern United States, we found coyotes in eastern North Carolina to be primarily carnivorous with increased consumption of deer during winter. Although prey selection was generally similar among the 3 groups, differences in diet among different breeding pairs were strongly associated with body mass. Larger breeding pairs consumed more white-tailed deer, and fewer rabbits (Sylvilagus spp.) and other small mammals. Partitioning of food resources by sympatric red wolves and coyotes is likely via differences in the proportions of similar prey consumed, rather than differences in types of prey exploited. Consequently, our results suggest coexistence of red wolves and coyotes in the southeastern United States may not be possible because there are limited opportunities for niche partitioning to reduce competitive interactions.

  10. A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrańska, E; Wasielewski, O; Bereszyński, A

    2010-12-01

    One hundred and three samples of faeces of reared grey wolves from four locations (Stobnica Park and Zoological Gardens in Bydgoszcz, Wrocław and Cracow) and twenty-six samples of faeces from two free-roaming packs of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Piła (Forest Divisions: Borne Sulinowo, Czarnobór, Jastrowo) and Zielona Góra (Forest Divisions: Torzym, Krosno Odrzańskie) were collected between 2005 and 2007. Helminth eggs were detected in 78.6% of faecal samples of reared grey wolves and in 88.4% of those of free-roaming wolves. The trematode Alaria alata (80.1%) and nematodes Eucoleus aerophilus (23.1%) and Spirocerca lupi (11.5%) were only detected from wild packs of wolves and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (35.9%), Trichuris vulpis (15.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.9%) were only detected from reared wolves. Differences were observed in the prevalence and composition of helminth fauna between reared and wild grey wolves and our results are compared with those from studies within Poland and elsewhere in Europe.

  11. Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasa, Serdar; Voyvoda, Huseyin; Karagenc, Tulin; Atasoy, Abidin; Gazyagci, Serkal

    2011-09-01

    Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the parasite in blood smears, and serologic assay. The animals were allocated randomly to one of two groups (n = 6 in each group). Dogs in Imi group were given imidocarb dipropionate at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously in two injections 14 days apart. Imi plus Toltra group was given imidocarb dipropionate as dose mentioned above and toltrazuril at 10 mg/kg/day orally for the first five treatment days. Clinical findings, blood counts and parasitaemia levels in blood before and 14, 28 and 56 days after the initial treatment were performed to evaluate treatment response. The overall clinical efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate with and without toltrazuril was 83.3% and 66.7%, respectively; with a mean recovery time of 21.0 and 25.6 days, respectively. A substantial main effect of time on mean PCV, Hb, WBC, neutrophil and PLT and gradual reduction of parasitaemia were significantly observed in both groups (P toltrazuril does not reveal additional benefit to imidocarb therapy in dogs with HCI.

  12. Intestinal helminth parasites of the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćirović, Duško; Pavlović, Ivan; Penezić, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) is the most widespread large carnivore in Europe with large populations in the Eastern part of Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. In this study, a total of 102 wolves were examined for intestinal helminth parasites. The carcasses were collected within the Serbian part of the wolf's range during the period 2009-2014. Nine helminth species were found: one nematode, Toxocara canis (3.9%), one trematode, Alaria alata (1.0%), and seven cestodes, Taenia pisiformis (1.0%), T. hydatigena (9.8%), T. polyacantha (2.9%), T. taeniaeformis (2.0%), T. (syn. Multiceps) multiceps (3.9%), T. serialis (1.0%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (1.0%). Taenia (syn. Hydatigera) taeniaeformis has been registered for the first time in a wolf from Europe. An overall moderate prevalence (16.7%) of infected wolves was recorded. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between sexes. Of the years studied, the highest prevalence was found in 2014 (57.1%). The maximum number of helminth species per host specimen was four.

  13. Serological survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, E M; Schultz, R D; Johnson, M R; Williams, E S; Crabtree, R L; Ruff, R L

    1997-01-01

    From October 1989 to June 1993, we captured and sampled 110 coyotes (Canis latrans) for various diseases in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) was 100% for adults (> 24 months old), 100% for yearlings (12 to 24 months old), and 100% for old pups (4 to 12 months old); 0% of the young pups (canis. No coyotes were seropositive to Leptospira interrogans (serovars canicola, hardjo, and icterohemorrhagiae). Prevalence of antibodies against L. interrogans serovar pomona was 7%, 0%, 0%, and 9%, for adults, yearlings, old pups, and young pups, respectively. Antibodies against L. interrogans serovar grippotyphosa were present in 17% of adults and 0% of yearlings, old pups, and young pups. Many infectious canine pathogens (CPV, CDV, ICH virus) are prevalent in coyotes in Yellowstone National Park, with CPV influencing coyote pup survival during the first 3 months of life; eight of 21 transmitted pups died of CPV infection in 1992. The potential impact of these canine pathogens on wolves (C. lupus) reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park remains to be documented.

  14. Prevention of coccidiosis in domestic dogs and captive coyotes (Canis latrans) with sulfadimethoxine-ormetoprim combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, M R; Foreyt, W J

    1985-09-01

    Sulfadimethoxine-ormetoprim combination was evaluated as a coccidiostat against experimentally induced coccidiosis in young dogs and coyotes (Canis latrans). The animals were experimentally inoculated with 50,000 or 100,000 sporulated oocysts of Isospora ohiohensis (98%) and Isospora canis (2%). In experiment 1, daily treatment for 13 to 23 days with a combination of 27.5 mg of sulfadimethoxine/kg of body weight (BW) and 5.5 mg of ormetoprim/kg of BW admixed to the feed resulted in no significant (P greater than 0.05) difference in fecal oocyst counts between treated and nontreated groups of dogs or coyotes. In experiment 2, treatment with a combination of 55 mg of sulfadimethoxine/kg of BW and 11 mg of ormetoprim/kg of BW for 23 days was 99.8% effective against Isospora spp infections in dogs. Significantly (P less than 0.05) fewer oocysts were present in feces of treated dogs than were present in feces of nontreated dogs from first passage of oocysts at day 4 to the end of the patent period at days 19 to 21. After the 2nd week of treatment, BW of treated dogs were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than BW of nontreated dogs. Evidence of drug toxicity was not observed clinically or by serum chemical analyses.

  15. Ecological changes in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in response to the ice age megafaunal extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meachen, Julie A; Janowicz, Adrianna C; Avery, Jori E; Sadleir, Rudyard W

    2014-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these changes. We examined the mandibles of three coyote populations: Pleistocene Rancho La Brean (13-29 Ka), earliest Holocene Rancho La Brean (8-10 Ka), and Recent from North America, using 2D geometric morphometrics to determine the morphological differences among them. Our results show that these three populations were morphologically distinct. The Pleistocene coyotes had an overall robust mandible with an increased shearing arcade and a decreased grinding arcade, adapted for carnivory and killing larger prey; whereas the modern populations show a gracile morphology with a tendency toward omnivory or grinding. The earliest Holocene populations are intermediate in morphology and smallest in size. These findings indicate that a niche shift occurred in coyotes at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary - from a hunter of large prey to a small prey/more omnivorous animal. Species interactions between Canis were the most likely cause of this transition. This study shows that the Pleistocene extinction event affected species that did not go extinct as well as those that did.

  16. Ecological changes in Coyotes (Canis latrans in response to the ice age megafaunal extinctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Meachen

    Full Text Available Coyotes (Canis latrans are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these changes. We examined the mandibles of three coyote populations: Pleistocene Rancho La Brean (13-29 Ka, earliest Holocene Rancho La Brean (8-10 Ka, and Recent from North America, using 2D geometric morphometrics to determine the morphological differences among them. Our results show that these three populations were morphologically distinct. The Pleistocene coyotes had an overall robust mandible with an increased shearing arcade and a decreased grinding arcade, adapted for carnivory and killing larger prey; whereas the modern populations show a gracile morphology with a tendency toward omnivory or grinding. The earliest Holocene populations are intermediate in morphology and smallest in size. These findings indicate that a niche shift occurred in coyotes at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary - from a hunter of large prey to a small prey/more omnivorous animal. Species interactions between Canis were the most likely cause of this transition. This study shows that the Pleistocene extinction event affected species that did not go extinct as well as those that did.

  17. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís MATA-SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL, lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL, β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL. The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  18. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadallah, Maysa A. I.; Salem, Lobna M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, pHymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p0.05) did not seem to have a significant association among the examined dogs. Enteric parasitic infection was reported in 31/150 human stools (20.67%). Students were the most affected groups (37.14%), followed by nomadic people (24%), house wives (20%), house guarders and military workers (12%, each), and employees (10%). The identified parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. (9.33%), Ascaris lumbercoides (3.33%), Heterophyes spp. and Ancylostoma spp. (2.66%, each) and Paragonimus spp. and Hymenolepis nana (1.33%, each). Toxocara IgG antibodies were detected in 36/150 (24%) serum samples investigated. Toxocara IgG antibodies were more prevalent in males (26.66%) than females (20

  19. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadallah, Maysa A I; Salem, Lobna M A

    2015-08-01

    This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, pspp. (5.38%, each), Heterophyes spp. (3.85%), Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%), Taenidae eggs (2.31%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p0.05) did not seem to have a significant association among the examined dogs. Enteric parasitic infection was reported in 31/150 human stools (20.67%). Students were the most affected groups (37.14%), followed by nomadic people (24%), house wives (20%), house guarders and military workers (12%, each), and employees (10%). The identified parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. (9.33%), Ascaris lumbercoides (3.33%), Heterophyes spp. and Ancylostoma spp. (2.66%, each) and Paragonimus spp. and Hymenolepis nana (1.33%, each). Toxocara IgG antibodies were detected in 36/150 (24%) serum samples investigated. Toxocara

  20. "Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze": Correction to Werhahn et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Reports an error in "Wolves ( Canis lupus ) and dogs ( Canis familiaris ) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze" by Geraldine Werhahn, Zsófia Virányi, Gabriela Barrera, Andrea Sommese and Friederike Range ( Journal of Comparative Psychology , 2016[Aug], Vol 130[3], 288-298). In the article, the affiliations for the second and fifth authors should be Wolf Science Center, Ernstbrunn, Austria, and Comparative Cognition, Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna/ Medical University of Vienna/University of Vienna. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-26311-001.) Gaze following into distant space is defined as visual co-orientation with another individual's head direction allowing the gaze follower to gain information on its environment. Human and nonhuman animals share this basic gaze following behavior, suggested to rely on a simple reflexive mechanism and believed to be an important prerequisite for complex forms of social cognition. Pet dogs differ from other species in that they follow only communicative human gaze clearly addressed to them. However, in an earlier experiment we showed that wolves follow human gaze into distant space. Here we set out to investigate whether domestication has affected gaze following in dogs by comparing pack-living dogs and wolves raised and kept under the same conditions. In Study 1 we found that in contrast to the wolves, these dogs did not follow minimally communicative human gaze into distant space in the same test paradigm. In the observational Study 2 we found that pack-living dogs and wolves, similarly vigilant to environmental stimuli, follow the spontaneous gaze of their conspecifics similarly often. Our findings suggest that domestication did not affect the gaze following ability of dogs itself. The results raise hypotheses about which other dog skills

  1. Lambdapapillomavirus 2 in a Gray Wolf ( Canis lupus ) from Minnesota, USA with Oral Papillomatosis and Sarcoptic Mange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Susan; Windels, Steve K; Adams, Marie; Hall, Jeffrey S

    2017-10-01

    Oral papillomatosis was diagnosed in a gray wolf ( Canis lupus ) with sarcoptic mange from Minnesota, US found dead in February 2015. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident histologically, and papillomaviral antigens were confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Sequencing of the L1 papillomavirus gene showed closest similarity to Lambdapapillomavirus 2.

  2. Fatal Sarcocystis canis-like hepatitis in an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike most species in the genus Sarcocystis, Sarcocystis canis has a broad intermediate host range. Its life cycle is incompletely known and most reports are from the USA. Here we report fatal hepatitis in a 4 year old male Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) from Hong Kong associate...

  3. Interactions of brown bears, Ursus arctos, and gray wolves, Canis lupus, at Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tom S.; Partridge, Steven T.; Schoen, John W.

    2004-01-01

    We describe several encounters between Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) and Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) that were observed at Katmai National Park and Preserve in southwest Alaska. Katmai Brown Bears and Gray Wolves were observed interacting in a variety of behavioral modes that ranged from agonistic to tolerant. These observations provide additional insight regarding the behavioral plasticity associated with bear-wolf interactions.

  4. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  5. A line-profile analysis of the large-amplitude beta Cephei star xi1 Canis Majoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saesen, S.; Briquet, M.; Aerts, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed line-profile study of the beta Cephei star xi1 Canis Majoris, for which we have assembled numerous high-resolution spectra over a period of 4.5 years. It is the first time that the line-profile variations of this star have been analysed. We focused on the Si III line profiles

  6. Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic Bartonella sp.: molecular epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C C; Kasten, R W; Chomel, B B; Simpson, D C; Hew, C M; Kordick, D L; Heller, R; Piemont, Y; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2000-11-01

    Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. Following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with Bartonella infection in Santa Clara County, Calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. Among 109 coyotes (Canis latrans) from central coastal California, 31 animals (28%) were found to be bacteremic with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and 83 animals (76%) had B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii antibodies. These findings suggest these animals could be the wildlife reservoir of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes for these 31 isolates yielded similar profiles that were identical to those of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Partial sequencing of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated 99.5 and 100% homology between the coyote isolate and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (ATCC 51672). PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region showed the existence of two different strain profiles, as has been reported in dogs. Six (19%) of 31 Bartonella bacteremic coyotes exhibited the strain profile that was identified in the type strain of a canine endocarditis case (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii ATCC 51672). The other 25 bacteremic coyotes were infected with a strain that was similar to the strains isolated from healthy dogs. Based on whole bacterial genome analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI restriction endonuclease, there was more diversity in fingerprints for the coyote isolates, which had at least 10 major variants compared to the two variants described for domestic dog isolates from the eastern United States. By PFGE analysis, three Bartonella bacteremic coyotes were infected by a strain identical to the one isolated from three healthy dog carriers. Further studies are necessary

  7. Enteric Parasitic in canines (Canis familiaris in the urban area of Coroico, Nor Yungas department of La Paz Bolivia

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    Llanos Mariana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety species of intestinal protozoa and helminthes are pathogen for the domestic animals. Between April and November 2009, a study was done with the purpose of determining the enteric parasitic infection in dogs (Cannis familiaris, 96 dogs (58 males and 38 females with owner of 10 species, one hybrid, eight age groups in two seasons of the urban area of the Coroico town, Nor Yungas, department of La Paz, Bolivia. The coproparasitology diagnostic was made by direct examination, with the Willis-Molloy flotation simple technique with a solution oversaturated of sodium chloride. It was detected one or more species of helminthes and protozoa, was used the chi-square and descriptive method for the statistical analysis. The results were: from the 96 sampled dogs, in 87% is present at less one type of parasitic shape, were identify: Ancylostoma spp, Toxocara canis, Strogyloides spp, Giardia spp, Isospora canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostoma spp/Uncinaria spp and Dipylidium caninum. The evaluation by season show a (p ≤ 0,05 for the Giardia spp. In a humidity season, but not for a dry season, the rest of parasites can be found in both seasons. By sex in a humidity season T.canis in females 43% and 22% in males, in dry season by sex was found T.vulpis in female with a high frequency (p ≤ 0,05, the rest of parasites do not show statistic differences in both seasons. By age in dry season T. canis and Stronyiloides sp. prevails 1-24 months and 49-72 months respectively, in a humidity season T. canis prevails in the same age (p ≤ 0,05. By race in dry season Ancylostoma spp Uncinaria spp prevails in the race Pekingese, in humidity season Strongyloides sp prevails in the Cocker race. Prevail in both seasons A. canis y T. canis. In relation to the mono-parasitism and multi-parasitism, was viewed, in both seasons the dogs multi-parasitism are more than the mono-parasitism.

  8. Spatial genetic and morphologic structure of wolves and coyotes in relation to environmental heterogeneity in a Canis hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Wheeldon, Tyler J

    2012-12-01

    Eastern wolves have hybridized extensively with coyotes and gray wolves and are listed as a 'species of special concern' in Canada. However, a distinct population of eastern wolves has been identified in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) in Ontario. Previous studies of the diverse Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP have not linked genetic analysis with field data to investigate genotype-specific morphology or determine how resident animals of different ancestry are distributed across the landscape in relation to heterogeneous environmental conditions. Accordingly, we studied resident wolves and coyotes in and adjacent to APP to identify distinct Canis types, clarify the extent of the APP eastern wolf population beyond the park boundaries and investigate fine-scale spatial genetic structure and landscape-genotype associations in the hybrid zone. We documented three genetically distinct Canis types within the APP region that also differed morphologically, corresponding to putative gray wolves, eastern wolves and coyotes. We also documented a substantial number of hybrid individuals (36%) that were admixed between 2 or 3 of the Canis types. Breeding eastern wolves were less common outside of APP, but occurred in some unprotected areas where they were sympatric with a diverse combination of coyotes, gray wolves and hybrids. We found significant spatial genetic structure and identified a steep cline extending west from APP where the dominant genotype shifted abruptly from eastern wolves to coyotes and hybrids. The genotypic pattern to the south and northwest was a more complex mosaic of alternating genotypes. We modelled genetic ancestry in response to prey availability and human disturbance and found that individuals with greater wolf ancestry occupied areas of higher moose density and fewer roads. Our results clarify the structure of the Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP and provide unique insight into environmental conditions influencing hybridization dynamics between

  9. Italian wolves (Canis lupus italicus Altobello, 1921) and molecular detection of taeniids in the Foreste Casentinesi National Park, Northern Italian Apennines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poglayen, Giovanni; Gori, Francesca; Morandi, Benedetto; Galuppi, Roberta; Fabbri, Elena; Caniglia, Romolo; Milanesi, Pietro; Galaverni, Marco; Randi, Ettore; Marchesi, Barbara; Deplazes, Peter

    2017-04-01

    After centuries of massive decline, the recovery of the wolf (Canis lupus italicus) in Italy is a typical conservation success story. To learn more about the possible role of parasites in the wolves' individual and population health and conservation we used non-invasive molecular approaches on fecal samples to identify individual wolves, pack membership, and the taeniids present, some of which are zoonotic. A total of 130 specimens belonging to 54 wolves from eight packs were collected and examined. Taeniid eggs were isolated using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad1). Taeniid prevalence was 40.7% for Taenia hydatigena, 22.2% for T. krabbei, 1.8% for T. polyachanta and 5.5% for Echinococcus granulosus. The prevalence of E. granulosus is discussed. Our results show that the taeniid fauna found in wolves from the Foreste Casentinesi National Park is comparable to that described for other domestic and wild Italian canids and provides insights into the wolves' diet and their relationship with the environment.

  10. Italian wolves (Canis lupus italicus Altobello, 1921 and molecular detection of taeniids in the Foreste Casentinesi National Park, Northern Italian Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Poglayen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available After centuries of massive decline, the recovery of the wolf (Canis lupus italicus in Italy is a typical conservation success story. To learn more about the possible role of parasites in the wolves' individual and population health and conservation we used non-invasive molecular approaches on fecal samples to identify individual wolves, pack membership, and the taeniids present, some of which are zoonotic. A total of 130 specimens belonging to 54 wolves from eight packs were collected and examined. Taeniid eggs were isolated using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad1. Taeniid prevalence was 40.7% for Taenia hydatigena, 22.2% for T. krabbei, 1.8% for T. polyachanta and 5.5% for Echinococcus granulosus. The prevalence of E. granulosus is discussed. Our results show that the taeniid fauna found in wolves from the Foreste Casentinesi National Park is comparable to that described for other domestic and wild Italian canids and provides insights into the wolves’ diet and their relationship with the environment.

  11. Genetic variability of the grey wolf Canis lupus in the Caucasus in comparison with Europe and the Middle East: distinct or intermediary population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Dąbrowski, Michał J; Hayrapetyan, Vahram; Yavruyan, Eduard G; Kopaliani, Natia; Tsingarska, Elena; Bujalska, Barbara; Kamiński, Stanisław; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    Despite continuous historical distribution of the grey wolf (Canis lupus) throughout Eurasia, the species displays considerable morphological differentiation that resulted in delimitation of a number of subspecies. However, these morphological discontinuities are not always consistent with patterns of genetic differentiation. Here we assess genetic distinctiveness of grey wolves from the Caucasus (a region at the border between Europe and West Asia) that have been classified as a distinct subspecies C. l. cubanensis. We analysed their genetic variability based on mtDNA control region, microsatellite loci and genome-wide SNP genotypes (obtained for a subset of the samples), and found similar or higher levels of genetic diversity at all these types of loci as compared with other Eurasian populations. Although we found no evidence for a recent genetic bottleneck, genome-wide linkage disequilibrium patterns suggest a long-term demographic decline in the Caucasian population--a trend consistent with other Eurasian populations. Caucasian wolves share mtDNA haplotypes with both Eastern European and West Asian wolves, suggesting past or ongoing gene flow. Microsatellite data also suggest gene flow between the Caucasus and Eastern Europe. We found evidence for moderate admixture between the Caucasian wolves and domestic dogs, at a level comparable with other Eurasian populations. Taken together, our results show that Caucasian wolves are not genetically isolated from other Eurasian populations, share with them the same demographic trends, and are affected by similar conservation problems.

  12. Genetic variability of the grey wolf Canis lupus in the Caucasus in comparison with Europe and the Middle East: distinct or intermediary population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pilot

    Full Text Available Despite continuous historical distribution of the grey wolf (Canis lupus throughout Eurasia, the species displays considerable morphological differentiation that resulted in delimitation of a number of subspecies. However, these morphological discontinuities are not always consistent with patterns of genetic differentiation. Here we assess genetic distinctiveness of grey wolves from the Caucasus (a region at the border between Europe and West Asia that have been classified as a distinct subspecies C. l. cubanensis. We analysed their genetic variability based on mtDNA control region, microsatellite loci and genome-wide SNP genotypes (obtained for a subset of the samples, and found similar or higher levels of genetic diversity at all these types of loci as compared with other Eurasian populations. Although we found no evidence for a recent genetic bottleneck, genome-wide linkage disequilibrium patterns suggest a long-term demographic decline in the Caucasian population--a trend consistent with other Eurasian populations. Caucasian wolves share mtDNA haplotypes with both Eastern European and West Asian wolves, suggesting past or ongoing gene flow. Microsatellite data also suggest gene flow between the Caucasus and Eastern Europe. We found evidence for moderate admixture between the Caucasian wolves and domestic dogs, at a level comparable with other Eurasian populations. Taken together, our results show that Caucasian wolves are not genetically isolated from other Eurasian populations, share with them the same demographic trends, and are affected by similar conservation problems.

  13. Genetic Variability of the Grey Wolf Canis lupus in the Caucasus in Comparison with Europe and the Middle East: Distinct or Intermediary Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Dąbrowski, Michał J.; Hayrapetyan, Vahram; Yavruyan, Eduard G.; Kopaliani, Natia; Tsingarska, Elena; Bujalska, Barbara; Kamiński, Stanisław; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    Despite continuous historical distribution of the grey wolf (Canis lupus) throughout Eurasia, the species displays considerable morphological differentiation that resulted in delimitation of a number of subspecies. However, these morphological discontinuities are not always consistent with patterns of genetic differentiation. Here we assess genetic distinctiveness of grey wolves from the Caucasus (a region at the border between Europe and West Asia) that have been classified as a distinct subspecies C. l. cubanensis. We analysed their genetic variability based on mtDNA control region, microsatellite loci and genome-wide SNP genotypes (obtained for a subset of the samples), and found similar or higher levels of genetic diversity at all these types of loci as compared with other Eurasian populations. Although we found no evidence for a recent genetic bottleneck, genome-wide linkage disequilibrium patterns suggest a long-term demographic decline in the Caucasian population – a trend consistent with other Eurasian populations. Caucasian wolves share mtDNA haplotypes with both Eastern European and West Asian wolves, suggesting past or ongoing gene flow. Microsatellite data also suggest gene flow between the Caucasus and Eastern Europe. We found evidence for moderate admixture between the Caucasian wolves and domestic dogs, at a level comparable with other Eurasian populations. Taken together, our results show that Caucasian wolves are not genetically isolated from other Eurasian populations, share with them the same demographic trends, and are affected by similar conservation problems. PMID:24714198

  14. New insights into the immunopathology of early Toxocara canis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Nathália M; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando S; Oliveira, Luciana M; Nogueira, Denise S; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Gonçalves, Marco Túlio P; Amorim, Chiara C O; Oliveira, Fabrício M S; Caliari, Marcelo V; Rachid, Milene A; Volpato, Gustavo T; Bueno, Lilian L; Geiger, Stefan M; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2015-07-02

    Nematodes of the genus Toxocara are cosmopolitan roundworms frequently found in dogs and cats. Toxocara spp. can accidentally infect humans and cause a zoonosis called human toxocariasis, which is characterized by visceral, ocular or cerebral migration of larval stages of the parasite, without completing its life cycle. In general, chronic nematode infections induce a polarized TH2 immune response. However, during the initial phase of infection, a strong pro-inflammatory response is part of the immunological profile and might determine the outcome and/or pathology of the infection. Parasitological aspects and histopathology during larval migration were evaluated after early T. canis experimental infection of BALB/c mice, which were inoculated via the intra-gastric route with a single dose of 1000 fully embryonated eggs. Innate immune responses and systemic cytokine patterns (TH1, TH2, TH17 and regulatory cytokines) were determined at different times after experimental challenge by sandwich ELISA. We found that experimental infection with T. canis induced a mix of innate inflammatory/TH17/TH2 responses during early infection, with a predominance of the latter. The TH2 response was evidenced by significant increases in cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-33, in addition to increasing levels of IL-6 and IL-17. No significant increases were observed for IL-10, TNF-α or IFN-γ levels. In parallel, parasitological analysis clearly revealed the pattern of larval migration through the mouse organs, starting from the liver in the first 24 h of infection, reaching the peak in the lungs on the 3rd day of infection and finally being found numerously in the brain after 5 days of infection. Peripheral leukocytosis, characterized by early neutrophilia and subsequent eosinophilia, was remarkable during early infection. The tissue damage induced by larvae was evidenced by histopathological analysis of the organs at different time points of infection. In all of the

  15. A large-scale study of the Trichinella genus in the golden jackal (Canis aureus) population in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćirović, Duško; Teodorović, Vlado; Vasilev, Dragan; Marković, Marija; Ćosić, Nada; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Klun, Ivana; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2015-09-15

    Over the last decades the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has significantly expanded its range throughout Southeast and Central Europe, and the Balkan Peninsula is considered to be a core area of the species distribution in this part of the range. Due to its increasing number, ability of long distance movement through a wide range of landscapes and opportunistic feeding habits, the golden jackal may represent an important reservoir and transmitter of a variety of zoonotic agents, including parasites. The Balkans, Serbia included, remain an endemic area for various zoonotic parasites including Trichinella spp. Trichinella has recently been recorded in jackals in Serbia, which prompted us to carry out a large-scale survey of its prevalence, distribution and species identification in this host. In cooperation with local hunters, carcasses of a total of 738 legally hunted golden jackals were collected at 24 localities over an 11-year period (2003-2013). Analysis of tongue base tissue revealed Trichinella larvae in 122, indicating a prevalence of infection of 16.5%. No difference in the prevalence of infection was found between genders [16.2% in males and 16.9% in females (χ(2)=0.05, p=0.821)], or among the study years (G=7.22, p=0.705). Trichinella larvae were found in 13 out of the 24 examined localities. Molecular identification was performed for 90 isolates, and 64 (71.1%) larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis and 25 (27.9%) as Trichinella britovi. Mixed infection (T. spiralis and T. britovi) was recorded in a single case. Although T. spiralis was more prevalent, T. britovi had a wider distribution, and was the only recorded species in jackal populations from the mountainous region of eastern Serbia. On the other hand, T. spiralis was dominant in jackals in the lowlands of central and northern Serbia, where domestic pigs are mostly reared. These results show that the golden jackal is involved in both the domestic and sylvatic cycle, and that it has emerged as

  16. Electrocardiographic consequences of a peripatetic lifestyle in gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Peter; Hinchcliff, Ken; Demma, Nick; Callahan, Margaret; Dale, Bruce W.; Fox, Kevin; Adams, Layne G.; Wack, Ray; Kramer, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy are normal physiologic responses to repetitive endurance exercise activity in human beings and domestic dogs. Whether similar changes occur in wild animals as a consequence of increased activity is unknown. We found that free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus, n=11), the archetypical endurance athlete, have electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy relative to sedentary captive gray wolves (n=20), as demonstrated by significant increases in QRS duration, QT interval, and QT interval corrected for heart rate, a tendency towards increased Q, R, and S wave voltages in all leads, and a significant decrease in heart rate. We conclude that exercise activity level and therefore lifestyle affects physiologic variables in wild animals. An immediate consequence of this finding is that physiologic measurements obtained from a captive wild-animal population with reduced exercise activity level may not accurately reflect the normal physiologic state for free-ranging members of the same species.

  17. Characteristics, immunological events, and diagnostics of Babesia spp. infection, with emphasis on Babesia canis

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    Kostro Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector-borne infection constitutes a significant health issue in dogs worldwide. Recent reports point to an increasing number of canine vector-borne disease cases in European countries, including Poland. Canine babesiosis caused by various Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and significant veterinary importance. The development and application of molecular methods have increased our knowledge about canine babesiosis, its prevalence, and clinical and pathological aspects of the infection. Parasitologists and veterinary surgeons need an accurate description of the species responsible for canine babesiosis to improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as predictions for the course of the disease. Therefore, we decided to summarise recent knowledge concerning Babesia species and B. canis.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome database and standardized classification system for Canis lupus familiaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duleba, Anna; Skonieczna, Katarzyna; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław; Malyarchuk, Boris; Grzybowski, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    To contribute to the complete mitogenome database of the species Canis lupus familiaris and shed more light on its origin, we have sequenced mitochondrial genomes of 120 modern dogs from worldwide populations. Together with all the previously published mitogenome sequences of acceptable quality, we have reconstructed a global phylogenetic tree of 555 C. l. familiaris mitogenomes and standardized haplogroup nomenclature. The phylogenetic tree presented here and available online at http://clf.mtdna.tree.cm.umk.pl/ could be further used by forensic and evolutionary geneticists as well cynologists, for data quality control and unambiguous haplogroup classification. Our in-depth phylogeographic analysis of all C. l. familiaris mitogenomes confirmed that domestic dogs may have originated in East Asia during the Mesolithic and Upper Paleolithic time periods and started to expand to other parts of the world during Neolithic times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anthelmintic activity of benzimidazole derivatives against Toxocara canis second-stage larvae and Hymenolepis nana adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Navarro, Adrián; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Castillo, Rafael; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián; Hernández-Luis, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    The anthelmintic activity of 11 benzimidazole derivatives (A1-A11) and 2 thioureides N,N'-disubstituted (B1-B2) was determined. Each compound and albendazole was tested in vitro against Toxocara canis larvae and in vivo against Hymenolepis nana adult. Compounds A1-A6 and B1-B2 were designed as albendazole prodrugs. Compounds A8-A11 were designed as direct analogues of A7, which had previously proved to be an effective agent against Fasciola hepatica. Results of the in vitro screening showed that A6 was more active than albendazole at 0.18 microM (relative mobility 40% and 80%, respectively). Whereas that the in vivo evaluation against H. nana, compounds A7-A11 demonstrated significant activity in terms of removing cestode adults in the range of 88-97%, displaying better efficacy than albendazole (83%).

  20. A SEROSURVEY OF DISEASES OF FREE-RANGING GRAY WOLVES (CANIS LUPUS) IN MINNESOTA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Michelle; Giudice, John H; Hildebrand, Erik C; Dubey, J P; Erb, John; Stark, Dan; Hart, John; Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Mech, L David; Windels, Steve K; Edwards, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves ( Canis lupus ) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum . Exposure to arboviruses was confirmed, including West Nile virus (37% adults, 18% pups) and eastern equine encephalitis (3% adults). Exposure rates were lower for canine distemper (19% adults, 5% pups) and heartworm (7% adults, 3% pups). Significant spatial trends were observed in wolves exposed to canine parvovirus and Lyme disease. Serologic data do not confirm clinical disease, but better understanding of disease ecology of wolves can provide valuable insight into wildlife population dynamics and improve management of these species.

  1. A serosurvey of diseases of free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Michelle; Giudice, John H.; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Dubey, J. P.; Erb, John; Stark, Dan; Hart, John; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David; Windels, Steve K.; Edwards, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum. Exposure to arboviruses was confirmed, including West Nile virus (37% adults, 18% pups) and eastern equine encephalitis (3% adults). Exposure rates were lower for canine distemper (19% adults, 5% pups) and heartworm (7% adults, 3% pups). Significant spatial trends were observed in wolves exposed to canine parvovirus and Lyme disease. Serologic data do not confirm clinical disease, but better understanding of disease ecology of wolves can provide valuable insight into wildlife population dynamics and improve management of these species.

  2. Demodex canis regulates cholinergic system mediated immunosuppressive pathways in canine demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, P; Nigam, R; Singh, A; Nakade, U P; Sharma, A; Garg, S K; Singh, S K

    2017-09-01

    Demodex canis infestation in dogs remains one of the main challenges in veterinary dermatology. The exact pathogenesis of canine demodicosis is unknown but an aberration in immune status is considered very significant. No studies have underpinned the nexus between induction of demodicosis and neural immunosuppressive pathways so far. We have evaluated the involvement of cholinergic pathways in association with cytokines regulation as an insight into the immuno-pathogenesis of canine demodicosis in the present study. Remarkable elevations in circulatory immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 and cholinesterase activity were observed in dogs with demodicosis. Simultaneously, remarkable reduction in circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha level was observed in dogs with demodicosis. Findings of the present study evidently suggest that Demodex mites might be affecting the cholinergic pathways to induce immunosuppression in their host and then proliferate incessantly in skin microenvironment to cause demodicosis.

  3. Osteological and genetic analysis of the extinct Ezo wolf (Canis lupus hattai) from Hokkaido Island, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo; Shigehara, Nobuo; Ichikawa, Hideo; Kato, Masaru

    2010-04-01

    The Ezo wolf (Canis lupus hattai Kishida, 1931 ) is an extinct subspecies that inhabited Hokkaido in Japan until the middle of the Meiji Period. Because there are very few preserved skeletons, no osteological and/or genetic analyses of the Ezo wolf have been conducted. In this study, 20 cranial and eight mandibular characters were measured on Ezo wolf skeletons, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was analyzed to assess genetic relationships between the Ezo wolf and other wolf lineages, including the Japanese wolf on Honshu. The morphological study showed that the Ezo wolf is larger than the Japanese wolf and similar in size to the grey wolf of the Asian and American Continents. MtDNA control sequences (751 bp) from two Ezo wolves were identical to those from the Canadian grey wolf. The morphological and genetic characters indicate that the ancestor of the Ezo wolf was genetically related to that of the grey wolf in Canada.

  4. Concentrations of Selected Elements in Liver Tissue of Grey Wolves (Canis lupus) from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotić, Srđan; Višnjić-Jeftić, Željka; Penezić, Aleksandra; Ćirović, Duško

    2017-12-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species and a top predator in the ecosystems that it inhabits. Considering its role in food webs, wolves may be exposed to high concentrations of potentially harmful elements. Therefore liver samples from 28 legally hunted wolves were analyzed for concentrations of 16 elements using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The Mann-Whitney U test showed a significant difference between the genders only for Li, and there were no differences between individuals caught in different years. The majority of statistically significant correlations between element levels were positive, except for three cases. Compliance with several criteria for suitable bioindicator organisms imply that wolves may serve for monitoring environmental contamination.

  5. Serum biochemistry of captive and free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, P; Hinchcliff, K; Demma, N; Callahan, M; Dale, B; Fox, K; Adams, L; Wack, R; Kramer, L

    1998-12-01

    Normal serum biochemistry values are frequently obtained from studies of captive sedentary (zoo) or free-ranging (wild) animals. It is frequently assumed that values obtained from these two populations are directly referable to each other. We tested this assumption using 20 captive gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota, USA, and 11 free-ranging gray wolves in Alaska, USA. Free-ranging wolves had significantly (P wolves. Corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase activity (a marker of stress in domestic dogs) was detected in 3 of 11 free-ranging wolves and in 0 of 20 captive wolves (P = 0.037). This study provides clear evidence that serum biochemical differences can exist between captive and free-ranging populations of one species. Accordingly, evaluation of the health status of an animal should incorporate an understanding of the potential confounding effect that nutrition, activity level, and environmental stress could have on the factor(s) being measured.

  6. Electrocardiographic consequences of a peripatetic lifestyle in gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, P; Hinchcliff, K; Demma, N; Callahan, M; Dale, B; Fox, K; Adams, L; Wack, R; Kramer, L

    1998-07-01

    Cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy are normal physiologic responses to repetitive endurance exercise activity in human beings and domestic dogs. Whether similar changes occur in wild animals as a consequence of increased activity is unknown. We found that free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus, n = 11), the archetypical endurance athlete, have electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy relative to sedentary captive gray wolves (n = 20), as demonstrated by significant increases in QRS duration, QT interval, and QT interval corrected for heart rate, a tendency towards increased Q, R, and S wave voltages in all leads, and a significant decrease in heart rate. We conclude that exercise activity level and therefore lifestyle affects physiologic variables in wild animals. An immediate consequence of this finding is that physiologic measurements obtained from a captive wild-animal population with reduced exercise activity level may not accurately reflect the normal physiologic state for free-ranging members of the same species.

  7. Anticoagulant rodenticide exposure and toxicosis in coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon A; Breck, Stewart W; Fox, Karen A; Gese, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are widely used in urban areas to control rodent pests and are responsible for secondary poisoning in many nontarget wildlife species. We tested the livers of five coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Colorado, US, for anticoagulant rodenticides. All five livers were positive for brodifacoum, with values ranging from 95 ppb to 320 ppb, and one liver was positive for bromadiolone, with a value of 885 ppb. Both of these rodenticides are second-generation anticoagulants, which are more potent and more likely to cause secondary poisoning than first-generation anticoagulants due to their accumulation and persistence in the liver. We concluded that exposure to these rodenticides may have caused the death of at least two of the five coyotes, and urban coyotes in our study area are commonly exposed to rodenticides.

  8. Serologic survey for cross-species pathogens in urban coyotes (Canis latrans), Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmlov, Ashley; Breck, Stewart; Fry, Tricia; Duncan, Colleen

    2014-10-01

    Abstract As coyotes (Canis latrans) adapt to living in urban environments, the opportunity for cross-species transmission of pathogens may increase. We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to pathogens that are either zoonotic or affect multiple animal species in urban coyotes in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado, USA, in 2012. We assayed for antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, canine distemper virus, rabies virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Yersinia pestis, and serotypes of Leptospira interrogans. Overall, 84% of the animals had antibodies to canine parvovirus-2, 44% for canine distemper virus, 20% for T. gondii (IgG), 28% for Y. pestis, and 4% for L. interrogans serotype Grippotyphosa. No neutralizing antibodies were detected to rabies virus, T. gondii (IgM), or L. interrogans serotypes other than Grippotyphosa. With 88% of animals exposed to at least one pathogen, our results suggest that coyotes may serve as important reservoirs and sentinels for etiologic agents.

  9. Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a coyote (Canis latrans) from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Andrea; Whitney, Hugh; Conboy, Gary

    2005-10-01

    Tissue samples and feces were collected from a dead, adult female coyote (Canis latrans) found at the side of the road in late March 2003 in the Avalon Peninsula region of Newfoundland, Canada. The coyote apparently died of vehicular-related trauma. Samples of lung, brain, heart, liver, and kidney were fixed in formalin and submitted for histologic examination. The entire remaining lung and heart also were submitted for examination. The coyote was diagnosed with moderate, multifocal, granulomatous interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic vasculitis and many intralesional nematode eggs, larvae, and occasional intravascular adult worms. Adult nematodes recovered from the pulmonary arteries were identified as Angiostrongylus vasorum. Small foci of granulomatous inflammation, often containing nematode eggs and larvae, were scattered in the brain and kidney. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. vasorum infection in a coyote from the only endemic area of infection in North America.

  10. A survey of the parasites of coyotes (Canis latrans) in New York based on fecal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompper, Matthew E; Goodman, Rachel M; Kays, Roland W; Ray, Justina C; Fiorello, Christine V; Wade, Susan E

    2003-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) have colonized northeastern North America only within the past 10-80 yr. We examined feces of coyotes in 2000-01 at three sites in New York (USA) to survey parasites in the region. Two cestodes, nine nematodes, five protozoa, one trematode, and two arthropods were identified from 145 coyote fecal samples. Parasite component community diversity was higher (n = 16 species) in southern New York than in middle and northern sites (nine species each) and infracommunity species richness was greater in southern New York than at the other sites. These differences may reflect the variable diets of coyotes, as well as recent colonization of the region and the mixing of component communities from expanding coyote populations.

  11. Relationship between paw preference strength and noise phobia in Canis familiaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, N J; Rogers, L J

    2006-08-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between degree of lateralization and noise phobia in 48 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) by scoring paw preference to hold a food object and relating it to reactivity to the sounds of thunderstorms and fireworks, measured by playback and a questionnaire. The dogs without a significant paw preference were significantly more reactive to the sounds than the dogs with either a left-paw or right-paw preference. Intense reactivity, therefore, is associated with a weaker strength of cerebral lateralization. The authors note the similarity between their finding and the weaker hand preferences shown in humans suffering extreme levels of anxiety and suggest neural mechanisms that may be involved. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Playing at bullying: The postmodern ethic of Bully (Canis Canem Edit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Bradford

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses Bully (Canis Canem Edit, considering the game’s antecedents (narratives involving young people in school settings and the features which set it apart from other teen texts. It discusses the controversy surrounding the game and comes to the conclusion that the principal reason for unease on the part of parents and educational authorities is that Bully’s postmodernist ethic evades the binaries of liberal humanism and calls into question the foundations on which conventional ethical systems are based. The paper considers several episodes from the game to flesh out its arguments about how the game manifests features of postmodernist textuality in its propensity for simultaneously deploying and interrogating references to historical and contemporary cultural practices.

  13. [Population, distribution and food composition of wolves (Canis lupus) at Saihanwula Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu-Yi; Zhang, Li-Jia; Wang, An-Meng; Bater; Nasendelger; Yuan, Li; Bao, Wei-Dong

    2011-04-01

    To provide initial value for population restoration and management of wolves (Canis lupus) in the wild, line transect survey and fecal analysis method were used to study the population ecology of wolf at Saihanwula National Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia. The results revealed that the population number was at least seven within the reserve and population density was 4.18+/-2.88 individual per 100 km2. The wolf population was mainly distributed in Shengshan and Qinyunshan core areas; active sites appeared mostly along mountain ridges, roads and valleys at Shengshan and mountain ridges at Qinyunshan. Hare (Lepus capensis) and plants occurred frequently in the food composition of wolf scats. Food types varied between years but not seasons (Winter-Spring and Summer-Autumn).

  14. The breakfast effect: dogs (Canis familiaris) search more accurately when they are less hungry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly C; Bender, Charlotte

    2012-11-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of a morning meal (breakfast) by dogs (Canis familiaris) would affect search accuracy on a working memory task following the exertion of self-control. Dogs were tested either 30 or 90 min after consuming half of their daily resting energy requirements (RER). During testing dogs were initially required to sit still for 10 min before searching for hidden food in a visible displacement task. We found that 30 min following the consumption of breakfast, and 10 min after the behavioral inhibition task, dogs searched more accurately than they did in a fasted state. Similar differences were not observed when dogs were tested 90 min after meal consumption. This pattern of behavior suggests that breakfast enhanced search accuracy following a behavioral inhibition task by providing energy for cognitive processes, and that search accuracy decreased as a function of energy depletion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Canis familiaris As a Model for Non-Invasive Comparative Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunford, Nóra; Andics, Attila; Kis, Anna; Miklósi, Ádám; Gácsi, Márta

    2017-07-01

    There is an ongoing need to improve animal models for investigating human behavior and its biological underpinnings. The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a promising model in cognitive neuroscience. However, before it can contribute to advances in this field in a comparative, reliable, and valid manner, several methodological issues warrant attention. We review recent non-invasive canine neuroscience studies, primarily focusing on (i) variability among dogs and between dogs and humans in cranial characteristics, and (ii) generalizability across dog and dog-human studies. We argue not for methodological uniformity but for functional comparability between methods, experimental designs, and neural responses. We conclude that the dog may become an innovative and unique model in comparative neuroscience, complementing more traditional models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wolf, Canis lupus, visits to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

  17. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organismsand biomagnifies within food-webs. Graywolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure inwolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 graywolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S).Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals.

  18. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) dyad monthly association rates by demographic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary data from GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota indicated wolves had low association rates with packmates during summer. However, aerial-telemetry locations of very high frequency (VHF)-radioed wolves in this same area showed high associations among packmates during winter. We analyzed aerial-telemetry-location data from VHF-collared wolves in several packs (n=18 dyads) in this same area from 1994-2012 by month, and found lowest association rates occurred during June. While other studies have found low association among wolf packmates during summer, information on differences in association patterns depending on the wolf associates’ demographics is sparse. During May-July, association rates were greatest for breeding pairs, followed by sibling dyads, and lowest for parent– offspring dyads. Our findings improve our understanding of how individual wolf relationships affect monthly association rates. We highlight some important remaining questions regarding wolf packmate associations.

  19. Yellowstone wolf (Canis lupus) denisty predicted by elk (Cervus elaphus) biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Range (NR) of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hosts a higher prey biomass density in the form of elk (Cervus elaphus L., 1758) than any other system of gray wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) and prey reported. Therefore, it is important to determine whether that wolf–prey system fits a long-standing model relating wolf density to prey biomass. Using data from 2005 to 2012 after elk population fluctuations dampened 10 years subsequent to wolf reintroduction, we found that NR prey biomass predicted wolf density. This finding and the trajectory of the regression extend the validity of the model to prey densities 19% higher than previous data and suggest that the model would apply to wolf–prey systems of even higher prey biomass.

  20. The Dogs of CA-SRI-2: Osteometry of Canis familiaris from Santa Rosa Island, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Hofman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated dogs (Canis familiaris are an important human companion around the world and have long been a focus of archaeological research. Osteometric analysis of six dogs from a Late Holocene Chumash village on Santa Rosa Island, California indicates that adults, juvenile/young adults, and a puppy were present. Similar to dogs on other Channel Islands, these dogs fall into the large Indian dog category, standing some 43-54 cm tall, with mesaticephalic or mild brachycephalic facial characteristics. No cutmarks were found on the bones, but one of the mandibles was burned. The CA-SRI-2 dogs appear to have eaten high trophic marine foods similar to what humans consumed, documenting the close bond between dogs and humans on the Channel Islands and broader North American Pacific Coast.

  1. Space use and habitat selection by resident and transient red wolves (Canis rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Proctor, Christine; Kelly, Marcella J.; van Manen, Frank T.; Vaughan, Michael R.; Chamberlain, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of large carnivores remains a challenge because complex spatial dynamics that facilitate population persistence are poorly understood. In particular, recovery of the critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) has been challenging because of its vulnerability to extinction via human-caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans). Therefore, understanding red wolf space use and habitat selection is important to assist recovery because key aspects of wolf ecology such as interspecific competition, foraging, and habitat selection are well-known to influence population dynamics and persistence. During 2009–2011, we used global positioning system (GPS) radio-telemetry to quantify space use and 3rd-order habitat selection for resident and transient red wolves on the Albemarle Peninsula of eastern North Carolina. The Albemarle Peninsula was a predominantly agricultural landscape in which red wolves maintained spatially stable home ranges that varied between 25 km2 and 190 km2. Conversely, transient red wolves did not maintain home ranges and traversed areas between 122 km2 and 681 km2. Space use by transient red wolves was not spatially stable and exhibited shifting patterns until residency was achieved by individual wolves. Habitat selection was similar between resident and transient red wolves in which agricultural habitats were selected over forested habitats. However, transients showed stronger selection for edges and roads than resident red wolves. Behaviors of transient wolves are rarely reported in studies of space use and habitat selection because of technological limitations to observed extensive space use and because they do not contribute reproductively to populations. Transients in our study comprised displaced red wolves and younger dispersers that competed for limited space and mating opportunities. Therefore, our results suggest that transiency is likely an important life-history strategy for red wolves that facilitates

  2. Space Use and Habitat Selection by Resident and Transient Red Wolves (Canis rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W; Proctor, Christine; Kelly, Marcella J; van Manen, Frank T; Vaughan, Michael R; Chamberlain, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of large carnivores remains a challenge because complex spatial dynamics that facilitate population persistence are poorly understood. In particular, recovery of the critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) has been challenging because of its vulnerability to extinction via human-caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans). Therefore, understanding red wolf space use and habitat selection is important to assist recovery because key aspects of wolf ecology such as interspecific competition, foraging, and habitat selection are well-known to influence population dynamics and persistence. During 2009-2011, we used global positioning system (GPS) radio-telemetry to quantify space use and 3rd-order habitat selection for resident and transient red wolves on the Albemarle Peninsula of eastern North Carolina. The Albemarle Peninsula was a predominantly agricultural landscape in which red wolves maintained spatially stable home ranges that varied between 25 km2 and 190 km2. Conversely, transient red wolves did not maintain home ranges and traversed areas between 122 km2 and 681 km2. Space use by transient red wolves was not spatially stable and exhibited shifting patterns until residency was achieved by individual wolves. Habitat selection was similar between resident and transient red wolves in which agricultural habitats were selected over forested habitats. However, transients showed stronger selection for edges and roads than resident red wolves. Behaviors of transient wolves are rarely reported in studies of space use and habitat selection because of technological limitations to observed extensive space use and because they do not contribute reproductively to populations. Transients in our study comprised displaced red wolves and younger dispersers that competed for limited space and mating opportunities. Therefore, our results suggest that transiency is likely an important life-history strategy for red wolves that facilitates

  3. Effect of training and familiarity on responsiveness to human cues in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Clare L; Ramos, Mari F

    2014-05-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) seem to possess an evolved competency to follow human-given cues, often out-performing their wild progenitor the wolf (Canis lupus) on cue-following tasks. However, domestication may not be solely responsible for the socio-cognitive skills of dogs, with ontogenetic experience also playing a role. This research evaluated the effects of intensive training on cue-following behaviour using an unreinforced object-choice paradigm. The responses of dogs that were trained to competitive levels were compared to those of pet dogs with only basic training, and dogs living in an animal shelter that demonstrated no or only rudimentary following of basic commands. Using a cue-following task where three types of cues were presented by familiar and unfamiliar human partners, the number of cues followed by each training group were recorded. All dogs found cues where gesture was combined with a congruent head and eye movement easier to follow than either gesture or eye gaze alone. Whether the cue-giver was familiar or not had a significant effect on number of cues followed in homed dogs, and the performance of shelter dogs was comparable to the other groups when faced with an unfamiliar cue-giver. Contrary to predictions, level of training did not improve performance on the cue-following task. This work does provide support for the presence of an evolved adaptation to exploit social cues provided by humans that can be augmented by familiarity with the cue giver. However, additional joint activity as experienced in an intensive training regime does not seem to increase accuracy in following human-given cues.

  4. Brucella canis infection in dogs from commercial breeding kennels in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keid, L B; Chiebao, D P; Batinga, M C A; Faita, T; Diniz, J A; Oliveira, T M F de S; Ferreira, H L; Soares, R M

    2017-06-01

    Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a neglected zoonosis worldwide and is a leading cause of reproductive failure in dogs, often causing substantial economic losses in breeding kennels. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of B. canis infection in dogs of commercial breeding kennels located in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 753 dogs (183 males and 570 females) from 38 commercial kennels were clinically examined, and blood samples were collected for brucellosis diagnosis through blood culture. The association between clinical manifestations suggestive of brucellosis and positive results through blood culture was determined. Of the 753 dogs tested, 166 (22.0%) had at least one clinical sign suggestive of brucellosis and 158 (20.9%) had positive blood cultures. Seventy-two dogs had positive blood culture and had at least one clinical sign suggestive of brucellosis, while 91 dogs showed at least one clinical manifestation suggestive of brucellosis although blood culture was negative. Of the 38 kennels, 16 (42.1%) had at least one positive dog. The prevalence of infection in each kennel varied from 3.8% to 62.6%. Abortion/stillbirth, failure to conceive and enlargement of lymph nodes were significantly associated with brucellosis in female. No association of clinical signs and positive results in blood culture was observed in males. None of the kennels has been carrying out programmes to control brucellosis, and the sale of infected dogs was considered a common practice yielding risks to the public health, in view of the zoonotic potential of the infection. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Canine babesiosis in Romania due to Babesia canis and Babesia vogeli: a molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Buzatu, Catalin Marius; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2012-05-01

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoa Babesia spp. that affects dogs worldwide. In Romania, canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in the last few years, with a wide variety of clinical signs, ranging from mild, nonspecific illness to peracute collapse, and even death. Traditionally, a Babesia infection in dogs is diagnosed based on the morphologic appearance of the intraerythrocytic piroplasms observed in peripheral blood smears. To date, no data on genetic characterization of Babesia species in dogs has been documented for Romania. Therefore, a molecular survey on natural Babesia infections of dogs in Romania using polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequence analysis of a fragment of the ssRNA gene was performed. A total number of 16 blood samples were tested for the presence of Babesia DNA. Blood samples were collected from 11 dogs with symptoms of babesiosis and microscopically proven positive for Babesia and from a group of five asymptomatic dogs, not tested microscopically for Babesia, which were included in the study for comparative analysis. The piroplasm-specific PCR amplifying the partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed Babesia spp. infection in all 11 samples from dogs with clinical babesiosis, and in one of the clinically normal dogs. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of Babesia canis in all clinically affected dogs and Babesia vogeli in one clinically normal dog. This is the first molecular evidence of B. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Romania. The results of the study provide basic information toward a better understanding of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis in Romania and will help to promote an effective control program.

  6. Space Use and Habitat Selection by Resident and Transient Red Wolves (Canis rufus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Hinton

    Full Text Available Recovery of large carnivores remains a challenge because complex spatial dynamics that facilitate population persistence are poorly understood. In particular, recovery of the critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus has been challenging because of its vulnerability to extinction via human-caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans. Therefore, understanding red wolf space use and habitat selection is important to assist recovery because key aspects of wolf ecology such as interspecific competition, foraging, and habitat selection are well-known to influence population dynamics and persistence. During 2009-2011, we used global positioning system (GPS radio-telemetry to quantify space use and 3rd-order habitat selection for resident and transient red wolves on the Albemarle Peninsula of eastern North Carolina. The Albemarle Peninsula was a predominantly agricultural landscape in which red wolves maintained spatially stable home ranges that varied between 25 km2 and 190 km2. Conversely, transient red wolves did not maintain home ranges and traversed areas between 122 km2 and 681 km2. Space use by transient red wolves was not spatially stable and exhibited shifting patterns until residency was achieved by individual wolves. Habitat selection was similar between resident and transient red wolves in which agricultural habitats were selected over forested habitats. However, transients showed stronger selection for edges and roads than resident red wolves. Behaviors of transient wolves are rarely reported in studies of space use and habitat selection because of technological limitations to observed extensive space use and because they do not contribute reproductively to populations. Transients in our study comprised displaced red wolves and younger dispersers that competed for limited space and mating opportunities. Therefore, our results suggest that transiency is likely an important life-history strategy for red wolves that

  7. Characterization of somatic antigens of adult Toxocara canis by western blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Sahu

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was characterize the somatic soluble antigens of adult Toxocara canis (Tc-SA by western blotting. Materials and Methods: T. canis worms were collected from the naturally infected pups after deworming. The somatic antigen was prepared as per standard procedure with slight modification. These antigens were separated using Sodium dodecyl sulphate-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The specific reactivity of the Tc-SA proteins was checked against the serum of naturally infected dogs as well with the hyperimmune serum raised in the rabbit by western blotting. Results: On SDS-PAGE recovered proteins ranged in size from 44 to 300 kDa. The immuno-reactivity of the naturally infected dog sera with the Tc-SA antigens showed 12 prominent immunoreactive bands of distinct sizes at 28.61, 32.60, 38.10, 43.04, 49.99, 67.57, 73.22, 105.77, 144.74, 161.11, 177.84 and 196.31 kDa. The immuno-reactivity of the hyper immune serum raised in rabbits against Tc-SA antigens was observed with 10 prominent bands of distinct sizes at 17.11, 24.15, 34.83, 43.46, 52.47, 55.89, 67.57, 70, 74.60 and 105.6 kDa. Conclusions: Common antigens band were observed at 67 and 105 kDa. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidate for use in diagnosis of toxocarosis in humans and adult dogs. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 424-427

  8. Gene Repertoire Evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes Inferred from Phylogenomic Analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefébure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB). PMID:22666370

  9. Risk evaluation of the Arctic environmental POP exposure based on critical body residue and critical daily dose using captive Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as surrogate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Eulaers, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The risk from POP (persistent organic pollutant) exposure and subsequent reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects was evaluated in a classical parallel trial on Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) fed contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber. First t...

  10. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa A. I. Awadallah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33% (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, p˂0.000, followed by domiciled dogs from rural areas (40% (COR=26, 95% CI=3.14-215.54, p=0.003, domiciled dogs from high standard areas (23.33% (COR=11.87, 95% CI=1.37-102.69, p=0.025 and military dogs (2.5%. Twelve species of enteric parasites were identified, Ancylostomatidae (6.15%, T. canis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each, Heterophyes spp. (3.85%, Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%, Taenidae eggs (2.31%, Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54% and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each. Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p˂0.000, gender (COR=2.63, 95% CI=1.22-5.68, p˂0.014, housing system (COR=5.10, 95% CI=2.04-12.75, p˂0.000 with enteric parasitic infection in dogs. However, breeds (COR=6.91, 95% CI=0.88-54.52, p=0.067 and type of feeding (COR ranged from 3.5 to

  11. The role of oxytocin in the ability of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) to use human social cues and bond with humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Jessica Lee

    2017-01-01

    The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) demonstrates attachment/bonding behaviour towards humans, whilst wolves (Canis lupus) do not. Domestic dogs also use humans’ non-verbal social cues to solve problems better than wolves do, even wolves raised in the same manner as domestic dogs. The neuropeptide oxytocin has been implicated in mammalian bonding and non-verbal intelligence and therefore the oxytocinergic system may have evolved in the dog during domestication in such a manner as to enable the...

  12. The ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to block the transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Halos, Lenaig; Larsen, Diane; Labuschagné, Michel; Erasmus, Heidi; Fourie, Josephus

    2014-06-23

    Canine babesiosis due to Babesia canis is an endemic disease in many European countries. A vaccine is available in some countries, but it does not prevent the infection and just helps in reducing the gravity of clinical signs. Therefore, the major way to help preventing the disease is by controlling tick infestations on dogs.To assess the preventive efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®), a new oral anti- flea and tick product, against Babesia canis infected adult Dermacentor reticulatus in an experimentally controlled study. Sixteen healthy mixed breed adult dogs, negative for Babesia canis antibodies were included in a single centre, randomized, blinded and controlled study to evaluate the impact of treatment with afoxolaner on the transmission of Babesia canis to dogs exposed to Dermacentor reticulatus. The dogs were randomly allocated into two groups of 8 dogs each. One group remained untreated. In the other group, dogs were treated orally with a novel formulation of afoxolaner (NexGard®) on day 0. All dogs were infested each by 50 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (equal sex ratio) at days 7, 14, 21 and 28. The Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour Babesia canis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The treatment was well tolerated by all dogs without any adverse effects. Babesia canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus to all untreated control dogs, confirmed following demonstration of hyperthermia, detection of B. canis parasites in blood smears and PCR assay from blood and serology. These confirmed infected dogs were subsequently treated with imidocarb and diminazene. The treated dogs remained negative based on all criteria until the last study, Day 56, confirming that the oral treatment of dogs with NexGard® prevented transmission of Babesia canis and development of clinical babesiosis for up to 28 days. This is the first demonstration that an oral acaricidal treatment may prevent the transmission of a pathogen despite the need for the tick

  13. The ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to block the transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Beugnet, Frederic; Halos, Lenaig; Larsen, Diane; Labuschagné, Michel; Erasmus, Heidi; Fourie, Josephus

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis due to Babesia canis is an endemic disease in many European countries. A vaccine is available in some countries, but it does not prevent the infection and just helps in reducing the gravity of clinical signs. Therefore, the major way to help preventing the disease is by controlling tick infestations on dogs. To assess the preventive efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®), a new oral anti- flea and tick product, against Babesia canis infected adult Dermacentor reticulat...

  14. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Dzięgiel Beata; Kubrak Tomasz; Adaszek Łukasz; Dębiak Piotr; Wyłupek Dagmara; Bogucka-Kocka Anna; Lechowski Jerzy; Winiarczyk Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland). Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s...

  15. Seroepidemiological study and associated risk factors of Toxocara canis infection among preschool children in Osun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, Oluyomi A; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Asaolu, Samuel O; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Akinwale, Olaoluwa P; Badejoko, Bolaji O; Gyang, Vincent P; Nwafor, Timothy; Henry, Emmanuel; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2017-09-01

    Human toxocariasis is caused by the nematode, Toxocara canis and it is a poorly understood phenomenon in Nigeria. Seroepidemiological studies have not been previously carried out among the preschool aged children in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in pre-school children in four communities from Osun State, Nigeria between January and July 2016. A total of 308 children Aged 9 months and 5 years were studied comprising 53.2% (164/308) male and 46.8% (144/308) female. Blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by Western blot analysis based on the excretory-secretory antigens of larva T. canis (TcES), targeting low molecular weight bands of 24 - 35kDa specific for T. canis. Questionnaires were given to parents/guardians of the studied children to collect information regarding relationship between infection and host factors. The overall seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was 37.3%. The seroprevalence in the studied preschool children ranged from 18.2% in children less than one year old to a max of 57.6% in children aged 3 years and above. The logistic regression analysis of risk factors showed that children's age (odds ratio (OR)=6.12, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.25-29.90, p=0.02), contact with dogs (OR=3.17, 95% CI=1.40-7.20, p=0.01) and parent's religion (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.32-0.91, p=0.02) were the risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. However, after adjustment by multivariate logistic regression analysis, contact with dogs (p=0.02) remained the only statistically significant risk factor. Preschool children were exposed early in life to T. canis infection as 18.18% of children less than one year old were infected. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among preschool children in Nigeria. The results show high levels of exposure to T. canis infection among the studied group and contact with the dog plays the predominant risk factor. It indicates high transmission

  16. Diagnostico serologico y molecular de Ehrlichiosis humana en pacientes con sintomatologia clinica compatible con la enfermedad en el estado Zulia Venezuela 2004-2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro-Morales, Mirtha; Arocha, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    .... E. chaffensis es el agente causal mas relacionado con la Ehrlichiosis Humana, sin embargo, la ehrlichiosis en humanos puede ser causada por ehrlichias propias de los caninos como E. canis y E. ewingii...

  17. Leucemia monocitica aguda? ?Leucemia mieloide con maduracion? Reporte de un caso clinico.(Casos clinicos)(Perspectiva general de la enfermedad/trastorno)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mejia Durango, Maria Adelaida; Uribe Corrales, Natalia; Gonzalez D., Maria Soledad

    2009-01-01

    ... crisis febriles e hiporexia, previamente diagnosticado presuntamente con Ehrlichia canis y tratado con doxiciclina durante 2' dias, fue llevado al Centro de Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad CES...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0247 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is str. Jake] gb|AAZ68340.1| protein translocase subunit yidC [Ehrlichia canis str. Jake] YP_302938.1 6.2 30% ... ...CBRC-MDOM-01-0247 ref|YP_302938.1| putative inner membrane protein translocase component YidC [Ehrlichia can

  19. The origin of the Tibetan Mastiff and species identification of Canis based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and COI barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zhao, X; Pan, Z; Xie, Z; Liu, H; Xu, Y; Li, Q

    2011-12-01

    DNA barcoding is an effective technique to identify species and analyze phylogenesis and evolution. However, research on and application of DNA barcoding in Canis have not been carried out. In this study, we analyzed two species of Canis, Canis lupus (n = 115) and Canis latrans (n = 4), using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (1545 bp) and COI barcoding (648 bp DNA sequence of the COI gene). The results showed that the COI gene, as the moderate variant sequence, applied to the analysis of the phylogenesis of Canis members, and COI barcoding applied to species identification of Canis members. Phylogenetic trees and networks showed that domestic dogs had four maternal origins (A to D) and that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from Clade A; this result supports the theory of an East Asian origin of domestic dogs. Clustering analysis and networking revealed the presence of a closer relative between the Tibetan Mastiff and the Old English sheepdog, Newfoundland, Rottweiler and Saint Bernard, which confirms that many well-known large breed dogs in the world, such as the Old English sheepdog, may have the same blood lineage as that of the Tibetan Mastiff.

  20. Pesquisa de aglutininas anti Brucella canis em soros humanos na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Research on agglutinins for Brucella canis in human sera in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available De 330 soros humanos examinados pela prova de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, 4(1,21% apresentaram aglutininas anti Brucella canis em diluição 1:100 (1 reagente com título 100, 2 reagentes com título 200 e 1 reagente com título 400.Of the 330 human sera tested by tube agglutination test, 4 (1.21% were positive for Brucella canis antibodies with tilers 1:100 or higher (1 reagent with titer of 1:100, 2 reagents with titer of 1:200, and 1 reagent with tiler of 1:400.