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Sample records for ehkspress-metoda opredeleniya 90sr

  1. Environmental 90Sr measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Cecil, L.D.; Feldstein, H.; Hershkowitz, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Vogt, S.

    1997-01-01

    90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 years) is a long-lived radionuclide produced in nuclear fission. Fast radiochemical detection of 90Sr in environmental samples is not feasible using current analytical methods. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 90Sr were made with the Rehovot 14UD Pelletron accelerator at a terminal voltage of 11 or 12 MV using our standard detection system. Injection of hydride ions (SrH3-) was chosen owing to high beam intensity and low Coulomb explosion effects. 90Sr ions were identified and discriminated from isobaric 90Zr by measuring time of flight, total energy and three independent energy-loss signals in an ionization chamber. A reference sample and a ground-water sample were successfully measured. The detection limit determined for a laboratory blank by the residual counts in the 90Sr region is 90Sr/Sr = 3 ?? 10-13, corresponding in practice to (2-4) ?? 10790Sr atoms or about 0.5-1 pCi/L in environmental water samples.

  2. 90Sr in animal bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, K.

    1994-01-01

    90 Sr content in deer from Finland and Bulgaria, as well as cows and domestic pigs from Bulgaria has been investigated. The results obtained support an evaluation of the radioactive contamination of the biosphere in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  3. Rapid determination of 90Sr in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlotskaya, F.I.; Moskin, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining 90 Sr in seawater that is based on direct isolation and radiochemical purification of daughter 90 Y is proposed. The analysis time is 6-8 h. The chemical yield of the Y-carrier during the 90 Sr determination from 35 liters of seawater varies in the range 37-69%. The analysis uncertainty is 90 Sr from seawater and subsequent isolation of 90 Y

  4. Preparation of 90Sr-90Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiaohai; Yu Haibin; Zhang Jinming; Zhang Peixin; Lin Qiongfang

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, 90 Y has been considered as one of the best radionuclides for tumor radioimmunotherapy when chelated to tumor-associated antibodies. This evaluation is based on the superior properties of this radionuclide (suitable half-life, pure β-ray emitter of intermediate energy, stable daughters, and suitable chemical properties) and because it is available as a radionuclide generator product by decay of its 28a parent 90 Sr. The experimental conditions of 90 Sr- 90 Y generator are described. The elution efficiency of 90 Sr- 90 Y generator reaches 98%. One of the most important problems is the 90 Sr contamination breakthrough from the generator. The level of 90 Sr contamination must be controlled to the clinical standard. The cation exchange resin 732 (100-150 mesh) was successfully used for the separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr. The method used by the authors provides a 90 Y-HAc solution which is very simple and safe for administration to the patients. 90 Y was separated from 90 Sr almost completely, the level of the 90 Sr contamination per 740 MBq 90 Y product was only 0.74 kBq. However the toxicity of 90 Sr is extremely high, the human life-time permissible dose is 74 kBq, then 740 MBq of 90 Y is allowed to be administrated to a patient for 50-100 times

  5. Chernobyl 90Sr in bilberries from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a detailed survey on the contamination of Polish forests 90 Sr activity concentrations were determined in bilberries. Elevated 90 Sr levels were found in several samples from north-eastern Poland. The calculated maximum 90 Sr surface contamination was 2 kBq*m -2 . The correlation between 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in bilberries was good for two sets of samples originating from two geographical areas of Poland indicating the local differences in radionuclide depositions from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  6. Autoradiography of 90Sr in developing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, I.; Jonsen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution patterns of 90 Sr in five littermate, 8-day-old Wistar rats were studied by whole body autoradiography. Rats were killed 15 min, 1, 4, 24, and 72 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of the isotope. Immediately after administration, 90 Sr was distributed throughout most of the soft tissues of the body. The soft tissue deposits had practically disappeared after 4 h. In the hard tissues of the body 90 Sr accumulated up to 24-72 h. Fifteen minutes after injection the uptake of 90 Sr in the enamel of the teeth was highest in the occlusal and incisal regions. 90 Sr gradually accumulated throughout the enamel and after 72 h its distribution in this layer was fairly uniform. Immediately after injection a narrow zone of radioactivity appeared in the dentin near the pulp. This zone broadened with time towards the dentinoenamel junction and included the intire dentin layer 72 h after injection. Initially, the uptake of 90 Sr was higher in the dentin than in the enamel, particularly in the cervical areas of the crown. This difference became less apparent with time. There was good correlation between the uptake in the teeth and bones, supporting the use of teeth as indicators of the 90 Sr body burden. (author)

  7. Optimization of 90Sr/89Sr measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legarda F.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the key points in the double measurement method for the measurement of both, 89Sr and 90Sr, by using a proportional counter is the choice of the times at which the measurements should be done. In this paper, the formulae to calculate the 89Sr and 90Sr detection limits in conditions of radioactive equilibrium between 90Y and 90Sr are derived, and an analysis of them as a function of the time between the two measurements is done. The choice for the time of the second measurement is going to depend on the desired quality of the results to be obtained.

  8. Synthetic clay excels in 90Sr removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarneni, Sridhar; Kodama, Tatsuya; Paulus, William J.; Carlson, C.

    2000-01-01

    Tests with actual ground water from Hanford site, and fundamental studies of 2Na + →Sr 2+ exchange equilibria revealed that a synthetic clay is extremely selective for 90 Sr with a high capacity for uptake. Comparative studies with existing Sr selective ion exchangers clearly revealed that the present synthetic clay exhibited the best performance for 90 Sr removal from actual ground water collected from three different locations at Hanford. This novel Sr ion sieve is expected to be useful for the decontamination of the environment after accidental release and contamination with 90 Sr. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society

  9. Development of 90Sr-90Y generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, Graciela

    2007-01-01

    Yttrium-90 is a radioisotope of great interest in the field of Nuclear Medicine. It is considered one of the most important and most used radionuclides for radioimmunotherapeutical applications, especially promising for the treatment of certain types of cancer. Another important application of 90 Y is radio synovectomy. This radionuclide has a half-life of 64 hours, emits long range beta particles (maximum energy of 2.3 MeV) and decays, without intermediate nuclides, to a stable daughter. 90 Y may be obtained carrier-free, generated by the decay of its parent 90 Sr (half-life=28 years). 90 Sr is a product from uranium fission, and due to its long half-life, can be indefinitely used, which is certainly advantageous. It is present in great amounts, and needs to be processed and purified in order to be used as raw material for the generators. Generators of 90 Sr- 90 Y may thus be used during various months, due to 90 Sr long half-life. Several methods for the separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr by solvent extraction and ion exchange have been reported in literature. Thanks to its simplicity, ion exchange techniques have been more commonly used for this generator system. The main objective of this work was to develop a methodology for the preparation of 90 Sr- 90 Y generators, using cationic exchange resins. In such method, 90 Sr is strongly adsorbed in the resin and 90 Y is eluted by a 0.003 M EDTA solution. According to the quality control carried out, results showed that elution yields are greater than 65%, thus confirming the efficiency of the separation method used.

  10. Real-time {sup 90}Sr Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kodama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Tabata, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); Han, Soorim [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba, (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Radioisotopes have been emitted around Japan due to a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011. A problem is the contaminated water including the atomic nucleus which relatively has a long half- life time and soluble such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs. Internal exposures by {sup 90}Sr are more dangerous than {sup 137}Cs's because Sr has effective half-life time of 18 years and property of accumulation in a born. We have developed real-time {sup 90}Sr counter which is sensitive beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 2.28 MeV from {sup 90}Sr and insensitive of beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 1.17 MeV and gamma-ray from {sup 90}Sr by Cherenkov detection. This counter composes of Cerenkov counter, trigger scintillation counter and veto counter. Silica aerogel for Cherenkov counter can obtain refractive index between 1.017 and 1.049 easily. And wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) is used as a light guide for extending effective area and producing lower cost. A mechanism of the identification of {sup 90}Sr is explained in following. In case of {sup 90}Sr, when the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray from {sup 90}Sr, aerogel emits the Cherenkov light and WLSF reacts and read the Cherenkov light. On the other hand, in case of {sup 137}Cs, the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray, aerogel stops the beta- ray and Cherenkov light is not emitted. Therefore, aerogel has a function as a radiator and shielding material. the gamma-ray is not reacted on the lower density detector. Cosmic rays would be also reacted by the veto counter. A prototype counter whose the effective area is 30 cm x 10 cm was obtained (2.0±1.2){sup 3} of mis-identification as {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr. Detection limit in the surface contamination inspection depends on measurement time and effective area mainly. The sensitivity of wide range, 10{sup -2} - 10{sup 4} Bq/cm{sup 2}, is obtained by adjustment of detection level in circuit of this counter. A lower

  11. Worldwide deposition of 90Sr through 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.J.; Juzdan, Z.R.

    1986-10-01

    The deposition of 90 Sr in the Northern Hemisphere during 1984 was 0.3 PBq (0.008 MCi), while that of the Southern Hemisphere was 0.1 PBq (0.003 MCi). This resulted in a total deposition on the surface of the earth during 1984 of 0.4 PBq (0.011 MCi). This is the lowest total yearly deposit since the initiation of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's global fallout program in the mid-1950's. The worldwide cumulative deposit decreased to 357 PBq (9.6 MCi)

  12. Factors affecting 90Sr uptake from the ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Marej, A.N.; Borisov, B.K.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    The dependence of 90 Sr uptake in the human organism on nutrition peculiarities is shown. Strontium-90 polluting vegetable products due to particle sorption from the air is less available for the uptake than 90 Sr resorbed from the soil with vegetation. Therefore, this nuclide is uptaken more completely from milk which containes 90 Sr in a soluble form than from grain and bakery products which are polluted by 90 Sr largely by air

  13. Migration and distribution of 90Sr in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Juncheng; Zhu Yongyi; Chen Jingjian

    1993-01-01

    The migration and distribution of radionuclide 90 Sr were conducted by the analysis of 97 soil longitudinal sections under natural conditions and by pot experiments with fallout and 90 Sr solution, respectively. Spring wheat and rice were employed in the pot experiments. The result showed that the radionuclide 90 Sr was mainly accumulated in the topsoil 0-10 cm under both of the natural and laboratory conditions. The vertical distribution of 90 Sr in soil agreed with the power function, which obtained was Y = 75.78 X -0.527 ; r = -0.986; n = 97. The existing forms of 90 Sr from fallout in soil, only 0.02-0.03% was in a soluble form and 0.06-0.07% in non-replaceable form

  14. Test for the determination of 90Sr in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The standardized method is based on the chemical separation (extraction, precipitation, etc.) of 90 Sr from other fission products. After long-term storage for 90 Sr- 90 Y equilibrium the activity of the sample precipitated in the form of Y(COO) 2 is measured. The Sr yield coefficient is determined by 85 Sr tracer or by gravimetry. The test is applicable for the determination of 90 Sr contamination originating from fallout or from other sources in soil, when the concentration of 90 Sr is higher than 0.2-0.4 Bqg -1 (5-10 pCig -1 ). The error of the method is less than +-2% of the amount of the 90 Sr present. (Sz.J.)

  15. Deposition of 90Sr in bone and the relevant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hisao

    1976-01-01

    The deposition of fallout 90 Sr in bone and radiation dose from the nuclide in Japan is reviewed with special reference to (i) the intraskeletal distribution of 90 Sr and reference bone, (ii) bone models for predicting 90 Sr level and (iii) possible problems in applying dose rate factors to Japanese, especially to infants and adolescents. An evidence is presented for the assumption that the ratio of the 90 Sr concentration in a particular bone to that in vertebra will reach the ratio observed for stable strontium under the virtually constant intake of 90 Sr. The importance of surveying 90 Sr levels in different bones is stressed. Observed Ratios (bone/diet) found for Japanese are noticeably lower than those reported for Europeans and Americans. The recently presented model for the retention of alkaline earth elements in man by ICRP will be useful if only adults are concerned. Dose rate factors for 90 Sr in bone should be given as a function of age for the purpose of better estimation of dose commitments. The cumulative absorbed doses to bone tissues calculated with the Palmley-Mays model and with the Spiers model show remarkably higher levels in school children and young adults than the mean level. (auth.)

  16. Determination of {sup 90}Sr in uranium fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajo, S; Tobler, L [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    A previously published radiochemical procedure for the determination of {sup 90}Sr in grass and soil has been successfully employed - with minor modifications - for the determination of this nuclide in a solution of uranium fission products. It is suitable for the determination of {sup 90}Sr in environmental materials following a nuclear accident. The procedure is based on tributylphosphate extraction of {sup 90}Y, precipitation of Y-oxalate, and counting in a proportional counter. (author) figs., tabs., 10 refs.

  17. Effects of lifetime ingestion of 90Sr in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, S.A.; Spangler, W.L.; Swartz, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the effects of lifetime 90 Sr ingestion, fifteen beagle dogs were fed the equivalent of 1.3, 4.0, and 12.0 μCi 90 Sr. Exposures prior to weaning were made by maternal administration of one of the same 90 Sr levels, begining at 21 days of gestation. Median survival was 12.5 years for the 1.3 μCi/day group, 6.5 years for the 4 μCi/day group, and 5.2 years of the 12 μCi/day group, compared to unirradiated control values of 14.5 to 15 years. The normal life span of more than half of the 1.3 μCi/day group is remarkable, considering they ingested 5900 to 7500 μCi 90 Sr during their lifetimes. One of seven 1.3 μCi/day dogs died of mycloproliferative syndrome (MPS), while one of four 4 μCi/day and one of four 12 μCi/day dogs died from MPS. In addition, another 12 μCi/day dog died of osteosarcoma and two others in the same group showed skeletal changes related to 90 Sr exposure. Other deaths were as could be expected in normal canine populations. Lifetime skeletal doses, determined by periodic whole-body counting, were 1990-3750, 1880-9230, and 6360-14,680 rad for the 1.3, 4, and 12 μCi/day groups, respectively. Comparison of these values with those from the large 90 Sr toxicity study at Davis in which 90 Sr feeding ended at 18 months of age indicates similar average skeletal doses from the two types of feeding regimens. The similarity of the skeletal doses may relate to the inability of 90 Sr to be incorporated to any great extent into a mature skeleton that no longer has the high calcium turnover associated with early life. As a result, deaths from lifetime 90 Sr ingestion appeared no earlier than when 90 Sr ingestion ended in early adulthood

  18. Novel approaches for 90Sr analyses in contaminated environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasi, N.; Sahoot, S.K.; Area, H.; Aono, T.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive strontium isotopes are generated with high cumulative fission yield (5-6 %) during thermal neutron fission in a nuclear reactor. The physical half-life of 89 Sr (50.52 d) is short but that of 90 Sr (28.8 y) is long enough to generate radioecological repercussions. 90 Sr has a long-lasting biological half-life (∼18 y) in the human body, due to its chemical similarity to calcium the importance of 90 Sr analysis is emphasized in case of a nuclear disaster. The world-wide spread of 90 Sr, as a background, is derived from the global atmospheric fallout contributed by large-scale atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted from 1945. In case of local contamination, nuclear accidents are not the only source of 90 Sr isotope, misconducted underground nuclear weapon tests; improper handling of by-products of nuclear weapon production or normal operation of nuclear facilities (e.g. reprocessing plants) can be taken into account

  19. Quarterly 90Sr deposition at world land sites: Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toonkel, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The results of quarterly 90 Sr fallout sampling data at 75 sites beginning in 1976 are presented. Of the 75 sites for which data are reported, the monthly collections at 67 sites are composited and analyzed quarterly starting with the July 1976 samples. Data reported for the first half of 1976 at these sites as well as for the whole year at New York City and through June 1977 at the Australian sites, are quarterly results obtained by summing the monthly data. As of July 1977, the Australian sites have changed over to quarterly collection. The collections are made using either high-walled stainless steel pots with exposed areas of 0.076 square meters or plastic funnels with exposed areas of 0.072 square meters to which are attached ion-exchange columns. A few sites which were established as part of a precipitation chemistry network use plastic pots with an area of 0.064 square meters for collection. As an example of deposition patterns in the Northern Hemisphere, the quarterly 90 Sr data for New York City are shown in graph form. Calculated values of concentrations of 90 Sr in precipitation are given in units of pCi of 90 Sr per liter. The precipitation in centimeters and the 90 Sr deposition in millicuries per square kilometer is given for each quarter where data are available

  20. Determination of 90Sr by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerchetti, Maria L.; Aghazarian, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    99m Tc, the result of the radioactive decay of 99 Mo, is one of the most applied radioisotopes in nuclear medicine and is used in nuclear medicine as a radiopharmaceutical product. It is important to ensure 99 Mo quality in order to fit the 99m Tc quality specifications. The main objective was to obtain a technique for 90 Sr determination in 99 Mo and environmental samples. The purification of 90 Sr is performed by extraction chromatography where crown-ether resin (Sr-Spec, Eichrom) was used. The measurement of the 90 Sr activity is performed by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) using the double windows method. This method permits the 90 Sr determination without waiting until radiochemical equilibrium 90 Sr / 90 Y has been reached. The recovery factor was determined by gamma spectrometry with 85 Sr, and by gravimetry with stable strontium carrier solution. The minimum detectable activity was 0,05 Bq. The recovery factor was the major contribution in the total uncertainty. (author)

  1. Separation of 90Sr from Purex high level waste and development of a 90Sr-90Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Chitnis, R.R.; Achuthan, P.V.; Kannan, R.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Balu, K.

    2000-04-01

    90 Y (T 1/2 =64.2 h) finds several applications in nuclear medicine. It is formed from the decay of 90 Sr which has a long half-life of 28.8 years. 90 Sr can be used as a long-lasting source for the production of carrier-free 90 Y. 90 Sr itself is abundantly available in high level waste (HLW) of PUREX origin. The present studies deal with the separation of pure 90 Sr from HLW and the subsequent separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr. Actinides and some of the fission products like lanthanides, zirconium, molybdenum and cesium were first removed from the HLW using methods based on solvent extraction and ion-exchange studied earlier in our laboratory. The resulting waste solution was used as a feed for the present process. The separation of 90 Sr from HLW was based on radiochemical method which involved a repeated scavenging with ferric hydroxide followed by strontium carbonate precipitation. The separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr was achieved by membrane separation technique. A compact generator is developed for this separation using a commercially available polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane, impregnated with indigenously synthesised 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid (KSM-17). Generator system overcomes the drawbacks associated with conventional solvent extraction and ion-exchange based generators. The product is in chloride form and is suitable for complexation studies. After gaining an operating experience of ∼3 years in generating carrier-free 90 Y at 2 mCi level for initial studies in radiotherapeutic applications, the process was scaled up for the production of about 12 mCi of 90 Y to be used for animal studies before its application to patients. Radiochemical and chemical purity of the product was critically assayed by radiometry, ICP-AES, etc. The process is amenable for further scaling up. (author)

  2. Geographical distribution of 90Sr contamination in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaca, P.; Mietelski, J.W.; Skwarzec, B.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents results on determination of 90 Sr in bilberry and cowberry leaves (Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and the use of these plants as bio-monitors of radiostrontium contamination in Poland. Radiostrontium was determined by mean of liquid scintillation spectrometry preceded by radiochemical separation using Sr-resin and 85 Sr tracer. The approximate map of 90 Sr contamination of Poland is presented. The activity ratio between 90 Sr and obtained earlier data for 137 Cs in the same samples is discussed. The enhancement of radiostrontium content observed in northeastern Poland seems to be the trace of hot-particles fallout from initial Chernobyl cloud, which passed over Polish territory toward Scandinavia. (orig.)

  3. Determination of 90Sr in grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Keil, R.

    1994-10-01

    A radiochemical method for the determination of 90 Sr in non-contaminated grass and soil is presented. The method is based on the leaching of 90 Sr from the mineralized samples followed by liquid-liquid extraction of 90 Y, its short lived daughter, by tributylphosphate and precipitation of Y-oxalate, which is counted in a low-level proportional counter. Based on dried samples of 30 g of soil and 100 g of grass the limit of detection is about 0.1 Bq/kg for both materials. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs

  4. A method for determination of 90Sr in vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, U.

    1998-12-01

    This report describes a method for determination of 90 Sr in vegetation. The method consists of wet-ashing the samples and separating Sr from the sample matrix by oxalate precipitation and extraction chromatography. 90 Y ingrowth is awaited after which Y is separated from Sr and 90 Y measured in a proportional counter. The method has been applied on two reference materials and the 90 Sr results agree well with the recommended values. The method has also been used on 20 samples of blueberry twigs and the mean recovery of Sr was 74%

  5. Quarterly 90Sr deposition at world land sites. Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toonkel, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The results of quarterly 90 Sr fallout sampling data at 75 sites beginning in 1976 are presented. Of the 75 sites for which data are reported, the monthly collections at 67 sites are composited and analyzed quarterly starting with the July 1976 samples. Data reported for the first half of 1976 at these sites as well as for the whole year at New York City and through June 1977 at the Australian sites, are quarterly results obtained by summing the monthly data. As of July 1977, the Australian sites have changed over to quarterly collection. The collections are made using either high-walled stainless steel pots with exposed areas of 0.076 square meters or plastic funnels with exposed areas of 0.072 square meters to which are attached ion-exchange columns. A few sites which were established as part of a precipitation chemistry network use plastic pots with an area of 0.064 square meters for collection. As an example of deposition patterns in the northern hemisphere, the quarterly 90 Sr data for New York City are shown in graph form. Calculated values of concentrations of 90 Sr in precipitation are given in units of pCi of 90 Sr deposition in millicuries per square kilometer is given for each quarter where data are available

  6. Measurement of 90Sr in fresh water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanova, A.; Meresova, J.; Svetlik, I.; Tomaskova, L.

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study show new experimental approach to the determination of the radionuclide 90 Sr in water samples. The new method of dynamic windows utilizing liquid scintillation counting was applied on model and surface water samples. Our results show the demand of separation technique with significantly higher yields. (authors)

  7. 90Sr and 137Cs content in fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patin, S.A.; Petrov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Numerous data are presented and discussed on concentrations of 90 Sr in bones and 137 Cs in muscular tissues of main food fishes fished out in different regions of the ocean, seas, lakes and rivers. They are indicative of the absence of appreciable hygienic hazards for man from eating food fishes

  8. Sorption-scintillation determination of 90Sr in natural water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryushchenko, A.Yu.; Blank, A.B.; Budakovsky, S.V.; Tarasenko, O.A.; Shevtsov, N.I.

    2003-01-01

    A porous composite material is described for determination of radionuclides in aquatic objects of the environment. Possibilities have been studied for the use of this material in monitoring of 90 Sr content in natural waters. The composite is a scintillator with through pores, the surface of which is impregnated by a sorbent that is selective with respect to strontium. The structure of the material allows combination of two processes--concentrating the radionuclide and measuring its activity. Studies were carried out using both model systems based on reference radioactive solutions and samples of natural water contaminated with radionuclides. It is shown that the use of the proposed method for analysis of natural water allows determination in water of 4x10 -2 Bq l -1 of 90 Sr, which is by two orders of magnitude lower than its maximum acceptable concentration

  9. Radioactive contamination of animal bones by 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Maracic, M.

    1996-01-01

    90 Sr has been regarded as the fission product of great potential hazard to living things because of the unique combination of its 28-y long half-life, the very energetic beta particle of its 90 Y daughter, and its general resemblance to calcium in metabolic processes. Therefore, due to chemical and metabolic similarity to calcium, bone is the critical organ for radioactive isotopes of strontium. The Department of Radiation Protection of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, has carried out radioactivity measurements of the food chain as part of an extended monitoring programme, since 1963. This includes systematic, long-term measurements of 90 Sr in long bones of some domestic animals (cows and pigs) while data on lamb bones exist for the very beginning of the investigated period, and for the period after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

  10. Verification dosimetry of intravascular 90Sr/90Y source trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.D.; Shanta, A.; Tripathi, U.B.; Bhatt, B.C.

    2001-01-01

    90 Sr/ 90 Y source trains (Novoste Beta-Cath System) are currently under clinical trials in India and abroad for intracoronary brachytherapy for prevention of restenosis. Each source train of the Beta-Cath system is supplied with a source certificate giving dose rate at the reference distance of 2 mm from the centerline of the source train. It is essential that the user should check dose rates of brachytherapy sources before its application on the patients. Dose rates and depth dose measurements for 90 Sr/ 90 Y source trains of active length 40 mm using radiochromic films in a tissue equivalent phantom have been carried out. The objectives of these measurements were (1) to verify the dose rates stated in the source certificate, and (2) to obtain relative depth dose data for treatment planning. This paper presents the results of these measurements

  11. Study on absorption, accumulation and distribution of 90Sr in yellow-feather broiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhaorong; Xu Shiming; Zhao Wenhu; Hou Lanxin

    1993-04-01

    The feeding experiment was carried out for yellow-feather broiler with 90 Sr(NO 3 ) 2 having activities of 1.85 x 10 0 ∼ 1.85 x 10 4 Bq/chicken to observe the regular pattern of absorption and distribution of 90 Sr in its organs and tissues. The results are as follows: The absorption rate of 90 Sr by oral feeding is very low. The most of 90 Sr is drained away by daily excreta from the body. The half-time of its feeding is within 24 hours. The accumulated dose varies with the time and different feeding methods. The more 90 Sr is fed, the more 90 Sr is absorbed, however, the uptake rate of 90 Sr is decreasing. The distribution of 90 Sr for bone is very strong and the partition ratio is about 90%. The absorption coefficient of 90 Sr in organs and tissues of broiler is presented

  12. Regularity on absorption and accumulation of 90Sr in yellow-feather broiler (Hypeco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shiming; Hou Lanxin; Zhao Wenhu; Li Xia; Yang Zhongyuan

    1996-02-01

    The feeding experiment was carried for yellow-feather broiler (Hypeco) with 90 Sr[NO 3 ] 2 having of 1.85 x 10 2 ∼1.85 x 10 5 Bq/chicken to observe the regular pattern of absorption and accumulation of 90 Sr in its organs and tissues. The absorption rate of 90 Sr by oral feeding is very low. The most of 90 Sr is drained away by daily excreta from the body. The half-time of its feeding is within 24 hours. The more 90 Sr is fed, the more 90 Sr is absorbed, however, the uptake rate of 90 Sr is decreasing. The affinity of 90 Sr for bone is very strong and the partition ratio is about 90%∼99%. The absorption coefficient of 90 Sr in organs and tissues of broiler is presented. (2 refs., 9 tabs.)

  13. Half-life of 90Sr - measurement and critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.; Lucas, S.E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evaluations of the half-life of 90 Sr have demonstrated the variable quality of the available experimental data which has prevented the estimation and adoption of a value that commands confidence. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty in the half-life to an acceptable level, the decay of a 90 Sr source has been followed for over six years at NPL. The equipment comprised matching, re-entrant, high-pressure ionization chambers and a long-lived reference source to reduce non-random effects. The experimental technique is described together with the statistical procedure used to analyse the measured data. A half-life value was determined together with an estimate of the associated uncertainties. A new evaluation of the 90 Sr half-life has been made, taking account of the new NPL data and other recent measurements. Particular attention has been paid to the experimental techniques used to produce the data and the uncertainties attributed to them. An objective evaluation has been conducted to produce a new recommended half-life value of 10 516 ± 21 days. (orig.)

  14. Study on determination of 90Sr by liquid scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Xiufang; Li Weiping; Tian Mei; Zou Ronghu

    2012-01-01

    Both of Liquid scintillation counting and Cerenkov counting can be used to determinate 90 Sr in samples by Liquid scintillation spectrometry. In this work, effects of scintillation vials wit-h different material, Liquid scintillation cocktails, sample volume, Strontium carrier, pH, quenching (chemical quenching and color quenching)are studied, and both counting methods are compared. For Liquid scintillation counting. The results show that the best appropriate volume ratio of sample and liquid scintillation cocktail is 8:12 for OPTIPHASE HISAFE-3 and OPTIPHASE HISAFE-2, stability of solution decreased when sample load exceeds the maximum load for both Liquid scintillation cocktails, and OPTIPHASE HISAFE-3 also show superior performance for high saline solution. The type of scintillation vial haven't clear influence on the MDA of 90 Sr. Chemical quenching and color quenching can decrease the counting efficiency. For Cerenkov counting, the lowest MDA is obtained when polyethylene plastic vial is used and sample volume is 20 ml. Color quenching decreases the counting efficiency, while there isn't chemical quenching for Cerenkov counting. The MDA of 90 Sr is 1.19 and 1.00 Bq/L for Liquid scintillation counting and Cerenkov counting with the optimal labeling condition. (authors)

  15. On 210Pb and 90Sr migration in terrestrial biogeocenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanskene-Duzh, R.F.; Urbonas, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The 90 Sr and 210 Pb accumulation in various types of topsoil and in mushrooms (genera Boletus, Calocybe, Coprinus, Lactarius, Paxillus, Rozites, Russula and others) has been studied in pine forests of Lithuania. The 210 Pb content was found to depend mostly on the composition of topsoil and the abundance of vegetation, the average concentration being 3600 pCi/kg weight of soil. When the vegetation is abundant, the 210 Pb average concentration increases up to 8600 pCi/kg. The 90 Sr average concentration equals 1430 pCi/kg. In soddy-podzol soils with well-developed grass cover this concentration can be as high as 2900 pCi/kg. The 210 Pb average concentration in the mushroom species studied is 35 pCi/kg irrespective of the soil concentration of this isotope. The 90 Sr concentration in the mycothallus of mushrooms, on the contrary, is directly related to the radionuclide concentration in the substrate and averages 60 pCi/kg of the whole weight. The 210 Sr accumulation is shown to be a function of location and mushroom species

  16. Investigations of 90Sr in dogs. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.; Morgan, J.P.; Book, S.A.; California Univ., Davis

    1985-01-01

    Purebreed beagle dogs given 90 Sr and unirradiated controls were studied for over two decades. Pregnant females were fed different doses of 90 Sr from day 21 post-conception until the offsprings reached an age of 540 days. In an additional experiment two dose levels were given in a single intravenous dose to dogs 540 days old. Radiographically the earliest skeleton lesions were characterised by small linear, solitary, cortical lucencies. These as well as tumors were more frequently noted in the higher exposure levels. They affected the appendicular skeleton almost as frequently as the axial skeleton. The lesions were predominantly found in the diaphysis, at the angle and near the acetabulum in the tubular bones, mandible and pelvis, respectively. The lesions within the diaphysis originated in the cortical bone. Histologically these lesions were characterised by different types of porosities. These could be empty or filled by a defect and/or immature, dysplastic fibrous repair tissue, within the frame of which malignant transformations seemed to take place as evidenced by malignant clones and microosteosarcomas. A comparison is made of the histologic events in dogs and mice and a tentative pathogenesis of 90 Sr induced bone tumors is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Kinetics of distribution of 90Sr in Beijing-white layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhaorong; Xu Shiming; Zhao Wenhu; Hou Lanxin

    1993-08-01

    The experiment feeding 90 Sr(NO 3 ) 2 in the range of 1.85 x 10 2 to 1.85 x 10 5 Bq/chicken was carried out with 45 Beijing-white layers to observe the regular pattern of absorption and distribution of 90 Sr in organs and tissues. The results are summarized as follows: the uptake rate of 90 Sr by layer through oral feeding is very low. Most part of 90 Sr drains away from body with daily excreta and egg. The accumulation of 90 Sr in the body is low and about 70% is in the bone. About 99% of 90 Sr in egg is concentrated in the eggshell. The order of absorptivity of 90 Sr in tissues is bone>feather>muscle>blood>viscera. The absorption coefficient of 90 Sr in organs and tissues in different stages with different feeding volumes has been calculated

  18. Anorthite glass: a potential host matrix for 90Sr pencil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Pranesh; Dey, G.K.; Fanara, Sara; Chakraborty, Sumit; Mishra, R.K.; Kaushik, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    With rising global concerns over health hazards, environmental pollution and possible malicious applications of radioactive materials, there is an increasing consciousness among public and Governmental agencies for its better control, accounting and security. Investigations carried out by International Atomic Energy Agency and other monitoring bodies reveal that among various radioactive materials, the easily dispersible ones are high activity sealed sources (generally called radioactive pencils) used for various peaceful applications. Ideally, these sealed sources should be safely secured within specialized facilities, but in practice, it is not always done. Hence, there is a need to take an extra precautionary measure to ensure that the matrices currently used for hosting the radionuclides within sealed sources are durable enough under harsh service conditions and situations arising due to possible mishaps (accidents, misplaced, stolen etc). Among the variety of useful radionuclides, 90 Sr is one which is regularly used to (i) combat bone cancer, (ii) destroy unwanted tissue on the surface of eye/skin, (iii) light up/provide energy to remotely accessible areas etc. However, due to its (i) toxicity, (ii) mobility, (iii) easy incorporation within human body, (iv) considerable half-life (∼ 29 years), (v) emission of beta (β - ) particles along with high energy gamma ( γ)-rays, and (vi) retention of significant toxicity within sources even after service life, release of 90 Sr poses a serious threat to the biosphere. Hence, there is a need to ensure that existing 90 Sr host matrices are capable of withstanding all sorts of adversity that may arise during service and under storage/disposal

  19. Effects of chronic 90Sr ingestion in miniature swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Hackett, P.L.; Lund, J.E.; McClanahan, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    Daily 90 Sr feeding of greater than 125 μCi/day resulted in pancytopenia with death usually due to hemorrhage. At 125 μCi, pancytopenia and myelolymphoproliferative disorders appeared. At less than 125 μCi/day a dose-related neutropenia was evident. There is an apparent increased incidence of both benign and malignant tumors of soft tissue in animals fed 25 μCi/day for their lifetime. Benign uterine tumors, dental defects and marked arthritis continued to be the major diseases necessitating euthanasia in aged animals from all groups, including control swine. (U.S.)

  20. Internal bremsstrahlung from 89Sr and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayibaba, T.; Narasimha Murity, K.; Rao, C.R.; Satyaprakash; Gubbi, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    The internal bremsstrahlung (IB) spectra emitted in the beta-decays of 89 Sr and 90 Sr were measured with a HPGe detector and a multichannel analyser along with a standard geometrical set-up. Sufficient care has been taken to avoid spurious effects. After making all the necessary corrections, the experimental results were compared with the corresponding theoretical distributions due to Knipp and Uhlenbeck and Bloch (KUB), Lewis and Ford, Nilsson, and also due to Ford and Martin (detour theory). The total IB yields of intensity and energy from each of the isotopes in the investigated energy regions are also determined and compared with the corresponding theoretical values. The present results of IB from 89 Sr are satisfactorily accounted for by the KUB theory. In the case of 90 Sr the experimental results of IB coincide with the Coulomb-corrected theoretical distibution due to Nilsson in the energy range from 60 keV to 110 keV and Beyond 110 keV, they are found to be in excess over Nilsson's theory as well as the detour theory due to Ford and Martin up to the maximum photon energy studied, namely 350 keV

  1. 90Sr in the skeleton of new-born children and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, B.K.

    1980-01-01

    The correlation between 90 Sr content in the skeleton of new-born children and infants and 90 Sr content in the vertebrae spongy tissue of mother, is studied in different countries from 1965 to 1973. The highest indexes of 90 Sr concentration in the bone tissue of new-born children are found to be characteristic of Canada and Norway. The minimum 90 Sr content is observed in Japan. The dynamics of indexes which characterize 90 Sr content in the bone tissue of infants is presented. The peculiarities are conditioned by particular nutrition of an infant nursing and cow milk used as additional food

  2. Evaluation of mobility potential of 90Sr in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Aline Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    In this document, the transfer mechanisms of 90 Sr were studied in soil-plant systems from Brazil, integrating field and laboratory experiments. Some soil classes, with different physical and chemical properties, relevant to Brazil were selected. The soil classes included in this study were Oxisol, Alfisol and Nitisol. These soils were artificially contaminated with 90 Sr for crop cultivation in lysimeters located at the experimental area of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The selected crops chosen to the root uptake studies were: corn (Zea mays, L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.). These cultures were chosen because they have varying absorption rates due to differences in the physiologic structures analyzed: grain, leaf and root. This study identified Nitisol, which contains clay of high activity, as having smaller transfer factor for all crops and these values were in the same order of magnitude as temperate climate values reported in the specialized literature: FT corn : 5,78E-3 (n=2); FT radish : 1,78 E0 (n=2); FT cabbage : 9,16E-1 (n=2). All other soils presented higher TF values, ranging from 1,93E0 to 4,06 E + 01 for radish (n=8), from 9,99 E-2 to 8,80 E0 for cabbage (n=16) and from 9,94 E-3 to 1,60 E-2 for corn (n=14). It was verified that the TF values for corn presented a significant linear correlation with the following properties of the soils: exchangeable Ca and Mg, Cation Exchange Capacity and Organic matter content (p=99,9%), corroborating the behavior described in the related literature. The TF values for cabbage presented significant correlation with exchangeable Ca and pH (p=99,9%), while no correlation between TF and soil properties where observed for radish. The results of sequential extraction evidenced the great 90 Sr availability for transfer in the soil-plant system; nevertheless, physiological processes occurring in such unfertile soils (low CEC, low pH and low OM and nutrients content) improved

  3. Uptake indexes of 90Sr in the countries with various nutrition types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.N.; Marej, A.N.; Borisov, B.K.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    90 Sr uptake in the human organism in the USSR and a number of countries with a western type of nitrition is studied for the period from 1963 to 1971. The following indexes are presented: the observed ratio (OR), which is 90 Sr in a skeleton/ 90 Sr in a diet pCi/gCa/pCi/gCa. This index depends largely on the level of calcium content in the diet. The index of buildup multiplicity is used to characterize 90 Sr uptake irrespective of calcium content in the diet. These indexes are used to compare 90 Sr uptake in France, USA, USSR, FRG. Factors which affect 90 Sr uptake connected with nutrition peculiarities and 90 Sr form in the diet, are presented

  4. Experimental autoabsorption curve 90Sr in SrCO3. Efficiency calculation to detection of 90Sr, 90Y and 90Sr + 90Y in a beta gas proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Alvarez, A.

    1987-01-01

    Strontium-90 has been determined by radiochemical separation techniques in environmental samples. These techniques, of course, cannot separate the two strontium radionuclides from each other of from stable strontium. Consequently the end product of the chemical separation contains all strontium isotopes in SrCO 3 . The beta particules emitted by 90 Sr are absorbed by the SrCO 3 precipitate. This is the main source of error in the activity measurement. It has been prepared sources of 90 Sr in SrCO 3 in order to determinate the counting efficiency and autoabsorption curve. Also detection efficiencies have been calibrated using known activities of 90 Y and equilibrium mixture of 90 Sr+ 90 Y in the same geometry than our samples. The activity of 90 Sr by ingrowth of 90 Y has been calculated by our computer program. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs

  5. The accumulation study of 90Sr in fish from a fishpond of northern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Pi-Fen; Wang, Jeng-Jong; Huang, Ju-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Three kinds of fish from a natural fishpond in the north of Taiwan were collected and analyzed in this study. The three species were non-predatory Ctenopharyn odon idellus, predatory Aristichthys nobilis and predatory Mylopharyngodon piceus. The activity concentrations of 90 Sr in bone and edible flesh of fish, as well as in water and soil of fishpond were measured by using the radiochemical analysis. Additionally, the concentration of stable calcium in fish bone, [Ca] bone , and that of stable strontium in fish bone, [Sr] bone , were measured by ICP-AES. From the results, the concentration factors of 90 Sr, CF( 90 Sr), in fish bone was no statistic difference between non-predatory and predatory fish. Besides, the accumulation of 90 Sr in the non-predatory fish remarkably decreased with increasing the fish weight. As for the predatory fish, they both showed no statistically significant correlations between the 90 Sr activity concentration and the fish weight. Regarding the activity concentrations of 90 Sr in fish bone, all the fish were observed positively correlated with the measured [Sr] bone . - Highlights: • There was no difference in CF( 90 Sr) between non-predatory and predatory fish. • The 90 Sr in non-predatory fish bone decreased with increasing fish weight. • There was no correlation between 90 Sr in predatory fish bone and the fish weight. • The 90 Sr in fish bone increased with the increase of [Sr] bone

  6. Development of techniques for rapid analysis of 90Sr breakthrough and 90Y activity from a 90Sr-90Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chism, S.E.; Goodwin, D.A.; Meares, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Recently there has been interest in labelling monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic amounts of a pure beta emitting isotope. 90 Y offers many desirable features and may be conveniently and economically obtained from a 90 Sr- 90 Y generator. A potential hazard with this system is breakthrough of the parent 90 Sr which has a half life of 28 years and is an extremely toxic bone seeking isotope. Therefore it is essential that the daughter be completely separated from its parent. We have devised two simple techniques which allow us to monitor rapidly the amount of 90 Sr breakthrough and quantitate the 90 Y activity over a 5 log range. (author)

  7. Urinary 90Sr concentration in occupationally exposed and nonexposed persons in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irlweck, K.; Streit, S.

    1979-01-01

    Personnel monitoring at Seibersdorf Research Centre includes analysis of 90 Sr in urine of employees who handle low-level radioactive wastes. Results for the two year period 1976-77 are reported. 90 Sr concentrations were mainly between 0.5 and 5.0pCi/l, except in the cases of two employees who incorporated 90 Sr as a result of an accident. Urine samples from 21 non-exposed persons not employed at Seibersdorf all gave results below 2pCi/l. These results agree with a 90 Sr concentration of 0.2-2.0pCi/l of urine estimated from global fallout data. If individual differences, e.g. in metabolism, diet etc. are taken into account, it is concluded that a 90 Sr incorporation above fallout level should be assumed with certainty only if the 90 Sr concentration exceeds 5pCi/l of urine. (author)

  8. Long lasting fish contamination with 90Sr of Ignalina NPP water cooling basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusauskiene-Duz, R.; Gudeliene, I.

    2003-01-01

    Between the nourishment chains in hydro ecosystem the main role have chain water-fish-man, because amount of 90 Sr in fish muscle is limited. 90 Sr accumulation and distribution between the fish organs and tissues was studied. It was found that the main way of 90 Sr enter to the Ignalina NPP water cooling basin fish is adsorption processes which is more active than that of absorption. Established regularities of distribution between the fish organs and tissues, which depends on the fish nourishment type and their species. We determined that 90 Sr activity in fish muscles increase from spring to autumn: in Rutilus rutilus - 8, Abramis brama - 6, Perca fluviatilis - 2,7 and Esox lucius - 22,3 times. We determined that 90 Sr activity in fish muscles is 24 times lower than permissible' standard. It was determined that 90 Sr activity in fish gonads is 2 times higher than that in muscles and depends on fish species. (author)

  9. Determination of the fraction of 90Sr extracting from bones during cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunert, J.; Ziesak, H.

    1976-01-01

    Fresh, commercial cattle bones containing 600 pCi 90 Sr per kilogram were cooked in waters of different degrees of hardness according to an usual beef-tea recipe. After cooking, 90 Sr was also detected in the leftover meat (about 40 pCi per kilogram) adhering to the bones. The beef-tea contained about 1 pCi 90 Sr per litre corresponding to 0.5 to 0.7% of the total amount of 90 Sr which were found in fresh bones. Assuming a weekly consumption of 1 litre beef-tea and 50 g leftover meat, the annual ingestion of 90 Sr would be 160 pCi corresponding to 0.1 to 0.2% of the maximum permissible annual intake, or to 5% of the total 90 Sr dietary intake in 1974, respectively. (author)

  10. Strontium-90 (90Sr) determination using liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheberle, L.T.V.; Rosa, M.M.L.; Ferreira, M.T.; Taddei, M.H.T.

    2015-01-01

    This procedure describes a method for separation and measurement of strontium 90 Sr in water, soils, and biological samples. Water samples may be concentrated using evaporation or calcium phosphate coprecipitation. Soils and biological materials must be dissolved using wet digestion. Tracers and carriers must be added before the attack. Radioactive strontium is separated employing a specific resin before determination by liquid scintillation counting using the double energetic window method. The resin is used to concentrate strontium from samples. Stable strontium is used to monitor method yields and correct results to improve precision and accuracy. The presence of elemental strontium in the sample may bias the gravimetric yield determination. If it is suspected that natural strontium is present in the sample, its concentration should be determined by a suitable means (ICP), and the yield calculation properly modified. Sr-Spec resin with an 8M HNO 3 load solution is used to effectively remove 140 Ba and 40 K isotopes, as well as other interferences from the matrix. Tetravalent plutonium, neptunium, cerium and ruthenium, however, are not removed using nitric acid. The radiochemical procedure was tested using PROCORAD intercomparison exercises and PNI samples. (author)

  11. A study of cycling of 90Sr in a natural forest on the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, E.L.; Rahman, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    A study of the cycling of 90 Sr in a natural forest growing over a shallow zone of low-level 90 Sr-contaminated groundwater was carried out at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL Research. The contamination is about 1 m below the surface under most of the site and evidence from earlier studies indicates that 90 Sr is being brought to the surface by deeper rooting trees. Once it is on the surface, the 90 Sr becomes available for uptake by other biota in the area. The study was initiated by taking an inventory of 90 Sr in various compartments including: soil, leaf litter, wood and foliage. Samples of leaf fall, stemflow and throughfall were also collected in order to estimate the relative importance of these mechanisms in cycling 90 Sr to the forest floor. Most of the 90 Sr on or near the surface is in the leaf litter and the top 8 cm of soil, as well as in the vegetation. Downward migration of 90 Sr through the unsaturated zone is slow. This may be due to strong retention by the soil; however, it could also be due to recycling of 90 Sr by the vegetation. The accumulated inventory in the leaf litter is about equal to the input from leaf fall over a period of 3 years

  12. Study of radionuclide 90Sr-90Y on cell proliferation and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tong; Wei Wei; Zou Benjie; Liu Fang; Xu Zhishun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 90 Sr- 90 Yon cell proliferation and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods: The apoptosis and expression of Ki-67 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after irradiation 90 Sr- 90 Y were detected by transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemical technique, respectively. Results: The proliferation index (PI) of BPH after 90 Sr- 90 Y irradiation was much lower than that before irradiation, but there was no significant change in apoptosis index (AI). Conclusion: Irradiation with 90 Sr- 90 Y could restrain cell proliferation of BPH, but could not induce apoptosis

  13. 90SR uptake by Pinus ponderosa and Pinus radiata seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Emmingham, W.H.; Rygiewicz, P.T.

    1994-01-01

    Strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. Prior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90 Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. In this study, we inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Inoculated and noninoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove 90 Sr from an organic growth medium. Ectomycorrhizal P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings are able to remove 3-5 times more 90 Sr from contaminated soil than seedlings without ectomycorrhizae. (Author)

  14. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine health effects resulting from inhalation of 90 Sr in relatively insoluble form. Beagle dogs were briefly exposed by inhalation to produce lung burdens of 90 Sr that ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi (4.4-3500 kBq)/kg body weight. Exposures to the higher concentrations of 90 Sr caused radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, typically resulting in death 90 Sr-exposed dogs were euthanized during the past year. One remaining exposed dog and one control dog are both 14 yr old and are being maintained for lifetime observation. (author)

  15. Determination of {sup 90}Sr Abundance in Different Kind of Pasture at PPTN Serpong; Distribusi {sup 90}Sr dalam Beberapa Jenis Rumput di Kawasan PPTN Serpong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudiyati,; Makmur, Murdahayu; S, Agus Gindo [Centre for Radioactive Waste Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Serpong (Indonesia)

    2007-06-15

    The determination of {sup 90}Sr abundance in the pasture grass around Serpong had been done. The aim of the research is to determine {sup 90}Sr abundance in the pasture which could be used to estimate the dose received by human in food chain pathways. The mean of {sup 90}Sr mean activities in pasture around PPTN Serpong is 14.14 ± 3.7 mBq/kg, this result is insignificantly different compared to its control (off-site), i.e. 14.18 ± 6.9 mBq/kg. Elephant grass (Penisettum Purpureum) has the highest abundance of {sup 90}Sr which is 24.8 ± 15.6 mBq/kg, followed by teki grass (Setaria Spha Celata) and ilalang grass (Imperata Cylinrica) which are 14.9 ± 6.0 mBq/kg and 8.0 ± 4.8 mBq/kg, respectively. (author)

  16. Level of 90Sr in the urine of a small group of Finnish people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Suomela, M.; Rahola, T.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of the applied analysis method for 90 Sr and if possible to estimate the current level of the 90 Sr concentration in the urine. Urine samples were collected from seven Finnish volunteers in connection with studies of 137 Cs body burdens. The activity measurements of urine samples were performed 14 - 18 days after chemical separation of 90 Sr to allow ingrowing of 90 Y. The 90 Sr and 90 Y activities were measured simultaneously using a Quantulus liquid scintillation spectrometer. The detection limit for 90 Sr was 0.0033 Bq per sample, or 0.0007-0.0015 Bq 1 -1 . The 90 Sr activities in urine varied between 0.006 and 0.046 Bq 1 1 . The daily urinary excretion was found to be 0.007-0.018 Bq for the five volunteers that collected three-day urine samples. Assuming that the daily 90 Sr intake was constant and that 18% of the ingested activity was excreted in urine, the mean intake in the investigated group would vary between 0.039 and 0.1 Bq d -1 . Based on these estimated intake values the respective annual effective internal doses from 90 Sr and 90 Y varied from 0.4 to 1 Sv during the sampling period. (au)

  17. Toxicity of inhaled 90SrCl2 in Beagle dogs. XIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled 90 SrCl 2 in the Beagle dog are being studied to provide a basis for assessing the consequences of inhaling 90 Sr such as might be released in certain nuclear accidents. Seventy-two dogs were exposed to aerosols containing 90 Sr resulting in initial body burdens ranging from 2.5 to 250 μCi 90 Sr/kg body weight. To date, 60 90 Sr-exposed dogs have died or have been euthanized, six during the first 31 days after inhalation of 90 Sr with bone marrow aplasia and 54 between 585 and 5109 days after inhalation of 90 Sr. The latter group includes 32 dogs with bone-related neoplasms, two with upper respiratory tract carcinomas and five dogs with various diseases of the lower respiratory tract and heart. The other 15 dogs and diseases in organs that received little or no radiation dose, such as the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract and the central nervous system. The skeletons of the dogs dying with bone-related neoplasms received initial radiation dose rates of 3.2 to 55 rads/day and cumulative doses to death of 2800 to 22 000 rads. Fourteen control dogs have died or been euthanized, two during the last year with mammary carcinoma and intestinal lymphosarcoma. Serial observations are continuing on the six surviving 90 Sr dogs and six controls

  18. Inventory and vertical migration of {sup 90}Sr fallout and {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr ratio in Spanish mainland soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M. [Department Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque, Country (UPV/EHU), Alda Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Romero, L.M. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Idoeta, R. [Department Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque, Country (UPV/EHU), Alda Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Olondo, C., E-mail: kontxi.olondo@ehu.es [Department Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque, Country (UPV/EHU), Alda Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Valino, F. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Legarda, F. [Department Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque, Country (UPV/EHU), Alda Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    In this paper the inventory of {sup 90}Sr in 34 points distributed along the Spanish peninsular territory is presented. Obtained values range between 173 Bq/m{sup 2} and 2047 Bq/m{sup 2}. From these data set and those {sup 137}Cs data obtained in a previous work the {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr activity ratio has been established, laying this value between 0.9 and 3.6. Also the migration depth of both radionuclides has been analysed obtaining for {sup 137}Cs an average value 57% lower than that obtained for {sup 90}Sr. Additionally, this paper presents the results obtained in 11 sampling points in which the activity vertical profile has been measured. These profiles have been analysed to state the behaviour of strontium in soils and after, by using a convective-diffusive model, the parameters of the model which governs the vertical migration of {sup 90}Sr in the soil, v (apparent convection velocity) and D (apparent diffusion coefficient) have been evaluated. Mean values obtained are 0.20 cm/year and 3.67 cm{sup 2}/year, respectively. - Highlights: > Measured {sup 90}Sr activity in Spanish mainland, being within a range of [173, 2047] Bq/m{sup 2}, with a mean value of 793 Bq/m{sup 2}. > Compared the migration capacity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the same soils. > {sup 90}Sr shows a unique behaviour tendency in soil. > The parameters which govern the applied model have been obtained for the analysed profiles. > Analysed those parameters' values also reflects this unique tendency.

  19. Development of {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y generators; Desenvolvimento de geradores de {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, Graciela, E-mail: gracielabarrio@gmail.co [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo (PUC-SP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto, E-mail: jaossoj@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Yttrium-90 is a radioisotope of great interest in the field of Nuclear Medicine. It is considered one of the most important and most used radionuclides for radioimmunotherapeutical applications, especially promising for the treatment of certain types of cancer. Another important application of {sup 90}Y is radio synovectomy. This radionuclide has a half-life of 64 hours, emits long range beta particles (maximum energy of 2.3 MeV) and decays, without intermediate nuclides, to a stable daughter. {sup 90}Y may be obtained carrier-free, generated by the decay of its parent {sup 90}Sr (half-life=28 years). {sup 90}Sr is a product from uranium fission, and due to its long half-life, can be indefinitely used, which is certainly advantageous. It is present in great amounts, and needs to be processed and purified in order to be used as raw material for the generators. Generators of {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y may thus be used during various months, due to {sup 90}Sr long half-life. Several methods for the separation of {sup 90}Y from {sup 90}Sr by solvent extraction and ion exchange have been reported in literature. Thanks to its simplicity, ion exchange techniques have been more commonly used for this generator system. The main objective of this work was to develop a methodology for the preparation of {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y generators, using cationic exchange resins. In such method, {sup 90}Sr is strongly adsorbed in the resin and {sup 90}Y is eluted by a 0.003 M EDTA solution. According to the quality control carried out, results showed that elution yields are greater than 65%, thus confirming the efficiency of the separation method used.

  20. Uptake and activity concentration of 137Cs and 90Sr in Salix viminalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Fircks, Y. von; Sennerby-Forsse, L.

    1999-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the uptake, internal distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr and the effects of K-fertilisation of uptake of 137 Cs in Salix plantations, a K-fertilisation experiment including 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 40 K was performed. Previous studies with K-fertilization in Sweden have mainly dealt with the flow of 137 Cs between soil to plant in annual crops. The aim of this study was study the transfer of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 40 K from soil to plants and to test the following hypothesis: that accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr differs between plant organs, that there is a seasonal variation in uptake and concentration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr and that the availability of K is related to the uptake of 137 Cs. (au)

  1. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An alternative technique for monitoring 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TsingHai Wang; Yan-Chen Lai; Yi-Kong Hsieh; Chu-Fang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Developing a rapid detection method for monitoring released 90 Sr remains a challenge to analytical chemists, particularly considering its low concentration and significant interferences in environmental samples. We proposed a concept as an alternative to detect 90 Sr on the surface of fish scales using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The high affinity of fish scales to Sr is capable of preconcentrating 90 Sr that minimizes isobaric interferences from 90 Zr + or 89 YH + , while tailing effect by abundant 88 Sr can be effectively reduced by adjusting the forward power of ICP-MS component. Adopting dried droplets of internal standards further allows a semiquantification of 90 Sr content on the surface of fish scales, which also arises an opportunity to monitoring the bioaccumulation of 90 Sr after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. (author)

  2. Radiochemical separation and effective dose estimation due to ingestion of 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, Z.; Vidic, A.; Deljkic, D.; Sirko, D.; Zovko, E.; Samek, D.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2007. Institute for Public Health of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina-Radiation Protection Centre, within the framework of monitoring of radioactivity of environment carried out measurement of specific activity of 90 Sr content in selected food and water samples. The paper described the methods of measurement and radiochemical separation. Presented results, as average values of specific activity of 90 Sr, were used for estimation of effective dose due to ingestion of 90 Sr for 2007. and 2008. Estimated effective dose for 2007. due to ingestion of 90 Sr for adults was 1,36 μSv and 2,03 μSv for children (10 year old), and for 2008. 0,67 μSv (adults) and 1,01 μSv (children 10 year old). Estimated effective doses for 2007. and 2008. are varied because of different average specific activity radionuclide 90 Sr in selected samples of food, their number, species and origin. (author) [sr

  3. Evaluation of food contamination and health risks due to the radioactive fallout 90Sr before 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, radionuclides like 90 Sr released by atmospheric nuclear detonation tests and the Chernobyl accident have been transported worldwide in the environment and finally taken up by humans through various pathways. In this research, the health risks caused by the prolonged exposure to fallout 90 Sr through food ingestion pathways were evaluated age-dependently for the reference Japanese since 1945 until 2010, using the mathematical model for evaluating global distribution of 90 Sr with food ingestion considering the domestic and international food supply in Japan. The model estimates were compared with the monitoring data of 90 Sr in Japanese total diet and 90 Sr concentration in food to examine the model validity. The results of this evaluation would be useful for understanding the background situations without the Fukushima accident and give important knowledge for the radiological health risk assessment of this accident. (author)

  4. Toxicity of inhaled 90SrCl2 in beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Rebar, A.H.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R. K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 90 SrCl 2 in the Beagle dog are continuing in an effort to provide a basis for assessing the consequences of inhaling 90 Sr such as might be released in certain nuclear accidents. Seventy-two dogs were exposed to aerosols containing 90 Sr resulting in initial body burdens ranging from 2.5 to 250 μCi 90 Sr/kg body weight. Forty-eight of these dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Twenty-five unexposed dogs serve as controls. The long-term retained burden (LTRB) in these dogs ranged from 1 to 120 μCi 90 Sr/kg. Twenty-four dogs with a mean LTRB of 38 μCi 90 Sr/kg have been assigned to a sacrifice study. Two of these dogs and one control dog were sacrificed at five days, one month and one year after inhalation of 90 Sr. To date, 51 90 Sr-exposed dogs have died or have been euthanized, six during the first 31 days after inhalation of 90 Sr with bone marrow aplasia and 45 between 585 and 4236 days after inhalation of 90 Sr. The latter group includes 12 dogs with bone-related hemangiosarcomas, 16 with osteosarcomas, three with fibrosarcomas, three with osteochondrosarcomas, one with osteochondrofibrosarcoma, two with leukemia, one with a baso-squamous carcinoma of the skull, one with a squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla, one with a squamous cell carcinoma of the frontal sinus, one with a hemangiosarcoma of the heart, one with a myxosarcoma of the skull, one with transitional cell carcinoma, one with bronchioalveolar carcinoma, one with an epileptic seizure, one with pneumonia, one with cerebellar hemorrhage and three with a malabsorption syndrome

  5. Uncertainty and Detection Limit in Determination of 89,90Sr by Cherenkov Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahek, Z.; Karanovic, G.; Nodilo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The methodology for the rapid determination of 89,90Sr in normal and emergency situations is given. Methodology is based on simultaneous separation of strontium and yttrium from samples and quantitative 89,90Sr determination by Cherenkov counting within three days. Methodology for quantitative determination by Cherenkov counting based on following changes of sample activity during the time is described and discussed. It has been shown that 89,90Sr can be determined with acceptable accuracy when 89Sr/90Sr ratio is over 10:1. Obtained results show that by using low level liquid scintillation counter it can be possible to determine 89Sr and 90Sr in broad range of concentration activities (1 - 1000 Bq (kgL) -1 ) with uncertainties below 10% within 2-3 days. Results also show that accuracy of determination of 89Sr (and 90Sr) depends on determination of difference between separation and counting time when activity ratio of 89Sr/90Sr is high. Analysis of combined uncertainty shows that it mainly depends on uncertainty of efficiency and recovery determination, uncertainty of activities determination for both isotopes and level of background radiation. Portion of each in combined uncertainty depend on level of activity of each isotope and its activity ratio.(author)

  6. SPECIFICITY OF ACCUMULATION OF VARIOUS RADIONUCLIDES (137Cs и 90Sr IN SPINACH (Spinacia oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Soldatenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the specificity of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by plants and limits of accumulation by plant fruits plays a key role at breeding of vegetable crops, which make demand for ecological safety of the product. The article is concerned with the study of varietal sources of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. aimed at development of ecological safety product on the territory polluted by radionuclides.The specificity of accumulation of radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr was studied in 54 varieties of spinach at industrial contaminated and polluted lands. Experimental tests were conducted in the Moscow and Bryansk regions in 2012 and 2014. The absolute value of radionuclide 90Sr was higher than absolute value of radionuclide 137Cs in all studied zones. It was found that the hazard rate of 90Sr is higher because the level of pollution of product reaches up to 76% from maximum permissible concentration (MPC, while the level of product pollution by 137Cs is 26,4% from MPC. The spinach genotype differentiation for 90Sr in the most environments is lower than differentiation for 137Cs. The histograms of distribution 90Sr and 137Cs showed that samples amount in the groups of accumulation for both radionuclides are equal. Statistically significant data for radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in spinach were not obtained. The evaluation of spinach for low content of radionuclides should be conducted separately for each radionuclide on various backgrounds.

  7. Determination of 90Sr in crude coconut oil by Cherenkov radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, F.L.; Esguerra, L.V.; Castaneda, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    In December 1989, the Analytical Measurements Research group received crude coconut oil samples for radiometric determination of 90 Sr as required by the government of an importing country. The limit for 90 Sr in imported products was 67 BqKg -1 . The possibility of 90 Sr contamination of coconut oil is remote, considering that the molecular structures of its constituents do not include inorganic species. However, a method still had to be developed for certifying to the absence of 90 Sr in the samples. The technique selected was based on the direct measurement of 90 Sr/ 90 Y Cherenkov radiation in oil. For 10 ml of samples (approximately 9 g.) and a counting period of 1 hr. lower limits of detection ranging from 16 to 27 BqKg -1 were obtained. These detection limits, being well below the regulatory limit of 67 BqKg -1 for 90 Sr were adequate for purposes of the study. A total of ten crude coconut oil samples analyzed between December 1989 and June 1990 did not have detectable 90 Sr/ 90 Y activities. (auth.). 7 refs.; 1 fig

  8. Results of field studies on 90SR and stable SR soil-to-plant transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Artner, C.; Horak, O.; Mueck, K.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 and 1988 at 35 sites plants ready to harvest and the corresponding soils (0 - 20 cm) were collected for 90 Sr and stable strontium analyses. Sample preparation and measurement led to a detection limit of 0.008 Bq 90 Sr kg -1 . The 90 Sr-contamination of Austrian soils ranged from 396 to 1998 Bq m -2 . Known from literature the contribution of the Chernobyl fallout amounted to app. 25 % of the total contamination. Stable strontium contents of the soils were between 6 and 62.5 mg kg -1 . Bariumtriethanolamine extracted 17.7 to 62.3 % of the total stable Sr in soil. 90 Sr-concentrations in cereal grains ranged from 0.03 to 0.67 Bq kg -1 (fresh wight) for maize and barley, respectively. The values for other foodstuff were between 0.15 (white cabbage) and 0.91 Bq kg -1 (spinach). Stable strontium contents were between 0.079 mg kg -1 (maize) and 72.5 mg kg -1 (celery shoot). The following mean 90 Sr soil-to-plant transfer factors for cereal grains were obtained: 0.010 (maize), 0.097 (rye), 0.049 (wheat), 0.095 (barley). Transfer factors for straw were up to 50 times higher (maize). The transfer of 90 Sr into vegetables and potatoes reached the same order of magnitude compared to the cereals. In all cases soil-to-plant transfer of stable Sr was clearly lower up to 60 % of the respective values for 90 Sr. Thus natural stable strontium is less plant available than 90 Sr. The influence of soil parameters on the 90 Sr transfer into plants was examinated by correlation analyses. Increasing exchangeable calcium contents of the soils resulted in a significant reduction of Sr soil-to-barley straw transfer. (authors)

  9. Accumulation of 90Sr in sheep bones from different regions of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, R.; Okay, G.; Akman, S.

    1989-01-01

    The accumulation of 90 Sr in front leg bones of sheep which were 1-6 years old and originated from different regions of Turkey, was investigated. It was shown that 90 Sr activity strongly depends on the age of the sheep as well as on their origin. Since 90 Sr is produced during the fissioning process of uranium isotopes in nuclear reactions, the effect of radiation due to nuclear bomb experiments, nuclear reactor accidents or other radioactive pollutants in different regions of Turkey can be concluded from results obtained. (author) 6 refs.; 3 figs.; 9 tabs

  10. On 99Tc, 137Cs and 90Sr in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1995-01-01

    Technetium-99 in the Arctic seas originate mainly from European reprocessing plants whereas 137 Cs and 90 Sr have many sources. It appears that for 137 Cs, re-mobilisation from the Irish Sea of sedimented activity from earlier discharges and the outflow of Baltic water contaminated with Chernobyl activity, are more important sources to the present contamination of the Kara Sea than new European discharges. As opposed to 137 Cs and 99 Tc, 90 Sr is correlated with low salinity waters. It is argued, that this is due to runoff of global atmospheric fallout 90 Sr from land. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Evaluation of some 90Sr sources in the White Oak Creek drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stueber, A.M.; Huff, D.D.; Farrow, N.D.; Jones, J.R.; Munro, I.L.

    1981-01-01

    The drainage basin was monitored to evaluate the relative importance of each source as a contributor to 90 Sr in White Oak Creek. The various sources fall into two general categories, those whose 90 Sr discharge is dependent upon rainfall and those relatively unaffected by the level of precipitation. The identification and ranking of existing non-point sources of 90 Sr in the White Oak Creek basin represents an important step in the ongoing comprehensive program at ORNL to provide a scientific basis for improved control measures and future disposal practices in solid waste disposal areas

  12. Measurement of resonance integral of the 90Sr(n,γ)91Sr reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shoji; Furutaka, Kazuyoshi; Wada, Hiroaki; Katoh, Toshio; Harada, Hideo; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Yamana, Hajimu

    2001-01-01

    To obtain fundamental data for research on nuclear transmutation method of radioactive wastes, the resonance integral (I 0 ) of the 90 Sr(n,γ) 91 Sr reaction was measured with an activation method. (author)

  13. Complexation studies with 90Y from a novel 90Sr-90Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, M.; Pandey, U.; Banerjee, S.; Samuel, G.; Pillai, M.R.A.; Dhami, P.S.; Kannan, R.; Achuthan, P.V.; Chitnis, R.R.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Ramanujam, A.

    2001-01-01

    Some features of a novel 90 Sr- 90 Y generator which employs supported liquid membrane (SLM) to separate carrier-free 90 Y from 90 Sr present in the high level waste of the spent fuel of reactor are described. After ascertaining the purity of 90 Y particularly with respect to 90 Sr breakthrough, its complexation was studied with a few oxo/aza donor ligands, such as DTPA, EDTMP, DOTA, TETA and a cyclic phosphonate, CTMP. These studies were primarily carried out to adjudge the quality of the 90 Y obtained from a novel 90 Sr- 90 Y generator and ascertain its usability for labelling biomolecules such as antibodies and peptides. The DOTA complexes are most stable at 37 C in human serum; they appear to be ideal bifunctional chelating agent for use in radioimmunotherapy with 90 Y. (orig.)

  14. Determination of 90Sr in environmental samples with resonance ionization spectroscopy in collinear geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, K.; Stenner, J.; Kluge, H.J.; Lantzsch, J.; Monz, L.; Otten, E.W.; Passler, G.; Schwalbach, R.; Schwarz, M.; Stevens, H.; Wendt, K.; Herrmann, G.; Niess, S.; Trautmann, N.; Walter, K.; Bushaw, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    A new, fast technique for trace analysis of the radioactive isotopes 89 Sr and 90 Sr in environmental samples has been developed. Conventional mass separation is combined with resonance ionization spectroscopy in collinear geometry, which provides high selectivity and sensitivity. In addition, a chemical separation procedure for sample preparation has been developed. The described technique was used to determine the 90 Sr content in ∼ 870 m 3 air samples collected near Munich during and shortly after the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986. The content of 90 Sr was measured to be 1.4 mBq per m 3 , corresponding to 1.6 x 10 9 atoms of 90 Sr per sample. This value is in good agreement with the results of radiochemical measurements. (orig.)

  15. Determination of [sup 90]Sr in environmental samples with resonance ionization spectroscopy in collinear geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, K. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Stenner, J. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Kluge, H.J. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Lantzsch, J. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Monz, L. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Otten, E.W. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Passler, G. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Schwalbach, R. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Schwarz, M. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Stevens, H. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Wendt, K. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Herrmann, G. (Inst. fuer Kernchemie, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Niess, S. (Inst. fuer Kernchemie, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Trautmann, N. (Inst. fuer Kernchemie, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Walter, K. (Inst. fuer Kernchemie, Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Bushaw, B.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1994-08-01

    A new, fast technique for trace analysis of the radioactive isotopes [sup 89]Sr and [sup 90]Sr in environmental samples has been developed. Conventional mass separation is combined with resonance ionization spectroscopy in collinear geometry, which provides high selectivity and sensitivity. In addition, a chemical separation procedure for sample preparation has been developed. The described technique was used to determine the [sup 90]Sr content in [approx] 870 m[sup 3] air samples collected near Munich during and shortly after the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986. The content of [sup 90]Sr was measured to be 1.4 mBq per m[sup 3], corresponding to 1.6 x 10[sup 9] atoms of [sup 90]Sr per sample. This value is in good agreement with the results of radiochemical measurements. (orig.)

  16. The review of separation technology for fission nuclides 90Sr and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huaming; Li Xingliang; Luo Shunzhong; Peng Shuming; Lei Jiarong

    2010-01-01

    The progress of separation technologies for fission nuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs, including precipitation method, liquid-liquid extraction process and ion exchanging operation, are mainly reviewed. Crown ether (DtBuCH18C6) and calixarene-crown ether (BOBCalixC6) can be highly selective for 90 Sr and 137 Cs respectively in acidic waste; Ionic liquids extraction and supercritical fluid extraction can be applied for separation 90 Sr and 137 Cs from high level waste. Crystalline silicotitiate (CST) and metal sulfide (KMS-1) have highly selectivity for 90 Sr and 137 Cs separately in basic condition. The prospects of disposal technology for high level waste are also discussed in this review. (authors)

  17. Graphic presentation of quarterly 90Sr fallout data, 1954-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically presents all of the precipitation and 90 Sr deposition data for all stations operated as part of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML) global fallout program since the initiation of the program in 1954. 3 references, 179 figures

  18. 90Sr and 137Cs in environmental samples from Dolon near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastberger, M; Steinhäusler, F; Gerzabek, M H; Hubmer, A; Lettner, H

    2000-09-01

    The (90)Sr and (137)Cs activities of soil, plant, and milk samples from the village of Dolon, located close to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan, were determined. The areal deposition at the nine sampling sites is in the range of sites both nuclides mainly have remained in the top 6 cm of the soil profiles; at others they were partly transported into deeper soil layers since the deposition. For most of the samples the (90)Sr yield after destruction of the soil matrix is significantly higher than after extracting with 6 M HCl indicating that (90)Sr is partly associated with fused silicates. The low mean (90)Sr activity concentrations of vegetation samples (14 Bq kg(-1) dw) and milk samples (0.05 Bq kg(-1) fw) suggest that this has favorable consequences in terms of limiting its bioavailability.

  19. Accumulation of 90Sr and 137Cs by fruit bodies of mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhevnikova, T.L.; Mishenkov, N.N.; Martyushova, L.N.; Krivolutskii, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The dimensions of accumulation of 90 Sr and 137 Cs by mushrooms depends on the stores of forest litter: The greater they are, the higher the concentration. As the nuclides migrate from the forest litter, the dimensions of their accumulation decrease: In the tenth year of the investigation the concentration of 90 Sr in mushrooms had diminished by 1.5-3 times; and 137 Cs, by as much as 30 times. The fruit bodies of mushrooms accumulate 2.5-5 times more 137 Cs, and in individual cases up to 40 times more, than 90 Sr. The maximum amount of 90 Sr and 137 Cs is accumulated by annulated boletus; the minimum amount, by rough boletus

  20. In vivo and in vitro study of /sub 90/Sr in developing rat molar enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.A.; Deaton, T.G.; Bawden, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake patterns of /sub 90/Sr in developing rat molar enamel were studied in vivo and in vitro. Autoradiographic methods were used that preclude loss or translocation of tracers associated with water-soluble compounds in the sections. In eight-day-old rats injected with the tracer, /sub 90/Sr uptake in the enamel was significantly less than for dentin and bone, particularly at early sacrifice times. The uptake pattern of 90Sr was somewhat different from that previously observed for /sub 45/Ca. The in vitro experiments indicated that the viable intact enamel organ limits uptake of /sub 90/Sr by enamel in both the secretory and maturation phases of enamel formation

  1. Determination of 90Sr Abundance in Different Kind of Pasture at PPTN Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyati; Murdahayu Makmur; Agus Gindo S

    2007-01-01

    The determination of 90 Sr abundance in the pasture grass around Serpong had been done. The aim of the research is to determine 90 Sr abundance in the pasture which could be used to estimate the dose received by human in food chain pathways. The mean of 90 Sr mean activities in pasture around PPTN Serpong is 14.14 ± 3.7 mBq/kg, this result is insignificantly different compared to its control (off-site), i.e. 14.18 ± 6.9 mBq/kg. Elephant grass (Penisettum Purpureum) has the highest abundance of 90 Sr which is 24.8 ± 15.6 mBq/kg, followed by teki grass (Setaria Spha Celata) and ilalang grass (Imperata Cylinrica) which are 14.9 ± 6.0 mBq/kg and 8.0 ± 4.8 mBq/kg, respectively. (author)

  2. Intercomparison of methods for determining 90Sr and 137Cs in plant samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Zhao Min; Tian Guizhi

    1986-01-01

    The results of intercomparison of methods for determining 90 Sr and 137 Cs in plant samples are reported. Nine laboratories participated in the intercomparison. The samples used in intercomparison were reed and tea powders. The analytical results of 90 Sr in reed and 137 Cs in tea from different laboratories show good comparability and follow the normal-distribution. Some results reported of 137 Cs in reed are apparently lower than others. The results of 90 Sr in tea from different laboratories have poor comparability. The results obtained by HDEHP rapid extraction chromatograph appear to be too high, and it's cause is discussed. The 95% confidence intervals of content of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in reed and tea samples are given

  3. Validation of an extraction paper chromatography (EPC) technique for estimation of trace levels of 90Sr in 90Y solutions obtained from 90Sr/90Y generator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usha Pandey; Yogendra Kumar; Ashutosh Dash

    2014-01-01

    While the extraction paper chromatography (EPC) technique constitutes a novel paradigm for the determination of few Becquerels of 90 Sr in MBq quantities of 90 Y obtained from 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator, validation of the technique is essential to ensure its usefulness as a real time analytical tool. With a view to explore the relevance and applicability of EPC technique as a real time quality control (QC) technique for the routine estimation of 90 Sr content in generator produced 90 Y, a systematic validation study was carried out diligently not only to establish its worthiness but also to broaden its horizon. The ability of the EPC technique to separate trace amounts of Sr 2+ in the presence of large amounts of Y 3+ was verified. The specificity of the technique for Y 3+ was demonstrated with 90 Y obtained by neutron irradiation. The method was validated under real experimental conditions and compared with a QC method described in US Pharmacopeia for detection of 90 Sr levels in 90 Y radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  4. Effect of liming on the behaviour of 90Sr and 137Cs in a lake ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outola, Iisa; Rask, Martti

    2011-01-01

    Liming of lakes is considered one possible remedial action to reduce the accumulation of radionuclides into fish in the case of a radiological accident. These responses were tested in field conditions in a small acidified lake that was divided into two parts: one limed with CaCO 3 and the other half left as an unlimed control. The transfer of 90 Sr from water into fish decreased on average by 50% during the first year after liming. However, at the same time the 90 Sr concentration in water increased, reaching a maximum within 6 months after liming. Approximately 50% more 90 Sr was detected in water in the limed part of the lake than on control side during the first year. 90 Sr was most probably released from the sediment as the Ca concentration and pH of the water increased. As a result of these two processes, which counterbalanced each other (increased release of 90 Sr into water from sediment and decreased transfer of 90 Sr from water into fish), the 90 Sr concentration in fish did not notably differ between the limed and control sides of the lake. Liming may only be suitable as a remedial action if carried out immediately after a radiological accident, before significant amounts of radionuclides have been deposited in lake sediments. In the case of 137 Cs, the effect of liming was less pronounced. 137 Cs activity concentration in water increased in the first year by 20% and uptake by fish decreased by 20%. - Highlights: → Acidified lake was divided into two parts: one limed with CaCO 3 and the other half left as an unlimed control. → The transfer of 90 Sr from water into fish decreased by 50% during the first year after liming. → At the same time liming increased the 90 Sr concentration in the water by 50%. → The increased amount of 90 Sr in water is assumed to have originated from the lake sediments. → The 90 Sr concentration in fish remained relatively unchanged.

  5. Uptake and distributions of 90Sr and 137Cs in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Takeda, Akira; Hasegawa, Hidenao

    2008-01-01

    Polished rice is a staple food in Asian countries and ingestion of polished rice is one of the most important pathways of radionuclides into humans. Inedible parts of rice plants are returned to the soil as fertilizer and are used as an ingredient of feed for livestock. Strontium-90 and 137 Cs are important radionuclides for the assessment of radiation exposure to the public because of their high fission yield, long-half lives and transferability in the environment. The purpose of the present study is to obtain information on the distributions of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in rice plant components for better understanding of the fate of the radionuclides in an agricultural environment. Rice plants were cultivated in an experimental field and collected at harvest time. The concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the soil were 5.6 and 4.4 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Rice plant samples were separated into polished rice, rice bran, hull, straw and root parts, and then the concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the samples were determined. The concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in polished rice were 0.012 and 0.0048 Bq kg -1 dry weight, respectively. The concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs varied by two and one orders of magnitudes in rice plant components, respectively. The edible component, polished rice, accounted for 32% of the total dry weight. In the entire rice plants, only 0.5% of the total 90 Sr and 10% of the total 137 Cs were found in polished rice. Contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the above ground parts were 0.84 and 0.021 Bq m -2 , respectively. For each cropping, the percentages of 90 Sr and 137 Cs uptake from the upper soil layer to the aboveground biomass of rice plants were calculated as 0.094 and 0.0030% of their soil inventories, respectively. (author)

  6. (90)Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia; Wang, Yuanzhong; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The (90)Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996-2013. Measurement of (90)Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed (90)Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the (90)Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1998-2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed (90)Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Concentration of (90)Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. In several other species from Poland (90)Sr was at <0.5 to around 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Activity concentrations of (90)Sr in popular B. edulis and some other mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (<1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass), and values noted showed on persistence of this type of radioactivity in mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Contents of 90Sr, 137Cs and 144Ce in tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Qiu Yundian; Wang Zhihui; Wang Fenghua

    1996-01-01

    The determination results of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 144 Ce contents in 18 kinds of tea goods are reported. The tea samples were pretreated by ashing and analyzed by combined radiochemical procedure. the results showed the average contents of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 144 Ce in tea goods available in 1985 are 17, 2.2 and 0.8 Bq/kg respectively

  8. Accumulation of 90Sr to cattle and horse bones in Hokkaido

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikayama, Yukio; Yagi, Yukio; Shiono, Hiroki; Watanabe, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Since herbivores like cattle and horse take plants contaminated by radioactive fallout, 90 Sr in their bones can be a excellent biological measure of environmental radioactive pollution. The authors continued and reported such investigations on 90 Sr accumulation from 1957 and this paper described the summary from 1987 to 1996. Samples of 225 cattle bones and 257 horse bones were treated at 900 deg C for 5-6 hr. 90 Y extracted by (2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from the samples was measured in the low back-ground gas-flow counter and the concentrations (mBq/g·Ca) of the parent nuclide 90 Sr were estimated. Bone level of 90 Sr, after peaked at 1965-1966, had deceased thereafter and became the minimum at 1995 in the cattle and at 1996 in the horse. Horse bones contained the higher 90 Sr level than cattle's. There was a positive correlation between the age and 90 Sr concentration. In conclusion, the environmental radioactivity due to the fallout is low at present in Hokkaido. (K.H.)

  9. The main regularities of 90Sr migration in mother-fetus biological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, B.K.

    1980-01-01

    Complex investigations into levels of 90 Sr administration into the organism of child-bearing women and levels of its buildup in the skeleton of the developing fetus are carried out. Investigations are aimed at finding out quantitative regularities of 90 Sr transition from mother organism to the fetus during its womb development. Parents of children studied had no contact with ionizing radiation. 90 Sr content in the bone tissue of the fetus in the period from 4 to 10 moon months is shown to increase ten-fold. 90 Sr buildup occurs unevenly. 90 Sr is most actively accumulated in bones at the early stages of pregnancy, as well as in the last month before child bearing. In all parts of the mother-fetus biological chain 90 Sr is accompanied by its chemical analogue - calcium. Results of calculations using the example of stable strontium show that certain strontium discrimination takes place at earlier pregnancy stages. Strontium and calcium come to the bone tissue of the fetus in the same correlations as they come in mother blood

  10. A survey of 90Sr and 137Cs activity levels of retail foods in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukawa, J.; Tsubuku, C.; Hayano, K.; Hirano, K.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive survey was conducted on 90 Sr and 137 Cs activity levels in retail foods purchased from retail markets all over Japan during the period 1989-1994, and the annual effective dose equivalent due to dietary ingestion was estimated. The concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the food samples were determined using γ-ray spectrometry and the radiochemical method. The following were clarified by this study: (1) The 90 Sr and 137 Cs activity concentration levels were below 1 Bq kg -1 for almost all food samples except for the dried foods. (2) The activity concentration levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in foods of animal origin were different from those of plant origin. Generally, the former had higher 137 Cs and lower 90 Sr activity concentrations than the latter. (3) The mean and maximum values of the annual effective dose equivalent from a dietary intake of 90 Sr and 137 Cs by the consumption of retail foods were estimated to be as low as 1·3 and 4·1 μSv, respectively. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Investigations of 90Sr Activity Concentrations in Animal Bones in Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracic, M.; Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents investigations of 90Sr activity concentrations in long bones of some domestic animals (cows, pigs, lambs) collected over the last ten years in the Republic of Croatia. The investigations are a part of an extended and still ongoing monitoring programme of radioactive contamination of human environment of Croatia. Bone is critical organ for the accumulation of many radionuclides, including 90Sr, a highly toxic radionuclide, similar to calcium in its chemical behaviour and metabolic processes. It has been found that the 90Sr activity concentrations in bones differ between respective animal species, the highest activity concentrations being found in lamb bones in year 2005 (472.61 mBqgCa -1 or 2.14 Bqkg -1 ). In cow bones highest value being found was in 1998, being 611.42 mBqgCa -1 or 69.09 Bqkg -1 90Sr. The transient increases and decreases in 90Sr activity concentrations in bones can be partially explained by a variety of environmental physical and biochemical factors that naturally fluctuate. As the levels of stable strontium in bone tissue is strongly correlated to calcium content of bone, 90Sr can be used as efficient radiotracer of stable strontium, which is itself important since it positively affects bone metabolism promoting bone formation and decreasing bone resorption, leading to normalized bone density.(author)

  12. Investigations of 90 SR activity concentrations in animal bones in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maracic, M.; Franic, Z.; Marovic, G. [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    The paper describes investigations of 90 Sr activity concentrations in long bones of some domestic animals (cows, pigs and lambs) collected over the last ten years in the Republic of Croatia. These investigations are a part of an extended and still ongoing monitoring programme of radioactive contamination of human environment in Croatia. Bone is a critical organ for the accumulation of many radionuclides, including 90 Sr, a highly toxic radionuclide, similar to calcium in its chemicalaviour and metabolic processes. It has been found that the 90 Sr activity concentrations in bones differ between respective animal species, the highest activity concentrations being found in lamb bones. As the decrease of activity concentrations can be generally described by the exponential function, by fitting the measured data to the theoretical curve was estimated the ecological half-life of 90 Sr in bones of respective species. In addition was investigated the relation between 90 Sr activity concentrations in bones and fallout. The transient increases and decreases in 90 Sr activity concentrations in bones can be partially explained by a variety of environmental physical factors that naturally fluctuate. (authors)

  13. Immune System Modifications Induced in a Mouse Model of Chronic Exposure to (90)Sr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synhaeve, Nicholas; Musilli, Stefania; Stefani, Johanna; Nicolas, Nour; Delissen, Olivia; Dublineau, Isabelle; Bertho, Jean-Marc

    2016-03-01

    Strontium 90 ((90)Sr) remains in the environment long after a major nuclear disaster occurs. As a result, populations living on contaminated land are potentially exposed to daily ingesting of low quantities of (90)Sr. The potential long-term health effects of such chronic contamination are unknown. In this study, we used a mouse model to evaluate the effects of (90)Sr ingestion on the immune system, the animals were chronically exposed to (90)Sr in drinking water at a concentration of 20 kBq/l, for a daily ingestion of 80-100 Bq/day. This resulted in a reduced number of CD19(+) B lymphocytes in the bone marrow and spleen in steady-state conditions. In contrast, the results from a vaccine experiment performed as a functional test of the immune system showed that in response to T-dependent antigens, there was a reduction in IgG specific to tetanus toxin (TT), a balanced Th1/Th2 response inducer antigen, but not to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), a strong Th2 response inducer antigen. This was accompanied by a reduction in Th1 cells in the spleen, consistent with the observed reduction in specific IgG concentration. The precise mechanisms by which (90)Sr acts on the immune system remain to be elucidated. However, our results suggest that (90)Sr ingestion may be responsible for some of the reported effects of internal contamination on the immune system in civilian populations exposed to the Chernobyl fallout.

  14. 137Cs and 90Sr in dairy and farm milk in Finnish Lapland 1960-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.; Rissanen, K.

    2003-01-01

    The decrease rates of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk were studied in the years following the atmospheric nuclear weapon testings and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The highest 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in the 1960's in Finnish milk were recorded in Lapland even though the deposition of 90 Sr and 137 Cs did not significantly differ between other localities in Finland, and they were not greater in northern Finland. This was mainly due to the high proportion of peat soils and nutrient deficiency of the pastures in Lapland. 137 Cs deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in Lapland was less than 1 kBq m-2, and 90 Sr deposition was so low that there was no detectable increase in the 90 Sr concentration in milk. The ecological half-lives were estimated for the decrease in the concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr after the end of nuclear weapon testings period and the Chernobyl fallout during short and longer time intervals. (orig.)

  15. Distribution of {sup 90}Sr activities in the environmental radiation samples of Jeju Island, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chung Hun; Park, Youn Hyun; Lee, Young Gyu; Park, Jae Woo [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This work was to get information about {sup 90}Sr contamination of the environment by using soil and moss from selected areas in Jeju Island, Korea. The activities of {sup 90}Sr in soil and moss samples were investigated at nine locations of Jeju island, Korea. The soil samples have been collected at 4 sites of Jeju island during June to August of 2013, analyzed for vertical distribution of {sup 90}Sr activities. The moss samples have been collected at 5 sites of Jeju island during November of 2011 to June of 2012, and analyzed for radioactive {sup 90}Sr. The {sup 90}Sr vertical concentrations in the investigated soil samples were 2.77 to 18.24 Bq·kg{sup -1} in eastern part, 1.69 to 18.27 Bq·kg{sup -1} in northern part, 3.76 to 13.46 Bq·kg{sup -1} in the western part and 1.09 to 8.70 Bq·kg{sup -1} in the southern part of the Mt. Halla in Jeju island, respectively. Activities of {sup 90}Sr show the highest value at the surface soil and decrease with depth. The activity concentration measured was in the range of 79.6 to 363 Bq·kg{sup -1} -dry moss. This material is expected to be basis reference for survey of environmental radioactivity in Jeju Island.

  16. EPR and TL-based beta dosimetry measurements in various tooth components contaminated by 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronese, I.; Fattibene, P.; Cantone, M.C.; De Coste, V.; Giussani, A.; Onori, S.; Shishkina, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermoluminescence-based beta dosimetry, previously proposed for the estimate of the internal contamination in teeth, and EPR has been used in this paper to investigate the homogeneity of 90 Sr contamination and of dose within nine teeth of one person born in the year of the onset of waterborne radioactive releases of the Mayak plutonium facility. A large deviation of dose and activity distributions in both enamel and radical dentine of the various teeth was observed. Average dose was 27±7Gy in enamel and 0.90±0.31Gy in radical dentine. Average 90 Sr concentration was 52±8Bq/g in enamel and 5±2Bq/g in radical dentine. The observed deviation around the mean value of dose and 90 Sr concentration can be explained due to the specific mineral evolution of each tooth at the time of Sr intake. In the same donor, a negative correlation was also observed between radical dentine and enamel for the 90 Sr specific activity as well for the dose. Similar analyses performed on one massive molar belonging to a second donor revealed absence of correlation between dose and 90 Sr concentration in the same tissue, indicating a dose contribution from 90 Sr present in neighbouring tissue compartments. Systematic differences in cumulated dose and activity levels between the lingual and the buccal parts of crown dentine and of enamel were also observed

  17. Investigations of 90 SR activity concentrations in animal bones in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracic, M.; Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes investigations of 90 Sr activity concentrations in long bones of some domestic animals (cows, pigs and lambs) collected over the last ten years in the Republic of Croatia. These investigations are a part of an extended and still ongoing monitoring programme of radioactive contamination of human environment in Croatia. Bone is a critical organ for the accumulation of many radionuclides, including 90 Sr, a highly toxic radionuclide, similar to calcium in its chemical behaviour and metabolic processes. It has been found that the 90 Sr activity concentrations in bones differ between respective animal species, the highest activity concentrations being found in lamb bones. As the decrease of activity concentrations can be generally described by the exponential function, by fitting the measured data to the theoretical curve was estimated the ecological half-life of 90 Sr in bones of respective species. In addition was investigated the relation between 90 Sr activity concentrations in bones and fallout. The transient increases and decreases in 90 Sr activity concentrations in bones can be partially explained by a variety of environmental physical factors that naturally fluctuate. (authors)

  18. Studies on the leukemogenic and immunologic effects of radiostrontium (90Sr) and x rays in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.; Nagao, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Yokoro, K.

    1976-01-01

    The leukemogenic effect of internal irradiation with radiostrontium ( 90 Sr) was compared with that of external irradiation with x rays in ICR/JCL mice. Immunological, hematological, and cytogenetical changes were also studied during the preleukemic period in mice treated with 90 Sr or with x rays. A single intraperitoneal injection of 1.0 μCi of 90 Sr per gram of body weight resulted in leukemia in 62 percent of the mice. Only one of the 90 Sr-induced leukemias was of thymic origin. The occurrence of the leukemia was not affected by thymectomy. A fractionated whole-body x-irradiation of 680 R induced leukemia in 77 percent of the mice; the majority of the leukemias were of thymic origin. Although x-irradiation over the thymic region was ineffective in eliciting leukemia, a combined treatment of 90 Sr and local x-irradiation of the thymus was effective in inducing thymic lymphomas. The single intraperitoneal administration of 90 Sr caused an enhancement of both direct and indirect splenic plaque-forming cell (PFC) responses to sheep red blood cells, lasting for 35 days after treatment. No changes were observed in delayed-type hypersensitivity to picryl chloride. Thymectomy caused no appreciable effect in these immune responses. The fractionated whole-body x-irradiation rapidly depressed both PFC and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, which persisted for a long period, especially in thymectomized mice. An abrupt increase of chromosomally aberrant cells in the thymus 60 days after the last x-irradiation was preceded by an increase of aberrant population in the bone marrow. On the other hand, a long-lasting appearance of aberrant population in the bone marrow and lymph nodes was observed in 90 Sr-injected mice

  19. Country report: Syria. Development of 90Y/90Sr Generator and 90Y Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassine, Taufik; Mukhallalati, Ch. Heyam

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a technique for preparation of 90 Sr- 90 Y generator, we have developed a separation technique for isolation of 90 Y from 90 Sr based on using Sr – Spec resin packed in three columns for separation and purification of 90 Sr- 90 Y .The resulting Y90 is used for therapeutic applications. The first part of this project describe a prototype design for the 90 Sr- 90 Y generator in order to get a very accurate method to obtain the minimum possible 90 Sr Breakthrough. 25 mci of 90 Sr was used in the generator 90 Sr- 90 Y and we obtained the elution yield of 90 Y higher than 88%, Also the eluate was used for preparation of several 90 Y radiopharmaceuticals such as 90 YEDTMP and 90 Y-DOTA-HR 3 . And the work is continues to investigate more radiopharmaceuticals applications in the second part of this project such as 90 Y– FHMA. In this part of the co-coordination research programmer, A protocol based on results of this studies was developed to prepare and operate a higher activity generator (50-100mci), the resulting elution yield was approximately 94% of 90 Y . The elute was used in preparation of new 90 Y radiopharmaceuticals. The monoclonal antibodies is still evolving by conjugate Rituximab to The macrocyclic bifunctional chelating agent,(p-SCN-Bn-DOTA)S-2-(4-Isothiocyanatobenzyle)-1,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane-tetraaceticacid to obtain the inmunoconjugate DOTA-Rituximub in simple way and then investigating the radio labeling conditions with 90 Y. (author)

  20. Distributions of 137Cs and 90Sr in the soil of Uljin, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Wan; Maeng, Seong Jin; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of baseline data collection and enhancement of environmental monitoring the distribution studies of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the soil of Uljin province was performed and the relation between surface soil activities and soil properties (pH, TOC and median of the surface soil) was analyzed. For 14 spots within 10 km from the NPP surface soil samples were collected and soils for depth profile were sampled for 3 spots in April 2011. Using γ-ray spectrometry with HPGe detector, the concentrations of 137 Cs were determined and the concentrations of 90 Sr were measured by counting β-activity of 90 Y (in equilibrium with 90 Sr) in a gas flow proportional counter. The concentration ranges of 137 Cs and 90 Sr were <0.479-39.6 Bq (kg-dry)-1 (avg. 7.51 Bq·(kg-dry)-1) and 0.209-1.85 Bq·(kg-dry)-1 (avg. 0.74 Bq·(kg-dry)-1) which were similar to the reported values from other regions in Korea. The activity ratio of 137 Cs to 90 Sr in surface soils was around 9.67, which is much bigger than the initial value of 1.75 for worldwide fallouts because of faster downward movement of 90 Sr after fall-out than that of 137 Cs. For depth profile studies soils were collected down to 40 cm depth for the locations of Deokgu, Hujeong and Maehwa. The 137 Cs concentration distribution of the first two showed maximum values at top soils and decreased rapidly in exponential manner, while 90 Sr showed two local maximum values for soils near top and about 30 cm depth. Through linear fittings between the 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentrations of surface soil and pH, TOC and median of the surface soil, the only probable relationship obtained was between 137 Cs and TOC (determination coefficient R2=0.6). The concentration ranges of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in Uljin were similar to the reported values from other regions in Korea. The only probable relationship obtained between activities and soil properties was between 137 Cs and TOC

  1. Distributions of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the soil of Uljin, South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Wan; Maeng, Seong Jin; Lee, Sang Hoon [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    For the purpose of baseline data collection and enhancement of environmental monitoring the distribution studies of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the soil of Uljin province was performed and the relation between surface soil activities and soil properties (pH, TOC and median of the surface soil) was analyzed. For 14 spots within 10 km from the NPP surface soil samples were collected and soils for depth profile were sampled for 3 spots in April 2011. Using γ-ray spectrometry with HPGe detector, the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs were determined and the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr were measured by counting β-activity of {sup 90}Y (in equilibrium with {sup 90}Sr) in a gas flow proportional counter. The concentration ranges of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were <0.479-39.6 Bq (kg-dry)-1 (avg. 7.51 Bq·(kg-dry)-1) and 0.209-1.85 Bq·(kg-dry)-1 (avg. 0.74 Bq·(kg-dry)-1) which were similar to the reported values from other regions in Korea. The activity ratio of {sup 137}Cs to {sup 90}Sr in surface soils was around 9.67, which is much bigger than the initial value of 1.75 for worldwide fallouts because of faster downward movement of {sup 90}Sr after fall-out than that of {sup 137}Cs. For depth profile studies soils were collected down to 40 cm depth for the locations of Deokgu, Hujeong and Maehwa. The {sup 137}Cs concentration distribution of the first two showed maximum values at top soils and decreased rapidly in exponential manner, while {sup 90}Sr showed two local maximum values for soils near top and about 30 cm depth. Through linear fittings between the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr concentrations of surface soil and pH, TOC and median of the surface soil, the only probable relationship obtained was between {sup 137}Cs and TOC (determination coefficient R2=0.6). The concentration ranges of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in Uljin were similar to the reported values from other regions in Korea. The only probable relationship obtained between activities and soil properties

  2. 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in edible mushrooms at the territory of the Lithuanian SSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauskurdis, S.I.; Tamulenajte, O.P.; Nedvetskajte, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    Results of studying 90 Sr and 137 Cs content in edible mushrooms in Lithuania before and after the Chernobyl accident (1984-1986) are presented. It is shown that after accident release in 1986 mushroom contamination with cesium isotopes increased about 4 times as compared to 1985 and 90 Sr activity preserved the same level. Radioisotope accumulation in mushrooms after the Chernobyl accident is studied depending on the mechanical composition of soil, pH and Ca quantity. It is ascertained that in carbonate, alkaline, reach with Ca and K soils 90 Sr and 137 Cs mobility is reduced and their absorption by mushroom is weakened. In light by mechanical composition (sandy), depleted by Ca soil 90 Sr arrival to mushrooms is 2.4 times higher than in soils with high Ca content. The quantity of water-soluble 90 Sr is maximal in soil with low pH and minimal content of exchange Ca. Radioactive contamination of mushrooms depends on the terrain relief and type of mushrooms. It is shown that radioactive contamination of mushrooms in 1986 did not exceede the admissible standard. 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Depth migration of Chernobyl originated 137Cs and 90Sr in soils of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, L.M.; Kadatsky, V.B.

    1996-01-01

    Depth migration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr was studied in soils of reference sites that have different environmental characteristics and are situated in all four radiochemical regions of Belarus. The parameters as used were: the fraction of the nuclide inventory below a depth of 2 cm; the fraction of the nuclide inventory below a depth of 5 cm; and the thickness of the top soil layer containing 90% of the nuclide inventory. Despite the apparent differences in the nuclide migration at various sites, some common tendencies were observed. During the first 3-5 years after the accident, the 90 Sr depth migration at several watershed and terrace sites did not exceed that of 137 Cs. About 5-15% of the nuclide inventories are below the depth of 5 cm, and 90% are contained in the top 3-7 cm soil layer. However, at the floodplain reference sites, a pronounced tendency for a higher migration rate of 90 Sr was revealed. Less than 5% of the 137 Cs inventory but about 5-30% of the 90 Sr inventory are below 5 cm, and the top soil layer containing 90% of the nuclide inventory is 1-2 cm thicker for 90 Sr. (Author)

  4. Determination of 90Sr in environmental samples by microwave assisted digestion - chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.M.; Llaurado, M.; Rauret, G.

    1998-01-01

    The stages involved in the determination of 90 Sr in environmental samples are: sample attack, radiochemical separation (of both 90 Sr and its progeny 90 Y) and measurement. For the determination of 90 Sr, the introduction of microwave-assisted digestion methods has improved acid attack by drastically decreasing both digestion time and the volume of acidic reagents. Recent studies describe many applications of microwave-assisted methods for the determination of inorganic and organometallic compounds in several matrices. We have recently studied the microwave-assisted digestion of soils for the 90 Sr determination. The presented work extends the application of microwaves for the 90 Sr determination to other environmental samples such as sediments, vegetation and milk. An open-focused microwave system, which accepts large samples intakes usually required for radioanalytical chemistry due to the low level content of radionuclides in environmental samples, was used. This system can handle up to 10 g of sample intake which, in many cases, is enough to have acceptable limits of detection. Different digestion procedures are optimised for each matrix studied, paying special attention to the microwave power, the time of digestion and the volume of acidic reagents. Once the sample is in solution a new separation procedure using a specific resin -Sr.Spec- is applied and the measurement is performed by liquid scintillation. The results obtained are compared with a previously optimised method based on liquid-liquid extraction of 90 Y and Cerenkov radiation measurement

  5. Analytical Study of 90Sr Betavoltaic Nuclear Battery Performance Based on p-n Junction Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahastama, Swastya; Waris, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Previously, an analytical calculation of 63 Ni p-n junction betavoltaic battery has been published. As the basic approach, we reproduced the analytical simulation of 63 Ni betavoltaic battery and then compared it to previous results using the same design of the battery. Furthermore, we calculated its maximum power output and radiation- electricity conversion efficiency using semiconductor analysis method.Then, the same method were applied to calculate and analyse the performance of 90 Sr betavoltaic battery. The aim of this project is to compare the analytical perfomance results of 90 Sr betavoltaic battery to 63 Ni betavoltaic battery and the source activity influences to performance. Since it has a higher power density, 90 Sr betavoltaic battery yields more power than 63 Ni betavoltaic battery but less radiation-electricity conversion efficiency. However, beta particles emitted from 90 Sr source could travel further inside the silicon corresponding to stopping range of beta particles, thus the 90 Sr betavoltaic battery could be designed thicker than 63 Ni betavoltaic battery to achieve higher conversion efficiency. (paper)

  6. Measurement of 90Sr concentrations in the environment of Serpong Nuclear Energy Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarbaini; Yatim, S.; Untara

    2000-01-01

    The activity of 90 Sr have been measured in surface soil and river sediment samples collected in 1996 from the environment of the nuclear Energy Research Establishment (PPTN) of Serpong, Indonesia. The objective of research was to evaluate the existence of 90 Sr in the environment as impact of nuclear activities in the PPTN Serpong. Strontium-90 was determined by a radiochemical separating method and counting its daughter(90Y), with a low background beta counter. The results showed that the 90 Sr concentration were obtained in the range of 0.10 to 0.27 Bq kg-1 with average 0.19 Bq kg-1, dry weight. The activity ratio of 90Sr to 137Cs were obtained in the range of 3-6, that closed to the ratio for those radionuclides originate from fallout. From these results, it was concluded that 90 Sr in the environment of the PPTN Serpong was brought mainly by the fallout due to the nuclear weapon test explosion in the atmosphere

  7. Gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables of Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.Y.; Jun, J.S.; Oh, H.P. (Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Republic of Korea))

    1984-06-01

    The measurement of gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables such as Brassica Campestris, Raphanus Sativus and Lactuca Sativa grown in Daejeon area was carried out during the period of April through August 1983. The observed levels of gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the levels of the vegetables were, on average, 189.2+-51.8pCi/g-ash (2372+-827pCi/kg-fresh) and 44.4+-11.5sup(90)Sr pCi/g-Ca(2.5+-0.5sup(90) pCi/g-ash or 31.6+-8.6 sup(90)Sr pCi/kg-fresh), respectively, while the mean level of the gross beta activity in roots was 158.6+-19.4pCi/g-ash(2121+-899pCi/kg-fresh). On the basis of the ICRP recommendations, an estimative evaluation was made for the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables, and it was turned out to be far below the permissible level. An attempt was also made to look for any existing difference in the gross beta, activities of the vegetables grown in vinyl house and in open field, taking seasonal variation of airborne radioactivity into account for normalizing the activity deposited during the course of discrepant farming period.

  8. Annual intake of 137Cs and 90Sr from ingestion of main foodstuffs in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chih-Jung; Lai, Shu-Ying; Huang, Ching-Chung; Lin, Yu-ming

    1996-01-01

    The radioactivities of eight main foodstuffs were investigated during 1985-1994 to evaluate the annual intake from the ingestion of 137 Cs and 90 Sr for the residents of Taiwan. The evaluation of annual intake was based on the results of radiochemical analysis of 90 Sr and gamma-ray spectrometry of 137 Cs as well as annual consumption rates of those foodstuffs in Taiwan. The annual intake 90 Sr and 137 Cs per capita is 13 and 60 Bq, respectively. Among the eight foodstuffs, fruit contributed the most to the annual intake of 90 Sr, vegetable second, rice the third and egg the least. For 137 Cs, rice contributed the most, then fruit, meat the third and flour the least. Based on the new conversion factors from ICRP 60, the annual committed effective doses of Taiwanese due to the ingestion of radionuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs were estimated to be 3.7 x 10 -7 and 7.8 x 10 -7 Sv, respectively. (author)

  9. Calibration of the 90Sr+90Y ophthalmic and dermatological applicators with an extrapolation ionization minichamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patrícia L.; Oliveira, Mércia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2014-01-01

    90 Sr+ 90 Y clinical applicators are used for brachytherapy in Brazilian clinics even though they are not manufactured anymore. Such sources must be calibrated periodically, and one of the calibration methods in use is ionometry with extrapolation ionization chambers. 90 Sr+ 90 Y clinical applicators were calibrated using an extrapolation minichamber developed at the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN. The obtained results agree satisfactorily with the data provided in calibration certificates of the sources. - Highlights: • 90 Sr+ 90 Y clinical applicators were calibrated using a mini-extrapolation chamber. • An extrapolation curve was obtained for each applicator during its calibration. • The results were compared with those provided by the calibration certificates. • All results of the dermatological applicators presented lower differences than 5%

  10. A special mini-extrapolation chamber for calibration of 90Sr+90Y sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mercia L; Caldas, Linda V E

    2005-01-01

    90 Sr+ 90 Y applicators are commonly utilized in brachytherapy, including ophthalmic procedures. The recommended instruments for the calibration of these applicators are extrapolation chambers, which are ionization chambers that allow the variation of their sensitive volume. Using the extrapolation method, the absorbed dose rate at the applicator surface can be determined. The aim of the present work was to develop a mini-extrapolation chamber for the calibration of 90 Sr+ 90 Y beta ray applicators. The developed mini-chamber has a 3.0 cm outer diameter and is 11.3 cm in length. An aluminized polyester foil is used as the entrance window while the collecting electrode is made of graphited polymethylmethacrylate. This mini-chamber was tested in 90 Sr+ 90 Y radiation beams from a beta particle check source and with a plane ophthalmic applicator, showing adequate results

  11. 137Cs Dan 90Sr Concentration In Several Vegetables From Lahat South Sumatra Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emlinarti; Tutik-Indiyati

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in several vegetables, i.e beans, green peas, spinachs, gourd, nightshade, cabbages, carrots and potatoes, collected from Lahat. South Sumatra had been carried out. Analysis radiochemically were carried out, 137 Cs precipitated with ammmoniumphosphomolybdate. The samples were measured using the gamma spectrometer with the high purity germanium detector (HP-Ge). 90 Sr precipitated with fuming HNO 3 and measured using alpha/beta Low Background Counter system (LBC). Concentration of 137 Cs in the samples were varied from undetectable to (0.041 ± 0.015) Bq/kg and concentration of 90 Sr were varied from undetectable to (0.049 ± 0.017) Bq/kg. Compared with similar foodstuffs collected from several places in Lampung province, these results are relatively not different. (author)

  12. Cerenkov Counter for In-Situ Groundwater Monitoring of 90Sr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay C. Todd

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater contamination from 90Sr is an environmental challenge posed topresent and former nuclear weapons related sites. Traditional methods of extractinggroundwater samples and performing laboratory analyses are expensive, time-consumingand induce significant disposal challenges. The authors present here a prototype countercapable of measuring 90Sr groundwater concentrations in-situ at or below the drinking waterlimit of 8 pCi/liter. The 90Y daughter of 90Sr produces high-energy electrons, which cancreate Cerenkov light. Photomultiplier tubes convert the Cerenkov light into an electronicpulse, which then undergoes signal processing with standard electronics. Strontium-90concentrations near the drinking water limit can be measured in a matter of hours if it is insecular equilibrium with the 90Y daughter. The prototype counter is compact, can bedeployed in an American Standard 6-inch, well while operated by a single person, andtransmits the results to a central monitoring location.

  13. Dose-response relationships for bone tumors in beagles exposed to 226Ra and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, O.G.; Parks, N.J.; Book, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    385 dogs were exposed to 90 Sr in food from mid-gestation to 540 days of age. 243 young adult dogs were given eight fortnightly injections of 226 Ra. Comparison was made with available mouse and human 226 Ra bone tumor data. The major findings were: a) the occurrence of bone tumor related deaths was much less for 90 Sr than for 226 Ra exposed dogs. b) RBE for bone tumors from 90 Sr-Y varied as a function of average dose rate to bone. c) people require 10 times as long as mice and 3.6 times as long as dogs to develop 226 Ra-induced bone tumors at a given skeletal dose rate. d) based on the results, a practical threshold for bone cancer from 226 Ra was estimated to exist at cumulative doses of about 50-110 rad for dogs, mice and people. (author)

  14. Single inhalation exposure to 90SrCl2 in the Beagle dog: early hematological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, N.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Rebar, A.H.; McClellan, R.O.

    1985-01-01

    Young adult Beagle dogs were exposed once to aerosols containing 90 SrCl 2 to obtain initial body burdens ranging from 2.5 to 250 uCi 90 Sr/kg body weight and subsequently observed throughout their life span. All of the dogs are now dead. The primary cause of death over the entire length of the study was radiation-induced osteosarcomas. However, six dogs died at less than 30 days after exposure as a result of a radiation-induced bone marrow aplasia. Review of hematological parameters of all dogs showed a similar, consistent, and often dramatic pancytopenia in those animals having a long-term retained burden of greater than 10 uCi 90 Sr/kg. The hematologic changes were similar to those seen in people exposed to high doses of whole body external radiation. 4 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  15. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 90 Sr in a relatively insoluble form to study long-term health effects. Lung burdens ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi of 90 Sr/kg body weight. High levels of exposure resulted in radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis; lower level exposures caused long-term effects, including cancer of the lung, heart, and tracheobronchial lymph modes. Most of these tumors were hemangiosarcomas. Two control dogs and two 90 Sr-exposed dogs died or were euthanized during the past year. One exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of the spleen; the other exposed dog died with pulmonary thrombosis. One control dog died of pulmonary carcinoma, and the other control dog died of a carcinoma of the bladder. The remaining 19 exposed and 11 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation

  16. Determination of 90Sr in waters of discharge of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.M.; Equillor, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    The determination of 90 Sr has some problems because it is a pure beta emitter, and despite the specificity of radiochemical techniques used, their full identification is not always easy, especially when detected low activities. In addition, samples water discharge presents a matrix consisting of a series of fission or activation products, beta / gamma emitters, several of which may interfere with the determination of 90 Sr. This paper describes a simple method for the determination of 90 Sr in water of discharge of nuclear power plants, which is based on the purification of 90 Y, which is used in the ARN since 2009 and has yielded good results to the present, as no interferences were detected in the analysis of the decay of 90 Y. (authors) [es

  17. Assessment of 137Cs and 90Sr Fluxes in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, Gennady; Usiagina, Irina; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Ilin, Gennadii

    2014-05-01

    On the basis of published and own data the annual balance of radionuclide income/outcome was assessed for 137Cs and 90Sr in the Barents Sea for the period from 1950s to the presnt. The scheme of the isotope balance calculation in the Barents Sea included the following processes:atmospheric fallout; river run-off; liquid radioactive wastes releases, income from the Norwegian and the White Seas; outflow to the adjacent areas through the Novaya Zemlya straits and the transects Svalbard-Franz Josef Land and Franz Josef Land-Novaya Zemlya; radioactive decay. According to the multiyear dynamics, the inflow of 137Cs and 90Sr to the Barents Sea was significantly preconditioned by currents from the Norwegian Sea. Three peaks of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope concentrations were registered for the surface waters on the western border of the Barents Sea. The first one was observed in the mid-1960s and was conditioned by testing of nuclear weapons. The increase of isotope concentrations in 1975 and 1980 was preconditioned by the discharge of atomic waste by the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Nowadays, after the sewage disposal plant was built, the annual discharge of nuclear waste from Sellafield plant is low. The Norwegian Sea was a major source of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope income into the Barents Sea for the period of 1960-2014. Currently, the transborder transfer of 90Sr and 137Cs from the Norwegian Sea into the Barents Sea constitutes about 99% of income for each element. Atmospheric precipitation had a major impact in the 1950-1960s after the testing of the nuclear weapons, and in 1986 after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. In 1963, the atmospheric precipitation of 137Cs reached 1050 TBq; and that of 90Sr, 630 TBq. In 1986, a significant amount of 137Cs inflow (up to 1010 TBq/year) was registered. The 137Cs isotope income exceeded the 90Sr income in the 1960s-1980s, and equal amounts penetrated into the Barents Sea from the Norwegian Sea in the 1990s. Before

  18. Retention of 137Cs and 90Sr by mineral sorbents surrounding vitrified nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, K.E.; Patterson, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    In June 1960, twenty-five 14-cm diameter hemispheres of vitrified nuclear waste (glass blocks) were buried in a shallow sand aquifer in the lower Perch Lake Basin, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario, Canada. Almost all leaching of the glass blocks occurred during the first 18 months of emplacement, and consequently the burial experiment approximated a single-injection source of 137 Cs and 90 Sr. After about 11 years, most of the 90 Sr that was released had been advected and dispersed from the site, whereas the bulk of the 137 Cs had travelled no more than 0.3 m from the blocks. Three piezometers were installed and five cores of sediment were collected at the glass block site in 1978. Mineralogically pure segregates of sand grains were prepared by hand and characterized using binocular, petrographic and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A technique also was developed to measure very low levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr by counting small (10-100 mg) sediment samples directly with a thin window, flow proportional counter. Results show that sand-sized grains of altered biotite (biotite-vermiculite), biotite, muscovite, hornblende and serictized feldspar are able to retain 137 Cs over a period of 18 years, and that grains of biotite-vermiculite, biotite and hematite-bearing feldspar (largely microline) can retain low levels of 90 Sr over the same period of time. The amounts of 137 Cs and 90 Sr sorbed by the mineral grains ranged from undetectable levels to approximately 380 and 35 becquerels/gram sediment, respectively. This report contains the complete series of mineral segregates ranked on a weight basis according to the amounts of retained 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Ground-water quality data indicate that none of the retention is the result of the precipitation of strontium or cesium minerals

  19. Influence of a chronic 90Sr contamination by ingestion on the hematopoietic, immune and bone systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synhaeve, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Strontium 90 ( 90 Sr) is a radionuclide of anthropogenic origin released in large quantities in the environment as a result of nuclear atmospheric tests or accidents at nuclear facilities. 90 Sr persists on a long-term basis in the environment, leading to chronic contamination by ingestion of populations living on contaminated territories. The induction of bone tumours associated with the fixation of 90 Sr has been widely described. However, the occurrence of non-cancer effects is much less known. We used a mouse model with chronic contamination by ingestion of water containing 20 kBq/l of 90 Sr. A bio-kinetic study confirmed the accumulation of 90 Sr in the bones, with an increased rate of accumulation during bone growth. This accumulation was higher in the bones of females than in males. The whole-body absorbed doses ranged from 0.33 ± 0.06 mGy (birth) to 10.6 ± 0.1 mGy (20 weeks). The absorbed dose for the skeleton was up to 55 mGy. Ingestion of 90 Sr induced a change in the expression of genes inducing an imbalance in favour of bone resorption, but without effect on bone morphology. No significant effect was observed for the hematopoietic system. On the other hand, minor modifications were observed for the immune system. To evaluate the functionality of the immune system, a vaccination test with TT and KLH antigens was used. Results showed in contaminated animals a significant decrease in the production of specific immunoglobulins, changes in the Th1/Th2 balance in the spleen and a disrupted B lymphocyte differentiation. These results improve the understanding of some of the noncancerous consequences of chronic exposure at low dose of radionuclides with a long half-life, which can be accidentally released. (author)

  20. Influence of a chronic 90Sr contamination by ingestion on the hematopoietic, immune and bone systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synhaeve, N.

    2011-12-01

    Strontium 90 ( 90 Sr) is a radionuclide of anthropogenic origin released in large quantities in the environment as a result of nuclear atmospheric tests or accidents at nuclear facilities. 90 Sr persists on a long-term basis in the environment, leading to chronic contamination by ingestion of populations living on contaminated territories. The induction of bone tumours associated with the fixation of 90 Sr has been widely described. However, the occurrence of non-cancer effects is much less known. We used a mouse model with chronic contamination by ingestion of water containing 20 kBq/l of 90 Sr. A biokinetic study confirmed the accumulation of 90 Sr in the bones, with an increased rate of accumulation during bone growth. This accumulation was higher in the bones of females than in males. The whole-body absorbed doses ranged from 0.33 ± 0.06 mGy (birth) to 10.6 ± 0.1 mGy (20 weeks). The absorbed dose for the skeleton was up to 55 mGy. Ingestion of 90 Sr induced a change in the expression of genes inducing an imbalance in favour of bone resorption, but without effect on bone morphology. No significant effect was observed for the hematopoietic system. On the other hand, minor modifications were observed for the immune system. To evaluate the functionality of the immune system, a vaccination test with TT and KLH antigens was used. Results showed in contaminated animals a significant decrease in the production of specific immunoglobulins, changes in the Th1/Th2 balance in the spleen and a disrupted B lymphocyte differentiation. These results improve the understanding of some of the non-cancerous consequences of chronic exposure at low dose of radionuclides with a long half-life, which can be accidentally released. (author)

  1. Development of methodology for the preparation of 90Sr-90Y generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, Graciela; Osso, Joao A.

    2008-01-01

    Among the more attractive radionuclides for therapeutic applications is yttrium-90. Its relatively short half-life (64.0h), maximum beta energy (2.28 MeV) make it well suited for a variety of applications, ranging from the radiolabeling of antibodies for tumor therapy to the production of radiolabeled particles for the treatment of liver malignancies. Yttrium-90 results from the decay of strontium-90 (28y) and decays to a stable daughter ( 90 Zr) and has no γ-ray, what makes this nuclide very attractive for therapeutic applications. 90 Y is produced through a generator system, from the decay of 90 Sr. Before it can safely employed in clinical applications, the 90 Y must be made essentially free of 90 Sr, an isotope known to cause bone marrow suppression. The objective of this work is to develop 90 Sr- 90 Y generator using a cation exchange method resin. This method was the most effects for the separation of 90 Y and 90 Sr. 90 Sr is strongly adsorbed in the resin and 90 Y is eluted in 0.003M EDTA. The generator efficiency and radionuclide control results were also evaluated using 85 Sr (γ-ray emitter). The generator was developed, using AG 50WX8 exchange resin converted to the Na+ form and then conditioned with 0.003M EDTA solution (pH=4.8). The quality control showed that 90 Y had no 8 '5Sr impurities, inside the detection limits of the detector. The results presented here are very promising, showing that the methodology is able to separate the two nuclides, with low quantities of 90 Sr impurity and satisfactory elution yields. (author)

  2. Effect of humic acid & bacterial exudates on sorption-desorption interactions of 90Sr with brucite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Hollie; Abrahamsen-Mills, Liam; Bryan, Nick; Foster, Lynn; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Kellet, Simon; Heath, Sarah

    2018-05-18

    One of the nuclear fuel storage ponds at Sellafield (United Kingdom) is open to the air, and has contained a significant inventory of corroded magnox fuel and sludge for several decades. As a result, some fission products have also been released into solution. 90Sr is known to constitute a small mass of the radionuclides present in the pond, but due to its solubility and activity, it is at risk of challenging effluent discharge limits. The sludge is predominantly composed of brucite (Mg(OH)2), and organic molecules are known to be present in the pond liquor with occasional algal blooms restricting visibility. Understanding the chemical interactions of these components is important to inform ongoing sludge retrievals and effluent management. Additionally, interactions of radionuclides with organics at high pH will be an important consideration for the evolution of cementitious backfilled disposal sites in the UK. Batch sorption-desorption experiments were performed with brucite, 90Sr and natural organic matter (NOM) (humic acid (HA) and Pseudanabaena catenata cyanobacterial growth supernatant) in both binary and ternary systems at high pH. Ionic strength, pH and order of addition of components were varied. 90Sr was shown not to interact strongly with the bulk brucite surface in binary systems under pH conditions relevant to the pond. HA in both binary and ternary systems demonstrated a strong affinity for the brucite surface. Ternary systems containing HA demonstrated enhanced sorption of 90Sr at pH 11.5 and vice versa, likely via formation of strontium-humate complexes regardless of the order of addition of components. The distribution coefficients show HA sorption to be reversible at all pH values studied, and it appeared to control 90Sr behaviour at pH 11.5. Ternary systems containing cyanobacterial supernatant demonstrated a difference in 90Sr behaviour when the culture had been subjected to irradiation in the first stages of its growth.

  3. About chemical and biological stimulation of bioleaching of 90Sr from different types of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buravlev, E.P.; Trishin, V.V.; Svyatun, O.V.; Berlizov, A.N.; Kim, In.S.; Ivanov, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    The results of investigation carried out in the frame of international cooperation between the NASU and KOSEF on the creation of effective methods of purification of radioactively polluted soil were performed. The influence of methanogenic, surface-reducing, nitrifying and thiobacilli and also their joint activity with different chemical ingredients on bioleaching of 90 Sr from typical South Korea red soil,artificially radioactively polluted by 90 Sr, and technogenically polluted by the radionuclides from influenced zone of ChNPP was studied, The presence of the largest effect of thiobacilli on soil was shown

  4. Environmental distribution of long-lived radionuclides /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csupka, S [Krajska Hygienicka Stanica, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1977-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1974 the content was investigated of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in various parts of human environment. From food chains milk and dairy products, flour and flour products were chosen being the main sources of radioactivity produced by the above mentioned radionuclides to which the human population is exposed. In 1972 /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in the daily intake of food were responsible for 60 to 70% of total radioactivity in milk and flour products. On a world scale radioactive fallout continues to be the primary source of radioactive contamination with the soil in which radionuclides are accumulated being the secondary source.

  5. Determination of 90Sr, 129I and gross beta radioactivity concentration in some teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan Sahin; Mahmut Dogru

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 90 Sr (540 keVβ - ), 129 I (150 keVβ - ) and the gross beta radioactivity concentrations were determined for the samples of tea as the most leading consumed hot drink in the markets (processed and packaged for sale) in our country. Furthermore, the obtained data were statistically analyzed. For determination of 129 I (150 keVβ - ), 90 Sr (540 keVβ - ) and gross radioactivity concentrations in tea samples, a sensor system consisting of scintillation detector with BP4 probe sensitive to beta radiation and a radiation meter (ST7) configurable for windows at desired power was used. (author)

  6. Determination of 90SR in food using extraction chromatography and LSC - Liquid Scintillation Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temba, Eliane S.C.; Amaral, Angela M.; Reis Junior, Aluisio S.; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.

    2013-01-01

    A methodology for the determination of 90 Sr in food is described. The procedure involved a preliminary freeze-drying of the samples followed by dry-ashing and sample digestion. The separation procedure was carried out using extraction chromatography with Sr Resin, from Eichrom, and 90 Sr was measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). A certified reference material, IAEA-375, was analyzed in order to evaluate the reliability of the method, and the results showed good agreement between the measured and certified values. The chemical yield was above 90% and the typical counting efficiency was 82%. The calculated limit of detection was 4.8 x 10 -3 Bq g -1 . (author)

  7. Assessment of dietary of 90Sr and 137Cs by the population of the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziesak, H.; Kunert, M.; Kunert, J.

    1978-01-01

    Based on data pertaining to the per caput consumption of the most important classes of foodstuffs and their contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, calculations were made to find out the yearly ingestion of these fallout radionuclides by the adult population in 1975. The strong decline in values of ingestion to be noticed since 1964 is due to the falling 90 Sr and 137 Cs levels in most biomedia as well as to changes in nutritional habits and allows a sensible curtailment of the foodstuff monitoring programme for radionuclides to be made. (author)

  8. Adsorption of 90Sr and 90Y by bottom-set beds in the Atlantic ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, V.V.; Shakhova, N.F.; Emel'yanov, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    The behaviour of 90 Sr and 90 Y has been studied in an adsorption system of sea water-bottom-set beds of the Atlantic ocean (red clay; pelitic silt). It has been shown that strontium is present in the sea water in one form, viz, Sr 2+ . Adsorption of 90 Sr with bottom-set beds follows the ion-exchange mechanism. Yttrium is present in the sea water at least three forms (two absorbable and one non-absorbable). Yttrium-90 adsorption is an irreversible process and only about 10% 90 Y is desorbed by the sea water from red clay and silt

  9. Proton-neutron structure of first and second quadrupole excitations of {sup 90}Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severyukhin, A.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Dubna State University, Dubna (Russian Federation); Arsenyev, N.N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pietralla, N.; Werner, V. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    Starting from the Skyrme interaction f{sub -} together with the density-dependent pairing interaction, we study the g factors for the 2{sub 1,2}{sup +} excitations of {sup 88,90}Sr and {sup 90,92}Zr. The coupling between one- and two-phonon terms in the wave functions of excited states is taken into account within the finite-rank separable approximation. Using the same set of parameters we describe available experimental data and give the prediction for {sup 90}Sr, g(2{sub 2}{sup +}) = +0.03 in comparison to +0.31 in the case of {sup 92}Zr. (orig.)

  10. Some characteristics 90Sr and 137Cs metabolism in newborn bank voles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar'kov, M.D.; Gashchak, S.P.; Goryanaya, Yu.A.; Chesser, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    There are reported research results of features of 90 Sr and 137 Cs accumulation and excretion in organism of newborn bank voles in first weeks of the life, on example of 5 litters. Pregnant females were captured in the Chornobyl zone and maintained at laboratory conditions on 'clean' food. Already now it can be said, that amount of 90 Sr and 137 Cs out-take from mother organism with newborn babies considerably higher, than in further with milk (in any case, in first week of lactation). Parameters of 137 Cs transfer from mother to generation are always higher, than 90 Sr one. Peculiarities of radionuclide accumulation in baby's organism are conditioned by chemical properties of the radionuclide. Therefore at conditions of 'depuration' of mother organism 137 Cs contents in babies increases at beginning, then after 30-40% exceeding of initial values it begins to decrease. Everything takes place in first week of life. 90 Sr contents grows over all suckling period long and only then it begins to decrease, if does not intake with food

  11. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from feed to rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semioshkina, N. [GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, Postfach 1129, D-85788 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: semi@gsf.de; Proehl, G. [GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, Postfach 1129, D-85788 Neuherberg (Germany); Savinkov, A. [The Scientific Research Agricultural Institute of the National Biotechnology Center, Ministry for Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan (SRAI), 480544 Gvardeiski (Kazakhstan); Voigt, G. [Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf, IAEA, 1400-Vienna (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    Radiological assessment of the impact of nuclear weapons testing on the local population in the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) requires comprehensive site-specific information on radionuclide behaviour in the environment. However, information on radionuclide behaviour in the conditions of the STS is rather sparse and, in particular, there are no data in the literature on parameters of radionuclide transfer from feed to rabbit products which have been identified as contributors to internal dose to the inhabitants. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr to rabbit meat was studied under laboratory conditions in a controlled experiment with 32 locally bred rabbits maintained in the Kazakh Agricultural Research Institute. The equilibrium transfer coefficients for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from feed to rabbit meat were estimated to be 0.4 d kg{sup -1} and 0.15 d kg{sup -1}, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 0.1 d for {sup 137}Cs and 0.14 d for {sup 90}Sr. Whereas for {sup 137}Cs the distribution in the body is relatively homogeneous, there are large differences between the organs and tissues for {sup 90}Sr for which, as expected, the highest concentrations were found in bone.

  12. The transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr from feed to rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semioshkina, N.; Proehl, G.; Savinkov, A.; Voigt, G.

    2007-01-01

    Radiological assessment of the impact of nuclear weapons testing on the local population in the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) requires comprehensive site-specific information on radionuclide behaviour in the environment. However, information on radionuclide behaviour in the conditions of the STS is rather sparse and, in particular, there are no data in the literature on parameters of radionuclide transfer from feed to rabbit products which have been identified as contributors to internal dose to the inhabitants. The transfer of 137 Cs and 90 Sr to rabbit meat was studied under laboratory conditions in a controlled experiment with 32 locally bred rabbits maintained in the Kazakh Agricultural Research Institute. The equilibrium transfer coefficients for 137 Cs and 90 Sr from feed to rabbit meat were estimated to be 0.4 d kg -1 and 0.15 d kg -1 , respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 0.1 d for 137 Cs and 0.14 d for 90 Sr. Whereas for 137 Cs the distribution in the body is relatively homogeneous, there are large differences between the organs and tissues for 90 Sr for which, as expected, the highest concentrations were found in bone

  13. Determination of 90Sr in low-level radioactive wastes using extraction chromatography and LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temba, Eliane S.C.; Reis Junior, Aluisio S.; Mingote, Raquel M.; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.

    2009-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of 90 Sr in low-level radioactive wastes is presented in this work. It is a part of a methodology developed for the sequential radiochemical separation of radionuclides in low-level radioactive wastes. These radionuclides comprises the actinides and 55 Fe, 63 Ni and 90 Sr, classified as difficult-to-measure (DTM) radionuclides in the radioactive waste characterization, because they cannot be measured by direct measurements, like gamma spectrometry. A variety of methods have been reported in the literature, based on precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and ion exchange. In this work, the separation was carried out using precipitation and extraction chromatography using the Sr Resin (Eichrom). This resin is strontium-selective, the extractant is a crown ether-derivative immobilized on an inert polymeric support. The 90 Sr eluted from column was measured by LSC. The counting was carried out within 5 hours of the start of yttrium ingrowth to minimize interferences from 90 Y. The counting efficiency was calculated by using a 90 Sr standard solution purified by the specific resin. The chemical yield of the procedure was determined gravimetrically by the addition of a stable Sr carrier. Optimum conditions for the pretreatment, separation and LSC setting were determined using simulated samples. This procedure showed to be rapid and achieved a good chemical recovery, with an average of 84 %, and a detection limit of 0.6 Bq L -1 . (author)

  14. On kinetics of 90Sr exchange between Elodea and water surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotina, N.Ya.; Yagov, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    The extraction of 90 Sr from elodea was studied in dependence on the of plant preexposition in isotope-bearing water. Elodea plants were submerged in 90 SrCl 2 solution with the concentration of 20 μCi/l for different periods of time (5 and 30 min; 1,5,10,50,100 and 400 h.); after that they were transfered into pure lake water which at first was changed every minute and then in 2,4,8,20,46,72 and 120 hours. Determined was the isotope content in disorbiny solution, and residual plant radioactivity. Radiometry of preparations was carried out 12-14 days after sampling by PST-100 device with BFL-T-25 counter. Periods of biological half-life of 90 Sr(Tsub(1/2) were determined graphically. It was shown that the retention durability of the isotope in plants increased with plant exposure time in Sr-bearing water. It was determined both by total quantity of radionuclide migrated from elodea into water media and forms of its retention in plants. At small plant expositions in radioactive solutions (from 5 min to 5 h) 90% of 90 Sr migrated during the experiment from elodea into water media, but at 400 hour exposition, only 56%. Two forms of radiostrontium bound with biosubstrate with different degree of retention durability were separated

  15. Occurrence and distribution of bone tumors in beagle dogs exposed to 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.; Book, S.A.; California Univ., Davis

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced bone tumors in beagle dogs exposed to 90 Sr have been evaluated in terms of their incidence, time of appearance, occurrence as multiple tumors, anatomic distribution, and the influence of sex on their development. Among dogs fed 90 Sr during skeletal development, the incidence of bone tumors was dose independent. Tumors thus appeared in 10 of 19 dogs receiving average skeletal doses of 130 Gy, 15 of 60 receiving 97 Gy, 5 of 61 receiving 61 Gy, 2 of 65 receiving 26 Gy, and 1 of 40 receiving 1.3 Gy. No tumors appeared among 66 dogs who received 8 Gy, 78 who received 0.3 Gy, and 80 non-irradiated controls, all of which have been observed for life. Among dogs given a single inravenous injection of 90 Sr in early adulthood, tumor production was somewhat higher than among 90 Sr-fed dogs at the same radiation dose: bone tumors were present in 6 of 25 dogs who received 62 Gy and 1 of 20 dogs who received 7.5 Gy. Bone tumors appeared sooner and were more often multiple in animals receiving the higher doses. Long bones were the sites of most of the tumors appearing after the highest dose level. Bones of the head, particularly the mandible, were the predominant site of tumors in the next highest dose level group. (orig.)

  16. Spatial dispersion modeling of 90Sr by point cumulative semivariogram at Keban Dam Lake, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuelahci, Fatih; Sen, Zekai

    2007-01-01

    Spatial analysis of 90 Sr artificial radionuclide in consequence of global fallout and Chernobyl nuclear accident has been carried out by using the point cumulative semivariogram (PCSV) technique based on 40 surface water station measurements in Keban Dam Lake during March, April, and May 2006. This technique is a convenient tool in obtaining the regional variability features around each sampling point, which yields the structural effects also in the vicinity of the same point. It presents the regional effect of all the other sites within the study area on the site concerned. In order to see to change of 90 Sr, the five models are constituted. Additionally, it provides a measure of cumulative similarity of the regional variable, 90 Sr, around any measurement site and hence it is possible to draw regional similarity maps at any desired distance around each station. In this paper, such similarity maps are also drawn for a set of distances. 90 Sr activities in lake that distance approximately 4.5 km from stations show the maximum similarity

  17. Study on the 90Sr absorption by agricultural plants grown in soil from Daya Bay and Qinshan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhu; Hou Lanxin; Xu Shiming

    1991-03-01

    The soil around the Qinshan and Daya Bay nuclear power plants were used in this study. The 90 Sr was spread into the soil by irrigation. The amount of 90 Sr spread were 0.037, 0.37, 3.7 and 370 Bq per gram soil respectively. After being treated, the soil were employed to grow rice, wheat, rape, bean, asparagus lettuce, tomato and peas. The harvested plants were divided into seeds, stems and leaves, husks and roots to measure their radioactivity separately. The results showed that the amount of 90 Sr absorbed by the plants was directly proportional to the 90 Sr content in the soil. The absorbed 90 Sr was mainly distributed in the stems and leaves. The seeds absorbed the least amount of 90 Sr compared with the other portions. The old leaves absorbed greater 90 Sr than the buds. The accumulated 90 Sr per unit dry weight of all plants grown in the soil from Daya Bay area was greater than in the soil from Qinshan area. More than 80% of total 90 Sr was distributed in the top layer from 0 to 4 cm. The concentration factors of various plants were also given

  18. Using Cherenkov Counting For Fast Determination of 90Sr/90Y Activity in Milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsroya, S.; Dolgin, B.; German, U.; Pelled, O.; Alfassi, Z. B.

    2014-01-01

    90Sr is one of the main long-lived fission products, and it is transferred into human body primarily by food, with milk being a substantial contributor. Due to its biochemical similarity to calcium, most strontium is efficiently incorporated into bone tissues. 90Sr is characterized by a long physical half life (28.8 y) and decays by beta particles with an Emax of 0.546 MeV to 90Y. This daughter isotope has a half life of 64 h and decays into 90Zr by beta particles with an Emax of 2.284 MeV. The milk components produce a high turbidity and light attenuation, causing a significant decrease of the counting efficiency in liquid scintillation counting (LSC) systems, mostly used for beta emitters detection. Most methods proposed in the past are time-consuming, as they are based on several stages of chemical and physical treatments, including precipitation, ashing, ion exchange and extraction (Wikins et al., 1984, Porter et al, 1961, Kimura et al., 1979). When measuring 90Sr/90Y activity by Cherenkov counting, most of the Cherenkov radiation is produced by 90Y (about 98.6%), due to the much higher energy of its beta particles relative to these from 90Sr. The counting efficiency varies strongly with color quenching, at a greater extent than in standard liquid scintillation counting (L'Annunziata, 2012), and therefore the quench correction is critical. The ‘‘external source area ratio’’ (ESAR) quench correction method was applied to measure 90Sr/90Y activities in aqueous samples with a wide range of quenching levels (Tsroya et al., 2009). This method was proved to be superior to all other quench correction methods (Tsroya et al., 2012) and is applicable also for determination of 90Sr/90Y in human urine (Tsroya et al., 2013). In the present work the applicability of the ESAR method to measurement of 90Sr/90Y activities in milk and some of its products was investigated

  19. Toxicity of inhaled 90Sr in fused aluminosilicate particles in beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of 90 Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs have continued during the past year to define the biological consequences of inhaling this important radionuclide in a form which has a long retention time in the lung. One hundred and six dogs were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol of fused aluminosilicate particles labeled with 90 Sr. Initial lung burdens ranged from 0.21 to 94 μCi 90 Sr per kilogram of body weight (μCi/kg). Eighteen control dogs were exposed to an aerosol of stable strontium in fused aluminosilicate particles. These 124 dogs were assigned to the longevity study. An additional 26 dogs were exposed similarly to achieve lung burdens of approximately 1.5 to 12 μCi/kg and assigned for sacrifice at intervals after exposure to define metabolism and dosimetry of this aerosol in Beagle dogs. Of the longevity dogs, 33 dogs having initial lung burdens of 16 to 94 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 40,000 to 96,000 rads have died from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis from 159 to 2373 days after exposure. Thirty-one dogs with initial lung burdens of 3.7 to 36 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 13,000 to 68,000 rads have died from hemangiosarcomas in the lung or heart between 644 and 2565 days after exposure. In addition, one dog developed a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, another developed epidermoid carcinoma of the lung, another died of pneumonia while recovering from anesthesia, one dog died at 1821 days after exposure with a hemangiosarcoma of the spleen and two dogs developed squamous cell carcinomas in the nasal cavity. The remaining exposed dogs and controls of the longevity study are surviving at 1022 to 2803 days after exposure

  20. Transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr from soil to some trees in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Asfary, A. F.; Mukalati, H.; Hamwi, A.; Kanakri, S.

    2004-12-01

    The transfer factor of Cs 137 and 90 Sr from contaminated soil (Aridisol = Yermosol according to FAO - UNESCO) to some common trees (olive, apricot, grape, pine, apple and lemon) were investigated under field condition for 3 to 6 years. There were large variation in transfer factors values among tree species, and between different parts of tree. The values in fruits for 137 Cs were: 0.011 (highest) in Apricot, 0.0071 in olive, and 0.0025 in vine, and about 0.0012 in olive oil (lowest). The mean transfer factor of 137 Cs in the one year old leaves and stems, ranged between 0.011 and 0.0093 in lemon (highest) and 0.0016 and 0.0015 in pine (lowest). The transfer factor values of 90 Sr were much higher than that of 137 Cs, they were in fruits: 0.13 in apricot, 0.093 in olive, and 0.075 in vine and 0.0053 in olive oil. The transfer factors values of 90 Sr ranged in one year old leaves between 2.89 (apple) and 0.1 (pine), while they ranged in one year old stems between 1.91 (apricot) and 0.16 (pine). The transfer factor of both 137 Cs and 90 Sr decrease in most trees parts with time especially in the one year old leaves, due to aging effects. The transfer factor values of 137 Cs and 90 Sr were lower than that reported for other areas. This might be due to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, where the soil used had a loamy clay structure with high ph (7.8) and high CEC (25.9 meq/100g), exchangeable potassium (1.6 meq/100g) and calcium (14.9 meq/100g), further more, climatic condition in the area, like high light intensity, high temperature and low air humidity, can lead to decrease the uptake of both 137 Cs and 90 Sr. (Authors)

  1. 90Sr specific activity of teeth of abandoned cattle after the Fukushima accident - teeth as an indicator of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Chiba, Mirei; Osaka, Ken; Sasaki, Keiichi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Shinoda, Hisashi

    2018-03-01

    90 Sr specific activity in the teeth of young cattle that were abandoned in Kawauchi village and Okuma town located in the former evacuation areas of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident were measured. Additionally, specific activity in contaminated surface soils sampled from the same area was measured. (1) All cattle teeth examined were contaminated with 90 Sr. The specific activity, however, varied depending on the developmental stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident; teeth that had started development before the accident exhibited comparatively lower values, while teeth developed mainly after the accident showed higher values. (2) Values of 90 Sr-specific activity in teeth formed after the FNPP accident were higher than those of the bulk soil but similar to those in the exchangeable fraction (water and CH 3 COONH 4 soluble fractions) of the soil. The findings suggest that 90 Sr was incorporated into the teeth during the process of development, and that 90 Sr in the soluble and/or leachable fractions of the soil might migrate into teeth and contribute to the amount of 90 Sr in the teeth. Thus, the concentration of 90 Sr in teeth formed after the FNPP accident might reflect the extent of 90 Sr pollution in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly. Final tabulation of monthly /sup 90/Sr fallout data: 1954--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report presents the monthly /sup 90/Sr deposition data derived from a global network of stations started in 1954. This program was carried out to assess the distribution patterns and inventory the amount of fallout of radionuclies from atmospheric nuclear tests. In 1976, monthly deposition rates had diminished to the point where measurable levels of /sup 90/Sr were rarely observed.

  3. Migration of 90Sr in the cooling basin of the Ignalina atomic power plant and the Baltic sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushauskiene-Duzh, R.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of a long-time radiation monitoring of the Ignalina APP and the Baltic sea ecosystems determined regularities of the 90 Sr distribution in the main components of the ecosystems (water, bottom sediments, biota). It was established that 90 Sr accumulation coefficient in the aquatic plants of the warmed up water zone of the Ignalina APP is 2.6 lower than that of the stable water suction zone. The accumulation of 90 Sr in molluscs is higher in the warmed up water zone than in the stable water zone. It was determined that the mean concentration of 90 Sr in surface water of near-shore areas of the Baltic sea are higher than that in the open Baltic. Concentration of the 90 Sr in the biota in the Baltic sea is about 300-500 times higher than in the water. The accumulation level of 90 Sr in zoobenthos varies in different species being in organs and tissues of fishes consuming actively calcium for building up their skeletons. 90 Sr levels in bottom sediments of bays are higher than those in sediments of the open sea. Accumulation of 90 Sr in muds is about 11 times higher than in sands. (author). 5 figs., 3 refs

  4. Evaluation of mobility potential of {sup 90}Sr in Brazilian soils; Avaliacao do potencial de mobilidade do {sup 90}Sr em solos brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Aline Gonzalez

    2007-07-01

    In this document, the transfer mechanisms of {sup 90}Sr were studied in soil-plant systems from Brazil, integrating field and laboratory experiments. Some soil classes, with different physical and chemical properties, relevant to Brazil were selected. The soil classes included in this study were Oxisol, Alfisol and Nitisol. These soils were artificially contaminated with {sup 90}Sr for crop cultivation in lysimeters located at the experimental area of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The selected crops chosen to the root uptake studies were: corn (Zea mays, L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.). These cultures were chosen because they have varying absorption rates due to differences in the physiologic structures analyzed: grain, leaf and root. This study identified Nitisol, which contains clay of high activity, as having smaller transfer factor for all crops and these values were in the same order of magnitude as temperate climate values reported in the specialized literature: FT{sub corn}: 5,78E-3 (n=2); FT{sub radish}: 1,78 E0 (n=2); FT {sub cabbage}: 9,16E-1 (n=2). All other soils presented higher TF values, ranging from 1,93E0 to 4,06 E + 01 for radish (n=8), from 9,99 E-2 to 8,80 E0 for cabbage (n=16) and from 9,94 E-3 to 1,60 E-2 for corn (n=14). It was verified that the TF values for corn presented a significant linear correlation with the following properties of the soils: exchangeable Ca and Mg, Cation Exchange Capacity and Organic matter content (p=99,9%), corroborating the behavior described in the related literature. The TF values for cabbage presented significant correlation with exchangeable Ca and pH (p=99,9%), while no correlation between TF and soil properties where observed for radish. The results of sequential extraction evidenced the great {sup 90}Sr availability for transfer in the soil-plant system; nevertheless, physiological processes occurring in such unfertile soils (low CEC, low pH and low OM and

  5. Large-scale purification of 90Sr from nuclear waste materials for production of 90Y, a therapeutic medical radioisotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Dennis W; Steele, Richard T; Rinehart, Donald E; DesChane, Jaquetta R; Carson, Katharine J; Rapko, Brian M; Tenforde, Thomas S

    2003-07-01

    A major limitation on the supply of the short-lived medical isotope 90Y (t1/2 = 64 h) is the available quantity of highly purified 90Sr generator material. A radiochemical production campaign was therefore undertaken to purify 1,500 Ci of 90Sr that had been isolated from fission waste materials. A series of alkaline precipitation steps removed all detectable traces of 137Cs, alpha emitters, and uranium and transuranic elements. Technical obstacles such as the buildup of gas pressure generated upon mixing large quantities of acid with solid 90Sr carbonate were overcome through safety features incorporated into the custom-built equipment used for 90Sr purification. Methods are described for analyzing the chemical and radiochemical purity of the final product and for accurately determining by gravimetry the quantities of 90Sr immobilized on stainless steel filters for future use.

  6. Large-scale purification of 90Sr from nuclear waste materials for production of 90Y, a therapeutic medical radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, D.W.; Steele, R.T.; Rinehart, D.E.; DesChane, J.R.; Carson, K.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Tenforde, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    A major limitation on the supply of the short-lived medical isotope 90 Y (t 1/2 =64 h) is the available quantity of highly purified 90 Sr generator material. A radiochemical production campaign was therefore undertaken to purify 1500 Ci of 90 Sr that had been isolated from fission waste materials. A series of alkaline precipitation steps removed all detectable traces of 137 Cs, alpha emitters, and uranium and transuranic elements. Technical obstacles such as the buildup of gas pressure generated upon mixing large quantities of acid with solid 90 Sr carbonate were overcome through safety features incorporated into the custom-built equipment used for 90 Sr purification. Methods are described for analyzing the chemical and radiochemical purity of the final product and for accurately determining by gravimetry the quantities of 90 Sr immobilized on stainless steel filters for future use

  7. Distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in annual tree rings of Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigira, Midori; Saito, Yuko; Kimura, Kan

    1988-01-01

    The contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in two samples of Japanese cedar from Takao and Tsukui districts were determined in tree rings cut into segments representing steps of 5 years of growth. 90 Sr in both cedar samples and 137 Cs in the Tsukui cedar sample were determined after ashing and chemical isolation, while 137 Cs in the Takao sample was directly determined from the sample ash. The distribution of 90 Sr fallout in tree rings suggests that 90 Sr had given a rather direct effect and showed no significant translocation from sapwood to heartwood, whereas 137 Cs tends to concentrate in heartwood irrespective of the effect of the fallout. Average contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were 22 and 9.4 pCi/kg in the Takao sample (9.61 kg air dried) and were 23 and 12 in the Tsukui (4.71 kg air dried) in 1982. (author)

  8. Studies on Horizontal and Vertical Migration of 90Sr in Soil Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solecki, J.; Chibowski, S.

    2002-01-01

    Here are presented results of studies on vertical and horizontal migration of strontium 90 Sr isotope in soil systems of Bug river valleys. Mean radioactivity of strontium in these soils was 26.15 ± 22.2 Bq/kg. Atmospheric precipitation of strontium on this area was 0.35 kBq/m2/cm. Radioactivity in soil profiles ranged from 17 to 130 Bq/m2/cm and the isotope was detected even at 30 cm depth. Some tendency to vertical migration of strontium towards the river was noticed. Obtained results were compared with concentrations of calcium and strontium in the soil. Any clear influence of these elements on the migration of strontium 90 Sr was noticed. (author)

  9. Experimental and clinical research on the inhibition of scarring formation after glaucoma surgery 90Sr radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Meien; Wang Guzhu; Li Shuqing

    1994-01-01

    Beta radiation of 90 Sr can inhibit the scarring formation so that the success rate of filtration surgery may be improved. After success in animal experiment, trabeculectomy was performed with small sclera flap on 31 eyes of 23 cases of patients with a high risk of scarring formation. Local 90 Sr radiation with a total dosage of 30.24 Gy were given by several times 3 days postoperatively, combined with local use of steroids. The patients were followed-up at 1 to 24 months, averaging 7 months. The intraocular pressure were successfully controlled in 90.3% of the patients. No lens impairment and other complications were observed. This procedure is an adoptive method in preventing scarring formation after glaucoma filtering surgery

  10. Characterization of a chromatographic column for the production of 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornaciari Iljadica, Maria C.; Furnari, Juan C.; Cohen, Isaac M.

    2003-01-01

    The experiments carried out with the objective of developing a method for 90 Sr production, associated to that of 99 Mo from 235 U fission, which is routinely performed at Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, are described. The project consists of strontium separation from a nitric solution containing uranium and a variety of fission products, by retention and subsequent elution in selective chromatographic columns. Both these columns and the conditions for their use in a routine production process have been characterized. The experiments show good Sr-Ba separation, high concentration of activity for the obtained 90 Sr, and minimal losses; in addition, the non-existence of significant radiation damage, as a limiting factor of the separative capacity of the columns, has been verified. (author)

  11. The effect of 90Sr/90Y β-rays on benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Xiangbo; Ma Qingjie; Gu Xinquan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 90Sr/90Y β-rays on Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: In order to carry out β intracavitary irradiation, the active area of the applicator was located into prostate gland section of urethra in 37 patients. The dose was controlled 30∼50Gy in each patient and the patients were observed for 3 months. Results: After two weeks 26 cases were remarkably improved, 7 cases were improved and 4 cases were ineffective. There was significant difference on MFR, PVR, I-PSS and volume of prostate gland before and after treatment (P<0.01=. Conclusion: Clinical tests indicate that the 90Sr/90Y prostatic hyperplasia applicators provide a safe, effective ,non-invasive and economical therapeutic method for BPH. It is especially applicable for old and high-risk patients. (authors)

  12. Distribution of 14C, 90Sr and 228Th in an elephant tusk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnermeier, M.J.; Schmied, S.A.K. Contact Information and Robert Schupfner

    2012-01-01

    The period of date of death of an elephant can be assessed by analyzing four different radionuclides, 14 C, 90 Sr, 228 Th and 232 Th in its ivory. These nuclides are supposed to have variing concentrations at different parts of a tusk. The reason is the procedure of growth which takes place at the butt-site of a tusk. Therefore the site of sampling could have a big influence on the assessed date of death. However, to find out if the position of sampling is important a complete tusk was analyzed regarding the distribution of these nuclides. Results show that the concentration activity of 14 C and 228 Th varies in different parts of a tusk. The activity concentration of 90 Sr is very similar in all analyzed parts. The conclusion is that sampling at the butt of a tusk is recommended for age assessment. (author)

  13. Determination of the shape factor of 90Sr by means of the cutoff energy yield method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Kossert, K.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2008-01-01

    Usually, Kurie plots are used to analyze beta-spectra shape-factor functions measured by means of semiconductor and magnetic spectrometers. A drawback of these techniques is the occurrence of self-absorption within the samples through which the emission spectrum is altered. In liquid-scintillation samples self-absorption does not occur, but the poor energy resolution makes the analysis of the spectra difficult. To overcome this problem, two resolution-invariant observables are used for determining the shape-factor function of 90 Sr: (1) the maximum point energy and (2) the cutoff energy yield. The measured shape-factor function of 90 Sr agrees with the one which is predicted by theory for the first-forbidden unique transition

  14. Determination of 90Sr by liquid scintillation spectrometry in samples of contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometakova, J.; Dulanska, S.

    2009-01-01

    On a model sample we optimized conditions of SPE separation of 90 Sr on Empore Sr Rad Disk in term of use eluent reagent and its appropriate concentration. Also the possibility of multiple use of both sorbents Empore Sr Rad Disk and AnaLig Sr-01 was confirmed. Not even after 8 separations radiochemical yield fall below 87%. For separation of 90 Sr from real sample of percolating water of controlled area of Bohunice NPP three commercially available products were used: 3M Empore Strontium Rad Disk, sorbents AnaLig (with different grain size) and Sr-Resin. The aim of this work was to compare the selected products in term of strontium extracts, the time demandingness and the possibility of multiple use of sorbents. For separation of strontium were also used two classical methods, namely liquid extraction with tributyl phosphate and carbonate precipitation due to the exclusion of interferents. (author)

  15. Sorption and migration characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr in natural dispersed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishtvan, I.I.; Brovka, G.P.; Dedyulya, I.V.; Rovdan, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    Sorption and migration characteristics of 137 Cs and 90 Sr have been determined in fen peat, Quarts sand, kaolin and bentonite. An electrolyte effect on the radio nuclides sorption and diffusion in the given systems has been studied. Presence of stable isotopes of cesium and strontium in the porous solution has been revealed to affect 137 Cs and 90 Sr distribution and diffusion indices permitting for the effective diffusion index to increase by two orders of magnitude. 137 Cs in the peat technical contamination resulting from the Chernobyl NPP accident has been found to be mainly in an exchange form and under steady state conditions up to 75% of 137 Cs can be transformed into water-soluble state for 8-12 months under effect of stable cesium chloride (0.2 (g-eq)/l). (authors). 4 tabs., 4 refs

  16. Modelling the distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in the Mediterranean Sea (MTPII-MATER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Ortega, M.; Fernandez, V.; Tintore, J.; Monaco, A.

    1999-01-01

    Within the frame of the MTPII-MATER project (MAST), the distribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the Mediterranean Sea was modelled, as these radionuclides are useful tracers of water circulation. The Mediterranean Sea was divided into 81 boxes, corresponding to 21 regions, taking into account water mass circulation, bathymetry and data availability. Transfer rates were obtained from the MOM model run under MEDMEX conditions. The model was run with realistic inputs, which included weapons global fallout, Chernobyl 137 Cs, nuclear industry and river runoff. It was observed that existing data are scarce, especially in the eastern Mediterranean. In general, model predictions agreed well with observations, showing maximum concentrations in surface waters and maxima due to global fallout ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) and to the Chernobyl accident ( 137 Cs only). (author)

  17. The mobility of 137Cs and 90Sr in agricultural soils in the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Oughton, D.H.; Ratnikov, A.V.; Zhigareva, T.L.; Kruglov, S.V.; Petrov, K.V.; Grebenshakikova, N.V.; Firsakova, S.K.; Astasheva, N.P.; Loshchilov, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    Results are presented from studies concerning the behavior of the Chernobyl-derived radionuclides 137 Cs and 90 Sr in soil-plant agricultural systems in the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia during 1991. The sites, representing ploughed and natural pastures, were located at varying distances between 50 and 650 km and varying directions from the Chernobyl reactor site. The 137 Cs activity concentrations in the upper 0-5 cm soil layer ranged from 25-1,000 kBq m -2 and were higher in natural pastures as compared to ploughed pastures. For 90 Sr, activity levels ranged from 1.4-40 kBq m -2 , and the highest 90 Sr deposition was observed in the Gomel Region, Belarus. The highest 90 Sr: 137 Cs ratio was also observed in the Gomel soils, i.e., 15% as compared to between 0.72 and 7.4% in the other soils. The mobility of radionuclides was studied by means of sequential extraction. For all soils, between 60 and 95% of the 137 Cs was found to be strongly bound to soil components. In the Russian and Ukrainian soils, between 40 and 98% of the 90 Sr was found in the easily extractable fractions, and the distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr followed that of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of cesium and strontium. However, in the Gomel soils, between 20 and 50% of the 90 Sr was easily extractable and the distribution of 90 Sr within the extraction fractions did not follow that observed for stable strontium. These results are though to reflect the association of 90 Sr with fuel particles deposited in the Gomel Region. The mobility of 90 Sr is expected to increase with time (as the particles weather) in these soils. 24 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Enrichment and determination of small amounts of 90Sr/90Y in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundschenk, H.

    1979-01-01

    Small amounts of 90 Sr/ 90 Y can be concentrated from large volumes of surface water (100 l) by precipitation of the phosphates, using bentonite as adsorber matrix. In the case of samples containing no or nearly no suspended matter (tap water, ground water, sea water), the daughter 90 Y can be extracted directly by using filter beds impregnated with HDEHP. The applicability of both techniques is demonstrated under realistic conditions. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  19. Radiation-Induced Neoplasms in Beagles after Administrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, M.; Dungworth, D. L.; Bulgin, M. S.; Rosenblatt, L. S.; Richards, W. P.C.; Bustad, L. K. [Radiobiology Laboratory and Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1969-11-15

    The comparative carcinogenic efficiency of two bone-seeking radionuclides is under study in a colony of several hundred beagles. The toxicity of internally deposited alpha emitters ({sup 226}Ra and its daughters) and of beta irradiation ({sup 90}Sr) at comparable dosage rates indicates marked differences in site of appearance and mode of action in litters studied up to 7 years of age. Radiation carcinogenesis in beagles exposed to {sup 90}Sr daily from midgestation to adulthood (1.5 yr) is at present confined to dogs fed 4 {mu}Ci {sup 90}Sr/d or higher. The 20 cases constitute a spectrum of myeloproliferative disorders characterized by terminal anaemias, and ranging from myeloid metaplasia to granulocytic leukaemia. Continuous high-level {sup 90}Sr irradiation to bone and marrow from early life onward causes a thickened hypocellular bone ('pachyostosis'), some instances of myelofibrosis, and persistent mild leukopenia on which the final spectrum of terminal disoideis is superimposed. In contrast, up to 100 {mu}Cl {sup 226}Ra given intravenously (8 equally spaced injections at 14 to 18 months of age) to young adults is not a potent marrow cell carcinogen. The higher LET, shorter-range alpha particles are efficient in inducing bone cancers (14 cases) and skeletal lesions similar to those documented in watch-dial luminizers exposed to {sup 226}Ra in the early 1900's. The incidence of haematopoietic and skeletal neoplasms observed is dose-rate related, and the morphologic characteristics have several analogues in human cancer. The use of identically treated litters rather than individuals affords additional opportunity to study possible familial factors in the distribution of the neoplasms. Pathogenic evaluation at this juncture strongly indicates that continued bone and marrow irradiation in early life is more likely to induce haematopoietic neoplasms than is skeletal irradiation starting in young adulthood, which induces osseous neoplasms. (author)

  20. Dosimetric comparison of electron beam and 90Sr+90Y applicator for keloids treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Talita S.; Tada, Ariane; Antonio, Patricia L.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Fernandes, Marco A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have been shown that among several methods that have been used for the treatment of keloids the surgical excision followed by the adjuvant radiotherapy presents the lowest relapsed rate of the injury. In this work a comparative dosimetric study has been performed using a 4 MeV electron beam from a Varian Clinac 2100C linear accelerator at the radiotherapy service of the Hospital das Clinicas of UNESP-HC, Botucatu-SP and an Amershan 90 Sr+ 90 Y brachytherapy applicator with 1491 MBq of activity. Percentage depth dose curves from ionization chamber measurements and through Monte Carlo simulation have been obtained and compared. Dose measurements have been obtained using parallel plates ionization chamber (Esradin A12) and extrapolation mini-chamber developed at IPEN. The dose calculations have been obtained using the well-known Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4C. Maximum dose differences obtained between measured/calculated values for 90 Sr+ 90 Y applicator and for the electron beam were, respectively: 7.8 % and 8.0%. The profiles of the depth and superficial tissue dose distribution produced by the electron beam revealed themselves flatter and more homogeneous than those produced by the 90 Sr+ 90 Y applicator, especially to wider fields, which cannot be obtained with beta therapy applicators because of their geometric limitations. In conclusion this present work has shown that 90 Sr+ 90 Y applicators could be efficient for small and very superficial lesions but in most cases electron beam sources are more adequate especially for large and deeper lesions. (author)

  1. Discrepancies in the half-lives of 90Sr, 137Cs and 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.; Mac Mahon, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent reports have pointed out that significant discrepancies exist in published half-life data for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 252 Cr, amongst others. These discrepancies make the estimation of evaluated half-lives for these isotopes difficult and contentious. This paper reviews the current situation, takes into account recently available data and attempts to derive recommended half-lives and associated uncertainties for the three isotopes. 37 refs, 3 tabs

  2. Management and packaging of radioactive sources (90Sr) for their transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales C, M; Roas Z, N.

    2000-09-01

    This work describes the different activities that were carried out in relation to the identification of five sources of 90 Sr and the administrative administrations in the face of the regulatory authority of the country, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CONEA), for the transfer of the sources toward its final destination. The preparation of the package and the documentation presented before the CONEA were in agreement to that settled down in the Regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials (IAEA)

  3. Joint effect of 90Sr, alcohol and smoking on some immunological indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.; Mashneva, N.I.; Kupriyanova, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    The experiments with white non-inbred mice showed that combined chronic exposure of the animals, preexposed to 90 Sr to ethanol and caused more manifested changes in non-specific humoral immunity (bactericidal properties of blood serum) and in immunologic indices (autoantibodies, immune complexes) than chronic administration of the radionuclide alone. The obtained data proved the possibility of summation and potentiation of the effects of internal irradiation, alcohol and smoking

  4. Absolute Standardization Of 90Sr Using 4 pi(PC) Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujadi; Wardiyanto, Gatot; Wijaya I, Nazar; Sudarsono

    2000-01-01

    Standardization of exp.90 Sr with absolute measurement using 4 pi proporsional detector has been carried out. The counting efficiency of beta particle mainly depends on self and VYNS absorption. The correction of self absorption were determined by means of the beta maximum energy vs. absorption curve. Self absorption value of exp.90 Sr with Emax. 0,55 MeV is 2,5%, and exp.90 Y with Emax. 2,28% MeV is 0,5%. The VYNS absorptions were determined by counting using variations of VYNS thickness. The corrections of VYNS are 0,70% at Eeta max. 0,55 MeV and 0,1% at Ebeta max. 2,28 MeV, for every VYNS sheet having thickness of n 15 mugr/cm exp.2. The samples were made from the source without dilution, and with dilution factors of 6,9 and 9,9. The activity of samples were determined by counting using two methods, with and without variation of VYNS thickness. The result of measurement by variation dilution of solution and VYNS thickness is fairly good, the difference is 1,68%. The difference between result of activity measurement of exp.90 Sr with this methods and the activity of master solution is fairly good, with the discrepancies are from 0,5 to 1,16%

  5. Trace determination of 90Sr and 89Sr in environmental samples by collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantzsch, J.; Bushaw, B. A.; Bystrow, V. A.; Herrmann, G.; Kluge, H.-J.; Niess, S.; Otten, E. W.; Passler, G.; Schwalbach, R.; Schwarz, M.; Stenner, J.; Trautmann, N.; Wendt, K.; Yushkevich, Y. V.; Zimmer, K.

    1995-01-01

    Collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy has been developed as a sensitive technique for fast trace detection of 90 Sr and 89 Sr in the environment. A detection limit for 90 Sr of 10 7 atoms in the presence of 10 17 atoms in the presence of 10 17 atoms of stable Strontium has been achieved, while the applicability of the method has been demonstrated on real world samples. After collection and chemical separation, strontium is surface ionized, accelerated to 33keV and mass separated. The ions are neutralized and the emerging fast atoms interact with an argon ion laser beam (γ=364 nm) in a quasi-collinear geometry. Optical excitation starts from the long-lived 5s4d 3 D2 state of strontium, which is populated in the charge exchange process, and the fast atoms are selectively excited into the high-lying 5s23f 3 F3 Rydberg state. The Rydberg-atoms are subsequently field-ionized and detected by a channeltron detector after energy selection. The described method was successfully used to determine the 90 Sr-content in air samples collected near Munich during the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986

  6. Environmental levels of 239+240Pu and 90Sr for internal radiation exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S.J.S.; Khandekar, R.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements have been carried out on the concentration of low levels of long-lived isotopes of 239+240 Pu and 90 Sr in the environmental materials such as atmospheric particulates, drinking water and food. The estimation of daily intake of these isotopes through inhalation and ingestion is a pre-requisite for the assessment of internal exposure. This paper presents temporal distribution of 239+240 Pu and 90 Sr in rain water, drinking water and total diet samples collected at Trombay site. The annual committed effective dose due to 90 Sr through inhalation and diet to the population of Bombay has been estimated to be 0.06 nSv/y and 0.48 μSv/y, respectively, and the same for 239+240 Pu is 1.3 nSv/y and 0.9 nSv/y, respectively. The data is discussed in relation to previous years' values to assess for any significant increase. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. 137Cs and 90Sr IN lizards of Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitskiy, А V; Lukashenko, S N; Kadyrova, N Zh

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides research results of 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclides concentrations in bodies of Lacertidae family lizards, inhabiting different parts of Semipalatinsk Test Site, and the parameters of these radionuclides' transfer into lizards' bodies. It shows that high activity concentration of radionuclides in lizards' bodies can be noticed if they live directly at locally contaminated areas. Since the distance from contaminated spots exceeds home range of the studied animals, no increased values of radionuclides' activity were found in the animal bodies. At some individual radioactively contaminated spots, very high activity concentrations of 90 Sr radionuclide up to 7.8 × 10 5  Bq kg -1 were found in lizards. So under certain conditions, lizards can significantly contribute to radionuclides redistribution in the natural environment. Mean concentration ratios (CR) of radionuclides were as follows: 137 Cs-6.2 × 10 -3 , 90 Sr-1.1 × 10 -2 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of /sup 90/Sr in milk by solvent extraction of /sup 90/Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuhashi, T [National Inst. of Animal Industry, Chiba (Japan); Sakanoue, M

    1977-10-01

    In order to replace the conventional method using violent fuming nitric acid, a new method for the determination of /sup 90/Sr in milk has been developed by using the solvent extraction with bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). The daughter nuclide /sup 90/Y in a radiochemical equilibrium with its parent /sup 90/Sr was extracted with 2:1 HDEHP-toluene from the acid solution (1M HCl) of milk ash sample prepared by dry-ashing. After stripping with 8M HCl, /sup 90/Y, together with stable yttrium added as carrier, was precipitated as oxalate to prepare ..beta..-counting source. The radiochemical purity was confirmed by decay curve. The decontamination of strontium was checked by applying non-dispersive fluorescence x-ray analysis using /sup 133/Ba as irradiating source. Bone samples of cow were also analyzed by the same method and the results were compared with those obtained by other methods. The duplicate crosschecking analyses of finely ground bone samples were carried out to examine the effectiveness of this method. This simple new method was found to be very effective for the routine analysis of /sup 90/Sr in these samples.

  9. Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in lichens under experimental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M G [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of the accumulation from aqueous media of two long-lived radionuclides---/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs---by the thalluses of eight species of lichens of different ecological and morphological groups (soil bushy lichens and foliated forms; epiphytic bushy and foliated; epilytic foliated). Fhe efficiency of accumulation of radionuclides by the thalluses was determined from the accumulation coefficient (KN) (koehfitsient nakopleniya). There was a distinct difference in the radionuclide accumulation by the different species of lichens. Based on their radionuclide accumulation, the lichens were divided into three groups. It was shown that not only do different species of lichens differ in their accumulation of the same radionuclide, but also the thalluses of the same species are not the same in the sorption of different radionuclides. However, on an average, the bushy forms of lichens accumulated /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs more than the leafy types. The lichens studied may be arrangd according to their accumulation of /sup 90/Sr: epiphytes > soil types > epilytes, or their /sup 137/Cs accumulation: soil types > epilytes > epiphytes.

  10. Solid phase extraction for determination of 90Sr in water sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometakova, J.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the use of an extraction chromatography for determination of 90 Sr in samples of contaminated water. The aim of the thesis was to compare selected products from the point of view of the strontium yields and time needed. Three commercial products: 3M Empore Strontium Rad Disk, AnaLig, Sr-Resin and two classical methods: liquid-liquid extraction with tributylphosphate and carbonate co-precipitation (to eliminate interferers) were used for separation of 90 Sr. The water sample was used in radiochemical analysis for determination volume activity of 90 Sr. A radiochemical strontium yield was traced by using radionuclide 85 Sr. Samples were counted over a two week period to monitor the ingrowth of 90 Y on TRI CARB LSC counter. Samples were measured using an HPGe detector to find out 85 Sr recoveries at 514 keV line and they were counted directly by Cherenkov counting after the growth of 90 Y using TriCarb LSC counter after a two- week period (author)

  11. Determination of 90Sr in milk by solvent extraction of 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Toshihiko; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1977-01-01

    In order to replace the conventional method using violent fuming nitric acid, a new method for the determination of 90 Sr in milk has been developed by using the solvent extraction with bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). The daughter nuclide 90 Y in a radiochemical equilibrium with its parent 90 Sr was extracted with 2:1 HDEHP-toluene from the acid solution (1M HCl) of milk ash sample prepared by dry-ashing. After stripping with 8M HCl, 90 Y, together with stable yttrium added as carrier, was precipitated as oxalate to prepare β-counting source. The radiochemical purity was confirmed by decay curve. The decontamination of strontium was checked by applying non-dispersive fluorescence x-ray analysis using 133 Ba as irradiating source. Bone samples of cow were also analyzed by the same method and the results were compared with those obtained by other methods. The duplicate crosschecking analyses of finely ground bone samples were carried out to examine the effectiveness of this method. This simple new method was found to be very effective for the routine analysis of 90 Sr in these samples. (auth.)

  12. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 90 Sr in a relatively insoluble form to study long-term health effects. Lung burdens ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi (4.4 to 3550 kBq) of 90 Sr/kg body weight. High levels of exposure resulted in radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis; lower level exposures caused long-term effects, including cancer of the lung, heart, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Most of these tumors were hemangiosarcomas. Two control dogs and four 90 Sr-exposed dogs died or were euthanized during the past year. One exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of the heart and pulmonary adenoma, another exposed dog died with angiosarcoma of tracheobronchial lymph nodes, another exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of the heart, and the fourth exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of tracheobronchial lymph nodes. One control dog died with adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and the other control dog died with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The remaining 15 exposed and 9 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. 2 figures, 1 table

  13. Specific 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation in living soil cover plants of forest cenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakova, O.O.; Kuz'mich, O.T.; Kazej, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    Observations of the radionuclide content in 38 species of living soil cover plants were carried out in Pinetum myrtillosum, pleuroziosum; Quercetum pteridiosum; Betuletum myrtillosum; Glutinoso-Alnetum filipendulosum, Glutinoso-Alnetum. Radiological monitoring for the 137 Cs and 90 Sr content in living cover plants of forest cenosis in Belarus allows 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation to be predicted for the plants of lower circles of forest cenosis. a obtained one can notice that the radionuclide accumulation intensity depends on the contamination density of the accumulation soil layer, forest growing conditions, species and first of all on the weather conditions of the year of observation. Unfavourable conditions (drought) lead to an increase in 137 Cs accumulation by a factor of 3-5 depending on the plant species. The maximum values was obtained in ferns which grow under all the controlled forest growing conditions. The species specific character of 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation is due to their ecological-physiological peculiarities. The relationship was found between the caesium-137 accumulation and macro element quantity in overground organs of living soil cover plants. (authors)

  14. 90Sr content in 90Y-labeled SIR-spheres and Zevalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metyko, John; Erwin, William; Poston, John; Jimenez, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    Three different 90Y internally administered radionuclide therapies are currently used in both standard-of-care and clinical trial procedures atMD Anderson Cancer Center. TheraSphere and SIR-Spheres therapies utilize 90Y-labeled microspheres, while Zevalin is an 90Y-labeled radioimmunotherapeutic agent. Several publications have indicated radionuclidic impurities resulting from 90Y production methods. The 90Y in SIR-Spheres and Zevalin are produced from a 90Sr/90Y generator, which leaves measurable quantities of 90Sr in the final product. TheraSphere 90Y is produced in a nuclear reactor which results in a large number of impurities, most notably 88Y and 91Y. Product information sheets reference these impurities with specific limits given. These limits represent a tiny fraction of the total product activity, and in the case of TheraSphere and SIR-Spheres gamma-emitting impurities, this has been verified in the literature. An analysis of 90Sr impurities in SIR-Spheres and Zevalin is presented in this paper. Impurity quantities were found to be within the vendors’ documented limits.

  15. Determination of 90Sr and 210Pb in freshwater fish in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudia Landstetter; Merita Sinojmeri; Christian Katzlberger; Arno Achatz

    2014-01-01

    A method for the determination of 90 Sr and 210 Pb in freshwater fish was developed. The determinations were conducted within a project on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The aim of this project was to get an overview of the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in freshwater fish in different lakes in Austria. For sampling the Neusiedler See in Burgenland, two lakes in Styria the Grundlsee and the Toplitz See, and the Zeller See in Salzburg were chosen. Chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), perch (Perca fluviatilis), carp (Cyprinus carpio), catfish (Silurus glanis), pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) and burbot (Lota lota) were analysed. The samples were analysed using strontium specific extraction columns (Eichrom Industries Inc., TrisKem International) and liquid scintillation counting. In the edible parts of the fish samples (no fishbone) values of the activity concentration for 210 Pb varied between 0.009 ± 0.003 and 0.16 ± 0.04 Bq kg freshweight -1 and for 90 Sr between 0.010 ± 0.002 and 0.11 ± 0.02 Bq kg freshweight -1 . In this paper the method for the determination of 90 Sr and 210 Pb is described and the results are discussed. (author)

  16. Rapid determination of actinides and {sup 90}Sr in river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibi, A., E-mail: azza.habibi@irsn.fr [IRSN/PRP-ENV/STEME/LMRE, Rue du belvédère, Bâtiment 501, Bois des rames, 91400 Orsay (France); Boulet, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/STEME/LMRE, Rue du belvédère, Bâtiment 501, Bois des rames, 91400 Orsay (France); Gleizes, M. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/STEME, 31 rue de l' écluse, 78116 Le Vésinet (France); Larivière, D. [Laboratoire de radioécologie, Département de chimie, Université Laval, 1045 Avenue de la médecine, G1V 0A6 Québec (Canada); Cote, G. [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2015-07-09

    Highlights: • A new method to separate six actinides and {sup 90}Sr was developed. • The method was applied successfully to river water samples. • The separation and the measure take about seven hours. • The method permits to reach high yields. - Abstract: Nuclear accidents occurred in latest years highlighted the difficulty to achieve, in a short time, the quantification of alpha and beta emitters. Indeed, most of the existing methods, though displaying excellent performances, can be very long, taking up to several weeks for some radioisotopes, such as {sup 90}Sr. This study focuses on alpha and beta radioisotopes which could be accidentally released from nuclear installations and which could be measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Indeed, a new and rapid separation method was developed for {sup 234,235,236,238}U, {sup 230,232}Th, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am and {sup 90}Sr. The main objective was to minimize the duration of the separation protocol by the development of a unique radiochemical procedure with elution media compatible with ICP-MS measurements. Excellent performances were obtained with spiked river water samples. These performances are characterized by total yields exceeding 80% for all monitored radionuclides, as well as good reproducibility (RSD ≤ 10%, n = 12). The proposed radiochemical separation (including counting time) required less than 7 h for a batch of 8 samples.

  17. Determination methods of the 90Sr in a sample of contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometakova, J.; Silvia Dulanska, S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was a comparison of selected products from the point of view of the amount of strontium yields, time needed and possibility of multiple use of sorbents. Three commercial products: 3M Empore Stroncium Rad Disk, AnaLig , Sr-Resin and two classical methods: liquid-liquid extraction with tributylphosphate and carbonate coprecipitation (to eliminate interferents) were used for separation of 90 Sr. The model sample was used in radiochemical analysis to check multiple use of 3M Em-pore Stroncium Rad Disk a AnaLig. A radiochemical strontium yield was traced by using radionuclide 85 Sr. The model sample was also used to optimize conditions of strontium separation. The results were used for 90 Sr determination from a sample of permeating groundwater from a supervised zone of a Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice. We have found out that 90 Sr separation with sorbents AnaLig Sr-01, 3M Empore Sr Rad Disk is as effective as with sorbent Sr-Resin in matrices of contaminated water. (authors)

  18. Separation of {sup 90}Sr from radioactive waste matrices-Microwave versus fusion decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Department Logistics for Radiation Safety and Security, Radioanalytics, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)], E-mail: maya.jaeggi@psi.ch; Eikenberg, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Department Logistics for Radiation Safety and Security, Radioanalytics, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2009-05-15

    Radioactive waste (slurry) from a detention pond deriving from two research reactors and several inactive and active drain outlets at the Paul Scherrer Institute are the basis for the current {sup 90}Sr investigation. For decomposition, a microwave method was applied, where 1 g of dry-ashed slurry was partially dissolved (HNO{sub 3} (65%)/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (30%); v:v=8:2). In this slurry we obtained an {sup 90}Sr activity of 5.3{+-}0.2 Bq/g in solution. In a second run, we applied a borate-fusion (Li metaborate/Li tetraborate (80:20 w/w%) dissolving 1 g of dry-ashed 'Si-free' slurry at 1100 deg. C in a muffle furnace. We achieved an {sup 90}Sr activity of (7.8{+-}0.3) Bq/g, yet observing BaSO{sub 4} precipitation during the chromatographical separation of Sr. An alkali fusion using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was done using the Bunsen burner and the muffle furnace for 20 min at 1000 deg. C, in combination. During formation of the hot glass, the surplus of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, produced Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and BaCO{sub 3} in solid form. The hot glass was dissolved in deionised water, removing thus the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions. Dissolving the residue directly in HNO{sub 3}, solves Ba as Ba(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and thus we achieved over 80% of the {sup 133}Ba activity in the solution, as measured by {gamma}-spectrometry. {sup 85}Sr tracer of 88.0%{+-}3.3% was recovered, yielding on average in (7.4{+-}0.3) Bq/g of {sup 90}Sr activity. The increase of 2.1-2.5 Bq/g of {sup 90}Sr activity achieved with the alkali fusion, and the Li metaborate/Li tetraborate 80:20 w/w% fusion, respectively, clearly shows that some Sr must have been present as SrSO{sub 4} in the slurry.

  19. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the biological effects of 90 Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs are being conducted to define the biological consequences of inhaling this radionuclide in a form which has a long retention time in the lung. One hundred and six dogs were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol (AMAD 1.4 to 2.8 μm and sigma/sub g/ 1.4 to 2.7) of fused aluminosilicate particles labeled with 90 Sr. Initial lung burdens ranged from 0.21 to 94 μCi 90 Sr per kilogram of body weight (μCi/kg). Eighteen control dogs were exposed to an aerosol of stable strontium in fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 34 dogs having initial lung burdens of 8.9 to 94 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 33,000 to 96,000 rads have died from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis between 159 and 2596 days after exposure. Twenty-nine dogs with initial lung burdens of 3.7 to 36 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 13,000 to 68,000 rads have died from hemangiosarcomas in the lung, heart or mediastinum between 644 and 2565 days after exposure. In addition, one dog developed a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, another developed epidermoid carcinoma of the lung, another died of pneumonia while recovering from anesthesia, one dog died at 1821 days after exposure with an hemangiosarcoma of the spleen and two dogs developed squamous cell carcinomas in the nasal cavity. During the past year one dog was euthanized 2753 days after exposure (34,000 rads lung dose) as a result of an hemangiosarcoma which developed in a rib and spread widely. Another dog died 2830 days after exposure (35,000 rads lung dose) with a squamous cell carcinoma in the lung. An additional dog was euthanized 2636 days after exposure (12,000 rads lung dose) with widespread hemangiosarcoma of unknown origin. The remaining 36 exposed dogs and 18 controls are surviving at 1387 to 3168 days after exposure

  20. Modelling of 90Sr in-situ migration: models comparison and coupled soil characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piault, E.; van Dorpe, F.; Cartalade, A.; Beaucaire, C.; Fernandez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 1960, the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/IPSN) had launched a research program to quantify the soil-plant transfer of 90 Sr (transfer between soils, grapes and wine). The studies were conducted in-situ with the help of the National Institute for Agronomic Research (INRA) on an experimental site of Mediterranean type. The experiments consisted in contaminating with soluble strontium salt solutions (SrCl 2 ) a 400 m 2 (10 m x 40 m) piece of land bordered by two uncontaminated strip used as blanks. Prior to planting, the superficial layer of the contaminated plot had then been ploughed in order to homogenize the contamination on a depth of about 10 cm. Over time, the radionuclide was transported from the surface layer to the underground layers of the plot due to climatic factors. The 90 Sr migration over the last 40 years was studied owing eight 70 cm deep cores to perform a radiological and physico-chemical characterization of the soil. The vertical migration modelling of 90 Sr required the definition of a triple layers model whose the only external factor of influence considered is the rainwater infiltration at constant flux. Simulations were made using the code PORFLOW and also the code CAST3M, developed by CEA. These codes solve calculations of flows in unsaturated porous media taking into account the sorption/desorption phenomena of chemical species and radioactive decay. To complete the study an estimation of 90 Sr K d sorption coefficient (used by transfer models) using ion-exchange model was carried out for each layers. The dependence of 90 Sr K d on competitor cations present in fluids is analysed. The study shows that the agreement between the experimental and simulated results is acceptable if the characterization steps, including sampling are properly undertaken. The necessity to characterize the site according to needs of numerical modelling, in an iterative cycle

  1. Migration and chemical extractability of 137Cs and 90Sr in Swedish long-term experimental pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, S.; Strandmark, M.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical migration and chemical extractability were studied on two experimental pastures, a sandy soil and a clay soil, contaminated with 137 Cs and 90 Sr in 1961. Migration was studied by measuring the total nuclide content in soil samples to 55 cm depth, chemical extractability by sequential extraction. Both 137 Cs and 90 Sr were found at all depths in both soils, and 90 Sr had moved deeper than 137 Cs. 137 Cs was mainly found in the upper 10 cm, and no difference was seen between clay and sandy soil, due to retention in the root mat of the sandy soil. 90 Sr had moved deeper in sandy than in clay soil, the reason being the higher exchange capacity of the clay soil. Sequential extractions showed that 90 Sr was much more extractable than 137 Cs. 96-98% of 137 Cs was found in the HNO 3 and residual fractions. 137 Cs was more extractable in the sandy soil than in clay, and in the sandy soil the extractability of 137 Cs increased slightly with depth. Regarding 90 Sr, 63-75% was found in the easily exchangeable fractions, the higher figure was in clay soil. A large proportion, 18-30%, was extracted in the reducible fraction, showing that availability of 90 Sr might increase under reducing conditions. (au)

  2. Annual reduction of 90Sr migration from Solid Waste Storage Area 4 to White Oak Creek by flow diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melroy, L.A.; Huff, D.D.

    1985-05-01

    The discharge from Solid Waste Storage Area 4 (SWSA 4) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was studied to determine the effect of a new flow diversion system on the annual flux of 90 Sr into White Oak Creek. The diversion structure was built in late 1983 to route runoff from the SWSA 4 catchment headwaters area (56% of the basin) around the burial ground, because an earlier study showed that this would be an effective remedial measure for reducing 90 Sr migration. A preliminary evaluation of the diversion was conducted during the winter of 1984, and an average flow reduction of 56% and a 90 Sr flux reduction of 44% were observed during the initial study period. The results presented here indicate that an overall annual flow reduction of 66% and an annual 90 Sr flux reduction of 47% were achieved during the 1984 calendar year. An additional goal of the study was to rank SWSA 4 and the surrounding areas as sources of 90 Sr input into White Oak Creek. Runoff from SWSA 4 was found to contribute 58% of the 90 Sr flux to the adjacent reach of White Oak Creek and therefore is the major source of contamination in that area. Statistical analysis suggests that the remaining 42% of the influx is attributable to groundwater inflows from adjacent contaminated areas rather than to the considerable uncertainty associated with flow and 90 Sr measurements

  3. Sorption Characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr into Rembang and Sumedang Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the sorption behavior of 137Cs and 90Sr into soil sample from Rembang and Subang, it is important to estimate the effect of contact time, ionic strength and concentration of metal ion in the solution. For this reason, the interaction of 137Cs and 90Sr with soil sample has been examined. The study performed at trace concentration (~10-8 M of CsCl and SrCl2, and batch method was used. NaCl has been selected as a representative of the ionic strength with 0.1; 0.5 and 1.0 M concentrations. Concentration of 10-8~10-4 M CsCl and SrCl2 were used for study the effect of Cs and Sr concentrations in solution. Apparent distribution coefficient was used to predict the sorption behavior. The sorption equilibrium of 137Cs and 90Sr into soil was attained after 5 days contacted with Kd value around 3300-4200 mL/g, where Kd was defined as the ratio of number of radionuclide activity absorbed in solid phase per-unit mass to the number of radionuclide activity remains is solution per-unit volume. Presence of NaCl as background salt in the solution affected Kd values due to competition among metal ions into soil samples. Increase of Cs or Sr concentration in solution made Kd value decreased drastically. This information is expected could provide an important input for the planning and design of radioactive waste disposal system in Java Island in the future.

  4. 137Cs and 90Sr in Milk from the Zagreb Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franulovic, I.; Kolar, M.; Petrinec, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb is currently carrying out a program of radioactivity measurements and monitoring of the human environment in Croatia. Among other radionuclides this includes radiostrontium and radiocaesium in milk, which is a very sensitive indicator of the presence of fission products in the environment. Milk is also a very important foodstuff in the dietary habits of the Croatian population and represents a major source of potential radioactive contamination. This paper presents the results of the monitoring of 137Cs and 90Sr activity concentrations in milk for the year 2011. Activity concentrations of 90Sr ranged from 26.9 Bqm -3 to 59.5 Bqm -3 with a mean activity concentration of 50.6 Bqm -3 . The mean activity concentration for 137Cs was 199 Bqm -3 with a range from 21.1 Bqm -3 to 1940 Bqm -3 . The effective doses received from milk consumption were estimated for the adult population of the Zagreb region. The effective dose received from 90Sr uptake by milk consumption was 110 nSv. During 11 months of the year 2011, with the exception of August, the effective dose received from 137Cs uptake was 37.3 nSv, while the dose for 137Cs in August was 163 nSv. The effective dose for August was higher than the effective dose for the remaining 11 months. Continuous control and monitoring of radioactivity in food and the environment are needed to protect the population from the negative effects of ionizing radiation.(author)

  5. Colour quenching corrections on the measurement of {sup 90}Sr through Cerenkov counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosqueda, F. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: fernando.mosqueda@dfa.uhu.es; Villa, M. [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, E41012 Sevilla (Spain); Vaca, F.; Bolivar, J.P. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2007-12-05

    The determination of {sup 90}Sr through the Cerenkov radiation emitted by its descendant {sup 90}Y is a well-known method and firmly established in literature. Nevertheless, in order to obtain an accurate result based on a Cerenkov measurement, the experimental work must be extremely rigorous because the efficiency of Cerenkov counting is especially sensitive to the presence of colour. Any traces of colour in the sample produce a decrease in the number of photons detected in the photomultipliers and, therefore, this might cause a diminution in Cerenkov counting efficiency. It is essential not only to detect the effect of colour quenching in the sample but also to correct the decrease in counting efficiency. For this reason, colour quenching correction curves versus counting efficiency are usually done when measuring through Cerenkov counting. One of the most widely used techniques to evaluate colour quenching in these measurements is the channel ratio method, which consists of the measurement of the shift of the spectrum measuring the ratio of counts in two different windows. The selection of the windows for the application of the corrections might have an influence on the quality of the fitting parameters of the correction curves efficiency versus colour quenching degree and hence on the final {sup 90}Sr result. This work is focused on the calculation of the counting efficiency decrease using the channel ratio method and on obtaining the best fitting correction curve. For this purpose, empirical curves obtained through artificial quenchers have been studied and the results have been tested in real samples. Additionally, given that the Packard Tri-Carb 3170 TR/SL liquid scintillation counter is a novel detector for use in Cerenkov counting, the previous calibration of the Tri-Carb 3170 TR/SL detector, necessary for the measurement of {sup 90}Sr, is included.

  6. Colour quenching corrections on the measurement of 90Sr through Cerenkov counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosqueda, F.; Villa, M.; Vaca, F.; Bolivar, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of 90 Sr through the Cerenkov radiation emitted by its descendant 90 Y is a well-known method and firmly established in literature. Nevertheless, in order to obtain an accurate result based on a Cerenkov measurement, the experimental work must be extremely rigorous because the efficiency of Cerenkov counting is especially sensitive to the presence of colour. Any traces of colour in the sample produce a decrease in the number of photons detected in the photomultipliers and, therefore, this might cause a diminution in Cerenkov counting efficiency. It is essential not only to detect the effect of colour quenching in the sample but also to correct the decrease in counting efficiency. For this reason, colour quenching correction curves versus counting efficiency are usually done when measuring through Cerenkov counting. One of the most widely used techniques to evaluate colour quenching in these measurements is the channel ratio method, which consists of the measurement of the shift of the spectrum measuring the ratio of counts in two different windows. The selection of the windows for the application of the corrections might have an influence on the quality of the fitting parameters of the correction curves efficiency versus colour quenching degree and hence on the final 90 Sr result. This work is focused on the calculation of the counting efficiency decrease using the channel ratio method and on obtaining the best fitting correction curve. For this purpose, empirical curves obtained through artificial quenchers have been studied and the results have been tested in real samples. Additionally, given that the Packard Tri-Carb 3170 TR/SL liquid scintillation counter is a novel detector for use in Cerenkov counting, the previous calibration of the Tri-Carb 3170 TR/SL detector, necessary for the measurement of 90 Sr, is included

  7. Combined effect of 131I and osteotropic radionuclide of 90Sr and 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, V.V.; Vetukh, V.A.; Rusanova, O.V.

    1988-01-01

    Combined effect of 131 I and osteotropic 45 Ca and 90 Sr on blood formation, reproduction and life span of laboratory animals was considered. It was shown that combined irradiation of thyroid and bone marrow with doses not exceeding or equal 1 Gy doesn't result in changes of blood formation or life span, but leads to definite violations in stem spermatogonia which bring about intra-uterine death of progeny. This fact is explained as a result of indirect radiation effect for the dose for gonads was 0.1 Gy. 3 tabs

  8. The solvent extraction of carrier-free 90Y from 90Sr with crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, J.T.; Lo, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    A simple solvent extraction method has been developed for the separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr. Crown ether dissolved in chloroform was used as a selective reagent and organic picrate anion was chosen as a counter ion. The effect of various factors on the extraction equilibrium constant of strontium log K ex = 9.15 was obtained from the study of the distribution coefficient versus to crown ether concentration. The separation method was simple, resulted high purity (>99.9%) and quantitative yield, and took less than half an hour. (author) 27 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  9. Behaviour of fission products 90Sr, 137Cs and 144Ce in soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yongyi; Qiu tongcai

    1988-11-01

    A small quantity of radioonuclides, such as fission products 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 144 Ce etc., generally may leak out from nuclear inductry system and may be disseminated on soul and plant cover. The accumulation and distribution of the radionuclides in spring wheat planted in the contaminated soil are described. The factors as nuclide chemical forms, soil agrochemical properties, growing stages of the plant and fertilizing etc., which affect the accumulation and the distribution were discussed. Possible approches were supposed to eliminate or clean the radionuclides from contaminated soil, which include planting adaptable herbage, applying some fertilizers and scraping regolith etc

  10. ^<90>Sr in mammal teeth taken in the Semipalatinsk Test Site measured by imaging plates

    OpenAIRE

    Toyoda, Shin; Pivovarov, Sergey; Hoshi, Masaharu; Seredavina, Tatyana

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of 90Sr in mammal teeth taken in north-west part of Semipalatinsk Test Site were measured by using imaging plates. The highest concentration detected in the present study was 13Bq/g, being comparable with the values previously detected in cow teeth from South Ural region. It suggests that, at least locally, the soil in north-west part of the Test Site is possibly highly contaminated. It would be necessary to investigate the source of this high level of contamination, such a...

  11. {sup 90}SR and {sup 137}CS distribution in organisms of wild small mammals (Chernobyl zone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryanaya, J.U.; Bondarkov, M.; Gaschak, S.; Maksimenko, A.; Barchuk, R.; Martynenko, V.; Shulga, A. [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, Slavutych (Ukraine)

    2004-07-01

    The distribution of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in tissues of small rodent mammals has been studied in detail. It was determined that for a vole Microtus the largest ratio values of {sup 137}Cs concentration in organs to one in muscles are in skin (2.02{+-}0.45) and kidneys (1.57{+-}0.29), in other tissues they are much lower. The comparison of {sup 137}Cs specific concentration in tissues with their size (mass index) has shown that the major portion of the total radionuclide concentration in the animal body is in the bone and muscle tissues aggregate (44.1 {+-} 2.8%) and in skin (24.8 {+-} 2.5%). The total content of {sup 137}Cs in a gastrointestinal tract is about 20-25%, but nevertheless, it may be assumed that it is strongly dependent on the radioactivity of food. Preliminary data show that other species of genus Microtus can have another pattern of distribution. A more detailed research was conducted for the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs contents in tissues were calculated. {sup 137}Cs distribution corresponds with the tissues portion in the animal's body mass (% of total content): the most in muscles 38.3, gastrointestinal tract 21.3, skin 16.7; the least in eyes 0.23, spleen 0.33, heart 0.74. The comparison of the activity concentration in each tissue with the average concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the whole body presented more evident differences between the tissues. The highest radionuclide concentration is in skin (1.48), in a slightly less degree in spleen (1.22) and eyes (1.20). The {sup 90}Sr distribution in the vole body is uneven up to 83.4% of the overall content is in bone tissues, in muscle -6.8, gastrointestinal tract - 4.2, skin - 3.9, in other tissues - 0.2-0.5%. In comparison with {sup 90}Sr average activity in the body: skeleton -10.9, eyes -1.3, spleen -1.02, and their values are much higher than in other tissues and organs. (author)

  12. Rapid method to determine actinides and 89/90Sr in limestone and marble samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, J.B.; Utsey, R.C.; Sudowe, Ralf; McAlister, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in limestone and marble samples has been developed that utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the sample. Following rapid pre-concentration steps to remove sample matrix interferences, the actinides and 89 / 90 Sr are separated using extraction chromatographic resins and measured radiometrically. The advantages of sodium hydroxide fusion versus other fusion techniques will be discussed. This approach has a sample preparation time for limestone and marble samples of <4 h. (author)

  13. 137Cs and 90Sr in the water of the ChNPP cooling pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kanivets

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of long-term observations on 137Cs and 90Sr concentration in water mass of the ChNPP Cooling Pond are presented. Drastic transformation of the intrinsic trend in changes with time of averaged radionuclides con-tent in water is clearly demonstrated alongside with the spatial heterogeneity of radioactive contamination of water body. The cycling character of seasonal changes of 137Cs activity concentration in water is being linked to hydrochemical, temperature and oxygen regimes of the Cooling Pond.

  14. Determination of the dose rapidity of a 90 Sr beta radiation source using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, P.R.; Azorin N, J.; Rivera M, T.

    2000-01-01

    The thermoluminescent dosemeters developed in Mexico, have been used efficiently in environmental and personal dosimetry. When the dose rate of some source is not known can be estimated with the use of thermoluminescent dosemeters taking in account the geometrical array used in the irradiations for reproducibility of the results in posterior irradiations. In this work it was estimated the dose rate of a 90 Sr- 90 Y beta radiation source which is property of the Nuclear Sciences Institute, UNAM, therefore it was l ended to the Metropolitan Autonomous University- Iztapalapa Unit for the characterization of new Tl materials, taking account of the institutional collaboration agreements. (Author)

  15. Detection of low activities 90Sr and 137Cs in surface, subsoil and sewage waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, V.; Isaev, A.; Kazymyrova, G.; Rudyk, O.; Khristenko, U.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the methodic of detection of volumetric activity of radionuclide 90 Sr in surface, subsoil and sewage waters on the basis of measurement of counting samples using beta-spectrometers SEB-01, produced by RPE 'Atom Komplex Prylad' (RPE 'AKP') and mathematical proceeding of spectra by software packages AKWin. At that, the time of receiving of result shortens, comparing to method of radiochemistry, from 14 days to 3 days. Activity measurement range of beta-spectrometers SEB-01 is 0.1-10 4 Bq/l, that by corresponding radionuclides concentration, allows providing control of water objects according to national norms of Ukraine (2 Bq/l). (authors)

  16. Analytical investigation of energy spectrums of beta rays emitted from 90Sr and 204Tl radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, S.

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectra of beta rays emitted from 90 Sr and 204 Tl radioisotopes were obtained by using a silicon surface barrier detector with a 1000 μm depleted layer and 50 mm 2 effective area. The detector response function is interpreted by making use of range distributions of mono-energetic electrons in matter and by assuming a linear energy loss along the range in the depleted layer of the detector. An analytical expression is given for pulse height distribution obtained in the surface barrier detector. A good agreement is observed between the experimental results and theoretical interpretation. (author)

  17. Influence of culinary processing on the 90Sr extraction from the animal bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, E.; Petkov, T.; Shopov, N.

    1990-01-01

    The beta-radioactivity of femur of young animals having consummed contaminated food after Chernobyl is measured - fresh, after boiling in the course of 1.5 hrs, and the broth from cookery processing. Before the analysis each sample has been ashed and homogenized. The radioactivity of the samples is registered by a beta-radiometer (with an efficiency for 90 Y - 60%). No statistically significant differences have been established in the 90 Sr content between the processed and unprocessed bones; the radionuclide content in the broth is negligible. In the light of these results the requirements for removing the bones before the culinary processing prove senseless. 1 tab

  18. Accumulation of 90Sr, Ca, Mg, K and Na in crane's-bill plants cultavated on soil and hydroponics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyan, V.L.; Sarkisyan, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of 90 Sr in plants under the conditions of soil and hydroponic cultures from the viewpoint of the possibility of obtaining ''pure'' vegetable production has been studied. Predominant absorption of 90 Sr by soil plants as compared with calcium is shown. In the course of using the hydroponic cultivation method redominant radiostrontium absorption has been manifested to all investigated nuclides including potassium. The accumulation coefficients analysis has shown that among soil plants the fisarst place is occupied by potassium, while the 90 Sr coefficients are greater than Ca on hydroponics, where the true, not distorted by soil sorption processes absorptive plant capacity has been manifested, the first places in the series are occupied by 90 Sr and K, then come Ca and Mg

  19. Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr, Ca, Mg, K and Na in crane's-bill plants cultivated on soil and hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analyan, V L; Sarkisyan, G A [AN Armyanskoj SSR, Erevan. Inst. Agrokhimicheskikh Problem i Gidroponiki

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr in plants under the conditions of soil and hydroponic cultures from the viewpoint of the possibility of obtaining ''pure'' vegetable production has been studied. Predominant absorption of /sup 90/Sr by soil plants as compared with calcium is shown. In the course of using the hydroponic cultivation method predominant radiostrontium absorption has been manifested to all investigated nuclides including potassium. The accumulation coefficients analysis has shown that among soil plants the first place is occupied by potassium, while the /sup 90/Sr coefficients are greater than Ca on hydroponics, where the true, not distorted by soil sorption processes absorptive plant capacity has been manifested, the first places in the series are occupied by /sup 90/Sr and K, then come Ca and Mg.

  20. Distribution of 127Cs and 90Sr in southern part of Pyajyanne lake and in its catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksen, R.; Rantavaara, A.; Yaakkola, T.

    1998-01-01

    Slight increase in 90 Sr content from river discharges was observed in the near-the-surface layers og the Asikkalanselk bay of the Pyajanne lake in the years directly following the Chernobyl accident; later it remained almost runchanged, whereas 137 Cs concentration is decreasing. 90 Sr was identified in the bottoms at greater depth than 137 Cs. Radionuclides transport by small rivers from water catchment zones to Asikkalanselsk was studied in 1995-1997. It is established that greater part of 137 Cs is leached into the surface waters from swamped areas. The swamped soils are also characterized by higher degree of 90 Sr washing out. The role of 137 Cs and 90 Sr surface discharges from catchment as compared to radionuclide exchange with other parts of the lake, containing greater water volumes

  1. {sup 90}Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara [Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, National Research Institute, Maritime Branch, 42 Waszyngtona Av., PL 81-342 Gdynia (Poland); Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry & Ecotoxicology, Gdańsk University, 63 Wita Stwosza Str., PL 80-308 Gdańsk (Poland); Wang, Yuanzhong [Institute of Medicinal Plants, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2238 Beijing Road, Panlong District, 650200 Kunming (China); Falandysz, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.falandysz@ug.edu.pl [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry & Ecotoxicology, Gdańsk University, 63 Wita Stwosza Str., PL 80-308 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2016-02-01

    The {sup 90}Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996–2013. Measurement of {sup 90}Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed {sup 90}Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the {sup 90}Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass in 1998–2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed {sup 90}Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. Concentration of {sup 90}Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. In several other species from Poland {sup 90}Sr was at < 0.5 to around 1.0 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. Activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in popular B. edulis and some other mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (< 1 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass), and values noted showed on persistence of this type of radioactivity in mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe. - Highlights: • Mushrooms are an important food in some regions of the world. • Radioactive strontium ({sup 90}Sr) in mushrooms from Europe and China was measured. • Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus from Yunnan in China accumulates {sup 90}Sr.

  2. "9"0Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia; Wang, Yuanzhong; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The "9"0Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996–2013. Measurement of "9"0Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed "9"0Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the "9"0Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass in 1998–2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed "9"0Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass. Concentration of "9"0Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass. In several other species from Poland "9"0Sr was at < 0.5 to around 1.0 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass. Activity concentrations of "9"0Sr in popular B. edulis and some other mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (< 1 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass), and values noted showed on persistence of this type of radioactivity in mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe. - Highlights: • Mushrooms are an important food in some regions of the world. • Radioactive strontium ("9"0Sr) in mushrooms from Europe and China was measured. • Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus from Yunnan in China accumulates "9"0Sr. • "9"0Sr was at 11 ± 0 to 12 ± 0 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass in caps of I. rhodopurpureus. • Consumption of mushrooms poses no health risk for either region.

  3. Modeling the potential role of a forest ecosystem in phytostabilization and phytoextraction of 90Sr at a contaminated watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The behavior of 90 Sr at forest sites in the White Oak Creek watershed, near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was simulated with a simple, site-specific, multicompartment model that linked biomass and element cycling dynamics. The model was used to predict the role of forest cover in mitigating hydrologic losses of 90 Sr from contaminated soils (i.e. phytostabilization) under conditions where contaminant transport is governed mainly by shallow subsurface flow. The model was also used to predict the removal of 90 Sr from soil (i.e. phytoextraction) through the growth and harvest of short rotation woody crops over a period of 30 years. Simulations with the model indicated that (1) forest preservation on the watershed is a form of phytostabilization because forest cover helps to minimize hydrologic losses of 90 Sr and (2) an attempt to significantly reduce amounts of 90 Sr in soil through phytoextraction would be unsuccessful. Over a period of 30 years, and under various management strategies, the model predicted that 90 Sr initially present in soil at a contaminated site was lost through hydrologic transport and <53% was lost by radioactive decay. Phytostabilization may be important in the management of radioactive land when issues like waste minimization and pollution prevention affect the selection of technologies to be used in environmental restoration. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in dairy and farm milk in Finnish Lapland 1960-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E.; Rissanen, K. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    The decrease rates of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in milk were studied in the years following the atmospheric nuclear weapon testings and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The highest {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the 1960's in Finnish milk were recorded in Lapland even though the deposition of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs did not significantly differ between other localities in Finland, and they were not greater in northern Finland. This was mainly due to the high proportion of peat soils and nutrient deficiency of the pastures in Lapland. {sup 137}Cs deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in Lapland was less than 1 kBq m-2, and {sup 90}Sr deposition was so low that there was no detectable increase in the {sup 90}Sr concentration in milk. The ecological half-lives were estimated for the decrease in the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr after the end of nuclear weapon testings period and the Chernobyl fallout during short and longer time intervals. (orig.)

  5. Immobilisation of 137Cs and 90Sr in hot-pressed clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, A.; Jones, D.V.C.; Cole, G.B.; Valentine, T.M.; Preston, R.F.; Hawes, R.W.M.; Fones, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    It is shown that clinoptilolites from Nevada and Mudhills, California, can be vitrified by hot-pressing at 1000 to 1050 deg C for 30 min under 23 MPa pressure in graphite dies, or for 10 min under 3.5 MPa pressure in stainless steel bellows-shaped containers. Activity measurements before and after hot-pressing show that the radionuclides 137 Cs and 90 Sr are retained almost completely during the process. The hot-pressed material is shown to be extremely resistant to leaching of the nuclides, either in Soxhlet or long-term static leach tests. Gamma-irradiation increases their leachability; that of 90 Sr more than that of 137 Cs, but even so, the leach rates of both remain very low. X-ray diffraction spectra taken before and after heat-treatment for 10 days at temperatures up to 1000 deg C show no deleterious effects, and hydrothermal treatments at temperatures up to 90 deg C for 100 days, even in the presence of sodium ions in solution, are shown not to cause any changes detectable by X-ray diffraction. (author)

  6. Rapid determination of 90Sr impurities in freshly 'generator eluted'90Y for radiopharmaceutical preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonardi, Mauro L.; Martano, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia; Chinol, Marco

    2009-01-01

    90 Y is one of the most useful radionuclides for radioimmunotherapeutic applications and has a half-life (t 1/2 =64.14 h) suitable for most therapeutic applications, beta particles of high energy and decays to a stable daughter. It is significant that 90 Y is available conveniently and inexpensively from a radionuclide 'generator' by decay of its parent, 90 Sr. Nevertheless, current and planned clinical applications with [ 90 Y] labelled compounds employ activity levels that cannot be readily obtained from an in-house generator, but from commercial sources. We have evaluated Eichrom's Sr-resin, either as an 'in-house' generator or as a fast QC method for analysis of 90 Y solutions. In particular, for the development as a generator, we investigated the percentage of the radio-Sr in the first 8 M HNO 3 eluate: in this fraction the concentration of 90 Sr must be smaller than 10 -5 % (recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection). For evaluation as a rapid QC method, we analyzed the concentration of 90 Y in all the fractions containing 'only' radio-Sr: 90 Y should not be present in these eluates. After the collection of β - and γ spectra and analysis of them, we concluded that commercial Sr-resin minicolumn cannot give us the results expected; we developed an in-house system loaded with 4 mL of Sr-resin which gave better results as a generator and a rapid QC method.

  7. Interlaboratory comparison of the determination of 137Cs and 90Sr in water, food and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, L.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Merta, A.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable measurements of radioisotope concentrations are of primary importance for the laboratories dealing with radioactivity determinations. According to the Polish regulations, since 2002 it is obligatory to organize every two years national interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) on the determination of various radionuclides in food and environmental samples. First such ILC on the determination of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in water, food and soil was organized by the National Atomic Energy Agency of Poland in 2004 with the participation of fourteen laboratories from Polish research institutes and universities. The ILC was conducted by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. Two types of water (surface and potable; six samples), wheat flour and soil (four samples) were spiked with 137 Cs and 90 Sr. From the results obtained in all participating laboratories it can be concluded that the procedures of assigning value and preparation of homogeneous material have been done properly and the majority of the determinations remain in good agreement with the assigned values and with the results obtained by other laboratories. Such agreement means that the performance of the laboratories is good and also that the samples are equivalent

  8. The effects of secondary mineral precipitates on {sup 90}Sr mobility at the Hanford Site, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., MSIN P7-54, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology - POSTECH (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., MSIN P7-54, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The effects of secondary precipitates on {sup 90}Sr transport at the Hanford Site were investigated using quartz column experiments with simulated caustic tank waste leachates (STWL). Significantly enhanced retardation of Sr transport was observed in the column contacted with STWL due to Sr sorption and co-precipitation with neo-formed nitrate cancrinite. However, the column results also suggest that neo-formed secondary precipitates could behave like native mobile colloids that can enhance Sr transport. Initially immobilized Sr within secondary precipitates could re-mobilize given a change in the pore water background conditions. The mobility of the neo-formed Sr-bearing precipitates increased with increased solution flow rate. In the field, pore water contents and flow rates can be changed by snow-melt (or storm water) events or artificial infiltration. The increased pore water flow rate caused by these events could affect the mobility of {sup 90}Sr-containing secondary precipitates, which can be a potential source for facilitated Sr transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments. (authors)

  9. Distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in Arctic soil profiles polluted by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Heikkinen, T.; Steinnes, E.; Thorring, H.; Outola, I.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of industrial pollution on the behaviour of radionuclides in spruce forest ecosystems were studied along a gradient from of a copper-nickel smelter in Monchegorsk, NW Russia. A reference site was situated in Lapland, Finland, 152 km west of Monchegorsk. Most of the total 137 Cs activity in soil was in mineral (E and B) horizons, except at the reference site where the major part was still in the organic surface layer. Most of the total 90 Sr activity still remaining in the soil profile was found in the surface layer, but the relative amount decreased with increasing level of industrial pollution. Pollutants from the smelter clearly affected the chemical speciation of radionuclides. Smaller amounts of exchangeable radionuclides were present in the organic surface layer at the most polluted sites. The decline of 137 Cs with decreasing distance from the smelter correlated strongly with a similar depletion in exchangeable K and Mg. Total concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr showed high correlations with exchangeable cations, particularly in the E and upper B horizon. A sudden change in behaviour of 137 Cs in the lower B horizon may be associated with changes in clay mineralogy along the soil profile caused by weathering

  10. Depth dose curves from 90Sr+90Y clinical applicators using the thermoluminescent technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Oliveira, Mercia L.

    2009-01-01

    The 90 Sr+ 90 Y beta-ray sources widely used in brachytherapy applications were developed in the 1950's. Many of these sources, called clinical applicators, are still routinely used in several Brazilian radiotherapy clinics for the treatment of superficial lesions in the skin and eyes, although they are not commercialized anymore. These applicators have to be periodically calibrated, according to international recommendations, because these sources have to be very well specified in order to reach the traceability of calibration standards. In the case of beta-ray sources, the recommended quantity is the absorbed dose rate in water at a reference distance from the source. Moreover, there are other important quantities, as the depth dose curves and the source uniformity for beta-ray plaque sources. In this work, depth dose curves were obtained and studied of five dermatological applicators, using thin thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO 4 :Dy and phantoms of PMMA with different thicknesses (between 1.0 mm and 5.0 mm) positioned between each applicator and the TL pellets. The depth dose curves obtained presented the expected attenuation response in PMMA, and the results were compared with data obtained for a 90 Sr+ 90 Y standard source reported by the IAEA, and they were considered satisfactory. (author)

  11. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides by leguminous plants of various species and varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanovich, V.P.; Podolyak, A.G.; Arastovich, T.V.; Demidovich, S.A.; Odintsova, L.E.; Ivashkova, I.I.; Polovkov, N.N.

    2005-01-01

    Decision of protein problem on territories contaminated with radionuclides as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP is not possible without extension of lands under cultivation of leguminous plants (peas, lupine and soybean). All lupine varieties show high indices of radionuclides accumulation and are restrictedly acceptable for production on contaminated territories. The following varieties of yellow forage lupine are the most acceptable for cultivation on the contaminated territories: Zhemchug, Rannij, Adradzhenne, Mitan. Introduction of varieties with the low level of radionuclides accumulation (peas — Aist, Agat, Gomelskaya; soybean — Mageva, Pina, Severnaya zvezda) into agricultural production will make to possible to obtain agricultural products meeting the requirements of the “Republican permissible levels of 137Cs and 90Sr content in agricultural raw materials and forages” on arable lands with the higher density of radioactive contamination: 137Cs — 925—1110 kBq/m2 (25-30 Ci/km2) and 90Sr 15—18 kBq/m2 (0.40-0.50 Ci/km2)

  12. 90Sr-90Y radionuclide generator based on ionex chromatography. Part 1 - project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miler, V.; Budsky, F.; Malek, Z.

    2003-09-01

    This part contains a proposal for the generator column design, materials to be used (chemicals, ionexes) and technological procedures. The proposal was inspired by the 90 Sr- 90 Y generator operated by Zfk Rossendorf. The aim was to develop and launch a generator for the preparation of carrier-free 90 Y in the form of [ 90 Y] chloride solution in dilute hydrochloric acid. The separation of Y from Sr is based on ionex chromatography by sorbing the two radionuclides on a catex. While Sr remains sorbed, 90 Y is eluted with lithium citrate. During this process, 90 Y is bonded in a citrate complex which, having a negative charge, is subsequently trapped by an anex. A guard column is inserted before the anex column to trap any traces of 90 Sr. 90 Y is eluted from the anex in the yttrium chloride form by using dilute hydrochloric acid. The product from the generator can be used for the preparation of [ 90 Y] - Fe colloid injection or [ 90 Y] - yttrium citrate injection for intra-articular application or for the development of monoclonal antibodies and peptides

  13. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y using ZrO2: Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera S, M.; Soto E, A.M.; Rivera M, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (TL) of the doped zirconium oxide with europium (ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ ) before beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y are presented. The powders of ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ were obtained by means of the sol-gel technique and they were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ , previously irradiated with beta particles of 90 Sr/ 90 Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 204 and 292 C respectively. The TL response of the ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ as function of the absorbed dose was lineal from 2 Gy up to 90 Gy. The fading of the information of the ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ was of 10% the first 2 hours remaining almost constant the information by the following 30 days. The ZrO 2 doped with the (Eu 3+ ) ion it was found more sensitive to the beta radiation that the one of zirconium oxide without doping (ZrO 2 ) obtained by the same method. Those studied characteristics allow to propose to the doped zirconium oxide with europium like thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of the beta radiation. (Author)

  14. Development of a dosimetric system for 90Sr + 90Y betatherapy applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Talita Salles

    2010-01-01

    The 90 Sr+ 90 Y applicators, used in betatherapy for prevention of keloids and pterigium, are imported and many times their dosimetric features are shown only in an illustrated form by the manufacturers. The exhaustive routine of the medical physicists in the clinic do not make possible the accomplishment of procedures for the confirmation of these parameters. This work presents the development of a methodology for the dosimetry of 90 Sr+ 90 Y betatherapy applicators. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used for the simulation of the percentage depth dose curves and dose distribution profiles produced by these applicators. The experimental measurements of the radial and axial radiation attenuation, have been done with a mini-extrapolation chamber, thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiographic films. The experimental results have been compared with the simulated values. Both percentage depth dose curves and the radial dose profiles, the theoretical and the experimental ones, have presented good agreement, which may validate the use of the MCNP5 for these simulations, confirming the viability of the usage of this method in procedures of beta emitter sources dosimetry. (author)

  15. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y using amorphous ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera M, T.; Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera R, M.; Soto E, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (Tl) of the zirconium oxide in its amorphous state (ZrO 2 -a) before beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y are presented. The amorphous powders of the zirconium oxide were synthesized by means of the sol-gel technique. The sol-gel process using alkoxides like precursors, is an efficient method to prepare a matrix of zirconium oxide by hydrolysis - condensation of the precursor to form chains of Zr-H 3 and Zr-O 2 . One of the advantages of this technique is the obtention of gels at low temperatures with very high purity and homogeneity. The powders were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO 2 -a, previously irradiated with beta particles of 90 Sr/ 90 Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 257 C. The dissipation of the information of the one ZrO 2 -a was of 40% the first 2 hours remaining constant the information for the following 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of ± 2.5% in standard deviation. The studied characteristics allow to propose to the amorphous zirconium oxide as thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of beta radiation. (Author)

  16. Three rapid methods for determination 90Sr in milk samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasisiara, F.; Attarilar, N.; Afshar, N.

    2006-01-01

    Strontium radionuclide 90 Sr is one of the main long-lived components of the radioactive fallout which occurred as a result of previous atmospheric nuclear tests and also nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl accident. Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between strontium and calcium, more than 99% of strontium is efficiently incorporated into bone tissue and teeth and Characterized by along physical and biological half-life, it may cause damage to bone marrow. Since determination of this radionuclide often is a time consuming process, rapid determination methods specially in emergency situations is always desirable. In this work, three rapid methods for determination of this radionuclide in milk samples will be evaluated. All of the methods include two major steps: 1- strontium separation from fats and proteins which can be performed by drying (in case of the fresh milk samples), ashing and leaching by nitric acids or by using exchange or chelating resins which have strong affinity for alkaline earth cations such as Dowex 50W-X8. And 2- Separation of Sr-90 or its daughter product, Y-90. In two methods separation of 90 Sr is performed by extraction of the daughter nuclide, 90 Y, by aid of organic extracting agent, Tributylphosphate or T.B.P., and then Cherenkov counting of the Y-90 extracted. The third method is based on separation of this radionuclide using Crown Ether or Sr -Spec resin. The detailed radiochemical procedures and evaluation of each method advantages or disadvantages will explained in full text paper. (authors)

  17. Influence of soil agrochemical properties for 90Sr uptake by cereals in radioactive contaminated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putyatin, Yu.V.; Vetrova, N.N.

    2001-05-01

    The adequate estimation of necessity of carrying out of protective measures is one of most prominent aspects of conducting agro-industrial production in a period after Chernobyl NPP failure in conditions of a deficit of the investments. The problem of diminution of dose loadings on the population is solved first of all by complex of agricultural protective measures, as about 70 percents of a collective dose is shaped at the expense of entering radionuclide uptake of in an organism with foodstuff. The application of protective measures in agriculture allows essentially to lower the radionuclide content in foodstuff. The liming, extra rates of potassium and phosphorus fertilizers are basic elements of the plant production technology in radioactive contaminated zone, which results in essential change of soil agrochemical properties. Main purpose of the study was on the basis of the experimental data to establish threshold soil parameters, which excess does not provide of 90 Sr uptake reduction in grain. The mathematical processing of results of 90 Sr radiochemical analysis with samples of sod-podsolic loamy sand soil and cereals selected from trial plots of Gomel and Mogilev regions has shown, that the inhibiting action of 90 Sr uptake decrease in grain is noted at pH (1N KCl) - 6,4 for rye, spring wheat -- 6,7, barley -- 6,7. The quantity of reliability of approximating -R 2 for rye has made 0,55, summer wheat 0,49 and barley 0,72. As a whole, the levels of soil acidity correspond to optimal parameters for production of maximal yields. The liming of soil by dolomite is accompanied with rising of exchangeable Ca and Mg contents. The correlation analysis has shown, that R 2 for the Ca content in soil and 90 Sr accumulation by rye was -- 0,38, spring wheat -- 0,69 and barley -- 0,47. The impairment of influence of calcium concentration of soil is noted at 1420 ppm for rye and 781 ppm Ca for barley. For exchangeable Mg is noted limits for rye --140(R 2 -- 0.54), spring

  18. Sources and pathways of 90Sr in the North Atlantic-Arctic region: present day and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yongqi; Drange, Helge; Johannessen, Ola M.; Pettersson, Lasse H.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of the anthropogenic radionuclides 137 Cs and 90 Sr, originating from nuclear bomb testing, the Sellafield reprocessing plant in the Irish Sea (UK), and from the Ob and Yenisey river discharges to the Arctic Ocean, have been simulated using the global version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM). The physical model is forced with daily atmospheric re-analysis fields for the period of 1948-1999. Comparison of the temporal evolution of the observed and the simulated concentrations of 90 Sr has been performed in the Kara Sea. The relative contributions of the different sources on the temporal and spatial distributions of the surface 90 Sr are quantified over the simulated period. It follows that the Ob river discharge dominated the surface 90 Sr over most of the Arctic Ocean and along the eastern and western coasts of Greenland before 1960. During the period of 1980-1990, the atmospheric fallout and the Ob river discharge were equally important for the 90 Sr distribution in the Arctic Ocean. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to explore the possible dispersion of accidental released 90 Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers under a global warming scenario (2 x CO 2 ). The difference between the present-day and the global warming scenario runs indicates that more of the released 90 Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers is confined to the Arctic Ocean in the global warming run, particularly in the near coastal, non-European part of the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr from contaminated soil by three grass species inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Watrud, L.S.; Reeves, M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of plants to accumulate low level radioactive waste from soil, followed by incineration of plant material to concentrate radionuclides may prove to be a viable and economical method of remediating contaminated areas. We tested the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on 137 Cs and 90 Sr uptake by bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), johnson grass (Sorghum halpense) and switchgrass (Panicum virginatum) for the effectiveness on three different contaminated soil types. Exposure to 137 Cs or 90 Sr over the course of the experiment did not affect above ground biomass of the three grasses. The above ground biomass of bahia, johnson and switchgrass plants accumulated from 26.3 to 71.7% of the total amount of the 137 Cs and from 23.8 to 88.7% of the total amount of the 90 Sr added to the soil after three harvests. In each of the three grass species tested, plants inoculated with Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices had greater aboveground plant biomass, higher concentrations of 137 Cs or 90 Sr in plant tissue, % accumulation of 137 Cs or 90 Sr from soil and plant bioconcentration ratios at each harvest than those that did not receive mycorrhizal inoculation. Johnson grass had greater aboveground plant biomass, greater accumulation of 137 Cs or 90 Sr from soil and plant higher bioconcentration ratios with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than bahia grass and switchgrass. The greatest accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr was observed in johnson grass inoculated with G. mosseae. Grasses can grow in wide geographical ranges that include a broad variety of edaphic conditions. The highly efficient removal of these radionuclides by these grass species after inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae supports the concept that remediation of radionuclide contaminated soils using mycorrhizal plants may present a viable strategy to remediate and reclaim sites contaminated with radionuclides

  20. Country report: Syria. Development of {sup 90}Y/{sup 90}Sr Generator and {sup 90}Y Radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassine, Taufik; Mukhallalati, Ch. Heyam, E-mail: atomic@aec.org.sy [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a technique for preparation of {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y generator, we have developed a separation technique for isolation of {sup 90}Y from {sup 90}Sr based on using Sr – Spec resin packed in three columns for separation and purification of {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y .The resulting Y90 is used for therapeutic applications. The first part of this project describe a prototype design for the {sup 90}Sr- {sup 90}Y generator in order to get a very accurate method to obtain the minimum possible {sup 90}Sr Breakthrough. 25 mci of {sup 90}Sr was used in the generator {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y and we obtained the elution yield of {sup 90}Y higher than 88%, Also the eluate was used for preparation of several {sup 90}Y radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 90}YEDTMP and {sup 90}Y-DOTA-HR{sub 3}. And the work is continues to investigate more radiopharmaceuticals applications in the second part of this project such as {sup 90}Y– FHMA. In this part of the co-coordination research programmer, A protocol based on results of this studies was developed to prepare and operate a higher activity generator (50-100mci), the resulting elution yield was approximately 94% of {sup 90}Y . The elute was used in preparation of new {sup 90}Y radiopharmaceuticals. The monoclonal antibodies is still evolving by conjugate Rituximab to The macrocyclic bifunctional chelating agent,(p-SCN-Bn-DOTA)S-2-(4-Isothiocyanatobenzyle)-1,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane-tetraaceticacid to obtain the inmunoconjugate DOTA-Rituximub in simple way and then investigating the radio labeling conditions with {sup 90}Y. (author)

  1. Bio-geochemical behavior of 90Sr, 137Cs and 60Co in tropical soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, M.A.; Gonzales Viana, A.; Bartoly, F.; Carvalho Conti, C. de; Janvrot Vivone, R.; Perez, V.; Wasserman, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    One manner to assess the bio-geochemical behavior of radionuclides in soils is the integration of experimental methods results obtained in the laboratory with results obtained in field experiments. In this work was used an alternative sequential chemical extraction protocol to evaluate mobility of radionuclides as a function of some physico-chemical conditions operationally defined: Slightly acidic phase: CH 3 COOH + CH 3 COONa 1:1, pH 4.7, shacked at room temperature; Easily reducible phase: NH 2 OH.HCl (0.1 M), pH 2, shacked at room temperature;Oxidizable phase: H 2 O 2 (30%) + HNO 3 , pH 2, CH 3 COONH 4 (1 M);shacked at room temperature; Alkaline phase: NaOH (0.1 M), pH 12, shacked at room temperature; Resistant phase: Aqua regia heated to 50 deg C / 30 min. The results obtained experimentally indicate the vulnerability of some Brazilian soils due to the higher radionuclide transfer to plant. Although it seems clear that it is difficult to identify which soil property will determine a given TF, the results of geochemical partition for 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 60 Co obtained in slightly acidic phase were very consistent with the TF data for reference plants or with some of the soil properties recognized in the specialized literature as related with mechanisms of sorption of Cs (e.g. exchangeable K, organic matter and iron oxides content), Co (e.g. manganese oxide) and Sr (pH and exchangeable Ca). The 137 Cs distribution in soil showed that Fe oxides are the main sink for this element in all type of soil and 16 years after contamination the 137 Cs the TF remains almost the same in Goiania soil. The 60 Co distribution in soil showed that Mn oxides are the main sink for this element in all type of soils and in the Nitisol, 5 years after contamination, the 60 Co was not detected as bioavailable (in the slightly acidic phase) neither detected in plant or were detectable with values very close to the detection limit. In the Nitisol, it is possible that reduction in 137 Cs

  2. Comparison of decontamination parameters for two rodents. {sup 90}SR and {sup 137}CS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarkov, M.; Gaschak, S.; Goryanaya, J.U.; Maksimenko, A.; Barchuk, R.; Martynenko, V.; Shulga, A.; Chesser, R.; Rodgers, B. [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, Slavutych (Ukraine)

    2004-07-01

    The rate of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content decrease in the whole body has been estimated for bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus and lab strain of mouse Mus musculus (Big Blue) over 50 and 180 days, respectively. Before the study the animals were naturally contaminated within the most contaminated area of the Chernobyl zone. The initial activity of the whole body ranged as follows: voles - 4-385 kBq for {sup 137}Cs, 0.9-7.7 kBq for {sup 90}Sr; mice - 0.62-1.19 and 0.64-2.20, respectively. Methods of beta and gamma spectrometry and a specially designed alive counting method were used in the study. The exponential decay model of the second order was applied to estimate parameters of the body decontamination from {sup 137}Cs. Both species have similar half-life periods of the fast-excreted fraction - 1.87-2.17d. However, a bank vole loses up to 96-97% of initial activity by the fast excreted fraction, while mice - only 67.4%. A slow excreted fraction of initially accumulated {sup 137}Cs has a half-life period of 55.3d and 9.6d in voles and mice, respectively. Thus, bank vole and domestic mouse have evident differences of radiocesium excretion, first of all at the early stage of decontamination. Some preliminary data for a yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis show similar parameters of decontamination as for a domestic mouse. The excretion of {sup 90}Sr was estimated using the exponential decay model of the first order. A mouse has much larger part of the excreted radionuclide - 87%, and a half-life period - 49.9d; a vole - 58% and 13.1d, respectively. The rest amount of radionuclides was considered as non-excreted over the study term. Thus, similar size representatives of two rodent taxa have different parameters of radionuclide excretion. The reason for this may be their specific physiology of accumulation and excretion. (author)

  3. Toxicity of inhaled 90Sr fused clay particles in beagle dogs. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Hobbs, C.H.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of 90 Sr in fused clay particles in Beagle dogs have continued with a view toward defining the biological consequences of inhaling this important radionuclide in a relatively insoluble form. Seventy-two dogs were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol (AMAD 1.4 to 2.8 μm and sigma/sub g/ 1.4 to 2.7) of fused montmorillonite clay particles labeled with 90 Sr to achieve graded initial lung burdens (ILB) of 3.7 to 94 μCi/kg body weight; 12 control dogs were exposed to an aerosol of stable strontium in fused clay particles. These 84 dogs were assigned to the 90 Sr fused clay longevity study. An additional 26 dogs were exposed similarly (AMAD 1.9 to 2.5 μm and sigma/sub g/ 1.6 to 2.0) and assigned for sacrifice (Series II) at intervals after exposure to define metabolism and dosimetry of this aerosol in Beagle dogs. Of the 72 longevity dogs, 32 dogs having ILBs of 29 to 94 μCi/kg and cumulative doses to lung to death of 40,000 to 96,000 rads have died from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis from 159 to 477 days post-exposure. Fourteen dogs with ILBs of 15 to 36 μCi/kg and cumulative doses to lung to death of 34,000 to 68,000 rads have died from primary pulmonary hemangiosarcomas between 644 and 1214 days post-exposure. In addition, one dog developed a bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma, another epidermoid carcinoma of the lung and a third, a squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity. The remaining 26 exposed dogs and 12 controls of the longevity study are surviving at 1070 to 1707 days post-exposure. Dogs in the sacrifice series have been sacrificed to 1536 days post-exposure. (U.S.)

  4. Comparison of decontamination parameters for two rodents. 90SR and 137CS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarkov, M.; Gaschak, S.; Goryanaya, J.U.; Maksimenko, A.; Barchuk, R.; Martynenko, V.; Shulga, A.; Chesser, R.; Rodgers, B.

    2004-01-01

    The rate of 90 Sr and 137 Cs content decrease in the whole body has been estimated for bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus and lab strain of mouse Mus musculus (Big Blue) over 50 and 180 days, respectively. Before the study the animals were naturally contaminated within the most contaminated area of the Chernobyl zone. The initial activity of the whole body ranged as follows: voles - 4-385 kBq for 137 Cs, 0.9-7.7 kBq for 90 Sr; mice - 0.62-1.19 and 0.64-2.20, respectively. Methods of beta and gamma spectrometry and a specially designed alive counting method were used in the study. The exponential decay model of the second order was applied to estimate parameters of the body decontamination from 137 Cs. Both species have similar half-life periods of the fast-excreted fraction - 1.87-2.17d. However, a bank vole loses up to 96-97% of initial activity by the fast excreted fraction, while mice - only 67.4%. A slow excreted fraction of initially accumulated 137 Cs has a half-life period of 55.3d and 9.6d in voles and mice, respectively. Thus, bank vole and domestic mouse have evident differences of radiocesium excretion, first of all at the early stage of decontamination. Some preliminary data for a yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis show similar parameters of decontamination as for a domestic mouse. The excretion of 90 Sr was estimated using the exponential decay model of the first order. A mouse has much larger part of the excreted radionuclide - 87%, and a half-life period - 49.9d; a vole - 58% and 13.1d, respectively. The rest amount of radionuclides was considered as non-excreted over the study term. Thus, similar size representatives of two rodent taxa have different parameters of radionuclide excretion. The reason for this may be their specific physiology of accumulation and excretion. (author)

  5. Determination of 89Sr and 90Sr in highly radioactive water from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojanowski, R.; Radecki, Z.; Duniec, S.

    1994-01-01

    The main criterion in assaying strontium radionuclides is to obtain radiochemically pure strontium sources for beta-particle counting. Nuclear power plant waters contain both 89 Sr and 90 Sr accompanied by many beta-particle and gamma-ray emitting fission and neutron-activation products. The latter activities can sometimes exceed those of strontium by a factor of 10 7 . Efficient purification procedures must be used to remove these products, preferably at an initial stage of analysis to reduce the radiation risk to personnel. A method has been developed in which a water sample is passed through a prefilter installed on top of an ion-exchange column filled with Dowex-50 resin in H + form. This prefilter is impregnated with ferrocyanides and manganese dioxide and retains most of the interfering radionuclides while the underlying cation-exchanger takes up strontium ions. A few additional purification steps result in a strontium salt that is free from other radioactivity. (orig.)

  6. Separation of 90Y from 90Sr by solvent extraction with ionizable crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.J.; Elshani, S.; Du, H.S.; Natale, N.R.; Wai, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Sym-Dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxyacetic acid and its analogues are selective for the extraction of Y 3+ over Sr 2+ from aqueous solutions into chloroform. The selectivity and the pH range of extraction are influenced by the structure of the ligand. The size of the macrocyclic cavity, the tether length of the lariat, the attachment of alkyl functional groups to the lariat, and the identity of the ionizable group can affect selectivity and extraction efficiency. When the carboxylic acid at the terminal end of the lariat is replaced by a hydroxamic acid, the selectivity for Y 3+ over Sr 2+ is significantly increased. Using these ionizable crown ethers as extractants, 90 Y fractions of greater than 99.9% purity can be obtained in a single solvent extraction step from solutions of 90 Sr. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. A case of internal contamination by 90Sr of a member of public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malatova, I.; Cespirova, I.; Drabova, D.; Beckova, V.

    1998-01-01

    A case of internal contamination by 90 Sr of a member of the public is described. An unauthorised person entered a low-activity waste storage placed in an abandoned sand mine, a barrel with marker for radioactive substances was found and manipulated with a tin labelled as ISOMET Sr90. The radiation protection authority was informed after 6 days and found surface contamination on his belongings. Whole-body counting with an HPGe detector and excretion analysis were performed. He was measured by whole-body counter 16 times from November 1990 to August 1992, 9 samples of urine and 6 samples of faeces were collected. For the estimation of the dose, the software CINDY with the biokinetic models of ICRP 30 was used. Single and continuous intakes were assumed. Intake was estimated to be about 3 MBq and committed effective dose 84 mSv. (author)

  8. A data acquisition system for indentification of 90Sr/ 90Y in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medin, G.; Brajnik, D.; Starcic, M.; Stanovnik, A.

    1996-01-01

    Often, in the stage of research and development of new techniques for detection of ionizing radiation, elaborate electronic systems are required. In this paper, we describe the relatively complex detector and electronic system used for a relatively simple but nevertheless demanding measurement of the beta emitting radionuclides 90 Sr/ 90 Y in environmental samples. The detection limit of 1 Bq in a thin, disc-shaped sample, was obtained by careful elimination of background. Contribution of other radionuclides in the sample, were eliminated or at least considerably reduced by using a silica aerogel as Cherenkov radiator and thin multiwire chamber in coincidence. Cosmic ray signals were reduced by large scintillation counters in anticoincidence. Finally, persisting RF pick-up signals were eliminated by using the signal from a wire antenna and identical MWPC preamplifier and discriminator for a veto to the master coincidence. For each accepted event, both timing and pulse height information was recorded with a personal computer

  9. Fast method and ultra fast screening for determination of 90Sr in milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabai, E.; Hornung, L.; Savkin, B.T.; Poppitz-Spuhler, A.; Hiersche, L.

    2011-01-01

    In emergency situation or in case of defence against nuclear hazards, the rapid analysis of radioisotopes in food products is essential. Radiostrontium is one of the most interesting isotopes in case of emergency. The determination of radiostrontium in milk and dairy products plays an important role especially for infants. The procedures described here were tested for fast determination of 90 Sr. The typical chemical recovery of the proposed fast procedure for determination of strontium from milk and dairy products was 90% and the time needed for analysis was one working day. The achieved detection limit for milk is 0.8 Bq/l. An ultra fast screening method allows the determination of radiostrontium with quantitative recovery within 1 hour. The minimum detectable activity in this case is 230 Bq/l.

  10. Baseline concentrations of strontium and 90Sr in seawater from the northern Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, S.; Al Ghadban, A.N.; Behbahani, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first baseline for strontium and 90 Sr from northern Gulf. • The total strontium concentration is much higher than reported for other oceans. • The Sr/salinity ratio correlates well with global averages. • High Sr might be due to increased salinity/CaCo 3 dissolution in acidifying Gulf waters. -- Abstract: Baseline concentration of strontium and Sr-90 in Gulf is presented. The strontium concentration is much higher than reported for other oceanic waters, while the Sr-90 concentration is low at 0.7–1.0 mBq l −1 , that represents the background level following nuclear tests and can be used as an effective tracer in case of any radioactive release in the region. The strontium concentration is primarily related to the increasing salinity off the Gulf coast

  11. Portable instrumentation for quantitatively measuring radioactive surface contaminations, including 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of decontamination efforts, a quantitative analysis of the radiocontamination is necessary, both before and after decontamination. Since it is desirable to release the decontaminated material for unrestricted use or disposal, the assay equipment must provide adequate sensitivity to measure the radioactivity at or below the release limit. In addition, the instrumentation must be capable of measuring all kinds of radiocontaminants including fission products, activation products, and transuranic materials. Finally, the survey instrumentation must be extremely versatile in order to assay the wide variety of contaminated surfaces in many environments, some of which may be extremely hostile or remote. This communication describes the development and application of portable instrumentation capable of quantitatively measuring most transuranics, activation products, and fission products, including 90 Sr, on almost any contaminated surface in nearly any location

  12. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90Sr/90Y beta radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Tamayo Garcia, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The extrapolation chamber is a parallel plate chamber and variable volume based on the Bragg-Gray theory. It determines in absolute mode, with high accuracy the dose absorbed by the extrapolation of the ionization current measured for a null distance between the electrodes. This camera is used for dosimetry of external beta rays for radiation protection. This paper presents the characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90 Sr/ 90 Y beta radiation field. The absorbed dose rate to tissue at a depth of 0.07 mm was calculated and is (0.13206±0.0028) μGy. The extrapolation chamber null depth was determined and its value is 60 μm. The influence of temperature, pressure and humidity on the value of the corrected current was also evaluated. Temperature is the parameter that has more influence on this value and the influence of pressure and the humidity is not very significant. Extrapolation curves were obtained. (Author)

  13. Vertical distribution of 90Sr and 137 Cs in uncultivated soil in three localities of central Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesingerova, E.; Hejnova, P.; Tecl, J.; Mirchi, R.; Setrna, L.; Macurova, L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was study the vertical distribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in uncultivated soils. The radionuclide contents in different soil layers and the cumulative deposition of radionuclides at the study sites were to be established with a view to possible identification of their sources. The present paper investigated the vertical distribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in uncultivated soil samples in central Bohemia and inventory of these radionuclides at representative sampling sites. These data provide the information about the availability, movement and environmental behaviour of these important radionuclides in the study region. The cumulative deposition of 90 Sr at sites 1, 2 and 3 were found of 700, 1390 and 970 Bq/m 2 , respectively, The cumulative deposition of 137 Cs at sites 1, 2 and 3 were found of 260, 510 and 10000 Bq/m 2 , respectively. The obtained values of 9S r are about 47% lower than the value of UNSCEAR inventories, but our average value of 137 Cs (3590 Bq/m 2 ) agree with the cumulative deposition of 137 Cs from the atmospheric nuclear tests in northern 40 grad - 50 grad temperate zone according UNSCEAR inventories. The radioactive decay should have reduced the reported 90 Sr and 137 Cs inventories in the northern hemisphere to 2190 Bq/m 2 and 3580 Bq/m 2 , respectively. The concentration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs increased proportionally to the SOM content in soil, but the difference of the degree of correlation among 90 Sr and 137 CS could be explained by the fact that SOM held 137 Cs more strongly than 90 Sr. 137 Cs showed very low mobility in soil profiles in undisturbed soils, therefore, it was concentrated in the upper 10 cm of the soils. Although the concentration of 90 Sr increased with organic content through an anion exchange reaction, which is enhanced by SOM keeping high cationic exchange capacity, the retention of Sr was relatively weak in contrast to Cs. It is related with high mobility of Sr that is a member of group II in the

  14. Three rapid methods for determination {sup 90}Sr in milk samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasisiara, F.; Attarilar, N. [Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Environmental Radiation Protection Div., National Radiation Protection Dept. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afshar, N. [Tarbiat Modarres Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Strontium radionuclide {sup 90}Sr is one of the main long-lived components of the radioactive fallout which occurred as a result of previous atmospheric nuclear tests and also nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl accident. Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between strontium and calcium, more than 99% of strontium is efficiently incorporated into bone tissue and teeth and Characterized by along physical and biological half-life, it may cause damage to bone marrow. Since determination of this radionuclide often is a time consuming process, rapid determination methods specially in emergency situations is always desirable. In this work, three rapid methods for determination of this radionuclide in milk samples will be evaluated. All of the methods include two major steps: 1- strontium separation from fats and proteins which can be performed by drying (in case of the fresh milk samples), ashing and leaching by nitric acids or by using exchange or chelating resins which have strong affinity for alkaline earth cations such as Dowex 50W-X8. And 2- Separation of Sr-90 or its daughter product, Y-90. In two methods separation of {sup 90}Sr is performed by extraction of the daughter nuclide, {sup 90}Y, by aid of organic extracting agent, Tributylphosphate or T.B.P., and then Cherenkov counting of the Y-90 extracted. The third method is based on separation of this radionuclide using Crown Ether or Sr -Spec resin. The detailed radiochemical procedures and evaluation of each method advantages or disadvantages will explained in full text paper. (authors)

  15. Half-life evaluations for 3H, 90Sr, and 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMahon, Desmond

    2006-01-01

    A recent paper has reviewed methods for the evaluation of discrepant sets of data and demonstrated the results of applying these methods to the published half-life data of 90 Sr and 137 Cs [MacMahon, T.D., Pearce, A., Harris, P., 2004. Convergence of techniques for the evaluation of discrepant data. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 60, 275-281]. The half-life data for 3 H has been subject to a comprehensive review and critical evaluation by Lucas and Unterweger [2000. Comprehensive review and critical evaluation of the half-life of tritium. J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 541-549]. The current paper reports the results of applying the various evaluation procedures of MacMahon et al. Convergence of techniques for the evaluation of discrepant data. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 60, 275-281] to the data of Lucas and Unterweger [Comprehensive review and critical evaluation of the half-life of tritium. J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 541-549], resulting in a recommended half-life of 4497(4) days. MacMahon et al. [Convergence of techniques for the evaluation of discrepant data. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 60, 275-281] highlighted problems in the evaluation of the discrepant half-life data of 90 Sr, in particular the worrying upward trend in the data, where the weighted mean of all the measurements increases, on average, by 35 days each time a new measurement result is added. The current paper reports on further analyses of these data. New measurements of the half-life of 90 Y have been reported by Kossert and Schrader [2004. Standardization by liquid scintillation counting and half-life measurements of 90 Y. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 60, 741]. This has prompted a new evaluation of all available published 90 Y half-life data. The data are fairly consistent, and a value of 64.063(16) h is recommended

  16. Influence of 90Sr, adult thymectomy and antilymphocyteglobulin on haematopoietic tissues and peripheral blood leucocytes in CBA mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierke, P.

    1986-01-01

    The role or long-time immune suppression in carcinogenesis induced by the long-lived internal emitter 90 Sr, is investigated in an ongoing study. The experimental design is based on the assumption that impaired immune responsiveness, by other means than 90 Sr, might increase the neoplastic response in exposed individuals, and thus reflect a protective function, if existing. Intercomparison is made of the tumour yield in mice exposed to different single doses of 90 Sr and simultaneously subjected or not to long-term immune suppression by adult thymectomy (ATx) and/or antilymphocyteglobulin (ALG) treatment. Information on the general condition and responsiveness of the immune system, in the respective models, during tumour expectancy time, is essential for a conclusive evaluation of the results. To meet theses demands the present paper reports on histopathologic alternations in immune organs and changes in white blood cell counts, induced by the different combinations of 90 Sr, ATx + ALG treatment. The results confirm the prediction, that ATx + ALG is an efficient and, with respect to the purpose of the study, suitable treatment for additive long-term depression of the immune system in 90 Sr irradiated mice, evidenced in particular by increased depletion of monomorphonuclear cells (MNC) in lymphoid organs and peripheral blood. Subsequent reports will deal with functional immune parameters. (orig.)

  17. Bomb-test 90Sr in Pacific and Indian Ocean surface water as recorded by banded corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toggweiler, J.R.; Trumbore, S.

    1985-01-01

    We report here measurements of bomb-test 90 Sr activity in the CaCO 3 skeletons of banded head forming corals collected from nine locations in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. Density variations in skeletal carbonate demarcate annual growth bands and allow one to section individual years. Measurements of 90 Sr activity in the annual bands reconstruct the activity of the water in which the coral grew. Our oldest records date to the early years of the nuclear era and record not only fallout deposition from the major U.S. and Soviet tests of 1958-1962, but also the huge, and largely unappreciated, localized inputs from the U.S. tests at Eniwetok and Bikini atolls during 1952-1958. In the 1960's the 90 Sr activity in Indian Ocean surface water was twice as high as activity levels in the South Pacific at comparable latitudes. We suggest that substantial amounts of northern hemisphere fallout moved west and south into the Indian Ocean via passages through the Indonesian archipelago. Equatorial Pacific 90 Sr levels have remained relatively constant from the mid 1960's through the end of 1970's in spite of 90 Sr decay, reflecting a large-scale transfer of water between the temperate and tropical North Pacific. Activity levels at Fanning Is. (4 0 N, 160 0 W) appear to vary in conjunction with the 3-4 year El Nino cycle. (orig.)

  18. The gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables of Daejeon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Jun, J.S.; Oh, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables such as Brassica Campestris, Raphanus Sativus and Lactuca Sativa grown in Daejeon area was carried out during the period of April through August 1983. The observed levels of gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the levels of the vegetables were, on average, 189.2+-51.8pCi/g-ash (2372+-827pCi/kg-fresh) and 44.4+-11.5sup(90)Sr pCi/g-Ca(2.5+-0.5sup(90) pCi/g-ash or 31.6+-8.6 sup(90)Sr pCi/kg-fresh), respectively, while the mean level of the gross beta activity in roots was 158.6+-19.4pCi/g-ash(2121+-899pCi/kg-fresh). On the basis of the ICRP recommendations, an estimative evaluation was made for the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables, and it was turned out to be far below the permissible level. An attempt was also made to look for any existing difference in the gross beta, activities of the vegetables grown in vinyl house and in open field, taking seasonal variation of airborne radioactivity into account for normalizing the activity deposited during the course of discrepant farming period. (Author)

  19. The selective removal of 90Sr and 137Cs from liquid low-level waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Taylor, P.A.; Kent, T.E.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are being developed for the selective removal of the two principal radioactive contaminants, 90 Sr and 137 Cs, from liquid low-level waste generated and/or stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods are to be used in a future centralized treatment facility at ORNL. Removal of 90 Sr in the proposed treatment flashed is based on coprecipitation from strongly alkaline waste by adding stable strontium to the waste solution. Ferric sulfate, added with the stable strontium, improves the 90 Sr removal and aids in the flocculation of the strontium carbonate (SrCO 3 ) precipitate. After separation of the solids, the resultant supernate is adjusted to pH 8 for the cesium removal treatment. Upon pH adjustment, aluminum originally present in the untreated alkaline waste precipitates and sorbs an additional amount of 90 Sr. Cesium is removed from the neutralized waste by two sequential treatments with potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (KCCF) slurry formed by the addition of potassium ferrocyanide (K 4 Fe(CN) 6 ) and cobalt nitrate (Co(NO 3 ) 2 ) solutions. The cumulative decontamination factors (DFs) for 90 Sr and 137 Cs in benchscale studies are 4900 and 1 x 10 6 , respectively, if high speed centrifugation is used for the liquid/solid separations. Efforts are now underway to evaluate process-scale techniques to perform the liquid/solid separations required for removal of SrCO 3 and 137 Cs-bearing hexacyanoferrate solids from the treated waste solution

  20. Sources of inflow and nature of redistribution of 90Sr in the salt lakes of the Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Arkhipova, S I; Kravchenko, N V

    2018-08-01

    At the first time for the period after the Chernobyl NPP accident the nature of the redistribution of the 90 Sr concentrations in components of the ecosystems of the salt lakes of the Crimea were identified and described. Concentration of 90 Sr in water of the salt lakes depends on the sources of the inflow this radionuclide into aquatic ecosystems and salinity level of lakes water. Until April 2014 the flow of the Dnieper river water through the Northern-Crimean canal was more important factor of contamination of salt lakes of the Crimea by 90 Sr, than atmospheric fallout of this radionuclide after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Concentrations of 90 Sr in water of the salt lakes of the Crimea exceeded 2.4-156.5 times its concentrations in their bottom sediments. The 90 Sr dose commitments to hydrophytes, which were sampled from the salt lakes of the Crimea have not reached values which could impact them during entire the after-accident period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of a chronic {sup 90}Sr contamination by ingestion on the hematopoietic, immune and bone systems; Influence d'une contamination chronique par ingestion de {sup 90}Sr sur les systemes hematopoietique, immunitaire et osseux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synhaeve, Nicholas

    2011-12-15

    Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) is a radionuclide of anthropogenic origin released in large quantities in the environment as a result of nuclear atmospheric tests or accidents at nuclear facilities. {sup 90}Sr persists on a long-term basis in the environment, leading to chronic contamination by ingestion of populations living on contaminated territories. The induction of bone tumours associated with the fixation of {sup 90}Sr has been widely described. However, the occurrence of non-cancer effects is much less known. We used a mouse model with chronic contamination by ingestion of water containing 20 kBq/l of {sup 90}Sr. A bio-kinetic study confirmed the accumulation of {sup 90}Sr in the bones, with an increased rate of accumulation during bone growth. This accumulation was higher in the bones of females than in males. The whole-body absorbed doses ranged from 0.33 {+-} 0.06 mGy (birth) to 10.6 {+-} 0.1 mGy (20 weeks). The absorbed dose for the skeleton was up to 55 mGy. Ingestion of {sup 90}Sr induced a change in the expression of genes inducing an imbalance in favour of bone resorption, but without effect on bone morphology. No significant effect was observed for the hematopoietic system. On the other hand, minor modifications were observed for the immune system. To evaluate the functionality of the immune system, a vaccination test with TT and KLH antigens was used. Results showed in contaminated animals a significant decrease in the production of specific immunoglobulins, changes in the Th1/Th2 balance in the spleen and a disrupted B lymphocyte differentiation. These results improve the understanding of some of the noncancerous consequences of chronic exposure at low dose of radionuclides with a long half-life, which can be accidentally released. (author)

  2. Distribution of {sup 90} Sr and {sup 137} Cs in vertical soil sections of the Chernobyl exclusion zone.; Raspredelenie form nakhozhdeniya {sup 90} Sr i {sup 137} Cs po vertikal`nym pochvennym razrezam Zony otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, G N; Kononenko, L.V. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geokhimii i Fiziki Mineralov

    1994-12-31

    Water-soluble, exchangeable and acid-soluble (IM HCI) forms of {sup 90} Sr and {sup 137} Cs were determined in 15 layer-by-layer (1 cm) samples of podzolis and peaty soils from the Chernobyl exclusion zone taken in 1991 and 1992. Positions of centers of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 90} Sr supply as well as their water-soluble and exchangeable forms were estimated. The data obtained testify to deceleration of vertical migration of {sup 137} Cs in soils till the early 90th. The conclusion is made on evolution of dominating mechanisms of vertical migration of radionuclides. It consists in a decrease of the lessivage significance.

  3. 90Sr level in fresh and powder milk in some areas of Albania caused by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qafmolla, L.

    1995-01-01

    Chernobyl accident caused a rather high level of territory contamination, especially in the east and north-east area of Albania. That's why for the radioprotection scope of population, during and after the accident a great number of environmental samples are measured. An important type of samples were those of the fresh and powder milk. Except the 131 I and 137 Cs radioactivity concentration measurements, 90 Sr level in milk determination was performed. The tracing method by stable strontium was used for the chemical separation ratio determination. The 90 Sr activity concentration in milk was evaluated by 90 Y in equilibrium activity measurement. The dynamics of the 90 Sr in milk for a period of some months, just after the accident and some daily measurements carried-out during the 'hot' period are given in this paper (author). tab. 2, refs. 6

  4. Interconnection between precipitation density, soil contamination levels and 90Sr and 137Cs content in food stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the data dynamically characterizing the density of radioactive fallout, contamination of soil and the main kinds of food stuffs with 137 Cs and 90 Sr. It is shown that 90 Sr contamination of bakery products in the country within the whole period of observation is in direct dependence on the density of atmospheric fallouts as a whole in the northern hemisphere. In the reverse, 90 Sr potato contamination primarily correlates with nuclide content in the soil. The dependence between milk contamination and fallout density has an intermediate character as compared with the above types of food stuffs. The same is true for 137 Cs, but a clear tendency to a faster decrease in the level of food stuffs contamination is observed. The importance of the soil way in food stuffs contamination and peculiarities of nuclide migration in food stuffs from various types of soil are considered

  5. 90Sr- 90Y and 89Sr beta radioactivity measurement in milk samples using a proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mananes, A.; Perez Santos, C.; Martinez Churiaque, F.

    1987-01-01

    A thin window glas flow proportional counter is used to measure the 90 Sr- 90 Y and 89 Sr beta radioactivity in milk samples. A chemical procedure is used to separate strontium-yttrium from the other radionuclides present in milk. A calculation of the total efficiency of the system is performed which includes an empirical estimation of the backscattering factor. The calibration of the whole process allows the determination of the 90 Sr activity within 10% relative error in spite of uncertainties in the recovery yields of strontium and yttrium. No 89 Sr activity has been detected, and the mean value obtained for the 90 Sr activity in nine milk samples of Cantabria is 0.115 Bq/1 with a minimum detectable activity of 0.0105 Bq. (author) 18 refs

  6. New methodological approaches to the simultaneous measurement of the 90Sr and 137Cs activity in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zheltonozhska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonradiochemical method of measurement of 90Sr and137Cs activity in environmental samples is proposed. This method is based on spectrometrical investigation of electrons accompanied the decay of the 90Sr and137Cs. Accounting for the contribution to the total activity of the samples from the zones with the density of the contamination 1 - 5 Кu/km2 the 40K electrons allowed to improve the accuracy of the measurements for the samples of small rodents up to 15 - 20 % (the ratio of A (137Cs/A (90Sr was from 2 to 100, for samples of soil up to 10 - 15 % (the change of activity in these samples was ten thousand times. The results of the spectrometric measurements were confirmed by the traditional radiochemical research.

  7. Therapeutic result of radioactive nuclide 90Sr/90Y treatment in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hanchao; Li Yuying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y treatment in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Methods: Sixty patients with BPH were treated with a course of transurethral radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y therapy. Results: The severity of BPH was assessed with four parameters: maximal flow rate (MFR), volume of residual urine (VRU), international prostatic symptom score (IPSS) and volume (size) of prostate. In this series, the total effective rate was 93.33% with no treatment- related mortality. Favorable changes of the parameters after a course of radioactive nuclide therapy were significant. Conclusion: Radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y therapy for patients with BPH was safe, easily performed and quite effective. This procedure is worth popularizing in appropriate patients. (authors)

  8. {sup 90}Sr level in fresh and powder milk in some areas of Albania caused by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafmolla, L [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tirana (Albania)

    1996-12-31

    Chernobyl accident caused a rather high level of territory contamination, especially in the east and north-east area of Albania. That`s why for the radioprotection scope of population, during and after the accident a great number of environmental samples are measured. An important type of samples were those of the fresh and powder milk. Except the {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity concentration measurements, {sup 90}Sr level in milk determination was performed. The tracing method by stable strontium was used for the chemical separation ratio determination. The {sup 90}Sr activity concentration in milk was evaluated by {sup 90}Y in equilibrium activity measurement. The dynamics of the {sup 90}Sr in milk for a period of some months, just after the accident and some daily measurements carried-out during the `hot` period are given in this paper (author). tab. 2, refs. 6.

  9. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr in wood and bark of various types of oak and black alder plantings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevolotskij, A.N.; Bulavik, I.M.; Perevolotskaya, T.V.; Paskrobko, L.A.; Andrush, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    Results of the evaluation of the influence of types of habitat edaphic conditions on 137Cs and 90Sr transition coefficients and their accumulation by wood and bark of English oak (Quercus robur L.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn) were presented. There was observed the particular influence of edaphic conditions on 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation by wood and bark of English oak. Lowering of 137Cs transition coefficients for the studied elements of phytomass was noted in the conditions of soil fertility increasing. Influence of soil moistening on 137Cs transition into wood and bark of oak trees was stated only in wood-sorrel and glague types of forests. Differences in accumulation of 90Sr by wood and bark of English oak in the studied range of edaphotopes were not proved. There was not found any differences in accumulation of both radionuclides by black alder trees in the typical for them edaphic conditions

  10. Migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in undisturbed soil profiles under controlled and close-to-real conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, S.; Rosen, K.; Fernandez, V.; Juhan, H.

    2000-01-01

    Migration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in undisturbed soil was studied in large lysimeters three and four years after contamination, as part of a larger European project studying radionuclide soil-plant interactions. The lysimeters were installed in greenhouses with climate control and contaminated with radionuclides in an aerosol mixture, simulating fallout from a nuclear accident. The soil types studied were loam, silt loam, sandy loam and loamy sand. The soils were sampled to 30-40 cm depth in 1997 and 1998. The total deposition of 137 Cs ranged from 24 to 45 MBq/m 2 , and of 90 Sr from 23 to 52 MBq/m 2 . It was shown that migration of 137 Cs was fastest in sandy loam, and of 90 Sr fastest in sandy loam and loam. The slowest migration of both nuclides was found in loamy sand. Retention within the upper 5 cm was 60% for both 137 Cs and 90 Sr in sandy loam, while in loamy sand it was 97 and 96%, respectively. In 1998, migration rates, calculated as radionuclide weighted median depth (migration centre) divided by time since deposition were 1.1 cm/year for both 137 Cs and 90 Sr in sandy loam, 0.8 and 1.0 cm/year, respectively, in loam, 0.6 and 0.8 cm/year in silt loam, and 0.4 and 0.6 cm/year for 137 Cs and 90 Sr, respectively, in loamy sand. A distinction is made between short-term migration, caused by events soon after deposition and less affected by soil type, and long-term migration, more affected by e.g. soil texture. Three to four years after deposition, effects of short-term migration is still dominant in the studied soils

  11. 90Sr accumulation of the earthworms and the influence of those upon the radionuclide dissipation in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usachev, V.L.; Martyushov, V.Z.; Krivolutskij, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The study is aimed at the obtaining of quantitative characteristics of 90 Sr accumulation process by puberal earthworms (Nicodrilius caliginosus Savigny) when they dwell in soils of different types (grey forest and leached black earth, and to evaluate the purticipation of earthworms in the processes of radiostrontium redistribution over the soil priofile. In the experiments on the study of accumulation dynamics it is shown, that in the first days after earthworm entrance into contaminated soil the intensive accumulation of the radionuclide by the animals takes place, at that, the rate of 90 Sr concentrating in the variant with grey forrest soil is 2.6 times lower, than in the case of leached black earth, and, it is somewhat lower to the end of the first stage. Stabilization of radiostrontium concentration in the earthworm organism took place in both variants of the experiment practically at the same level (KH=0.75). Radioactivity of caprolytes of the earthworms increased rapidly and all over the observation period it exceeded the radioactivity of soil on the average by 1.2-1.9. Experiments with the radionuclide redistribution have shown, that in experimental plastic vessels earthworms quite activily dispersed 90 Sr. In the variant with ''contaminated'' lower soil the earthworms in time transferred approximately 11% 90 Sr to the upper ''pure layers'', when the radionuclide was introduced in the upper layers of soil in ''non-contaminated'' loswer layers of soil approximately 8% 90 Sr was introduced. According to preliminary calculations the rate of 90 Sr dispersion by earthworms in soil constitutes approximately 0.003 cm/day and, provided the rate is constant, gradual distribution of the radionuclide over the soil profile under experimental conditions will take place in 55 years

  12. Development of an electrochemical 90Sr-90Y generator for separation of 90Y suitable for targeted therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Pandey, Usha; Manolkar, Remani B.; Dash, Ashutosh; Venkatesh, Meera; Pillai, M.R. Ambikalmajan

    2008-01-01

    90 Y of high specific activity and very high radionuclidic purity (>99.998%) is essential for targeted therapy. Since the current methods used for the preparation of 90 Y from 90 Sr are not adaptable for use in a central/hospital radiopharmacy, a simple 90 Sr- 90 Y generator system based on electrochemical separation technique was developed. Methods: Two-cycle electrolysis procedure was developed for separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr in nitrate solution. The first electrolysis was performed for 90 min in 90 Sr(NO 3 ) 2 feed solution at pH 2-3 at a potential of -2.5V with 100-200 mA current using platinum electrodes. The second electrolysis was performed for 45 min in 3 mM HNO 3 at a potential of -2.5V with 100 mA current. In this step, the cathode from the first electrolysis containing 90 Y was used as anode along with a fresh circular platinum electrode as cathode. The 90 Y deposited on the circular cathode after the second electrolysis was dissolved in acetate buffer to obtain 90 Y acetate, suitable for radiolabeling. Results: >96% recovery of 90 Y could be achieved in each cycle, with an overall decay corrected yield of >90%. The recovered 90 Y had high radionuclidic purity with barely 30.2±15.2 kBq (817±411 nCi) of 90 Sr per 37 GBq (1 Ci) of 90 Y (0.817±0.411 ppm). Consistent and repeated separation could be demonstrated using up to 1.85 GBq (50 mCi) of 90 Sr. The generator was named 'Kamadhenu,' the eternally milk-yielding Indian mythological cow. Conclusions: A technique suitable for adaptation at central radiopharmacies for obtaining therapeutic quantities of pure 90 Y has been developed

  13. 90Sr and 137Cs migration from the Dnieper water to the agricultural plants of Southern Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polikarpov, G.; Kulebakina, L.

    1994-01-01

    In the Southern Ukraine, particularly in the Crimea, the Dnieper water is used for irrigation purposes. The aim of our radioecological investigations was to study the post-Chernobyl radionuclide transfer from the Dnieper water to the rice fields and their absorption by agricultural plants. The content of 90 Sr and 137 Cs was determined in the waters of the Dnieper River and canals, in the soil of rice fields, in the rice paddy fields and in lucerne and clover. 90 Sr was found to be the major radionuclide entering the rice fields. The dynamics of 90 Sr was observed in the lower Dnieper and the NCC in the period of 1986-1993. The 137 Cs contamination of rice fields is associated with atmospheric fallout occurred during April-May of 1986. The quantity of 137 Cs delivered to the Crimea with the Dnieper waters is 10-100 times less than that of 90S r. On the rice fields, radionuclides were accumulated by soils and plants. Three-years observations showed the increase of 90 Sr concentration in soils of the rice fields. The 90 Sr concentration in drains (after the rice fields) is less than before the rice fields. 137 Cs is washed out from the soils of the rice fields by irrigation water. Therefore the concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in soils under lucerne and clover are higher than in soils under rice. The concentration of these radionuclides are higher in paddy than in clover and lucerne. The potassium content in soils influences the 137 Cs accumulation by plants

  14. Determination of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 228/Ra in human teeth by age groups and in other substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuzil, E F; Dysart, M E [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham (USA)

    1984-12-01

    The total /sup 90/Sr content of human teeth peaks at a value of 0.65 pCi/g calcium in the age group of 20-30 years. It is not present in those 50 years or older. Various other substances show extensive amounts of /sup 90/Sr especially in cow bones, bone meal and dry milk. The radionuclide /sup 228/Ra (daughter of /sup 232/Th) is present at a mean level of about 0.5 pCi/g Ca in all substances tested and in all age groups, but especially high in bone meal (5.60 pCi/g Ca) and calcium lactate tablets.

  15. Rapid determination of 90Sr by electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, N.; Probst, T.

    1997-01-01

    A two-step temperature program has been developed to determine 90 Sr in highly active samples in the presence of Zr. In a first step, Sr is volatilized at 2400 C using argon as a carrier gas, while Zr is completely retained in the graphite tube. It is removed in a second step by adding 0.1% CHF 3 to the argon carrier gas and increasing the temperature to 2650 C. Even a 100 fold excess of Zr has no detrimental effects on the determination of 90 Sr. The detection limit is 2 pg/ml (10 Bq/ml) without using a modifier. (orig.)

  16. Reconstruction of the relative dynamics of 90Sr intake for the residents of the Techa river settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoschapov, Victor A.; Zalyapin, Vladimir I.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive releases from the Mayak plutonium production complex (Souther Urals, Russia) during 1949-1956 into the Techa river resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside communities. Strontium-90 made a significant contribution in doses of internal exposure. The calculation of the internal exposure dose and the dynamics of 90 Sr intake is an important problem. The obtained solution qualitatively correctly reflects the dynamics of 90 Sr intake and is in agreement with available experimental data - substitution of the solution into initial integral relation showed the consistency between calculated and observed values

  17. Evaluating 90Sr and 137Cs accumulation by structural elements of exclusion zone's vegetative communities of meadow and lea land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskevich, S.A.; Petrov, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Biogenic carry-over of 90 Sr and 137 Cs by structural elements of exclusion zone's meadows and lea land phytocenosis is considered. Quantitative parameters of radionuclide accumulation are evaluated in substrate and live biomass of communities growing under various ecological conditions. It was stated that accumulation levels for ground biomass of communities depends, at a significant rate, on landscape growing conditions. These values fluctuate within the range of around 100 times. For 90 Sr, significantly lower difference in carry-over values was observed totaling up to 5 times, although for single community, this radionuclide carry-over exceeds essentially 137 Cs carry-over

  18. The determination of 90Sr and 228Ra in human teeth by age groups and in other substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuzil, E.F.; Dysart, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The total 90 Sr content of human teeth peaks at a value of 0.65 pCi/g calcium in the age group of 20-30 years. It is not present in those 50 years or older. Various other substances show extensive amounts of 90 Sr especially in cow bones, bone meal and dry milk. The radionuclide 228 Ra (daughter of 232 Th) is present at a mean level of about 0.5 pCi/g Ca in all substances tested and in all age groups, but especially high in bone meal (5.60 pCi/g Ca) and calcium lactate tablets. (author)

  19. Speciation of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in Techa river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, D.; Andreev, S.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Teien, H.C. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB, Center of Excellence in Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The concentration and speciation of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the upper, middle and lower reaches of Techa River, South Ural, Russia in 2012 and 2013. To obtain information of the physical-chemical forms of the radionuclides (RN) in Techa River water, at site size fractionation of water was performed using filtration and ultrafiltration. Using both membrane filters (10 μm and 0.45 μm) and hollow fiber (10 kDa cutoff), following size fractionation were determined: - Particulate RN: size fraction 0.45-10 μm. Excluded by 0.45 μm membrane filter, but passing 10 μm membrane filter - Colloidal RN: size fraction 10 kDa - 0.45 μm. Excluded by hollow fibre of 10 kDa cutoff, but passing 0.45 μm membrane filter - Low molecular mass (LMM) RN: less than 10 kDa. Determined in ultra-filtrated water. Results demonstrated that the concentration of {sup 90}Sr in samples, passed through 10 μm membrane filter, is practically equal to its concentration in ultra-filtered water, both in spring and summer 2012 and 2013. This suggests that {sup 90}Sr is not associated with particulate or colloidal material in the river water, but mainly presents as LMM species, probably ions in a biologically available form. {sup 137}Cs was, however present in different size fractions and the distribution of size fractions depending upon location in river and time of sampling. In the upper part of Techa River {sup 137}Cs was mainly present as LMM species, about 70% and 100% in spring 2012 and 2013, respectively. The remaining part was present as particles larger than 0.45 μm. In the summer 2012, about 15% of the radionuclide was in LMM form and, consequently, almost equal quantities - 46% and 39% - were in colloidal and particulate forms, respectively. At station in the middle reach of Techa River, about 25% and 40% of {sup 137}Cs was present as LMM species, in spring 2012 and 2013, respectively. The remaining part was mainly present as colloidal species. At station in the lower

  20. Dosimetry characterization of the commercial CaF{sub 2} for beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y; Caracterizacao dosimetrica de CaF{sub 2} comercial para radiacao beta de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mercia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mlolivei@ipen.br, e-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br

    2003-07-01

    This work studies the dosimetric characteristics of the CaF{sub 2} commercial dosimetry for detection of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta radiation for using in the calibration of flat and concave appliers. Were determined the repetitiousness and linearity of answers of the samples, and their calibration curves.

  1. Vascular brachytherapy with 90Sr/Y versus 192Ir: A health physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, E.S.; Butker, E.K.; Miner, M.S.; Wang, C.K.; Crocker, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Currently there are two ongoing trials of catheter based radiation therapy in the United States, the BERT Trial (Emory University, Atlanta, GA) and the SCRIPPS Trial (Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA). The BERT method involved the use of a treatment system to manually deliver a source train consisting of 12, encapsulated 90 Sr/Y seeds of 3 cm total active length. The total activity of the source train was approximately 3.7 GBq. The SCRIPPS trial involved the use of a hand delivered 192 Ir (BEST Industries) source train of either 5 or 9 sources with 1 mm spacing between the sources. The average total activity of the source train was 3.6 GBq ± 1.08 GBq. It is the purpose of this study to compare the patient dose and staff exposures from the above source trains. A comparison with exposures from use of fluoroscopy in the catheterization laboratory will also be made. Materials and Methods: Measurements made with a GM meter at specified locations around the BERT patients during the insertion of the seeds were compared with published information from the SCRIPPS Trial. Monte Carlo modeled measurements of the equivalent dose in humans from insertion of the source trains were also compared for both methods. The above were contrasted with GM measurements from use of fluoroscopy in the catheterization laboratory. Results: Average exposure rates recorded at the patient's chest and groin from the BERT method were 4.9x10 -4 and 1.29x10 -4 C/kg·hr respectively. Average exposures to the operator from the BERT method and the SCRIPPS method were 8.6x10 -6 and 1.03x10 -3 C/kg respectively. A typical exposure rate for conventional cardiac fluoroscopy is 3.9x10 -3 C/kg·hr. Monte Carlo modeled calculations of patient dose equivalent for the BERT method and the SCRIPPS method were 0.43 μSv and 6.41 mSv respectively. Conclusions: Vascular brachytherapy performed with 90 Sr/Y sources resulted in staff exposures of at least a factor of 120 less and patient doses of a factor of

  2. Preparation of Sr adsorptive fiber by impregnating with crown ether derivative for 90Sr measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, Takuma; Asai, Shiho; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Konda, Miki; Saito, Kyoichi; Fujiwara, Kunio; Sugo, Takanobu

    2017-01-01

    A Sr adsorption fiber was prepared for rapid analysis of 90 Sr content in the fiber using radiation-induced emulsion graft polymerization and subsequent chemical modification. A polyethylene fiber with a diameter of 13 μm was first immersed in a methanol solution of an epoxy-group-containing vinyl monomer, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), and polyoxyethylene sorbitol ester (Tween20) as a surfactant for the graft-polymerization of GMA. Octadecylamine was then bound to a polymer chain extending from the fiber surface, providing hydrophobicity to the polymer chain. Dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) was finally impregnated onto the polymer chain via a hydrophobic interaction between the octadecyl moiety of the polymer chain and the cyclohexyl moiety of DCH18C6. The fiber surface structure, characterized by DCH18C6 molecules loosely entangled with polymer chains, allowed for the rapid adsorption of Sr ions at an adsorption rate of approximately 100-times higher than that of a commercially available Sr-selective resin (Sr Resin ® ). (author)

  3. Interference of dissolved salts in Cerenkov and liquid scintillation estimation of 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulhani, Vandana; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Reddy, Priyanka; Bhade, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Quenching is the most important effect occurring in Cerenkov and LSC because it affects the efficiency of conversion of β particles into light. Bore well water samples are very often concentrated by evaporation to reduce the detection limit which can also increase the dissolved solid content (TDS) in the sample. Some ground waters are inherently having higher TDS. Self-absorption of beta-particle radiation by the sample especially the lower-energy beta particles depends on sample thickness and density. Environmental samples, after applying the radiochemical procedure, are also estimated by Cerenkov/LSC and might be affected by colour quenching. To get best measurements using Liquid Scintillation and Cerenkov radiations, it is necessary to avoid high salt concentrations and colors which may weaken energy transfers within scintillator cocktails and sample medium. Therefore the degree of self-absorption and quench should be evaluated and taken into account in the calibration. Efficiency is represented as a function spectral quench parameter of external standard SQP(E). The quenching effect of dissolved solids on the efficiency of estimation of 90 Sr by Cerenkov and Liquid Scintillation are studied

  4. Soft X-ray therapy of recurrent pterygium - an alternative to {sup 90}Sr eye applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, J.; Flentje, M. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Lieb, W. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    Background: Analysis of effectiveness of perioperative 20 kV soft X-ray irradiation in recurrent pterygium as an alternative to postoperative {sup 90}Sr beta irradiation. Patients and Methods: Between 1987 and 2000 a total of 65 patients with 81 pterygia were treated with 20 kV X-ray therapy in the course of surgical treatment of recurrent pterygium. Until 1995 simple excision (bare sclera technique) followed by postoperative irradiation (generally four fractions of 5 Gy) was applied, with radiation starting on mean 4 days following surgery (34 cases, mean follow-up 52 months). Since 1995 we have changed our policy to a perioperative regimen starting with a single dose of 7 Gy prior to microsurgical excision with conjunctival autograft and proceeding within 24 hours with 5 Gy single dose to the surgical bed and then every other day to a total dose of 27 Gy (47 cases, mean follow-up 31 months). Recurrence rate was calculated by Kaplan Meier method. A multivariate Cox regression analysis of prognostic factors for recurrence was performed. Results: A total of 19 recurrences were observed, 15 in the historical postoperative group and four in the perioperative group. Actuarial 2- and 5-year recurrence rate is 9% in the ''new treatment group'' compared to 34% and 56% in the historical group (p = 0,001). Only one of the four recurrences among the pre- and postoperatively irradiated group required a new surgical procedure. In this case radiation had been terminated at 17 Gy. Actuarial rate of surgical reintervention was only 2% at 2 and 5 years compared to 28% and 36% in the historical group. In multivariate Cox regression analysis only the new treatment strategy was found to influence control rate significantly. Until now no case of severe side effects like scleral necrosis or thinning, symble-pharon, radiation-induced cataract or glaucoma were observed in both groups. Conclusion: The combination of pre- and postoperative 20 kV X-ray therapy and

  5. Results of postoperative 90Sr radiotherapy of keloids in view of patients' subjective assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraunholz, I.B.; Gerstenhauer, A.; Boettcher, H.D.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose: As treatment of keloids is mainly a cosmetic indication, the authors investigated, beyond the recurrence rate, the patients' satisfaction with the result and its correlation with objective medical findings. Patients and Methods: 83 keloids of 66 patients had been irradiated after excision by a uniform protocol with 4 x 5 Gy (strontium-90 [ 90 Sr] surface applicator). A questionnaire was developed and sent out in which, above all, the satisfaction with the therapeutic and cosmetic outcome was obtained. These results were correlated with objective parameters and medical findings which were ascertained during an extra follow-up examination. Results: Among 18 of the 41 patients (44%), who had answered the questionnaire, 19 of the 53 keloids treated (36%) had relapsed. 61% of the patients were extremely or mainly satisfied with the therapeutic outcome, 51% extremely or mainly satisfied with the cosmetic outcome. The relief from former keloid-caused symptoms (therapeutic outcome: p=0.0005; cosmetic outcome: p=0.0011), the ear as keloid localization (p=0.0008 and p=0.0197), and male gender (therapeutic outcome: p=0.0423) were significantly associated with higher satisfaction. The recurrence rate as well as the extent of radiation side effects had no significant influence on patients' assessment. Conclusion: Cosmetic aspects like the dermal side effects and the patients' satisfaction should be taken into account when evaluating the results of radiotherapy in keloids. (orig.)

  6. An experimental approach to 90Sr transfer processes from to a terrestrial moss: Grimmia orbicularis Bruch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebrard, J.-P.; Foulquier, L.; Grauby, A.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-les-Durance

    1974-01-01

    Concrete rocks from a mixture of cement, limestone soil, gravel and water were prepared; before drying, the rocks were contaminated with 80ml of a 90 Sr solution at 3.2 μCi/ml. That part of the incorporated radio-element may be transferred from the rocks into water, either by surface leaching or by total immersion of the solid materials. The percentage of activity retained in the water quickly reaches a maximum before decreasing. Following these preliminary observations, colonies of a calcareous terrestrial moss (Grimmia orbicularis Bruch) were implanted in cracks on the surface of the radioactive rocks, and left for two years in a forest clearing on the Cadarache property. The highest activities in the young stalks, as in the older parts of the gametophytes, coincide each year with the moment of maximum rainfall in autumn, winter and spring, seasons during which the bryophytes are constantly moist and when the vegetal activity is at its peak. These values do not remain constant, however, and tend to decrease towards the end of the rainy periods. The quantity of radio-element transferred from the rocks, by leaching or by simple immersion in water, decreased towards the end of laboratory experiments. It may thus be inferred that in nature, inactive rainfall acts as a decontaminating agent in the long run [fr

  7. Characteristic of pollution with groundwater inflow (90)Sr natural waters and terrestrial ecosystems near a radioactive waste storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyeva, G V

    2014-09-01

    The studies were conducted in the territory contaminated by (90)Sr with groundwater inflow as a result of leakage from the near-surface trench-type radioactive waste storage. The vertical soil (90)Sr distribution up to the depth of 2-3 m is analyzed. The area of radioactive contamination to be calculated with a value which exceeds the minimum significant activity 1 kBq/kg for the tested soil layers: the contaminated area for the 0-5 cm soil layer amounted to 1800 ± 85 m(2), for the 5-10 cm soil layer amounted to 300 ± 12 m(2), for the 10-15 cm soil layer amounted to 180 ± 10 m(2). It is found that (90)Sr accumulation proceeds in a natural sorption geochemical barrier of the marshy terrace near flood plain. The exposure doses for terrestrial mollusks Bradybaena fruticum are presented. The excess (90)Sr interference level was registered both in the ground and surface water during winter and summer low-water periods and autumn heavy rains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of 90Sr and Pu isotopes in contaminated groundwater samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoriy, Miroslav V.; Ostapczuk, Peter; Halicz, Ludwik; Hille, Ralf; Becker, J. Sabine

    2005-04-01

    A sensitive analytical method for determining the artificial radionuclides 90Sr, 239Pu and 240Pu at the ultratrace level in groundwater samples from the Semipalatinsk Test Site area in Kazakhstan by double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) was developed. In order to avoid possible isobaric interferences at m/z 90 for 90Sr determination (e.g. 90Zr+, 40Ar50Cr+, 36Ar54Fe+, 58Ni16O2+, 180Hf2+, etc.), the measurements were performed at medium mass resolution under cold plasma conditions. Pu was separated from uranium by means of extraction chromatography using Eichrom TEVA resin with a recovery of 83%. The limits of detection for 90Sr, 239Pu and 240Pu in water samples were determined as 11, 0.12 and 0.1 fg ml-1, respectively. Concentrations of 90Sr and 239Pu in contaminated groundwater samples ranged from 18 to 32 and from 28 to 856 fg ml-1, respectively. The 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratio in groundwater samples was measured as 0.17. This isotope ratio indicates that the most probable source of contamination of the investigated groundwater samples was the nuclear weapons tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site conducted by the USSR in the 1960s.

  9. Measurement of 90Sr radioactivity in a rapid method of strontium estimation by solvent extraction with dicarbollides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, K.; Kyrs, M.

    1994-01-01

    The application of liquid scintillation counting to the measurement of 90 Sr radioactivity was studied, using a previously published rapid method of strontium separation, based on solvent extraction with a solution of cobalt dicarbollide and Slovafol 909 in a nitrobenzene-carbon tetrachloride mixture and subsequent stripping of strontium with a 0.15 M Chelaton IV (CDTA) solution at pH 10.2. With liquid scintillation counting, a more efficient elimination of the effect of 90 Y β-activity on 90 Sr counting is possible than when measuring the evaporated aliquot with the use of a solid scintillator. The adverse effect of traces of dicarbollide, nitrobenzene, and CCl 4 passed over in the aqueous 90 Sr solution prepared for counting, is caused by the (poorly reproducible) shift of the 90 Sr + 90 Y β-radiation spectral curve towards lower energies, the so-called quenching. The shift is independent of the aqueous phase concentration of the organic compounds mentioned. They can be removed by shaking the aqueous reextract with an equal volume of octanol or amyl acetate so that the undesirable spectral shift does not occur. No loss of strontium was found in this washing procedure. (author) 2 tabs., 6 figs., 5 refs

  10. Immune competence in 90Sr-exposed, adult thymectomized and antilymphocyteglobulin-treated CBA mice. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierke, P.

    1989-01-01

    CBA mice subjected to either adult thymectomy, internal exposure to 90 Sr or antilymphocyteglobulin treatment separately, or to combinations of the three were tested for cellular immune competence using their reaction to allogenic skin grafts. Peripheral blood white cell counts did not reveal any obvious correlation between the degree of mononuclear cell depletion and the ability to accept grafts, suggesting that the particular treatments depleted specific fractions of mononuclear cells, differing in their extent of involvement in the rejection process. No single treatment alone induced a significant prolongation in the time elapsed before graft rejection. Adult thymectomy followed by appropriate antilymphocyteglobulin treatment induced severe lymphocytopenia and a profound suppression of the cell-mediate immune system, as evidenced by the acceptance of allogenic skin grafts. When applied to 90 Sr-preexposed mice the same treatment induced lifelong acceptance of grafts, indicating a similar, though weaker immunosuppressive impact of 90 Sr. Hence it was possible to significantly enhance immunosuppression in 90 Sr-exposed mice. This in vivo model should be useful when investigating the role of immunological responsiveness in radiation carcinogenesis. (orig.)

  11. Dosimetry characterization of the commercial CaF2 for beta radiation of 90Sr + 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mercia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2003-01-01

    This work studies the dosimetric characteristics of the CaF 2 commercial dosimetry for detection of 90 Sr + 90 Y beta radiation for using in the calibration of flat and concave appliers. Were determined the repetitiousness and linearity of answers of the samples, and their calibration curves

  12. Depth dose distribution in the water for clinical applicators of 90Sr + 90Y, with a extrapolation mini chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patricia de Lara; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Oliveira, Mercia L.

    2009-01-01

    This work determines the depth dose in the water for clinical applicators of 90 Sr + 90 Y, using a extrapolation mini chamber developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and different thickness acrylic plates. The obtained results were compared with the international recommendations and were considered satisfactory

  13. Radiometric determination of 90Sr in the dissolver solution of the spent PHWR fuel after its separation with solvent extraction and extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.G.; Gupta, K.K.; Pant, D.K.; Bhalerao, B.A.; Gurba, P.B.; Janardan, P.; Changrani, R.D.; Dey, P.K.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    A simple radiometric method for 90 Sr determination in the dissolver solution of the PHWR spent fuel has been developed.The method involves the quantitative separation of Sr from the associated actinides and other fission products by solvent extraction with 30% trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO) -n-dodecane followed by extraction chromatography with XAD-7-Di-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 resin. The separation scheme yields quantitative recovery of 90 Sr and the separated 90 Sr was found to be radiochemically pure. 90 Sr was estimated by β-radiometry and the precision of the method at 5 mCi/mL level was 2% (RSD). (author)

  14. Dispersion and fate of {sup 90}Sr in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: Global fallout and the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maderich, V., E-mail: vladmad@gmail.com [Institute of Mathematical Machine and System Problems, Glushkov av., 42, Kiev 03187 (Ukraine); Jung, K.T., E-mail: ktjung@kiost.ac [Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, 787, Haean-ro, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Bezhenar, R., E-mail: romanbezhenar@gmail.com [Ukrainian Center of Water and Environmental Projects, Glushkov av., 42, Kiev 03187 (Ukraine); With, G. de, E-mail: g.dewith@nrg.eu [NRG, Utrechtseweg 310, 6800 ES Arnhem (Netherlands); Qiao, F., E-mail: qiaofl@fio.org.cn [First Institute of Oceanography, 6 Xianxialing Road, Qingdao 266061 (China); Casacuberta, N., E-mail: ncasacuberta@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH-Zurich, Schafmattstrasse 20, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Masque, P., E-mail: pere.masque@uab.cat [Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals and Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Kim, Y.H., E-mail: yhkimstar@gmail.com [Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, 787, Haean-ro, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    The 3D compartment model POSEIDON-R was applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of {sup 90}Sr in the period 1945–2010 and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of {sup 90}Sr due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident for the period 2011–2040. The contamination due to runoff of {sup 90}Sr from terrestrial surfaces was taken into account using a generic predictive model. A dynamical food-chain model describes the transfer of {sup 90}Sr to phytoplankton, zooplankton, molluscs, crustaceans, piscivorous and non-piscivorous fishes. Results of the simulations were compared with observation data on {sup 90}Sr for the period 1955–2010 and the budget of {sup 90}Sr activity was estimated. It was found that in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea the riverine influx was 1.5% of the ocean influx and it was important only locally. Calculated concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in water, bottom sediment and marine organisms before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident are in good agreement with available experimental measurements. The concentration of {sup 90}Sr in seawater would return to the background levels within one year after leakages were stopped. The model predicts that the concentration of {sup 90}Sr in fish after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident shall return to the background concentrations only 2 years later due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web and specific accumulation of {sup 90}Sr. The contribution of {sup 90}Sr to the maximal dose rate due to the FDNPP accident was three orders of magnitude less than that due to {sup 137}Cs, and thus well below the maximum effective dose limits for the public. - Highlights: • A box model with a dynamical food-chain model for the NW Pacific was applied. • The transport and fate of {sup 90}Sr in sea were simulated for the period 1945–2040. • Marine exposure pathways for {sup 90}Sr were assessed for the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.

  15. 90Sr and 89Sr in seawater off Japan as a consequence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Casacuberta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the earthquake and tsunami on the east coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP that resulted in one of the most important releases of artificial radioactivity into the environment. Although several works were devoted to evaluating the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides, the impact of the discharges to the ocean has been less investigated. Here we evaluate the distribution of Fukushima-derived 90Sr (n = 57 and 89Sr (n = 19 throughout waters 30–600 km offshore in June 2011. Concentrations of 90Sr and 89Sr in both surface waters and shallow profiles ranged from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 85 ± 3 Bq m−3 and from 19 ± 6 to 265 ± 74 Bq m−3, respectively. Because of its short half-life, all measured 89Sr was due to the accident, while the 90Sr concentrations can be compared to the background levels in the Pacific Ocean of about 1.2 Bq m−3. Fukushima-derived radiostrontium was mainly detected north of Kuroshio Current, as this was acting as a southern boundary for transport. The highest activities were associated with near-shore eddies, and larger inventories were found in the closest stations to Fukushima NPP. The data evidence a major influence of direct liquid discharges of radiostrontium compared to the atmospheric deposition. Existing 137Cs data reported from the same samples allowed us to establish a 90Sr / 137Cs ratio of 0.0256 ± 0.0006 in seawater off Fukushima, being significantly different than that of the global atmospheric fallout (i.e., 0.63 and may be used in future studies to track waters coming from the east coast of Japan. Liquid discharges of 90Sr to the ocean were estimated, resulting in an inventory of 53 ± 1 TBq of 90Sr in the inshore study area in June 2011 and total releases of 90Sr ranging from 90 to 900 TBq, depending upon the reported estimates of 137Cs releases that are considered.

  16. Competitive radiation-induced carcinogenesis: an analysis of data from beagle dogs exposed to 226Ra and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    The incidence of radiation-induced primary bone sarcoma and myeloproliferative diseases was studied as a function of dose rate and time in beagles that were fed diets containing 90 SrCl 2 in equilibrium with 90 Y from midgestation to 1.5 yr of age or that were administered eight intravenous injections of 226 RaCl 2 (one injection every 2 weeks for 4 months) starting at 14 months of age. Analysis of incidence of each disease in 776 beagles showed a normal probability density function with respect to time. Median incidence time and standard deviation from the mean of distribution were calculated for primary osteosarcoma at each level of administered radioactivity. The median incidence age (T) for mortality from primary osteosarcoma increased from 4.1 yr of age, 2.6 yr after final injection of radium, for beagles injected (A 0 ) with 83.6 μCi 226 Ra, to 11.5 yr of age for beagles given A 0 = 3.14 μCi 226 Ra. A similar increase in T was observed for beagles that ingested a daily diet containing 90 Sr + 90 Y, from T = 2.8 yr of age at 36 μCi 90 Sr/day to 12.6 yr at 4 μCi 90 Sr/day. Tumor yield was calculated assuming that the causes of death from competing diseases were mutually exclusive with respect to individual diseases. Incidence and cumulative incidence for each of the diseases were calculated as a function of time and maximum dose rate. These analyses were extended to beagles administered 226 Ra by a single injection or 90 Sr by injection and inhalation. Extrapolation of the observed dose effects to lower levels of administered radioactivity (comparable to maximum permissible body burden) is discussed within the framework of a competitive mortality. (author)

  17. Time optimization of 90Sr measurements: Sequential measurement of multiple samples during ingrowth of 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Stina; Tovedal, Annika; Björnham, Oscar; Ramebäck, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to a more rapid determination of a series of samples containing 90 Sr by making the Cherenkov measurement of the daughter nuclide 90 Y more time efficient. There are many instances when an optimization of the measurement method might be favorable, such as; situations requiring rapid results in order to make urgent decisions or, on the other hand, to maximize the throughput of samples in a limited available time span. In order to minimize the total analysis time, a mathematical model was developed which calculates the time of ingrowth as well as individual measurement times for n samples in a series. This work is focused on the measurement of 90 Y during ingrowth, after an initial chemical separation of strontium, in which it is assumed that no other radioactive strontium isotopes are present. By using a fixed minimum detectable activity (MDA) and iterating the measurement time for each consecutive sample the total analysis time will be less, compared to using the same measurement time for all samples. It was found that by optimization, the total analysis time for 10 samples can be decreased greatly, from 21 h to 6.5 h, when assuming a MDA of 1 Bq/L and at a background count rate of approximately 0.8 cpm. - Highlights: • An approach roughly a factor of three more efficient than an un-optimized method. • The optimization gives a more efficient use of instrument time. • The efficiency increase ranges from a factor of three to 10, for 10 to 40 samples.

  18. 137Cs and 90Sr root uptake by beans in soils with contrasting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauras Yera, T.; Vallejo, R.; Waegeneers, N.; Madoz-Escande, C.

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide soil to crop transfer was analysed in large undisturbed soil monoliths installed in lysimeters under controlled climatic conditions. Both the solid/liquid distribution coefficient K D (= [RN] in soil (Bq/kg)/[RN] in soil solution (Bq/l)) and the concentration factor CF (= (Bq/kg plant)/(Bq/l soil solution)) are affected by the concentration of K, Ca and Mg in soil solution. The 137 Cs concentration in soil solution varied from 400 Bq/l to 9 Bq/l in the various types of soil, the corresponding K D value ranged from 480 to 19000 l/kg. The concentration of potassium in the soil solution (m K ) varied from 25 mmol/l to 0.6 mmol/l. A negative linear relationship on the logarithmic scale was found between K D and the potassium status of the soil solution: high K levels brought about low K D 's and thus, promotion of 137 Cs in the soil solution. The plant concentration factor was also affected by the K concentration: high K contents in soil solution resulted in low CF's and vice versa. The interdependence was again linear in logarithmic coordinates. The 137 Cs root uptake crop reflected the specific scenario of each soil. The K D and CF values were also negatively related to the Ca+Mg concentration in the soil solution. Thus, K, Ca and Mg in the soil solution play an important role in the 137 Cs and 90 Sr root uptake and, in addition to the soil type and specific growing conditions, are important factors governing the transfer

  19. {sup 90}Sr in human excretion samples. Comparison of MC-ICP-MS and conventional low-level beta-counting; {sup 90}Sr in menschlichen Ausscheidungsproben. Vergleich zwischen MC-ICP-MS und konventioneller Low Level Beta-Messung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burow, M.; Schumacher, C.; Zoriy, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich fuer Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz

    2016-07-01

    At the present for determination of {sup 90}Sr in different human excretion samples manly radiochemical methods are applied, for example LL-beta- counter or liquid scintillation method. These methods require an isolation of strontium from other interfering radioactive species such as e.g. lead, polonium, plutonium, neptunium and potassium (for example, separation on Sr Resin, Fa. Eichrom, France) and afterwards long counting time restrict the usage in some application fields. On the other hand, the liquid scintillation techniques that may be used for detection present a challenge in the analysis of {sup 90}Sr in the presence of {sup 90}Y. However spectra of both radionuclides overlap in a certain zone and this may be resolved by mathematical calculations of {sup 90}Y ingrowth or by simply waiting for radiochemical equilibrium to be reached (2-3 weeks). In the case of emergency, monitoring of operating personal or civil population for possible incorporation of {sup 90}Sr via excretion samples a readily available, faster and reliable analytical procedure may prove to be of great importance. For these purposes, an analytical method for the determination of {sup 90}Sr in urine with high-sensitive MC-ICP-MS was developed in the radiochemical laboratory of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection. The method was optimized to avoid a multitude of isobaric interferences that occur on m/z 90 using a cold-plasma operation condition of ICP-MS. The reported LOD as low as 0,3-1 Bq/l in the water samples was found to be acceptable for majority of our analytical tasks.

  20. Spatiotemporal Variations of the 90Sr in the Southern Part of the Baltic Sea over the Period of 2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Saniewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is one of the most contaminated seas by the radioactive isotope of strontium in the world; therefore the activity of 90Sr is regularly controlled. Due to that fact, seawater samples for 90Sr determination were collected at 16 stations located in the southern Baltic Sea between 2005 and 2010. In this period average activity of 90Sr was 7.8 Bq m−3 and varied within the range from 3.0 Bq m−3 to 11.9 Bq m−3. Because the higher activity of 90Sr was measured in the Baltic Sea than in the North Sea and rivers, inflows from the North Sea and the riverine runoff decreased 90Sr activity in the Baltic Sea. The average 90Sr activity in the bottom water along the offshore profile was 18% lower than that in the surface water and it was caused by an inflow of salt water from the North Sea. In the Vistula River mouth the average activity of 90Sr in the surface water was about 15% lower than the average activity in the bottom waters. Coastal areas, relatively shallow with good mixing condition in the water column, were characterized by low variability in 90Sr activity.

  1. Beta emitter radionuclides (90Sr contamination in animal feed: validation and application of a radiochemical method by ultra low level liquid scintillation counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iammarino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 90Sr is considered as a dangerous contaminant of agri-food supply chains due to its chemical affinity with Calcium, which makes its absorption in bones easy. 90Sr accumulation in raw materials and then in final products is particularly significant in relationship to its ability to transfer into animal source products. The radionuclides transfer (137Cs and 90Sr from environment to forages and then to products of animal origin (milk, cow and pork meats was studied and evaluated in different studies, which were carried out in contaminated areas, from Chernobyl disaster until today. In the present work, the development and validation of a radiochemical method for the detection of 90Sr in different types of animal feed, and the application of this technique for routinely control activities, are presented. Liquid scintillation counting was the employed analytical technique, since it is able to determine very low activity concentrations of 90Sr (<0.01 Bq kg–1. All samples analysed showed a 90Sr contamination much higher than method detection limit (0.008 Bq kg–1. In particular, the highest mean activity concentration was registered in hay samples (2.93 Bq kg–1, followed by silage samples (2.07 Bq kg–1 and animal feeds (0.77 Bq kg–1. In fact, all samples were characterized by 90Sr activity concentrations much lower than reference limits. This notwithstanding, the necessity to monitor these levels was confirmed, especially considering that 90Sr is a possible carcinogen for human.

  2. Large-scale purification of {sup 90}Sr from nuclear waste materials for production of {sup 90}Y, a therapeutic medical radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, D.W.; Steele, R.T.; Rinehart, D.E.; DesChane, J.R.; Carson, K.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Tenforde, T.S. E-mail: tenforde@ncrp.com

    2003-07-01

    A major limitation on the supply of the short-lived medical isotope {sup 90}Y (t{sub 1/2}=64 h) is the available quantity of highly purified {sup 90}Sr generator material. A radiochemical production campaign was therefore undertaken to purify 1500 Ci of {sup 90}Sr that had been isolated from fission waste materials. A series of alkaline precipitation steps removed all detectable traces of {sup 137}Cs, alpha emitters, and uranium and transuranic elements. Technical obstacles such as the buildup of gas pressure generated upon mixing large quantities of acid with solid {sup 90}Sr carbonate were overcome through safety features incorporated into the custom-built equipment used for {sup 90}Sr purification. Methods are described for analyzing the chemical and radiochemical purity of the final product and for accurately determining by gravimetry the quantities of {sup 90}Sr immobilized on stainless steel filters for future use.

  3. Determination of the shape factor of {sup 90}Sr by means of the cutoff energy yield method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A. [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental (CSIC), Dcho. 211, C/Serrano 113b, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: agrau@imaff.cfmac.csic.es; Kossert, K. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Department 6.1, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Grau Malonda, A. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Proyectos Estrategicos, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Usually, Kurie plots are used to analyze beta-spectra shape-factor functions measured by means of semiconductor and magnetic spectrometers. A drawback of these techniques is the occurrence of self-absorption within the samples through which the emission spectrum is altered. In liquid-scintillation samples self-absorption does not occur, but the poor energy resolution makes the analysis of the spectra difficult. To overcome this problem, two resolution-invariant observables are used for determining the shape-factor function of {sup 90}Sr: (1) the maximum point energy and (2) the cutoff energy yield. The measured shape-factor function of {sup 90}Sr agrees with the one which is predicted by theory for the first-forbidden unique transition.

  4. Plutonium, americium, 90Sr and 137Cs in bones of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Eastern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Gaca, P.; Blazej, S.; Kitowski, I.

    2008-01-01

    90 Sr, 238,239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 137 Cs activity concentrations are presented in the jaw bones of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from eastern Poland. The short description of the applied radiochemical method is presented. Activity concentrations for 90 Sr ranged between 2.2±0.7 and 41.4±4.7 Bq/kg (aw = ash weight). Average results for plutonium and americium are on the level of 10 mBq/kg (aw). No clear relationship was observed among the radionuclide concentrations. The samples analyzed do not show elevated contamination levels when compared with results of bones of small animals (rodent or insectivorous mammals) determined previously, so no accumulation of bone seeking isotopes on higher step of food-chain is concluded. (author)

  5. Local-scale modelling of the releases of 137-Cs and 90-Sr from Fukushima NPP into the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raul, Perianez

    2013-01-01

    The dispersion of 137-Cs and 90-Sr released from Fukushima nuclear power plant to the sea after the March 11th 2011 tsunami has been studied using a numerical model. The 3D dispersion model consists of an advection/diffusion equation with terms describing uptake/release reactions between water and seabed sediments. The dispersion model has been fed with daily currents provided by JCOPE2 ocean model. Seabed sediment 137-Cs computed patterns have been compared with observations. The impact of tides and of atmospheric deposition on sediment contamination has been evaluated as well. First simulations carried out for Sr-90 are described. An evaluation of the amount of this radionuclide released to the sea has been made using a numerical model for the first time. Calculated vertical profiles of this radionuclide have been compared with measured ones. Finally, the variability in 90-Sr/137-Cs activity ratios has been analysed with the model

  6. Intake of 90Sr, 137Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru by fresh water organisms with food and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciulioniene, D.P.; Dusauskiene-Duz, R.F.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations of the water basins of various areas of Lithuania were carried out in 1973-1975. The investigations were performed to determine the role of food and water in accumulation of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 106 --Ru under experimental conditions by fresh water organisms (molluscs, larvae, insects, fishes) as well as 90 Sr in mollusc and fish organisms under natural conditions. It was found that the intake of the above radionuclides in fresh water organisms with radioactive food was less active and in smaller quantities than that with water. The accumulation levels of the radionuclides in fresh water organisms resulted from the radioactive food, depended on the physical and chemical state of the radionuclides and on the concentration of isotopic and nonisotopic carriers in water, food and in the very organism. Dependence of the accumulation coefficient (AC) of different radionuclides in fresh water organisms on the AC value in food as well as on the diet type was not determined

  7. Determination of 137Cs, 90Sr, 40K radionuclides in food grain and commercial food grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solecki, J.; Kruk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Following up transfer of strontium from soil to plants requires determination of isotope in the surface layer of soil and a chosen plant. The most endangered food products are plants including commonly grown grain, which constitutes a basic feeding component for both people and animals. Indeed large amounts of 137 Cs, 90 Sr get into organisms of people and animals with the food, therefore determination of radioactivity of elements in food products and animal fodder is very essential. Choice of proper diet allows to limit the level of human organism denaturation. The aim of this paper was to study relocation of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 40 K isotopes from soil to grain and then from grain to food products. There were investigated soil, wheat, barley, groats, flour, macaroni and breakfast flakes. Based on the obtained results there were calculated effective weighted doses [nSv] from consumption of 1 kg of a product for different age groups. (author)

  8. Combined effect of incorporated 90Sr, alcohol, and tobacco smokes on reproduction of warm-blooded animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    Combined effect of incorporated 90 Sr, ethanol, tobacco smokes on reproduction of warm-blooded animals is studied. It is shown that chronic intake of strontium 90, ethanol and tobacco smokes suppresses the reproduction of animals. But difficulty of obtained data extrapolation to a human being is not a sufficient ground for revising existing hygienic standards for persons being in contact with ionizing radiation and habitual to alcohol and smoking. Nevertheless, they permit to set a problem on negative effect of such habits

  9. Losses of Sr/sup 90/, Sr/sup 89/, and I/sup 131/ from fallout-contaminated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W E

    1964-11-01

    During the early period following local fallout, and during periods of maximal worldwide fallout, the entry of radionuclides into terrestrial food-chains is due primarily to the external contamination of plants and secondarily to the uptake of radionuclides from contaminated soil. Studies were undertaken to estimate the rates of radionuclide loss from fallout-contaminated vegetation and hence from the diets of herbivores living in a fallout field. On the fifth, fifteenth, thirtieth, and sixtieth days after an underground nuclear explosion (Operation Sedan) at the Nevada Test Site, plant samples were collected from twenty representative locations in the fallout field and analyzed to determined the concentrations (pc/g dry wt) of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 89/Sr, and /sup 131/I at the times of collections. While the radioactive half lives of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 89/Sr, and /sup 131/I are approximately 27.7 years, 53 days, and 8.04 days respectively, their average effective half-lives on fallout-contaminated plants, during the period from 5 to 30 days after the detonation, were 27.8 days, 17.8 days, and 5.0 days respectively. Losses of /sup 90/Sr were attributed to radioactive decay and to the removal of fallout particles and foliage by wind and/or other mechanical disturbances. Losses of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 89/Sr were attributed to radioactive decay and to the removal of fallout particles and foliage by wind and/or other mechanical disturbances. Losses of /sup 131/I were attributed to radioactive decay, to mechanical disturbance, and to the vaporization of /sup 131/I from the fallout particles retained on foliage.

  10. A pilot study on the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr to horse milk and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semioshkina, N; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S; Savinkov, A; Mukusheva, M

    2006-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the impact of nuclear weapon's testing on the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) on the local population requires comprehensive site-specific information on radionuclide behaviour in the environment. However, information on radionuclide behaviour in the conditions of the STS is rather sparse and, in particular, there are no data in the literature on parameters of radionuclide transfer from feed to horse products proofed to be important contributors to the internal dose to the local population. The transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr to horse milk and meat was studied under laboratory and field conditions: in controlled experiment with three lactating horses maintained in the Kazakh Agricultural Research Institute, and in field measurements of horse products taken from horses grazing at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The equilibrium transfer factors from feed to horse milk and meat were estimated to be 0.012 dl(-1) and 0.035 dkg(-1) for (137)Cs and 0.0022 dl(-1) and 0.003 dkg(-1) for (90)Sr, respectively. The biological half-lives were approximated by a sum of two exponentials amounting to 3 (85%) and 15 (15%) days for 137Cs and 3.5 (70%) and 100 (30%) days for 90Sr. The highest 137Cs transfer has been found to be to spleen, followed by lung, heart, muscles, kidneys, intestine, and finally skin and bones. For90Sr, the maximum activity concentration was observed in bones; contamination of other tissues is rather uniform except for liver and intestine with a factor of about 2 higher than muscles.

  11. Comparative effects of inhaled relatively insoluble forms of 90Y, 144Ce, and 90Sr on canine peripheral lymphocyte function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Jones, R.K.; Snipes, M.B.; Lustgarten, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Dogs that have inhaled relatively insoluble forms of either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides manifest a peripheral lymphopenia, the development and course of which depends on both total dose and dose rate. The remaining peripheral lymphocytes in dogs exposed to longer lived beta-emitting radionuclides showed a depressed function as measured by the ability to respond to plant mitogens in vitro. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of dose rate on peripheral lymphocyte function by exposing dogs to aerosols of radionuclides with varied effective half-lives in the lung: 90 Y (2.6 days), 144 Ce (170 days), and 90 Sr (650 days). Three groups of four adult beagle dogs each were exposed by inhalation to 90 Y, 144 Ce, or 90 Sr in fused-clay particles. Two controls were matched with each group. Initial lung burdens and initial dose rates to the lung were 520 to 610 μCi/kg of body weight and 2200 to 2600 rads/day in the 90 Y group, 33 to 60 μCi/kg and 200 to 350 rads/day in the 144 Ce group, and 25 to 32 μCi/kg and 130 to 170 rads/day in the 90 Sr group. Hematologic parameters and lymphocyte function as measured by the ability of lymphocytes to respond to plant mitogen stimulation were evaluated on a weekly or biweekly basis for 8 weeks after exposure and on a monthly basis thereafter. The 90 Y-exposed dogs showed a marked lymphopenia within 1 week with a return to control levels by 20 weeks after exposure. The remaining peripheral lymphocytes, however, showed no functional changes in these dogs. Animals exposed to 144 Ce or 90 Sr developed a progressive and persisent lymphopenia and showed functional depression of the remaining lymphocytes as well. The relationships among dose pattern, lymphopenia, and lymphocyte-function depression are discussed

  12. On the statistical evaluation of inconsistent measurement results illustrated on the example of the 90Sr half-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.L.

    1985-12-01

    The problem how to make an objective evaluation of inconsistent numerical observations made by different authors or laboratories on the same physical quantity is dealt with. The problem is treated in a practical way in the light of the example on the half-life of 90 Sr, and it is to some extent a response to a document by Gray (1985) on the same topic

  13. Analysis of uncertainties and detection limits for the double measurement method of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 89}Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M., E-mail: m.herranz@ehu.es [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    The determination process of the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 89}Sr contents in a sample, although it involves their radiochemical isolation, results always in a complex measurement process due to the interferences among their respective beta emissions and also among those of the daughter of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y, a beta emitter as well. In this paper, the process consisting in a double measurement method after the Sr radiochemical isolation is analyzed, developing the formulae to obtain activity concentrations, uncertainties and detection limits. A study of the trend of uncertainties and detection limits as function of the time in which the first measurement since the isolation is done, the delay between the two measurements and the activity concentration of each strontium isotope in the sample is carried out as well. Results show that with a very precise determination of the times involved in the whole process (isolation, measurement and duration of measurements) this method permits a reliable assessment of both strontium radioisotopes. The quicker the first measurement since the isolation is done and the longer the delay between measurements is chosen, the lower are the detection limits and the uncertainties of the activities obtained. - Highlights: > The double measurement method for {sup 90}Sr and {sup 89}Sr determination is analysed. > Uncertainties and detection limits are determined and their dependences studied. > Proposals for the optimization of the method are given.

  14. Cement As a Waste Form for Nuclear Fission Products: The Case of (90)Sr and Its Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezerald, Lucile; Kohanoff, Jorge J; Correa, Alfredo A; Caro, Alfredo; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Ulm, Franz J; Saúl, Andrés

    2015-11-17

    One of the main challenges faced by the nuclear industry is the long-term confinement of nuclear waste. Because it is inexpensive and easy to manufacture, cement is the material of choice to store large volumes of radioactive materials, in particular the low-level medium-lived fission products. It is therefore of utmost importance to assess the chemical and structural stability of cement containing radioactive species. Here, we use ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) to study the effects of (90)Sr insertion and decay in C-S-H (calcium-silicate-hydrate) in order to test the ability of cement to trap and hold this radioactive fission product and to investigate the consequences of its β-decay on the cement paste structure. We show that (90)Sr is stable when it substitutes the Ca(2+) ions in C-S-H, and so is its daughter nucleus (90)Y after β-decay. Interestingly, (90)Zr, daughter of (90)Y and final product in the decay sequence, is found to be unstable compared to the bulk phase of the element at zero K but stable when compared to the solvated ion in water. Therefore, cement appears as a suitable waste form for (90)Sr storage.

  15. Inter comparison of 90Sr and 137Cs contents in biologic samples and natural U in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfen; Zeng Guangjian; Lu Xuequan

    2001-01-01

    The results of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in biologic samples and the natural U in soil samples obtained in a joint effort by fourteen environmental radiation laboratories in the Chinese environmental protection system were analyzed and compared. Two kinds of biologic samples and one kind of soil samples were used for inter comparison. Of which, one kind of biologic samples (biologic powder samples) and the soil samples came from the IAEA samples were environmental and the reference values were known. The another kind of biologic samples were environmental tea-leaf that were taken from a tea garden near Hangzhou. The mean values obtained by all the joined laboratories was used as the reference. The inter comparison results were expressed in terms of the deviation from the reference value. It was found that the deviation of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents of biologic powder samples ranged from -15.4% to 26.5% and -15.0% to 0.4%, respectively. The deviation of the natural U content ranged from -25.5% to 7.3% for the soil samples. For the tea-leaf, the 90 Sr deviation was -22.7% to 19.1%, and the 137 Cs data had a relative large scatter with a ratio of the maximum and the minimum values being about 7. It was pointed out that the analysis results offered by different laboratories might have involved system errors

  16. Rapid Simultaneous Determination of 89Sr and 90Sr in Milk: A Procedure Using Cerenkov and Scintillation Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, the IAEA programme related to the terrestrial environment has included activities aimed at developing and testing a set of procedures for the determination of radionuclides in environmental samples. Both 89Sr and 90Sr are fission products that can be, and have been, released to the environment during nuclear explosions and nuclear reactor accidents. Since strontium uptake from milk is an important pathway for incorporation of radioactive strontium into the human body, the rapid and accurate analysis of radioactive strontium isotopes in milk is of crucial importance in emergency situations in order to protect the public from radiation hazards. This report describes a new approach for the rapid determination of 89 Sr and 90Sr in milk using Cerenkov and scintillation counting methods that was tested and validated by the analysis of four spiked milk samples in terms of repeatability, reproducibility and trueness (relative bias) in accordance with ISO guidelines. The report also describes the calculation of the uncertainty budget. This research was proposed in 2007 at the Asia-Pacific regional meeting of the IAEA Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network. Several ALMERA network laboratories participated in the validation procedure by performing reproducibility tests. The resulting recommended procedure is designed to be of general use to a wide range of laboratories, including those in the ALMERA network. It is expected that this rapid method for determining 89 Sr and 90 Sr in milk will be useful in emergency conditions and for routine environmental monitoring of elevated levels of radioactivity

  17. Determination of 137Cs and 90sr in Human Food and Effective Dose Assessment due to Food Consumption in the Environment of Region Uzice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsic, V.; Bogojevic, S.; Eremic-Savkovic, M.; Ilic, J.; Javorina, Lj.; Tanaskovic, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the data on activity measurements of 137Cs and 90Sr in the foodstuff characteristic for the nutrition of the population: vegetables, fruit, meat, crops, dairy products and milk in 2007, 2008 and 2011 in the environment of region Užice. This region was the most contaminated region of Serbia after the Chernobyl accident. The 137Cs activity concentrations were determined by gamma-spectrometry while 90Sr was determined after radiochemistry separations, using αβ proportional counter. Based on the presented results of the 137Cs and 90Sr activity concentration measurements, the effective doses received by the population through food intake were estimated. The annual effective doses due to 137Cs and 90Sr activity in the human food were 2.00 μSv (for 137Cs) and 1.32 μSv (for 90Sr) in 2007, 1.02 μSv (for 137Cs) and 0.45 μSv (for 90Sr) in 2008, 1.25 μSv (for 137Cs) and 1.07 μSv (for 90Sr) in 2011. They were well below recommended individual annual dose limit.(author)

  18. Transfer factor of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-12-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (Fvs) of (137)Cs and (90)Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The Fvs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg(-1)). Significant difference of log-Fvs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, Fvs of (90)Sr were higher than those of (137)Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher Fvs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. Fvs of (90)Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced Fvs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of Fvs for (137)Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest Fvs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in Fv for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to (137)Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel approach to Ca-Sr separation in the determination of 90Sr using inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, R.; Pavia Univ.; Valentini, M.T.G.; Maggi, L.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for 90 Sr determination in calcium rich samples is presented. It is based on the precipitation of calcium oxalate in homogeneous solution and under controlled conditions to minimize the comprecipitation of strontium. The latter is subsequently separated as carbonate and radiochemical purification is completed by ion exchange chromatography on two inorganic exchangers: PRTD (partially reduced tin dioxide) and CUCR (copper chromate). The procedure was applied to environmental samples such as ashed sediment, fish and vegetable and results are reported. (author) 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  20. Phytoremediation modelling - phytoextraction of 137Cs, 133Ba, and 90Sr from liquid media and artificially contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrcek, S.; Masnerova, G.

    2002-01-01

    The phytoremediation model based on experiments with plants cultivated in vitro in media supplemented with radionuclide salts was investigated. The plant species Brassica napus, Sinapis alba, Helianthus annuus, Zea mays and Pisum sativum were cultivated on the Murashige-Skoog basal salt mixture enriched with salts of 137 Cs, 133 Ba, and 90 Sr in aseptic conditions. The time-dependent radioactivity decrease in the medium was determined using LSC, and the phytoextraction curves were plotted. Radioactivity in the plant roots and shoots was measured and the efficiency of phytoextraction and the distribution between the roots and shoots as a measure of radionuclide transport in the plant tissues were calculated for each of the plants used. Cultivation experiments were also performed on artificially contaminated soil. Seeds of the plants were placed into contaminated soil and cultivated for 2 months in conditions similar to those of the in vitro experiments. The extracted radioactivity and distribution between roots and shoots were determined. The in vitro experiments simulated extraction of the radionuclide salt from solution analogously to real extraction from the soil solution, while the processes occurring in the rhizosphere were eliminated. The phytoextraction efficiency in terms of the percentage of the starting radioactivity ranged from 12 to 31 % for 90 Sr, 8 to 24% for 137 Cs, and 12 to 17 % for 133 Ba in a cultivation cycle. The root/shoot radioactivity ratios demonstrate that the plant species used may be suitable for real phytoremediation. The experiments in which the plants were cultivated from seeds in artificial contaminated substrate showed that the ability of roots to extract radionuclide salts from their environment remains unchanged. The relative efficiency values were lower than for the extraction from solutions (3 to 11.5 % for 90 Sr, 1.5 to 4 % for 137 Cs, and 1 to 6.2 %, for 133 Ba), but in this process, the equilibrium between the soil particles

  1. Absorbed doses to the main parts of eyeball due to use 90Sr + 90Y ophthalmic applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lishu

    1993-05-01

    The ophthalmic radiotherapy dosimetry and some affecting factors are introduced. The distributions of absorbed doses to the main parts of a fresh eyeball such as the cornea, sclera, lens and anterior chamber, during the radiotherapy by using a 90 Sr + 90 Y ophthalmic applicator are presented. An tissue-equivalent extrapolation ionization chamber was used in the dose measurement. The reasonable doses during ophthalmic radiotherapy for different depths have been obtained. Therefore, the absorbed dose to the lens, the most sensitive organ, can be given. These data are useful for radiation protection in ophthalmic radiotherapy

  2. 90Y/90 Sr electron induced damages in an essential eucalyptus oil related to the absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia Cardona, J.A.; Diaz Rizo, O.; Martinez Luzardo, F.; Quert, R.

    2007-01-01

    A good irradiation geometry was achieved in order to carry out the irradiation of an essential eucalyptus oil with a 90 Y/ 90 Sr electron source. The Monte Carlo simulation code MCNP-4C was employed to determine the absorbed doses in this particular experimental configuration. It also helped us to understand which electrons (from an energetic point of view) were responsible for the damages. In order to identify the induced damages, the irradiated samples were studied by mass spectrometry. The obtained results were related to the absorbed doses determined by the computational simulation

  3. Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr, Ca, Mg, K and Na in crane's-bill plants cultivated on soil and hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analyan, V.L.; Sarkisyan, G.A. (AN Armyanskoj SSR, Erevan. Inst. Agrokhimicheskikh Problem i Gidroponiki)

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr in plants under the conditions of soil and hydroponic cultures from the viewpoint of the possibility of obtaining ''pure'' vegetable production has been studied. Predominant absorption of /sup 90/Sr by soil plants as compared with calcium is shown. In the course of using the hydroponic cultivation method predominant radiostrontium absorption has been manifested to all investigated nuclides including potassium. The accumulation coefficients analysis has shown that among soil plants the first place is occupied by potassium, while the /sup 90/Sr coefficients are greater than Ca on hydroponics, where the true, not distorted by soil sorption processes absorptive plant capacity has been manifested, the first places in the series are occupied by /sup 90/Sr and K, then come Ca and Mg.

  4. Long-term monitoring and analysis of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations in rice, wheat and soils in Japan from 1959 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komamura, M.; Tsumura, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fujiwara, H.; Kihou, N.; Kodaira, K.

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric nuclear tests in the 1950s and thereafter had showered radioactive fallout throughout Japan. Therefore, radioactive contamination of crops cultivated in Japan was concerned. We continued to monitor concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in rice, wheat and soils collected annually from sixteen national and prefectural experimental farms for forty-two years, from 1959 to 2000. In 1963, when the largest annual precipitation of radioactive fallout was observed, 90Sr and 137Cs concentration in rice and wheat reached at their maximum; 0.27 Bq/kg for 90Sr and 4.2 Bq/kg for 137Cs in polished rice and 12 Bq/kg for 90Sr and 44 Bq/kg for 137Cs in wheat grain. The concentration of 90Sr and 137Cs in the plowed layer of paddy and upland soils reached maximum from 1963 to 1966. After 1966, concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in polished rice, wheat grain, and soils were gradually decreased although there were some minor fluctuations. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986 caused contamination of wheat grain by 137Cs up to 6.0 Bq/kg. However, the concentration of 137Cs in wheat grain decreased to its normal level in the following year. There was no evidence for the polished rice contamination in Japan that could be ascribed to the accident at Chernobyl. Based on the analyses of the data above, we made several interesting findings as follows: a) The accumulated amounts of 90Sr and 137Cs in fallout during cultivation period were highly correlated with those concentrations in husked rice, polished rice and wheat grain. The estimate equations derived from the correlations were accurate enough for quick prediction of contamination level of polished rice and wheat grain based on 90Sr and 137Cs contents in fallout in case of contingencies. b) The sensitive response of 90Sr and 137Cs in polished rice and wheat grain to concentrations of fallout suggested that direct absorption of 90Sr and 137Cs from radioactive fallout deposited on plant body played important role. In 1963

  5. Development of a dosimetric system for {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y betatherapy applicators; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de dosimetria para aplicadores de betaterapia de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Talita Salles

    2010-07-01

    The {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y applicators, used in betatherapy for prevention of keloids and pterigium, are imported and many times their dosimetric features are shown only in an illustrated form by the manufacturers. The exhaustive routine of the medical physicists in the clinic do not make possible the accomplishment of procedures for the confirmation of these parameters. This work presents the development of a methodology for the dosimetry of {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y betatherapy applicators. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used for the simulation of the percentage depth dose curves and dose distribution profiles produced by these applicators. The experimental measurements of the radial and axial radiation attenuation, have been done with a mini-extrapolation chamber, thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiographic films. The experimental results have been compared with the simulated values. Both percentage depth dose curves and the radial dose profiles, the theoretical and the experimental ones, have presented good agreement, which may validate the use of the MCNP5 for these simulations, confirming the viability of the usage of this method in procedures of beta emitter sources dosimetry. (author)

  6. Measurements of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in Swedish consumption milk between 1991 1996; Maetningar av {sup 137}Cs och {sup 90}Sr i konsumtionsmjoelk mellan 1991 och 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moere, H

    1997-04-01

    The sources for the radioactivity are the nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Milk is sampled and measured as an important indicator of the Chernobyl load of radionuclides that cows can metabolize and that will ultimately give a dose to humans. Milk was responsible for 13-19% of the total intake of {sup 137}Cs from foodstuffs for the average person in 1994. Our milk measurement program covered 90% of all produced consumption milk in Sweden in 1995. Milk samples are taken every second month from the dairies. {sup 90}Sr is only measured on pooled yearly samples from some dairies; these dairies covered 50% of the total production of consumption milk in Sweden in 1995. The mean value per year of {sup 137}Cs for the whole country has decreased from 0.52 to 0.26 Bq/l between 1991 and 1996, which corresponds to a committed effective dose equivalent for humans of 1.1-0.50 microSv for {sup 137}Cs. For {sup 90}Sr during the 1991-1996 period the country-wide mean varied between 0.08 and 0.06 Bq/l, resulting in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.4-0.3 microSv. 7 refs.

  7. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y using amorphous ZrO{sub 2}; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de radiaciones beta de {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y usando ZrO{sub 2} amorfo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T. [CICATA-Legaria, IPN, Legaria Num. 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera R, M.; Soto E, A.M. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (Tl) of the zirconium oxide in its amorphous state (ZrO{sub 2}-a) before beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y are presented. The amorphous powders of the zirconium oxide were synthesized by means of the sol-gel technique. The sol-gel process using alkoxides like precursors, is an efficient method to prepare a matrix of zirconium oxide by hydrolysis - condensation of the precursor to form chains of Zr-H{sub 3} and Zr-O{sub 2}. One of the advantages of this technique is the obtention of gels at low temperatures with very high purity and homogeneity. The powders were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}-a, previously irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90} Sr/{sup 90} Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 257 C. The dissipation of the information of the one ZrO{sub 2}-a was of 40% the first 2 hours remaining constant the information for the following 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of {+-} 2.5% in standard deviation. The studied characteristics allow to propose to the amorphous zirconium oxide as thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of beta radiation. (Author)

  8. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr behaviour in contaminated soils of the Chernobyl area; Etude du comportement du {sup 137}Cs et du {sup 90}Sr dans les sols contamines de la region de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gri, N. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    2000-07-01

    The improvement of the understanding of the mechanisms which generate radionuclides retention in soils are of main importance for radioactivity transport models, especially for long time assessments. In this context, the objectives of this thesis were to identify the mechanisms responsible for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr behaviour in non cultivated soils and to quantify their influence. We studied radiocaesium and radiostrontium availability in different soils of the Chernobyl area (chernozem, sand, gley, peat), whose contamination took several physico-chemical forms (fuel particles, condensed forms, mixed deposits). The migration profiles obtained by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation show that the majority of the activity is contained in the ten first centimeters of soil, except for one site. The profiles are varied and don't allow to classify the radionuclides availability according to the pedology or to the contamination type. A selective extraction protocol applied on several soil layers has been adopted as an indirect approach. Although radionuclides availability is increasing with depth, the selective extraction protocol shows that a non negligible fraction of activity remain not mobile. {sup 137}Cs is associated to interstratified clay minerals in a non reversible way and {sup 90}Sr is strongly bound to fuel particles. The existence of these retention mechanisms calls into question the use of the K{sub d} distribution coefficient in transport models because they disabled reversibility and instantaneous desorption notions. (author)

  9. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y using ZrO{sub 2}: Eu; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de radiaciones beta de {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y usando ZrO{sub 2}: Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera S, M.; Soto E, A.M. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (TL) of the doped zirconium oxide with europium (ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+}) before beta radiations of {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y are presented. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} were obtained by means of the sol-gel technique and they were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+}, previously irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 204 and 292 C respectively. The TL response of the ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} as function of the absorbed dose was lineal from 2 Gy up to 90 Gy. The fading of the information of the ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} was of 10% the first 2 hours remaining almost constant the information by the following 30 days. The ZrO{sub 2} doped with the (Eu{sup 3+}) ion it was found more sensitive to the beta radiation that the one of zirconium oxide without doping (ZrO{sub 2}) obtained by the same method. Those studied characteristics allow to propose to the doped zirconium oxide with europium like thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of the beta radiation. (Author)

  10. Field demonstration of in situ treatment of buried low-level radioactive solid waste with caustic soda and soda ash to immobilize 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1984-02-01

    A low-level radioactive solid waste disposal trench was injected on four occasions with solutions of caustic soda, soda ash, caustic soda, and lime/soda ash, respectively. Because investigations had indicated that 90 Sr could be coprecipitated with soil calcium carbonate by treatment with soda ash, this demonstration was undertaken as a test of its technical feasibility. After concentrations of 90 Sr and water hardness decreased within the intratrench monitoring wells; one well at the foot of the trench decreased from over 100 to a persistent level of less than 10 kBq of 90 Sr per liter. Recharge of 90 Sr from the trench to a sump immediately below was reduced by about 90%. Water hardness and 90 Sr concentrations were strongly correlated through time within each monitoring well, indicating that 90 Sr behaved as a tracer for soil calcium and magnesium. The disappearance of 90 Sr from the trench water, therefore, was an in situ water softening. Soil samples retrieved from the trench indicated that as much as 98% of the total 90 Sr was present as a coprecipitate with calcium carbonate. The hydrologic characterization of this trench indicated an average void space of 41% and an average trench-wall hydraulic conductivity of 3.4 x 10 -7 m/s. Sampling of the trench's discharge contamination plume indicated that it had resulted from a combination of subsurface seepage and bathtub overflow during infrequent periods of intense precipitation. A generic assessment of soda ash treatment indicated that treatment would be most effective for soils of high cation exchange capacity with either low ( 80%) basic cation saturation of that cation exchange capacity

  11. Radioactive pollution of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments. II. Distribution of 137Cs, 241Am, 90Sr in a solid phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Pirnach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of complex research of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments are presented Data about vertical distribution of radioactive pollution 137Cs, 241Am, 90Sr in a solid phase of sediments are received. Distribution coefficients 137Cs and 90Sr, selectivity coefficients of their exchange with similar cations and physical-chemical forms are defined. Results of research of radionuclide chemical recovery from the sediment samples are analyzed.

  12. Early prediction of 90Sr and 137Cs content in edible parts of crops and selection of plants with high uptake ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhu; Xu Shiming; Hou Lanxin; Shang Zhaorong

    1995-10-01

    The uptake characteristics to 90 Sr and 137 Cs of nine kinds of crops, including spring wheat, rice, soybean, vegetables etc., were studied from seedling to maturity. The change of 90 Sr content per unit of dry weight can be classified into two types--the 90 Sr content kept in the same level during the whole growing season and kept increasing with the growing period until it came to the maximum point at the time of maturity. 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the aerial part of plants were mainly distributed in leaves, but the amounts in seeds and fruits were less. The content of 90 Sr decreased but the content of 137 Cs increased from young to old leaves. So it could be concluded that early prediction of the radioactive content of edible parts according to the content of young leaves was possible. Selection of 169 species in 18 families of plants with high uptake ability of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, which grow in Qinshan region near a nuclear power plant and in Beijing region, is also reported. (8 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.)

  13. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in the tooth tissues 60 years after intake: results of TL measurements and applications for Techa River dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Volchkova, A.Yu.; Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Verdi, E. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Veronese, I. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); El-Faramawy, N.A. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Ain Shams University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Goeksu, H.Y. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Adiyaman University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    This article focuses on the study of {sup 90}Sr in the tooth tissues of Techa riverside residents 60 years after intake. The Techa River was contaminated by radioactive wastes in the 1950s. Contamination of the river system, including water, bottom sediment, floodplain soil, and grass, depended on the distance from the source of releases. Therefore, the average {sup 90}Sr intake was different in different settlements located downstream the river. An additional factor influencing {sup 90}Sr accumulation in the teeth is the rate of tissue mineralization at the time of intake which depended on the donor's age at the time of releases. Measurements of {sup 90}Sr concentration in various dental tissues (enamel, crown, and root dentin) of 166 teeth were performed about 60 years after the main intake using the method of thermoluminescence passive beta detection. The paper presents the current levels of tooth tissue contamination, and the tooth-to-tooth variability of {sup 90}Sr concentration in tooth tissues was assessed for the tissues which were matured at the time of massive liquid radioactive waste releases into the Techa River. A model describing the expected levels of {sup 90}Sr in matured dental tissues depending on age and intake has been elaborated for the population under study. The results obtained will be used for calculation of internal dose in enamel and for interpretation of tooth doses measured by means of the electron paramagnetic resonance method, among the population of the Techa River region. (orig.)

  14. Transfer of alkaline earth elements in mothers' milk and doses from 45Ca, 90Sr and 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.J.; Phipps, A.W.; Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    An international programme of work is currently under way to develop methods for calculating doses to infants from ingestion of radionuclides present in mothers' milk. This paper considers the special case of the alkaline earth elements. Models have been developed for 45 Ca, 90 Sr and 226 Ra and the sensitivity of results to various changes in parameter values is discussed. A complication when calculating doses from intakes of radium is that the International Commission on Radiological Protection has previously recommended that doses from decay products of radium should be calculated using element-specific biokinetic models (so-called independent biokinetics). An extension of this method to the models for breastfeeding is proposed. Preliminary estimates of the doses received by the infant for a number of maternal intake scenarios show that doses to the infant can exceed the corresponding adult dose, such as for 45 Ca (ratio = 3.1) while, in other cases such as 90 Sr, the infant dose can be a significant fraction of the adult dose. (author)

  15. Experimental study of suitable methods for measuring the radioactivity of 90Sr during its fast quantitation by extraction with dicarbollides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, K.; Kyrs, M.

    1994-04-01

    The measurement of activity of 90 Sr during its fast isolation by extraction with cobalt dicarbollide and Slovafol 909 in a nitrobenzene-carbon tetrachloride mixed solvent and re-extraction with 0.15 M Chelaton IV at pH 10.2 was investigated. The use of a liquid scintillator allows the effect of the 90 Y beta activity to be eliminated more efficiently than if the evaporation residue is measured with a solid scintillator. Traces of dicarbollide, nitrobenzene and CCl 4 passed into the aqueous solution exert an unfavorable effect by shifting the spectral curve of the 90 Sr+ 90 Y beta radiation towards lower energies, the shift being dependent on the concentration of the above interferents in the aqueous phase. This effect can be eliminated by extracting the aqueous phase with the same volume of octyl alcohol or amyl acetate; while removing the organic interferents, this extraction brings about no apparent loss of strontium. (author). 3 tabs., 7 figs., 5 refs

  16. A comparison between predicted and observed levels of 137Cs and 90Sr in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    A model based on compartmental analysis has been developed to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. The model is intended for the prediction of annual average concentrations of radionuclides in the marine environment. The quality of the model predictions has been investigated by comparing predicted levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in water, top sediment and biota with observed levels covering the period 1960-1992. The sources of radioactivity into the Baltic region that have been considered are fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, fallout from the Chernobyl accident, liquid discharges to sea from the European reprocessing plants, and discharges from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. The predicted water concentrations are in good agreement with the observations for both radionuclides; the mean predictive accuracy of the model is close to unity. For the top sediment and biota concentrations the agreement is less favourable. The predicted water inventory data compare well with the observed data for the two radionuclides. The inventories of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the Baltic Sea in 1994 have been estimated at 3200 TBq and 370 TBq, respectively. (author)

  17. Activity ratios of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P. [European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)], E-mail: peter.bossew@jrc.it; Lettner, H. [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)], E-mail: herbert.lettner@sbg.ac.at; Hubmer, A.; Erlinger, C.; Gastberger, M. [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2007-09-15

    Both global and Chernobyl fallout have resulted in environmental contamination with radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu. In environmental samples, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu can be divided into the contributions of either source, if also the isotopes {sup 134}Cs and {sup 238}Pu are measurable, based on the known isotopic ratios in global and Chernobyl fallout. No analogous method is available for {sup 90}Sr. The activity ratios of Sr to Cs and Pu, respectively, are known for the actual fallout mainly from air filter measurements; but due to the high mobility of Sr in the environment, compared to Cs and Pu, these ratios generally do not hold for the inventory many years after deposition. In this paper we suggest a method to identify the mean contributions of global and Chernobyl fallout to total Sr in soil, sediment and cryoconite samples from Alpine and pre-Alpine regions of Austria, based on a statistical evaluation of Sr/Cs/Pu radionuclide activity ratios. Results are given for Sr:Cs, Sr:Pu and Cs:Pu ratios. Comparison with fallout data shows a strong depletion of Sr against Cs and Pu.

  18. Plutonium, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in selected invertebrates from some areas around Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.p [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Maksimova, Svetlana, E-mail: soilzool@biobel.bas-net.b [Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya 27, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Szwalko, Przemyslaw [Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Krakow (Poland); Wnuk, Katarzyna [Holycross Cancer Center, Department on Nuclear Medicine, Artwinskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Zagrodzki, Pawel [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Krakow (Poland); Blazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Pawel; Tomankiewicz, Ewa [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Orlov, Olexandr, E-mail: station@zt.ukrpack.ne [Poleskiy Branch of Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Forestry and Agro-Forest-Amelioration, Prospect Mira 38, Zhytomyr 10004 (Ukraine)

    2010-06-15

    Results are presented for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and plutonium activity concentrations in more than 20 samples of terrestrial invertebrates, including species of beetles, ants, spiders and millipedes, collected in the highly contaminated area of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The majority of samples were collected in Belarus, with some also collected in the Ukraine. Three other samples were collected in an area of lower contamination. Results show that seven samples exceed an activity concentration of 100 kBq/kg (ash weight - a.w.) for {sup 137}Cs. The maximum activity concentration for this isotope was 1.52 +- 0.08 MBq/kg (a.w.) determined in ants (Formica cynerea). Seven results for {sup 90}Sr exceeded 100 kBq/kg (a.w.), mostly for millipedes. Relatively high plutonium activity concentrations were found in some ants and earth-boring dung beetles. Analyses of activity ratios showed differences in transfer of radionuclides between species. To reveal the correlation structure of the multivariate data set, the Partial Least-Squares method (PLS) was used. Results of the PLS model suggest that high radiocesium activity concentrations in animal bodies can be expected mainly for relatively small creatures living on the litter surface. In contrast, high strontium activity concentrations can be expected for creatures which conduct their lives within litter, having mixed trophic habits and a moderate lifespan. No clear conclusions could be made for plutonium.

  19. Modification of the 137Cs, 90Sr, and 60Co transfer to wheat plantlets by NH4+ fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, J; Muñoz-Muñoz, G; Baeza, A; Salas, A; Mocanu, N

    2017-03-01

    Inorganic fertilizers are used as agricultural countermeasures intended to inhibit the soil to plant transfer of radionuclides after a radioactive fallout. Two NH 4 + fertilizers, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and NPK, were applied to soil contaminated with a mixture of radionuclides to analyze whether they modify the transfer of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 60 Co and stable elements (K, Na, Ca, and Mg) to wheat plantlets grown under controlled laboratory conditions. DAP introduced NH 4 + in the soil, which can increase 137 Cs transfer, while NPK also introduced K + , which can decrease it. The application of DAP increased the accumulation of 137 Cs in wheat plantlets with increasing application rate, so did the 137 Cs/K in plantlets. Regarding the NPK application, the 137 Cs increased in all treatments, but at maximum rate, the available K introduced by the fertilizer was probably able to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of the wheat plantlet and the 137 Cs decreased relative to the recommended rate. The 137 Cs/K ratio in plantlet decreased with increasing NPK rates. The transfer of 90 Sr increased with increasing DAP rate and only at the maximum NPK rate. The 60 Co transfer only increased at the maximum application rates for DAP and NPK. These modifications should be considered when using these fertilizers as agricultural countermeasures.

  20. The exploration of nursing care for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia treated using 90Sr-90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Lizhen; Bai Xuemei; Zhang Bihui; Yang Xiaoling

    2004-01-01

    An exploration of nursing care for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treated using 90 Sr- 90 Y through the rectum was carried out . The treatment result and nursing experience in 90 cases were reported in this paper. Before the therapy nurses explained the method and principle of this treatment to the patients for the sake of increasing their confidence and to help them complete the treatment course successfully. During the radiotherapy, nurses practiced strictly radiation protection principles and operating instructions. They assisted the patients to have a healthy life style and good diet . The result of treatment indicated that the total effectiveness rate was 96.7%. The symptoms of lower urinary obstruction were improved evidently and the life quality of the patients elevated. Observation of clinical system confirmed that 90 Sr- 90 Y may be a new treatment method of BPH with benefits of safe irradiation dos, easy operation, non-traumatization, painlessness, and remarkable curative effects. However, it should be stressed that nursing care plays a pivotal role in the treatment result. (authors)

  1. 90Sr and 137Cs contamination of wheat produced in Japan. Survey and analysis during the years 1959 through 1995 including the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komamura, Misako; Tsumura, Akito; Kihou, Nobuharu; Kodaira, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the influences of global-scale radioactive fallout on wheat produced in Japan. For this purpose, a set of wheat samples was collected annually from sixteen National and Prefectural Experimental Farms during the years from 1959 to 1995. According to the graph presenting year-to-year variations in the nationwide averages of 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents (mBq/kg) in wheat kernels, the sharp peak was first marked in 1963 with 12300 for 90 Sr and 43600 for 137 Cs. In 1966, however, the nuclide contents dropped drastically to 2360 for 90 Sr and 2870 for 137 Cs respectively. In the years following, both nuclides continued to decrease slowly although there were minor fluctuations. It is noticeable that low-level 137 Cs contamination was caused in Japan's wheat in 1981, the year after the nuclear testing in China. It is also noticeable that 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels increased to 5960 in 1986 when the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident happened, although it dropped back to its normal level of 40 in the year after. The following are also discussed in this paper: Year to year variations in the ratio of 90 Sr to 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels and wheat flour. Regional differences in 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels. Comparison of 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels and unpolished rice. Direct and indirect pathways of 90 Sr and 137 Cs that contaminate wheat. Influence of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Suggestions about the ways of estimating the level of 137 Cs contamination in case of nuclear accidents, if any. (author)

  2. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for 60Co, 90Sr and 137Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-01

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for 60 Co and 137 Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of 90 Y was used for 90 Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for 60 Co and 137 Cs. For the 90 Sr, the translocation was below 2,5 mBq kg -1 /Bq

  3. Dosimetric characteristics of the Novoste Beta-Cath 90Sr/Y source trains at submillimeter distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, Dante E.; Song Haijun; Yue Ning; D'Errico, Francesco; Nath, Ravinder

    2004-01-01

    Measurements were performed on the 30, 40, and 60 mm 90 Sr/Y β-emitter source trains used in the Novoste Beta-Cath system to determine their dosimetric characteristics at submillimeter distances and provide the necessary TG-60 parameters for mapping their dose distributions. These measurements were carried out in a Solid Water TM phantom where MD55-2 Gafchromic TM films were placed in direct contact with a 5 French (F) catheter used for the 30 and 60 mm source trains and a 3.5F catheter used for thinner 30 and 40 mm source trains. A data set consisted of three pieces of Gafchromic film irradiated for periods of 1.5, 5, and 10 minutes, respectively. This 3-film irradiation technique provided reliable dose data at short, intermediate and long distances from a source train. Three data sets per source train were collected in this study. For the 30 mm source train with a 5F catheter, data were collected with the source axis at proximal (0.41 mm) and distal (1.19 mm) positions to the film surface in order to investigate dosimetric effects due to the off centering of the source train lumen within the catheter. Absolute doses were determined by calibrating the Gafchromic film in a high-energy electron beam from a radiotherapy accelerator. The absolute dose rates at a distance of 2 mm along the source trains transverse axis were found to be within 13.7% of the values provided by Novoste. Radial dose functions were within 13% compared to 90 Sr/Y source train data constructed from Soares' 90 Sr/Y single seed data and within 17% and 25% compared to Monte Carlo data by Ye et al., and Wang et al., respectively. Discrepancies of 33% and 19% were observed at short radial distances (≤1 mm) between the Novoste Monte Carlo and the 3.5F and 5F catheter measured data, respectively. The source off centering data showed higher dose contribution from the source train at its distal rather than proximal position. Radial dose function comparisons between the Novoste Monte Carlo and the

  4. The influence of selenium, vitamin E, and oestrogen on the development of tumours in mice exposed to 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierke, P.

    1994-01-01

    The primary object of this experiment was to evaluate the potential role of the antioxidants, selenium and vitamin E, in the anti-tumour defence of mice internally irradiated with 90 Sr. Comparison in terms of neoplastic response was made between mice kept on a selenium and vitamin E deficient diet and mice given the same deficient diet but administered selenium and/or vitamin E in a controlled manner. The influence of simultaneous oestrogen treatment, known to promote radiogenic osteosarcoma induction, was also investigated. Non-irradiated mice were used as controls. Results are presented as crude and actuarial tumour incidence. No significant difference in tumour yield or actuarial tumour incidence was found when the differently treated mouse groups were compared, and accordingly no support was gained for the theory that the antioxidants selenium and vitamin E constitute a critical part of the complex defence system against neoplasms. (orig.)

  5. sup(239/240)Pu, 137Cs, 90Sr, and 40K in different types of honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the concentration of radionuclides in honey is of interest because this foodstuff consumed worldwide could be a source of radionuclides to man. Besides that, honey is used as a bioindicator for several radionuclides because the bees forage for nectar, pollen or honeydew over a large area of landscape. In this connection, it is of special interest to know when, and, if so, to what extent the concentrations of radionuclides in the honey depend on the type of honey sampled by the bees. For this reason, we determined sup(239/240)Pu, 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 40 K in three important types of honey produced in the F.R.G., namely in honey from flowers, from honeydew and from heather. The data obtained in this way was used also to investigate whether significant correlations exist between these radionuclides in the various honey samples. (author)

  6. Assessment of 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentration in human tissues in Hungary following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turai, I.; Sztanyik, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    Artificial radioisotope contamination of tissue samples of Hungarian citizens has been regularly monitored by our Institute since 1978. 90 Sr concentration of both extracted deciduous teeth and rib samples showed a slight but permanent tendency to decrease since then. 137 Cs content in the body of Hungarian individuals was monitored by whole body counter from the mid of 60s for about a decade while it became lower of the minimum detection limit (MDL). It could again be detected by in vivo measurements in May 1986, however, the 137 Cs content of human beings in Hungary fell below the detection limit within two years. Thus, the monitoring could only be continued by in vitro measuring of the 137 Cs activity concentration in human soft tissue samples

  7. Effects of 137Cs and 90Sr on structure and functional aspects of the microflora in agricultural used soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedree, Bastian

    2013-01-01

    At long sight 137 Cs and 90 Sr are the main radionuclides responsible for the contamination of agricultural soils due to core melts in nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl or Fukushima. Once deposited on the soil surface, the two radionuclides remain in the upper soil layer for several decades. In the upper soil layer the highest microbial activity can be found, due to high organic matter contents, warm temperatures and gas exchange with the atmosphere. Hence, in contaminated soils microorganisms in upper soil layers (e.g. the plow layer on agricultural fields) are exceedingly exposed to radioactivity. However, no data are available how radioactive contaminations with 137 Cs or 90 Sr in a realistic order of magnitude affect the microbial community and its functions in soils. This dissertation discusses the effects of radioactive contaminations on the microbial community structure and some of its functions in soils. Therefore, typical agricultural soils, an Orthic Luvisol from field site Merzenhausen and a Gleyic Cambisol from field site Kaldenkirchen-Huelst were artificially contaminated with various concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr and partly applied with radiolabeled substrates and incubated in soil microcosms under controlled laboratory conditions. The lower radionuclide concentrations corresponded to the contaminations in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, the higher concentrations were up to 50-fold that of the maximum occurring hotspots ( 137 Cs) in this zone. In three experiments the effects of the ionizing radiation on the bacterial and the fungal community structure (16S and 18S rDNA DGGE), the degradation of 14 C-labeled wheat straw or uniformly ring-labeled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the development of the fungal biomass (ergosterol quantification) and the chemical composition of the soil organic matter ( 13 C CP/MAS NMR) were investigated. In half of the microcosms the soils were autoclaved and reinoculated with native soil, with intention to

  8. Study on transfer coefficients of 90Sr, 137Cs, natural U, 226Ra and 239Pu in terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Suyun; Qi Yong; Li Shuqin; Zhou Caiyun; Zhang Jingjuan; Li Jikai; Li Xuequn

    1995-01-01

    The aim of study was to provide values of transfer parameter of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, Natural U, 226 Ra and 239 Pu in terrestrial food chains, more applicable for Chinese socio-natural conditions. Data of radionuclides contents in agricultural crops and in associated soils, in sheep tissues and in associated grasses were collected in couples. The transfer coefficients in terrestrial food chains (soil-crops, grasses-sheep tissues) were calculated. On basis of statistical analysis, the representative values and 95% ranges of transfer coefficient for 5 radionuclides in 7 kind of agricultural products for southern moist areas and north dry areas were given. Regression analysis showed that relation between the transfer coefficients and the radionuclide contents in their associated soils present a negative correlation, it could be described with a equation: Y = aX -b

  9. Progress in radiation chemistry of crown ether extractants used for the solvent extraction of "9"0Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jing; Yu Chuhong; Cui Zhenpeng; Zhai Maolin

    2011-01-01

    The separation of the long-lived fission products from dissolved nuclear fuel could improve the safe disposal of high-level nuclear wastes and reduce their threaten to human being and environment. Since the extractant system will be exposed to high radiation environment during the solvent extraction of long-lived fission products. The understanding of radiation chemistry of extractants is very important for practical design of extractant system. The radiation chemistry of crown ether systems proposed for use in the solvent extraction of one of fission products "9"0Sr were reviewed based on the study on the radiation stability and radiolysis mechanism of crown ether system. Finally some challenges were suggested. (authors)

  10. Uncertainty analysis of 137Cs and 90Sr activity in borehole water from a waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafauti, Sunita; Pulhani, Vandana; Datta, D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the quantitative characterization and use of uncertainty in experimental applications. There are two distinct types of uncertainty variability which can be quantified in principle using classical probability theory and lack of knowledge which requires more than classical probability theory for its quantification. Fuzzy set theory was applied to quantify the second type of uncertainty associated with the measurement of activity due to 137 Cs and 90 Sr present in bore-well water samples from a waste disposal site. The upper and lower limits of concentration were computed and it may be concluded from the analysis that the alpha cut technique of fuzzy set theory is a good nonprecise estimator of these types of bounds. (author)

  11. Calibration and validation of a quality assurance system for {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y radiation source trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, P [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Benjamin Franklin University Medical Centre, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12200 Berlin (Germany); Weber, W [Novoste GmbH, Huettenallee 237 c, D-47800 Krefeld (Germany); Foerster, A [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Benjamin Franklin University Medical Centre, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12200 Berlin (Germany); Orth, O [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Benjamin Franklin University Medical Centre, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12200 Berlin (Germany); Koehler, B [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Benjamin Franklin University Medical Centre, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12200 Berlin (Germany); Seiler, F [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Benjamin Franklin University Medical Centre, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12200 Berlin (Germany)

    2003-03-07

    A quality assurance system (OPTIDOS, PTW-Freiburg) developed for dose rate verification of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y radiation source trains (RSTs) was calibrated and validated. These source trains are used in the 5-F-BetaCath{sup TM} system (Novoste Corp.) for the treatment of endovascular diseases. The calibration factor of the OPTIDOS system was obtained empirically and is valid for {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y dose rate measurements at the specification point which is located at 2 mm distance from the source axis. A total of 187 OPTIDOS dose rate verifications of the 5-F-BetaCath{sup TM} system were performed in different hospitals. The histogram of the deviation between the manufacturer's dose rate specification and the dose rate measured using the OPTIDOS dosimetry system is Gaussian shaped with {+-}3% relative width and a mean shift of about +2% with respect to the corresponding dose rate specification. Additionally, 128 OPTIDOS dose rate verifications of the new jacketed RST (3.5-F-BetaCath{sup TM}, Novoste Corp.) were performed using the same calibration factor as derived for the 5-F-BetaCath{sup TM} system. Distribution of the deviation between the certified and the measured dose rate is nearly identical in comparison to the histogram of the 5-F-BetaCath{sup TM} system. The mean value of the deviations is shifted by -1.5% with respect to the certified dose rate. In order to compare the results of the calibrated OPTIDOS dosimetry system with a standard measuring method, separate dose rate measurements were performed using electron accelerator calibrated radiochromic films in which calibration is traceable to PTB (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany). Deviation between both the methods is less than 3.1%. These results confirm that the calibrated OPTIDOS dosimetry system can be considered suitable for quality assurance of both types of RST used in the BetaCath{sup TM} systems.

  12. Determination of 90Sr in radioactive liquid waste-a comparative study using 'SrCO3 precipitation, extraction chromatography and Cerenkov radiation counting' techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, A.G.S.; Renganathan, K.; Rao, S.V.S.; Sinha, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the wastes generated at nuclear power plants, 90 Sr and 90 Y are responsible for approximately 7% and 38% of the total fission product activity after 1 year and 10 years respectively. Monitoring of the liquid waste produced in nuclear facilities for 90 Sr before and after releasing to the aquatic environment is essential, as it can cause a long term biological hazard due to its chemical similarity with Ca, high fission yield (5.9%) and long radioactive and biological half lives of 28 and 49.3 years respectively. As conventional carbonate precipitation method for 90 Sr- 90 Y estimation is laborious and time consuming, the other methods like extraction chromatography technique using strontium selective crown ether and Cerenkov radiation counting by liquid scintillation analyser (LSA) were also investigated. This paper describe procedures involved in the estimation of strontium in low-level radioactive liquid effluent by using above methods and deals with the comparison of results. Cerenkov radiation counting by LSA has an edge over the other methods in the determination of 90 Sr as it is a simple and rapid technique. Experiences gained in the estimation of 90 Sr in low-level radioactive liquid effluent using Cerenkov radiation counting technique is discussed in detail in this paper. (author)

  13. Mineralogic Residence and Desorption Rates of Sorbed 90Sr in Contaminated Subsurface Sediments: Implications to Future Behavior and In-Ground Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIs: John M. Zachara; Jim P. McKinley; S. M. Heald; Chongxuan Liu; Peter C. Lichtner

    2006-01-01

    The project is investigating the adsorption/desorption process of 90Sr in coarse-textured pristine and contaminated Hanford sediment with the goal to define a generalized reaction-based model for use in reactive transport calculations. While it is known that sorbed 90Sr exists in an ion exchangeable state, the mass action relationships that control the solid-liquid distribution and the mineral phases responsible for adsorption have not been defined. Many coarse-textured Hanford sediment display significant sorptivity for 90Sr, but contain few if any fines that may harbor phyllosilicates with permanent negative charge and associated cation exchange capacity. Moreover, it is not known whether the adsorption-desorption process exhibits time dependence within context of transport, and if so, the causes for kinetic behavior

  14. Long-term post-Chernobyl 90Sr and 137Cs profiles as the indicators of the large scale vertical water mixing in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.; Stokozov, N.A.; Mirzoyeva, N.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive and chemical pollutions, eutrophic elements come to the surface water layer of the Black Sea from the territory of 22 countries. The self-purification of the surface water layer essentially depends from the vertical water mixing. The atmospheric fallout in the May 1986 after Chernobyl NPP accident were main source of the 137 Cs input in the Black Sea. The 90 Sr input to the Black Sea was caused by atmospheric fallout as well as the Dnieper River and Danube River runoff during of consequent years. 90 Sr and 137 Cs are conservative elements in a marine environment and could be used as tracers of the hydrological processes, including vertical water mixing. The aim of our investigations was an assessment of the large-scale vertical water exchange in the Black Sea on base of analysis time-series 90 Sr and 137 Cs vertical profiles

  15. Fractionation of cesium isotopes and 90Sr in snowmelt run-off and lake waters from a contaminated Norwegian mountain catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Bjoernstad, H.E.; Brittain, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Cesium isotopes and 90 Sr have been determined in the inflow and outflow rivers of a Norwegian subalpine lake. The lake is situated in an area contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. Sampling was carried out during the spring peak discharge period associated with snowmelt. Transported coarse particulate plant material was collected by traps. Particles and colloids were removed from water samples by hollow fibre ultrafiltration. The results illustrate that run-off during the spring snowmelt is an important pathway for these radionuclides. The cesium isotopes are predominantly transported as colloids, while 90 Sr is present in the form of low molecular weight mobile species. Based on lake budget calculations, more than 50% of the cesium input is retained in the lake, while more than 90% of the 90 Sr is transported through the lake and into lower parts of the drainage system. (author) 16 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Modeling of 137Cs and 90Sr behavior in the soil-plant system within the territory adjacent to 'Experimental field' technical site in the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridonov, S.I.; Gontarenko, I.A.; Mukusheva, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of 137 Cs and 90 Sr behavior in the soil-plant system is presented. Models have been parameterized for the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' Technical Site of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The models describe the main processes responsible for changes of 137 Cs and 90 Sr content in the soil solution and, thereby, dynamics of radionuclides intake by vegetation. Results are presented from perspective and retrospective calculations, that reflect the dynamics of 137 and 90 Sr distribution by species in soil after nuclear explosions. The importance of factors governing radionuclide accumulation in plants within Semipalatinsk test site area is assessed. The analysis of sensitivity of model output variable to change in its parameters has revealed that the key soil properties significantly influence the results of prediction of radionuclide content in plants. (author)

  17. Stocks of 90Sr and 137Cs in biomass of birds in the territory of Chernobyl zone and size of radionuclide export with birds outside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashchak, S.P.; Bondar'kov, M.D.; Maklyuk, Yu.A.; Maksimenko, A.M.; Martynenko, V.I.; Chizhevskij, I.V.

    2009-01-01

    The contamination of birds varies in wide range, with an activity concentration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs differed by 2-4 orders, and on the whole the Chernobyl zone - to 5 orders of magnitude. The maximum values contamination of birds amounted to hundreds of Bq/g in the central plots of the zone. It is noted that by reducing the biological availability of radionuclides from soil transfer factor 90 Sr decreased 4,05 times, and 137 Cs - in 11,0 times compared with the results of evaluations of the first years. The activity concentration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the body of birds decreased in 1,6 - 7,0 and 7,9 - 29,2 times respectively.

  18. Two-stage supported liquid membrane method for the separation of carrier-free {sup 90}Y from {sup 90}Sr using KSM-17 and CMPO as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhami, P S; Naik, P W; Dudwadkar, N L; Kannan, R; Achuthan, P V; Dakshinamoorthy, A; Jambunathan, U; Munshi, S K; Dey, P K [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Pandey, Usha; Venkatesh, Meera [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2007-07-01

    A two stage supported liquid membrane system is developed for the separation of carrier free {sup 90}Y from {sup 90}Sr for therapeutic applications. The feed containing {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y in nitric acid solution at pH 2 is placed in the feed compartment and transported across a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane containing 2-ethyhexyl2ethylhexyl phosphonic acid to a 4M HNO{sub 3} receiver phase. This is then transported across another polytetrafluoroethylene membrane containing octyl phenyl N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl methylphosphene oxide to another receiving phase, 1 M acetic acid. This has been implemented on simultaneous and sequential modes with very good yield. The second stage will act as a barrier for {sup 90}Sr, and will improve the product purity. (author)

  19. The transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr to dairy cattle fed fresh herbage collected 3.5 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Gashchak, S.; Lasarev, N; Arkhipov, A.; Chyorny, Y.; Astasheva, N.; Arkhipov, N.; Mayes, R.W.; Howard, B.J.; Baglay, G.; Loginova, L.; Burov, N.

    2000-01-01

    A study conducted during summer 1993 to determine the bioavailability and transfer of 137 Cs and 90 Sr to dairy cattle from herbage collected from a pasture contaminated by particulate fallout is described. The study pasture was located 3.5 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The true absorption coefficient (A t ) determined for 137 Cs (0.23) was considerably lower than previous estimates for radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake. It is likely that the low dry matter digestibility of the diet and the potential presence of 137 Cs associated with adherent soil-associated fuel particles contributed to this low bioavailability. The A t value determined for 90 Sr (0.27) did not indicate a reduced bioavailability. It is suggested that the current and previous calcium status of the animals was the controlling influence on the transfer of 90 Sr from the diet to milk

  20. Stontium-90 contamination in vegetation from radioactive waste seepage areas at ORNL, and theoretical calculations of /sup 90/Sr accumulation by deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Lomax, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes data obtained during a preliminary characterization of /sup 90/Sr levels in browse vegetation from the vicinity of seeps adjacent to ORNL solid waste storage areas (SWSA) where deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were suspected to accumulate /sup 90/Sr through the food chain. The highest strontium concentrations in plant samples were found at seeps associated with SWSA-5. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and/or blackberry shoots from two seeps in SWSA-5 averaged 39 and 19 nCi/g dry weight (DW), respectively. The maximum concentration observed was 90 nCi/g DW. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and blackberry shoots averaged 7.4 nCi/g DW in a study area south of SWSA-4, and averaged 1.0 nCi/g DW in fescue grass from a seepage area located on SWSA-4. A simple model (based on metabolic data for mule deer) has been used to describe the theoretical accumulation of /sup 90/Sr in bone of whitetail deer following ingestion of contaminated vegetation. These model calculations suggest that if 30 pCi /sup 90/Sr/g deer bone is to be the accepted screening level for retaining deer killed on the reservation, then 5-pCi /sup 90/Sr/g DW vegetation should be considered as a possible action level in making decisions about the need for remedial measures, because unrestricted access and full utilization of vegetation contaminated with <5 pCi/g DW results in calculated steady-state (maximum) /sup 90/Sr bone concentrations of <30 pCi/g in a 45-kg buck.

  1. Stontium-90 contamination in vegetation from radioactive waste seepage areas at ORNL, and theoretical calculations of 90Sr accumulation by deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Lomax, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes data obtained during a preliminary characterization of 90 Sr levels in browse vegetation from the vicinity of seeps adjacent to ORNL solid waste storage areas (SWSA) where deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were suspected to accumulate 90 Sr through the food chain. The highest strontium concentrations in plant samples were found at seeps associated with SWSA-5. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and/or blackberry shoots from two seeps in SWSA-5 averaged 39 and 19 nCi/g dry weight (DW), respectively. The maximum concentration observed was 90 nCi/g DW. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and blackberry shoots averaged 7.4 nCi/g DW in a study area south of SWSA-4, and averaged 1.0 nCi/g DW in fescue grass from a seepage area located on SWSA-4. A simple model (based on metabolic data for mule deer) has been used to describe the theoretical accumulation of 90 Sr in bone of whitetail deer following ingestion of contaminated vegetation. These model calculations suggest that if 30 pCi 90 Sr/g deer bone is to be the accepted screening level for retaining deer killed on the reservation, then 5-pCi 90 Sr/g DW vegetation should be considered as a possible action level in making decisions about the need for remedial measures, because unrestricted access and full utilization of vegetation contaminated with 90 Sr bone concentrations of <30 pCi/g in a 45-kg buck

  2. Accumulation and transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the plants of the forest ecosystem near the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukšienė, B.; Marčiulionienė, D.; Gudelienė, I.; Schönhofer, F.

    2013-01-01

    The radioecological state of the forest ecosystem in the vicinity of the Ignalina Power Plant prior to decommissioning was analysed with specific emphasis on 137 Cs and 90 Sr activity concentrations in plant species growing in two reference sampling sites (Tilze and Grikiniskes). In the period of 1996–2008 the mean contamination of plants with 137 Cs was from 45 to 119 Bq/kg and with 90 Sr – from 3 to 42 Bq/kg. Measured 137 Cs TF values for soil-root transfer mainly ranged between 1.0–1.4, except for Calamagrostis arundinacea which had a TF value of 0.1. On average, the 137 Cs TF value from root to shoot was 1.7 fold higher than for soil to root transfer. 90 Sr TF values (soil-root) were in the range of 1.2–1.8 but for Calluna vulgaris it was 0.2. The mean root to shoot TF value for 90 Sr was 7.7 fold higher. These results indicate the higher 90 Sr bioavailability than that of 137 Cs in the forested area. The Grikiniskes reference site is located nearby the Ignalina NPP, specifically the heated water outlet channel, which results in altered microclimatic conditions. These specific microclimatic conditions result in relationships between 137 Cs TF (soil-root) values and pH, moisture and organic matter content in the soil at Grikiniskes which appear to be different to those at the Tilze reference sampling site. - Highlights: ► The state of the forest ecosystem prior to decommissioning of the NPP was analysed. ► Results indicate the higher 90 Sr bioavailability than that of 137 Cs. ► Contribution of 137 Cs of different origin in plants was calculated.

  3. Radiation intake and content of 90Sr and 137Cs in the bodies of the USSR residents in 1980-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhudarov, R.M.; Borisov, B.K.; Knizhnikov, V.A.; Petukhova, Eh.V.; Shepeleva, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation environment in the USSR territory specified by global fallout of 90 Sr and 137 Cs is characterized by stability. Changes in the levels of food contamination, rations, body concentrations and equivalent irradiation doses lie within the limits of definition errors though there exists a tendency towards a decrease. In 1982 an equivalent irradiation dose for bone marrow was 21.4 mcZv per year and for soft tissue 2.4 mcZv. Integral coefficient of 90 Sr transfer from the fallout to the equivalent dose in the bone marrow equals 0.38 mcCr/Bc/m 2

  4. Investigation of ratio 'strontium-calcium' in the plants and in the corresponding soil solution for 90Sr and for natural total strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prorok, V.V.; Makarenko, T.Yi.; Mel'nichenko, L.Yu.; Mason, K.F.V.; Ganushevich, A.P.; Ostashko, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    Ratios Sr/Ca for natural total strontium and 90 Sr/Ca in the plants and in the corresponding soil solutions for three experimental lands with 'fuel' type of pollution for several plants at natural conditions are determined. The lands with tree different types of soil are at the Exclusive Zone of the Chernobyl Power Station. The obtained experimental results shown that ratio Sr/Ca in plant is equal to this ratio in the corresponding soil solution for all investigated lands and plants. Ratio 90 Sr/Ca in plant exceeds this ratio at the corresponding soil solution

  5. Recording of ecological half-lives of 90Sr and 137Cs in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.; Fiedler, I.; Ehlken, S.

    2004-01-01

    Within this project, the long-term behaviour of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in foods, feeds and a variety of environmental was analysed. The long-term behaviour is quantified by means of the ecological half-life which integrates all processes that cause a decrease of activity in a given medium as leaching, fixation and erosion. The following results were achieved: - For plant and animal food products, the ecological half-lives are in the range of 4 to 6 and 10 to 20 years for cesium and strontium respectively. The ecological half-lives for the period 1965 to 1985 are slightly shorter than those derived from monitoring measurements performed after 1987, due to the ongoing deposition in the post weapons' fallout period. - According to the German radioecological model that is applied during licensing of nuclear installations to assess radiation exposures to the general due to planned releases, the ecological half-lives for plant food products are 26 and 13 a for cesium and strontium respectively. In radioecological model that is used within the decision support system RODOS, the ecological half-lives are 8 years for Cesium and 14 years for strontium, which agrees well with the finding of this study. - For roe deer, deer, wild boar and forest plants (including mushrooms), under Middle European conditions, the ecological half-lives are about 12 years for cesium. However, in Ukraine, the cesium levels in forest products are much more persistent; in some cases the decrease of activity is only caused by the radioactive decay. - The variability of the long-term behaviour of 137Cs and 90Sr in freshwater ecosystems is much more pronounced than for terrestrial systems. It depends strongly on the sitespecific characteristics. The observed ecological half-lives for 137Cs and 90Sr cover a wide range from several days to several years. - The data to derive ecological half-lives of cesium in soil is relatively poor. For the upper soil layer of 0-10 cm, ecological half-lives were derived

  6. On-line ion chemistry for the AMS analysis of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 135,137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliades, J. [IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Zhao, X.-L. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Litherland, A.E. [IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Kieser, W.E., E-mail: liam.kieser@utoronto.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The analysis of {sup 90}Sr by AMS has so far required the use of very large tandem accelerators in order to separate the isobar {sup 90}Zr by the rate-of-energy-loss method. The analysis of {sup 135,137}Cs by AMS has never been attempted as the separation of the isobars {sup 135,137}Ba by the traditional method requires even higher energies, so that this approach would become prohibitively expensive for routine analysis. Following the successful demonstration of Cl{sup -}-S{sup -} separation by the Isobar Separator, the same apparatus was used to test the separation of other pairs of isobars. Surprisingly effective results were obtained with NO{sub 2} gas in the cases of SrF{sub 3}{sup -}-ZrF{sub 3}{sup -} and CsF{sub 2}{sup -}-BaF{sub 2}{sup -} separations. Reduction factors of {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} for ZrF{sub 3}{sup -}/SrF{sub 3}{sup -} and {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} for BaF{sub 2}{sup -}/CsF{sub 2}{sup -} were measured. SrF{sub 3}{sup -} and CsF{sub 2}{sup -} are both super-halogen anions and are preferentially produced in the ion source rather than ZrF{sub 3}{sup -} and BaF{sub 2}{sup -} when using the PbF{sub 2} matrix-assisted method. Reduction factors for ion source production with such targets of {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} for ZrF{sub 3}{sup -}-SrF{sub 3}{sup -} and {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} for BaF{sub 2}{sup -}-CsF{sub 2}{sup -} were found. The combined methods would suggest a theoretical detection sensitivity for {sup 90}Sr/Sr {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16}, {sup 135}Cs/Cs {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} and {sup 137}Cs/Cs {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14}, assuming 10 ppm Zr and Ba contamination in the AMS targets. In addition to the earlier Cl{sup -}-S{sup -} separation work, these measurements further illustrate the potential of on-line ion chemical methods for broadening the analytical scope of small AMS systems.

  7. Determination of 90Sr, 137Cs and (239+240)Pu in waters with use of preliminary concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, V.M.; Kazachevskij, I.V.; Knatova, M.K.; Knyazev, B.B.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Solodukhin, V. P.; Khazhekber, S.; Gabdulin, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of artificial radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs and (239+240) Pu) in water samples is described. The following preconcentration steps are used: co-precipitation of cesium on copper ferrocyanide; co-precipitation of plutonium on iron hydroxide; and precipitation of strontium in the carbonate form. The chemical yield is determined by using the tracers: 88 Y, 85 Sr, 134 Cs and 236 Pu or 242 Pu. The method was applied to the determination of artificial radionuclides in water sources at nuclear test sites - the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and the 'Azgir' and 'Lira' test sites. The volume of water samples was 0.5 - 30.0 l, and the mineralization ranged from 0.1g/l to 100 g/l. The determination limits were: < 1 mBq/l for cesium-137; 0.02 mBq/l for plutonium-(239+240); and 1.5 mBq/l for strontium-90. The chemical yield was 60 - 90%

  8. Procedure to carry out leakage test in beta radiation sealed sources emitters of 90Sr/90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J. T.

    2010-09-01

    In the alpha-beta room of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations ophthalmic applicators are calibrated in absorbed dose terms in water D w ; these applicators, basically are emitter sealed sources of pure beta radiation of 90 Sr / 90 Y. Concretely, the laboratory quality system indicates to use the established procedure for the calibration of these sources, which establishes the requirement of to carry out a leakage test, before to calibrate the source. However, in the Laboratory leakage test certificates sent by specialized companies in radiological protection services have been received, in which are used gamma spectrometry equipment s for beta radiation leakage tests, since it is not reliable to detect pure beta radiation with a scintillating detector with NaI crystal, (because it could detect the braking radiation produced in the detector). Therefore the Laboratory has had to verify the results of the tests with a correct technique, with the purpose of determining the presence of sources with their altered integrity and radioactive material leakage. The objective of this work is to describe a technique for beta activity measurement - of the standard ISO 7503, part 1 (1988) - and its application with a detector Gm plane (type pankage) in the realization of leakage tests in emitter sources of pure beta radiation, inside the mark of quality assurance indicated by the report ICRU 76. (Author)

  9. 90Sr and 137Cs in the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident: inventories, balance and tracer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.; Povinec, P.P.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Stokozov, N.A.; Gulin, S.B.; Kulebakina, L.G.; Osvath, I.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes studies of the distributions of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the water and sediments of the Black Sea carried out during a 10-year period following the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Its goal is to assess the temporal evolution of radionuclide inventories and balances and to evaluate the mixing of water masses and the sedimentation processes using man-made radionuclides as tracers. Using mathematical models and field data, mixing time-scales of 5, 16 and 24 years have been estimated, respectively, for the water layers of depths 0-50, 0-100 and 0-200 m. For the Central Basin the ventilation time of the lower pycnocline is estimated at 15-25 years. 137 Cs has been used to date shelf and deep-basin sediments, providing the history of chemical and radioactive pollution and of eutrophication during the past 50 years. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Areal distribution of 60Co, 137Cs, and 90Sr in streambed gravels of White Oak Creek Watershed, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerling, T.E.; Spalding, B.P.

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of 90 Sr, 60 Co, and 137 Cs in streambed gravels from contaminated drainages in White Oak Creek Watershed were determined. Methods to determine the relative contributions of various sources to the total discharge from the watershed were developed. Principal sources of 90 Sr were: ORNL plant effluents (50%), leaching from solid waste disposal area (SWDA) 4 (30%), and leaching from SWDA 5 (10%). Minor sources included SWDA 3, the Molten Salt Reactor Facility, and intermediate-level liquid waste pit 1 with each representing 4% or less of the total basin discharge. The cooling water effluent from the High-Flux Isotope Reactor was the dominant source of 60 Co contamination in the watershed. ORNL plant effluents accounted for almost all the 137 Cs discharge from White Oak Creek basin. Downstream radionuclide concentrations were constant until significant dilution by other tributaries occurred. Any future activities giving rise to additional contamination can now be identified. Distribution coefficients between streambed gravels and streamwater for 85 Sr, 60 Co, and 137 Cs were 50, 560, and 8460 ml/g, respectively. An abridged radiochemical fractionation developed for 90 Sr was found to be as accurate and precise for these samples as the standard 90 Sr method above levels of 2 dpm/g

  11. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagina, N.B.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Degteva, M.O.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

  12. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-06-01

    The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

  13. Immune competence in /sup 90/Sr-exposed, adult thymectomized and antilymphocyteglobulin-treated CBA mice. Pt. 1. Allogenic skin graft reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierke, P.

    1989-01-01

    CBA mice subjected to either adult thymectomy, internal exposure to /sup 90/Sr or antilymphocyteglobulin treatment separately, or to combinations of the three were tested for cellular immune competence using their reaction to allogenic skin grafts. Peripheral blood white cell counts did not reveal any obvious correlation between the degree of mononuclear cell depletion and the ability to accept grafts, suggesting that the particular treatments depleted specific fractions of mononuclear cells, differing in their extent of involvement in the rejection process. No single treatment alone induced a significant prolongation in the time elapsed before graft rejection. Adult thymectomy followed by appropriate antilymphocyteglobulin treatment induced severe lymphocytopenia and a profound suppression of the cell-mediate immune system, as evidenced by the acceptance of allogenic skin grafts. When applied to /sup 90/Sr-preexposed mice the same treatment induced lifelong acceptance of grafts, indicating a similar, though weaker immunosuppressive impact of /sup 90/Sr. Hence it was possible to significantly enhance immunosuppression in /sup 90/Sr-exposed mice. This in vivo model should be useful when investigating the role of immunological responsiveness in radiation carcinogenesis. (orig.).

  14. Methodology and levels of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu in marine sediments from the Brazilian Southern Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, R.C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul - CETEC/UNICSUL - Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); Tessler, M.G.; Mahiques, M.M. de [Instituto Oceanografico da Univesidade de Sao Paulo - IOUSP - Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); Cunha, I.I.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP -Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil)]. e-mail: figueira@curiango.ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Methodologies for analysis of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu were developed and applied to sediment samples collected along the Brazilian coast. This paper presents the instrumental steps for {sup 137} Cs analysis and the radiochemical steps necessary to analyse {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu. The analytical quality control for radionuclide analysis was verified by participation in international intercomparison exercise running by IAEA as well as in reference material analysis. Further, methodologies were applied in sediments collected from 1976 to 1986 at the Brazilian southern coastal region. {sup 137}Cs levels ranged from 0.37 to 2.03 Bq kg{sup -1}, for {sup 90} Sr from MDC to 8.2 Bq kg{sup -1} and for {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu from MDC to 227 m Bq kg{sup -1}. The minimum detectable concentration values (MDC) for {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu were of 0.3 Bq kg{sup -1} and 4.2 mBq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The artificial radioactivity levels in Brazilian sediments are typical values due to fallout deposition and represent reference values for our country. (Author)

  15. The behaviour peculiarities 137Cs and 90Sr in the same reservoir ecosystem components of the far zone influence of the Chernobyl APS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvaley, O.D.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of the 137 Cs and 90 Sr between the main components of the lentical type water ecosystem in the far zone influence of the Chernobyl NPP was investigated. The water, water suspensions, bottom sediments and aquatic vegetation were investigated in 1990-1997. The date on the change of the radioactivity situation for this time were obtained. (authors)

  16. Effects of γ (60Co) and β (90Sr) radiations in Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO-K1): induction of micronuclei and cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Daniella

    2003-01-01

    Among various types of ionising radiation, the beta emitter radionuclides are involved in many sectors of human activity, such as nuclear medicine, nuclear industries and biomedicine, with a consequent increased risk of accidental, occupational or therapeutic exposure. Despite their recognized importance, there is little information about the effect of beta particles at the cellular level when compared to other types of ionizing radiation. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 90 Sr, a pure, highly energetic beta source, on CHO-K1 cells and to compare them with data obtained with 60 Co. CHO-K1 cells irradiated with different doses (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 Gy) of 60 Co (0.34 Gy.min -1 ) and 90 Sr (0.23 Gy.min -1 ) were processed for analysis of clonogenic death, induction of micronuclei (MN) and necrotic and apoptotic death. The survival curves obtained for both types of radiation were better fitted by the linear-quadratic model and were similar. However, the cytogenetic results showed that both the proportion of micronucleated cells and the magnitude of radioinduced lesions demonstrated by the analysis of MN distribution were significantly higher in cells irradiated with 60 Co than in cells irradiated with 90 Sr, whereas 90 Sr was more damaging than 60 Co in terms of cell death induction. Necrosis was the major type of death observed in CHO-K1 cells. The data obtained suggest that the low incidence of micronucleated cells after exposure to 90 Sr may be a consequence of selective elimination of severely damaged cells from the population by the necrotic process at a higher rate than observed with 60 Co exposure. The data obtained also demonstrated the need to use several parameters for a better estimate of cellular sensitivity to the action of genotoxic agents, which would be important in terms of radiobiology, oncology and therapeutics. (author)

  17. Accumulation and transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the plants of the forest ecosystem near the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukšienė, B; Marčiulionienė, D; Gudelienė, I; Schönhofer, F

    2013-02-01

    The radioecological state of the forest ecosystem in the vicinity of the Ignalina Power Plant prior to decommissioning was analysed with specific emphasis on (137)Cs and (90)Sr activity concentrations in plant species growing in two reference sampling sites (Tilze and Grikiniskes). In the period of 1996-2008 the mean contamination of plants with (137)Cs was from 45 to 119 Bq/kg and with (90)Sr - from 3 to 42 Bq/kg. Measured (137)Cs TF values for soil-root transfer mainly ranged between 1.0-1.4, except for Calamagrostis arundinacea which had a TF value of 0.1. On average, the (137)Cs TF value from root to shoot was 1.7 fold higher than for soil to root transfer. (90)Sr TF values (soil-root) were in the range of 1.2-1.8 but for Calluna vulgaris it was 0.2. The mean root to shoot TF value for (90)Sr was 7.7 fold higher. These results indicate the higher (90)Sr bioavailability than that of (137)Cs in the forested area. The Grikiniskes reference site is located nearby the Ignalina NPP, specifically the heated water outlet channel, which results in altered microclimatic conditions. These specific microclimatic conditions result in relationships between (137)Cs TF (soil-root) values and pH, moisture and organic matter content in the soil at Grikiniskes which appear to be different to those at the Tilze reference sampling site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of environmental levels of 239240Pu, 241Am, 137Cs, and 90Sr in large volume sea water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, D.C.; Calderon, G.; Rosa, W.

    1976-06-01

    A method is reported for the determination of environmental levels of 239 240 Pu and 241 Am in approximately 60-liter size samples of seawater. 137 Cs and 90 Sr were also separated and determined from the same samples. The samples were collected at the sea surface and at various depths in the oceans through the facilities of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Plutonium and americium were separated from the seawater by iron hydroxide scavenging then treated with a mixture of nitric, hydrochloric, and perchloric acids. A series of anion exchange separations were used to remove interferences and purify plutonium and americium; then each was electroplated on platinum disks and measured by solid state alpha particle spectrometry. The overall chemical yields averaged 62 +- 9 and 69 +- 14 percent for 236 Pu, and 243 Am tracers, respectively. Following the iron hydroxide scavenge of the transuranics, cesium was removed from the acidified seawater matrix by adsorption onto ammonium phosphomolybdate. Cesium carrier and 137 Cs isolation was effected by ion exchange and precipitations were made using chloroplatinic acid. The samples were weighed to determine overall chemical yield then beta counted. Cesium recoveries averaged 75 +- 5 percent. After cesium was removed from the seawater matrix, the samples were neutralized with sodium hydroxide and ammonium carbonate was added to precipitate 85 Sr tracer and the mixed alkaline earth carbonates. Strontium was separated as the nitrate and scavenged by chromate and hydroxide precipitations. Yttrium-90 was allowed to build up for two weeks, then milked and precipitated as the oxalate, weighed, and beta counted. The overall chemical yields of 85 Sr tracer averaged 84 +- 16 percent. The recovery of the yttrium oxalate precipitates averaged 96 +- 3 percent

  19. Validation of the global model for 90SR migration from the waste burial in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewiere, L.; Bugai, D.; Kashparov, V.; Barthes, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has managed (1999-2003) the Chernobyl Pilot Site Project (CPS project) in collaboration with the Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), the Institute of Geological Sciences (IGS) and the Tracer Application Section (CEA/SAT). The special focus of the CPS project was environmental behavior and radionuclide release mechanisms from dispersed nuclear fuel particles, forming radionuclide migration source-term. So, the contaminated environment was used as an open-sky laboratory to develop site characterization techniques, better understand and model processes of radionuclides migration in soils and geological environment. The CPS project resulted in detailed characterization of site geology structure, hydrogeology regime, hydro-dispersion regime in the aquifer and unsaturated zone, radionuclide inventory and distribution in trench no.22, focused at 137 Cs and 90 Sr. The special research program using scanning electron microscopy and sequential extraction analytical techniques was devoted to characterization of fuel particles and quantification of their dissolution behavior. It was established that Chernobyl radionuclides are associated with uranium oxide matrix particles of different degree of oxidation, characterized by different dissolution rates, as well as with non-dissolvable zirconium containing matrix particles. The multi-component fuel particles dissolution model with empirical dissolution rate constants was developed to describe the source-term. The methodology for radionuclide transport was based on application of the classical advection-diffusion equation and utilization of effective transport parameters. The developed so far modeling methodology is mostly suited for producing spatially averaged parameter values (such as radionuclide concentrations in trench porous solution, and/or integral radionuclide release to aquifer), and for long-term predictions on a scale of years and

  20. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, E A; Pryakhin, E A; Popova, I Ya; Osipov, D I; Tikhova, Yu; Andreyev, S S; Shaposhnikova, I A; Egoreichenkov, E A; Styazhkina, E V; Deryabina, L V; Tryapitsina, G A; Melnikov, V; Rudolfsen, G; Teien, H-C; Sneve, M K; Akleyev, A V

    2016-07-01

    Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were not in full agreement with the default values used in the ERICA Tool and the RESRAD BIOTA codes. The unique radiation situation in the Techa River, which was contaminated by long-lived radionuclides ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) in the middle of the last century allows improved knowledge about these parameters for river systems. Therefore, the study was focused on the evaluation of radioecological parameters (distribution coefficients and concentration ratios for (90)Sr and (137)Cs) for the Techa River and the Miass River, which is assumed as a comparison waterbody. To achieve the aim the current contamination of biotic and abiotic components of the river ecosystems was studied; distribution coefficients for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were calculated; concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs for three fish species (roach, perch and pike), gastropods and filamentous algae were evaluated. Study results were then compared with default values available for use in the well-known computer codes ERICA Tool and RESRAD BIOTA (when site-specific data are not available). We show that the concentration ratios of (137)Cs in whole fish bodies depend on the predominant type of nutrition (carnivores and phytophagous). The results presented here are useful in the context of improving of tools for assessing concentrations of radionuclides in biota, which could rely on a wider range of ecosystem information compared with the process limited the current versions of ERICA and RESRAD codes. Further, the concentration ratios of (90)Sr are species-specific and strongly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration in

  1. Determination of radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240} Pu, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am in soil using methods of extraction chromatography and coprecipitation; Stanovenie radionuklidov {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu, : 2{sup 38}Pu a {sup 241}Am v pode vyuzivajuce metody extrakcnej chromatografie a spoluzrazania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardonova, V.; Dulanska, S.; Bilohuscin, J. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra jadrovej chemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    Ecosystems, which include soil and sediments, contain not only natural radionuclides but also radionuclides from deposits, mainly {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {alpha}-emitting radionuclides such as {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am, that originate from global fallout and nuclear facilities leaks worldwide. The goal of the work was optimization of separation and determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am in soil from Slovak Republic. The newest methods were applied for separation of selected radionuclides based on coprecipitation with oxalic salts and extraction chromatography using selective commercial sorbents. (authors)

  2. A study of internal contamination, using 137Cs and 90Sr urinary level, as indicator in the case of nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albulescu, L.; Gruia, D.

    1996-01-01

    Our laboratory has from long time a permanent monitoring programme concerning the radioactivity of the environmental factors in Bechet zone (fallout, drinking water, soil) and foodstuffs. The topical results of this programme indicates that there were not significant modifications in the 137 Cs and 90 Sr mean-levels, as indicators in case of nuclear accident, due by Chernobyl accident or by the nearby functioning of NPP in Koslodui. The purpose of this study is to determine the internal contamination of the population in Dolj-district, using the indirect test of determination of radioactivity of excretes (urinary analysis). The daily-urinary levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are the best indicators for the human body contamination, in the case of a nuclear accident, conclusion that can be drawn from the Fig.1 below. The variation of these indicators shows that the young people is the most exposed segment of population. (author)

  3. Procedure for independently estimating blanks and uncertainties for measured values of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations in the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupferman, S.L.; Livingston, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for independently estimating blanks and measurement uncertainties for measured values of 90 Sr and 137 CS concentrations in the Atlantic Ocean. The procedure depends on delineation of a region in the Atlantic Ocean which has never contained measurable quantities of these fission products. Such a region is defined. A simple model, with supporting data, is used to show that reported 137 Cs inventories in deep ocean sediments could have accumulated without ever raising concentrations of 137 Cs in this tracer-free volume above minimum detectable limits. Several examples are presented to show that the use of the procedure results in a substantial improvement in the quality of 90 Sr and 137 Cs data. The method is applicable to any laboratory that has determined 9 πSr and 137 Cs concentrations in samples collected from within the tracer-free volume. 10 refs

  4. On accumulation of 90Sr and 137Cs by some lower plants in the vicinity of the Beloyarsky atomic power station in the Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifontova, M.G.; Kulikov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    The data are given on the content of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in thalluses of the foliose epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L) and in a number of the most widely distributed in nature edxble fungi that grow in the forests of the sanitary-protective zone of the Beloyarsk nuclear power station in the Middle Urals: russula-Russula cyaxantha (Schw)Fr; brown cap boletus-Leccinum scabrum (Fe)S.F.Gray, milk-agaric-Lactarius resimus Fr., russula-Russula foetens (Fr.)Fr. It has been ascertained that the concentration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in epiphytic lichens and edible agaric fungi in the vicinity of the Beloyarsk nuclear power station does not exceed the background content of these radionuclides characteristic of analogous plants in other locations outside the range of a possible effect of the nuclear power station [ru

  5. Evaluation of small scale laboratory and pot experiments to determine realistic transfer factors for the radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Fuehr, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1980-01-01

    Transfer factors for the root uptake of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn were compared using outdoor lysimeters, Kick-Brauckmann experimental pots under greenhouse conditions and Neubauer cups under growth chamber conditions. The uptake was studied in barley, potatoes, sugar beet and salad vegetables grown on either podsolic or loess soil. The transfer factors for these radionuclides under the specific conditions of the small scale Neubauer cup experiments differed greatly from those obtained from the outdoor lysimeter. In the pot experiments, the transfer factors for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 54 Mn showed less deviation from the lysimeter results especially in crops grown on podsolic soil. For 60 Co, the transfer factors varied for the different crops grown. Transfer factors obtained in pot experiments can only be applicable to a limited extent to field conditions; factors influencing the transfer factors in pot experiments include soil volume, root density, root/shoot ratio, water supply and fertilizer application rate. (UK)

  6. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr on proton and deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H., E-mail: wanghe@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Ahn, D.S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Isobe, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawakami, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Koyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kubo, T.; Kubono, S.; Lorusso, G. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Maeda, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Makinaga, A. [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, North-14, West-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8648 (Japan); Momiyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakano, K. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Niikura, M. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shiga, Y. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Söderström, P.-A. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2016-03-10

    We have studied spallation reactions for the fission products {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The spallation cross sections on the proton and deuteron were obtained in inverse kinematics for the first time using secondary beams of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr at 185 MeV/nucleon at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The target dependence has been investigated systematically, and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter spallation products. The experimental data are compared with the PHITS calculation, which includes cascade and evaporation processes. Our results suggest that both proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions are promising mechanisms for the transmutation of radioactive fission products.

  7. Monte Carlo dose characterization of a new 90Sr/90Y source with balloon for intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruqing; Li, X. Allen; Lobdell, John

    2003-01-01

    Beta emitting source wires or seeds have been adopted in clinical practice of intravascular brachytherapy for coronary vessels. Due to the limitation of penetration depth, this type of source is normally not applicable to treat vessels with large diameter, e.g., peripheral vessel. In the effort to extend application of its beta source for peripheral vessels, Novoste has recently developed a new catheter-based system, the Corona trade mark sign 90 Sr/ 90 Y system. It is a source train of 6 cm length and is jacketed by a balloon. The existence of the balloon increases the penetration of the beta particles and maintains the source within a location away from the vessel wall. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system, we have calculated the two-dimensional (2-D) dose rate distribution of the Corona trade mark sign system in water for a balloon diameter of 5 mm. The dose rates on the transverse axis obtained in this study are in good agreement with calibration results of the National Institute of Standards and Technology for the same system for balloon diameters of 5 and 8 mm. Features of the 2-D dose field were studied in detail. The dose parameters based on AAPM TG-60 protocol were derived. For a balloon diameter of 5 mm, the dose rate at the reference point (defined as r 0 =4.5 mm, 2 mm from the balloon surface) is found to be 0.010 28 Gy min -1 mCi -1 . A new formalism for a better characterization of this long source is presented. Calculations were also performed for other balloon diameters. The dosimetry for this source is compared with a 192 Ir source, commonly used for peripheral arteries. In conclusion, we have performed a detailed dosimetric characterization for a new beta source for peripheral vessels. Our study shows that, from dosimetric point of view, the Corona trade mark sign system can be used for the treatment of an artery with a large diameter, e.g., peripheral vessel

  8. Regularity of mortality and life span of the experimental animals under the exposure of protracted internal irradiation with radionuclides of 137Cs and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yindik, V.M.; Serkyiz, Ya.Yi.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Alyistratov, O.V.; Drozd, Yi.P.; Gerasimova, T.B.; Dudchenko, T.M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that exposure to protracted low intense irradiation with low doses, caused by radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) has negative influence on survival indices and expected life span in different groups according to age. Mortality of irradiated animals is mainly caused by development of pathological processes of tumor origin. The frequency of radiation induced tumors is the same with intact control

  9. The field migration tests of 237Np, 238Pu, 241Am and 90Sr in aerated loess, aquifer and engineering barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shushen; Wang Zhiming; Zhao Yingjie; Fan Zhiwen; Liu Chunli; An Yongfeng; Yang Yue'e; Wu Qinghua

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the field migration tests of 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 90 Sr in aerated loess, aquifer and engineering barrier materials. The tests in the aerated loess and engineering barrier materials were carried out under both natural and artificial sprinkling (15 mm/d) conditions. The tests in aquifer were carried out in both assemblies packed with undisturbed aquifer media and a definite undisturbed area. The results indicate that after 3 years tests no significant migrations were seen for all nuclides in engineering barrier materials under two kinds of conditions and in aerated loess under natural conditions. For the aerated loess under artificial sprinkling conditions, 2.7 cm (center of mass) migration in the area directly below the sand tracer layer (named as area 1) and 13 cm (peak) migration in the area outside the area 1 for 90 Sr were observed; There was no migration for 237 Np, 238 Pu and 241 Am. It was discovered that the sand layer used as carrier of nuclide tracer has barrier effect on unsaturated water and an influence on nuclide migration. This has been demonstrated by the inter comparison experiment with both sand and loess as tracer carrier. In the tracer tests of undisturbed aquifer area there was no significant migration of 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 90 Sr after 1023 days. In the assembly 8 there was no significant migration for 238 Pu and 241 Am and a small backward migration 0.95 cm for 237 Np and 4.7 cm migration (center of mass) for 90 Sr were observed. The tests also indicate that there is no significant difference of nuclide migration in ordinary and degraded cement

  10. Migration of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am in the chain soil-soil solution-plant. The soil-soil solution link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Kil'chitskaya, S.L.; Ehjsmont, E.A.; Zhukovich, N.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.; Duksina, V.V.; Rubinchik, S.Ya.

    1999-01-01

    The mobility of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the link soil-soil solution is analysed for different soil types on the basis of radionuclide distribution coefficients between solid and liquid soil phases. The distribution coefficients allow to differentiate soils in correlation with radionuclide migration rate from the solid phase to the soil solution. The reasons of different radionuclide mobility are considered

  11. Level and dynamics of internal dose from 137Cs and 90Sr formation in connection with ecological diversity of polluted agrogenoses of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, A.P.; Grodzinsky, D.M.; Pavlenko, Yu.A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our calculations was estimation of quantitative influence of ecological diversity on levels and dynamics of internal doses formation from long-lived radionuclide such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Our estimations have radioecological nature that is they are based on registration of natural mechanisms of agricultural products pollution. It has been realized on the basis of three-module ecological model of assessment of radiological consequences (EMARC) of use of polluted agrocenoses

  12. Country report: Vietnam. Setting Up of a 90Sr/90Y Generator System Based on Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) Technique and Radiolabeling of Eluted 90Y with Biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Thu; Duong Van Dong; Bui Van Cuong; Chu Van Khoa

    2010-01-01

    In the course of participating in the IAEA-CRP during the last two years, Vietnam has achieved the goal of setting up a 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator system based on Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) technique and also radiolabeling of the eluted 90 Y with antibody, peptides and albumin. A two stage SLM based 90 Sr- 90 Y generator was set up in-house to generate carrier-free 90 Y at different activity levels viz. 5, 20, 50 mCi. The generator system was operated in sequential mode in which 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid (PC88A) based SLM was used in the first stage for the transport 90 Y in 4.0 M nitric acid from source phase where 90 Sr- 90 Y equilibrium mixture is placed in nitric acid medium at pH to 1-2. In the second stage, octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) based SLM was used for the transport of 90 Y selectively to 1.0 M acetic acid which is the best medium for radiolebeling. The eluted 90 Y from the generator was tested for the presence of any traces of 90 Sr using the Extraction Paper Chromatography (EPC) and was found suitable for radiolabeling. The generator system could be upgraded to 100 mCi level successfully due to an expert mission from India through IAEA. The 90 Y product obtained from the generator system was used for radiolabeling of antibody and peptides viz. Rituximab, DOTATATE and albumin particles under different experimental conditions. A new chromatography system could be developed for analyzing 90 Y labeled albumin using the TAE buffer as mobile phase in PC and ITLC

  13. Incidence of bone cancer in beagles after inhalation of 90SrCl2 or 238PuO2: Implications for estimation of risk to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Among the life-span studies conducted with beagle dogs, bone cancer has been in two studies the predominant effect at death. These studies involved dogs that inhaled 90 SrCl 2 , which is very soluble in body fluids; and dogs that inhaled 238 PuO 2 , which is initially insoluble but eventually becomes fragmented and more soluble. Both radionuclides were deposited in the skeleton after dissolution in the lung and absorption into the bloodstream. All dogs in the 90 Sr study are dead, and all living dogs in the 238 Pu study are at least 7 years postexposure. Results from these two studies were compared to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of chronic beta and alpha radiation delivered from these two radionuclides. These data also were used to estimate the risk of bone cancer in man by using comparisons with data from the 90 Sr-, 239 Pu-, and 226 Ra-injected dogs at the University of Utah and data on humans who ingested 226 Ra or were injected with 224 Ra. Such comparisons provided a link between studies in laboratory animals and the available human data. In this way risks of bone cancer in humans from inhaled plutonium or strontium were estimated, even though currently no human cases of bone cancer are known to have resulted from the inhalation of either of these radionuclides. 15 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Artificial radionuclides 90Sr and 241Am in the sediments of the Baltic Sea: Total and spatial inventories and some temporal trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Mattila, Jukka; Ikäheimonen, Tarja Tuulikki; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The inventories of 137 Sr and 241 Am in the Baltic Sea is studied. • About 20 sediment cores around the Baltic Sea were analyzed. • The results show that 90 Sr distribution is uneven and effected by the Chernobyl fallout. • 241 Am is more evenly distributed in the sediments. • The Baltic Sea is the most contaminated sea with respect to 137 Cs in sediments. -- Abstract: The Baltic Sea was contaminated by radioactivity following global nuclear fallout and later by the Chernobyl accident. Despite the decrease of radioactivity caused by radioactive decay, radionuclides have a prolonged residence time in the water of the Baltic Sea due to slow water exchange and relatively rapid sedimentation. Very little is known about the amounts or spatial differences of 90 Sr and 241 Am in the Baltic Sea sediments. In this study, 20 sediment cores taken around the Baltic Sea were investigated to estimate inventories of these radionuclides. The rough results show that the Chernobyl fallout added the amount of 90 Sr in the same areas where the increase of 137 Cs can be detected, whereas this is not the case for 241 Am which is more evenly distributed in the sea bottom. In addition, local differences occur in the concentrations. These results are an important amendment to the radioactivity baseline of the Baltic Sea

  15. Routine radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageyev, V.A.; Sajeniouk, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Routine analytical procedures have been developed for the reliable simultaneous determination of 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 242-244 Cm, Chernobyl derived radioisotopes and fallout after nuclear weapon tests in a wide range of environmental samples: soil (100-200 g), sediments, aerosols, water and vegetation. This procedure has been applied to thousands of soil and sediment samples and hundreds of biological and water samples taken in the exclusive zone of Chernobyl NPP and different regions of Ukraine from 1989 to the present. After the sample has been properly prepared and isotopic tracers added, plutonium, americium and curium are precipitated with calcium oxalate and then lanthanum fluoride. Plutonium is separated from americium and curium by anion-exchange. Americium and curium are separated from rare earths by cation-exchange with gradient elute α-hydroxy-iso-butyric acid. During projects by AQCS IAEA 'Evaluation of Methods for 90 Sr in a Mineral Matrix' and 'Proficiency Test for 239 Pu, 241 Pu and 241 Am Measurement in a Mineral Matrix' accuracy and precision for 90 Sr, 239 Pu and 241 Am by present procedure was evaluated. Advantages, difficulties and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  16. The transfer factor of dairy milk from fallout of nuclear explosions to the activity concentration in milk with respect to 137Cs and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moere, H.

    1979-06-01

    In the 1977 UNSCEAR report a model has been used to describe the transfer of fallout from nuclear explosions to the activity in milk. Swedish data on milk was fitted to this model by regression analysis. Out data consist of regular countrywide measurements since 1962 for 137 Cs and 1966 for 90 Sr in milk. Fallout measurements of 137 Cs have been made since 1962. To get a better fit, the fallout data has been supplemented with fallout data of 90 Sr derived from data of fallout on the northern hemisphere for the years 1957 - 61. The transfer factors which describe the transfer from fallout to activity in milk were found to be for the countrywide mean values of 137 Cs 8.1 Bqyear/gK/kBq/m 2 and of 90 Sr 5.1 Bqyear/gCa/kBq/m 2 . The transfer factors for 137 Cs for Stockholm, Malmoe and Gothenburg were 5.9, 4.4 and 8.7 Bqyear/gK/kBq/m 2 . These values agree closely to the values found in a survey made by the Institute in 1972. They also seem to agree with the values from Denmark and Norway in the 1977 UNSCEAR report. (author)

  17. Experiences with the determination of Sr-89 and Sr-90 using fast methods; Erfahrungen bei der Bestimmung von {sup 89}Sr und {sup 90}Sr mittels Schnellmethoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalik, C.; Fueger, J. [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt und Geologie, Jena (Germany). Landesmessstelle fuer Umweltradioaktivaet

    2014-01-20

    Quick methods of the measurement of {sup 89}Sr and {sup 90}Sr have a great importance in the supervision of the environmental radioactivity. It is necessary to receive in short time dependable analytical data to be able to carry out suitable assessments or to give recommendations. The aim of the investigations was to be guaranteed the demands for these methods (test preparation, measurement and evaluation). The use of the solid phase extraction by means of commercial Sr Resin trademark columns (4.4' (5')-Di-tert-butylcyclohexanol-18-kronen-6-aether) (Triskem) to the radiochemical separation of the Sr isotopes was suitable. The measurements occurred to the FHT 770 T12 - Multi Low Level Alpha/Beta Sample Counter (Thermo Scientific). The results contain the summary activities of all available Sr isotopes, as for example {sup 89}Sr and {sup 90}Sr. The calculations of the single activities occur about the mathematical algorithm of the linear development on the basis of the works of G. Kanisch. The first results show, this method is suitable for the analysis of {sup 89}Sr and {sup 90}Sr and is used therefore in future in Thuringia.

  18. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  19. Estimate of the internal doses received by the population of Bucharest due to 137 Cs and 90 Sr intake in the first five years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, Maria; Vasilache, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of the 137 Cs and 90 Sr daily intake between April 1986 and March 1991 as well as the internal doses resulting from ingestion of contaminated food is presented for a group of adults living in Bucharest. The results indicate that the effective doses due to 137 Cs and 90 Sr dietary intake had the highest values in the first year after the Chernobyl accident, namely, 796 μSv as a result of 137 Cs dietary intake and 23 μSv as a result of the 90 Sr dietary intake. The effective doses committed annually due to the Caesium-137 dietary intake decreased very fast from 796 μSv committed in the first year after the accident to 7.3 μSv committed in the fifth year after the accident. Although the effective dose committed in the first year after the accident due to the Strontium-90 dietary intake was much smaller than the dose due to the Caesium-137 (23 μSv), the decrease was slower so that the effective dose committed in the fifth year after the accident due to the Strontium-90 dietary intake was 7.5 μSv. (authors)

  20. Contamination of terrestrial ecosystem components with 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra caused by the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of radioactive waste storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latynova, N. E.

    2010-03-01

    The spatial-temporal features of the radioactive contamination of terrestrial ecosystem components caused by the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of regional radioactive waste storages of the State Research Center of the Russian Federation-Leipunskii Institute of Physics and Power Engineering at the input of radionuclides into the soil and ground water were studied. The composition of the radioactive contamination was determined, and the hydrological and geochemical processes resulting in the formation of large radioactive sources were described. The natural features of the radioactive waste storage areas favoring the entry of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra into the soils and their inclusion in the biological turnover were characterized. The directions of the horizontal migration of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra and the sites of their accumulation within the superaquatic and aquatic landscapes of a near-terrace depression were studied; the factors of the 90Sr accumulation in plants and cockles were calculated. The results of the studies expand the theoretical concepts of the mechanisms, processes, and factors controlling the behavior of radionuclides at the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of radioactive waste storages. The presented experimental data can be used for solving practical problems related to environmental protection in the areas of industrial nuclear complexes.

  1. METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS 90SR AND 137CS IN-VIVO MEASUREMENTS OF SMALL ANIMALS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA DEVELOPED FOR THE CONDITIONS OF THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The {sup 90}Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1 mm thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is 'thick-layered' and contains a comparable quantity of {sup 137}Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The {sup 137}Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in the article, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants.

  2. Transfer factor of "9"0Sr and "1"3"7Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (F_vs) of "1"3"7Cs and "9"0Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The F_vs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg"−"1). Significant difference of log-F_vs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, F_vs of "9"0Sr were higher than those of "1"3"7Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher F_vs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. F_vs of "9"0Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced F_vs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of F_vs for "1"3"7Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest F_vs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in F_v for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to "1"3"7Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application. - Highlights: • Higher TFs for both radionuclides were observed for leafy plant in comparison to cereals. • Despite the growth stages & plants' variety, TFs of "9"0Sr were always higher than those of "1"3"7Cs. • TFs of "9"0Sr showed comparable trends in both crops and were higher at earlier growth stages. • Fluctuation noted in TFs for "1"3"7Cs in lettuce with higher TFs at second contamination-stage. • High TFs for "1"3"7Cs when contamination occurred at the latest growth stage of wheat vegetative.

  3. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the body of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) found on the territory with radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulakov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We studied the concentration and distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the bodies of 188 wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) taken near the Chernobyl site. Of these, 111 animals were taken in the Alienation Zone, 41 animals were taken in the Permanent Control Zone and 36 animals were taken in the Periodic Control Zone. The samples included muscle and bone (rib) tissues and samples of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, genitals and skin. The weight of the samples was 0.5 kg fresh weigh. The average concentration of 137 Cs in the muscles of the wild boar found in the Alienation Zone was 46 ± 10 kBq/kg, in the Permanent Control Zone – 13 ± 3.0 kBq/kg and in the Periodic Control Zone – 0.6 ± 0.1 kBq/kg. The largest concentration of 137 Cs was detected in the muscle tissue and kidneys taken animals. In some samples of muscle tissue it reached more than 660 kBq/kg. The 137 Cs concentrations were also high in heart and spleen up 64.3 kBq/kg and 67.5 kBq/kg – animals from the Alienation Zone and 10.3–10.6 kBq/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. The lowest concentration of 137 Cs was found in the lungs and skin of animals. The analyses of 90 Sr concentration in the organs and tissues of the wild boar showed that 90 Sr was concentrated mainly in the bone tissue. The average level of 90 Sr concentration in bone was 17.6 kBq/kg fresh weight animals from the Alienation Zone and 13.47 kBg/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. In muscle tissues and organs contained 90 Sr – 30.0–110.0 Bq/kg in the Alienation Zone and 11.0–30.0 Bq/kg in the Permanent Control zone

  4. Development of Technology for the Preparation of 90Sr/90Y Generators at the Radiopharmacy Directory of IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    90 Y (T /2 = 2,67 d; Eβmax = 2,28 MeV) is a radionuclide with efficacy established for various cancer therapies, labeling biomolecules and treating of radiosinovectomy. Due to its nuclear properties, is obtained through the decay of 90 Sr T /2 = 28 y in the form of a generator. Several types of 90 Sr/ 90 Y generators were developed, and the most employed are the cation exchange resins, where Sr and Y are adsorbed and 90 Y is selectively eluted with acetate or EDTA. The disadvantage of this type of generator is the radiolysis, which degrades its use. The electrochemical generator is a proposed solution because there is no significant effect of radiation. In this concept, the difference between the electrochemical potentials of the elements Sr and Y is used to obtain a rapid separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr. The production of 90 Y via colloid formation is the simplest method for the separation, based on the colloid formation of Y in high alkaline pH, which can be filtered and separated from Sr, and subsequently dissolved in HCl. The objective of this work was the development of technologies for the preparation of 90 Sr/ 90 Y generators, and three technologies were developed: generators using cation resins columns, generators through colloid formation and electrochemical generators. Radionuclidic quality control of 90 Y was also evaluated by liquid scintillation, radionuclide identity, extraction paper chromatography (EPC) using complexing agents for 90 Y and by Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES). The results showed that generators using cation resins have the best results related to the elution efficiency (∼83%), the reproducibility and radionuclidic purity. The electrochemical generator showed a potential for development, having the advantage of not suffering the effects of radiolysis of the pair 90 Sr/ 90 Y as the resin. A comparison and evaluation of the methods of the radionuclidic quality control showed that the EPC is very

  5. SU-G-201-12: Investigation of Beta-Emitter 90Sr-90Y Dose Distribution Using Gafchromic EBT3 Film for Application On Conformal Skin Brachytherapy Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, C; Johnson, D; Ahmad, S; Rasmussen, K; Jung, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate 90 Sr- 90 Y as a high dose rate (HDR) source for application in a conformal skin brachytherapy (CSBT) device. The CSBT device has been previously developed to provide patient specific treatment for small inoperable lesions and irregular surfaces. Methods: A popular beta emitter, 90 Sr- 90 Y was tested for feasibility in a CSBT device. A 1 cm diameter plaque was used to deliver dose to a solid water phantom containing EBT3 Gafchromic films arranged at the surface and perpendicular to it. Additionally, a 1 cm diameter 6 MeV electron beam was used to irradiate EBT3 film at 100 cm SSD with a 0.5 cm bolus. Films were digitized with an Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner and calibrated with a 6 MeV electron specific dose curve. Normalized percent depth doses (PDD) and dose profiles for both techniques were analyzed using ImageJ. Results: Dose distributions achieved with the 90 Sr- 90 Y sources were compared with those of external electron beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Penumbra (20%- 80%) for EBRT and 90Sr-90Y were 4.3 mm and 1.6 mm, respectively. PDD values of 50% (normalized to 2 mm) were 10.1 mm and 2.8 mm for electron and 90 Sr- 90 Y, respectively. Flatness (80% of the central beam profile) was 14.1% at a 5 mm depth for EBRT and 4.0% at surface for the 90 Sr- 90 Y. Conclusion: As expected, the PDDs of 90 Sr- 90 Y in water are shallower than that of external electron beams for the same field size. 90 Sr- 90 Y can be used in CSBT to provide patient specific treatment where shallower depth doses than that provided by electron external beams may be required: e.g. eyelids, nose, lips, ears, etc. The customizability of EBRT could be replicated by using multiple adjacent 90 Sr- 90 Y plaque placements.

  6. Effect of chemical pollution on forms of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in arctic soil studied by sequential extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakainen, M; Riekkinen, I; Heikkinen, T; Jaakkola, T; Steinnes, E; Rissanen, K; Suomela, M; Thørring, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the forms of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu occurring in different soil horizons using sequential extraction of samples taken from four sites located along a pollution gradient from the copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk in the Kola Peninsula, Russia, and from a reference site in Finnish Lapland in 1997. A selective sequential-leaching procedure was employed using a modification of the method of Tessier, Cambell and Bisson ((1979). Analytical Chemistry, 51, 844-851). For 137Cs the organic (O) and uppermost mineral (E1) layer were studied, for 90Sr and 239,240Pu only the uppermost organic layer (Of). The fraction of 137Cs occurring in readily exchangeable form in the organic layer was about 50% at the reference site and decreased as a function of pollution, being 15% at the most polluted site in the Kola Peninsula. There was a clear positive correlation in the O layer between the distance from the smelter and the percentage of 137Cs extracted in the readily exchangeable fraction (Spearman correlation rsp = 0.7805, p = 0.0001), whereas in the E1 layer no correlation was evident. The distribution of 90Sr in the Of layer was similar at all sites, with the highest amounts occurring in exchangeable form and bound to organic matter, whereas stable Sr showed a somewhat different distribution with the highest amount in the oxide fraction. Most of the 239,240Pu was bound to organic matter. Chemical pollution affected the exchangeable fraction of 239,240Pu, which was about 1% at the most polluted site and 4-6% at the other sites.

  7. An approach to design a 90Sr radioisotope thermoelectric generator using analytical and Monte Carlo methods with ANSYS, COMSOL, and MCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajepour, Abolhasan; Rahmani, Faezeh

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a 90 Sr radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) with power of milliWatt was designed to operate in the determined temperature (300-312K). For this purpose, the combination of analytical and Monte Carlo methods with ANSYS and COMSOL software as well as the MCNP code was used. This designed RTG contains 90 Sr as a radioisotope heat source (RHS) and 127 coupled thermoelectric modules (TEMs) based on bismuth telluride. Kapton (2.45mm in thickness) and Cryotherm sheets (0.78mm in thickness) were selected as the thermal insulators of the RHS, as well as a stainless steel container was used as a generator chamber. The initial design of the RHS geometry was performed according to the amount of radioactive material (strontium titanate) as well as the heat transfer calculations and mechanical strength considerations. According to the Monte Carlo simulation performed by the MCNP code, approximately 0.35 kCi of 90 Sr is sufficient to generate heat power in the RHS. To determine the optimal design of the RTG, the distribution of temperature as well as the dissipated heat and input power to the module were calculated in different parts of the generator using the ANSYS software. Output voltage according to temperature distribution on TEM was calculated using COMSOL. Optimization of the dimension of the RHS and heat insulator was performed to adapt the average temperature of the hot plate of TEM to the determined hot temperature value. This designed RTG generates 8mW in power with an efficiency of 1%. This proposed approach of combination method can be used for the precise design of various types of RTGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of pore soil solutions in redistribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am within soil-vegetative cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovsiannikova, S.V.; Sokolik, G.A.; Kilchitskaya, S.L.; Eismont, E.A.; Zhukovich, N.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.

    1998-01-01

    The role of pore soil solutions in the migration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am within soil-vegetative cover of natural ecosystems was examined. The soil solutions were found to play an important role in the redistribution of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the soil-plant systems. Obvious relationships between the distribution coefficients of radionuclides between solid and liquid phases (K d ) and the intensity of vertical migration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am along the soil profiles and with intensity of their accumulation by grass vegetation of natural meadows have been obtained. It means that the distribution coefficient may be used as a criterion of the radionuclide mobility in the soil-plant system whatever its level of radioactive contamination is. The influence of the degree of soil moistening, the content of mobile radionuclide forms in the soils and some characteristics of pore soil solutions (pH, content of K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , water soluble organic substances) on the concentration of radionuclide in the soil solutions and on the value of radionuclide distribution coefficient have been analysed. The results of investigation are of great importance in the evaluation of radioecological situation and in solution of problems of radioecological rehabilitation of the contaminated territories. The received data constitute a part of scientific basis for the development of a system of countermeasures to decrease the mobility and biological availability of radionuclides of high and very high radiotoxicity

  9. Fate of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in soil profiles at a water recharge site in Basel, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Johannes; Meusburger, Katrin; Waldis, Judith Kobler; Ketterer, Michael E; Zehringer, Markus

    2018-02-01

    An important process in the production of drinking water is the recharge of the withdrawn ground water with river water at protected recharge fields. While it is well known that undisturbed soils are efficiently filtering and adsorbing radionuclides, the goal of this study was to investigate their behaviour in an artificial recharge site that may receive rapid and additional input of radionuclides by river water (particularly when draining a catchment including nuclear power plants (NPP)). Soil profiles of recharge sites were drilled and analysed for radionuclides, specifically radiocesium ( 137 Cs), radiostrontium ( 90 Sr) and plutonium ( 239+240 Pu). The distribution of the analysed radionuclides were compared with an uncultivated reference soil outside the recharge site. The main activity of 137 Cs was located in the top soil (4.5-7.5 cm) and reached down to a depth of 84 cm and 48 cm for the recharge and the reference site, respectively. The found activities of 239+240 Pu originate from the global fallout after 1950. 239+240 Pu appeared to be strongly adsorbed onto soil particles. The shape of the depth profile was similar to 137 Cs, but also similar between the recharge and the reference site. In contrast, 90 Sr showed a uniform distribution over the entire depth of the recharge and reference profiles indicating that 90 Sr already entered the gravel zone and the ground water. Elevated inventories of the radionuclides were observed for the recharge site. The soil of the recharge field exhibited a threefold higher activity of 137 Cs compared to the reference soil. Also for 239+240 Pu higher inventories where observed for the recharge sites (40%). 90 Sr behaved differently, showing similar inventories between reference and recharge site. We estimate that 75-89% of the total inventory of 137 Cs in the soil at the recharge site (7.000 Bq/m 2 ) originated from the fallout of the Chernobyl accident and from emissions of Swiss NPPs. This estimate is based on the

  10. Determination of (90)Sr in soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, J; Boulyga, S F; Galler, P; Stingeder, G; Prohaska, T

    2008-11-01

    A rapid method is reported for the determination of (90)Sr in contaminated soil samples in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant by ICP-DRC-MS. Sample preparation and measurement procedures focus on overcoming the isobaric interference of (90)Zr, which is present in soils at concentrations higher by more than six orders of magnitude than (90)Sr. Zirconium was separated from strontium in two steps to reduce the interference by (90)Zr(+) ions by a factor of more than 10(7): (i) by ion exchange using a Sr-specific resin and (ii) by reaction with oxygen as reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of a quadrupole ICP-MS. The relative abundance sensitivity of the ICP-MS was studied systematically and the peak tailing originating from (88)Sr on mass 90 u was found to be about 3 x 10(-9). Detection limits of 4 fg g(-1) (0.02 Bq g(-1)) were achieved when measuring Sr solutions containing no Zr. In digested uncontaminated soil samples after matrix separation as well as in a solution of 5 microg g(-1) Sr and 50 ng g(-1) Zr a detection limit of 0.2 pg g(-1) soil (1 Bq g(-1) soil) was determined. (90)Sr concentrations in three soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were 4.66+/-0.27, 13.48+/-0.68 and 12.9+/-1.5 pg g(-1) corresponding to specific activities of 23.7+/-1.3, 68.6+/-3.5 and 65.6+/-7.8 Bq g(-1), respectively. The ICP-DRC-MS results were compared to the activities measured earlier by radiometry. Although the ICP-DRC-MS is inferior to commonly used radiometric methods with respect to the achievable minimum detectable activity it represents a time- and cost-effective alternative technique for fast monitoring of high-level (90)Sr contamination in environmental or nuclear industrial samples down to activities of about 1 Bq g(-1).

  11. Determination of 90Sr in soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerstein, J.; Boulyga, S.F.; Galler, P.; Stingeder, G.; Prohaska, T.

    2008-01-01

    A rapid method is reported for the determination of 90 Sr in contaminated soil samples in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant by ICP-DRC-MS. Sample preparation and measurement procedures focus on overcoming the isobaric interference of 90 Zr, which is present in soils at concentrations higher by more than six orders of magnitude than 90 Sr. Zirconium was separated from strontium in two steps to reduce the interference by 90 Zr + ions by a factor of more than 10 7 : (i) by ion exchange using a Sr-specific resin and (ii) by reaction with oxygen as reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of a quadrupole ICP-MS. The relative abundance sensitivity of the ICP-MS was studied systematically and the peak tailing originating from 88 Sr on mass 90 u was found to be about 3 x 10 -9 . Detection limits of 4 fg g -1 (0.02 Bq g -1 ) were achieved when measuring Sr solutions containing no Zr. In digested uncontaminated soil samples after matrix separation as well as in a solution of 5 μg g -1 Sr and 50 ng g -1 Zr a detection limit of 0.2 pg g -1 soil (1 Bq g -1 soil) was determined. 90 Sr concentrations in three soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were 4.66 ± 0.27, 13.48 ± 0.68 and 12.9 ± 1.5 pg g -1 corresponding to specific activities of 23.7 ± 1.3, 68.6 ± 3.5 and 65.6 ± 7.8 Bq g -1 , respectively. The ICP-DRC-MS results were compared to the activities measured earlier by radiometry. Although the ICP-DRC-MS is inferior to commonly used radiometric methods with respect to the achievable minimum detectable activity it represents a time- and cost-effective alternative technique for fast monitoring of high-level 90 Sr contamination in environmental or nuclear industrial samples down to activities of about 1 Bq g -1

  12. Determination of {sup 90}Sr in soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuerstein, J.; Boulyga, S.F.; Galler, P.; Stingeder, G. [Department of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry-VIRIS Laboratory, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Prohaska, T. [Department of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry-VIRIS Laboratory, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: thomas.prohaska@boku.ac.at

    2008-11-15

    A rapid method is reported for the determination of {sup 90}Sr in contaminated soil samples in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant by ICP-DRC-MS. Sample preparation and measurement procedures focus on overcoming the isobaric interference of {sup 90}Zr, which is present in soils at concentrations higher by more than six orders of magnitude than {sup 90}Sr. Zirconium was separated from strontium in two steps to reduce the interference by {sup 90}Zr{sup +} ions by a factor of more than 10{sup 7}: (i) by ion exchange using a Sr-specific resin and (ii) by reaction with oxygen as reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of a quadrupole ICP-MS. The relative abundance sensitivity of the ICP-MS was studied systematically and the peak tailing originating from {sup 88}Sr on mass 90 u was found to be about 3 x 10{sup -9}. Detection limits of 4 fg g{sup -1} (0.02 Bq g{sup -1}) were achieved when measuring Sr solutions containing no Zr. In digested uncontaminated soil samples after matrix separation as well as in a solution of 5 {mu}g g{sup -1} Sr and 50 ng g{sup -1} Zr a detection limit of 0.2 pg g{sup -1} soil (1 Bq g{sup -1} soil) was determined. {sup 90}Sr concentrations in three soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were 4.66 {+-} 0.27, 13.48 {+-} 0.68 and 12.9 {+-} 1.5 pg g{sup -1} corresponding to specific activities of 23.7 {+-} 1.3, 68.6 {+-} 3.5 and 65.6 {+-} 7.8 Bq g{sup -1}, respectively. The ICP-DRC-MS results were compared to the activities measured earlier by radiometry. Although the ICP-DRC-MS is inferior to commonly used radiometric methods with respect to the achievable minimum detectable activity it represents a time- and cost-effective alternative technique for fast monitoring of high-level {sup 90}Sr contamination in environmental or nuclear industrial samples down to activities of about 1 Bq g{sup -1}.

  13. Interlaboratory comparison of the determination of 137Cs and 90Sr in water, food and soil: preparation and characterization of test materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, L.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.

    2006-01-01

    Only reliable analytical results can serve as a basis of meaningful evaluation and protection of the environment against radioactive contaminants. So, laboratories dealing with the environmental radioactivity determinations should regularly demonstrate their ability to produce acceptable results. Since 2002, every two years organization of national interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) on the determination of different radionuclides in food and environmental samples is required by the Polish law. The aim of the paper is presentation how test materials applied in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT, Warsaw, Poland) for the 2004 ILC on the determination of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in water, food and soil were prepared. (author)

  14. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd on proton and deuteron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spallation reactions for the long-lived fission products 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd have been studied for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The cross sections on the proton- and deuteron-induced spallation were obtained in inverse kinematics at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Both the target and energy dependences of cross sections have been investigated systematically. and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter fragments. The experimental data are compared with the SPACS semi-empirical parameterization and the PHITS calculations including both the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes.

  15. Distribution of 90Sr in the tree rings of a Japanese cedar exposed to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Nagai, M.; Aoki, T.; Nagatomo, T.; Okada, N.

    2006-01-01

    Cedar sample was collected at the black rain area in Nagasaki city. A clear peak of 90 Sr/Sr was observed in the 1924-1925 rings. To investigate the mobility of Sr in a cedar tree stem, strontium chloride solution was injected into a living tree, and the distribution profiles of Sr in the stem at 8 months later were determined. The strontium moves radially through the sapwood of a cedar stem but that it almost stops at the heartwood. It was concluded that the peak in the 1924-1925 rings was due to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. (author)

  16. Uncertainties in estimating the {sup 90}Sr and actinides inventory in SFR 1; Osaekerheter vid uppskattning av Sr-90 och aktinidinventariet i SFR 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, Tor [ALARA Engineering AB, Skultuna (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The uncertainty in estimation of the activity accumulated in different cleaning filters, originating in the Swedish BWR-, PWR-reactors and CLAB - the Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel - has been analyzed to be 10 - 14%, depending on the methods used for measuring the activity at the power plants. Other waste or scrap contribute with approx. 1.5% of the total amount of actinides and {sup 90}Sr. The uncertainty in this fraction is about 20%. The uncertainties are surprisingly small, and explain the good agreement between estimates made with different methods.

  17. Study of radial distribution of 239,240Pu and 90Sr in annual tree rings and trunk bark of a 103 years old Norway spruce at four different heights above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgye, Z.; Schlesingerova, E.

    2016-01-01

    Radial distribution of 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr originating from atmospheric nuclear tests in tree rings and trunk bark at heights of 1.3, 10, 18 and 22 m above ground was studied. 239,240 Pu activity concentrations in air dried tree ring samples (each containing 10 annual rings) at all heights were under detection limit of the used method. 90 Sr activity concentrations in tree ring samples ranged from 0.54 to 2.81 Bq kg -1 . 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr were present in the trunk bark. The paper presents data for 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr aggregated transfer factors to tree trunk. (author)

  18. Dosimetry analysis of distributions radials dose profiles of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta therapy applicators using the MCNP-4C code and radio chromium films; Analise dosimetrica de perfis de distribuicoes radias de doses relativas de um aplicador de betaterapia de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y utilizando o codigo MCNP-4C e filmes radiocromicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Talita S.; Yoriyaz, Helio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: tasallesc@gmail.co [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Radioterapia; Louzada, Mario J.Q. [UNESP, Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Medicina Veterinaria

    2011-07-01

    Although they are no longer manufactured, the applicators of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y acquired in the decades of 1990 are still in use, by having half-life of 28.5 years. These applicators have calibration certificate given by their manufacturers, where few have been re calibrated. Thus it becomes necessary to accomplish thorough dosimetry of these applicators. This paper presents a dosimetric analysis distribution radial dose profiles for emitted by an {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta therapy applicator, using the MCNP-4C code to simulate the distribution radial dose profiles and radio chromium films to get them experimentally . The results with the simulated values were compared with the results of experimental measurements, where both curves show similar behavior, which may validate the use of MCNP-4C and radio chromium films for this type of dosimetry. (author)

  19. Dosimetry analysis of distribution radial dose profiles of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta therapy applicators using the MCNP-4C code and radio chromium films; Analise dosimetrica de perfis de distribuicoes radiais de doses relativas de um aplicador de betaterapia de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y utilizando o codigo MCNP-4C e filmes radiocromicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, T.S.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, M.A.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Servico de Radioterapia; Louzada, M.J.Q. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Medicina Veterinaria

    2010-07-01

    Although they are no longer manufactured, the applicators of {sup 90}Sr +{sup 90}Y acquired in the decades of 1990 are still in use, by having half-life of 28.5 years. These applicators have calibration certificate given by their manufacturers, where few have been recalibrated. Thus it becomes necessary to accomplish thorough dosimetry of these applicators. This paper presents a dosimetric analysis distribution radial dose profiles for emitted by an {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y beta therapy applicator, using the MCNP-4C code to simulate the distribution radial dose profiles and radiochromium films to get them experimentally . The results with the simulated values were compared with the results of experimental measurements, where both curves show similar behavior, which may validate the use of MCNP-4C and radiochromium films for this type of dosimetry. (author)

  20. Survey on the presence of 90Sr in milk samples by a validated ultra low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dell’Oro D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 90Sr is one of the most biologically hazardous radionuclides produced in nuclear fission processes and decays emitting high-energy beta particles turning 90Y. 90Sr is transferred from soil-plant to cow’s milk and then to humans if it is introduced into the environment. Radiostrontium is chemically similar to calcium entering the human body through several food chains and depositing in bone and blood-forming tissue (bone marrow. Among main foodstuffs assumed in human diet, milk is considered of special interest for radiostrontium determination, especially in emergency situations, because the consumption of contaminated milk is the main source of internal radiation exposure, particularly for infants. In this work an analytical method for the determination of radiostrontium in milk was developed and validated in order to determine low activity levels by liquid scintillation counting (LSC after achieving 90Y secular equilibrium condition. The analytical procedure was applied both in surveillance and routine programmes to detect radiocontamination in cow’s, goat and sheep milk samples.

  1. Development of 90Sr/90Y Generator Systems Based on SLM Techniques for Radiolabelling of Therapeutic Biomolecules with 90Y. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thu, N.T.; Van Dong, D.; Van Cuong, B.; Van Khoa, C.; Cam Hoa, V.T.

    2015-01-01

    Yttrium-90 is one of the most useful radionuclides for radioimmunotherapeutic applications, especially for labelling peptides and antibodies. Studies were carried out to develop a 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator system based on the SLM technique. Two stages of 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator systems were developed at different activity levels of 5, 20, 50 and 100 mCi and operated with semiautomation in sequential mode. In the first stage of the system, PC88A based SLM was used, which transported 90 Y from a nitric acid medium containing 0.01–4M HNO 3 . In the second stage, the 90 Y from the first stage was transferred to the first compartment of the second stage using carbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) based SLM where 1M acetic acid was used as the receiving phase for 90 Y. Quality control was carried out for the products of 90 Y using EPC with paper chromatography and Tec control chromatography. Peptides and antibodies were labelled using the 90 Y product obtained from the generator developed in house. (author)

  2. 90Y and 90Sr separation from hydrochloric acid solutions using TODGA as the extractant by solvent extraction and SLM methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, S.; Raut, D.R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    Yttrium-90 is an important radionuclide known for its therapeutic application in nuclear medicine. It is a pure β-emitter with no associated gamma rays and decays to stable daughter 90 Zr. Suitability of this isotope is because of its short half-life (t 1/2 = 64.2 hrs) and high β emissions (E max = 2.28 MeV. An important source of 90 Y is through the decay of 90 Sr, which produces carrier free isotope. 90 Sr (t 1/2 28 yrs) attains secular equilibrium with 90 Y in a short period and can serve as a long term source for the latter isotope because of relatively long half-life of the parent isotope. Solvent extraction studies with N,N,N',N'-tetra-octyldiglycolamide (TODGA) has shown that Y(III) is well extracted in 6 M HCI while at the same time, extraction of Sr(II) is very low leading to a separation factor (D Y /D Sr = 60,000). This property of TODGA can be exploited for the separation of Y from Sr. In the present work, Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) based separation of Y and Sr has been explored using TODGA as the carrier

  3. A Procedure for the Sequential Determination of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples. Liquid Scintillation Counting and Alpha Spectrometry for 90Sr, 241Am and Pu Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, IAEA activities related to the terrestrial environment have aimed at the development of a set of procedures to determine radionuclides in environmental samples. Reliable, comparable and ‘fit for purpose’ results are an essential requirement for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, tested and validated analytical procedures are extremely important tools for the production of analytical data. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available for reference to both the analyst and the customer. This publication describes a combined procedure for the sequential determination of 90 Sr, 241 Am and Pu radioisotopes in environmental samples. The method is based on the chemical separation of strontium, americium and plutonium using ion exchange chromatography, extraction chromatography and precipitation followed by alpha spectrometric and liquid scintillation counting detection. The method was tested and validated in terms of repeatability and trueness in accordance with International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guidelines using reference materials and proficiency test samples. Reproducibility tests were performed later at the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory. The calculations of the massic activity, uncertainty budget, decision threshold and detection limit are also described in this publication. The procedure is introduced for the determination of 90 Sr, 241 Am and Pu radioisotopes in environmental samples such as soil, sediment, air filter and vegetation samples. It is expected to be of general use to a wide range of laboratories, including the Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network for routine environmental monitoring purposes

  4. Measurements of instant-release source terms for 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I and 14C in used CANDU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    1996-01-01

    Combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 137 Cs, 129 I, 90 Sr, 99 Tc and 14 C were measured in 15 used CANDU fuel elements by leaching crushed fuel samples. A good correlation between the combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 137 Cs and 129 I was found, suggesting that these fission products exhibit similar behavior in CANDU fuel. The expected correlation between combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 137 Cs and 129 I with calculated fission-gas release to the gap and grain boundaries could only be confirmed for lower power fuels ( 90 Sr were higher than expected and showed no correlation with calculated fission-gas release. No values for the combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 99 Tc were obtained because 99 Tc in used fuel samples is very insoluble and appears to require oxidation prior to dissolution. Combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 14 C appeared to be independent of fuel power or burnup. (orig.)

  5. Prognosis of accumulation value of 137SCs and 90Sr in the herbages of the main types of the Belarus Polesje meadows utilizing agrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podolyak, A.G.; Bogdevich, I.M.; Ivashkova, I.I.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of long-term stationary experience it was established that the minimum accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr in the herbage of the waterless valley, marshed and flood types of the Belarus Polesje meadows contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides is seen when the optimum basic agrochemical soil properties are achieved with the application of the scientifically reasonable protective measures. It was demonstrated that in the remote period of the accident for the prognosis of radionuclides contents in natural and cultural meadows herbage it is advisable to use of transfer factors (TFa, Bq/kg : kBq/square m) based on the complex agrochemical parameters - basic saturation degree (V, %) and agrochemical cultivation soils index (Iac), which take into account several soil characteristics simultaneously. This article provides the equations of linear and multiple regressions that can be used to calculate the transfer factors for 137Cs and 90Sr uptake and the herbage contamination degree for the main types of meadows of the region, which will allow one to reduce the volume of forages production (hay, green bulk) that is not adequate to the established permissible levels: Republican allowable levels of the contents of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in agricultural raw material and forages

  6. Determination of mineral radioactive strontium-{sup 90} in urines; Recherche du strontium mineral radioactif {sup 90}Sr dans les urines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Jammet, H; Bertrand, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    An analytical procedure for radioactive strontium in urine is described. As a first step, a precipitation of calcium oxalate performed on the urine, allows to detect the presence of various fission products and particularly of strontium which is carried by the precipitate. Strontium can then be selectively separated on ion exchange resins. By studying the growth curve of {beta} activity, it is possible to determine the activities which may be attributed to {sup 89}Sr and {sup 90}Sr respectively. (author) [French] Cet article decrit une technique de dosage du strontium radioactif dans les urines. Dans un premier stade, une precipitation d'oxalate de calcium effectuee sur l'urine permet de deceler la presence de differents produits de fission et en particulier du strontium qui est entraine sur ce precipite. Il est possible ensuite de separer selectivement le strontium au moyen de resines echangeuses d'ions. L'examen de le courbe de croissance de l'activite {beta} permet de determiner les activites dues respectivement a {sup 89}Sr et {sup 90}Sr. (auteur)

  7. Determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the tropical environment of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollah, A.S.; Begum, A. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh); Ullah, S.M. [University of Dhaka (Bangladesh). Department of Soil Science

    1998-07-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr have been determined for different plants/crops, such as rice, beans, peanuts, pineapple, cabbage, tomato, spinach and grass. They were obtained from radioisotope experiments on plants grown in pots under outdoor ambient tropical conditions for three growing seasons (1994-1996). In the case of {sup 137}Cs and concerning the above mentioned plants/crops, the average TFs were found to be 0.28, 0.25, 0.77, 0.19, 0.23, 0.28, 0.59 and 0.18, respectively. In the case of {sup 90}Sr, the average TFs were found to be 0.82, 0.51, 0.20, 0.82, 0.69, 0.59, 0.91 and 0.84, respectively. A minor seasonal variation was observed. This study provides a database of TFs for tropical environments to be used, e.g., for radiological safety assessment models. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 12 refs.

  8. Transfer of alkaline earth elements in mothers' milk and doses from {sup 45}Ca, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.J.; Phipps, A.W.; Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D

    2003-07-01

    An international programme of work is currently under way to develop methods for calculating doses to infants from ingestion of radionuclides present in mothers' milk. This paper considers the special case of the alkaline earth elements. Models have been developed for {sup 45}Ca, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra and the sensitivity of results to various changes in parameter values is discussed. A complication when calculating doses from intakes of radium is that the International Commission on Radiological Protection has previously recommended that doses from decay products of radium should be calculated using element-specific biokinetic models (so-called independent biokinetics). An extension of this method to the models for breastfeeding is proposed. Preliminary estimates of the doses received by the infant for a number of maternal intake scenarios show that doses to the infant can exceed the corresponding adult dose, such as for {sup 45}Ca (ratio = 3.1) while, in other cases such as {sup 90}Sr, the infant dose can be a significant fraction of the adult dose. (author)

  9. Automation of sample processing for ICP-MS determination of 90Sr radionuclide at ppq level for nuclear technology and environmental purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołacińska, Kamila; Chajduk, Ewelina; Dudek, Jakub; Samczyński, Zbigniew; Łokas, Edyta; Bojanowska-Czajka, Anna; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2017-07-01

    90 Sr is a widely determined radionuclide for environmental purposes, nuclear waste control, and can be also monitored in coolants in nuclear reactor plants. In the developed method, the ICP-MS detection was employed together with sample processing in sequential injection analysis (SIA) setup, equipped with a lab-on-valve with mechanized renewal of sorbent bed for solid-phase extraction. The optimized conditions of determination included preconcentration of 90 Sr on cation-exchange column and removal of different type of interferences using extraction Sr-resin. The limit of detection of the developed procedure depends essentially on the configuration of the employed ICP-MS spectrometer and on the available volume of the sample to be analyzed. For 1L initial sample volume, the method detection limit (MDL) value was evaluated as 2.9ppq (14.5BqL -1 ). The developed method was applied to analyze spiked river water samples, water reference materials, and also simulated and real samples of the nuclear reactor coolant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Contents and daily intakes of gamma-ray emitting nuclides, 90Sr, and 238U using market-basket studies in japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Mitsuko; Iijima, Ikuyo; Isomura, Kimio

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the contents of radionuclides in foods marketed in Japan and their daily intakes and exposure doses in adults, we performed market-basket studies concerning radionuclide intakes. The study period was 2003-2005, and the studies were performed in 13 cities in Japan. Foods including drinking water were divided into 14 food groups, and samples were prepared by common cooking procedures. γ-ray emitting nuclides (an artificial radionuclide, radioactive Cs, and natural radionuclides, 40 K and U series such as 214 Bi, and 212 Pb, and Th series) were measured in each food group, and artificial radionuclides, 90 Sr and 238 U, were measured in a mixed sample of 13 food groups excluding drinking water. The daily intakes in adults were calculated from the concentrations of the radionuclides and mean daily consumption of foods and drinking water. The daily 137 Cs and 40 K intakes (mBq/person · day) in the 13 cities were 12.5- 90 Sr intake from the food groups excluding drinking water was 20.8-53.6, with a mean of 39.2 (mBq/person · day) (deviation of the mean: 23%). Similarly, the daily 238 U intake was 5.9-31.1, with a mean of 12.6 (mBq/person · day) (deviation: 60%), showing a more than 5-fold difference between the minimum and maximum values, and there were regional differences. Since the contents of the U series, such as 214 Bi and 212 Pb, and Th series were lower than the lower detection limits in many samples, their daily intakes were not calculated. Regarding the daily intake of 137 Cs from each food group, the intakes from fish and shellfish, milk, meat/eggs, and mushrooms/seaweed tended to be higher. The daily 40 K intake from each food group varied among the areas, but the total intake from the 14 food groups was similar in all 13 cities. 40 K from these foods accounted for most of the annual effective dose (μSv/person · year) of γ-ray emitting nuclides, and the doses of 40 K, 90 Sr, and 238 U were 130-217, 0.21-0.55, and 0.10-0.51, respectively

  11. Evaluation of 137Cs and 90Sr effect on the industrial and medical X-ray films for autoradiography using the OSIRIS software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbagh, R.; Ghafourian, H.; Baghvand, A.; Nabi, G.R.; Riahi, H.

    2006-01-01

    Autoradiography is one of the techniques developed for screening and isolating suitable radionuclide bioaccumulator microorganisms such as cyanobacteria, algae and bacteria. In this research autoradiography is developed for a kind of industrial film and a medical X-ray film. Irradiation time estimation according to radiotracer activity and suitable film selection are the most important aims in this research. These parameters are estimated for 137 Cs and 90 Sr on the basis of the appearances of the dark black spots on the developed films. Selected film and estimated irradiation time could be used to screen the needed microorganisms in the laboratory studies. The micro-organisms isolated by this method could be used to remove radioactive pollution in environmental engineering

  12. Comparison of Radioecological Processes on Examples of Villages Polluted by 137Cs and 90Sr Appreciated on the Box Model Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvjejeva, I.V.; Kutlakhmedov, Yu.O.; Isajenko, V.M.; Krivorot'ko, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Results of the analysis of 137 Cs radionuclides flows as an example of village Galusia of the Volyn region and in ecosystem of village Kotsubinchiki in Ternopil region polluted by 90 Sr are considered. The analysis is made by the method of box models. The block diagrams of ecosystems were created, and the mathematical models by the method of box models are developed. It has allowed estimating ways of formation doses of an internal irradiation at the expense of products of meal for different groups of population - working people, pensioners and children, and prognosis dynamics of these doses for the next years after Chornobyl NPP accident. It was established, that doses in these villages formed by other ways, depending on radionuclide, pastures structure and levels of their pollution

  13. Effects of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr on structure and functional aspects of the microflora in agricultural used soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedree, Bastian

    2013-11-01

    At long sight {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are the main radionuclides responsible for the contamination of agricultural soils due to core melts in nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl or Fukushima. Once deposited on the soil surface, the two radionuclides remain in the upper soil layer for several decades. In the upper soil layer the highest microbial activity can be found, due to high organic matter contents, warm temperatures and gas exchange with the atmosphere. Hence, in contaminated soils microorganisms in upper soil layers (e.g. the plow layer on agricultural fields) are exceedingly exposed to radioactivity. However, no data are available how radioactive contaminations with {sup 137}Cs or {sup 90}Sr in a realistic order of magnitude affect the microbial community and its functions in soils. This dissertation discusses the effects of radioactive contaminations on the microbial community structure and some of its functions in soils. Therefore, typical agricultural soils, an Orthic Luvisol from field site Merzenhausen and a Gleyic Cambisol from field site Kaldenkirchen-Huelst were artificially contaminated with various concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and partly applied with radiolabeled substrates and incubated in soil microcosms under controlled laboratory conditions. The lower radionuclide concentrations corresponded to the contaminations in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, the higher concentrations were up to 50-fold that of the maximum occurring hotspots ({sup 137}Cs) in this zone. In three experiments the effects of the ionizing radiation on the bacterial and the fungal community structure (16S and 18S rDNA DGGE), the degradation of {sup 14}C-labeled wheat straw or uniformly ring-labeled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the development of the fungal biomass (ergosterol quantification) and the chemical composition of the soil organic matter ({sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR) were investigated. In half of the microcosms the soils were autoclaved and reinoculated

  14. Studying of distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm according to the organic acids fractions of the alienation zone soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsov, A.A.; Sazhenyuk, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with data of research on the distribution of the radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm of ''the Chornobyl rains'' by the fractions of the organic matters of derno-podzolic sandy, derno-meadow and peat soils sampled in the alienation zone of the Chornobyl NPP. Functioning of organic matters was carried according to Tyurin's method. It is stressed that, independently on soil type, 137Cs is connected with the mineral contituent by 80-95%. It is found out that, independently on the soil type, 50-70% 137Sr and 15-45% 241Am are associated with fulvic acid fractions. The 241Am and 244Cm distribution according to organic acids taking into account deviations while carrying out determinations is unambiguous. It is found out that in all the soils tested the main quality of 239+24Pu is connected with humic acids

  15. The development of models for the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the pasture-cow-milk pathway using fallout data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.M.; Simmonds, J.R.; Linsley, G.S.

    1980-11-01

    Records of the measurements of fallout in the UK between the years 1958-77 have been used to develop versions of a general model for transfer in the pasture-cow-milk pathway for the radionuclides 137 Cs and 90 Sr. The revised models take account of the experimentally observed processes of fixation of caesium in soils and the plant base absorption of strontium. They predict, with reasonable accuracy, the variation of activity levels in milk over the period for which records exist. The form of the models permits examination of the relative contributions of the most important transfer mechanisms and their time dependence in the soil-plant system. The study has indicated an upper limit for the resuspension factor in UK rural environments. (author)

  16. Results of 90Sr and 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am measurements in some samples of mushrooms and forest soil from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Larosa, J.; Ghods, A.

    1992-01-01

    Strontium-90, plutonium and americium activity concentrations in a few samples of forest soils, some species of mushrooms and fern leaves were determined. These results are compared with caesium activity concentrations in the same materials obtained in a previous work. Radiochemical procedures are described. The origin of the contamination (Chernobyl accident or nuclear test explosion release) is discussed. The 90 Sr activity concentration ranges from 0.6 Bq/kg (mushroom samples) to 48.4 Bq/kg (fern leaves). For 239+240 Pu, it ranges from not detected above background (mushrooms, fern) to 10.8 Bq/kg (humus layer of forest soil). The maximum concentration of 241 Am is found to be 2.4 Bq/kg (humus sample) and for 238 Pu it is 0.85 Bq/kg (also in the humus sample). (author). 12 refs, 9 figs, 7 tabs

  17. Time and dose-related changes in the thickness of pig skin after irradiation with single doses of [sup 90]Sr/[sup 90]Y [beta]-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezvani, M.; Hamlet, R.; Hopewell, J.W.; Sieber, V.K. (Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    1994-04-01

    Time-related changes in pig skin thickness have been evaluated using a non-invasive ultrasound technique after exposure to a range of single doses of [sup 90]Sr/[sup 90]Yr [beta]-rays. The reduction in relative skin thickness developed in two distinct phases: the first was between 12 and 20 weeks postirradiation. No further changes were then seen until 52 weeks postirradiation when a second phase of skin thinning was observed. This was complete after 76 weeks and no further changes in relative skin thickness were seen in the maximum follow up period of 129 weeks. The timings of these phases of damage were independent of the radiation dose, however, the severity of both phases of radiation-induced skin thinning were dose related. (Author).

  18. Time and dose-related changes in the thickness of pig skin after irradiation with single doses of 90Sr/90Y β-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvani, M.; Hamlet, R.; Hopewell, J.W.; Sieber, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Time-related changes in pig skin thickness have been evaluated using a non-invasive ultrasound technique after exposure to a range of single doses of 90 Sr/ 90 Yr β-rays. The reduction in relative skin thickness developed in two distinct phases: the first was between 12 and 20 weeks postirradiation. No further changes were then seen until 52 weeks postirradiation when a second phase of skin thinning was observed. This was complete after 76 weeks and no further changes in relative skin thickness were seen in the maximum follow up period of 129 weeks. The timings of these phases of damage were independent of the radiation dose, however, the severity of both phases of radiation-induced skin thinning were dose related. (Author)

  19. A study of nuclear structure for 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artun, Ozan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we intend to extend the nuclear data of 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery technology, because, these nuclei are quite important for space investigations in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and for microelectronic technologies in betavoltaic batteries. Therefore, the nuclear structure properties of nuclei such as separation energies, neutron skin thicknesses, proton, charge and neutron density distributions as a function of radius, the root mean square (rms) proton, charge and neutron radii, binding energies per particle, have been investigated by Hartree-Fock with eight different Skyrme forces. The obtained results have been compared with the experimental data in literature and relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) results.

  20. Determinations of 90Sr, 137Cs, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, 210Po contents in chinese diet and estimations of internal doses due to these radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda; Wang Shouliang; Meng Wei; Wang Daoping; Zheng Xiujun; Liu Qingfen; Liu Peng

    1993-01-01

    As a part of Chinese Total Diet Survey taken place in 1990, the authors report the determined results on 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Pb and 210 Po contents in various foods of Chinese total diet. Based on obtained dietary composition and the determined contents, the Annual Intakes (AI) and Committed Dose Equivalents (CDE) for the public by ingestion were estimated. It is shown that the total CDE for 6 radionuclides is about 0.24 mSv/a. The food categories and nuclides whose relative contributions to the total are dominant were vegetables, aquatic products and cereal, and 210 Pb, 210 Po, 228 Ra, respectively. The results have updated the data from 1982 survey and have complemented important information for water consumption. The regional difference of dietary compositions and resultant internal doses are discussed as well

  1. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu radionuclides speciation in soils of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabdyrakova, A.M.; Kunduzbaeva, A.Y.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Magasheva, R.Y. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results of studies into {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu techno-genic radionuclides speciation in soils of ecosystems at different topography of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), exposed to different nuclear testing. The data were obtained for radionuclides speciation in soils of the following STS ecosystems: - grassland ecosystems within near-portal areas of tunnels - horizontal adits constructed for nuclear testing, affected by radioactive-contaminated water flows from the tunnels of Degelen Site; - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination resulted from above-ground and aerial nuclear testing of different yield, as well as simulation (hydrodynamic and hydro-nuclear) experiments at 'Experimental Field' testing site. - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination caused by testing of liquid and powdery radiological warfare weapon (RWW) at Site '4 a'; - 'Northern' and 'Western' areas of STS, where concentration level of artificial radionuclides in soil is comparable with the level of global fall-outs ('background' areas). To study the radionuclides speciation, method of sequential extraction was applied, and water-soluble, exchange, organic mobile and tightly bound forms were separated. Feature of the studied grassland ecosystems is that they are developed solely along the bed of water streams flowing from tunnels and are located at small area of 1-2 m{sup 2}. Radioactive contamination of soil is caused by radioactive contaminant sorption by sediments. Despite the significant space limitation of the ecosystems content of radionuclides speciation in soil greatly varies, particularly readily-soluble and mobile forms. The variation may be explained by high humidity which makes possible both sorption and desorption processes. If basic radionuclides contributing to radioactive contamination of grassland soils at Degelen Site are {sup

  2. Activity concentration measurements of 137Cs, 90Sr and 40K in a wild food matrix reference material (Wild Berries) CCRI(II)-S8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watjen, U.; Altzitzogloa, T.; Spasova, Y.; Ceccatelli, A.; Kis-Benedek, G.; Dikmen, H.; Gundogdu, G.; Yucel, U.; Ferreux, L.; Frechou, C.; Pierre, S.; Garcia, L.; Moreno, Y.; Oropesa, P.; La Rosa, J.; Luca, A.; Schmiedel, M.; Wershofen, H.; Szucs, L.; Vasile, M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the CCRI approved a supplementary comparison to be organized by the IRMM as pilot laboratory for the activity concentrations of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 40 K in a matrix material of dried bilberries. The organization of this comparison and the material and measurement methods used are described. The supplementary comparison reference values (SCRV) for each of the three radionuclides are given together with the degrees of equivalence of each participating laboratory with the SCRV for the specific radionuclide. The results of this supplementary comparison allow the participating NMIs/designated institutes to declare calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) for the given radionuclides in a similar type of food matrix, an important aspect given the relatively few supplementary comparisons for activity in matrix materials organized so far. (authors)

  3. SU-G-201-12: Investigation of Beta-Emitter 90Sr-90Y Dose Distribution Using Gafchromic EBT3 Film for Application On Conformal Skin Brachytherapy Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C; Johnson, D; Ahmad, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Rasmussen, K [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States); Jung, J [East Carolina University Greenville, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y as a high dose rate (HDR) source for application in a conformal skin brachytherapy (CSBT) device. The CSBT device has been previously developed to provide patient specific treatment for small inoperable lesions and irregular surfaces. Methods: A popular beta emitter, {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y was tested for feasibility in a CSBT device. A 1 cm diameter plaque was used to deliver dose to a solid water phantom containing EBT3 Gafchromic films arranged at the surface and perpendicular to it. Additionally, a 1 cm diameter 6 MeV electron beam was used to irradiate EBT3 film at 100 cm SSD with a 0.5 cm bolus. Films were digitized with an Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner and calibrated with a 6 MeV electron specific dose curve. Normalized percent depth doses (PDD) and dose profiles for both techniques were analyzed using ImageJ. Results: Dose distributions achieved with the {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y sources were compared with those of external electron beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Penumbra (20%- 80%) for EBRT and 90Sr-90Y were 4.3 mm and 1.6 mm, respectively. PDD values of 50% (normalized to 2 mm) were 10.1 mm and 2.8 mm for electron and {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y, respectively. Flatness (80% of the central beam profile) was 14.1% at a 5 mm depth for EBRT and 4.0% at surface for the {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y. Conclusion: As expected, the PDDs of {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y in water are shallower than that of external electron beams for the same field size. {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y can be used in CSBT to provide patient specific treatment where shallower depth doses than that provided by electron external beams may be required: e.g. eyelids, nose, lips, ears, etc. The customizability of EBRT could be replicated by using multiple adjacent {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y plaque placements.

  4. Binding of Sr from milk by solid phase extraction with cryptand C222 sorbed on silica gel, cation exchange, chelating or adsorbent resins for simplified 90Sr analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, David; Wiechen, Arnold; Haase, Gerhard

    1995-01-01

    Several commercially available resins have been found to bind the bicyclic polyether cryptand C222 from aqueous acetonitrile solutions. The presence of C222 on some of these resins strongly improved their affinity for Sr, so that relatively small amounts of such resins sorbed Sr from milk. The resins investigated were silica gel, polyacrylic acid crosslinked with divinylbenzene (DVB), polystyrene crosslinked with divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) and PS-DVB containing sulphonate, aminomethylphosphonate, iminodiacetate and mercapto groups. The resins for which binding of C222 resulted in the largest improvement in Sr sorption from milk were PS-DVB containing mercapto groups (Chelite S) and silica gel (Si 60). Thus, 2 ml wet volume of either Chelite S containing 133 μmol of C222, or silica gel Si-60 containing 143 μmol of C222 sorbed 90 and 48%, respectively, of the Sr from 100-ml milk samples. As the sorption of Sr from milk by these systems is relatively slow, contact times of 24-36 h are required to attain these results. The Chelite S-C222 system separates Sr effectively from Cs and Ca. Under the conditions described here some 6% of the natural 40 K in milk sorbs with Sr to the resin. Ba behaves similarly to Sr. 90 Sr/ 90 Y sorbed on the silica gel Si-60-C222 system can be measured directly and efficiently by liquid scintillation counting. If adequate specificity can be attained this system might provide a very simple method of determining 90 Sr in milk

  5. 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr, 238,239+240Pu and 241Am in mammals' skulls from owls' pellets and owl skeletons in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaca, Paweł; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Kitowski, Ignacy; Grabowska, Sylwia; Tomankiewicz, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Skulls of small mammals belonging to two species of rodents and three species of insectivores collected in Eastern Poland were the subject of the present investigation. The skulls were separated from owl pellets. Activities of 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr, 238,239+240Pu and 241Am were determined by means of gamma spectrometry as well as liquid scintillation spectrometry or alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. A detailed description of the procedures is provided. The research was supplied with the analysis of three skeletons of owls. No measurable difference between the skulls of rodents and insectivorous animals with regard to activity of any of the examined radionuclides was found. No accumulation effect in the owl skeletons was detected. Though measured activities of 137Cs and 40K for the skulls were of the same magnitude as those found previously for large wild herbivorous animals from typical locations in Poland, those for 90Sr were even lower than previously determined. A big difference was found for activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. Their mean activities were higher by an order of magnitude when compared to the examined previously values. The maximum 239+240Pu activity was equal to 97.5+/-7.7 mBq/kg, with 65% of it originating from global fallout. Relatively high content of transuranic elements found for rodents and insectivorous mammals seems to be unrelated to their feeding habits and should rather be attributed to the living conditions. It is suggested that small mammals, together with tiny soil particles present in mid-soil living tunnels, can inhale the transuranic elements.

  6. Role of diluent on the separation of {sup 90}Y from {sup 90}Sr by solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane using T2EHDGA as the extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S. [Planning and Coordination Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India); Raut, D.R. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India); Mohapatra, P.K., E-mail: mpatra@barc.gov.in [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

    2012-04-15

    The separation behaviour of {sup 90}Y from {sup 90}Sr was investigated by diluent variation using solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane techniques employing N,N,N Prime ,N Prime -tetra-2-ethylhexyldiglycolamide (T2EHDGA) as the extractant. Both D{sub Y} (distribution ratio of Y(III)) and S.F. (separation factor) were found to be high in the solvent extraction studies when chloroform was used as the diluent. Subsequent supported liquid membrane (SLM) studies using PTFE flat sheet membranes containing 0.2 M T2EHDGA in various diluents indicated the trend of Y transport as xylene>hexone>chloroform>carbon tetrachloride>n-dodecane+30% iso-decanol mixture. However, the Sr(II) transport rates were also high with xylene, hexone, and carbon tetrachloride as the diluents which led us to carry out subsequent studies using chloroform and n-dodecane+30% iso-decanol mixture. Acid variation studies in chloroform system indicated an interesting phenomena of increasing Y(III) transport and decreasing Sr(II) transport with increasing acid concentration. Separation of {sup 90}Y from a mixture of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 90}Y was also attempted. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SLM studies using PTFE flat sheet membranes containing T2EHDGA as carrier was carried out for Y-90 separation from Sr-90. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The trend of Y transport as xylene>hexone>chloroform>carbon tetrachloride>n-dodecane+30% iso-decanol mixture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acid variation studies in chloroform system indicated an interesting phenomena of increasing Y(III) transport and decreasing Sr(II) transport with increasing acid concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present studies suggested that T2EHDGA-SLM show limited promise if coupled to another separation method such as extraction chromatography.

  7. 137Cs and 90Sr mobility in soils and transfer in soil-plant systems in the Novozybkov district affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobova, E.; Ermakov, A.; Linnik, V.

    1998-01-01

    The Chernobyl radionuclides distribution and mobility in soils and uptake by plants have been studied in seminatural and agricultural moraine and in fluvioglacial landscapes typical for the areas of the Bryansk region affected by the accident.The major part of the Chernobyl 137 Cs accumulated in the topsoil is insoluble in water, 40 to 93% of this radionuclide is strongly fixed by soil, while 70 to 90% of the 90 Sr is present in water soluble, exchangeable and weak-acid soluble forms. Radionuclide vertical migration is most pronounced in local depressions with organic and gley soils in which both radionuclides are detected to the depth of 30-40 cm.In woodlands, most of the 137 grasses. Transfer to grasses in local depressions is usually higher compared with the dry levees. Observed exclusions are assumed to be due to comparatively low mobility of 137 Cs and relatively high K content in soil. 137 Cs accumulation in potato tubers grown on sandy soddy podzolic watershed soils mainly corresponds to its total amount in soils; uptake of 90 Sr depends upon the percentage of its most mobile fraction.Pronounced relief is proved to cause different patterns in distribution and migration of radionuclides in soils and local food chains. The study showed it to be true for private farms situated in different landscape positions within the same settlement.The forest litter, topsoil and products, and flood plain pastures, especially localities in depressions are critical materials for the long-term radioecological monitoring of the contaminated landscapes of the study area and those of similar conditions. Population of the areas within the zone of contamination exceeding 15Ci/km 2 (555kBq/m 2 ) should be recommended to exclude local forest products from their diets and to avoid cattle grazing on wet flood plain meadows without remediation. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Total bremsstrahlung spectra of thick lead compounds produced by {sup 90}Sr beta emitter in photon energy region of 10–100 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Suhansar Jit [Department of Physics, B.B.S.B Polytechnic, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Tajinder, E-mail: tajindersingh2k9@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Doordarshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.B.S.B Engineering College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Amrit [Department of Physics, Baba Ajay Singh Khalsa College, Gurdas Nangal, Gurdaspur, Punjab (India); Dhaliwal, A.S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Longowal (Sangrur), Punjab (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Total bremsstrahlung spectra in thick targets of Pb compounds by {sup 90}Sr in energy range 10–100 keV. • Experimental results show better agreement with the model which includes PB in SA up to 30 keV. • At higher photon energy region 30–100 keV the model which describes OB is more accurate. • Experimental results show positive deviations from the entire models at higher energy end spectrum. - Abstract: The total bremsstrahlung spectra in the thick targets of lead acetate trihydrate (Pb(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O), lead nitrate Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and lead chloride (PbCl{sub 2}) produced by {sup 90}Sr beta particles have been investigated in the photon energy region of 10–100 keV. The experimental bremsstrahlung spectra have been compared with the theoretical models Elwert corrected (non relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory, modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory for ordinary bremsstrahlung and modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory which includes polarization bremsstrahlung in the stripped atom approximation. The experimental results show better agreement with theoretical model that includes polarization bremsstrahlung in stripped approximation in the photon energy region below 30 keV. However, at higher photon energy region 30–100 keV, the theoretical model which describes ordinary bremsstrahlung is more accurate to describe the experimental bremsstrahlung spectra. The experimental results show positive deviations from the entire theoretical models at higher energy end of the spectrum. The results indicate that polarization bremsstrahlung plays important role in the formation of total bremsstrahlung spectra in lead compounds produced by continuous beta particles at low photon energy region of 10–30 keV.

  9. Modeling the washoff of 90Sr and 137Cs from an experimental plot established in the vicinity of the Chernobyl reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.; Hoffman, F.O.; Thiessen, K.M.; Konoplev, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    After the Chernobyl event, a large area of land was contaminated following the deposition of radionuclides. This area became a continuing source of radionuclides to natural waters and aquatic ecosystems. In 1986, an experimental plot was constructed in a contaminated area near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to study the washoff of radionuclides by surface runoff. Concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr were measured in the top 10 cm of the soil prior to the experiments. During two separate experiments, intense artificial rainfall was applied to the plot. A washoff scenario was prepared with site-specific information on initial soil contamination, duration and quantities of rainfall and runoff, physicochemical properties of the topsoil, and some climatological data. Modelers were asked to predict (a) the vertical distributions of the initial concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in various chemical forms in the topsoil, (b) concentrations of these radionuclides in various chemical forms in the runoff water during each experiment, and (c) the total amounts of these radionuclides in various chemical forms in the runoff water during each experiment, and (c) the total amounts of these radionuclides that were washed off during each experiment. A vertical, one-dimensional, multiphase, multispecies transport model was then developed to simulate the movement of contaminants in the topsoil during the 160-d period between the Chernobyl event and the experiments as well as the washouts of contaminants by runoff during the experiments and during the 24-h period thereafter. The model provided very good predictions of the vertical distributions of total contaminant concentrations in the top 10 cm of the soil; however, the concentrations in individual chemical forms were not predicted as accurately. The complete modeling approach and comparisons of model predictions with measurements and with predictions from other modelers are presented. 19 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Prediction of 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation in milk of horses and sheep grazing the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' technical area of the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontarenko, I.A.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Mukusheva, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes mathematical models for 137 Cs and 90 Sr behavior in body of horses and sheep grazing the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' Technical Area of the Semipalatinsk test site. The models were parametrized on the basis of experimental data for those breeds of animals that are currently encountered within the Semipalatinsk test area. The predictive conclusions using devised models have shown that 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentration in milk of horses and sheep grazing the Experimental field are can exceed the adopted standards during a long period of time. (author)

  11. A comparison of the natural survival of beagle dogs injected intravenously with low levels of 239Pu, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, or 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Miller, S.C.; Lloyd, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    The natural survival, relative to properly chosen controls, of 26 beagle dogs injected once intravenously with an average of 0.58 +/- 0.04 kBq 239 Pu/kg, 23 dogs injected with 2.31 +/- 0.43 kBq 226 Ra/kg, 13 dogs injected with 1.84 +/- 0.26 kBq 228 Ra/kg, 12 dogs injected with 0.56 +/- 0.030 kBq 228 Th/kg, and 12 dogs injected with 21.13 +/- 1.74 kBq 90 Sr/kg was evaluated statistically. The amounts of these radionuclides are related directly to the estimated maximum permissible body burdens for humans suggested in ICRP II (1959). They constitute a level of exposure that initially was assumed to cause no deleterious effects in dogs. This study had two objectives: (1) identification of homogeneous control groups against which to evaluate the survival of the irradiated groups and (2) comparison of the survival characteristics and estimation of mortality or hazard rate ratios for control dogs vs dogs injected with the baseline dosages given above. It was shown, by goodness-of-fit plots, that the Cox proportional hazards model was an appropriate method of analysis. Therefore, covariates that possibly could influence survival were tested for significance. Only the effects of grand mal seizure, which is caused in epileptic dogs by an external stimulus and can be fatal if untreated, were significant (P less than 0.0001). Consequently, in the final model, death from grand mal seizure was considered as accidental. After censoring the dogs dying from grand mal seizure, it was established that the data for the control groups from previous and contemporary experiments could be pooled. The change in hazard rates relative to controls resulting from exposure to the baseline radionuclide level was modest, 1.6 times for 239 Pu (P = 0.033), 1.0(4) for 226 Ra (P = 0.86), 1.9 for 228 Ra (P = 0.035), 2.5 for 228 Th (P less than 0.001), and 0.52 for 90 Sr (P = 0.041)

  12. Modeling the washoff of 90Sr and 137Cs from an experimental plot established in the vicinity of the Chernobyl reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S K; Hoffman, F O; Thiessen, K M; Konoplev, A V

    1996-12-01

    After the Chernobyl event, a large area of land was contaminated following the deposition of radionuclides. This area became a continuing source of radionuclides to natural waters and aquatic ecosystems. In 1986, an experimental plot was constructed in a contaminated area near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to study the washoff of radionuclides by surface runoff. Concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr were measured in the top 10 cm of the soil prior to the experiments. During two separate experiments, intense artificial rainfall was applied to the plot. A washoff scenario was then prepared with site-specific information on initial soil contamination, duration and quantities of rainfall and runoff, physicochemical properties of the topsoil, and some climatological data. Modelers were asked to predict (a) the vertical distributions of the initial concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in various chemical forms in the topsoil, (b) concentrations of these radionuclides in various chemical forms in the runoff water during each experiment, and (c) the total amounts of these radionuclides that were washed off during each experiment. Stochastically generated local rainfall data were used in a water budget model to generate annual average runoff and infiltration rates. A vertical, one-dimensional, multiphase, multispecies transport model was then developed to simulate the movement of contaminants in the topsoil during the 160-d period between the Chernobyl event and the experiments as well as the washouts of contaminants by runoff during the experiments and during the 24-h period thereafter. The model provided very good predictions of the vertical distributions of total contaminant concentrations in the top 10 cm of the soil; however, the concentrations in individual chemical forms were not predicted as accurately. Initially, the model overpredicted the washout of contaminants for the two experiments and the 24-h period thereafter. Fraction of runoff that flows as interflow and

  13. Evaluation of improved technologies for the removal of 90Sr and 137Cs from process wastewater and groundwater: FY 1995 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Burgess, M.W.; McTaggart, D.R.; Taylor, P.A.; Guo, B.

    1996-03-01

    A number of new sorbents are currently being developed for the removal of 90 Sr and 137 Cs from contaminated, caustic low-level liquid waste (LLLW). These sorbents are potentially promising for use in the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and process wastewater containing the two radionuclides. The goal of this subtask is to evaluate the new sorbents to determine whether their associated treatment technology is more selective for the decontamination of wastewater streams than that of currently available processes. Activities during fiscal year 1995 have included completing the characterization of the standard treatment technology, ion exchange on chabazite zeolite. Strontium and cesium sorption on sodium-modified zeolite was observed in the presence of elevated concentrations of wastewater components: sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The most significant loss of nuclide sorption was noted in the first 0- to 4-meq/L addition of the cations to a wastewater simulant. Radionuclide sorption on the pretreated zeolite was also determined under dynamic flow conditions. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, which was developed at the Savannah River Site, was selected as the first new sorbent to be evaluated for wastewater treatment. Nuclide sorption on this resin was greater when the resin had been washed with ultrapure water and air dried prior to use

  14. Evaluation of improved techniques for the removal of 90Sr and 137Cs from process wastewater and groundwater: Chabazite zeolite baseline study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; McTaggart, D.R.; Burgess, M.W.; Guo, B.

    1995-04-01

    Standard waste treatment procedures for the removal of 90 Sr and 137 Cs from contaminated groundwater and process wastewaters generate large volumes of secondary contaminated wastes. Several new sorbent materials, ion exchangers, and other processes hold the promise of treating large volumes of contaminated water while minimizing the generation of secondary low-level radioactive wastes. As part of the Efficient Separations/Processes-Integrated Program (ESPIP), these new treatment techniques will be compared with standard processes to define their effectiveness for the removal of radioactive strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs), as well as to gauge the quantity of secondary radioactive waste generated by the new processes. This report summarizes the efforts made to design standardized testing procedures to evaluate the sorption characteristics of a baseline wastewater treatment technique. Definition of the experimental procedures, as well as a summary of the benchmark sorption technique, will provide the framework with which to compare newly evolving treatment technologies. Accomplishments include selecting the feed strewn to the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as representative of the prototypical contaminated wastewater of many DOE sites. Samples from the PWTP feed stream were collected and analyzed for metals, anions, total Sr and Cs, radioactive Sr and Cs, alkalinity, pH, and density. The cumulative sample data were used to formulate a simulant that will be used as a standard waste surrogate for comparative testing of selected treatment methods

  15. Environmental studies on radioecological sensitivity and variability with special emphasis on the fallout nuclides 90Sr and 137Cs. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1979-06-01

    Radioecological sensitivity and variability are quantities that are used to characterize the radioecological properties of environmental samples. The radioecological sensitivity is the infinite time-integrated radionuclide concentration in the environmental sample considered arising from a deposition of 1 mCi KM -2 of the radionuclide in question. This quantity makes it possible to compare various environments as to their vulnerability to a given radioactive contamination. The variability of the concentrations of a radionuclide in an environmental sample, with respect to a given parameter, is defined as the partial coefficient of variation due to this parameter. The variability with time is a useful way to assess the route of contamination of the sample and the local variability is a measure of environmental inhomogenity with respect to radioactive contamination. Radioecology sensitivity and variability were applied to the 90 Sr and 137 Cs data obtained from the environmental studies on the human foodchain carried out during the last two decades in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland. The per caput effective dose-equivalent commitments from radioactive debris from nuclear weapons testing was estimated to be 1.6 mSv in Denmark, 4.2 mSv in the Faroe Islands, and 1.6 mSv in Greenland. (author)

  16. Decontaminating effectiveness of Ca-, Zn-, MnDTPA chelates in contamination with inner radioisotopes 137Cs, 144Ce, 131I, 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.

    1987-01-01

    The studies were carried out on 240 rabbits divided into 4 groups, in which, after contamination with radioisotopes 137 Cs (A), 144 Ce (B), 131 I (C), 90 Sr (D), Ca-, Zn-, MnDTPA chelates were used in 12.5% water solutions in doses of 0.4 g/kg of body weight. The evaluation of the decontaminating effectiveness of the above DTPA compounds, taking into account veterinary-clinical and veterinary-sanitary aspects, was made after 1,2,4,6,15 days from the contamination. The results expressing the per cent values of radioactivity of the organs are presented in individual groups. From these data it can be assumed for practical veterinary purposes that Ca-, Zn-, MnDTPA chelates show an effective action with respect to the veterinary-clinical aspect in contamination with radiocerium and with respect to the veterinary-sanitary aspect in contamination with radiocerium and radioiodine; less effective action with respect to the veterinary-sanitary aspect and ineffective with respect to the veterinary-clinical aspect in contamination with radiocesium; negative one with respect to both aspects in contamination with radiostrontium. As regards the individual chelating compounds, the most effective can be recognized sodium zinc salt of DTPA. 58 refs., 4 tabs. (author)

  17. Pre operational levels of 137Cs and 90Sr in seawater and sea foods in Gulf of Mannar near Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; Thomas, G.; Rajan, P.S.; Selvi, B.S.; Balamurugan, M.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathy, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The first unit of Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP) attained first criticality on July 13, 2013 and synchronized to the grid on October 22, 2013. The first unit achieved the full rated power of 1000 MWe on June 7, 2014. The second unit of KKNPP is under advanced stage of commissioning and hot run of the plant is expected shortly. Commercial operational of the first unit is expected soon. It is imperative to establish the pre operational levels of Fall out nuclides like 137 Cs and 90 Sr in and around Kudankulam site, especially sea waters and sea food samples as these nuclides are produced in the reactor as fission products. Nevertheless, they are retained in the fuel matrix itself as the reactors host a multiple layered barrier to prevent the escape of these radionuclides into the environment by adopting the philosophy of defense in depth. Benchmarking the levels of these nuclides in the aquatic domain will help in future comparison of the levels of these nuclides after the plants start operation in addition to generating the regional database in south eastern tip of the sea

  18. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris); Coeficientes de translocacao folha-fruto de {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr e {sup 137}Cs em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-15

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of {sup 90}Y was used for {sup 90}Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. For the {sup 90

  19. Optimization of collision/reaction gases for determination of 90Sr in atmospheric particulate matter by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry after direct introduction of air via a gas-exchange device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Ohara, Ryota; Matsunaga, Kirara

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear power plant accidents release radioactive strontium 90 (90Sr) into the environment. Monitoring of 90Sr, although important, is difficult and time consuming because it emits only beta radiation. We have developed a new analytical system that enables real-time analysis of 90Sr in atmospheric particulate matter with an analytical run time of only 10 min. Briefly, after passage of an air sample through an impactor, a small fraction of the sample is introduced into a gas-exchange device, where the air is replaced by Ar. Then the sample is directly introduced into an inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) system equipped with a collision/reaction cell to eliminate isobaric interferences on 90Sr from 90Zr+, 89Y1H+, and 90Y+. Experiments with various reaction gas conditions revealed that these interferences could be minimized under the following optimized conditions: 1.0 mL min- 1 O2, 10.0 mL min- 1 H2, and 1.0 mL min- 1 NH3. The estimated background equivalent concentration and estimated detection limit of the system were 9.7 × 10- 4 and 3.6 × 10- 4 ng m- 3, respectively, which are equivalent to 4.9 × 10- 6 and 1.8 × 10- 6 Bq cm- 3. Recoveries of Sr in PM2.5 measured by real-time analysis compared to those obtained by simultaneously collection on filter was 53 ± 23%, and using this recovery, the detection limit as PM2.5 was estimated to be 3.4 ± 1.5 × 10- 6 Bq cm- 3. That is, this system enabled detection of 90Sr at concentrations < 5 × 10- 6 Bq cm- 3 even considering the insufficient fusion/vaporization/ionization efficiency of Sr in PM2.5.

  20. Model testing of radioactive contamination by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ecomod@obninsk.com; Boyer, P.; Monte, L.; Brittain, J.E.; Dzyuba, N.N.; Krylov, A.L.; Kryshev, A.I.; Nosov, A.V.; Sanina, K.D.; Zheleznyak, M.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents results of testing models for the radioactive contamination of river water and bottom sediments by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu. The scenario for the model testing was based on data from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river. The endpoints of the scenario were model predictions of the activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water and bottom sediments along the Techa River in 1996. Calculations for the Techa scenario were performed by six participant teams from France (model CASTEAUR), Italy (model MARTE), Russia (models TRANSFER-2, CASSANDRA, GIDRO-W) and Ukraine (model RIVTOX), all using different models. As a whole, the radionuclide predictions for {sup 90}Sr in water for all considered models, {sup 137}Cs for MARTE and TRANSFER-2, and {sup 239,240}Pu for TRANSFER-2 and CASSANDRA can be considered sufficiently reliable, whereas the prediction for sediments should be considered cautiously. At the same time the CASTEAUR and RIVTOX models estimate the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water more reliably than in bottom sediments. The models MARTE ({sup 239,240}Pu) and CASSANDRA ({sup 137}Cs) evaluated the activity concentrations of radionuclides in sediments with about the same agreement with observations as for water. For {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs the agreement between empirical data and model predictions was good, but not for all the observations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the river water-bottom sediment system. The modelling of {sup 239,240}Pu distribution proved difficult because, in contrast to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, most of models have not been previously tested or validated for plutonium.

  1. Numerical Modeling of 90Sr and 137Cs Transport from a Spill in the B-Cell of the 324 Building, Hanford Site 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Bacon, Diana H.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2012-03-19

    To characterize the extent of contamination under the 324 Building, a pit was excavated on the north side of the building in 2010 by Washington Closure Hanford LLC (WCH). Horizontal closed-end steel access pipes were installed under the foundation of the building from this pit and were used for measuring temperatures and exposure rates under the B-Cell. The deployed sensors measured elevated temperatures of up to 61 C (142 F) and exposure rates of up to 8,900 R/hr. WCH suspended deactivation of the facility because it recognized that building safety systems and additional characterization data might be needed for remediation of the contaminated material. The characterization work included additional field sampling, laboratory measurements, and numerical flow and transport modeling. Laboratory measurements of sediment physical, hydraulic, and geochemical properties were performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and others. Geochemical modeling and subsurface flow and transport modeling also were performed by PNNL to evaluate the possible extent of contamination in the unsaturated sand and gravel sediments underlying the building. Historical records suggest that the concentrated 137Cs- and 90Sr-bearing liquid wastes that were spilled in B-Cell were likely from a glass-waste repository testing program associated with the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Incomplete estimates of the aqueous chemical composition (no anion data provided) of the FRG waste solutions were entered into a geochemical speciation model and were charge balanced with nitrate to estimate waste composition. Additional geochemical modeling was performed to evaluate reactions of the waste stream with the concrete foundation of the building prior to the stream entering the subsurface.

  2. Rapid actinide analysis method coupling liquid chromatography/ICP-MS and "9"0Sr gas proportional counter in post-accidental situation environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, Azza

    2015-01-01

    The present study follows the Fukushima power plant accident and aimed to develop an analytical method to achieve, during an emergency situation, a rapid identification and quantification of alpha and beta emitters in environmental samples. The first step of this study allowed us to list the alpha and beta emitters which can be released in the environment in case of a nuclear accident. The second step aimed towards the development of a rapid analysis method to quantify 17 radionuclides of U, Th, Pu, Am, Np and Sr. The main objective was the automation of the radiochemical separation step and its coupling for the measurement. The separation is performed using columns containing extraction resins, namely TEVA, TRU and Sr. The measurement is performed using an ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and in some cases a gas proportional counter to quantify radiostrontium ("8"9Sr and "9"0Sr). Excellent figures of merit were obtained, off line, with water (tap, river and sea water) and solid matrices (soil and aerosol filters), after a micro-wave digestion or an alkaline fusion dissolution followed by a Ca_3(PO_4)_2 coprecipitation. The proposed analytical strategy showed yields between 70 % and 100 % and standard deviations between 5 % and 10 %. The newly developed separation method was then automated and coupled on-line to ICP-MS. The operating parameters were optimized using a design of experiments and the results were processed with Minitab. The optimized automated separation coupled on-line to the ICP-MS allows the rapid quantification, in 1.5 h per sample, of U, Th, Pu, Am, Np and Sr with detection limits gain as high as 20 times for artificial radionuclide. (author)

  3. Radioecological studies of {sup 90}Sr in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro [Association of Public Health Promotion, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of {sup 90}Sr in naturally living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in concentration ratio (CR) between fish and water, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency with the rearing time, and the CR value reached 5.4{+-}0.4 (mean{+-}standard error) at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above the 7 days demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and then a gradual decreasing tendency indicating the biological half lives about 4 days and 205 days, respectively. The retention rate resulted in nearly 75% of initial radioactivity, i.e. 25% of excretion, at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, the CR values of {sup 85}Sr reared in the radioactive freshwater for 7 days were 62.3 (vertebra: bone), 31.1 (scale), 12.5 (gill), 0.6 (viscera) and 0.4 (muscle). On the other hand, higher excretion was found in the viscera and the muscle than that in the bone, the scale and the gill. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide is different among these tissues and organs particularly characterizing higher accumulation and lower excretion in the vertebra (bone) and scale. (author)

  4. Actualizing of calibration curves of {sup 14}C/C, {sup 90}Sr/Ca, {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th in ivory for the determination of the post mortal interval of elephants and consequences of the radiation protection of non-human species; Aktualisierung von Kalibierkurven von {sup 14}C/C, {sup 90}Sr/Ca und {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th in Elefantenelfenbein zum Zwecke der Alterbestimmung und die Konsequenzen fuer den Strahlenschutz nicht-menschlicher Arten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schupfner, R. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). ZRN-URA Lab.

    2016-07-01

    The determination of the activity concentration of the radionuclides {sup 14}C/C and {sup 90}Sr/Ca and {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th applying combined radionuclide analyses methods has been proved to be a suitable tool for the purpose of an unambiguous age determination of elephant ivory [1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13]. Analysing representative and independently dated samples (N = 28) of ivory the curves fitting the post mortal interval (PMI) versus the activity concentration of the radionuclides mentioned above produced the data base enabling a more unambiguous age determination. Data from these studies origin [1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13] in analyses of ivory samples which were available up to the 2012. During the last five years there was a gap in information of the future trend of {sup 14}C/C and {sup 90}Sr/Ca. Up to this study it was not possible to assess whether the future level of {sup 14}C/C as well as {sup 90}Sr/Ca can analytically be distinguished from the level before 1954. At about 1954 the activity concentration of radionuclides from the atmospheric nuclear explosion, as {sup 14}C and {sup 90}Sr, increased in ivory significantly. This study aims in closing this information gap. The results of analyses of {sup 14}C/C, {sup 90}Sr/Ca, {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th in ivory with PMI values ranging from 1 to 5 years are presented and interpreted. These data enable an actualization of the calibration curves of PMI versus specific activities. This is necessary for a better understanding of the effect of blindness of {sup 14}C/C dating and its prevention. On the base of all available results form independent dated ivory sample available up to 2015 a suitable analytical procedure is suggested which aims in a more precise and reliable age determination of elephant tusks. Results of determining of radionuclides {sup 14}C/C and {sup 90}Sr/Ca and {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th in ivory are shown from before 1950 to 2015. These results are discussed with respect the purposes of dating as well

  5. Inter-laboratory exercise with an aim to compare methods for "9"0Sr and "2"3"9","2"4"0Pu determination in environmental soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jixin Qiao; Per Roos; Salminen-Paatero, Susanna; Stina Holmgren Rondahl; Lagerkvist, Petra; Bourgeaux-Goget, Marie; Stralberg, Elisabeth; Rameback, Henrik; Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg

    2017-01-01

    In order to deliver reliable results for a multitude of different scenarios, e.g. emergency preparedness, environmental monitoring, nuclear decommissioning and waste management, there is a constant process of method development in the field of radioanalytical chemistry. This work presents the results of a method comparison exercise aimed at quantifying "9"0Sr and "2"3"9","2"4"0Pu in environmental soil samples, with the intention of evaluating the performance and applicability of different methods. From the methods examined in this work, recommendations are given in order to find a radioanalytical measurement procedure, for "9"0Sr and "2"3"9","2"4"0Pu analysis, which is fit-for-purpose for a particular scenario. (author)

  6. Study on the source of optical activity: Pt. 6. ESR spectroscopy on the asymmetrical radical yields in 90Sr-90Y β irradiated D-and L-alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenqing; Zhao Jian; Ding Xiang

    1993-01-01

    Free radical formation in 90 Sr- 90 Y β irradiated D- and L-alanine is studied by ESR spectroscopy. To calibrate the probable differences in the size of ESR tubes, the different densities of alanine and the incidental different impurities, samples are firstly irradiated with 60 Co γ rays. Then the D- and L- alanine samples are irradiated with 90 Sr- 90 Y source at 77 K. Soon after irradiation, ESR measurement is performed on each sample. The average ratio H β+γ /H γ of D- alanine is 0.147 higher than that of L- alanine, indicating that more free radicals are induced in D- alanine by β irradiation. Irradiation at 77 K is capable of diminishing the effect of thermal movement on the polarization of β electrons and freezing the free radical formation. The experiments show the stereoselective interaction of β electrons with D- and L- amino acids, and so supports the Vester-ulbricht hypothesis

  7. Radiation from Radioactive Cesium (137 Cs) and Strontium (90Sr) Contaminated soil during the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Triggers Rice Immune Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, S.; Rakwal, R.; Agrawal, G. K.; Tamogami, S.; Kim, Y.H.; Shibato, J.; Sahoo, S. K.; Shiraishi, K.; Los, I. P.; Shevachuk, V. E.; Yonekura, M.; Iwahashi, H.

    2004-01-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 that exposed most of the population of the Northern hemisphere to various degrees of radiation, the public's perception of nuclear risk was completely changed. other than the obvious and much studied health impact, the agriculture and environmental impacts still pose a serious problem. Cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30.1 years, is the most important radionuclide left from Chernobyl's catastrophic explosion, and is present at high concentrations (activity, gamma-and beta-emitter) in the 0-5 cm soil layer. Strontium-90 (beta.emitter), which has a half-life of 29.1 years also constitutes a problem for plants. The effect of these radionuclides, and importantly show the radiation released therein affects plants has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that leaves of two-week-old rice (japonica-type c, Nipponbare) seedlings (that constitutes a well-established in-vitro assay system) would respond to radiation (from the contaminated soil from Masany. Belarus, with major radionuclides, 137 Cs and 90 sr) by inducing various biochemical/molecular changes associated with the defense/stress response, including those involving mechanisms affecting the inactivation of damaging reactive oxygen specie. Rice (oryza sativa L.) is an enormously important food and monocot cereal crop research model whose draft genome sequence has recently been released. A molecular (northern analysis which provides a picture of the transcriptional changes of a particular gene), proteomics (two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is a powerful tool in understanding which proteins are present in particular tissue under given condition), and metabolomic (determining the metabolic profiles of metabolites induced during stress) approach was employed to monitor the changes in defense(stress-related (D/S-.r) genes, proteins (using 2-DE coupled with amino acid sequencing and immunoblotting) and metabolites (in particular

  8. Radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in vegetation cover of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionova, N. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan); Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology of the Republican State Enterprise (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    integrated picture about accumulation of artificial radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am in plants at STS. It has been found that parameters of radionuclide accumulation in plants primarily depend on the nature of radioactive contamination of STS, in particular speciation radionuclides in soil. Certain differences are observed for individual species of plants and soils, which are characterized by different physico-chemical properties. Radionuclides have been broken down by their ability to accumulate from soil into above-ground parts of plants, a quantitative characterization of difference in accumulation is provided. A comparative analysis of the accumulation factors for the various areas of STS and generalized international data. Recommendations have been provided on the safe use of forage of natural pastures at STS. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  9. Investigation of a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source for intra-ocular treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Shannon M.; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A. [University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to perform an extensive investigation of an approximately 2.5 mm long {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source designed for treating wet age-related macular degeneration. Methods: As part of this investigation, a NIST-traceable absorbed dose to water calibration technique was established, and a source deployment verification test was developed. The influence of treatment cannula construction tolerance on the measurements as well as the dose delivered to the patient was investigated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. Variation between production cannulae was quantified experimentally using a well-type ionization chamber, and additional measurements along with Monte Carlo calculations of the collimating insert used for source deployment verification were performed to validate the model. Results: Maximum variation in the integrated target dose was seen when the source was shifted laterally within the treatment cannula. For the well chamber measurements, the observed standard deviation in ionization current for a single source placed in different reference cannulae was {+-}0.3%, with a maximum observed range of less than {+-}0.5%. Clinical cannulae in the collimating insert showed an average of 17.8%{+-}0.4% of the reference signal when sources were fully deployed compared to 18.5% predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. This discrepancy has been attributed primarily to construction of the collimator since the collimation gap was observed to be approximately 0.025-0.075 mm smaller than specified. Construction tolerance of the well chamber insert as well as position tolerance of the cannula tip were both investigated, and their influence on the predicted signal was quantified. Additional measurements along with Monte Carlo based calculations of the collimating insert with polyethylene spacers added to the setup were performed to validate the Monte Carlo model. The shimmed Monte Carlo and measured data agree to within 1%, which is a magnitude

  10. The 90Sr, 137Cs, 3H and 131I content in surface water and sediments of the Danube, Olt and Arges river and in milk samples for the year 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podeanu, G.; Iancu, E.

    1975-01-01

    The radioactivity of the measured radionuclides in water decreased from their discharge into the Danube to the mouth of the river. The amounts of certain radioisotopes in water samples, sediments, and milk are far below the maximum permissible concentrations. With some exceptions, the radioactivity of 137 Cs is lower than that of 90 Sr. With some exceptions, the highest values for the radionuclides studied were measured during the summer months. (orig./RW) [de

  11. Country report: Vietnam. Setting Up of a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y Generator System Based on Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) Technique and Radiolabeling of Eluted {sup 90}Y with Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thu, Nguyen Thi; Dong, Duong Van; Cuong, Bui Van; Khoa, Chu Van [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC), Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2010-07-01

    In the course of participating in the IAEA-CRP during the last two years, Vietnam has achieved the goal of setting up a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator system based on Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) technique and also radiolabeling of the eluted {sup 90}Y with antibody, peptides and albumin. A two stage SLM based {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y generator was set up in-house to generate carrier-free {sup 90}Y at different activity levels viz. 5, 20, 50 mCi. The generator system was operated in sequential mode in which 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid (PC88A) based SLM was used in the first stage for the transport {sup 90}Y in 4.0 M nitric acid from source phase where {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y equilibrium mixture is placed in nitric acid medium at pH to 1-2. In the second stage, octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) based SLM was used for the transport of {sup 90}Y selectively to 1.0 M acetic acid which is the best medium for radiolebeling. The eluted {sup 90}Y from the generator was tested for the presence of any traces of {sup 90}Sr using the Extraction Paper Chromatography (EPC) and was found suitable for radiolabeling. The generator system could be upgraded to 100 mCi level successfully due to an expert mission from India through IAEA. The {sup 90}Y product obtained from the generator system was used for radiolabeling of antibody and peptides viz. Rituximab, DOTATATE and albumin particles under different experimental conditions. A new chromatography system could be developed for analyzing {sup 90}Y labeled albumin using the TAE buffer as mobile phase in PC and ITLC.

  12. Coral growth rings and the temporal history of nuclear 14C/C and 90Sr/Sr in the surface ocean: Final report, June 1, 1982-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Cember, R.P.; Toggweiler, J.R.; Trumbore, S.E.; White, J.

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes the history and scientific results of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory coral radioisotope project. The report includes abstracts of works in the literature or in preparation resulting from the coral project and a complete listing of the radiocarbon and 90 Sr data measured in the course of the project. Also, some possible future research directions for the coral project are suggested

  13. Electrochemical separation of 90-yttrium in the electrochemical 90Sr/90Y generator and its use for radiolabelling of DOTA-conjugated somatostatin analog [DOTA0, Tyr3] octreotate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Đorđe Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiopharmaceuticals based on 90Y are widely used in the treatment of malignant deseases. In order to meet the requirements for their future application, a 90Sr/90Y generator was developed and 90Y eluted from this locally produced generator was used for the radiolabelling of the DOTA-conjugated somatostatin analog [DOTA0,Tyr3] octreotate and the preparation of [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3] octreotate (90Y-DOTATATE for peptide receptore radionuclide therapy. 90Sr/90Y generator was based on the electrochemical separation of 90Y from 90Sr in a two-cycle electrolysis procedure. Three electrode cells were used to perform both electrolyses. In both cycles, working electrodes were kept on constant potential. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 2.7 of the value before the electrolyses. The radionuclidic purity of the 90Y solution was analysed by ITLC and extraction paper chromatography. The labelling of peptide (100 mg DOTATATE with 90YCl3 was performed at 95°C for 30 minutes. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC and chromatographic separation, using a solid SepPak C-18 column. Results obtained confirmed the efficiency of our electrochemical separation technique and quality control methods for 90Y. The achieved efficiency of the 90Sr/90Y generator above 96% of the theoretical value represents a good basis for the further development of this generator. The labelling of the DOTATATE with 90Y exhibited a high efficiency, too: there was less than 1% of 90Y3+in the 90Y-DOTATATE.

  14. Procedure to carry out leakage test in beta radiation sealed sources emitters of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y; Procedimiento para realizar prueba de fuga en fuentes selladas de radiacion beta emisoras de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    In the alpha-beta room of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations ophthalmic applicators are calibrated in absorbed dose terms in water D{sub w}; these applicators, basically are emitter sealed sources of pure beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y. Concretely, the laboratory quality system indicates to use the established procedure for the calibration of these sources, which establishes the requirement of to carry out a leakage test, before to calibrate the source. However, in the Laboratory leakage test certificates sent by specialized companies in radiological protection services have been received, in which are used gamma spectrometry equipment s for beta radiation leakage tests, since it is not reliable to detect pure beta radiation with a scintillating detector with NaI crystal, (because it could detect the braking radiation produced in the detector). Therefore the Laboratory has had to verify the results of the tests with a correct technique, with the purpose of determining the presence of sources with their altered integrity and radioactive material leakage. The objective of this work is to describe a technique for beta activity measurement - of the standard ISO 7503, part 1 (1988) - and its application with a detector Gm plane (type pankage) in the realization of leakage tests in emitter sources of pure beta radiation, inside the mark of quality assurance indicated by the report ICRU 76. (Author)

  15. Appendix to Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, March 1, 1976--June 1, 1976. [Tabulated data on content of lead in surface air and /sup 7/Be, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, and /sup 90/Sr in surface air, milk, drinking water, and foods sampled in USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    Tabulated data are presented on: the monthly deposition of /sup 89/Sr and /sup 90/Sr at some 100 world land sites; the content of lead and /sup 7/Be, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 144/Ce in samples of surface air from various world sites; and the content of /sup 90/Sr in samples of milk, drinking water, and animal and human diets collected at various locations throughout the USA. (CH)

  16. Sequential determination of {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 238} Pu, {sup 241} Am and {sup 90}Sr in radioactive wastes using SPE sorbents Analig Pu02, AnaLig Sr01 and TRU Resin; Sekvencne stanovenie {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 238} Pu, {sup 241} Am a {sup 90}Sr v radioaktivnych odpadoch pouzitim SPE sorbentov Analig Pu02, AnaLig Sr01 a TRU Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durkot, E; Dulanska, S [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra jadrovej chemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    A simple and rapid method of the sequential determination of radionuclides {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 238} Pu, {sup 241} Am and {sup 90}Sr in radioactive sludge from the NPP Bohunice A1 with high radiochemical yields and efficient removal of interfering components from a matrix was developed. Separation method combines SPE sorbents Analig Pu02, AnaLig Sr01 made by IBC Advanced Technologies and TRU Resin (Eichrom Technologies) placed in tandem. Advantage of a single-stage column located on the vacuum box with a rapid flow is an effective pre-concentration and separation of radionuclides and minimization of sample separation time. (authors)

  17. Determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe activities by liquid scintillation counting in the environmental samples close to French nuclear power plants located on Loire and Garonne rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, G.; Mokili, M.B.; Le Roy, C.; Deniau, I. [SUBATECH, IN2P3 (France); Gontier, G.; Boyer, C. [EDF-DPI-DIN-CIDEN (France); Hemidy, P.Y. [EDF-DPN-UNIE-GPRE-IEV (France); Chardon, P. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France)

    2014-07-01

    The protection of the aquatic and terrestrial environment from a wide range of radioactive contaminants released by nuclear industry requires continuous monitoring of radionuclides released into the environment. Specific measurement methods depending of the radionuclide are used to determinate this contribution. A lot of radionuclide can easily be measured at low level by gamma spectrometry, like {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co..., but others like {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni or {sup 55}Fe require prior specific radiochemical separations. Activity of {sup 90}Sr values in environmental samples are available but only few measurements of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe activities have been carried out in samples collected in the environment close to French nuclear power plants located on the Loire and Garonne rivers despite they represent 12% to 24% for {sup 63}Ni activity and <1% for {sup 55}Fe + other minor radionuclides of total activity of their liquid effluent discharges. {sup 90}Sr is not rejected by the liquid effluent discharges of Nuclear Power Plants and can be found in the environmental samples because of thermonuclear test and subsequently after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Considering the French Nuclear Power Plant located on Loire and Garonne rivers, the determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe levels in the environmental samples around French nuclear power plants is carried out to detect the traces of these radionuclides originating from nuclear technology activities. The environment around five French nuclear Power Plants was investigated for 4 years between 2009 and 2014. The radionuclide activities determined by liquid scintillation counting after chemical steps were performed on a large set of various matrix samples likely to be encountered in environmental monitoring as soils, sediments, terrestrial and aquatic bio-indicators. It was found that the mean activity concentration of the most frequently detected was for the radionuclide {sup 90

  18. A study of internal contamination levels resulting from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs environmental pollution. The influence of different factors; Etude des niveaux de contamination interne resultant d'une pollution de l'environnement par le {sup 90}Sr et le {sup 137}Cs influence des differents parametres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This study includes two parts. The purpose of the former one is to try and evaluate the amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs dietary intakes as a function of age with a view to assessing internal exposure doses and estimating the critical age, and to study the relative significance of the several factors it depends on. The data used are both the results of dietary surveys made in 11 districts of the European community from which the evolution of the consumed amounts of 13 groups of foodstuffs, as a function of age was derived, and the mean factors of contamination pathways. The variability of some factors is very large and an attempt is made to assess their significance on the whole contamination; also, the influence of the various diets has been emphasized. The purpose of the second part is to assess, doses as a function of age in the case of protracted exposure on the basis of the aforesaid results and radiobiological factors derived from bibliographic states of the arts. An assessment is made of body burdens and mean doses (either to the skeleton or the whole body according to the radionuclides) originating either from a direct unitary exposure or from situations implying both modes of exposure. As assumed only the diets vary with the districts, thus the results reflect their significance which should be corrected, for a more accurate assessment of the dose variability, by the significance of human and transfer factors. (author) [French] Cette etude comprend deux parties. L'objet de la premiere partie est a la fois un essai d'evaluation en fonction de l'age des quantites de strontium 90 et de cesium 137 ingerees avec les aliments dans la perspective d'une application a l'estimation des doses d'irradiation interne et a la recherche de l'age critique, et une etude de l'influence relative des divers parametres dont elle depend. Les donnees utilisees sont, d'une part, les resultats des enquetes alimentaires faites en onze regions de la Communaute Europeenne dont on

  19. A study of internal contamination levels resulting from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs environmental pollution. The influence of different factors; Etude des niveaux de contamination interne resultant d'une pollution de l'environnement par le {sup 90}Sr et le {sup 137}Cs influence des differents parametres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This study includes two parts. The purpose of the former one is to try and evaluate the amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs dietary intakes as a function of age with a view to assessing internal exposure doses and estimating the critical age, and to study the relative significance of the several factors it depends on. The data used are both the results of dietary surveys made in 11 districts of the European community from which the evolution of the consumed amounts of 13 groups of foodstuffs, as a function of age was derived, and the mean factors of contamination pathways. The variability of some factors is very large and an attempt is made to assess their significance on the whole contamination; also, the influence of the various diets has been emphasized. The purpose of the second part is to assess, doses as a function of age in the case of protracted exposure on the basis of the aforesaid results and radiobiological factors derived from bibliographic states of the arts. An assessment is made of body burdens and mean doses (either to the skeleton or the whole body according to the radionuclides) originating either from a direct unitary exposure or from situations implying both modes of exposure. As assumed only the diets vary with the districts, thus the results reflect their significance which should be corrected, for a more accurate assessment of the dose variability, by the significance of human and transfer factors. (author) [French] Cette etude comprend deux parties. L'objet de la premiere partie est a la fois un essai d'evaluation en fonction de l'age des quantites de strontium 90 et de cesium 137 ingerees avec les aliments dans la perspective d'une application a l'estimation des doses d'irradiation interne et a la recherche de l'age critique, et une etude de l'influence relative des divers parametres dont elle depend. Les donnees utilisees sont, d'une part, les resultats des enquetes alimentaires faites en

  20. Distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 230,232Th on the fractions of natural organic species soils of ChNPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsov, A.A.; Sazhenyuk, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    The experimental data determination of distribution 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am 'Chernobyl' releases and 230 , 232 Th on the fraction of humic and fulvic acids sandy- podsolic, meadow and peaty soils taken in the exclusive zone ChNPP are presents. Soils organic matter was isolated by conventional alkali extraction (Turin's method). It was shown that, with depending of soils types 15-45 % 241 Am associate with fulvic acids. In all investigated types of soils 30 - 40 % 239+240 Pu connects with humic acids, as strong complexes. The distribution of environmental 230 , 232 Th and artificial 239+240 Pu on the fraction natural organic species is the same

  1. Determinations of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 226]Ra, [sup 228]Ra, [sup 210]Pb, [sup 210]Po contents in chinese diet and estimations of internal doses due to these radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongda, Zhu; Shouliang, Wang; Wei, Meng; Daoping, Wang; Xiujun, Zheng; Qingfen, Liu; Peng, Liu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin, TJ (China). Inst. of Radiomedicine

    1993-03-01

    As a part of Chinese Total Diet Survey taken place in 1990, the authors report the determined results on [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 226]Ra, [sup 228]Ra, [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Po contents in various foods of Chinese total diet. Based on obtained dietary composition and the determined contents, the Annual Intakes (AI) and Committed Dose Equivalents (CDE) for the public by ingestion were estimated. It is shown that the total CDE for 6 radionuclides is about 0.24 mSv/a. The food categories and nuclides whose relative contributions to the total are dominant were vegetables, aquatic products and cereal, and [sup 210]Pb, [sup 210]Po, [sup 228]Ra, respectively. The results have updated the data from 1982 survey and have complemented important information for water consumption. The regional difference of dietary compositions and resultant internal doses are discussed as well.

  2. Evaluation algorithm for Hp (10), Hp (0.07) and response matrix in mixed fields of 137Cs+90Sr/90Y for badge TLD without use of its commercial holder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, Jose T.; Tovar M, Victor M.; Castaneda P, Mario; Padilla, Ismael

    2008-01-01

    American standards HPS N 13.11 (1993, 2001) set up performance category tests for deep and shallow personal equivalent dose evaluated by dosimetry processors. These standards establish the parameters bias B, standard deviation S and tolerance level L, whose values indicate the deviations from the conventionally true value for the equivalent dose. On the other hand, for a right evaluation of the equivalent dose, all personal dosimetry systems have four basic components: badge, holder, reading protocol and dose evaluation algorithm. However, in Nuclear Plant Laguna Verde NPP dosimetry laboratory uses the badges Panasonic 802 A without Panasonic UD874AT holder, and instead employs a polyethylene holder bag to protect the badge from misuse. This situation disables the manufacturer algorithm designed for the combination: badge + holder. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to design a personal equivalent dose algorithm for this badge + bag, such this corrected algorithm let fulfill the HPS N 13.11 (1993) categories II, IV, V and VII. The algorithm starts from the readings of the elements: E1, E2, E3 and E4, only corrected by their element correction factor ECF. Additionally, we characterize the badge + bag by means of the response function for: 137 Cs, 85 Kr and 90 Sr/ 90 Y radiation fields. Finally, for validation of the algorithm one verifies that parameters B, S and L accomplish with the limits indicated by the standard. (author)

  3. Glassy spin freezing and NMR wipeout effect in the high-T{sub c} superconductor La{sub 1.90}Sr{sub 0.10}CuO{sub 4}: Critical discussion of the role of stripes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, M.-H.; Campana, A.; Rigamonti, A.; Carretta, P.; Borsa, F.; Kuhns, P.; Reyes, A. P.; Moulton, W. G.; Horvatic, M.; Berthier, C. (and others)

    2001-04-01

    We report on {sup 139}La and {sup 63}Cu NMR/NQR measurements in the high-T{sub c} superconductor La{sub 1.90}Sr{sub 0.10}CuO{sub 4}, with T{sub c}=26.5 K. Spin fluctuations probed by {sup 139}La spin-lattice relaxation (T{sub 1}) continuously slow down on cooling through T{sub c}. We argue that spin freezing and superconductivity are bulk effects in this sample. Thus both phenomena have to coexist microscopically. The distribution of {sup 139}La T{sub 1} values at low temperature reveals a wide spread of spin fluctuation frequencies in CuO{sub 2} planes. A simple estimate shows that {sup 63}Cu nuclei at sites where electronic fluctuations are the slowest are not observable (wipeout effect) because relaxation times are too short. This means that the {sup 63}Cu NQR wipeout, observed in this sample, can be explained primarily by slow magnetic, rather than charge, fluctuations. The magnetic origin of the wipeout is still compatible with a connection between wipeout and charge order [as proposed by Hunt , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4300 (1999)], but this connection is indirect. On the other hand, since the wipeout fraction is not an intensive quantity it cannot define a proper order parameter and cannot be used by itself as a criterion for the existence of a stripe phase.

  4. Glassy spin freezing and NMR wipeout effect in the high-Tc superconductor La1.90Sr0.10CuO4: Critical discussion of the role of stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, M.-H.; Campana, A.; Rigamonti, A.; Carretta, P.; Borsa, F.; Kuhns, P.; Reyes, A. P.; Moulton, W. G.; Horvatić, M.; Berthier, C.; Vietkin, A.; Revcolevschi, A.

    2001-04-01

    We report on 139La and 63Cu NMR/NQR measurements in the high-Tc superconductor La1.90Sr0.10CuO4, with Tc=26.5 K. Spin fluctuations probed by 139La spin-lattice relaxation (T1) continuously slow down on cooling through Tc. We argue that spin freezing and superconductivity are bulk effects in this sample. Thus both phenomena have to coexist microscopically. The distribution of 139La T1 values at low temperature reveals a wide spread of spin fluctuation frequencies in CuO2 planes. A simple estimate shows that 63Cu nuclei at sites where electronic fluctuations are the slowest are not observable (wipeout effect) because relaxation times are too short. This means that the 63Cu NQR wipeout, observed in this sample, can be explained primarily by slow magnetic, rather than charge, fluctuations. The magnetic origin of the wipeout is still compatible with a connection between wipeout and charge order [as proposed by Hunt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4300 (1999)], but this connection is indirect. On the other hand, since the wipeout fraction is not an intensive quantity it cannot define a proper order parameter and cannot be used by itself as a criterion for the existence of a stripe phase.

  5. The estimation of 137Cs and 90Sr location in the biomass of the macrophytes from the Yenisei river (Krasnoyarsky region, Russia) and Glubokoe lake (Chernobyl accident exclusion zone, Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovskiy, A.Ya.; Klenus, V.G.; Gudkov, D.I.; Belyaev, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of cesium and strontium as well as their chemical analogs potassium and calcium in the biomass of aquatic plants collected in zone of radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River and in Glubokoe Lake, in Chernobyl accident exclusion zone, was investigated with chemical fractionation technique. Despite of the essential difference in activity concentration in the biomass of the plants from the two water bodies, the distribution of 137 Cs among the biomass fractions was similar. 90 Sr was recorded in the biomass in more mobile form, than 137 Cs. The distribution of cesium in the biomass of plants essentially differed from the distribution of it's chemical analog, potassium. The distribution of elements - analogs, 90 S and Ca, in the biomass of the plants was similar. More than half of cesium concentration in the samples of plants from the Yenisei River was associated with particles of seston, bound to the surface of the plants. The results obtained should be considered while interpret the data of radioecological monitoring and modeling of the migration of radionuclides in the water bodies.

  6. Utilization of a novel electrochemical {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator for the preparation of {sup 90}Y-labeled RGD peptide dimer in clinically relevant dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Chakravarty, Rubel; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Dash, Ashutosh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiopharmaceuticals Div.; Sarma, Haladhar Dev [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Div.

    2014-09-01

    The work reported in this paper provides a systematic study towards the development of an optimized strategy for preparation of a clinically relevant dose of {sup 90}Y-labeled dimeric RGD peptide derivative, DOTA-E[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} [DOTA-(RGD){sub 2}] for in vivo targeted therapy utilizing {sup 90}Y obtained from a novel electrochemical {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator. The performance of the generator was evaluated to ensure its suitability for providing {sup 90}Y in adequate quantity and purity required for formulation of clinically relevant dose for PRRT. {sup 90}Y-DOTA-(RGD){sub 2} was synthesized in high yield (86.2 ± 2.5%) and radiochemical purity (98.4 ± 0.5%) using clinically relevant dose (∝ 3.8 GBq) of {sup 90}Y. In vitro stability studies revealed that the radiolabeled conjugate retained its radiochemical purity in normal saline and human serum. Preliminary biodistribution studies carried out in C57/BL6 mice bearing melanoma tumors showed that the preparation exhibited significant tumor uptake (5.30 ± 0.78% of injected activity at 30 min post-injection) with good tumor to background ratio. The optimized radiolabeling protocol seems to be an attractive strategy which is largely viewed as a springboard to realize scope of developing {sup 90}Y labeled cyclic RGD peptides for targeted therapy of tumors over-expressing integrin-α{sub ν}β{sub 3} receptors. (orig.)

  7. Comparative concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, /sup 239,240/Pu, and 241Am in tissues of fish from the Marshall Islands and calculated dose commitments from their consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Body burdens of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and the transuranics in bottom-feeding fish from Marshall Island atolls are derived, in part, from the quantities of the radionuclides irreversibly fixed to ingested carbonate material. Radionuclide concentration factors for different species of fish are characterized by relating tissue concentrations to those in filtered seawater. For bottom-feeding fish, the values are lower at the lesser contaminated atolls than those values determined for the same species at the more contaminated atolls. These fish have the ability to lower their gut pH during feeding. When this occurs, there is a dissolution of a fraction of the ingested calcium carbonate containing radionuclides that were fixed or fused internally to the material during nuclear testing. Fractions of the radionuclides released during solution in carbonate matrix are available for passage across the gut wall. Amounts released to solution in the gut are proportional to the levels of contamination at the different atolls. Concentration factors for higher trophic level species, which do not rely on sediments or coral for their source of food, show no such trends between differentially contaminated atolls. A two-source model used to compute the internal concentrations is described. Americium-241 seems to be more biologically available than /sup 239,240/Pu to higher trophic level species from the lagoons, whereas at lower trophic levels the opposite seems to be the case. Cesium-137 is now the largest contributor of the small radiological dose to man from the marine fish pathway, with the transuranics contributing from 2 to 30% of the total dose. 22 references, 1 figure, 19 tables

  8. Actualizing of calibration curves of "1"4C/C, "9"0Sr/Ca, "2"2"8Th/"2"3"2Th in ivory for the determination of the post mortal interval of elephants and consequences of the radiation protection of non-human species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schupfner, R.

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the activity concentration of the radionuclides "1"4C/C and "9"0Sr/Ca and "2"2"8Th/"2"3"2Th applying combined radionuclide analyses methods has been proved to be a suitable tool for the purpose of an unambiguous age determination of elephant ivory [1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13]. Analysing representative and independently dated samples (N = 28) of ivory the curves fitting the post mortal interval (PMI) versus the activity concentration of the radionuclides mentioned above produced the data base enabling a more unambiguous age determination. Data from these studies origin [1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13] in analyses of ivory samples which were available up to the 2012. During the last five years there was a gap in information of the future trend of "1"4C/C and "9"0Sr/Ca. Up to this study it was not possible to assess whether the future level of "1"4C/C as well as "9"0Sr/Ca can analytically be distinguished from th