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Sample records for egyptian ras cheese

  1. Technological and safety properties display biodiversity among enterococci isolated from two Egyptian cheeses, "Ras" and "Domiati".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Reine; El-Attar, Aisha; Mohamed, Mariam; Anwar, Shimaa; El-Soda, Morsi; Béal, Catherine

    2012-02-15

    The technological and safety properties of 35 indigenous strains of Enterococcus faecium isolated from two Egyptian cheeses were characterised in order to determine their ability for rational manufacture of diversified and typical dairy products in the Middle East. A great diversity was observed within the 35 strains on the basis of their technological properties. A statistical analysis made it possible to distribute the 35 strains of E. faecium into different groups. Three groups were identified in terms of their acidification activity, measured by the Cinac system: a group of strains that quickly acidified milk, a second that moderately acidified milk, and a last cluster that revealed weak acidification activity. On the basis of texturing properties that were evaluated using a texturometer and a viscometer, a cluster of strains produced viscous and firm gels, a second cluster included fairly viscous, firm and cohesive gels, and a last group generated slightly viscous, but firm and very cohesive gels. By considering the aroma profiles that were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, four clusters were identified. One cluster displayed a high dimethyl disulfide level, a second group of strains was highly aromatic, a third cluster led to typical "lactic" products, and the last cluster made it possible to obtain low aromatic products. None of the 35 strains proved to be β-haemolytic on the basis of the characterisation of their safety properties. The resistance to 20 antibiotics was assessed by the disc diffusion method. The 35 isolates were sensitive to 12 antibiotics, and among them, one isolate was resistant to only two antibiotics (nalixidic acid and streptomycin). The resistance to eight antibiotics was strain-dependant. Finally, this study demonstrates that some indigenous strains of E. faecium displayed interesting technological properties for cheese manufacture, together with good safety characteristics. They could be useful for the

  2. Biodiversity of bacterial ecosystems in traditional Egyptian Domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type.

  3. The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on The Quality of Egyptian Kareash Cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, S; Farage, M. D.; Galal, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of kareash cheese was evaluated. Egyptian kareash cheese were subjected to gamma irradiation at different safety doses beginning from 1 kGy to a maximum of 5 kGy . The physico-chemical composition as well as microbiological quality of kareash cheese samples was monitored before and after irradiation. Soluble nitrogen, salt as well as pH values were higher in cheese samples before irradiation in comparison with the irradiated groups. Irradiation reduced population of bacteria i.e. total colony count, Total yeast and mold count, aerobic spore former count, Coliform count, total Enterobacteriacae count and the effect was more pronounced at the highest dose (5 kGy). It could be concluded that increasing the dose of irradiation up to 5 kGy had high reduction percentages for bacterial count with no effect on either sensory or chemical characteristics. Our results suggest that kareash cheese manufacturer could use gamma irradiation to improve the safety of their product. (author)

  4. ESR Studies and Dating of Egyptian Gypsum at Ras Mala'ab, Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, A. A.; Abdei-Razek, Y. A.; Rasheed, N. M.; Hassan, G.M.; Eissa, H.M.; El-Morsy, M.

    2007-01-01

    A gypsum sample from the famous gypsum-anhydrite evaporitic deposit composing the Ras Mala'ab Formation, Upper Miocene, occurring at Ras Mala'ab, on the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, was subjected to (ESR) dosimetric studies. Also, (ESR) was used to date the formation or most recent recrystallization of that gypsum. The gypsum derivative (ESR) spectrum is characterized by the large broad Fe 2+ signal (g=2.50) and HF-sixtet Mn 2+ signals. Only the characteristic gypsum signal (G l, g=2.0040) was detected between the third and fourth lines of the HF-Mn 2+ which is attributed to the electron-center SO 3 - . This signal was sensitive to artificial γ-irradiation and showed significant enhancement using a γ-dose of 550 Gy. Also, the signal was very stable up to 400 o C. The gypsum sample with a total dose (TD) of 1500 Gy, determined graphically by extrapolating the linear relationship between defect concentration and the artificial γ-doses for (G l, g=2.0040) and an annual dose (D) due to cosmic rays (0.3 mGy), yielded an age of 5.00 Ma. This could mean the age of formation or latest recrystallization of this gypsum deposit. The geologic age assignment of the Ras Mala'ab Group including the evaporitic gypsum unit, is Middle to Late Miocene. It is directly overlain by the Pliocene elastics at the locality of Ras Mala'ab. This might suggest that these evaporitic gypsum facies represent the top of the Miocene in the Gulf of Suez area, since the Miocene-Pliocene boundary is now put at 5.00-5.50 Ma ago. Therefore, the ESR age of the Ras Mala'ab gypsum is consistent with the geologic age assignment

  5. Cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Lucey, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The initial step in the manufacture of most cheese varieties involves enzymatic hydrolysis of one of the milk proteins, κ-casein. The enzyme involved is called rennet. During the primary stage, κ-casein is cleaved by rennet at the Phe105–Met106 bond, resulting in a reduction in both the net...

  6. Antimicrobial effects of pepper, parsley, and dill and their roles in the microbiological quality enhancement of traditional Egyptian Kareish cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Nahed M; Ahmed, Amany S; Ebraheim, Zedan Z

    2010-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the application of some edible plants including cayenne, green pepper, parsley, and dill to Kareish cheese and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of these plant materials against natural microflora, coliforms, molds, and Staphylococcus aureus. Twelve different concentrations of ethanol extract of the plants were prepared for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration. Cayenne and green pepper extracts showed highest activity followed by dill and parsley against S. aureus. Addition of cayenne or green pepper to Kareish cheese during manufacture revealed that both plants were able reduce the S. aureus population to undetectable level within the first and second days of storage. To study the effect of combining plant materials on the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat Kareish cheese, the total bacterial count, coliform count, and yeast and molds counts were determined. It has been found that addition of plant materials to Kareish cheese reduced the total bacterial and coliform populations. All concentrations of cayenne, green pepper, dill, and parsley (9%) completely reduced the yeast count within 2 hours. Cayenne and green pepper completely reduced the mold count within 2 days, whereas parsley and dill were found to be less effective. Kareish cheese prepared with 1% cayenne pepper and 3% and 6% each of green pepper, dill, and parsley were found strongly acceptable to the consumer and considered the most preferable type. Therefore, this study revealed that pepper, parsley, and dill exhibited antibacterial activity against natural microflora, coliforms, yeast and molds, and S. aureus in Kareish cheese, and the addition of these plants is acceptable to the consumer and may contribute to the development of new and safe varieties of Kareish cheese.

  7. Enhancement of Egyptian soft white cheese shelf life using a novel chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose/zinc oxide bionanocomposite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Sayed, Samah M; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Salama, Heba H; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-10-20

    A novel bionanocomposites packaging material prepared using chitosan (CH), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), namely CH/CMC/ZnO bionanocomposites, was prepared by casting method. The CH/CMC/ZnO bionanocomposites were investigated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA. The acquired bionanocomposites exhibited improved mechanical and thermal properties compare with the biocomposites (CH/CMC) blend. The soft white cheese were manufactured, packaged within the prepared bionanocomposites films and stored at 7°C for 30days. The influence of packaging material on packaged cheese (rheological properties, colour measurements, moisture, pH and titratable acidity) were assessed. Furthermore, the effect of packaging material on the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform in cheese was evaluated. The prepared bionanocomposites displayed good antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). Moreover, the packaging films assisted in increasing the shelf life of white soft cheese. Therefore, it can be used in food packaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. RAS Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Heimbrook, now CEO of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, played a major role in a large pharma as it tried to develop an anti-RAS drug. Lessons from that failure inform the RAS Initiative today.

  9. Improving quality of some types of cheese by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, E.M.E.A

    2010-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation as a food preservation technique has been recognized for many years as a means to reduce food losses, improve food safety, and extend shelf life. Furthermore, irradiation can be an effective way of reducing the incidence of food borne disease and treating a variety of potential problems in food supplies. The treatment of food with ionizing radiation is one of the most thoroughly researched techniques available to the food processing industry. In view of the afore mentioned the objective of this study were to study the effect of irradiation time and dose on Ras cheese quality, investigate the effect of irradiation after ripening on cheese quality and possibility of prolonging the shelf-life of Ras cheese, study the effect of irradiation dose on Kareish cheese quality and its shelf- life and to monitor the chemical, microbiological and sensory changes during ripening and storage of Ras and Kareish cheeses .The results of this study will be presented in three parts: Part I: Effect of irradiation dose and time on some properties of Ras cheese:Part II: Effect of irradiation on some properties during storage of ripened Ras cheese.Part III: Effect of irradiation on the quality and shelf-life of Kareish cheese: It could be concluded that irradiation caused a significant reduction of cheese ripening indices, and count of total viable,proteolytic, lipolytic bacteria and mould and yeast. Using irradiation doses of 3 and 4 kGy were able to stop the ripening factors and these safety dose were used to prevent the ripened Ras cheese irradiation of ripened Ras cheese has been prolonged the shelf-life of Ras cheese to about 32 months compared with control cheese, which showed only 18 months. The obtained results revealed that the best irradiation treatment was at the end of ripening period. Also safety irradiation of Kareish cheese has been prolonged the shelf-life of Kareish cheese to about 54 days compared with 12 days only control cheese.

  10. Krcki cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Prpić

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Krčki cheese is autochthonous Croatian cheese from the island of Krk, which belongs to the group of hard, full-fat cheeses, produced from raw, thermally untreated sheep′s milk. Taking into consideration the fact that the last investigation of Krčki cheese was done in the middle of the last century, probably some changes in technology of Krčki cheese production have occurred since this time. Therefore, the objectives of this paper were investigate the quality of sheep′s milk for Krčki cheese production, the quality of whey (as the material for production of albumin cheese quargs and Krčki cheese, as well as the technology of Krčki cheese production on family farms on the island of Krk. Results of the composition and characteristics analyses of sheep′s milk for Krčki cheese production were as follows: milk fat 7.81%; proteins 5.59%; lactose 4.97%; total solids 19.04%; non-fat dry matter 11.06%; pH 6.66; titratable acidity 9.41 °SH, and freezing point –0.555 °C. Somatic cell count (SCC was 407 000 cells/ml and total bacterial count (cfu was 950 000/mL. Average composition of Krčki cheese was as follows: fat 37.38%; protein 23.24%; total solids 63.22%; moisture in solid non-fat 57.36%; fat in total solids 54.38%; salt 1.97%; pH 5.78; lactic acid content 1.216%; WSN/TN 10.15%, and TCASN/TN 6.28%. Microbiological analyses of Krčki cheese showed that only 55% of analysed samples were hygienically acceptable according to the Regulations of Microbial Standards for Foods (NN 46/94.. Therefore, the necessary modifications have to be introduced into technology of production of sheep′s milk and Krčki cheese in order to increase microbiological quality and to reduce variability in composition and quality of Krčki cheese between family farms. These are necessary for preparing the Krčki cheese for Protection Geographical Indication (PGI.

  11. Lecevacki cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Matutinović

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review traditional Croatian cheeses were described as well as their importance considering globalization and industrialization in food production. The most important property of traditional cheeses is their originality and origin of milk that is incorporated in those products. As the high profitability (high price of the products is very important it is necessary to conduct one of possible protections on European level. In that sense, hard cheeses from Adriatic and Dinara areas have significant potential due to the fact that high value raw material - sheep milk produced from breed with very extensively management using natural pasture with characteristic botanical composition consisting aromatic Mediteranean plants, is used in their production. This milk is characterized with high percentage of some chemical components, especially fat and protein. Considering that fact, this milk represents the best material especially for hard cheese production. In this paper the review of milk chemical composition of the most important Croatian sheep breeds which milk is used for production of hard cheeses, was performed. The review of basic technological parameters in production of hard traditional cheeses considering type, standardization and heat treatment of milk, renneting, curd cutting and drying, dimension, salting and ripening is represented. Characterization parameters of cheese, considering chemical and physical composition, biochemical changes, dominant microflora which dominates in technological production procedure and determines taste and odour of mature cheese, are shown. The basic characteristics and technology of Lecevacki cheese production was described too, as the most important traditional cheese from Split area surroundings. This cheese type was produced on family farms as well as on industrial level for some time. Its sensory characteristics are described in the paper.

  12. The RAS Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI established the RAS Initiative to explore innovative approaches for attacking the proteins encoded by mutant forms of RAS genes and to ultimately create effective, new therapies for RAS-related cancers.

  13. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Rezik Azab; Salama, Wafaa Mohammed; Farahat, Azza Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artificial, extruded, synthetic and/or filled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, flavorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). Matured Ras cheese (3 months old) was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fine paste and kept frozen until used. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and firmness of products. Feeding rats a balanced diet containing processed cheese

  14. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  15. Egyptian Tomb Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Liesa

    1999-01-01

    Provides an activity where sixth-grade students replicated the Egyptian art form of tomb painting. Explains that the students researched information about Egyptian culture and history in order to familiarize themselves with Egyptian wall-painting style. Discusses the process of creating tomb paintings in detail. (CMK)

  16. Diversity and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus spp. associated with domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharoud, Walid M; Spano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    A total of 87 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese (an Egyptian soft cheese) were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. Fifteen Staphylococcus isolates identified as S. aureus (2 isolates), S. xylosus (4), S. caprae (4), and S. chromogenes (5) were recovered from 15 cheese samples. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin, and one isolate was also resistant to tetracycline. S. aureus isolates harbored classical staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea and seb) and recently characterized SE-like genes (selg, seli, selm, and selo). One S. aureus isolate contained a single SE gene (sea), whereas another isolate contained five SE genes (seb, selg, seli, selm, and selo). These results suggest that Domiati cheese is a source for various Staphylococcus species, including S. aureus strains that could be enterotoxigenic.

  17. RAS Initiative - Community Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through community and technical collaborations, workshops and symposia, and the distribution of reference reagents, the RAS Initiative seeks to increase the sharing of knowledge and resources essential to defeating cancers caused by mutant RAS genes.

  18. RAS Initiative - Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  19. About the RAS Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Initiative, a "hub and spoke" model, connects researchers to better understand and target the more than 30% of cancers driven by mutations in RAS genes. Includes oversight and contact information.

  20. RAS - Target Identification - Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Informatics lab group develops tools to track and analyze “big data” from the RAS Initiative, as well as analyzes data from external projects. By integrating internal and external data, this group helps improve understanding of RAS-driven cancers.

  1. Biodiversity of Bacterial Ecosystems in Traditional Egyptian Domiati Cheese▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434

  2. Cheese / Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Eero, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Fotoajakirjast "Cheese". Fotograafia uurimisest, fotoajaloo läbikirjutatusest Eestis. Samas "Cheese'i" toimetaja Tiit Lepp ajakirja erainitsiatiivil väljaandmisest, Eesti Kultuurkapitali ebapiisavast ja määramatust toetusest

  3. The science of cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book describes the science of cheese in everyday language. The first chapters cover milk, mammals, and principles of cheesemaking and aging, along with lactose intolerance and raw milk cheese. Succeeding chapters deal with a category of cheese along with a class of compounds associated with it...

  4. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...... to contain high amounts of SFA. However, cheese also contributes with several nutrients in the diet such as essential amino acids and calcium. The aim of this thesis was to examine the effect of cheese intake on CVD risk through evidence from both observational, intervention and explorative studies....... By reviewing results from published observational studies it was concluded that cheese does not seem to increase CVD risk, despite of the high SFA content of most cheeses. A human cross-over intervention study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the effect of hard cheese intake on risk markers...

  5. Egyptian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In this work are given the principal news concerning petroleum and natural gas in Egyptian Arab Republic. An important discovery of natural gas has been made in Khalda (Egyptian Arab Republic). The discovery well will be temporarily abandoned until it is connected to the egyptian pipeline system. In 1996 the south Khalda will be explored with at least two well drilling. The transit duties by the Suez canal for liquefied natural gas exports have decreased of 35%. The Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company studies a connection project of the trans saudi pipeline with the Suez mediterranean pipeline. The Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation will furnish 2,5 milliards of m 3 per year of natural gas to Israel during 20 years. (O.L.). 2 figs

  6. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS FUNCTIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cottage cheese products holds a significant place among the dairy and milk-containing products. The range of products includes cheese: cheese, pastes, creams, cakes, etc. Such diversity can be attributed to their popularity among the population and benefit brought by the body from regular use. Curd protein is much better and easier to digest by the body than protein fish, meat or milk. Rich curd products lysine and methionine. Minerals contained in cheese products have a positive effect on bone formation and structure of tissues. The composition of curd products, in addition to cheese and dairy ingredients may include non-dairy ingredients origin. Today, for the production of cheese products use the most advanced technologies to further enrich its structure and significantly improve the nutritional value. Pine nut is widely used in the manufacture of many dairy products. But, in most cases, the production of dairy products as a filler used pine nut cake, which deprives the finished product valuable cedar oil. The authors proposed a technology for producing curd product with the addition of pine nuts and honey (pine nuts and fructose. Compatible with cream cheese filling insertion determined sensory organoleptic point scale. he optimum dosage of components: pine nuts – 5 %, honey – 10 % fructose – 7 %. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations training components and their introduction into the finished cheese. Identify indicators of quality of the new product. Production of curd products thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  7. Egyptian Mythological Manuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Kristoffer Blach

    From the hands of Greek mythographers a great number of myths have survived along with philosophical discussions of their meaning and relevance for the Greeks. It is little known that something similar existed in ancient Egypt where temple libraries and archives held scholarly literature used...... by the native priesthood, much of which has only been published in recent years. As part of this corpus of texts, the ancient Egyptian mythological manuals offer a unique perspective on how the Egyptian priesthood structured and interpreted Egyptian myths. The thesis looks at the different interpretative...... techniques used in the Tebtunis Mythological Manual (Second century CE) and the Mythological Manual of the Delta (Sixth century BCE) and the place of these manuals within the larger corpus of priestly scholarly literature from ancient Egypt. To organize the wealth of local myths the manuals use model...

  8. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  9. Print like an Egyptian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisensee, Marilyn

    1990-01-01

    Describes a relief printmaking unit for sixth graders with the objective of decorating the inside of a pyramid. Ancient Egyptian imagery was used to help students become familiar with the style. Students designed and printed linoleum prints in different colors. They then critiqued their work and made their selection for the pyramid. (KM)

  10. Sit Like an Egyptian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The topic of Egypt is one that students are naturally intrigued and enthusiastic about. In this article, fifth graders create mosaic and mixed-media collaged chairs in their visual arts class as part of their overall study of the art and culture of ancient Egypt. The idea was to embellish a contemporary chair with Egyptian colors, themes, and…

  11. Ras activation by SOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual ...

  12. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Products § 133.146 Grated cheeses. (a) Description. Grated cheeses is the class of foods prepared by..., and skim milk cheese for manufacturing may not be used. All cheese ingredients used are either made... ___ cheese”, the name of the cheese filling the blank. (ii) If only parmesan and romano cheeses are used and...

  13. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese is... two or more varieties, except cream cheese, neufchatel cheese, cottage cheese, lowfat cottage cheese...

  14. Proteolysis in soft cheese, studied on Meshanger cheese and cheese models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, A.

    1978-01-01

    Enzymes predominantly responsible for the primary degradation of protein in soft cheese and for the related changes in consistency were studied. Reconstructed Noordhollandse Meshanger cheese and preserved simulated soft cheeses of different composition were used as models in the

  15. Archives: Egyptian Journal of Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 17 of 17 ... Archives: Egyptian Journal of Biology. Journal Home > Archives: Egyptian Journal of Biology. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 17 of 17 Items ...

  16. Egyptian Journal of Natural History

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Journal of Natural History publishes taxonomic and faunistic studies, or field-based research involving the natural history of the Egyptian fauna and flora. Both short and long papers are welcomed. We particularly encourage studies on Sinai.View the Instructions for authors All papers are reviewed by at least ...

  17. Autochthonous cheeses of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Sarić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the migration of people towards cities, autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina survived. Technologies of these cheeses are simple and adapted to humble mountain limitations. Geographical occasions and rich mountain pastures created a certain participation of ewe's milk cheeses. Communicative isolation of hilly-mountain regions resulted in "closed" cheese production in small households. Autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina have various origins. Different cheeses are produced in different parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There are : Travnički cheese, Masni (fat cheese, Presukača, Sirac, Livanjski cheese, Posni (lean cheese, "Suvi" (dry cheese or "Mješinski" full fat cheese matured in sheepskin bag, fresh sour milk cheese "Kiseli" and dried sour milk cheese "Kiseli", Zajednica, Basa, Kalenderovački cheese and goat's milk cheeses (Hard and White soft goat's milk cheese, "Zarica" and Urda. Besides above-mentioned types of cheese in Bosnia and Herzegovina some other autochthonous dairy products are produced: Kajmak (Cream, Maslo (Rendered butter and Zimsko kiselo mlijeko (Winter sour milk. The specificity in Bosnia and Herzegovina is that autochthonous dairy products are still mainly both produced and consumed in small rural households. Exceptions are Travnički cheese and Kajmak that are significantly sold at market. Only Livanjski cheese is manufactured as industry dairy product.

  18. H-RAS, K-RAS, and N-RAS gene activation in human bladder cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybojewska, B; Jagiello, A; Jalmuzna, P

    2000-08-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in most developed countries. In this work, 19 bladder cancer specimens, along with their infiltrations of the urinary bladder wall from the same patients, were examined for the presence of H-RAS, K-RAS, and N-RAS activation using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. The H-RAS activation was found in 15 (about 84%) of the 19 bladder cancers studied. The same results were obtained in the infiltrating urinary bladder wall samples. N-RAS gene mutations were observed in all cases (except 1) in which H-RAS gene mutations were detected. The results suggest a strong relationship between H-RAS and N-RAS gene activation in bladder cancer. Changes in the K-RAS gene in bladder cancers seem to be a rare event; this is in agreement with findings of other authors. We found activation of the gene in one specimen of bladder cancer and its infiltration of the urinary bladder wall in the same patient.

  19. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared...

  20. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  1. Analog reactor simulator RAS; Reaktorski analogni simulator RAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radanovic, Lj; Bingulac, S; Popovic, D [The Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1961-07-01

    Analog computer RAS was designed as a nuclear reactor simulator, but it can be simultaneously used for solving a number of other problems. This paper contains a brief description of the simulator parts and their principal characteristics.

  2. Potential of anticlostridial Lactobacillus isolated from cheese to prevent blowing defects in semihard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Vogensen,, F. K.; Nielsen, E. W

    2010-01-01

    Five anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese were selected for a mixed adjunct culture. Cheese with the mixed adjunct culture (experimental) and without (control) was made in triplicate and ripened as vacuum-packed and surface-ripened cheese. Cheese gross composition was similar....... Excessive gas formation occurred only in control cheeses. In contrast to control cheeses, the experimental cheeses were dominated by the added adjunct Lactobacillus strains (repetitive-PCR). Casein breakdown was not influenced, however, the total amount of amino acids and pH was slightly lower...... in the experimental cheeses. Anticlostridial nonstarter Lactobacillus strains have potential as protective adjunct cultures against blowing defects in cheese....

  3. Evaluation of the Green Egyptian Pyramid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Gamal Ammar

    2012-12-01

    The research concluded to the need of developing the Egyptian pyramid system through studying more global systems, in addition to the need to benefit from the Egyptian experience stock of solutions and environmental treatments in ancient architecture.

  4. Archives: Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 34 of 34 ... Archives: Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics. Journal Home > Archives: Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Mevalonates, Ras and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... This selective inhibition appears to be a consequence of expression of oncogenic Ras. Here we are evaluating the ability of Fmev to selectively interfere with proliferation of breast cancer cells...

  7. Bacteriological studies on Limburger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Erian, A.F.M.

    1969-01-01

    A study has been made of the ripening process of Limburger cheese, including microbiological investigations of the surface flora and chemical analyses of the cheese during the different stages of ripening. The microbial flora was studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition to the

  8. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  9. Regulation of p21ras activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowy, D R; Zhang, K; DeClue, J E

    1992-01-01

    The ras genes encode GTP/GDP-binding proteins that participate in mediating mitogenic signals from membrane tyrosine kinases to downstream targets. The activity of p21ras is determined by the concentration of GTP-p21ras, which is tightly regulated by a complex array of positive and negative control...... mechanisms. GAP and NF1 can negatively regulate p21ras activity by stimulating hydrolysis of GTP bound to p21ras. Other cellular factors can positively regulate p21ras by stimulating GDP/GTP exchange....

  10. Ras proteins have multiple functions in vegetative cells of Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolourani, Parvin; Spiegelman, George; Weeks, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    During the aggregation of Dictyostelium cells, signaling through RasG is more important in regulating cyclic AMP (cAMP) chemotaxis, whereas signaling through RasC is more important in regulating the cAMP relay. However, RasC is capable of substituting for RasG for chemotaxis, since rasG⁻ cells are only partially deficient in chemotaxis, whereas rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells are totally incapable of chemotaxis. In this study we have examined the possible functional overlap between RasG and RasC in vegetative cells by comparing the vegetative cell properties of rasG⁻, rasC⁻, and rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells. In addition, since RasD, a protein not normally found in vegetative cells, is expressed in vegetative rasG⁻ and rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells and appears to partially compensate for the absence of RasG, we have also examined the possible functional overlap between RasG and RasD by comparing the properties of rasG⁻ and rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells with those of the mutant cells expressing higher levels of RasD. The results of these two lines of investigation show that RasD is capable of totally substituting for RasG for cytokinesis and growth in suspension, whereas RasC is without effect. In contrast, for chemotaxis to folate, RasC is capable of partially substituting for RasG, but RasD is totally without effect. Finally, neither RasC nor RasD is able to substitute for the role that RasG plays in regulating actin distribution and random motility. These specificity studies therefore delineate three distinct and none-overlapping functions for RasG in vegetative cells.

  11. Folkloric Art in Egyptian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Siham

    1983-01-01

    Theories in art education with a western origin have been applied in Egypt to support the revival of folkloric art. There are three important phases in the teaching of a unit on applique, a decorative craft dating back to the earliest Egyptian history. (AM)

  12. Egyptian Journal of Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Journal of Biomedical Sciences publishes in all aspects of biomedical research sciences. Both basic and clinical research papers are welcomed. Vol 23 (2007). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Phytochemical And ...

  13. Mutational analysis of a ras catalytic domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Papageorge, A G; Kung, H F

    1986-01-01

    localization. We speculate that this latter region interacts with the putative cellular target of ras. The results suggest that transforming ras proteins require membrane localization, guanosine nucleotide binding, and an additional undefined function that may represent interaction with their target....

  14. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  15. Evaluation of the Green Egyptian Pyramid

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar, Mohamed Gamal

    2012-01-01

    In January 2009 was established the Egyptian Council for evaluating green building, then the Board issue a primary version of the Egyptian pyramid in 2010, and as a result of economic, social and political changes that happened in Egypt after the Arab spring period, the study of regional experiences of neighboring countries in Africa and Asia in the development of evaluation system for green buildings of global systems that can contribute to the development of the Egyptian pyramid to promote ...

  16. ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDY OF NASAL INDEX OF EGYPTIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nasal index determination is one of the most commonly used anthropometric parameters in classifying human races. There are few reports in medical literature concerning nasal index that specifically address particular Egyptian populations. The objective of this study was to determine the normal parameters of external nose (width, height and nasal index) in Egyptians. Methods: The study was conducted randomly on healthy Egyptian subjects of both sexes. Nasal height and width ...

  17. Ras signaling in aging and metabolic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Cathy

    2017-12-07

    Aberrant signal transduction downstream of the Ras GTPase has a well-established role in tumorigenesis. Mutations that result in hyperactivation of Ras are responsible for a third of all human cancers. Hence, small molecule inhibitors of the Ras signal transduction cascade have been under intense focus as potential cancer treatments. In both invertebrate and mammalian models, emerging evidence has also implicated components of the Ras signaling pathway in aging and metabolic regulation. Here, I review the current evidence for Ras signaling in these newly discovered roles highlighting the interactions between the Ras pathway and other longevity assurance mechanisms. Defining the role of Ras signaling in maintaining age-related health may have important implications for the development of interventions that could not only increase lifespan but also delay the onset and/or progression of age-related functional decline.

  18. The Marskhod Egyptian Drill Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M. A. M.

    We describe a possible participation of Egypt in a future Mars rover Mission. It was suggested that Egypt participate through involvement in the design, building and testing of a drill to obtain sub-surface samples. The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), formally invited the Egyptian Ministry of Scientific Research to study the concept for potential use on the Russian Mars 2001 Mission. As one of the objectives of the Marskhod mission was the analysis of sub-surface samples, a drilling mechanism in the payload would be essential. The Egyptian expertise in drill development is associated with the archaeological exploration of the Pyramids. A sophisticated drilling system perforated limestone to a depth of 2 m without the use of lubricants or cooling fluids that might have contaminated the Pit's environment. This experience could have been applied to a drill development Mars 2001 mission, which was unfortunately canceled due to economic problems.

  19. Cranial trepanation in The Egyptian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2014-09-01

    Medicine and literature have been linked from ancient times; proof of this shown by the many doctors who have made contributions to literature and the many writers who have described medical activities and illnesses in their works. An example is The Egyptian, the book by Mika Waltari that provides a masterly narration of the protagonist's medical activity and describes the trepanation technique. The present work begins with the analysis of trepanations since prehistory and illustrates the practice of the trepanation in The Egyptian. The book mentions trepanation frequently and illustrates how to practice it and which instruments are required to perform it. Trepanation is one of the oldest surgical interventions carried out as treatment for cranial trauma and neurological diseases, but it also had the magical and religious purpose of expelling the evil spirits which caused the mental illness, epilepsy, or migraine symptoms. Trepanation is a surgical practice that has been carried out since prehistory to treat post-traumatic epilepsy, migraine, and psychiatric illness. The Egyptian is a book that illustrates the trepan, the trepanation technique, and the required set of instruments in full detail. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. K-RAS and N-RAS mutations in testicular germ cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Muhammet Hacioglu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer is a relatively rare tumor type, accounting for approximately 1% of all cancers in men. However, among men aged between 15 and 40 years, testicular cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy. Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs are classified as seminoma and non-seminoma. The RAS oncogene controls several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and differentiation. Thus, RAS signaling is important for normal germ cell development. Mutations of the Kirsten RAS (K-RAS gene are present in over 20% of all cancers. RAS gene mutations have also been reported in TGCTs. We investigated K-RAS and N-RAS mutations in seminoma and non-seminoma TGCT patients. A total of 24 (55% pure seminoma cases and 19 (45% non-seminoma cases were included in the study. K-RAS and N-RAS analyses were performed in our molecular pathology laboratory, using K-RAS and N-RAS Pyro Kit 24 V1 (Qiagen. In total, a RAS mutation was present in 12 patients (27%: 7 seminoma (29% and 5 non-seminoma cases (26% [p = 0.55]. A K-RAS mutation was present in 4 pure seminoma tumors (16% and 3 non-seminoma tumors (15% [p = 0.63], and an N-RAS mutation was observed in 4 seminoma tumors (16% and 3 non-seminoma tumors (15% [p = 0.63]. Both, K-RAS and N-RAS mutations were present in two patients: one with seminoma tumor and the other with non-seminoma tumor. To date, no approved targeted therapy is available for the treatment of TGCTs. The analysis of K-RAS and N-RAS mutations in these tumors may provide more treatment options, especially in platinum-resistant tumors.

  1. Inhibitors of Ras-SOS Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Zhang, Jian; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-04-19

    Activating Ras mutations are found in about 30 % of human cancers. Ras activation is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, such as the son of sevenless (SOS), which form protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with Ras and catalyze the exchange of GDP by GTP. This is the rate-limiting step in Ras activation. However, Ras surfaces lack any evident suitable pockets where a molecule might bind tightly, rendering Ras proteins still 'undruggable' for over 30 years. Among the alternative approaches is the design of inhibitors that target the Ras-SOS PPI interface, a strategy that is gaining increasing recognition for treating Ras mutant cancers. Herein we focus on data that has accumulated over the past few years pertaining to the design of small-molecule modulators or peptide mimetics aimed at the interface of the Ras-SOS PPI. We emphasize, however, that even if such Ras-SOS therapeutics are potent, drug resistance may emerge. To counteract this development, we propose "pathway drug cocktails", that is, drug combinations aimed at parallel (or compensatory) pathways. A repertoire of classified cancer, cell/tissue, and pathway/protein combinations would be beneficial toward this goal. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Low addition of grated Mozzarella cheese (13.4 g/100 g dough) resulted after baking for 20 min at 200 degrees C in a moderate increase of acrylamide from 4 ppb in buns without cheese to 7 ppb in the cheese buns as analyzed by a LCMS/MS technique. The effect was strongly dependent on the amount...... of cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars....... In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  3. 21 CFR 133.155 - Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 133.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It may be... culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to set...

  4. Significant population of Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus population in Morocco has undergone a marked decline since the 1980s to the point of nearing local extinction in the twenty-first century. A field study of some possible sites for Egyptian Vultures was carried out over six days during June 2014 in the Middle Atlas Mountains, ...

  5. Extraordinarily Egyptian Jewelry Fit for a Pharaoh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Berniece

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art lesson for sixth-grade students in which the students study the Egyptians' jewelry techniques and designs and create their own amulets. Provides background information on the importance of life after death to the Egyptians and how religion influenced the designing of their amulets. Describes the jewelry-making procedure. (CMK)

  6. The Wall Drawings of Egyptian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brent

    1982-01-01

    Discusses murals done by Egyptian children. Differences in the drawing styles of American and Egyptian children are discussed. The author states that the significance of the wall drawings is that they represent a rich social setting in which children learn to produce art. (AM)

  7. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  9. Using the capital markets in Ras Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voge, B.; Penzer, M.

    1997-01-01

    In December 1996, Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas Company Ltd (Ras Gas) closed a multi-source financing that included an offering of US$1.2bn of bonds. The sponsors of the Ras Gas project overcame a number of obstacles on the road to closing the capital markets offering. This article provides a general overview of capital markets offerings in international project financings and discusses how Ras Gas was able to successfully integrate a capital markets offering into a financing plan which included a commercial bank facility and several export-credit agency facilities. (Author)

  10. The quality of processed cheeses and cheese analogues the same brand domestic and foreign production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Bezeková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Processed cheeses belong to Slovakia favorite dairy products. Processed cheeses are made from natural cheeses. In recent years the trend is to replace natural cheeses with other raw materials of non-dairy nature. The composition of the processed cheese analogues is not in many countries defined by legislation. The objective of this study was to determine and compare chemical properties (fat, dry matter, fat in dry matter, NaCl two samples of processed cheeses (C, D - Veselá krava and two samples cheese analogues (A, B - Kiri the same brand domestic and foreign production. The evaluated was taste of processed cheeses and cheese analogues, too. Chemical analysis and sensory analysis were repeated four times. The results of chemical analysis shows that all rated samples processed cheeses made on Slovakia fulfilled demands declared (dry matter and fat in dry matter as producers provided on the label. The most commonly fluctuate content of NaCl from 1 to 1.24 g.100g-1. The higher coefficient of variation in the determination of NaCl (3.88% was found in processed cheeses made in France. Processed cheese and cheese analogues made in France had not specified parameters for dry matter and fat in dry matter on the label. For production cheese analogues Kiri made in Slovakia was used different raw material than Kiri made in France. The taste of products was determined by descriptors - salty, slightly sweet, milky, buttery-creamy, fatty, sour, bitter, and unknown. The interesting that Kiri made in Slovakia had stronger milky and buttery-creamy taste than cheese analogue Kiri made in France. Significant differences were found in the slighty sweet taste of processed cheeses, the most points won processed cheese Veselá krava made in Slovakia.

  11. Thermal properties of selected cheeses samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BOŽIKOVÁ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermophysical parameters of selected cheeses (processed cheese and half hard cheese are presented in the article. Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms. Cheese goes during processing through the thermal and mechanical manipulation, so thermal properties are one of the most important. Knowledge about thermal parameters of cheeses could be used in the process of quality evaluation. Based on the presented facts thermal properties of selected cheeses which are produced by Slovak producers were measured. Theoretical part of article contains description of cheese and description of plane source method which was used for thermal parameters detection. Thermophysical parameters as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volume specific heat were measured during the temperature stabilisation. The results are presented as relations of thermophysical parameters to the temperature in temperature range from 13.5°C to 24°C. Every point of graphic relation was obtained as arithmetic average from measured values for the same temperature. Obtained results were statistically processed. Presented graphical relations were chosen according to the results of statistical evaluation and also according to the coefficients of determination for every relation. The results of thermal parameters are in good agreement with values measured by other authors for similar types of cheeses.

  12. High-throughput screening identifies small molecules that bind to the RAS:SOS:RAS complex and perturb RAS signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael C; Howes, Jennifer E; Sun, Qi; Little, Andrew J; Camper, DeMarco V; Abbott, Jason R; Phan, Jason; Lee, Taekyu; Waterson, Alex G; Rossanese, Olivia W; Fesik, Stephen W

    2018-05-01

    K-RAS is mutated in approximately 30% of human cancers, resulting in increased RAS signaling and tumor growth. Thus, RAS is a highly validated therapeutic target, especially in tumors of the pancreas, lung and colon. Although directly targeting RAS has proven to be challenging, it may be possible to target other proteins involved in RAS signaling, such as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS). We have previously reported on the discovery of small molecules that bind to SOS1, activate SOS-mediated nucleotide exchange on RAS, and paradoxically inhibit ERK phosphorylation (Burns et al., PNAS, 2014). Here, we describe the discovery of additional, structurally diverse small molecules that also bind to SOS1 in the same pocket and elicit similar biological effects. We tested >160,000 compounds in a fluorescence-based assay to assess their effects on SOS-mediated nucleotide exchange. X-Ray structures revealed that these small molecules bind to the CDC25 domain of SOS1. Compounds that elicited high levels of nucleotide exchange activity in vitro increased RAS-GTP levels in cells, and inhibited phospho ERK levels at higher treatment concentrations. The identification of structurally diverse SOS1 binding ligands may assist in the discovery of new molecules designed to target RAS-driven tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvements in the Flavour of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of biochemical and technological similarities and dissimilarities between soy cheese and Cheddar cheese is presented to provide guidelines for the improvements in the flavour of soy cheese. Processing technology as well as the final product of soy cheese have many similarities with Cheddar in terms of appearance, texture, mouth feel, chemical nature, biochemical processes, etc. Soy protein has many useful amino acids like Asp, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp, Tyr, Val, etc., which are precursors of flavouring compounds and the right choice of microbial cultures is necessary to benefit from them. Using low levels of sodium chloride, without the use of ethanol, and introducing new milk cheese starter and non-starter cultures like Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (formerly L. lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus lactis var. maltigenes and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris that enhance flavour will be helpful to improve the flavour of soy cheese.

  14. Alexithymia in Egyptian Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rasheed, Amany Haroun

    2001-03-01

    Alexithymia is thought of as a trait that predisposes to drug abuse. Moreover, it is suggested to be related to type of the substance abused, with the worst-case scenario including a worse prognosis as well as tendency to relapse or even not to seek treatment at all. To address this important subject in Egyptian patients, a sample of 200 Egyptian substance abusers was randomly selected from inpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Egypt. The study also included 200 group-matched controls. DSM-IV criteria were used for assessment of substance use disorders, and toxicologic urine analysis was used to confirm the substances of abuse. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-Arabic version was used for assessment of alexithymia. It was found that alexithymia was significantly more prevalent in the substance use disorders group as compared to healthy controls. It was also found that among the substance use disorders group, alexithymics reported more polysubstance abuse, more opiate use (other than heroin IV), lower numbers of hospitalizations, lower numbers of reported relapses, and a lower tendency to relapse as a result of internal cues compared to patients without alexithymia. Statistically significant associations were also found between alexithymia and more benzodiazepine abuse and nonpersistence in treatment. The results suggest that alexithymia should be targeted in a treatment setting for substance use disorders.

  15. Egyptian and foreign cigarettes Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1985-01-01

    NAA was employed to determine the concentration of 27 elements in an Egyptian cigarette filter before and after smoking. The filter of three foreign cigarette brands were also analyzed and compared to the Egyptian brand. The elements determined are Al, As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V and Zn. It was observed that the concentration of the measured elements in the Egyptian brand were within the concentration range of foreign brands, and that the concentration of As, Br, Cl, K, Na and Se in the filters increased after smoking regardless the brands examined. (author)

  16. The Egyptian Military Elite: An Operational Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    17 Jan 1955. 6. Salem, Major Salah, "Mehalla’s Great Welcome For Major Salem," Egyptian Gazette, p. 1, 7 Jan 1955. 7. Muhieldin, Lt. Col. Zakaria, "The...Wheel of Reform Will Not Turn Back," Egyptian Gazette, p. 1, 26 Jan 1955. 8. Gohar, Lt. Col. Salah, "Imaginary Incident Explored," Egyptian Gazette...Says Army is Fully Prepared," Al Akhbar , FBIS Vol. 172, p. Al, 4 Sept 1956. 12. Sadat, Anwar al, "Western Powers Determined to Grab Canal," Al

  17. Transference of lutein during cheese making, color stability, and sensory acceptance of prato cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Tiaki Kaneiwa Kubo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of lutein is associated with the prevention and reduction of age-related macular degeneration. Its incorporation into Prato cheese as a yellowish food coloring is a valid alternative to increase the daily intake of this compound. However, part of the lutein added may be lost in the whey during the cheese making, or it can be degraded by light during storage, resulting in color changes reducing the sensory acceptance of the cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine the transference of the lutein (dye, added to the milk, in the whey, and cheese, to evaluate the effect of the lutein addition, light exposure, and storage time on the cheese color, and to verify the sensory acceptance of Prato cheese with addition of lutein. The lutein recovery of cheese was 95.25%. Color saturation (chrome increased during storage time resulting in a cheese with more intense color, but there were no changes in the hue of the cheese. Adjusting the amount of lutein added to Prato cheese may lead to greater acceptance. The high recovery of lutein in the cheese and the fact that the hue remained unchanged during storage under light showed that the incorporation of lutein into Prato cheese is feasible from a technical point of view.

  18. Molecular interaction between K-Ras and H-REV107 in the Ras signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chang Woo; Jeong, Mi Suk; Jang, Se Bok

    2017-09-16

    Ras proteins are small GTPases that serve as master moderators of a large number of signaling pathways involved in various cellular processes. Activating mutations in Ras are found in about one-third of cancers. H-REV107, a K-Ras binding protein, plays an important role in determining K-Ras function. H-REV107 is a member of the HREV107 family of class II tumor suppressor genes and a growth inhibitory Ras target gene that suppresses cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Expression of H-REV107 was strongly reduced in about 50% of human carcinoma cell lines. However, the specific molecular mechanism by which H-REV107 inhibits Ras is still unknown. In the present study, we suggest that H-REV107 forms a strong complex with activating oncogenic mutation Q61H K-Ras from various biochemical binding assays and modeled structures. In addition, the interaction sites between K-Ras and H-REV107 were predicted based on homology modeling. Here, we found that some structure-based mutants of the K-Ras disrupted the complex formation with H-REV107. Finally, a novel molecular mechanism describing K-Ras and H-REV107 binding is suggested and insights into new K-Ras effector target drugs are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Formation of nitrosamines in cheese products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D; Keshavarz, A; Lafont, P; Hardy, J; Debry, G

    1980-01-01

    Several strains of micromycetes used as fermentation agents in the cheese industry or having led to accidents during cheese making are able to favor the formation of nitrosamines in 60% of the cases. The concentrations observed are similar to those found by other authors with other microorganisms. The results obtained in a semi-synthetic medium are checked during the ripening of experimental camembert type cheese made from milk containing nitrates and cultured with a strain of Penicillium camemberti, which favors very much the synthesis of nitrosamines. The amount of nitrosodimethylamine formed in this cheese increases from 5 to 20 ppb during ripening. A tentative explanation of the mechanism of formation is outlined.

  20. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Egyptian Journal of Biology - Vol 7 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biology. ... Induced by Copper and Cadmium Stress in Broad Beans (Vicia faba L.) EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Food composition and feeding ecology of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, ...

  2. Egyptian Journal of Biology - Vol 2 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosomal analysis of some Egyptian diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Rowaida Saleh Ahmed, Robert B Angus, Samy Zalat, Fatma Shaarawi, 76-84 ...

  3. Methane production from cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J Q; Liao, P H; Lo, K V

    1988-01-01

    Cheese whey was treated in a 17.5-litre laboratory-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor operated over a range of hydraulic retention times and organic loading rates. The reactor performance was determined in terms of methane production, volatile fatty acids conversion and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. At a constant influent strength, the methane production rate decreased with decreasing hydraulic retention time. At constant hydraulic retention time the methane production rate increased as the influent strength was increased up to a concentration of 28.8 g COD litre/sup -1/. The methane production rate was similar for two influent concentrations studied at hydraulic retention times longer than 10 days. The effect of short hydraulic retention times on methane production rate was more pronounced for the higher influent concentration than for the lower influent concentration. The highest methane production rate of 9.57 litres CH/sub 4/ litre/sup -1/ feed day/sup -1/ was obtained at a loading rate of 5.96 g/sup -1/ COD litre/sup -1/ and an influent concentration of 28.8 g COD litre/sup -1/. A high treatment efficiency in terms of chemical oxygen demand reduction was obtained. In general, over 98% removal of chemical oxygen demand was achieved. The results indicated that anaerobic digestion of cheese whey using an upflow sludge blanket reactor could reduce pollution strength and produce energy for a cheese plant.

  4. Cheese whey management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier

    2012-11-15

    Cheese whey is simultaneously an effluent with nutritional value and a strong organic and saline content. Cheese whey management has been focused in the development of biological treatments without valorization; biological treatments with valorization; physicochemical treatments and direct land application. In the first case, aerobic digestion is reported. In the second case, six main processes are described in the literature: anaerobic digestion, lactose hydrolysis, fermentation to ethanol, hydrogen or lactic acid and direct production of electricity through microbial fuel cells. Thermal and isoelectric precipitation, thermocalcic precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, acid precipitation, electrochemical and membrane technologies have been considered as possible and attractive physicochemical processes to valorize or treat cheese whey. The direct land application is a common and longstanding practice, although some precautions are required. In this review, these different solutions are analyzed. The paper describes the main reactors used, the influence of the main operating variables, the microorganisms or reagents employed and the characterizations of the final effluent principally in terms of chemical oxygen demand. In addition, the experimental conditions and the main results reported in the literature are compiled. Finally, the comparison between the different treatment alternatives and the presentation of potential treatment lines are postulated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  6. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM and T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility

  7. H-Ras and K-Ras Oncoproteins Induce Different Tumor Spectra When Driven by the Same Regulatory Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosten, Matthias; Simón-Carrasco, Lucía; Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Lechuga, Carmen G; Blasco, María T; Jacob, Harrys K C; Fabbiano, Salvatore; Potenza, Nicoletta; Bustelo, Xosé R; Guerra, Carmen; Barbacid, Mariano

    2017-02-01

    Genetic studies in mice have provided evidence that H-Ras and K-Ras proteins are bioequivalent. However, human tumors display marked differences in the association of RAS oncogenes with tumor type. Thus, to further assess the bioequivalence of oncogenic H-Ras and K-Ras, we replaced the coding region of the murine K-Ras locus with H-Ras G12V oncogene sequences. Germline expression of H-Ras G12V or K-Ras G12V from the K-Ras locus resulted in embryonic lethality. However, expression of these genes in adult mice led to different tumor phenotypes. Whereas H-Ras G12V elicited papillomas and hematopoietic tumors, K-Ras G12V induced lung tumors and gastric lesions. Pulmonary expression of H-Ras G12V created a senescence-like state caused by excessive MAPK signaling. Likewise, H-Ras G12V but not K-Ras G12V induced senescence in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Label-free quantitative analysis revealed that minor differences in H-Ras G12V expression levels led to drastically different biological outputs, suggesting that subtle differences in MAPK signaling confer nonequivalent functions that influence tumor spectra induced by RAS oncoproteins. Cancer Res; 77(3); 707-18. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Proteolysis and consistency of Meshanger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de L.

    1978-01-01

    Proteolysis in Meshanger cheese, estimated by quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is discussed. The conversion of α s1 -casein was proportional to rennet concentration in the cheese. Changes in consistency, after a maximum, were correlated to breakdown of

  9. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contains spices, in a minimum amount of 0.015 ounce per pound of cheese, and may contain spice oils. If the... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2..., spices are added so as to be evenly distributed throughout the finished cheese. One or more of the other...

  10. Regulation of Ras exchange factors and cellular localization of Ras activation by lipid messengers in T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse E. Jun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ras-MAPK signaling pathway is highly conserved throughout evolution and is activated downstream of a wide range of receptor stimuli. Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs catalyze GTP loading of Ras and play a pivotal role in regulating receptor-ligand induced Ras activity. In T cells, three families of functionally important RasGEFs are expressed: RasGRF, RasGRP, and SOS-family GEFs.Early on it was recognized that Ras activation is critical for T cell development and that the RasGEFs play an important role herein. More recent work has revealed that nuances in Ras activation appear to significantly impact T cell development and selection. These nuances include distinct biochemical patterns of analog versus digital Ras activation, differences in cellular localization of Ras activation, and intricate interplays between the RasGEFs during distinct T cell developmental stages as revealed by various new mouse models. In many instances, the exact nature of these nuances in Ras activation or how these may result from fine-tuning of the RasGEFs is not understood.One large group of biomolecules critically involved in the control of Ras-GEFs´functions are lipid second messengers. Multiple, yet distinct lipid products are generated following T cell receptor (TCR stimulation and bind to different domains in the RasGRP and SOS RasGEFs to facilitate the activation of the membrane-anchored Ras GTPases. In this review we highlight how different lipid-based elements are generated by various enzymes downstream of the TCR and other receptors and how these dynamic and interrelated lipid products may fine-tune Ras activation by RasGEFs in developing T cells.

  11. Growth of Pseudomonas spp. in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Dalgaard, Paw

    Cottage cheese is a mixture of cheese curd with pH 4.5-4.8 and an uncultured or cultured cream dressing with a pH as high as 7.0. This results in a final product with microenvironments and a bulk pH of about 4.8 to 5.5. As for other lightly preserved foods microbial contamination and growth...... of spoilage microorganisms in cottage cheese can cause undesirable alterations in flavour, odour, appearance and texture. Contamination and growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads including Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas putida has been reported for cottage cheese but the influence of these bacteria...... on product spoilage and shelf-life remains poorly described. The present study used a quantitative microbial ecology approach to model and predict the effect of product characteristics and storage conditions on growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in cottage cheese. The effect of temperature (5-15˚C) and p...

  12. Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Advanced Search. Journal Home > Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ( Pisum sativum L.) ... was isolated and characterized from wild Egyptian pea (Pisum sativum L.) ... DNA sequence indicated an open reading frame which predicts a protein ...

  15. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  16. Current knowledge of soft cheeses flavor and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablé, S; Cottenceau, G

    1999-12-01

    Cheese aroma is the result of the perception of a large number of molecules belonging to different chemical classes. The volatile compounds involved in the soft cheese flavor have received a great deal of attention. However, there has been less work concerning the volatile compounds in the soft smear-ripened cheeses than in the mold-ripened cheeses. This paper reviews the components that contribute to the characteristic flavor in the soft cheeses such as surface-ripened, Camembert-type, and Blue cheeses. The sensory properties and quantities of the molecules in the different cheeses are discussed.

  17. Renal Artery Stenosis (RAS) Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaater, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Renal Artery Stenosis (RAS), is one of the causes of secondary hypertension; there are many causes of renal artery stenosis, as atherosclerosis of the renal artery which account for 90% of cases of RAS; fibromuscular dysplasia accounts for 10% of RAS. Various causes of thrombophilia either due congenital causes or acquired causes and can lead to RAS. Our patient was presented by acute attack of epistaxis and hypertension. Angiography of the Renal Arteries,are showed no sign of renal artery stenosis. However, the right kidney showed upper pole infarction, and the left kidney showed evidence of functional lower pole renal artery stenosis, although there is no anatomical stenosis detected in angiography. Work up for the cause of thrombophilia did not help in the diagnosis, which may be due to an undiscovered cause of thrombophilia

  18. Cheese powder as an ingredient in emulsion sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiang; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    Different types of cheese powder were added to meat emulsion sausages in order to address its influence on chemical composition, volatile compounds profile and sensory properties, and its potential to reduce salt content through boosting saltiness. Addition of cheese powder to emulsion sausages...... modified their profile of volatile compounds. Blue cheese increased some ketones, alcohols, and esters, while brown cheese brought typical Maillard reaction compounds. Overall, addition of cheese powders to sausages enhanced the intensity of flavour traits. A mixture of hard and blue cheese powder showed...... the highest effect on boosting saltiness, while brown cheese powder showed the strongest umami and meat flavour boosting effect, and sausages with added blue cheese powder showed a more intense aftertaste. Hardness significantly increased due to the addition of blue cheese powder. Addition of cheese powder...

  19. Physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheese manufactured under different cheese-making conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2013-08-01

    The effect of manufacturing factors on the shreddability and meltability of pizza Mozzarella cheese was studied. Four experimental cheeses were produced with 2 concentrations of denatured whey protein added to milk (0 or 0.25%) and 2 renneting pH values (6.4 or 6.5). The cheeses were aged 8, 22, or 36d before testing. Shreddability was assessed by the presence of fines, size of the shreds, and adhesion to the blade after shredding at 4, 13, or 22°C. A semi-empirical method was developed to measure the matting behavior of shreds by simulating industrial bulk packaging. Rheological measurements were performed on cheeses with and without a premelting treatment to assess melt and postmelt cheese physical properties. Lowering the pH of milk at renneting and aging the cheeses generally decreased the fines production during shredding. Adding whey protein to the cheeses also altered the fines production, but the effect varied depending on the renneting and aging conditions. The shred size distribution, adhesion to the blade, and matting behavior of the cheeses were adversely affected by increased temperature at shredding. The melting profiles obtained by rheological measurements showed that better meltability can be achieved by lowering the pH of milk at renneting or aging the cheese. The premelted cheeses were found to be softer at low temperatures (50°C) compared with the cheeses that had not undergone the premelting treatment. Understanding and controlling milk standardization, curd acidification, and cheese aging are essential for the production of Mozzarella cheese with desirable shreddability and meltability. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cyclic AMP signalling in Dictyostelium : G-proteins activate separate Ras pathways using specific RasGEFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kae, Helmut; Kortholt, Arjan; Rehmann, Holger; Insall, RobertH.; Van Haastert, Peter J. M.; Spiegelman, George B.; Weeks, Gerald

    In general, mammalian Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs) show little substrate specificity, although they are often thought to regulate specific pathways. Here, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that two RasGEFs can each act on specific Ras proteins. During Dictyostelium

  1. Accreditation and Quality Assurance in the Egyptian Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Rahel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the quality of the Egyptian accreditation system. With a view on the high competition in the domestic labor market as well as with regards to the international competitiveness of Egyptian graduates and the potential role of Egyptian universities in the international market for higher education, a high quality of…

  2. Lipid profile in Egyptian patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohsen Ibrahim

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is common among Egyptians with CAD. Lipid profile was influenced by age, gender, type of CAD, but not by the presence of HT. The high prevalence rate of risk factors particularly among young Egyptians is remarkable and can explain the epidemic of CAD among Egyptians.

  3. Exploiting the bad eating habits of Ras-driven cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Eileen

    2013-10-01

    Oncogenic Ras promotes glucose fermentation and glutamine use to supply central carbon metabolism, but how and why have only emerged recently. Ras-mediated metabolic reprogramming generates building blocks for growth and promotes antioxidant defense. To fuel metabolic pathways, Ras scavenges extracellular proteins and lipids. To bolster metabolism and mitigate stress, Ras activates cellular self-cannibalization and recycling of proteins and organelles by autophagy. Targeting these distinct features of Ras-driven cancers provides novel approaches to cancer therapy.

  4. Inhibition of RAS in diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabi Yacoub, Kirk N Campbell Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD is a progressive proteinuric renal disorder in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a common cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide, particularly in developed countries. Therapeutic targeting of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS is the most validated clinical strategy for slowing disease progression. DKD is paradoxically a low systematic renin state with an increased intrarenal RAS activity implicated in its pathogenesis. Angiotensin II (AngII, the main peptide of RAS, is not only a vasoactive peptide but functions as a growth factor, activating interstitial fibroblasts and mesangial and tubular cells, while promoting the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. AngII also promotes podocyte injury through increased calcium influx and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Blockade of the RAS using either angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers can attenuate progressive glomerulosclerosis in animal models, and slows disease progression in humans with DKD. In this review, we summarize the role of intrarenal RAS activation in the pathogenesis and progression of DKD and the rationale for RAS inhibition in this population. Keywords: renin–angiotensin system, diabetic kidney disease, angiotensin II, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers

  5. Sampling and farm stories prompt consumers to buy specialty cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Barbara A.; Bruhn, Christine M.

    2003-01-01

    California specialty cheese makers need information on what drives product sales so they can effectively market their products. Focus group and telephone research revealed that specialty cheese consumers have a strong preference for sampling cheese before making a purchase. Consumers also rely heavily on staff recommendations to select cheese. They appreciate unlimited sampling in an unhurried, low-pressure environment. Specialty cheese consumers consider themselves “food experimenters”; they...

  6. The use of spices in the production of traditional cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Josipović; Ksenija Markov; Jadranka Frece; Damir Stanzer; Ante Cvitković; Jasna Mrvčić

    2016-01-01

    Cheese is a highly valued dairy product worldwide, with a special focus on traditional cheeses, not only for their basic nutritive purposes but also as a part of the culture and characteristics of a certain country. Owing to the geographical location as well as the climate and vegetation diversity, in certain regions of Croatia the production of various traditional cheeses using spices was developed. Spices are either added to the cheese curd which is then formed, or cheese is wrapped into pl...

  7. A gene expression signature of RAS pathway dependence predicts response to PI3K and RAS pathway inhibitors and expands the population of RAS pathway activated tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, Andrey; Nebozhyn, Michael; Klinghoffer, Rich; Frazier, Jason; Chastain, Michael; Arthur, William; Roberts, Brian; Zhang, Theresa; Chenard, Melissa; Haines, Brian; Andersen, Jannik; Nagashima, Kumiko; Paweletz, Cloud; Lynch, Bethany; Feldman, Igor; Dai, Hongyue; Huang, Pearl; Watters, James

    2010-06-30

    Hyperactivation of the Ras signaling pathway is a driver of many cancers, and RAS pathway activation can predict response to targeted therapies. Therefore, optimal methods for measuring Ras pathway activation are critical. The main focus of our work was to develop a gene expression signature that is predictive of RAS pathway dependence. We used the coherent expression of RAS pathway-related genes across multiple datasets to derive a RAS pathway gene expression signature and generate RAS pathway activation scores in pre-clinical cancer models and human tumors. We then related this signature to KRAS mutation status and drug response data in pre-clinical and clinical datasets. The RAS signature score is predictive of KRAS mutation status in lung tumors and cell lines with high (> 90%) sensitivity but relatively low (50%) specificity due to samples that have apparent RAS pathway activation in the absence of a KRAS mutation. In lung and breast cancer cell line panels, the RAS pathway signature score correlates with pMEK and pERK expression, and predicts resistance to AKT inhibition and sensitivity to MEK inhibition within both KRAS mutant and KRAS wild-type groups. The RAS pathway signature is upregulated in breast cancer cell lines that have acquired resistance to AKT inhibition, and is downregulated by inhibition of MEK. In lung cancer cell lines knockdown of KRAS using siRNA demonstrates that the RAS pathway signature is a better measure of dependence on RAS compared to KRAS mutation status. In human tumors, the RAS pathway signature is elevated in ER negative breast tumors and lung adenocarcinomas, and predicts resistance to cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer. These data demonstrate that the RAS pathway signature is superior to KRAS mutation status for the prediction of dependence on RAS signaling, can predict response to PI3K and RAS pathway inhibitors, and is likely to have the most clinical utility in lung and breast tumors.

  8. A gene expression signature of RAS pathway dependence predicts response to PI3K and RAS pathway inhibitors and expands the population of RAS pathway activated tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweletz Cloud

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperactivation of the Ras signaling pathway is a driver of many cancers, and RAS pathway activation can predict response to targeted therapies. Therefore, optimal methods for measuring Ras pathway activation are critical. The main focus of our work was to develop a gene expression signature that is predictive of RAS pathway dependence. Methods We used the coherent expression of RAS pathway-related genes across multiple datasets to derive a RAS pathway gene expression signature and generate RAS pathway activation scores in pre-clinical cancer models and human tumors. We then related this signature to KRAS mutation status and drug response data in pre-clinical and clinical datasets. Results The RAS signature score is predictive of KRAS mutation status in lung tumors and cell lines with high (> 90% sensitivity but relatively low (50% specificity due to samples that have apparent RAS pathway activation in the absence of a KRAS mutation. In lung and breast cancer cell line panels, the RAS pathway signature score correlates with pMEK and pERK expression, and predicts resistance to AKT inhibition and sensitivity to MEK inhibition within both KRAS mutant and KRAS wild-type groups. The RAS pathway signature is upregulated in breast cancer cell lines that have acquired resistance to AKT inhibition, and is downregulated by inhibition of MEK. In lung cancer cell lines knockdown of KRAS using siRNA demonstrates that the RAS pathway signature is a better measure of dependence on RAS compared to KRAS mutation status. In human tumors, the RAS pathway signature is elevated in ER negative breast tumors and lung adenocarcinomas, and predicts resistance to cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the RAS pathway signature is superior to KRAS mutation status for the prediction of dependence on RAS signaling, can predict response to PI3K and RAS pathway inhibitors, and is likely to have the most clinical

  9. Functional properties of Mozzarella cheese for its end use application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah, Jana; Tagalpallewar, Govind P

    2017-11-01

    Cheese is an extremely versatile food product that has a wide range of flavor, textures and end uses. The vast majority of cheese is eaten not by itself, but as part of another food. As an ingredient in foods, cheese is required to exhibit functional characteristics in the raw as well as cooked forms. Melting, stretching, free-oil formation, elasticity and browning are the functional properties considered to be significant for Mozzarella cheese. When a cheese is destined for its end use, some of its unique characteristics play a significant role in the products acceptability. For instance pH of cheese determines the cheese structure which in turn decides the cheese shredability and meltability properties. The residual galactose content in cheese mass determines the propensity of cheese to brown during baking. Development of 'tailor-made cheese' involves focusing on manipulation of such unique traits of cheese in order to obtain the desired characteristics for its end use application suiting the varied consumer's whims and wishes. This comprehensive review paper will provide an insight to the cheese maker regarding the factors determining the functional properties of cheese and also for the pizza manufacturers to decide which age of cheese to be used which will perform well in baking applications.

  10. Transference of lutein during cheese making, color stability, and sensory acceptance of Prato cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, MTK; Maus, D; Xavier, AAO; Mercadante, AZ; Viotto, WH

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of lutein is associated with the prevention and reduction of age-related macular degeneration. Its incorporation into Prato cheese as a yellowish food coloring is a valid alternative to increase the daily intake of this compound. However, part of the lutein added may be lost in the whey during the cheese making, or it can be degraded by light during storage, resulting in color changes reducing the sensory acceptance of the cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine...

  11. Oxidative Stress Posttranslationally Regulates the Expression of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras in Cultured Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Messina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of hydrogen peroxide to cultured astrocytes induced a rapid and transient increase in the expression of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras. Pull-down experiments with the GTP-Ras-binding domain of Raf-1 showed that oxidative stress substantially increased the activation of Ha-Ras, whereas a putative farnesylated activated form of Ki-Ras was only slightly increased. The increase in both Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras was insensitive to the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, and was occluded by the proteasomal inhibitor, MG-132. In addition, exposure to hydrogen peroxide reduced the levels of ubiquitinated Ras protein, indicating that oxidative stress leads to a reduced degradation of both isoforms through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Indeed, the late reduction in Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras was due to a recovery of proteasomal degradation because it was sensitive to MG-132. The late reduction of Ha-Ras levels was abrogated by compound PD98059, which inhibits the MAP kinase pathway, whereas the late reduction of Ki-Ras was unaffected by PD98059. We conclude that oxidative stress differentially regulates the expression of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras in cultured astrocytes, and that activation of the MAP kinase pathway by oxidative stress itself or by additional factors may act as a fail-safe mechanism limiting a sustained expression of the potentially detrimental Ha-Ras.

  12. Egyptian and foreign cigarettes Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration of 27 elements was measured using neutron activation analysis in a cigarette brand commercially manufactured in Egypt and in three foreign brands available on the Egyptian market. The cigarette components examined were tobacco, wrapping paper and ash. All results are expressed in absolute values per cigarette. The concentration of Al, As, Ba, Br, Cl, Cs, Eu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti and V in the Egyptian cigarette were above the range determined for the foreign brands examined; however, Ce, Co, Cr, Hf, K, La, Mg, Se and Zn were within that range. Except for K, Mn, Ni and Ti, the above conclusions were the same for elements determined in the ash. The wrapping paper used for the Egyptian cigarette contains the lowest quantity of Cl and Mn. (author)

  13. Genetic alterations in Ki-ras and Ha-ras genes in Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas and head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Malheiros Coutinho

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available CONETXT: Ras gene mutations have been associated to a wide range of human solid tumors. Members of the ras gene family (Ki-ras, Ha-ras and N-ras are structurally related and code for a protein (p21 known to play an important role in the regulation of normal signal transduction and cell growth. The frequency of ras mutations is different from one type of tumor to another, suggesting that point mutations might be carcinogen-specific. OBJECTIVES: To study the occurrence of Ki-ras and Ha-ras mutations. We also studied the relative level of Ha-ras mRNA in 32 of the head and neck tumors. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: University referral unit. PARTICIPANTS: 60 head and neck tumors and in 28 Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas (JNA. DIAGNOSTIC TEST: Using PCR-SSCP we examined the occurrence of Ki-ras and Ha-ras mutations. The relative level of Ha-ras mRNA was examined by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: None of the head and neck tumors or JNA samples showed evidence of mutations within codons 12, 13, 59 and 61 of Ki-ras or Ha-ras genes. However, 17 (53% of the tumors where gene expression could be examined exhibited increased levels of Ha-ras mRNA compared with the normal tissue derived from the same patient. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate for the first time that mutations of Ki-ras and Ha-ras genes are not associated with the development of JNA and confirm previous reports indicating that activating ras mutations are absent or rarely involved in head and neck tumors from western world patients. Furthermore, our findings suggest that overexpression of Ha-ras, rather than mutations, might be an important factor in the development and progression of head and neck tumors.

  14. STREPTOMYCETE Producing Antibiotics Isolated From Egyptian Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SALAMA, S.M; MAHMOUD, S.M; ELKABBANY, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was concerned the distribution of Streptomyces species in some types of Egyptian soils. Thirty nine actinomycetes isolates were obtained from 7 types of Egyptian soils; 8 isolates exhibited antimicrobial activities against all tested organisms and three of them were identified as Streptomyces griseoluteus (YM23), Streptomyces aurantiogriseus (S15) and Streptomyces nogalator (H12). RAPD-PCR showed correlation between 8 isolates in 3 clades. The active metabolite was extracted with ethyl acetate and concentrated in vacuum and the crude fraction was purified using thin layer and column chromatography

  15. [Early Egyptian forerunners of the Paranatellonta?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quack, J F

    1999-01-01

    The term "paranatellonta" is well-known in greek astrological literature. It designates stars either rising together with the sun or being in other conspicuous positions to it. Tentatively, a forerunner of this conception is identified in an egyptian depiction attested several times from the 13th century BC onwards. There, "gods" are depicted who are defined by their positions in regard to the sun-god. It seems possible to connect their positions with the typical meanings of the word paranatellonta. Some reflections on the contribution of Egypt to hellenistic astrology are added, including some references to the largely unpublished corpus of demotic egyptian astrological texts.

  16. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  17. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  18. New insights into RAS biology reinvigorate interest in mathematical modeling of RAS signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Keesha E; Rukhlenko, Oleksii S; Posner, Richard G; Hlavacek, William S; Kholodenko, Boris N

    2018-03-05

    RAS is the most frequently mutated gene across human cancers, but developing inhibitors of mutant RAS has proven to be challenging. Given the difficulties of targeting RAS directly, drugs that impact the other components of pathways where mutant RAS operates may potentially be effective. However, the system-level features, including different localizations of RAS isoforms, competition between downstream effectors, and interlocking feedback and feed-forward loops, must be understood to fully grasp the opportunities and limitations of inhibiting specific targets. Mathematical modeling can help us discern the system-level impacts of these features in normal and cancer cells. New technologies enable the acquisition of experimental data that will facilitate development of realistic models of oncogenic RAS behavior. In light of the wealth of empirical data accumulated over decades of study and the advancement of experimental methods for gathering new data, modelers now have the opportunity to advance progress toward realization of targeted treatment for mutant RAS-driven cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hip morphologic measurements in an Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Tarek A

    2011-04-11

    The study of acetabular morphology has shown that there are geographic differences in the morphology and prevalence of acetabular dysplasia among different ethnic groups. However, few data exist on the shape of the acetabulum in various populations around the world. In this study, we examined samples of pelvic radiographs from Egyptian adults. Acetabular dysplasia in adults is characterized by a shallow and relatively vertical acetabulum.The aim of this study was to examine acetabular morphology to determine the prevalence of hip dysplasia in adult Egyptians. This included 244 adults, 134 men and 110 women between 18 and 60 years, who were used to measure center edge angle, acetabular Sharp angle, acetabular head index on anteroposterior radiographic views of the hip joints, and vertical center anterior margin angle on false profile views. The radiographs were taken of patients with no hip complaints at Tanta University Hospital.The results were statistically studied according to the age, height, and weight of patients. The prevalence of acetabular dysplasia was 2.25% for Egyptian men and 3.6% for women with respect to center edge angles, vertical center anterior margin angle, and acetabular head index.We concluded that gender variations in the morphology of the acetabulum and sex influences geometrical measurements of the acetabulum. Egyptian women were more dysplastic than men using the 4 parameters of hip measurements. There are also racial variations in hip morphology. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. The radiographic investigation of two Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, J; Malott, J C; King, A Y

    1983-01-01

    Radiography is a well-recognized method of nondestructive analysis of art objects and ancient relics. The methods and techniques used in the examination of two ancient Egyptian mummies are presented here. Additionally, the use of radiographic findings to help substantiate alleged historical information and to establish sex, age, and pathology of each specimen is discussed.

  1. Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this journal is to cover all aspects of medical laboratory science. Contributions are received from staff members of academic, basic and laboratory science departments of the different medical schools and research centres all over Egypt and it fulfils a real need amongst Egyptian doctors working in the ...

  2. Expression of recombinant Streptokinase from local Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We reported for the first time the expression of a recombinant SK from a local Streptococcus strain. When produced on industrial scale this r-SK may substantially contribute to reducing the costs of thrombolytic therapy in developing countries. In this study, a highly purified r-SK from Streptococcus sp. isolated from Egyptian ...

  3. Congregations of wintering Egyptian Vultures Neophron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nearly half of the birds were adults and the majority roosted on bird-safe types of electric pylons. Most of the Egyptian Vultures were found below 500 m above sea level, in bare areas, open savannas or grasslands, and their abundance was negatively related to the amount of cover of bush vegetation. The distribution of ...

  4. Profile of Egyptian Patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis | Shawky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are chronic progressive lysosomal disorders (Six distinct types) which are inherited as autosomal recessive except MPS II which is inherited as X-linked recessive disorder. Patients and Methods: This study is designed to investigate a group of Egyptian patients with MPS ...

  5. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2011-05-01

    Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, H.; Kruijswijk, Z.; Molenaar, D.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing

  7. RAS in Pregnancy and Preeclampsia and Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a common disease of pregnancy characterized by the presence of hypertension and commitment of many organs, including the brain, secondary to generalized endothelial dysfunction. Its etiology is not known precisely, but it involved several factors, highlighting the renin angiotensin system (RAS, which would have an important role in the origin of multisystem involvement. This paper reviews the evidence supporting the involvement of RAS in triggering the disease, in addition to the components of this system that would be involved and how it eventually produces brain engagement.

  8. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-Gyamfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our present day knowledge in the area of medicine in Ancient Egypt has been severally sourced from medical papyri several of which have been deduced and analyzed by different scholars. For educational purposes it is always imperative to consult different literature or sources in the teaching of ancient Egypt and medicine in particular. To avoid subjectivity the author has found the need to re-engage the efforts made by several scholars in adducing evidences from medical papyri. In the quest to re-engage the efforts of earlier writers and commentaries on the medical papyri, we are afforded the opportunity to be informed about the need to ask further questions to enable us to construct or reconstruct both past and modern views on ancient Egyptian medical knowledge. It is this vocation the author sought to pursue in the interim, through a preliminary review, to highlight, comment and reinvigorate in the reader or researcher the need for a continuous engagement of some pertinent documentary sources on Ancient Egyptian medical knowledge for educational and research purposes. The study is based on qualitative review of published literature. The selection of those articles as sources was based on the focus of the review, in order to purposively select and comment on articles that were published based either on information from a medical papyrus or focused on medical specialization among the ancient Egyptians as well as ancient Egyptian knowledge on diseases and medicine. It was found that the Egyptians developed relatively sophisticated medical practices covering significant medical fields such as herbal medicine, gynecology and obstetrics, anatomy and physiology, mummification and even the preliminary form of surgery. These practices, perhaps, were developed as remedies for the prevailing diseases and the accidents that might have occurred during the construction of their giant pyramids. It must be stated that they were not without flaws. Also, the

  9. Cheese Classification, Characterization, and Categorization: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almena-Aliste, Montserrat; Mietton, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Cheese is one of the most fascinating, complex, and diverse foods enjoyed today. Three elements constitute the cheese ecosystem: ripening agents, consisting of enzymes and microorganisms; the composition of the fresh cheese; and the environmental conditions during aging. These factors determine and define not only the sensory quality of the final cheese product but also the vast diversity of cheeses produced worldwide. How we define and categorize cheese is a complicated matter. There are various approaches to cheese classification, and a global approach for classification and characterization is needed. We review current cheese classification schemes and the limitations inherent in each of the schemes described. While some classification schemes are based on microbiological criteria, others rely on descriptions of the technologies used for cheese production. The goal of this review is to present an overview of comprehensive and practical integrative classification models in order to better describe cheese diversity and the fundamental differences within cheeses, as well as to connect fundamental technological, microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics to contribute to an overall characterization of the main families of cheese, including the expanding world of American artisanal cheeses.

  10. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FLORA OF KONYA KUFLU CHEESE: A TRADITIONAL CHEESE FROM KONYA PROVINCE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Guley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the lactic acid bacteria flora of mature Konya Kuflu cheese. Konya Kuflu cheese is a traditional blue cheese which is produced from raw milk without starter culture addition and mould growth occurs in uncontrolled conditions during its ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from 9 mature Konya Kuflu cheese samples were investigated using a combination of conventional biochemical tests, API test kits, and molecular approaches. For some isolates, different results were obtained according to the identification technique. The overall LAB profile of Konya Kuflu cheese samples revealed that Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paracasei/Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis are the predominant species. In addition, 1 Pediococcus parvulus and 1 Enterococcus durans were also identified.

  11. Artisanal Sonoran cheese (Cocido cheese): an exploration of its production process, chemical composition and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-González, Paúl F; Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Reyes-Díaz, Ricardo; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and document the production process of artisanal Cocido cheese and to determine its chemical composition and microbiological quality, considering samples from six dairies and four retailers. Cocido cheese is a semi-hard (506-555 g kg -1 of moisture), medium fat (178.3-219.1 g kg -1 ), pasta filata-type cheese made from raw whole cow's milk. The production process is not standardized and therefore the chemical and microbiological components of the sampled cheeses varied. Indicator microorganisms significantly decreased (P pasteurize milk. Nevertheless, since Cocido cheese is a non-ripened, high-moisture product, it is a highly perishable product that could present a health risk if not properly handled. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Quantitative Assays for RAS Pathway Proteins and Phosphorylation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI CPTAC program is applying its expertise in quantitative proteomics to develop assays for RAS pathway proteins. Targets include key phosphopeptides that should increase our understanding of how the RAS pathway is regulated.

  13. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Suppressors of Ras Mutations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eastburn, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    .... The study of Caenorhabditis elegans and other model systems has demonstrated that Ras is part of a conserved Ras/MAPK signaling pathway involved in many aspects of development and cell regulation. The C...

  14. Characteristics of cheeses manufactured using pepsin from adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... (VP) was assessed using three types of cheeses namely Alpine, Tilister and Pastafilata (Pasta). ... pepsin waa an apprqpriate renner substitute for the small scale cheese processors.

  15. Chemometrics approach to substrate development, case: semisyntetic cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Hansen, Birgitte Vedel

    1998-01-01

    from food production facilities.The Chemometrics approach to substrate development is illustrated by the development of a semisyntetic cheese substrate. Growth, colour formation and mycotoxin production of 6 cheese related fungi were studied on 9 types of natural cheeses and 24 synthetic cheese......, the most frequently occurring contaminant on semi-hard cheese. Growth experiments on the substrate were repeatable and reproducible. The substrate was also suitable for the starter P. camemberti. Mineral elements in cheese were shown to have strong effect on growth, mycotoxin production and colour...... formation of fungi. For P. roqueforti, P. discolor, P. verrucosum and Aspergillus versicolor the substrate was less suitable as a model cheese substrate, which indicates great variation in nutritional demands of the fungi. Substrates suitable for studies of specific cheese types was found for P. roqueforti...

  16. Chemical composition and microbial load of cheese produced using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aframomum sceptrum) on the chemical composition and microbial load of cheese was evaluated in a Completely Randomized Design. Cheese produced with 1% bear berry (Aframomum sceptrum) had the highest (P < 0.05) crude protein content ...

  17. Status of neutron complex of INR RAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grachev, M I; Koptelov, E A; Kravchuk, L V; Matveev, V A; Perekrestenko, A D; Sidorkin, S F [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stavissky, Y Y

    2001-03-01

    The neutron complex of INR RAS consists of two sources of neutrons, beam stop, lead slowing down spectrometer and solid state spectrometers. The description of objects and their condition, the program of planned researches, co-operation with other institutes of the Moscow Region, progress reached for last two years are introduced in the article. (author)

  18. Status of neutron complex of INR RAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, M.I.; Koptelov, E.A.; Kravchuk, L.V.; Matveev, V.A.; Perekrestenko, A.D.; Sidorkin, S.F.; Stavissky, Y.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The neutron complex of INR RAS consists of two sources of neutrons, beam stop, lead slowing down spectrometer and solid state spectrometers. The description of objects and their condition, the program of planned researches, co-operation with other institutes of the Moscow Region, progress reached for last two years are introduced in the article. (author)

  19. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the dairy...

  20. Cheese from ultrafiltered milk : whey proteins and chymosin activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, C.A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of (semi-)hard cheese from ultrafiltered milk (UF-cheese) enables the partial incorporation of whey proteins in the cheese, thereby increasing its yield. The transfer of whey proteins in curd from (UF-)milk was studied in relation to the degree of ultrafiltration of the milk

  1. The effect of quality properties on Tulum cheese using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheese samples produced from pasteurized milk were found to have higher dry matter, fat and protein contents and acidity values than cheese samples produced from raw milk. No significant difference was found in the sensory properties of cheese produced from raw and pasteurized milk. In view of these findings, the use ...

  2. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  3. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  4. Factors affecting proteolytic action of Lactococcus lactis in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, Y.B.

    1992-01-01

    Model cheeses were developed to study the behaviour of proteolytic agents involved in cheese maturation under conditions that closely resemble those in normal cheese. The models were applied to study protein breakdown by Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris HP , as a

  5. Viscoelasticity of Edam cheese during its ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of the indentation of the ball (10 mm in diameter by the constant speed into blocks of Edam cheese has been conducted. The indentation tests were performed at different speeds (1, 5, 10, 20 and 100 mm/min, and the corresponding force–displacement responses were fitted with an analytical solution to obtain the time-dependent constants and the instantaneous force–displacement response. The measurement has been performed for the cheeses of different stages of their maturity. The dependence of the indentation force on the penetration depth has been evaluated. This dependence can be fitted by a polynom. The indentation force decreases with cheese fat content. It increases with the loading rate. Its value also decreases with the time of the cheese ripening. The recently proposed method for the indenation of the ball into viscoelastic solids has been used for our data analysis. This procedure, which needs the use of the numeric methods, enables to obtain stress relaxation moduli, which describe the viscoelasticity of the tested materials. The obtained moduli describe the stage of the cheese maturity.

  6. Fluorometric determination of histamine in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T L; Staruszkiewicz, W F

    1978-09-01

    Thirty-one samples of cheese obtained from retail outlets were analyzed for histamine, using an official AOAC fluorometric method. The types of cheese analyzed and the ranges of histamine found were: colby, 0.3--2.8; camembert, 0.4--4.2; cheddar, 1.2--5.8; gouda, 1.3--2.4; provolone, 2.0--23.5; roquefort, 1.0--16.8; mozzarella 1.6--5.0; and swiss, 0.4--250 mg histamine/100 g. Ten of the 12 samples of swiss cheese contained less than 16 mg histamine/100 g. The remaining 2 samples which contained 116 and 250 mg histamine/100 g were judged organoleptically to be of poor quality. An investigation of one processing facility showed that the production of histamine in swiss cheese may have been a result of a hydrogen peroxide/low temperature treatment of the milk supply. Recovery of histamine added to methanol extracts of cheese ranged from 93 to 105%. Histamine content was confirmed by high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the methanol extracts.

  7. Investigating the use of Egyptian blue in Roman Egyptian portraits and panels from Tebtunis, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, Monica; Salvant, Johanna; Williams, Jane; Lee, Lynn; Cossairt, Oliver; Walton, Marc

    2015-11-01

    The use of the pigment Egyptian blue is investigated on a corpus of fifteen mummy portraits and Roman-period paintings from Tebtunis, Egypt, housed in the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Egyptian blue has a strong luminescence response in the near infrared that can be exploited to created wide-field images noninvasively showing the distribution of the pigment on a work of art. A growing body of publications in the last decade highlights the increasing use of this tool and its sensitive detection limits. However, the technique is not wavelength specific. Both excitation and emission occur in a broad range. Although Egyptian blue has a strong emission in the NIR, a myriad of other compounds may emit light in this spectral region when excited in the visible. The limited number of studies including complementary analysis to verify the presence of Egyptian blue does not allow its identification on the basis of NIR luminescence alone. Through the use of in situ X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy of cross sections, this paper confirms the identification of Egyptian blue by NIR luminescence in unexpected areas, i.e., those not blue in appearance.

  8. Cheese milk low homogenization enhanced early lipolysis and volatiles compounds production in hard cooked cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, María A; Hynes, Erica R; Meinardi, Carlos A; Wolf, Verónica I; Perotti, María C

    2017-06-01

    Homogenization applied to cheese milk has shown to increase lipolysis but its use is not spread as it can induce detrimental effects. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of low-pressure homogenization of the cream followed by pre-incubation of cheese milk on the composition, ripening index, lipolysis and volatile profiles of hard cooked cheeses. For that, control and experimental miniature Reggianito cheeses were made and analyzed during ripening (3, 45 and 90days). Homogenization had no impact on composition and proteolysis. An acceleration of the lipolysis reaction was clearly noticed in cheeses made with homogenized milk at the beginning of ripening, while both type of cheeses reached similar levels at 90days. We found the level of several compounds derived from fatty acid catabolism were noticeably influenced by the treatment applied: straight-chain aldehydes such as hexanal, heptanal and nonanal and methylketones from C 5 to C 9 were preferentially formed in experimental cheeses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Habit Formation in Natural Cheese Consumption An Approach Based on Dynamic Demand Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    WAKABAYASHI, Katsufumi

    2010-01-01

    In expectation of growing cheese consumption, natural cheese production is being increased to reduce surplus milk and create high added value in raw milk. Other studies found positive trends in cheese consumption. However, those studies neither clarified recent trends, nor distinguished natural cheese from processed cheese. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structure of natural cheese consumption, focusing on habit formation. We test structural changes in cheese demand using dynamic...

  10. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It is characterized by the presence of bluish... section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or...

  11. Homer and Herodotus to Egyptian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marco

    2010-12-01

    Egyptian medicine is the base of Greek medicine. Egyptian people and their medical knowledge are often mentioned in the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer (VIII sec. BCE). Many Greek doctors, such as Melampus, Asclepius as well as Hippocrates visited Egypt to study and understand medicine. This work intends to focus particularly on Homer, Herodotus and Plutarch's letters, where the importance of Egypt in religion, science and medicine is clear. Herodotus (484-420 BCE) in the second book of "The Histories" describes Egypt and the medical knowledge of its doctors. Plutarch (I-II sec CE) in "The virtues of Sparta" and "Life of Lycurgus", tells about an energy beverage, named nepenthe, made with drugs from Egypt.

  12. Natural radioactivity for some Egyptian building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, M. F.; Mostafa, R. M.; Shahin, F.; Hassan, K. F.; Saleh, Z. A.; Yahia, A.

    2007-01-01

    Study of the radiation hazards for the building materials is interested in most international countries. Measurements of natural radioactivity was verified for some egyptian building materials to assess any possible radiological hazard to man by the use of such materials. The measurements for the level of natural radioactivity in the materials was determined by γ-ray spectrum using HP Ge detector. A track detector Cr-39 was used to measure the radon exhalation rate from these materials. The radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 2.83±0.86 to 41.57 ± 8.38 mBqm -2 h -1 for egyptian alabaster. The absorbed dose rate in air is lower than the international recommended value (55 n Gy h -1 ) for all test samples

  13. Genetic analysis of Ras genes in epidermal development and tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosten, Matthias; Lechuga, Carmen G; Barbacid, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes are tightly controlled to ensure proper development and homeostasis of the epidermis. The Ras family of small GTPases has emerged as a central node in the coordination of cell proliferation in the epidermis. Recent genetic evidence from mouse models has revealed that the intensity of Ras signaling modulates the proliferative capacity of epidermal keratinocytes. Interfering with Ras signaling either by combined elimination of the 3 Ras genes from the basal layer of the epidermis or by overexpression of dominant-negative Ras isoforms caused epidermal thinning due to hypoproliferation of keratinocytes. In contrast, overexpression of oncogenic Ras mutants in different epidermal cell layers led to hyperproliferative phenotypes including the development of papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Here, we discuss the value of loss- and gain-of-function studies in mouse models to assess the role of Ras signaling in the control of epidermal proliferation. PMID:24150175

  14. The language of cheese-ripening cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Microbial interactions are of importance for the establishment and growth of cheese ripening cultures. An interesting aspect of microbial interactions is cell-cell communication, often referred to as quorum sensing; the process in which micro-organisms communicate with signalling molecules and co......-ordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. Little is known about quorum sensing in foods. However, as quorum sensing is expected to be a general phenomenon in micro-organisms, it is likely to be of importance for micro-organisms in foods. An example of a food product where quorum sensing could...... be of importance is surface ripened cheeses. The present review focuses on our findings on quorum sensing systems in cheese ripening cultures. The main focus is on the group of bacterial non-species-specific signalling molecules referred to as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in smear bacteria as well as alcohol...

  15. Mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon (Columba livia breed Egyptian swift).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Hong; Shi, Wei; Shi, Wan-Yu

    2015-06-01

    The Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In this work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp and its overall base composition was estimated to be 30.2% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C and 13.9% for G, indicating an A-T (54.2%)-rich feature in the mitogenome. It contained the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  16. Fifteen years experience: Egyptian metabolic lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram M. Fateen

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: This study illustrates the experience of the reference metabolic lab in Egypt over 15 years. The lab began metabolic disorder screening by using simple diagnostic techniques like thin layer chromatography and colored tests in urine which by time updated and upgraded the methods to diagnose a wide range of disorders. This study shows the most common diagnosed inherited inborn errors of metabolism among the Egyptian population.

  17. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF FOOD BORNE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION IN SOME EGYPTIAN FOOD food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Selim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of food borne bacterial contamination in some Egyptian food. Total viable bacteria and total coliform bacteriawere isolated from different sources of food; carbohydrates (bread, flour and basbousa, vegetables (outer and inner tissues of potato and outer and inner tissues of cucumber and proteins (mincedmeat, cheese and milk. The study resulted in maximum value of total viable bacteria found in outer tissue of potato 68X104±1.0, while the minimum value found in inner tissues of potato andcucumber. The study resulted in total coliform was maximum value in minced meat 6.4X103±0.3. Basbousa and inner tissue of potato and cucumber were free from coliforms. The ability of isolatesto producing proteolytic enzymes was tested, we found that 326 isolate (63.92% from all isolates had this ability, thus we selected most 2 potent proteolytic isolates. The two isolates were identifiedas Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. The identification confirmed by microlog 34.20 system and 16SrRNA for two isolates and the same result was founded. Sensitivity tested for the most potentproteolytic species to 12 of the most commonly used antibiotics in the Egyptian pharmacy. The results showed that all species were sensitive to most of antibiotics, except B. cereus which was strongly susceptible to azteronam and ceftazidim. The data showed that raw meat, cooked food products, and raw milk were most commonly contaminated with foodborne pathogens and many pathogens were resistant to different antibiotics. The study provided useful information for assessment of the possible risk posed to consumers, which has significant public health impact.

  18. Acceptability of genetically modified cheese presented as real product alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Ueland, Øydis

    2002-01-01

    alternatives. Consumers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=738) assessed two cheeses: one was labelled as genetically modified (preferred in an earlier product test) and the other as conventional (neutral in an ealier product test). A smaller control group received two cheeses with blind codes....... Labelling decreased consumers' intentions to buy the originally preferred gm-labelled cheese, but still the intentions were at the same level with the conventionally labelled buy gm cheese could best be explained by respondents' attitudes towards gene technology and perceived taste benefits. General health...... interest was also a reinforcer of intentions for gm cheese with reduced fat content....

  19. Fungal growth and the presence of sterigmatocystin in hard cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northolt, M D; van Egmond, H P; Soentoro, P; Deijll, E

    1980-01-01

    Molds isolated from visibly molded cheeses in shops, households, and warehouses have been identified. Mold flora of cheeses in shops and households consisted mainly of Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium. On cheeses ripening in warehouses, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus repens, and Enicillium verrucosum var. verrucosum were the dominant mold species. Cheese ripening in warehouses and molded with A. versicolor were examined for sterigmatocystin. Nine of 39 cheese samples contained sterigmatocystin in the surface layer in concentrations ranging from 5 to 600 micrograms/kg.

  20. [Subchronic toxicity testing of mold-ripened cheese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, U; Lüthy, J; Schlatter, C

    1984-08-01

    The biological effects of known mycotoxins of Penicillium roqueforti or P. camemberti and other still unknown, but potentially toxic metabolites in mould ripened cheese (commercial samples of Blue- and Camembert cheese) were investigated. High amounts of mycelium (equivalents of 100 kg cheese/man and day) were fed to mice in a subchronic feeding trial. The following parameters were determined: development of body weight, organ weights, hematology, blood plasma enzymes. No signs of adverse effects produced by cheese mycotoxins could be detected after 28 days. No still unknown toxic metabolites could be demonstrated. From these results no health hazard from the consumption of mould ripened cheese, even in high amounts, appears to exist.

  1. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.

  2. [The medical literature of the Egyptian campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutin, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Bonaparte's Egyptian Campaign (1798 - 1801), like all other episodes from the Napoleonic era, gave rise to an extensive literature on the subject, but most of all a significant medical literature. This fact is due to many reasons:--an important health service for this expeditionary corps of more than 36.000 men, with two main figures at its hea, Desgenettes and Larrey--but also with valuable subordinates like Assalini, Savaresi, Balme, Pugnet or Barbès.--A Commission for Science and Art, of which a few doctors and surgeons were members, but most of all pharmacists like Boudet or Rouyer--The presence in the field of Ludwig Frank, the nephew of the famous Johann Peter Frank.--The creation in Cairo of an Egyptian Institute and the publication of the masterly Description of Egypt and the establishment of printing houses.--The emergence of the myth of the Orient and its mysteries.--An extensive array of indigenous pathologies, which is characteristic of those countries. For instance: plague, dysentery, yellow fever, Egyptian ophthalmia, as well as more common diseases like tetanus, scurvy or venereal diseases. The main medical works that cover this period and its pathologies are skimmed.

  3. Water mobility and thermal properties of smoked soft cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Maria Baranowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present study was to characterize the functional parameters of smoked soft cheese, with the emphasis on the behavior of water and milk fat, as analyzed by DSC, which was used to directly measure the melting/freezing phase transitions in the cheese. This study was complemented by NMR measurements of the organization and distribution of the aqueous phase within the emulsions constituting the cheese. The smoked and unsmoked cheeses were characterized by similar compositions in terms of protein (19.08-19.12 g∙100 g-1, fat (18.86-19.02 g∙100 g-1, and water content (59.86-60.27 g∙100 g-1. The water activity was higher in the unsmoked cheese (aw = 0.9736 than in the smoked cheese (aw = 0.9615. This result was confirmed by DSC (higher ice melting enthalpy and NMR (higher T1 value measurements. The smoking process led to differences in the distribution and binding of water to the lipid-protein matrix of the cheese. There was more non-freezed bound water in the smoked cheese which resulted in a more fragile and loosened structure in the smoked cheese than the unsmoked, which manifested in lower values of stretching and meltability. The meltability of the mozzarella smoked cheese was 1.5 times less than that of the unsmoked cheese (tube test and Schreiber test.

  4. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction...... of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  5. Major defects in artisanal Minas cheese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Sobral

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The consumer’s preference for artisanal raw milk cheeses has been growing steadily, because of its taste intensity and variation compared to pasteurized cheese. The development of flavor and aroma in raw milk cheese is governed mainly by diversified endogenous microbiota and naturals milk enzymes. The weather, altitude, native pasture and others regional characteristics allow the artisanal Minas cheese to have a typical and unique flavor. However, most of artisanal cheeses are manufactured in a rudimentary way, following technologies used by their ancestor, and this fact can cause defects in cheeses, thus resulting in economic losses for producers. Many defects may be originated from the quality of milk for manufacture, as well as quality and quantity of the ingredients used, manufacturing and ripening procedures. In this review will be presented the major defects that arise specifically in artisanal cheeses, as well as their origins, prevention and repair.

  6. Mold Flora of Traditional Cheeses Produced in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Yalman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In our country, there are many cheese types that are produced traditionally. Cheeses which produced from cows, sheep and goat milk that matured with spontaneous growth of molds present in livestock skins, pots and similar environments are among them. They are produced traditionally in Mediterrian, Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Molds that grow spontaneously in cheeses could create public health risk because of their secondary metabolites. Penicillium spp. are the most isolated mold from these cheeses and Penicillium roqueforti is determined as the dominant species. Furthermore, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor, Geotrichum, Cladosporium species have been isolated. It is very important to control the ripening conditions and starter strain selection since some strains were reported as mycotoxin producers. In this review, it has been tried to give general information about traditional production of mold-ripened cheese in Turkey and the mold flora found in traditional cheeses. In addition, public health risk of these cheeses is reported.

  7. Survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, J H

    1976-09-01

    Persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the manufacture of Cheddar, Mozzarella, Camembert cheese prepared from milk of cows experimentally infected with the virus was studied. Cheese samples were made on a laboratory scale with commercial lactic acid starter cultures and the microbial protease MARZYME as a coagulant. Milk was heated at different temperatures for different intervals before it was made into cheese. Food-and-mouth disease virus survived the acidic conditions of Cheddar and Camembert cheese processing but not that of Mozzarella. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived processing but not curing for 30 days in Cheddar cheese preparaed from heated milk. However, the virus survived curing for 60 days but not for 120 days in cheese (pH 5) prepared from unheated milk. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived in Camembert cheese (pH 5) for 21 days at 2 C but not for 35 days.

  8. Fetisisme Ras Kaukasoid dan Ras Mongoloid Sebagai Strategi Pemasaran dalam Sinetron Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Yudhistira

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRAK   Budaya populer yang tumbuh seiring dengan industrialisasi memengaruhi produksi per- filman di Indonesia. Salah satu genre perfilman di Indonesia adalah sinetron. Sinetron yang di- kategorikan sebagai produk seni kitsch memiliki dua kriteria yaitu sebagai komoditi seni yang populer dan sebagai komoditi dagang yang menghasilkan keuntungan ekonomis. Sebagai se- buah produk seni kitsch yang merupakan dasar pembuatan karyanya adalah selera masyarakat kebanyakan maka sinetron harus jeli dalam melihat keadaan dan latar belakang masyarakat. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif. Hasil penelitian ini menggambarkan masyara- kat Indonesia yang merupakan ras Melayu telah dijajah oleh ras Kaukasoid dan Mongoloid sebelum tahun 1945 dan setelahnya. Efek dari penjajahan ini adalah ras Melayu telah ditanami fantasi yang menjadi stereotip mengenai ras Kaukasoid dan Mongoloid yang berakhir dengan fetisisme. Fetisisme ini dijadikan sebagai strategi pemasaran oleh produser dan sutradara un- tuk menarik antusiasme calon penonton sinetron. Caranya dengan menampilkan aktor dan aktris Melayu keturunan Kaukasoid dan Mongoloid sebagai pemeran utama.   Kata kunci: sinetron, seni kitsch, ras, fetisisme

  9. Processing and fatty acid acylation of RAS1 and RAS2 proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, A.; Tamanoi, F.

    1986-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the pathway for the biosynthesis of RAS1 and RAS2 gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae leading to their localization in membranes. The primary translation products of these genes are detected in a soluble fraction. Shortly after synthesis, these precursor molecules are converted to forms that migrate slightly faster than the precursor forms on a NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gel. These processed proteins are further modified by fatty acid acylation, which is detected by [ 3 H]palmitic acid labeling. The acylated derivatives are found exclusively in cell membranes, indicating the translocation of the RAS proteins from cytosol to membranes during maturation process. The attached fatty acids can be released by mild alkaline hydrolysis, suggesting that the linkage between the fatty acid and the protein is an ester bond. The site of the modification by fatty acid is presumably localized to the COOH-terminal portion of the RAS proteins. Fraction of the membranes by sucrose gradient demonstrates that a majority of the fatty-acylated RAS proteins are localized in plasma membrane

  10. An orthosteric inhibitor of the RAS-SOS interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Seth; Joy, Stephen T; Arora, Paramjit S; Bar-Sagi, Dafna

    2013-01-01

    Rat sarcoma (RAS) proteins are signaling nodes that transduce extracellular cues into precise alterations in cellular physiology by engaging effector pathways. RAS signaling thus regulates diverse cell processes including proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. Owing to this central role in governing mitogenic signals, RAS pathway components are often dysregulated in human diseases. Targeted therapy of RAS pathways has generally not been successful, largely because of the robust biochemistry of the targets and their multifaceted network of molecular regulators. The rate-limiting step of RAS activation is Son of Sevenless (SOS)-mediated nucleotide exchange involving a single evolutionarily conserved catalytic helix from SOS. Structure function data of this mechanism provided a strong platform to design an SOS-derived, helically constrained peptide mimic as an inhibitor of the RAS-SOS interaction. In this chapter, we review RAS-SOS signaling dynamics and present evidence supporting the novel paradigm of inhibiting their interaction as a therapeutic strategy. We then describe a method of generating helically constrained peptide mimics of protein surfaces, which we have employed to inhibit the RAS-SOS active site interaction. The biochemical and functional properties of this SOS mimic support the premise that inhibition of RAS-nucleotide exchange can effectively block RAS activation and downstream signaling. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A new look at old bread: ancient Egyptian baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delwen Samuel

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite abundant archaeological, pictorial and textual evidence of ancient Egyptian life and death, we have little detailed information about the staple diet of most of the population. Now experimental work by a postdoctoral Wellcome Research Fellow in Bioarchaeology at the Institute is revealing how the ancient Egyptians made their daily bread.

  12. Emergence and Progression of Albuminuria in a Cohort of Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: We sought to report the 5-year incidence of proteinuria and risk factors for the progression of diabetic nephropathy in Egyptians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Five-hundred and twelve Egyptians with type 2 diabetes were evaluated at baseline and after 5-years of follow-up by a timed urine sample ...

  13. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. This journal is the official journal of the Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. It is he first Egyptian Journal specialized in the field of allergy and immunology in the pediatric age group. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new researches in the field of allergy and immunology, ...

  14. An Explosion of Creativity in a Remote Egyptian Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Siham A.

    1985-01-01

    The Egyptian architect Wissa Wassef believed artistry in crafts to be an innate human characteristic that would be universally expressed under the right conditions, i.e., the practice of the craft from early childhood. When he had Egyptian peasant children with no previous art experience weave tapestries, the results astounded the world. (RM)

  15. Egyptian Art Institutions and Art Education from 1908 to 1951

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This study of Egyptian aesthetics interprets the historical and political context of artistic discourse in the early twentieth century. In a period marked by intense struggle between landlords and rural laborers during the Depression and World War II, the author compares the rise of the Egyptian Surrealists, from the late 1930s, and the…

  16. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal. Journal Home > New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  17. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal is the official journal of the Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. It is he first Egyptian Journal specialized in the field of allergy and immunology in the pediatric age group. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new researches in the field of allergy and immunology, for maintaining ...

  18. Probiotic white cheese production using coculture with Lactobacillus species isolated from traditional cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehsani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the viability of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional cheeses and cocultured in Iranian white cheese during ripening. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 samples were isolated from 8 types of traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan, Iran. Isolated species were cocultured with starter bacteria during the production of Iranian white cheese, and their viability was investigated up to 60 days of the refrigerated storage. Results: Of 118 isolates of Lactobacillus, 73 isolates (62% were confirmed as facultative heterofermentative and 45 isolates (38% as obligate homofermentative. Of the facultative heterofermentatives, 28 isolates (24% were Lactobacillus plantarum, 24 isolates (20% were Lactobacillus casei, and 21 isolates (18% were Lactobacillus agilis. Obligate homofermentatives were Lactobacillus delbrueckii (21%, Lactobacillus helveticus (14%, and Lactobacillus salivarius (3%. L. plantarum, L. casei and L. helveticus were found in high enough levels (106 CFU/g. Conclusion: According to the obtained data, it is recommended that complex starters such as L. helveticus, L. plantarum, and L. casei can be used in industrial productions of cheese to obtain exclusive properties of traditional cheeses.

  19. Molecular analysis of MECP2 gene in Egyptian patients with Rett ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular analysis of MECP2 gene in Egyptian patients with Rett syndrome. ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... This study represents one of the limited MECP2 molecular analyses done on Egyptian patients with RTT, in which direct sequencing of MECP2 coding region in 10 female Egyptian patients ...

  20. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture...

  1. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It is characterized by the presence of creamy... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...

  2. 21 CFR 133.152 - Limburger cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The minimum milkfat content is... acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of...

  3. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The...) The dairy ingredients are subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. The...

  4. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It is characterized by the... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...

  5. 21 CFR 133.113 - Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The minimum milkfat content is 50 percent by... a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in...

  6. 21 CFR 133.162 - Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The milkfat content... this section is subjected to the action of a harmless lactic acid-producing bacterial culture, with or...

  7. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The minimum milkfat content is... and is subjected to the action of lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting...

  8. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... other method which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It has a..., and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the...

  9. 21 CFR 133.185 - Samsoe cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It has a small amount of eye formation of... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...

  10. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy, E-mail: mikko.lavinto@helsinki.fi, E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  11. Lipase in milk, curd and cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, T.J.; Lettink, F.J.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Presence of lipase in milk, curd, whey and cheese was studied. A small amount of the product was added to a large volume of lipase-free whole milk that had been made sensitive to lipolysis by homogenization. Increase of the acidity of the fat in the mixture, determined after incubation, was

  12. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... coloring may be added. Sufficient rennet, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces... of enzymes of animal or plant origin capable of aiding in the curing or development of flavor of.../catalase as provided in § 133.113(a)(3). (d)(1) Colby cheese in the form of slices or cuts may have added...

  13. Marketing of the autochthonous dried cheese in Zagreb region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Radman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for specific, value added food products is constantlyincreasing. In order to prepare such products for the market it is necessary to understand consumers’ attitudes and preferences towards food products. Dried cheese, one of the traditional products of wider Zagreb region is produced nowadays exclusively on the family farms without proper control of the used inputs and final product, and without any marketing activities. It is possible to add value and to increase the control of dried cheese production bydeveloping county brand of the cheese. The introduction of county brand of dried cheese in the market requires very good preparation in terms of fulfilling consumers’ needs and wishes. In this paper the results of the consumer survey are presented and could be used for the determination of the technological parameters of production and especially for marketing of the cheese and its distribution. The results showed that majority of the consumers prefer harder, compact, bright yellow cheese, with less intensive odour, packed in transparent plastic foil. Certain number of the respondents confused dried cheese with other cheeses sold in the market and therefore it is necessary to educate consumers about dried cheese and its characteristics compared to other cheeses.

  14. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  15. Development of parmesan cheese production from local cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliwarga, Lienda; Christianti, Elisabeth Novi; Lazarus, Chrisella

    2017-05-01

    Parmesan cheese is one of the dairy products which is used in various foods, such as pasta, bakery product, and pizza. It has a hard texture due to aging process for at least two years. Long aging period inhibited the production of parmesan cheese while consumer demands were increasing gradually. This research was conducted to figure out the effect of starter culture and rennet dose to the production of parmesan cheese. This research consists of (1) pasteurization of 1,500 ml milk at 73°C; and (2) main cheese making process that comprised of fermentation process and the addition of rennet. In latter stage, milk was converted into curd. Variations were made for the dose of bacteria culture and rennet. Both variables correlated to the fermentation time and characteristics of the produced cheese. The analysis of the produced cheese during testing stage included measured protein and cheese yield, whey pH, water activity, and moisture content. Moreover, an organoleptic test was done in a qualitative manner. The results showed that the dose of bacteria culture has a significant effect to the fermentation time, protein yield, and cheese yield. Meanwhile, rennet dose significantly affected cheese yield, pH of whey, and water activity. The highest protein yield (93.1%) was obtained at 0.6 ml of culture and 0.5 ml of rennet while the maximum cheese yield (6.81%) was achieved at 0.4 ml of culture and 0.1 ml of rennet. The water activity of produced cheeses was lower compared to the water activity of common parmesan cheese (ca. 0.6). For the organoleptic test, 0.4 ml of bacterial culture and 0.5 ml of rennet produced the most preferred cheese flavor compared to other variations.

  16. A 100-Year Review: Cheese production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M E

    2017-12-01

    In the beginning, cheese making in the United States was all art, but embracing science and technology was necessary to make progress in producing a higher quality cheese. Traditional cheese making could not keep up with the demand for cheese, and the development of the factory system was necessary. Cheese quality suffered because of poor-quality milk, but 3 major innovations changed that: refrigeration, commercial starters, and the use of pasteurized milk for cheese making. Although by all accounts cold storage improved cheese quality, it was the improvement of milk quality, pasteurization of milk, and the use of reliable cultures for fermentation that had the biggest effect. Together with use of purified commercial cultures, pasteurization enabled cheese production to be conducted on a fixed time schedule. Fundamental research on the genetics of starter bacteria greatly increased the reliability of fermentation, which in turn made automation feasible. Demand for functionality, machinability, application in baking, and more emphasis on nutritional aspects (low fat and low sodium) of cheese took us back to the fundamental principles of cheese making and resulted in renewed vigor for scientific investigations into the chemical, microbiological, and enzymatic changes that occur during cheese making and ripening. As milk production increased, cheese factories needed to become more efficient. Membrane concentration and separation of milk offered a solution and greatly enhanced plant capacity. Full implementation of membrane processing and use of its full potential have yet to be achieved. Implementation of new technologies, the science of cheese making, and the development of further advances will require highly trained personnel at both the academic and industrial levels. This will be a great challenge to address and overcome. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  18. Geophysical investigation of an upper tertiary subbasin in the southern Egyptian Red Sea shelf and its bearing on oil exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, M. M.

    Several narrow, elongate and Red Sea-trending gravity lows, suggested recently as due to depositional troughs, are shown on the Egyptian Red Sea shelf Bouguer map. Few drilling data and poor reflectivity below the Pliocene-Miocene uncorformity hinder subsurface evaluation. A 1 mgal anomaly (25 km north of Ras Benas Peninsula) was analysed along a crossing sessmic reflection line. The interpretation was aided by: lithology at an off-shore well, seismic data above the unconformity and aeromagnetic data in the southerly-located Foul Bay. The best fit of computed to observed gravity was for a three-layers model (water, post-evaporites and evaporites) where maximum sediment thickness was 3.8 km of which layers 2 and 3 constittted 1.6 and 2.2 km. The subbasin configuration was found to be controlled by Quaternary (similar to that mapped at Egyptian and Saudi Arabian coastal provinces) and pre-middle Miocence (affecting only middle Miocene evaprites beneath a reflection line at the western margin of the main trough near latitude 24°N) faulting which supports the conceot of Red Sea arching and subsequent faulting at marginal shelves. This subbasin is found associated, in part, with a sea--floor trough and with part of Foul Bay magnetic lineations (interpreted recently as caused by oceanic crust) which, in turn, are shown to constitute continuation of mapped onshore tholeiitic dikes.

  19. Determinants of the Egyptian labour migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, M; Metwally, M

    1992-03-01

    The objective is to summarize the pattern of Egyptian migration to Arab oil-producing countries (AOPC), to review some factors that are important determinants of labor movement based on theory, and to empirically model the migration rate to AOPC and to Saudi Arabia. Factors are differentiated as to their relative importance. Push factors are the low wages, high inflation rate, and high population density in Egypt; pull factors are higher wages. It is predicted that an increase in income from destination countries has a significant positive impact on the migration rate. An increase in population density stimulates migration. An increase in inflation acts to increase out-migration with a 2-year lag, which accommodates departure preparation. Egypt's experience with labor migration is described for the pre-oil boom, and the post-oil boom. Several estimates of labor migration are given. Government policy toward migration is positive. Theory postulates migration to be determined by differences in the availability of labor, labor rewards between destination and origin, and the cost of migration. In the empirical model, push factors are population density, the current inflation rate, and the ratio of income/capita in AOPC to Egypt. The results indicate that the ratio of income/capita had a strong pull impact and population density had a strong push impact. The inflation rate has a positive impact with a lag estimated at 2 years. Prior to the Camp David Accord, there was a significant decrease in the number of Egyptian migrants due to political tension. The findings support the classical theory of factor mobility. The consequences of migration on the Egyptian economy have been adverse. Future models should disaggregate data because chronic shortages exist in some parts of the labor market. Manpower needs assessment would be helpful for policy makers.

  20. Computer tomographic investigation of ancient Egyptian mummies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, K.H.; Pahl, W.M.; Tuebingen Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Radiological and computer tomographic examinations of Egyptian mummies have been carried out at the Institute of Anthropology and Human Genetics from 1975 to 1978. These have demonstrated the value of CT in medical archaeology. It enables one to study the soft tissues, the skin (if bandaged), the muscles and any organs retained in situ for magical or religious reason. Measurements of attenuation values indicate the materials which were used for mummifying the skin and organs. Characteristic examples are described and the early results of these examinations are discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Computer tomographic investigation of ancient Egyptian mummies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, K H; Pahl, W M

    1981-08-01

    Radiological and computer tomographic examinations of Egyptian mummies have been carried out at the Institute of Anthropology and Human Genetics from 1975 to 1978. These have demonstrated the value of CT in medical archaeology. It enables one to study the soft tissues, the skin (if bandaged), the muscles and any organs retained in situ for magical or religious reason. Measurements of attenuation values indicate the materials which were used for mummifying the skin and organs. Characteristic examples are described and the early results of these examinations are discussed.

  2. German-Egyptian seminar on environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.; Nentwich, D.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial development and scientific advancement have opened new frontiers of interest and challenges. Anthropogenic activities are increasingly upsetting the natural environmental balance and are at the same time shifting from local impact to global importance. Science is confronted with the challenge to answer the question of what are the consequences of anthropogenic changes to the environment and to help politics formulate countermeasures for the sake of a sustainable future. Protect results achieved within the Egyptian-German cooperation were presented to the scientific community and to the interested public and discussions on future lines of actions took place. (orig./KW)

  3. Electrical properties of Egyptian natural graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shazly, O.; El-Wahidy, E.F.; Elanany, N.; Saad, N.A.

    1992-06-01

    The electrical properties of Egyptian natural graphite flakes, obtained from the graphite schists of Wadi Bent, Eastern Desert, were measured. The flakes were ground and compressed into pellets. The standard four probe dc method was used to measure the temperature dependence of the electric resistivity from room temperature down to 12 K. The transverse and longitudinal magnetoresistance were measured in the low magnetic field range at temperatures 300 K, 77 K and 12 K. The transverse magnetoresistance data was used to estimate the average mobility, assuming a simple two-band model. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  4. RAS III - concept and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, U.; Wander, J.

    1990-01-01

    A new noise analysis system RAS III is being employed at the Greifswald NPP 'Bruno Leuschner' units 5 and 6 which differs from its forerunner types by an extended number of measuring points and a higher degree of automation. Substantial prerequisite of the system's full efficiency is implementation of efficient signal monitoring techniques that free the power plant engineer from routine work as well. The system has therefore been completed by algorithms established for automatic noise signal spectra control and for monitoring the pressure vessel vibrations. Moreover, a number of special techniques have been developed, such as for recording velocity-time plots during control element drop experiments. (author)

  5. Amino acid catabolism by Lactobacillus helveticus in cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kananen, Soila Kaarina

    Amino acid catabolism is the final step in the conversion of caseins to flavour compounds and a part of a complex combination of biochemical pathways in cheese flavour formation. Lactobacillus helveticus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium that is used in cheese manufacture as a primary starter...... culture or as an adjunct culture. It has shown high proteolytic activities in conversion of caseins to peptides and further to amino acids and flavour compounds. Better understanding of the enzyme activity properties and the influence of different properties on final cheese flavour is favourable...... for developing new cheese products with enhanced flavour. The aim of this Ph.D. study was to investigate the importance of strain variation of Lb. helveticus in relation flavour formation in cheese related to amino acid catabolism. Aspects of using Lb. helveticus as starter as well as adjunct culture in cheese...

  6. Response of Edam cheese to non-destructive impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of the Edam cheese during its maturation under dynamic loading has been studied. The block of tested cheese has been loaded by the impact of an aluminium bar. The force between bar and cheese has been recorded. The surface displacements as well as the surface velocities have been obtained at the different points from the point of the bar impact using of the laser vibrometers. Response functions have been evaluated both in the time and frequency domains. It has been found that the degree of the cheese maturity is well characterized by the attenuation of the surface displacement maximum. This maturation is also described by the maximum of the impact force. The spectral analysis of the response functions revealed that there was a dominant frequency, which depends only on the degree of the cheese maturity. The developed method represents a promising procedure for the continuous recording of the cheese ripening.

  7. An assessment of iodine in cheese in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1998-01-01

    We assessed some products in Macedonian food containing iodine: milk, bread, eggs, iodized salt. These nutritional items are deficient in iodine compared to western technology of,food preparation. Cheese prepared as white cheese from sheep and cow's milk is a much-used nutritional product. According to the Central Macedonian Statistical Bureau at the. Ministry of Health the laboratory measured iodine dosage in order to have an estimation of what the contribution of cheese is in the daily Macedonian diet. The collection of cheese was independently performed by the food inspectors in all regions of Macedonia. In June 1998 all specimens were in the laboratory. Macedonian white cheese has 57 micro g/dl iodine. In comparison to other nutritional items as milk, eggs and bread with a low contingent of iodine, the Macedonian cheese covers a good part of daily iodine necessity. We present our results with a brief comment on iodine metabolism. (Original)

  8. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese samples analyzed, respectively, exceeded the microbiological standards accepted by Brazilian legislation. These results indicate the need for a better product monitoring and more concern with hygiene and sanitary practices during industrial process.

  9. Sensory shelf life of mantecoso cheese using accelerated testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-González, Jesús A.; Pérez, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to estimate sensory shelf life of "huacariz" and "cefop" mantecoso cheese, vacuum packaging: "cefop" and packaging to the atmospheric pressure: "huacariz"; brands marketed in Cajamarca, using accelerated shelf life testing. For this purpose, "huacariz" cheese was stored at 20, 28, 35 y 40 °C, while it was set at 20, 28, 35 °C storage for "cefop" cheese, performing acceptability sensory tests according to time storage with both 41 consumers constants. The results f...

  10. Staphylococcus aureus in locally produced white cheese in Tirana market

    OpenAIRE

    ELVIRA BELI; RENIS MAÇI; SONILA ÇOÇOLI; HALIT MEMOÇI

    2014-01-01

    Cheese has nutritional value, its consumption is very common in Albania, but is also excellent medium for bacterial growth, source of bacterial infection, particularly when it is produced from raw poor quality or unpasteurized milk. Microbial safety of cheeses may be enhanced by usage good quality raw milk, pasteurized milk, following GMP in aim to prevent cross-contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and amount of Staphylococcus aureus in white cheeses, as an Albani...

  11. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures below...

  12. Physical, chemical and texture characteristics of Aro cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, M.L.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, Mexico’s total annual production of cheese was 375,181 tons. Cheese is widely consumed among all socioeconomic groups, and the decision to purchase this product is based on income, with a wide variety of cheeses, brands, and styles available. The fresco cheese is the most popular type and is mostly produced according to traditional or artisanal methods in small family businesses, and small and medium-sized enterprises. It is made with the milk of the producers' livestock, giving it an added value. In Mexico, however, there is not enough scientific information related to the characterization of various dairy products of artisanal production, for example, Aro cheese. The aim of the present study was to define the physical, chemical, and rheological characteristics of the Aro cheese that is commercialized in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, Oaxaca, Mexico. Twenty-four samples of Aro cheese were collected in four establishments with high sales in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, Oaxaca, for analysis physical (Diameter, weight, height and color, chemical (pH, acidity, aw, chlorides, moisture, ashes, protein and fat, and texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness. No difference was found in weight, diameter, height, and color (L* and b*. However, differences in hardness and cohesiveness were found. Although Aro cheese is characterized as an enzymatically coagulated cheese, pH values of 5.82 to 6.08 were recorded, and the data relating to moisture, protein, fat, and chlorides are similar to other Mexican fresh cheeses. The cheese of Aro that is commercialized in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, presents similar physical, chemical and texture characteristics to other fresh cheeses of artisanal production.

  13. Cheese Consumption and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and the Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raziani, Farinaz

    -fat cheese for 12 weeks did not modify LDL-C concentrations or MetS risk factors differently than equal amounts of reduced-fat cheese. The same was true when regular-cheese was compared with carbohydrate-rich foods, although regular-fat cheese tended to increase HDL-C concentrations compared...... that lipoprotein response is gender-specific. In men, regular-fat cheese intake reduced total LDL particle number compared with reduced-fat cheese, whereas regular-fat cheese consumption tended to increase total LDL particle number compared with reduced-fat cheese in women. Overall, the data from the large human...

  14. Exploring environmental causes of altered ras effects: fragmentation plus integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Miquel; Ayude, Daniel; Alguacil, Juan; Jariod, Manuel

    2003-02-01

    Mutations in ras genes are the most common abnormality of oncogenes in human cancer and a major example of activation by point mutation. Experimental and epidemiological studies support the notion that Ki-ras activation and expression may be chemically related. We discuss the potential role of several environmental compounds in the induction or promotion of ras mutations in humans, with a focus on exocrine pancreatic cancer, the human tumor with the highest prevalence at diagnosis of Ki-ras mutations. Organochlorine compounds, organic solvents, and coffee compounds may play an indirect role in causing Ki-ras mutations, rather than as direct inducers of the mutations. Although for some organochlorine compounds the induction of point mutations in ras oncogenes cannot be excluded, it seems more likely that the effects of these compounds are mediated through nongenomic or indirectly genotoxic mechanisms of action. Organic solvents also may act via enzymatic induction of ras mutagens or by providing a proliferation advantage to ras-mutated cell clones. In exocrine pancreatic cancer, caffeine, other coffee compounds, or other factors with which coffee drinking is associated could modulate Ki-ras activation by interfering with DNA repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, and apoptosis. Asbestos, cigarette smoking, and some dietary factors also may be involved in the initiation or the promotion of Ki-ras mutations in lung and colon cancers. Further development of the mechanistic scenarios proposed here could contribute to a meaningful integration of biological, clinical, and environmental knowledge on the causes of altered ras effects. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Ras and Rheb Signaling in Survival and Cell Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrkamp, Anja; Herrmann, Christian; Stoll, Raphael; Heumann, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    One of the most obvious hallmarks of cancer is uncontrolled proliferation of cells partly due to independence of growth factor supply. A major component of mitogenic signaling is Ras, a small GTPase. It was the first identified human protooncogene and is known since more than three decades to promote cellular proliferation and growth. Ras was shown to support growth factor-independent survival during development and to protect from chemical or mechanical lesion-induced neuronal degeneration in postmitotic neurons. In contrast, for specific patho-physiological cases and cellular systems it has been shown that Ras may also promote cell death. Proteins from the Ras association family (Rassf, especially Rassf1 and Rassf5) are tumor suppressors that are activated by Ras-GTP, triggering apoptosis via e.g., activation of mammalian sterile 20-like (MST1) kinase. In contrast to Ras, their expression is suppressed in many types of tumours, which makes Rassf proteins an exciting model for understanding the divergent effects of Ras activity. It seems likely that the outcome of Ras signaling depends on the balance between the activation of its various downstream effectors, thus determining cellular fate towards either proliferation or apoptosis. Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb) is a protein from the Ras superfamily that is also known to promote proliferation, growth, and regeneration through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) pathway. However, recent evidences indicate that the Rheb-mTor pathway may switch its function from a pro-growth into a cell death pathway, depending on the cellular situation. In contrast to Ras signaling, for Rheb, the cellular context is likely to modulate the whole Rheb-mTor pathway towards cellular death or survival, respectively

  16. Ras and Rheb Signaling in Survival and Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrkamp, Anja [Molecular Neurobiochemistry, Ruhr University of Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Herrmann, Christian [Department of Physical Chemistry1, Protein Interaction, Ruhr University of Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Stoll, Raphael [Biomolecular NMR, Ruhr University of Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Heumann, Rolf, E-mail: rolf.heumann@rub.de [Molecular Neurobiochemistry, Ruhr University of Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-05-28

    One of the most obvious hallmarks of cancer is uncontrolled proliferation of cells partly due to independence of growth factor supply. A major component of mitogenic signaling is Ras, a small GTPase. It was the first identified human protooncogene and is known since more than three decades to promote cellular proliferation and growth. Ras was shown to support growth factor-independent survival during development and to protect from chemical or mechanical lesion-induced neuronal degeneration in postmitotic neurons. In contrast, for specific patho-physiological cases and cellular systems it has been shown that Ras may also promote cell death. Proteins from the Ras association family (Rassf, especially Rassf1 and Rassf5) are tumor suppressors that are activated by Ras-GTP, triggering apoptosis via e.g., activation of mammalian sterile 20-like (MST1) kinase. In contrast to Ras, their expression is suppressed in many types of tumours, which makes Rassf proteins an exciting model for understanding the divergent effects of Ras activity. It seems likely that the outcome of Ras signaling depends on the balance between the activation of its various downstream effectors, thus determining cellular fate towards either proliferation or apoptosis. Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb) is a protein from the Ras superfamily that is also known to promote proliferation, growth, and regeneration through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) pathway. However, recent evidences indicate that the Rheb-mTor pathway may switch its function from a pro-growth into a cell death pathway, depending on the cellular situation. In contrast to Ras signaling, for Rheb, the cellular context is likely to modulate the whole Rheb-mTor pathway towards cellular death or survival, respectively.

  17. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Raif M; Sabry, Inas M; Abdelbaky, Rania S; Eid, Yara M; Nasr, Merihan S; Hendawy, Laila M

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is becoming endemic in many parts of the world. To study vitamin D status in Egyptian females of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 females, who were categorized into group 1 (51 nursing females); group 2 (50 pregnant females); group 3 (208 females of childbearing age); group 4 (38 elderly females); and group 5 (57 geriatric females). Females completed a questionnaire regarding dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure, and clothing habits, and performed laboratory tests including calcium, PO4, alkaline phosphatase, intact PTH, and 25-OH vitamin D levels. Median and IQR of vitamin D levels across groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were in the deficient range, being lowest in groups 3, 5, and 1, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 72.6% of the nursing group, 54% of the pregnant group, 72% of the childbearing age group, 39.5% of the elderly group, and 77.2% of the geriatric group. Vitamin D was significantly higher in non-veiled females [23ng/dl] as compared to veiled females [16.7ng/dl]. Vitamin D levels with poor, fair, and good sun exposure were 14.1, 14, and 37ng/dl, respectively. These results show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. ACE Gene in Egyptian Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Magdy A; El-Nabiel, Lobna M; Fahmy, Nagia Aly; Aref, Hany; Shreef, Edrees; Abd El-Tawab, Fathy; Abdulghany, Osama M

    2016-09-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) is a crucial player in vascular homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. The present study was conducted to determine whether there is an association between the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and ischemic stroke in Egyptian population. Also, we analyzed the ACE gene I/D polymorphism as a risk factor for small-vessel (SV) versus large-vessel (LV) disease. Sixty patients with ischemic stroke were included: 30 with SV disease and 30 with LV disease. In addition, a control group of 30 apparent healthy subjects were studied. Clinical assessment, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging brain, and genetic study using the polymerase chain reaction of ACE gene were done for all subjects. We found that the distribution of ACE gene polymorphism frequency was significantly different between the 3 groups. The DD genotype was far more common in stroke patients compared to controls. It was also significantly more common in each of the patient groups compared to controls but rather similar in the 2 patient groups with SV and LV diseases. We found that the ACE gene deletion/deletion genotype is common in Egyptian patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke but does not appear to be specific neither to SV nor to LV disease. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Egyptian Arab Spring and Political Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gad El ashkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborates and analyzes the phenomenon and concept of political Islam, the reasons of the increased role of the Islamists and their political and reformist tendencies in the light of the Egyptian revolution of Arab Spring, reasons and the main factors that have contributed on their advent into power and their influence in that time, the issue of the application of Islamic Sharia and complex realities about this dilemma. The revolutions of Arab Spring, including the Egyptian revolution, are considered one of the most important and most dangerous events in the XXI century after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, not only in the Middle East but throughout the world because of their impact on peace and global security. The growth of the phenomenon of political Islam and the advent of Islamists into power in Egypt has represented one of the most remarkable features of this sudden revolution. No doubt that the issue of the relationship between Islam and the state's political system raises many confusing questions for many people. In this sense the importance of this study will directly identify the fact that the leadership of Islamists in Egypt is not the implementation of Islamic Sharia but their movements and ideology.

  20. Nutritive Value of Irradiated Egyptian Truffles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Lattif, M.S.; Atia, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the nutritive value of truffles was evaluated as protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) compared with casein C-PER. of white truffle was higher than brown truffle and therefore had a better nutritional quality over the brown truffle. Egyptian truffle could be considered as a good source of protein with good essential amino acids content and high nutritive value. It was found that white and brown truffles (Al-Kamah) grow in the north westarn coast of the Egyptian desert, white truffle was identified as Tirmania nivea while brown truffle was identified as Terfezia boudieri. Rats were fed on normal diet as (basal diet) for two weeks, then they were fed on the same diet with 10% of casein (control diet), replaced by 20% of irradiated and non irradiated white and brown truffle dried samples as a protein source. The nutritive value parameters were measured at the end of the experiment, gains in body weight, daily food intake, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio were measured, biological value, the biological effect on liver kideny function serum glucose. LDL and HDL-cholesterol were investigated too

  1. The impact of migrants' remittances on the Egyptian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, M; Metwally, M F

    1990-06-01

    "The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the large remittances made by Egyptian migrants to their home country on the Egyptian economy. In order to study this impact, we use the implications of the standard Keynesian model. We estimated the structural equations of the model using annual data for the Egyptian economy over the period from 1970 to 1984.... The results suggest that remittances have had a strong positive impact on GNP in Egypt." The authors note that remittances especially affect private consumption spending. Policy implications concerning labor migration are discussed. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  2. Applications of external PIXE to ancient Egyptian artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, M.; Bubb, I.F.; Johnston, N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W.B.; Short, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    The external Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) facility at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology has been used to analyse ancient Egyptian glass samples, an Egyptian wall paint fragment and soil pigments. A 0.35 mm diameter beam of 1.6 MeV protons, extracted from the vacuum through an 8 μm gold coated Kapton foil was used. Analysis of the spectra was carried out with the analysis package PIXAN. The analysis of two Egyptian glass samples enabled the partial determination of the colouring transition metals and the manufacturing technique, indicating them to be consistent with 'New Kingdom' glasses

  3. studies on iron availability in Egyptian soils using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad allah, A.M.A.

    1984-01-01

    four experiments were conducted to study the available fe in some egyptian soils, representing alluvial,, calcareous, and sandy soils, including the following:1) estimation of soil available iron using different chemical methods as well as E-value and evaluated against biological method. 2) differentiation of iron as Fe 2+ and Fe 2+ in some selected egyptian soils by using the modified method (charlot,1966). 3) determination of total Fe in soil using neutron activation analysis. 4) the relative importance of Fe-diffusion in egyptian soils under different treatments

  4. EGYPTIAN MUTUAL FUNDS ANALYSIS: HISTORY, PERFORMANCE, OBJECTIVES, RISK AND RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru STEFEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to overview the mutual fund in Egypt. The establishment of the first mutual funds was achieved in 1994. Nowadays, the total mutual funds reached 90 funds , approximately. The income funds represent the largest share of the Egyptian mutual funds (40%, growth funds (25% and the private equity funds is at least (1%. The total population of the Egyptian mutual funds reached 22. Finally, the study proved that the Egyptian mutual funds have an impact on fund return , total risk and systemic; when analysis relationship between risk and return. The study found influencing for mutual fund's objectives on Sharpe and Terynor ratios.

  5. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-09-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi Yau's, arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th], Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α corrections to the Kähler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kähler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α corrections. The NS NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum.

  6. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in European cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    2017-01-01

    , respectively, pasteurized or un-pasteurized milk. Data from a total of 130,604 samples were analysed. Mean prevalence for presence during 2005-2015 estimated from scientific literature (2.3% with confidence interval (CI): 1.4-3.8%) was more than three times higher than results from EFSA reports (0.7%; CI: 0.......05) for cheeses produced from pasteurized (0.9%; CI: 0.4-1.9%) or un-pasteurized (1.0%; CI: 0.4-2.2%) milk. For cheese samples reported by EFSA 0.2% CI: 0.1-0.4% had concentration of L. monocytogenes above the critical European limits of 100 cfu/g. In addition, this systematic review focused on groups...

  7. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, (arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th]), Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α ' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kaehler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α ' corrections. The NS-NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum

  8. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy for authentication of cheese and cheese analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2016-04-01

    Food authentication and the detection of adulterated products are recent major issues in the food industry as these topics are of global importance for quality control and food safety. To effectively address this challenge requires fast, reliable and non-destructive analytical techniques. Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) is well suited for identification purposes as it combines the chemically specific information obtained by Raman spectroscopy with the ability for efficient fluorescence rejection. The two slightly shifted excitation wavelengths necessary for SERDS are realized by specially designed microsystem diode lasers. At 671 nm the laser (optical power: 50 mW, spectral shift: 0.7 nm) is based on an external cavity configuration whereas an emission at 783 nm (optical power: 110 mW, spectral shift: 0.5 nm) is achieved by a distributed feedback laser. To investigate the feasibility of SERDS for rapid and nondestructive authentication purposes four types of cheese and three different cheese analogues were selected. Each sample was probed at 8 different positions using integration times of 3-10 seconds and 10 spectra were recorded at each spot. Principal components analysis was applied to the SERDS spectra revealing variations in fat and protein signals as primary distinction criterion between cheese and cheese analogues for both excitation wavelengths. Furthermore, to some extent, minor compositional differences could be identified to discriminate between individual species of cheese and cheese analogues. These findings highlight the potential of SERDS for rapid food authentication potentially paving the way for future applications of portable SERDS systems for non-invasive in situ analysis.

  9. Effect of temperature, pH, and water activity on Mucor spp. growth on synthetic medium, cheese analog and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Rigalma, Karim; Coroller, Louis; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The Mucor genus includes a large number of ubiquitous fungal species. In the dairy environment, some of them play a technological role providing typical organoleptic qualities to some cheeses while others can cause spoilage. In this study, we compared the effect of relevant abiotic factors for cheese production on the growth of six strains representative of dairy technological and contaminant species as well as of a non cheese related strain (plant endophyte). Growth kinetics were determined for each strain in function of temperature, water activity and pH on synthetic Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), and secondary models were fitted to calculate the corresponding specific cardinal values. Using these values and growth kinetics acquired at 15 °C on cheese agar medium (CA) along with three different cheese types, optimal growth rates (μopt) were estimated and consequently used to establish a predictive model. Contrarily to contaminant strains, technological strains showed higher μopt on cheese matrices than on PDA. Interestingly, lag times of the endophyte strain were strongly extended on cheese related matrices. This study offers a relevant predictive model of growth that may be used for better cheese production control but also raises the question of adaptation of some Mucor strains to the cheese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oncogenic N-Ras Stimulates SRF-Mediated Transactivation via H3 Acetylation at Lysine 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ju Yi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transduction pathways regulate the gene expression by altering chromatin dynamics in response to mitogens. Ras proteins are key regulators linking extracellular stimuli to a diverse range of biological responses associated with gene regulation. In mammals, the three ras genes encode four Ras protein isoforms: H-Ras, K-Ras4A, K-Ras4B, and N-Ras. Although emerging evidence suggests that Ras isoforms differentially regulate gene expressions and are functionally nonredundant, the mechanisms underlying Ras specificity and Ras signaling effects on gene expression remain unclear. Here, we show that oncogenic N-Ras acts as the most potent regulator of SRF-, NF-κB-, and AP-1-dependent transcription. N-Ras-RGL2 axis is a distinct signaling pathway for SRF target gene expression such as Egr1 and JunB, as RGL2 Ras binding domain (RBD significantly impaired oncogenic N-Ras-induced SRE activation. By monitoring the effect of Ras isoforms upon the change of global histone modifications in oncogenic Ras-overexpressed cells, we discovered that oncogenic N-Ras elevates H3K9ac/H3K23ac levels globally in the chromatin context. Importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays revealed that H3K9ac is significantly enriched at the promoter and coding regions of Egr1 and JunB. Collectively, our findings define an undocumented role of N-Ras in modulating of H3 acetylation and in gene regulation.

  11. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuvier, Eric; Duboz, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    Traditional cheeses originate from complex systems that confer on them specific sensory characteristics. These characteristics are linked to various factors of biodiversity such as animal feed, the use of raw milk and its indigenous microflora, the cheese technology, and the ripening conditions, all in conjunction with the knowledge of the cheesemaker and affineur. In Europe, particularly in France, the preservation of traditional cheesemaking processes, some of which have protected designation of origin, is vital for the farming and food industry in certain regions. Among these cheeses, some are made in the Alps or Jura Mountains, including Comté, Beaufort, Abondance, and Emmental, which are made from raw milk. The principle of hard or semihard cooked cheese, produced in the Alps and Jura Mountains, was to make a product during the summer-a period during which the animals feed more and milk production is high-with a shelf life of several months that could be consumed in winter. Today, these traditional cheeses are produced according to a specific approach combining science and tradition in order to better understand and preserve the elements that contribute to the distinctiveness of these cheeses. To address this complex problem, a global approach to the role of the raw milk microflora in the final quality of cheeses was initially chosen. The modifications resulting from the elimination of the raw milk microflora, either by pasteurization or by microfiltration, to the biochemistry of the ripening process and ultimately the sensory quality of the cheeses were evaluated. This approach was achieved mainly with experimental hard cooked cheeses. Other types of traditional cheese made with raw and pasteurized milk are also considered when necessary. Besides the native raw milk microflora, traditional lactic starters (natural or wild starters) also participate in the development of the characteristics of traditional hard and semihard cooked mountain cheeses. After an

  12. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  13. Molecular fingerprinting of the Egyptian medicinal plant Cocculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Fathi Shadia

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... mative and highly discriminative picture about C. pendulus as shown by (PIC = 0.99). ... occurrence of C. pendulus in the Egyptian deserts, attention was paid only to ... Selective amplification was carried out using four primer.

  14. Educational Corner | Salem | Egyptian Journal of Medical Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 32, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. ... Therapeutic Impacts of Almond Oil and Olive Oil on Cholesterol Dynamics and ... Multidrug Resistance Proteins in Pancreatic Carcinoma · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. Modeling and Collective Painting in an Egyptian Primary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bassiouny, Mahmoud

    1980-01-01

    The author's art instruction for young Egyptian children focuses on design, creative expression, and appreciation of Egypt's unique artistic tradition. This article is one of several in this issue on art education in other countries. (SJL)

  17. Internet and the Egyptian Public Sphere | Mehanna | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet and the Egyptian Public Sphere. ... to gain information and engage in political, social and religious discussions. ... This has led to the emergence of a kind of alternative media run by professionals, semi-professionals and amateurs.

  18. Progress in genetics of coronary artery disease | Shawky | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 1 (2018) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (A1166C gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in Egyptian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marium M. Shamaa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of essential hypertension (EH is affected by genetic and environmental factors. Mutations in hypertension-related genes can affect blood pressure (BP via alteration of salt and water reabsorption by the nephron. The genes of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS have been extensively studied because of the well documented role of this system in the control of BP. It has been previously shown that Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (ATR1 gene polymorphism could be associated with increased risk of EH. So, in the current study, we evaluated the frequency of ATR1 (A1166C polymorphism in relation to EH in a group of Egyptian population. The study population included 83 hypertensive patients and 60 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Restriction fragment length polymorphism – Polymerase chain reaction (RFLP – PCR was used for the analysis of A1166C polymorphism of ATR1 genes in peripheral blood samples of all patients and controls. The results revealed that there was a positive risk of developing EH when having the T allele whether in homozygous or heterozygous state. From this work, it was concluded that there was an association between ATR1 (A1166C gene polymorphism and the risk of developing EH.

  20. Knife - Holders in Ancient Egyptian Tombs (Religious and Artistic Study)

    OpenAIRE

    dr.Rasha Omran

    2015-01-01

    Studying ancient Egyptian tombs have long been an important source of information regarding many aspects of Egyptian religion. Walls of New Kingdom tombs are often decorated with plenty of painted religious scenes. While they were primarily private structures containing images selected by the person who expected to be housed there for eternity, the funerary monuments also reflect religious beliefs. While numerous researches focused on many of the religious scenes depicted on the walls of anci...

  1. Application of Moessbauer spectroscopy in investigating Egyptian archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, N.A.; Sallam, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of applications of the Moessbauer spectroscopy to investigate Ancient Egyptian pottery from the periods: Ancient Egyptian (3200-525 B.C.), Greek-Roman (320 B.C.-640 A.C.) and Early Islamic (800-1000 A.C.). Many objective informations deduced about: provinance, manufacturing techniques for different domestic purposes, civilization transfer between the Arab countries, methods of colouration and applying decorating glazes, and finally dating of ancient pottery. (orig.)

  2. Assessing Egyptian Public Support for Security Crackdowns in the Sinai

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    luxury in Qatar while Palestinians were dying by the hundreds in Gaza because of his foolish policy. One Egyptian commentator stated that he would...television that is owned by the government of Qatar . Although the Egyptian government has tried to de-legitimize Al Jazeera because of its purported...2014. 4. “Egypt: Bedouins Begin to Demand Equal Citizenship Rights,” IRIN News, June 16, 2011, available from www.irinnews. org/report/92998/egypt

  3. Molecular characterization of eimeria species naturally infecting egyptian baldi chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar M Gadelhaq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated.Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR marker.The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp, E. brunette (626bp, E. tenella (539bp, E. maxima (272bp, E. necatrix (200bp, E. mitis (327bp and E. praecopx (354bp. A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G in compared with the reference sequence.This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens.

  4. Molecular characterization of eimeria species naturally infecting egyptian baldi chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelhaq, Sahar M; Arafa, Waleed M; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated. Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR) marker. The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp), E. brunette (626bp), E. tenella (539bp), E. maxima (272bp), E. necatrix (200bp), E. mitis (327bp) and E. praecopx (354bp). A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G) when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G) in compared with the reference sequence. This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Eimeria Species Naturally Infecting Egyptian Baldi Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    GADELHAQ, Sahar M; ARAFA, Waleed M; ABOELHADID, Shawky M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated. Methods: Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR) marker. Results: The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp), E. brunette (626bp), E. tenella (539bp), E. maxima (272bp), E. necatrix (200bp), E. mitis (327bp) and E. praecopx (354bp). A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G) when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G) in compared with the reference sequence. Conclusion: This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens. PMID:25904950

  6. Characterization of Egyptian coal from Sinai using Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, N.A.; Abdel Meguid, M.M.; Deriu, A.; Albanese, G.

    1983-08-01

    The presence of iron bearing minerals in coal makes the Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS) extremely useful for characterization of coals from different localities. In this paper the MS has been applied to characterize Egyptian coal from Sinai (Maghara). The chemical analysis of this coal is given. The MS results showed that pyritic sulphur (pyrite and marcasite) is the only bearing mineral in Egyptian coal. A review is given for the iron bearing minerals in coals from different countries measured by MS. (author)

  7. Analysis of trade condition in Ras region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andelić Slavica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern academic literature in the field of trade in macro and mesoeconomic atmosphere, is trying to shed light on the data which defines exchange flows in intra and international environment. The study of this work is based on the database based through state registers, where with their sizing and analysis, we are coming to a deeper insight into the condition of market channels of Ras region and its relationship with the environment. The aim of this work is meticulous interpretation of trade patterns as a result of macro and meso trade policy, which could serve as an incentive for local and governmental structures in developing commercial potential of the southern part of our country.

  8. Radon Progeny in Egyptian Underground Phosphate Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hady, M.A.; Mohammed, A.; El-Hussein, A.; Ali, A.E.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to the workers in uranium mines, the staff of other underground mines, such as workers in underground phosphate mines, can be exposed to 222 Rn and its progeny. In this study the individual radon progeny concentrations were measured in three Egyptian underground phosphate mines to estimate the occupational exposure of the workers at those sites. A filter method was used to measure individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po). The reported mean values of radon progeny concentrations exceed the action levels which are recommended by ICRP 65 (1993). Based on the measured individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po) in these mines, the annual effective dose for the workers has been calculated using the lung dose model of ICRP 66 (1994). According to the obtained results, some countermeasures were recommended in this study to minimise these exposure levels. (author)

  9. Attitude of Egyptian consumer towards irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Fouly, M.Z.; Saad El-din, N.; Abdel Karim, H.; Farag, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at the evaluation of the opinion and attitude of the consumer as to what extent they accept or refuse food preservation by radiation. Also detect the method that can attract the consumers to adopt the technique and ensure the success handling of irradiated in egyptian market. One thousand and twenty two poll sheets were collected. The questionnaire was supported with simplified information about the use of atomic energy and radiation for peaceful purpose. From the results, 62.43% of the total sample size accepted the radiation technology persons that were convinced with the advantage of using irradiated food reached 70.45% . As to keep on being applied of the technology 73.97% of the total sample size agreed persons said yes to irradiated food for consumption if it is made available in the market were 57.53%

  10. Examination of an Egyptian mummy - stereolithography applied

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalgrim, H; Lynnerup, N [Laboratory of Biological Anthropology, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Liversage, M [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Sciences, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the techniques of three dimensional imaging and stereolithography based on serial CAT-scans applied to the examination of the skull of an Egyptian mummy. Both the three dimensional image and the polymeric cast of the mummy skull presented finer details. It was confirmed that the subject was a male, approximately 30 - 35 years old. Fracturing of the ethmoid bone, e=sequelae to the removal of the brain, was observed in both types of presentations. Apart from this and signs of parodontitis, no pathology was observed. Stereolithography is a most powerful, non-destructive approach to the study of mummies. It might solve some of the problems of reburials, and further be of value in forensic medicine and paleo-ontology. (authors).

  11. Examination of an Egyptian mummy - stereolithography applied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalgrim, H.; Lynnerup, N.; Liversage, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques of three dimensional imaging and stereolithography based on serial CAT-scans applied to the examination of the skull of an Egyptian mummy. Both the three dimensional image and the polymeric cast of the mummy skull presented finer details. It was confirmed that the subject was a male, approximately 30 - 35 years old. Fracturing of the ethmoid bone, e=sequelae to the removal of the brain, was observed in both types of presentations. Apart from this and signs of parodontitis, no pathology was observed. Stereolithography is a most powerful, non-destructive approach to the study of mummies. It might solve some of the problems of reburials, and further be of value in forensic medicine and paleo-ontology. (authors)

  12. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  13. Physico-chemical and rheological properties of prato cheese during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research ... consumer usually evaluates the colour and aroma prior to ... parameters influence the texture of cheeses because the ... Quality of refrigerated milk used to process prato cheese ... Centre for Food Research of the School of Veterinary and Animal.

  14. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine

  15. Physiological characterization of common fungi associated with cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    A multivariate statistical method (PLS) was used for a physiological characterization of fungi associated with the cheese environment. The combined effects of pH, salt content, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels on growth and sporulation were studied. Significant factors affecting growth were salt...... may aid in eliminating unwanted fungal growth during cheese production....

  16. [Yeast microbiota in artisanal cheeses from Corrientes, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Marina C; Fusco, Ángel J V; Carrasco, Marta S

    The artisanal cheese from Corrientes (from the Spanish acronym QAC-Queso Artesanal de Corrientes/Artisanal Cheese from Corrientes) is a soft cheese elaborated with raw cow milk and an artisanal coagulant agent. Lactic bacteria contitute the main flora of this cheese although yeasts are also present in high quantities as secondary microbiota and might play a relevant role in cheese ripening. The aim of this work was to evaluate yeast occurrence during QAC elaboration and ripening, and the effect of seasonal variation. Yeasts were isolated and purified from raw materials and cheese at different ripening stagesl elaborated during the different seasons. Yeast sample counts were in the order of 10 3 - 10 7 UFC/ml o UFC/g. Ninety yeast strains were classified: 9 from milk, 28 from the coagulant agent, 10 from curd and 43 from cheese. Candida predominated in milk samples while other yeast genera had low incidence. Candida also predominated in the coagulant agent samples, followed by genera Myxozyma and Debaryomyces. The isolates obtained from cheese belonged to the same genera predominating in the coagulant agent, and showed the same order of prevalence. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Cheese samples treated with Honey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control treatment (A) was cheese kept in the whey, while Treatments B and C were cheese samples kept in Thyme and Honey solutions respectively. ... The crude protein was significantly higher (p<0.05) for Treatment B, then treatment A and least for treatment C. The ether extract followed the same trend as crude ...

  18. Acceptance and storage of fresh cheese made with essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelmir Grassi Presente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the acceptance and conservation of Minas fresh cheese with essential oils added of oregano and ginger in its formulation. The quality of the milk used as raw material was evaluated for pH, acidity, alizarol, total solids, density, and total microbial load. The cheeses produced were characterized as pH, acidity, moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes. The cheeses were also evaluated by sensorial affective tests using hedonic and attitude scales, in order to determine the acceptance and purchase intention by judges. The count of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was used to estimate the shelf-life of cheeses. The milk used as raw material is presented within the quality standards required by legislation. The cheeses made with essential oils showed pH and acidity around 6.9 and 0.87%, respectively, 57.6% moisture, 31.3% lipids, 11.4% protein and 0.9% ash. The cheese added essential oil of oregano and the control cheese were those given by the judges the best values for acceptance (7.5 and 7.6, respectively and purchase intention (4.2 and 4.4 respectively. Regarding the estimated shelf-life, the cheeses added essential oil of oregano and ginger had lower overall microbial load values compared to the control (no oil and mixed (two oils addition, presented counts values with up 106 UFC/g only from the 28th day of storage.

  19. The use of spices in the production of traditional cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Josipović

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheese is a highly valued dairy product worldwide, with a special focus on traditional cheeses, not only for their basic nutritive purposes but also as a part of the culture and characteristics of a certain country. Owing to the geographical location as well as the climate and vegetation diversity, in certain regions of Croatia the production of various traditional cheeses using spices was developed. Spices are either added to the cheese curd which is then formed, or cheese is wrapped into plant leaves. Sometimes spices are also applied onto the surface of the cheese, and only in rare cases spices are added into the curd. Spices added to cheese improve sensory characteristics, increase the stability and shelf life but also increase the nutritional value. The chemical composition of spices is very complex and every spice has a specific and dominant ingredient that contributes to the flavour of the product and/or its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. This paper provides an overview of spices and aromatic herbs as natural preservatives that are used in the production of traditional cheeses.

  20. PROTEIN & SENSORY ANALYSIS TO CHARACTERIZE MEXICAN CHIHUAHUA CHEESES

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been established that native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including Queso Chihuahua, a Mexican cheese variety, contributes to the development of unique flavors through degradation of milk proteins resulting in the release of free amino acids and short peptides that influence the taste and ...

  1. RasGRP3 regulates the migration of glioma cells via interaction with Arp3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Kyung; Finniss, Susan; Cazacu, Simona; Xiang, Cunli; Poisson, Laila M.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Brodie, Chaya

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumors, are highly infiltrative. Although GBM express high Ras activity and Ras proteins have been implicated in gliomagenesis, Ras-activating mutations are not frequent in these tumors. RasGRP3, an important signaling protein responsive to diacylglycerol (DAG), increases Ras activation. Here, we examined the expression and functions of RasGRP3 in GBM and glioma cells. RasGRP3 expression was upregulated in GBM specimens and glioma stem cells compared with normal brains and neural stem cells, respectively. RasGRP3 activated Ras and Rap1 in glioma cells and increased cell migration and invasion partially via Ras activation. Using pull-down assay and mass spectroscopy we identified the actin-related protein, Arp3, as a novel interacting protein of RasGRP3. The interaction of RasGRP3 and Arp3 was validated by immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation, and PMA, which activates RasGRP3 and induces its translocation to the peri-nuclear region, increased the association of Arp3 and RasGRP3. Arp3 was upregulated in GBM, regulated cell spreading and migration and its silencing partially decreased these effects of RasGRP3 in glioma cells. In summary, RasGRP3 acts as an important integrating signaling protein of the DAG and Ras signaling pathways and actin polymerization and represents an important therapeutic target in GBM. PMID:25682201

  2. USE OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIA IN THE PRODUCTION OF CHEESE : PROBIOTIC CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of the gastrointestinal microflora with human health have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Disruption of the ecologic equilibrium of the normal intestinal flora may result in gastrointestinal diseases. Functional foods, which are used in prevention and treatment of some intestinal diseases, are defined as "foods that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition". Probiotics are constituted an important part of functional foods. Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. To date, the most popular food delivery systems for probiotic cultures have been fermented milks and yogurts, as well as unfermented milk with cultures added. In an effort to expand the probiotic product range, a small number of researchers and dairy companies have endeavoured to production cheeses, which sustain a high viable count of probiotic cultures. This paper will first outline some of the main aspects about probiotics, cheese microbilogy and probiotic cheese development, and give examples of studies where probiotic microorganisms have been incoorporated into cheese.

  3. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO......2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon...... a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro...

  4. Spectrum of K ras mutations in Pakistani colorectal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murtaza, B.N.; Bibi, A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Quaid-i-Azam Campus, Lahore (Pakistan); Rashid, M.U.; Khan, Y.I. [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Johar Town, Lahore (Pakistan); Chaudri, M.S. [Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan); Shakoori, A.R. [School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Quaid-i-Azam Campus, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-11-29

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing daily worldwide. Although different aspects of CRC have been studied in other parts of the world, relatively little or almost no information is available in Pakistan about different aspects of this disease at the molecular level. The present study was aimed at determining the frequency and prevalence of K ras gene mutations in Pakistani CRC patients. Tissue and blood samples of 150 CRC patients (64% male and 36% female) were used for PCR amplification of K ras and detection of mutations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and nucleotide sequencing. The K ras mutation frequency was found to be 13%, and the most prevalent mutations were found at codons 12 and 13. A novel mutation was also found at codon 31. The dominant mutation observed was a G to A transition. Female patients were more susceptible to K ras mutations, and these mutations were predominant in patients with a nonmetastatic stage of CRC. No significant differences in the prevalence of K ras mutations were observed for patient age, gender, or tumor type. It can be inferred from this study that Pakistani CRC patients have a lower frequency of K ras mutations compared to those observed in other parts of the world, and that K ras mutations seemed to be significantly associated with female patients.

  5. Spectrum of K ras mutations in Pakistani colorectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtaza, B.N.; Bibi, A.; Rashid, M.U.; Khan, Y.I.; Chaudri, M.S.; Shakoori, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing daily worldwide. Although different aspects of CRC have been studied in other parts of the world, relatively little or almost no information is available in Pakistan about different aspects of this disease at the molecular level. The present study was aimed at determining the frequency and prevalence of K ras gene mutations in Pakistani CRC patients. Tissue and blood samples of 150 CRC patients (64% male and 36% female) were used for PCR amplification of K ras and detection of mutations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and nucleotide sequencing. The K ras mutation frequency was found to be 13%, and the most prevalent mutations were found at codons 12 and 13. A novel mutation was also found at codon 31. The dominant mutation observed was a G to A transition. Female patients were more susceptible to K ras mutations, and these mutations were predominant in patients with a nonmetastatic stage of CRC. No significant differences in the prevalence of K ras mutations were observed for patient age, gender, or tumor type. It can be inferred from this study that Pakistani CRC patients have a lower frequency of K ras mutations compared to those observed in other parts of the world, and that K ras mutations seemed to be significantly associated with female patients

  6. 21 CFR 133.125 - Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or..., vegetables, or meats. (a) Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats or mixtures of these is the... cheese food with fruits, vegetables or meats is “Cold-pack cheese food with ___”, the blank being filled...

  7. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (<4) relevant descriptors made it possible to predict the production of fines (R(2)=0.82), the percentage of long shreds (R(2)=0.67), and to a lesser degree, the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection and viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout cheese ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ruggirello

    Full Text Available Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese.

  9. Detection and Viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout Cheese Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolin, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese. PMID:25503474

  10. Discrimination of commercial cheeses from fatty acid profiles and phytosterol contents obtained by GC and PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Sook; Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Kim, Ji Won; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Jinho

    2014-01-15

    In this study, a method for discriminating natural mozzarella cheese from cheese substitutes, using fatty acid profiles, phytosterol contents, and statistical comparison, was developed. A total of 27 cheeses were evaluated: eight natural mozzarella cheeses (NMCs), four imitation mozzarella cheeses (IMCs), 12 processed cheeses (PCs) and three mixed cheeses (MCs) composed of NMCs and IMCs. The fatty acid composition of the NMC class was distinct from those of the IMC and MC classes, but statistically similar (pIMCs, but similar (pIMCs, but discrimination between the NMCs and the PCs could not be achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consensus categorization of cheese based on water activity and pH-A rational approach to systemizing cheese diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trmčić, A; Ralyea, R; Meunier-Goddik, L; Donnelly, C; Glass, K; D'Amico, D; Meredith, E; Kehler, M; Tranchina, N; McCue, C; Wiedmann, M

    2017-01-01

    Development of science-based interventions in raw milk cheese production is challenging due to the large diversity of production procedures and final products. Without an agreed upon categorization scheme, science-based food safety evaluations and validation of preventive controls would have to be completed separately on each individual cheese product, which is not feasible considering the large diversity of products and the typically small scale of production. Thus, a need exists to systematically group raw milk cheeses into logically agreed upon categories to be used for food safety evaluations. This paper proposes and outlines one such categorization scheme that provides for 30 general categories of cheese. As a base for this systematization and categorization of raw milk cheese, we used Table B of the US Food and Drug Administration's 2013 Food Code, which represents the interaction of pH and water activity for control of vegetative cells and spores in non-heat-treated food. Building on this table, we defined a set of more granular pH and water activity categories to better represent the pH and water activity range of different raw milk cheeses. The resulting categorization scheme was effectively validated using pH and water activity values determined for 273 different cheese samples collected in the marketplace throughout New York State, indicating the distribution of commercially available cheeses among the categories proposed here. This consensus categorization of cheese provides a foundation for a feasible approach to developing science-based solutions to assure compliance of the cheese processors with food safety regulations, such as those required by the US Food Safety Modernization Act. The key purpose of the cheese categorization proposed here is to facilitate product assessment for food safety risks and provide scientifically validated guidance on effective interventions for general cheese categories. Once preventive controls for a given category have

  12. Non-deletion mutations in Egyptian patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The relative higher frequency of duplication mutations in Egyptian patients with DMD may indicate that MLPA and not PCR should be preferred for molecular testing of Egyptian patients with DMD.

  13. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC) SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC) system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms) in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC) in Eg...

  14. Diet, Lifestyle and risk of K-ras mutation-positive and -negative colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wark, P.A.; Kuil, van der W.; Ploemacher, J.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Mulder, Ch.J.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2006-01-01

    K-ras mutation-positive (K-ras+) and -negative (K-ras-) colorectal adenomas may differ clinically and pathologically. As environmental compounds may cause mutations in the growth-related K-ras oncogene or affect clonal selection depending on mutational status, we evaluated whether the aetiology of

  15. The C-terminus of H-Ras as a target for the covalent binding of reactive compounds modulating Ras-dependent pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L Oeste

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ras proteins are crucial players in differentiation and oncogenesis and constitute important drug targets. The localization and activity of Ras proteins are highly dependent on posttranslational modifications at their C-termini. In addition to an isoprenylated cysteine, H-Ras, but not other Ras proteins, possesses two cysteine residues (C181 and C184 in the C-terminal hypervariable domain that act as palmitoylation sites in cells. Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (cyPG are reactive lipidic mediators that covalently bind to H-Ras and activate H-Ras dependent pathways. Dienone cyPG, such as 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14-PGJ(2 (15d-PGJ(2 and Δ(12-PGJ(2 selectively bind to the H-Ras hypervariable domain. Here we show that these cyPG bind simultaneously C181 and C184 of H-Ras, thus potentially altering the conformational tendencies of the hypervariable domain. Based on these results, we have explored the capacity of several bifunctional cysteine reactive small molecules to bind to the hypervariable domain of H-Ras proteins. Interestingly, phenylarsine oxide (PAO, a widely used tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, and dibromobimane, a cross-linking agent used for cysteine mapping, effectively bind H-Ras hypervariable domain. The interaction of PAO with H-Ras takes place in vitro and in cells and blocks modification of H-Ras by 15d-PGJ(2. Moreover, PAO treatment selectively alters H-Ras membrane partition and the pattern of H-Ras activation in cells, from the plasma membrane to endomembranes. These results identify H-Ras as a novel target for PAO. More importantly, these observations reveal that small molecules or reactive intermediates interacting with spatially vicinal cysteines induce intramolecular cross-linking of H-Ras C-terminus potentially contributing to the modulation of Ras-dependent pathways.

  16. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Suppressors of Ras Mutations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sieburth, Derek

    1998-01-01

    .... elegans vulval development. We describe the identification and characterization of a novel gene, sur-8, that functions to regulate a receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras-MAP kinase-mediated signal transduction pathway during C...

  17. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Suppressors of Ras Mutations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sieburth, Derek

    1999-01-01

    .... elegans vulvaZ development. We describe the identification and characterization of a novel gene, sur-8, that functions to regulate a receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras-MAp kinase- mediated signal transduction pathway during C...

  18. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. What makes Ras an efficient molecular switch: a computational, biophysical, and structural study of Ras-GDP interactions with mutants of Raf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filchtinski, Daniel; Sharabi, Oz; Rüppel, Alma; Vetter, Ingrid R; Herrmann, Christian; Shifman, Julia M

    2010-06-11

    Ras is a small GTP-binding protein that is an essential molecular switch for a wide variety of signaling pathways including the control of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. In the GTP-bound state, Ras can interact with its effectors, triggering various signaling cascades in the cell. In the GDP-bound state, Ras looses its ability to bind to known effectors. The interaction of the GTP-bound Ras (Ras(GTP)) with its effectors has been studied intensively. However, very little is known about the much weaker interaction between the GDP-bound Ras (Ras(GDP)) and Ras effectors. We investigated the factors underlying the nucleotide-dependent differences in Ras interactions with one of its effectors, Raf kinase. Using computational protein design, we generated mutants of the Ras-binding domain of Raf kinase (Raf) that stabilize the complex with Ras(GDP). Most of our designed mutations narrow the gap between the affinity of Raf for Ras(GTP) and Ras(GDP), producing the desired shift in binding specificity towards Ras(GDP). A combination of our best designed mutation, N71R, with another mutation, A85K, yielded a Raf mutant with a 100-fold improvement in affinity towards Ras(GDP). The Raf A85K and Raf N71R/A85K mutants were used to obtain the first high-resolution structures of Ras(GDP) bound to its effector. Surprisingly, these structures reveal that the loop on Ras previously termed the switch I region in the Ras(GDP).Raf mutant complex is found in a conformation similar to that of Ras(GTP) and not Ras(GDP). Moreover, the structures indicate an increased mobility of the switch I region. This greater flexibility compared to the same loop in Ras(GTP) is likely to explain the natural low affinity of Raf and other Ras effectors to Ras(GDP). Our findings demonstrate that an accurate balance between a rigid, high-affinity conformation and conformational flexibility is required to create an efficient and stringent molecular switch. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd

  20. Survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus during the Preparation of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Liu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a new probiotic soy cheese on the basis of chinese sufu. The soy cheese was made from soymilk fermented with soy cheese bacterial starter cultures (DH1 and GH4 and L. rhamnosus 6013. After ripening, probiotic soy cheese sensory scores (standard SB/T 10170-93 were compared to the control. The changes in pH, bacterial growth and the survivability of the potential probiotic L. rhamnosus 6013 during fermentation and storage at 10 °C were examined. After 6 h of fermentation, L. rhamnosus 6013 was capable of growing in soymilk as high as 108–109 CFU/mL. After being stored for 30 days at 10 °C, slight decrease in pH and the viable counts of the strain was noticed. The viable counts of L. rhamnosus 6013, DH1 and GH4 were 107, 106 and 106 CFU/g, respectively, after storage for 30 days. The levels of stachyose, raffinose and sucrose in soy cheese were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could utilize the soybean oligosaccharides as carbon sources. In addition, 2–4 % of NaCl had little effect on the survivability of L. rhamnosus 6013. It indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could withstand the technological processing of soy cheese and had no negative effect on the fermentation and the sensory properties of the soy cheese.

  1. Analisis Pemasaran Ayam Ras Pedaging di Pasar Tradisional Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Fachri, Yusrizal

    2017-01-01

    130306044 YUSRIZAL FACHRI, 2017. “Analisis Pemasaran Ayam Ras Pedaging di Pasar Tradisional Kota Medan”. Dibimbing oleh ARMYN HAKIM DAULAY dan NEVY DIANA HANAFI. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi karakteristik lembaga pemasaran, bentuk saluran, fungsi pemasaran, dan menganalisis nilai tambah di lembaga-lembaga pemasaran ayam ras pedaging di pasar tradisional Kota Medan pada April sampai Mei 2017. Penelitian ini menggunakan data primer yang didapatkan dari observasi dan waw...

  2. Technological Strategies to Preserve Burrata Cheese Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Costa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Burrata cheese is a very perishable product due to microbial proliferation and undesirable sensory changes. In this work, a step-by-step optimization approach was used to design proper processing and packaging conditions for burrata in brine. In particular, four different steps were carried out to extend its shelf life. Different headspace gas compositions (MAP-1 30:70 CO2:N2; MAP-2 50:50 CO2:N2 and MAP-3 65:35 CO2:N2 were firstly tested. To further promote product preservation, a coating was also optimized. Then, antimicrobial compounds in the filling of the burrata cheese (lysozyme and Na2-EDTA and later in the coating (enzymatic complex and silver nanoparticles were analyzed. To evaluate the quality of the samples, in each step headspace gas composition, microbial population, and pH and sensory attributes were monitored during storage at 8 ± 1 °C. The results highlight that the antimicrobial compounds in the stracciatella, coating with silver nanoparticles, and packaging under MAP-3 represent effective conditions to guarantee product preservation, moving burrata shelf life from three days (control sample to ten days.

  3. RAS signalling in energy metabolism and rare human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dard, L; Bellance, N; Lacombe, D; Rossignol, R

    2018-05-08

    The RAS pathway is a highly conserved cascade of protein-protein interactions and phosphorylation that is at the heart of signalling networks that govern proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. Recent findings indicate that the RAS pathway plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism via the control of mitochondrial form and function but little is known on the participation of this effect in RAS-related rare human genetic diseases. Germline mutations that hyperactivate the RAS pathway have been discovered and linked to human developmental disorders that are known as RASopathies. Individuals with RASopathies, which are estimated to affect approximately 1/1000 human birth, share many overlapping characteristics, including cardiac malformations, short stature, neurocognitive impairment, craniofacial dysmorphy, cutaneous, musculoskeletal, and ocular abnormalities, hypotonia and a predisposition to developing cancer. Since the identification of the first RASopathy, type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), which is caused by the inactivation of neurofibromin 1, several other syndromes have been associated with mutations in the core components of the RAS-MAPK pathway. These syndromes include Noonan syndrome (NS), Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML), which was formerly called LEOPARD syndrome, Costello syndrome (CS), cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), Legius syndrome (LS) and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (CM-AVM). Here, we review current knowledge about the bioenergetics of the RASopathies and discuss the molecular control of energy homeostasis and mitochondrial physiology by the RAS pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ras oncogenes in oral cancer: the past 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan; Tsuchida, Nobuo

    2012-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of head and neck is associated with high morbidity and mortality in both Western and Asian countries. Several risk factors for the development of oral cancer are very well established, including tobacco chewing, betel quid, smoking, alcohol drinking and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Apart from these risk factors, many genetic factors such as oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and regulatory genes are identified to involve in oral carcinogenesis with these risk factors dependent and independent manner. Ras is one of the most frequently genetically deregulated oncogene in oral cancer. In this review, we analyze the past 22years of literature on genetic alterations such as mutations and amplifications of the isoforms of the ras oncogene in oral cancer. Further, we addressed the isoform-specific role of the ras in oral carcinogenesis. We also discussed how targeting the Akt and MEK, downstream effectors of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, respectively, would probably pave the possible molecular therapeutic target for the ras driven tumorigenesis in oral cancer. Analysis of these ras isoforms may critically enlighten specific role of a particular ras isoform in oral carcinogenesis, enhance prognosis and pave the way for isoform-specific molecular targeted therapy in OSCC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for in Natural and Processed Cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeyoung Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature, and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based on hazard identification, and the exponential model (r = 1.82×10−11 was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Annual amounts of natural and processed cheese consumption were 12.40±19.43 g and 19.46±14.39 g, respectively. Since the contamination levels of C. perfringens on natural (0.30 Log CFU/g and processed cheeses (0.45 Log CFU/g were below the detection limit, the initial contamination levels of natural and processed cheeses were estimated by beta distribution (α1 = 1, α2 = 91; α1 = 1, α2 = 309×uniform distribution (a = 0, b = 2; a = 0, b = 2.8 to be −2.35 and −2.73 Log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, no growth of C. perfringens was observed for exposure assessment to simulated conditions of distribution and storage. These data were used for risk characterization by a simulation model, and the mean values of the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption per person per day for natural and processed cheeses were 9.57×10−14 and 3.58×10−14, respectively. These results indicate that probability of C. perfringens

  6. Modified starches or stabilizers in preparation of cheese bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Dias dos Anjos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese bread is a Brazilian product which originated in Minas Gerais and which is highly consumed. In industrial production, there is increasing use of additives which enrich and enhance the physical of this product, adding value in the eyes of the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to study the effect of addition of modified starch and stabilizers on the physical-chemical of cheese bread. For this reason, measures taken so moisture, pH and acidity, volume, density, coefficient of expansion, and compression resistance (texturometer Results show that the stabilizers used improve these characteristics in the cheese bread, showing better physicochemical characteristics.

  7. Invited review: A commentary on predictive cheese yield formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, D B; Modler, H W

    2010-12-01

    Predictive cheese yield formulas have evolved from one based only on casein and fat in 1895. Refinements have included moisture and salt in cheese and whey solids as separate factors, paracasein instead of casein, and exclusion of whey solids from moisture associated with cheese protein. The General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas were tested critically using yield and composition of milk, whey, and cheese from 22 vats of Cheddar cheese. The General formula is based on the sum of cheese components: fat, protein, moisture, salt, whey solids free of fat and protein, as well as milk salts associated with paracasein. The testing yielded unexpected revelations. It was startling that the sum of components in cheese was SofC) in cheese. The apparent low estimation of SofC led to the idea of adjusting upwards, for each vat, the 5 measured components in the formula by the observed SofC, as a fraction. The mean of the adjusted predicted yields as percentages of actual yields was 99.99%. The adjusted forms of the General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas gave predicted yields equal to the actual yields. It was apparent that unadjusted yield formulas did not accurately predict yield; however, unadjusted PY%AY can be useful as a control tool for analyses of cheese and milk. It was unexpected that total milk protein in the adjusted General formula gave the same predicted yields as casein and paracasein, indicating that casein or paracasein may not always be necessary for successful yield prediction. The use of constants for recovery of fat and protein in the adjusted General formula gave adjusted predicted yields equal to actual yields, indicating that analyses of cheese for protein and fat may not always be necessary for yield prediction. Composition of cheese was estimated using a predictive formula; actual yield was needed for estimation of composition. Adjusted formulas are recommended for estimating target yields and cheese yield efficiency. Constants for solute exclusion

  8. Selection of Leuconostoc strains isolated from artisanal Serrano Catarinense cheese for use as adjuncts in cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Felipe Nael; Rios, Edson Antônio; Martinez de Oliveira, André Luiz; Beloti, Vanerli; Poveda, Justa Maria

    2018-08-01

    Serrano Catarinense cheese is a raw bovine milk cheese produced in the region of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twelve representative strains of Leuconostoc isolated from 20 samples of this artisanal cheese were selected and submitted for evaluation of the acidifying, proteolytic, autolytic, aminopeptidase and lipolytic activities, NaCl and acid resistance, production of dextran and biogenic amines and antimicrobial activity. The aim was to genetically and technologically characterize the Leuconostoc strains in order to use them in mixed starter cultures for cheese manufacture. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides was the species that accounted for the largest proportion of isolates of Leuconostoc genus. Two leuconostoc isolates stood out in the acidifying activity, with reduction in pH of 1.12 and 1.04 units. The isolates showed low proteolytic and autolytic activity. Most of the isolates were dextran producers, presented good resistance to the salt and pH conditions of the cheese and showed antimicrobial activity against cheese pathogen bacteria, and none of them produced biogenic amines. These results allowed the selection of five strains (UEL 04, UEL 12, UEL 18, UEL 21 and UEL 28) as good candidates for use as adjunct cultures for cheese manufacture. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Social media in the 2011 Egyptian uprising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brym, Robert; Godbout, Melissa; Hoffbauer, Andreas; Menard, Gabe; Zhang, Tony Huiquan

    2014-06-01

    This paper uses Gallup poll data to assess two narratives that have crystallized around the 2011 Egyptian uprising: (1) New electronic communications media constituted an important and independent cause of the protests in so far as they enhanced the capacity of demonstrators to extend protest networks, express outrage, organize events, and warn comrades of real-time threats. (2) Net of other factors, new electronic communications media played a relatively minor role in the uprising because they are low-cost, low-risk means of involvement that attract many sympathetic onlookers who are not prepared to engage in high-risk activism. Examining the independent effects of a host of factors associated with high-risk movement activism, the paper concludes that using some new electronic communications media was associated with being a demonstrator. However, grievances, structural availability, and network connections were more important than was the use of new electronic communications media in distinguishing demonstrators from sympathetic onlookers. Thus, although both narratives have some validity, they must both be qualified. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  10. Iron forms in some egyptian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL Kholi, A.F.; Massoud, M.A.; EL-Naggar, H.A.; Gadallah, A.

    1990-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to find out the available forms of iron (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ) in five egyptian soils samples, representing alluvial, calcareous and sandy soils. Concerning the iron content of soil either Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ , the tested soil types were relatively arranged in the order alluvial> calcareous> sandy soil. In spite of the considerable variations in the soil content of iron cations, the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio was almost kept constant around 0.83. The uniformity of the ferrous : ferric ratio in the different tested soil types indicates their similarity in their redox-potential, pH and their environmental conditions, particularly, the aeration and partial O 2 - pressure degree. Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ being less than unity suggests that the Fe 2+ Fe 3+ reaction tends towards the forward direction, i.e., to the Fe 3+ formation. As a result of the pot experiment, significant correlations have been found between the laboratory determined soil Fe 2+ and both of the plant Fe-uptake and the plant dry matter weight

  11. Traditional Cheese Production and an EU Labeling Scheme: The Alpine Cheese Producers’ Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonadonna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the European Union introduced two optional quality terms (OQT as new tools for the enhancement of food products. Two years later, the requirements for the use of the OQT “mountain product” were defined to enhance agricultural production in harsh environments, such as mountain areas. This new tool aimed at promoting local development, maintaining the economic activities in mountain areas and redistributing wealth. The present research aims at understanding if farmers perceived this tool as useful and evaluates their level of awareness. To this aim, a sample of 68 traditional cheese producers from the North West Alpine Arch was interviewed. The results show that some cheese producers have a positive attitude towards the concepts set out in the OQT “mountain product” and consider it a useful tool to promote and enhance their products. Some critical elements are also discussed.

  12. High-Affinity Interaction of the K-Ras4B Hypervariable Region with the Ras Active Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Tanmay S.; Jang, Hyunbum; Khavrutskii, Lyuba; Abraham, Sherwin J.; Banerjee, Avik; Freed, Benjamin C.; Johannessen, Liv; Tarasov, Sergey G.; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth; Tarasova, Nadya I.

    2015-01-01

    Ras proteins are small GTPases that act as signal transducers between cell surface receptors and several intracellular signaling cascades. They contain highly homologous catalytic domains and flexible C-terminal hypervariable regions (HVRs) that differ across Ras isoforms. KRAS is among the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human tumors. Surprisingly, we found that the C-terminal HVR of K-Ras4B, thought to minimally impact the catalytic domain, directly interacts with the active site of the protein. The interaction is almost 100-fold tighter with the GDP-bound than the GTP-bound protein. HVR binding interferes with Ras-Raf interaction, modulates binding to phospholipids, and slightly slows down nucleotide exchange. The data indicate that contrary to previously suggested models of K-Ras4B signaling, HVR plays essential roles in regulation of signaling. High affinity binding of short peptide analogs of HVR to K-Ras active site suggests that targeting this surface with inhibitory synthetic molecules for the therapy of KRAS-dependent tumors is feasible. PMID:26682817

  13. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1 for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05. No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic.

  14. Viability of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 probiotic strain in Swiss- and Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grażyna; Aljewicz, Marek; Nalepa, Beata

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the viability of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in Swiss-type and Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products (milk fat is substituted by stearin fraction of palm fat) during manufacture, ripening, and storage. The use of the probiotic L. rhamnosus HN001 in Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products significantly (P = 0.1) changed their chemical composition (protein and fat content) and an insignificant increase (approximately 1.6% in cheese-like products and approximately 0.3% in cheese) in yield. L. rhamnosus HN001 did not affect the rate of changes in the pH of ripened cheese and cheese-like products. A minor increase in probiotic counts was observed in initial stages of production and were partially removed with whey. Ripened cheese and cheese-like products were characterized by high survival rates of probiotic bacteria which exceeded 8 log CFU/g after ripening. An insignificant reduction in the number of viable probiotic cells was noted during storage of Swiss-type and Dutch-type cheese, whereas a significant increase in probiotic cell counts was observed in cheese-like products during storage. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Nonstarter Lactobacillus strains as adjunct cultures for cheese making: in vitro characterization and performance in two model cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggiler-Marcó, M; Capra, M L; Quiberoni, A; Vinderola, G; Reinheimer, J A; Hynes, E

    2007-10-01

    Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria are the main uncontrolled factor in today's industrial cheese making and may be the cause of quality inconsistencies and defects in cheeses. In this context, adjunct cultures of selected lactobacilli from nonstarter lactic acid bacteria origin appear as the best alternative to indirectly control cheese biota. The objective of the present work was to study the technological properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese by in vitro and in situ assays. Milk acidification kinetics and proteolytic and acidifying activities were assessed, and peptide mapping of trichloroacetic acid 8% soluble fraction of milk cultures was performed by liquid chromatography. In addition, the tolerance to salts (NaCl and KCl) and the phage-resistance were investigated. Four strains were selected for testing as adjunct cultures in cheese making experiments at pilot plant scale. In in vitro assays, most strains acidified milk slowly and showed weak to moderate proteolytic activity. Fast strains decreased milk pH to 4.5 in 8 h, and continued acidification to 3.5 in 12 h or more. This group consisted mostly of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains. Approximately one-third of the slow strains, which comprised mainly Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus curvatus, were capable to grow when milk was supplemented with glucose and casein hydrolysate. Peptide maps were similar to those of lactic acid bacteria considered to have a moderate proteolytic activity. Most strains showed salt tolerance and resistance to specific phages. The Lactobacillus strains selected as adjunct cultures for cheese making experiments reached 10(8) cfu/g in soft cheeses at 7 d of ripening, whereas they reached 10(9) cfu/g in semihard cheeses after 15 d of ripening. In both cheese varieties, the adjunct culture population remained at high counts during all ripening, in some cases overcoming or equaling primary starter. Overall

  16. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., malt sirup, and hydrolyzed lactose, in a quantity necessary for seasoning. (4) Water. (5) Salt. (6... propionate. (9) Pasteurized process cheese spread in consumer-sized packages may contain lecithin as an...

  17. Isolation of antifungally active lactobacilli from edam cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuma, S.; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Plocková, M.

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal activity of 322 lactobacilli strains isolated from Edam cheese at different stages of the ripening process was tested against Fusarium proliferatum M 5689 using a dual overlay spot assay. Approximately 21% of the isolates showed a certain level of inhibitory activity. Seven strains...... as Lb. paracasei and three as Lb. fermentum. Lb. paracasei ST 68 was chosen for further testing as antifungal protective adjunct for Edam cheese production.  ...

  18. Effect of multiple substrates in ethanol fermentations from cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C J; Jayanata, Y; Bajpai, R K

    1987-01-01

    Ethanol fermentations from cheese whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 397 were investigated. Cheese whey, which contains lactose as the major sugar, has been found to have small amounts of glucose and galactose, depending on the source and operating conditions. Fermentation performance was strongly influenced by the presence of glucose and galactose. However, lactose did not significantly affect the cell growth and product formation even at a high concentration. A logistical model was proposed to take into account the effect of lactose. (Refs. 6).

  19. Researches Regarding Microbiological Parameters Values of Telemea Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Suler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper were microbiological parameters which characterized the Telemea cheese for each season, assessment of technologies and thus assortment defects as well as projection of hygienic solution for obtaining qualitative products according to actual standards. We studied 5 units of Telemea cheese processing replaced in different area. For obtaining concrete results we used STAS methodologies and analyze procedure was based on observation, mathematical estimation and experiments (in lab and processing units.

  20. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peano, L.; Ciciarelli, R.; Comino, E.; Gard, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  1. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND WATER ACTIVITY OF TRANSFERRED CHEESE (UF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dalvi Esfahan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few data are available on the thermophysical properties of cheese in the ripening process.The main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of brining and temperature on the thermophysical properties, i.e., thermal conductivity, specific heat, density and water activity of UF cheese and finally we measure surface heat transfer coefficient .Then we develop models for thermophysical properties based on physical and multiple regression concept .

  2. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peano, L.; Ciciarelli, R.; Comino, E.; Gard, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  3. [The homogeneity of a population of yeasts from Camembert cheeses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J L; Daudin, J J

    1983-01-01

    Yeasts are found to a large extent in cheeses, more particularly in soft cheeses such as Camembert. The proximity between two species previously identified by standard methods was studied using a factorial discriminant analysis on 326 strains. Twenty-three fermentation and assimilation tests (discriminant variables) gave a fairly good discrimination between species. This treatment has allowed us to confirm the present tendencies noticed in yeast classification and has also enabled us to group some of the species.

  4. Adaptive Horizontal Gene Transfers between Multiple Cheese-Associated Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Jeanne; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sallet, Erika; Dumas, Émilie; Lacoste, Sandrine; Debuchy, Robert; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-10-05

    Domestication is an excellent model for studies of adaptation because it involves recent and strong selection on a few, identified traits [1-5]. Few studies have focused on the domestication of fungi, with notable exceptions [6-11], despite their importance to bioindustry [12] and to a general understanding of adaptation in eukaryotes [5]. Penicillium fungi are ubiquitous molds among which two distantly related species have been independently selected for cheese making-P. roqueforti for blue cheeses like Roquefort and P. camemberti for soft cheeses like Camembert. The selected traits include morphology, aromatic profile, lipolytic and proteolytic activities, and ability to grow at low temperatures, in a matrix containing bacterial and fungal competitors [13-15]. By comparing the genomes of ten Penicillium species, we show that adaptation to cheese was associated with multiple recent horizontal transfers of large genomic regions carrying crucial metabolic genes. We identified seven horizontally transferred regions (HTRs) spanning more than 10 kb each, flanked by specific transposable elements, and displaying nearly 100% identity between distant Penicillium species. Two HTRs carried genes with functions involved in the utilization of cheese nutrients or competition and were found nearly identical in multiple strains and species of cheese-associated Penicillium fungi, indicating recent selective sweeps; they were experimentally associated with faster growth and greater competitiveness on cheese and contained genes highly expressed in the early stage of cheese maturation. These findings have industrial and food safety implications and improve our understanding of the processes of adaptation to rapid environmental changes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS WITH INGREDIENTS OF PLANT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed the use of feijoa as a filler for cheese products. Distinctive at-sign feijoa is a high content of watersoluble compounds in the fruits of iodine. According to their content feijoa can match with seafood, no plant does not accumulate a large number of iodine compounds (about 0.2 1 mg per 100 g of product. Feijoa is very useful for people living in iodine deficiency regions, as well as for preventers of thyroid diseases. The rind of the fruit is rich in antioxidants. The technology of GUT-goad product feijoa. Feature of the technology is that the finished cheese is made in the form of a mixture of filler pureed fruit pulp and sugar in a ratio of 1: 1, and the powder dry skin. Objects of research a filler in the form of syrup (pineapple guava pulp and sugar and the rind of the fruit in the form of crushed dry cottage cheese. Compatible with cream cheese filling sensory determined by the following indicators appearance, consistency, color, smell, taste. Syrup dosage ranged from 1 to 10%, dry filler from 0.5 to 3.5%. A mixture of fillers were added to the finished curd product in the ratio of syrup fairies feijoa and dry powder peel 8: 1.5. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations of preparation of fillers and incorporation in the finished cheese. Determined the antioxidant activity syrup feijoa 1,963 mg / dm3 . It was found that the cheese product is rich in antioxidants, iodine, which helps to eliminate free radicals from the body and strengthen health care. Herbal additive allows to obtain a product with a new taste characteristics. The shelf life of cottage cheese products 5 days.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of microflora from ovine cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmeť, V; Drugdová, Z

    2012-07-01

    Strains identified in ovine cheese and bryndza by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis belonged to ten species of non-enterococcal lactic acid bacteria and included Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici. The susceptibility toward antibiotics was determined in lactobacilli, lactococci and pediococci and also in Escherichia coli for comparison. Analysis of L. fermentum and pediococci revealed the presence of non-wild-type epidemiological cut-offs in streptomycin, clindamycin or gentamicin. E. coli were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and florfenicol. No extended spectrum β-lactamases were detected.

  7. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D 3 / D 7 μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, arxiv:arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph], Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636-748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  8. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup

  9. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-15

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  10. Formation of Flavor Compounds by Amino Acid Catabolism in Cheese (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical reactions which contribute flavor formation occur in result of proteolysis during cheese ripening. Casein as the main protein of cheese has a significant effect on the flavor and textural properties of cheeses via its degradation to small peptides and free amino acids by various factors like coagulant enzymes. Specific flavors of cheeses occur as a result of amino acid catabolism by starter and non-starter bacteria. Some flavor compounds are formed by enzymatic transformations as well as by non-enzymatic, chemical changes in cheese. In this paper, formation of flavor compounds by amino acid catabolism during cheese ripening reviewed.

  11. Proteolytic Activity in Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther

    be the need of an extended ripening period to reach a similar cheese structure as in cheeses produced with BC. The aim of this project was to compensate for the lower proteolytic activity in cheese produced with CC compared to BC. Selection of dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for cheese production with high....... lactis subsp lactis, 10 thermophilic Lactobacillus strains and 15 frozen direct vat set strains of thermopholic Lactobacillus) to hydrolyse αS1-CN, candidates were selected for cheese-making experiments. None of the selected proteolytic strains contributed significantly to softening the cheese structure...

  12. Quality Characteristics, Changes in Physiochemical Properties and Functional Properties of Camembert Cheese Containing Red Ginseng Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jai-Sung; Bae, Inhyu

    2018-02-01

    Effects of quality, physicochemical properties and antioxidants in Camembert cheese added with red ginseng powder (RGP) were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% and 0.20% RGP. and then monitored during ripening at 14°C for 28 d. The pH of the RGP amended treatment groups increased during the ripening period relative to the control ( p camembert cheese, but the ripening grade was similar to that of the common camembert cheese, and the additional function of the cheese was reinforced. Functional cheese could be developed.

  13. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  14. The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering hygienic conditions in cheese production the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* products in milk and cheese production on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometrical mean of total bacterial count from 3.54 x 105 to 8 x 103 in mL of milk, as well as significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometric mean of somatic cell count from 3.1 x 105 to 2.4 x 105 in mL of milk was observed. The ratio of hygienically unacceptable cheeses, according to the Regulations of microbial standards for foods (NN 46/94., significantly (P<0.01 decreased as well. Because of the new requests and standards, the sanitation products are more in use in both milk and cheese production on family farms. Investigated sanitation products were suitable for use in milk and Tounj cheese production.

  15. Biogas yield from Sicilian kitchen waste and cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the chemical composition of kitchen waste and cheese whey, as well as the biogas yield obtained from the Anaerobic Digestion (AD tests of these two raw materials. Since the separated waste collection is performed in the town of Marineo (Palermo, a sample of kitchen waste, different from food industry one and included in the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, was collected from the mass stored at the households of this town. Moreover, a sample of cheese whey was collected in a Sicilian mini dairy plant, where sheep milk is processed. This investigation was carried out inside laboratory digesters of Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Lithuania. Total Solids (TS resulted 15.6% in kitchen waste and 6% in cheese whey, while both the raw materials showed a high content of organic matter, 91.1% and 79.1%, respectively. The biogas yield resulted 104.6 l kg–1 from kitchen waste and 30.6 l kg–1 from cheese whey. The biogas yield from TS resulted 672.6 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 384.7 l kg–1 using cheese whey. The biogas yield from Volatile Solids (VS resulted 738.9 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 410.3 l kg–1 using cheese whey.

  16. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

  17. Serrano Cheese: a cultural, quality and legal view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Nardi Pretto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serrano cheese is an artisanal product, from the region of Campos de Cima da Serra in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and from the Planalto Sul in the state of Santa Catarina. Objective: The objective of the present work is to discuss some cultural, legal and food safety aspects related to the quality of serrano cheese, a product made of raw milk. Method: This manuscript carries out a bibliographical review of the serrano cheese, using updated scientific and legal documents, to analyze the production, quality and cultural aspects of this product. Results: Results presented in the literature and current legislation indicate that the production of these cheeses can be safe for commercialization, having as main requirements: adoption of good manufacturing practices, care of the dairy herd and due maturation of the product. Current national legislation indicates that the minimum maturation time should be 60 days. The publication of a law that regulates the production of serrano cheese in Rio Grande do Sul allows it to be matured for a shorter time, if its microbiological safety is assured. Conclusions: Additionally to revisions in the laws for the production and marketing of cheeses such as serrano, legal reviews are essential in the area of science, technology and health surveillance to provide a scientific basis to the improvement of the production of those who live on the commercialization of these products.

  18. The effect of extrinsic attributes on liking of cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, E M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2016-01-01

    Preference mapping studies with cottage cheese have demonstrated that cottage cheese liking is influenced by flavor, texture, curd size, and dressing content. However, extrinsic factors such as package, label claims, and brand name may also influence liking and have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of package attributes and brand on the liking of cottage cheese. A conjoint survey with Kano analysis (n=460) was conducted to explore the effect of extrinsic attributes (brand, label claim, milkfat content, and price) on liking. Following the survey, 150 consumers evaluated intrinsic attributes of 7 cottage cheeses with and without brand information in a 2-d crossover design. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Milkfat content and price had the highest influence on liking by conjoint analysis. Cottage cheese with 2% milkfat and a low price was preferred. Specific label claims such as "excellent source of calcium (>10%)" were more attractive to consumers than "low sodium" or "extra creamy." Branding influenced overall liking and purchase intent for cottage cheeses to differing degrees. For national brands, acceptance scores were enhanced in the presence of the brand. An all-natural claim was more appealing than organic by conjoint analysis and this result was also confirmed with consumer acceptance testing. Findings from this study can help manufacturers, as well as food marketers, better target their products and brands with attributes that drive consumer choice. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of Clostridium activities in silage and cheese using anticlostridial Lactobacillus Isolated from Danish semi-hard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia

    Growth of Clostridium, originating mainly from silage, may cause serious late blowing defects in semi-hard cheeses during ripening. In the present project, the possibilities were investigated to use anticlostridial non-starter Lactobacillus (mainly Lb. paracasei), isolated from Danish semi......-hard cheeses of high quality, as protective adjunct cultures against clostridia activities in silage and cheese. Screening for anticlostridial activity among non-starter Lactobacillus isolates against selected Clostridium strains showed that almost half (44%) of the naturally occurring non......-starter Lactobacillus in Danish semi-hard cheeses possessed anticlostridial activities and 10% possessed a broad anticlostridial activity, and these were selected for further investigations. Antagonistic antimicrobial interactions between some of the selected anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains were demonstrated...

  20. Use of cold microfiltration retentates produced with polymeric membranes for standardization of milks for manufacture of pizza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Wang, T; Lucey, J A

    2007-10-01

    Pizza cheese was manufactured with milk (12.1% total solids, 3.1% casein, 3.1% fat) standardized with microfiltered (MF) and diafiltered retentates. Polymeric, spiral-wound MF membranes were used to process cold (pizza. Nitrogen recoveries were significantly higher in MF standardized cheeses. Fat recoveries were higher in the pH6.3MF cheese than the control or pH6.4MF cheese. Moisture-adjusted cheese yield was significantly higher in the 2 MF-fortified cheeses compared with the control cheese. Maximum loss tangent (LT(max)) values were not significantly different among the 3 cheeses, suggesting that these cheeses had similar meltability. The LT(max) values increased during ripening. The temperature at which the LT(max) was observed was highest in control cheese and was lower in the pH6.3MF cheese than in the pH6.4MF cheese. The temperature of the LT(max) decreased with age for all 3 cheeses. Values of 12% trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen levels were similar in all cheeses. Performance on pizza was similar for all cheeses. The use of MF retentates derived with polymeric membranes was successful in increasing cheese yield, and cheese quality was similar in the control and MF standardized cheeses.

  1. Wine and Cheese: Two Products or One Association? A New Method for Assessing Wine-Cheese Pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara V. Galmarini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify which attributes impacted the dynamic liking of cheese and wine individually, as well as when consumed together. Three wines (one white, Pouilly Loché; and two red, Maranges and Beaujolais and three cheeses (Comté, Époisses, Chaource were individually evaluated by a group of 60 consumers using mono-intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS with simultaneous hedonic ratings. The same data acquisition screen was used for all products showing a unique list of 14 descriptors (covering cheese and wine perception and a hedonic scale for dynamical rating of liking. The dynamic hedonic data were associated with the TDS profiles obtaining Temporal Drivers of Liking (TDL. Furthermore, the nine associations that resulted from combining each wine with each cheese were evaluated by multi-bite and multi-sip TDS. Individually, Chaource had practically no TDL; for Comté, mushroom flavor was a positive TDL, and in Époisses, salty was a negative TDL. As for wines, negative TDL were only found in the red wines: bitter, sour and astringent. Positive TDL for wines were: fruity, spicy and woody. Changes in the dynamic perception had a bigger impact on liking of wine compared to cheese. For the associations, the negative TDL were only three and mostly wine related: sour (for seven out of nine combinations, bitter (six out of nine and astringent (five out of nine. Positive TDL were more varied (a total of 10 descriptors and were related either to wine or cheese. As opposed to what was found in cheese alone, salty was a positive TDL in two of the combinations. It was observed that the dynamic sensory perception had a more important impact on liking in wine-cheese combinations than when consumed separately. TDS and TDL have a big potential in the study of food pairing, which should be further exploited.

  2. A Histidine pH sensor regulates activation of the Ras-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercoulen, Yvonne; Kondo, Yasushi; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Janssen, Axel B; White, Katharine A; Amini, Mojtaba; Barber, Diane L; Kuriyan, John; Roose, Jeroen P

    2017-09-27

    RasGRPs are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that are specific for Ras or Rap, and are important regulators of cellular signaling. Aberrant expression or mutation of RasGRPs results in disease. An analysis of RasGRP1 SNP variants led to the conclusion that the charge of His 212 in RasGRP1 alters signaling activity and plasma membrane recruitment, indicating that His 212 is a pH sensor that alters the balance between the inactive and active forms of RasGRP1. To understand the structural basis for this effect we compared the structure of autoinhibited RasGRP1, determined previously, to those of active RasGRP4:H-Ras and RasGRP2:Rap1b complexes. The transition from the autoinhibited to the active form of RasGRP1 involves the rearrangement of an inter-domain linker that displaces inhibitory inter-domain interactions. His 212 is located at the fulcrum of these conformational changes, and structural features in its vicinity are consistent with its function as a pH-dependent switch.

  3. Microbiology, biochemistry, and volatile composition of Tulum cheese ripened in goat's skin or plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, A A; Cakmakci, S; Brechany, E Y; Deegan, K C; McSweeney, P L H

    2007-03-01

    Tulum cheeses were manufactured from raw ewe's milk and ripened in goat's skin bags (tulums) or plastic containers to understand the effect of ripening container on the chemical composition, biochemistry, microbiology, and volatile composition of Tulum cheeses during 150 d of ripening. Chemical compositions of the cheeses ripened in tulums were significantly different and the moisture contents decreased rapidly in those cheeses because of the porous structure of the tulum. Higher microbial counts were detected in the cheeses ripened in plastic than in cheeses ripened in tulums. Differences in nitrogenous compounds and total free AA of the cheeses were not significant. Total concentrations of free AA in cheeses increased with age and Glu, Ala, Val, Leu, and Phe were the most abundant AA in the cheeses. Urea-PAGE of pH 4.6-insoluble fractions of the cheeses during ripening showed similar degradation patterns in all cheeses. Peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC of pH 4.6- and ethanol-soluble or ethanol-insoluble fractions of the cheeses revealed only minor differences in the concentrations of some peptides among the cheeses; however, age-related changes in peptide concentrations were significantly different among the cheeses. Cheeses were analyzed at 90 d of ripening for volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One hundred volatile components were identified, including 11 acids, 16 esters, 12 methyl ketones, 7 aldehydes, 22 alcohols, 7 sulfur compounds, 6 terpenes, and 19 miscellaneous compounds. The main components were short-chain fatty acids, 2-butanone, diacetyl, and primary alcohols. Quantitative differences in several volatile compounds were evident among the cheeses. Cheeses ripened in tulums or plastic had similar aroma patterns, but the concentrations of some components were different.

  4. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 31, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular evaluation of Glypican 3 gene expression in Egyptian patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. SA El-Kafrawy, M El-Daly, T Salem, M Abdel-Hamid, MA Hola, IH El-Sayed, 159-172 ...

  5. Non-deletion mutations in Egyptian patients with Duchenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-04-19

    Apr 19, 2014 ... The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics www.ejmhg.eg.net .... Serum CPK levels ranged between 2134IU/L and. 24,000 IU/L .... Previous studies reported a correlation for IQ values in affected .... Behav Brain Funct.

  6. Genetic comparisons of Egyptian date palm cultivars (Phoenix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to compare genetic material from four females date palm and four unknown male trees of Egyptian date palm. The genetic similarity between the four females date palm (Zaghloul, Amhat, Samany and Siwi) ranged from 87.5 to 98.9%. The banding profiles obtained ...

  7. Database Software Selection for the Egyptian National STI Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamecka, Vladimir

    The evaluation and selection of information/data management system software for the Egyptian National Scientific and Technical (STI) Network are described. An overview of the state-of-the-art of database technology elaborates on the differences between information retrieval and database management systems (DBMS). The desirable characteristics of…

  8. Protein pattern of the honeybee venoms of Egypt | Zalat | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The venom composition of the Egyptian honeybee Apis mellifera lamarckii, the Carniolan honeybee Apis mellifera carnica and a hybrid with unknown origin were analyzed using electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). All venoms shared six bands with molecular weights of 97.400, 67.400, 49.000, 45.000, 43.000 and 14.000D.

  9. Polarized Discourse in the Egyptian News: Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mohammed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate ideological structures of polarized discourse coded in the reports of two online news websites: egyptindependent and ikwanweb. The study focuses on online news reports relating to three interrelated events: the issuing of a constitutional declaration by Egyptian president, the aftermath clashes outside…

  10. Egyptian Film: Gender and Class Violence Three Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Jabbar A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the level of physical and verbal violence by gender and social class in Egyptian films in three cycles: romantic musicals and melodramas; war and political genres; and drug and gangster films. Concludes that the outrageous level of violence does not accurately reflect the real society. (Contains 20 references.) (LRW)

  11. Screening for subtle chromosomal rearrangements in an Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive study was carried out to screen for subtle chromosomal rearrangements in a group of Egyptian children with idiopathic mental retardation (IMR) to estimate its frequency if detected. The study enrolled 30 patients with IMR, with the perquisite criteria of being <18 years at referral, their IQ <70, and manifesting at ...

  12. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency among asthmatic Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    The frequency of vitamin D deficiency among asthmatic Egyptian children. INTRODUCTION. Asthma is defined as a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurrent symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Children have smaller airways than adults, which ...

  13. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency among asthmatic Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To detect the frequency of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among Egyptian asthmatic children and to correlate vitamin D levels to the severity of asthma. Methods: This case control study was conducted on 60 asthmatic children and 40 healthy controls. All were subjected to clinical history taking including ...

  14. Study of serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in Egyptian autistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Autism is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology. Objective: To assess serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in Egyptian autistic children patients. Subjects and methods: 40 participants have been subjected to thorough history taking, complete clinical examination, ...

  15. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 22, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some genetic factors influencing the phenotypic severity of β thalassemia Egyptian patients · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ibtessam R Hussein, Amina M Medhat, Samir F Zohny, Alice K Abd El-Aleem, Ghada Y El-Kammah, Bardees M Foda, 107- ...

  16. Screening the Egyptian desert actinomycetes as candidates for new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a screening program to study the antimicrobial activities of desert actinomycetes as potential producers of active metabolites, 75 actinomycete strains were isolated from the Egyptian desert habitats and tested. Out of the isolated 75 organisms, 32 (42.67%) showed activity against the used test organisms.

  17. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  18. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The) - Vol 7 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the filed data of a sample of Egyptian children with bronchial asthma · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Elham M Hossny, Zeinab E Hasan, Mohamed F Allam, Ezzat S Mahmoud ...

  19. Review Article: Anaphylaxis vulnerable groups | El-Gamal | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Editorial | El-Gamal | Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Cytokines and beta-cell destruction | Elsedfy | Egyptian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Hen's egg white hypersensitivity among a group of Egyptian atopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Allergen-specific immunotherapy in children | El-Sayed | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The) - Vol 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum interleukin 27: a possible biomarker of pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Yehia M El-Gamal, Dalia H El-Ghoneimy, Dina A Soliman, Mona M Mohamed. Fish sensitization in a group of allergic Egyptian children · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  5. Neurogenic inflammation and allergy | Mostafa | Egyptian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The) - Vol 14 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum levels of lead and copper in a group of Egyptian children with bronchial asthma · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Mohammad M. El Sherbeny, Ola G. Behairy, Osama I. Mohammad, Ahmad M. Elsayed, 47-52 ...

  7. Pediatric AIDS | Khazbak | Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Contact: Professor Ihab Z. El-Hakim. Email ihab.elhakim@gmail.com. Phone +201111224974. Fax … +202 33045060. Children's Hospital, Ain Shams University, Ramses Street, Abbassiya, Cairo 11566, Egypt. The Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology ...

  9. Baraitser–Winter syndrome: An additional Egyptian patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 3.5 year old male child, second in order of birth of non consanguineous Egyptian parents with Baraitser–Winter syndrome (BRWS). The patient had bilateral colobomas of the iris and choroid. Our patient had also retinal hypoplasia, which was not reported previously in this syndrome, bilateral congenital ptosis, ...

  10. Booster HBV vaccination; is it really necessary? | Alavian | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Booster HBV vaccination; is it ...

  11. Narmer, Scorpion and the representation of the early Egyptian court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous academic and popular articles have been published on the Narmer Palette, the Narmer Mace-head and the Scorpion Mace-head, arguably three of the most iconic early Egyptian monuments. It is generally recognized that these three objects are the climax of a centuries-old tradition of

  12. Space and protest : A tale of two Egyptian squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, A.A.; Van Nes, A.; Salheen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Protests and revolts take place in public space. How they can be controlled or how protests develop depend on the physical layout of the built environment. This study reveals the relationship between urban space and protest for two Egyptian squares: Tahrir Square and Rabaa Al-Adawiya in Cairo. For

  13. Modelling gender differences in Egyptian adolescents' perception of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated gender differences in Egyptian adolescents' perception of parental involvement practices when controlling for the effect of adolescents' prior academic achievement and level of educational aspiration. Subjects of this study included 187 first-year students enrolled in four high schools in El-Minia city in ...

  14. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine immune response in Egyptian children 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egypt J Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2015;13(2):45-48. 45. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine immune response in Egyptian children 15-17 years after primary immunization; should we provide a booster dose? INTRODUCTION. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. With approximately 350 million hepatitis B ...

  15. Administrative Reform and the Egyptian Ministry of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes the organizational constraints acting upon and within the Egyptian Ministry of Education that deter its capacity for administrative reform. Despite being highly bureaucratic, the ministry's administrative structure operates with relative efficiency. However, the ministry cannot seem to change the educational system's…

  16. Egyptian personal piety and Israel's wisdom literature | Fischer | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates the movement of Egyptian personal piety and its relation to Israelite wisdom texts. Hymns and prayers of personal piety developed in the New Kingdom at the same time as "heretic" Harpers' songs and love songs. The personal piety affected also the genre of instructions. The instruction of Amenemope ...

  17. Unusual Suspects: "Ultras" as political actors in the Egyptian Revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, R.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an examination into the mobilization of Ultras, a social group of aggressive football fans, within the Egyptian revolution as part of the larger Arab Spring uprisings of 2011. Comments are given noting how the Ultras are a good example of how non-political groups became active

  18. Immunogenetics of type 1 diabetes mellitus | Tantawy | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Thinking Egyptian: Active Models for Understanding Spatial Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, Ellen

    This paper highlights how introductory textbooks on Egyptian art inhibit understanding by reinforcing student preconceptions, and demonstrates another approach to discussing space with a classroom exercise and software. The alternative approach, an active model for spatial representation, introduced here was developed by adapting classroom…

  20. Wissa Wassef's Experiment: The Phoenix of Egyptian Weaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Elsbeth

    1985-01-01

    The gallery and weaving workshops of the Wissa Wassef School, located near Cairo, Egypt, are described. The school was started 30 years ago by the Egyptian architect Wissa Wassef, who believed in innate creativity and the need to encourage artistic creation by the practice of the craft from early childhood. (RM)

  1. Application of Moessbauer spectroscopy to study archaeological Egyptian pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra have been used as ''fingerprints'' in obtaining information an ancient Egyptian pottery and in fine art. An empirical relation has been found that connects the natural radiation dose with the intensity ratio of the two non-magnetic central peaks. It was suggested that this relation be used for dating ancient pottery. 8 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Three algorithms for Egyptian fractions | Izevbizua | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This idea let them represent any fraction a/b as the sum of unit fractions e.g 27 = 14 + 128. Further, the same fraction could not be used twice (so 27 = 17 + 17 is not allowed). In this work we examine a number of algorithms for generating Egyptian fractions in more detail, implement them and analyze their performance.

  3. Nutritional improvement of an Egyptian breed of mung bean by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination and/or fermentation processes for Egyptian breeds of mung seeds were carried out with three Lactobacillus strains namely, L. reuteri, L. case, and L. heleviticus. Results revealed increase in protein content, nitrogen solubility and in vitro digestibility for all treated mung meals. Treated mung proteins contained ...

  4. IgG4 antibodies in Egyptian patients with schistosomiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskander, R.; Das, P. K.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins were determined in 40 Egyptian patients with schistosomiasis. In addition to the well-established elevation in total IgE, a striking imbalance in the IgG subclass levels was found: IgG3 and IgG4 levels were markedly elevated, whereas IgG2 levels were normal. The IgG4 level did

  5. Strategic Leadership and Its Application in Egyptian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany R. Alalfy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Today's universities operate in a climate of great change, along with increased responsibilities and accountability from Internal and external customers. This has resulted in calls for a new kind of leadership working to help the university to improve educational services and face more challenges, called strategic leadership, at the university level. Aim of study defining of Egyptian leadership universities pattern of modern leadership styles, named as Strategic leadership (concept, objectives, roles, requirements, and application obstacles. Relate to the suffering of the Egyptian universities of many problems that limit their efficiency and effectiveness. This led to the need to search for new approaches as strategic leadership for eliminate of these problems. The study used a descriptive approach for its suitability for the nature of the study. The study found multiple reasons for the application of strategic leadership style in Egyptian universities as a result of  the problems the leaderships of the Egyptian universities suffer from  which limits its efficiency and effectiveness. Study recommended starting applying this pattern quickly after all the positive results it achieved in many universities.   

  6. The Case for (Social) Entrepreneurship Education in Egyptian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, David A.; Ibrahim, Nagwa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore awareness of social entrepreneurship amongst Egyptian students and to determine what is needed to create more graduate social entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework is Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. Data collection is a questionnaire survey of 183 of the 2,000…

  7. Production of functional protein hydrolysates from Egyptian breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of functional protein hydrolysates from Egyptian breeds of soybean and lupin seeds. AA khalil, SS Mohamed, FS Taha, EN Karlsson. Abstract. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an agro-processing aid that can be utilized in order to improve nutritional quality of protein extracts from many sources. In this study, protein ...

  8. Hair mercury measurement in Egyptian autistic children | El-baz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    difficulties, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, which comprise the three DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of autism. The aim of this work was to measure the concentration of total mercury trace elements in the hair of some Egyptian autistic children and to correlate these levels with severity of the disease. Methods: ...

  9. Detection of steroid sulfatase gene deletion (STS) in Egyptian males ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients and Methods: We performed this study on Egyptian males complaining of X-linked ichthyosis who were subjected to clinical examination, pedigree analysis of the family, cytogenetic studies using G-banding technique and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using locus specific probe for stereoid sulfatase (STS) ...

  10. DNA Characterization and Polymorphism of KISS1 Gene in Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was the detection of the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of KISS1 gene in six major Egyptian small ruminant breeds. The primers used in this study flanked a 377 bp fragment from intron 1 of KISS1 gene in sheep and goat. These PCR ...

  11. Retraction 2 | Shafik | Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Value of co-peptin/ plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 axis in early diagnosis of preterm labor risk among pre-eclamptic Egyptian women. Noha M. Shafik1, Soha S. Zakaria1, Ahmed M. Hagras2 and Ghada M. Abou-Fard3 Departments of Medical Biochemistry1, Gynecology2 and Physiology3, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta ...

  12. Pathogenetics. An introductory review | Salem | Egyptian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... the study of mutagens or factors capable of affecting the structural integrity of the genetic material leading to mutational changes that, in the majority of cases, result in harmful effects due to the resulting disturbances of functions of mutated components of the genome.

  13. Genetic variations between two ecotypes of Egyptian clover by inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Four Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L) cultivars representing two ecotypes were used in the present study. Fahl cultivar is prevalent in whole Egypt and is good for single cut as it has poor regeneration ability, whereas Serw1, Giza6 and Gemmiza1 give 5-6 cuts of good fodder. Techniques based ...

  14. Screening for subtle chromosomal rearrangements in an Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    ing, high resolution banding (HRB), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with appropriate probes were carried out ... Shams University. The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics www.ejmhg.eg.net ... (to exclude aminoacidopathies), and pelvi-abdominal sonar and echocardiography for detection of.

  15. “Muslim Brothrhood” in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Садери Фахиме

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the roots and causes of protests in Egypt at the present stage. The author focuses on the ideological influence of Islamic parties and movements, in particular the association “Muslim Brotherhood” in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. Methodological basis of this publication principles amounted to politological, sociological, cultural and historical methods of scientific knowledge.

  16. Occupational stress, anxiety and depression among Egyptian teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouky, Dalia; Allam, Heba

    2017-09-01

    Occupational stress (OS) among teachers predispose to depression and anxiety. No study was done to assess these problems among Egyptian teachers. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of OS, depression and anxiety among Egyptian teachers. A cross sectional study was done on 568 Egyptian teachers. The respondents filled a questionnaire on personal data, and the Arabic version of the Occupational Stress Index (OSI), the Arabic validated versions of Taylor manifest anxiety scale and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess OS, anxiety and depression respectively. The prevalence of OS, anxiety and depression among teachers was (100%, 67.5% and 23.2%) respectively. OS, anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher among teachers with an age more than 40years, female teachers, primary school teachers, those with inadequate salary, higher teaching experience, higher qualifications and higher workload. A significant weak positive correlation was found between OS scores and anxiety and depression scores. This study indicated the need for future researches to address risk factors of OS and mental disorders among Egyptian teachers, and the need of periodical medical evaluation of teachers and medical and psychological support for the identified cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Ras activation by SOS: Allosteric regulation by altered fluctuation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen; Christensen, Sune M.; Abel, Steven M.; Iwig, Jeff; Wu, Hung-Jen; Gureasko, Jodi; Rhodes, Christopher; Petit, Rebecca S.; Hansen, Scott D.; Thill, Peter; Yu, Cheng-Han; Stamou, Dimitrios; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Kuriyan, John; Groves, Jay T.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual SOS molecules catalyzing nucleotide exchange in H-Ras. Single-molecule kinetic traces revealed that SOS samples a broad distribution of turnover rates through stochastic fluctuations between distinct, long-lived (more than 100 seconds), functional states. The expected allosteric activation of SOS by Ras–guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was conspicuously absent in the mean rate. However, fluctuations into highly active states were modulated by Ras-GTP. This reveals a mechanism in which functional output may be determined by the dynamical spectrum of rates sampled by a small number of enzymes, rather than the ensemble average. PMID:24994643

  18. The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    understanding of the protective side of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) involving angiotensin AT2 receptor, ACE2, and Ang(1-7)/Mas receptor Combines the knowledge of editors who pioneered research on the protective renin angiotensin system including; Dr. Thomas Unger, one of the founders of AT2 receptor......The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System: Functional Aspects and Therapeutic Implications is the first comprehensive publication to signal the protective role of a distinct part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), providing readers with early insight into a complex system which...... will become of major medical importance in the near future. Focusing on recent research, The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System presents a host of new experimental studies on specific components of the RAS, namely angiotensin AT2 receptors (AT2R), the angiotensin (1-7) peptide with its receptor...

  19. Influence of feed ingredients on water quality parameters in RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Suhr, Karin Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Although feed by far is providing the major input to RAS, relatively little is published about the correlation between feed composition and the resulting water quality in such systems. In a set-up with 6 identical RAS, each consisting of a fish tank (0.5 m3), a swirl separator, a submerged...... had impact on water quality in the systems as well as on matter removed by the swirl separators. In the RAS water, phosphorous (Ptot and Pdiss) concentrations were reduced by guar gum. Organic matter content (CODdiss) in the water was also reduced. Corresponding to this, more dry matter, more COD...... to the systems for 49 consecutive days. Each week, 24h-water samples (1 sample/hour) were collected from each system. The sludge collected in the swirl separator that day was also collected. Water and sludge were subsequently analysed for nitrogen, phosphorous and organic matter content. Inclusion of guar gum...

  20. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  1. Overexpression of K-p21Ras play a prominent role in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-bo; Zhou, Xin-liang; Yang, Ju-lun

    2018-06-01

    The proto-oncogene ras product, p21Ras, has been found overexpression in many human tumors. However, the subtypes of overexpressed p21Ras still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate overexpressed isoforms of p21Ras and their roles in the progress of lung cancer. Method: The expression of total p21Ras in normal lung tissues and lung cancers was determined by immunohistochemically staining with monoclonal antibody (Mab) KGHR-1 which could recognize and broad spectrum reaction with the (K/H/N) ras protein. Then, the isoforms of p21Ras was examined by specific Mab for each p21Ras subtypes. Results: Low expression of total p21Ras was found in 26.67% (8/30) of normal lung tissues, and 81.31% (87/107) of adenocarcinoma harbored overexpressed total p21Ras. Besides, 70.00% (35/50) of squamous cell carcinoma were detected overexpressed total p21Ras. In addition, 122 lung cancer tissues from overexpression of total p21Ras protein were selected to detect the expression of each subtype. And all the 122 lung cancer tissues were K-p21Ras overexpression. Moreover, there was a statistical significance difference between the expression level of total p21Ras and differentiation, and the same results were observed between the expression level of total p21Ras and lymph node metastasis (P0.05). Conclusions: Overexpression of K-p21Ras plays a prominent role in the progress of lung cancer and it is suggested that the p21Ras could serve as a promising treatment target in lung cancer.

  2. Ras and relatives--job sharing and networking keep an old family together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Annette; Ehrhardt, Götz R A; Guo, Xuecui; Schrader, John W

    2002-10-01

    Many members of the Ras superfamily of GTPases have been implicated in the regulation of hematopoietic cells, with roles in growth, survival, differentiation, cytokine production, chemotaxis, vesicle-trafficking, and phagocytosis. The well-known p21 Ras proteins H-Ras, N-Ras, K-Ras 4A, and K-Ras 4B are also frequently mutated in human cancer and leukemia. Besides the four p21 Ras proteins, the Ras subfamily of the Ras superfamily includes R-Ras, TC21 (R-Ras2), M-Ras (R-Ras3), Rap1A, Rap1B, Rap2A, Rap2B, RalA, and RalB. They exhibit remarkable overall amino acid identities, especially in the regions interacting with the guanine nucleotide exchange factors that catalyze their activation. In addition, there is considerable sharing of various downstream effectors through which they transmit signals and of GTPase activating proteins that downregulate their activity, resulting in overlap in their regulation and effector function. Relatively little is known about the physiological functions of individual Ras family members, although the presence of well-conserved orthologs in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests that their individual roles are both specific and vital. The structural and functional similarities have meant that commonly used research tools fail to discriminate between the different family members, and functions previously attributed to one family member may be shared with other members of the Ras family. Here we discuss similarities and differences in activation, effector usage, and functions of different members of the Ras subfamily. We also review the possibility that the differential localization of Ras proteins in different parts of the cell membrane may govern their responses to activation of cell surface receptors.

  3. Epac activation sensitizes rat sensory neurons via activation of Ras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Behzad; Thompson, Eric L.; Nicol, Grant D.; Vasko, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factors directly activated by cAMP (Epacs) have emerged as important signaling molecules mediating persistent hypersensitivity in animal models of inflammation, by augmenting the excitability of sensory neurons. Although Epacs activate numerous downstream signaling cascades, the intracellular signaling which mediates Epac-induced sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that selective activation of Epacs with 8-CPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP-AM (8CPT-AM) increases the number of action potentials (APs) generated by a ramp of depolarizing current and augments the evoked release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from isolated rat sensory neurons. Internal perfusion of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons with GDP-βS, substituted for GTP, blocks the ability of 8CPT-AM to increase AP firing, demonstrating that Epac-induced sensitization is G-protein dependent. Treatment with 8CPT-AM activates the small G-proteins Rap1 and Ras in cultures of sensory neurons. Inhibition of Rap1, by internal perfusion of a Rap1-neutralizing antibody or through a reduction in the expression of the protein using shRNA does not alter the Epac-induced enhancement of AP generation or CGRP release, despite the fact that in most other cell types, Epacs act as Rap-GEFs. In contrast, inhibition of Ras through expression of a dominant negative Ras (DN-Ras) or through internal perfusion of a Ras-neutralizing antibody blocks the increase in AP firing and attenuates the increase in the evoked release of CGRP induced by Epac activation. Thus, in this subpopulation of nociceptive sensory neurons, it is the novel interplay between Epacs and Ras, rather than the canonical Epacs and Rap1 pathway, that is critical for mediating Epac-induced sensitization. PMID:26596174

  4. Epac activation sensitizes rat sensory neurons through activation of Ras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Behzad; Thompson, Eric L; Nicol, Grant D; Vasko, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factors directly activated by cAMP (Epacs) have emerged as important signaling molecules mediating persistent hypersensitivity in animal models of inflammation, by augmenting the excitability of sensory neurons. Although Epacs activate numerous downstream signaling cascades, the intracellular signaling which mediates Epac-induced sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that selective activation of Epacs with 8-CPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM (8CPT-AM) increases the number of action potentials (APs) generated by a ramp of depolarizing current and augments the evoked release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from isolated rat sensory neurons. Internal perfusion of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons with GDP-βS, substituted for GTP, blocks the ability of 8CPT-AM to increase AP firing, demonstrating that Epac-induced sensitization is G-protein dependent. Treatment with 8CPT-AM activates the small G-proteins Rap1 and Ras in cultures of sensory neurons. Inhibition of Rap1, by internal perfusion of a Rap1-neutralizing antibody or through a reduction in the expression of the protein using shRNA does not alter the Epac-induced enhancement of AP generation or CGRP release, despite the fact that in most other cell types, Epacs act as Rap-GEFs. In contrast, inhibition of Ras through expression of a dominant negative Ras (DN-Ras) or through internal perfusion of a Ras-neutralizing antibody blocks the increase in AP firing and attenuates the increase in the evoked release of CGRP induced by Epac activation. Thus, in this subpopulation of nociceptive sensory neurons, it is the novel interplay between Epacs and Ras, rather than the canonical Epacs and Rap1 pathway, that is critical for mediating Epac-induced sensitization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Major defects in artisanal Minas cheeses manufactured in the Canastra region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Sobral

    2017-08-01

    been proposed and described in this article. It has also been verified that most of the cheese producers did not follow the minimum maturation period of 22 days required by de legislation and marketed the cheese still fresh.

  6. 7 CFR 58.711 - Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cheese products should possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor consistent with the age of the cheese; should have body and texture characteristics which will impart the desired body and texture...

  7. Influence of a vegetable fat blend on the texture, microstructure and sensory properties of kashar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkci, N.; Kesenkas, H.; Seckin, A. K.; Kinik, O.; Gonc, S.

    2011-07-01

    The possibility of using a commercial vegetable fat blend in Kashar cheese was investigated. Kashar cheeses were manufactured by replacing the milk fat (MF) with a vegetable fat (VF) blend. Kashar cheeses from whole milk were also manufactured to compare textural, microstructural, meltability, color and sensory characteristics during a ripening period of 90 days. The use of vegetable fat decreased the meltability, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of the cheese; while increasing adhesiveness where springiness was not affected. Differences became less notable toward the end of ripening. Scanning electron micrographs displayed VF cheese with a compact network with small and uniform fat globules embedded in the protein matrix. The MF cheese exhibited an open protein matrix containing milk fat globules of various sizes and forms. The color analysis demonstrated significant differences between cheeses. Finally, all sensory characteristics of the cheese were affected by the vegetable fat blend. (Author) 36 refs.

  8. "Confused by Multiple Deities, Ancient Egyptians Embraced Monotheism": Analysing Historical Thinking and Inclusion in Egyptian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Ehaab D.

    2016-01-01

    Egyptian history textbooks are examined through the prism of historical thinking dimensions and skills, utilizing a critical discourse analysis. The analysis focuses on how the textbooks portray two historically significant events: the advent of Christianity (ca. 33 CE) and Islam (ca. 641 CE) to Egypt. It reveals that the historical narrative…

  9. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma by Egyptian physicians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahar; M; Hassany; Ehab; F; Abdou; Moustafa; Mohamed; El; Taher; Afaf; Adel; Abdeltwab; Hubert; E; Blum

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the practice of Egyptian physicians in screening patients for hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). METHODS: The study included 154 physicians from all over Egypt caring for patients at risk for HCC. The study was based on a questionnaire with 20 items. Each questionnaire consisted of two parts:(1) personal information regarding the physician(name, age, specialty and type of health care setting); and(2) professional experience in the care of patients at risk for HCC development(screening, knowledge about the cause and natural course of liver diseases and HCC risk). RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent of doctors with an MD degree, 48% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma and 40% of doctors with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery certificate considered the hepatitis C virus(HCV) genotype as risk factor for HCC development(P < 0.05). Ninety percent of physicians specialized in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 67% of physicians in other specialties advise patients to undergo screening for HCV and hepatitis B virus infection as well as liver cirrhosis(P < 0.05). Eighty-six percent of doctors in University Hospitals and 69% of Ministry of Health(MOH) doctors consider HCV infection as the leading cause of HCC in Egypt(P < 0.05). Seventy-two percent of doctors with an MD degree, 55% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma, 56% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate, 74% of doctors in University Hospitals and 46% of MOH hospital doctors consider abdominal ultrasonography as the most important investigation in HCC screening(P < 0.05). Sixty-five percent of physicians in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 37% of physicians in other specialties recommend as HCC screening interval of 3 mo(P < 0.05). Seventy-one percent of doctors with an MD degree, 50% of doctors with a master degree or diploma and 60% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate follow the same recommendation.CONCLUSION: In Egypt, physicians

  10. Ras Umm Sidd Oxygen Isotope (delta 18O) Data for 1750 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ras Umm Sidd bimonthly coral oxygen isotope data (coral core RUS-95). Notes on the data: File (Ras Umm Sidd d18O.txt.) includes columns for Year AD (bimonthly...

  11. Watershed Analysis with the Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodell, Christopher R; Brunner, Gary W

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this document are to provide a general description of the HEC-RAS model, its capabilities and limitations, data requirements, traditional and innovative methods for HEC-RAS hydraulic...

  12. Radiosensitivity and ras oncogene expression in preneoplastic rat tracheal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, D.G.; Wuensch, S.A.; Kelly, G.

    1988-01-01

    The sensitivity of preneoplastic rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells to the cytotoxic effects of high- and low-LET radiation, and the modulating effect of the viral ras oncogene on this sensitivity were determined. Two lines of preneoplastic RTE cells have the same responsiveness to high-LET radiation, but differ in their responsiveness to a transfected ras oncogene and in their sensitivities to low-LET radiation. Cells that respond to ras by becoming neoplastic are more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of low-LET radiation than cells that are not transformable by ras. The radiosensitivity of ras-responsive cells was not altered by transfection with ras. However, transfection of ras-non responsive cells with ras decreased their sensitivity to low-LET radiation. These data suggest that the ability of cells to repair radiation damage changes as they progress to neoplasia. (author)

  13. Characterization of sur-2, a Novel Ras-Mediated Signal Transduction Component in C. elegans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DesJardins, Edward

    1998-01-01

    ... (oncogenes). A subset of proto-oncogenes comprise the RAS signal transduction pathway. Vulval development in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans is controlled by a RAS signal transduction pathway...

  14. Characterization of sur-2, a Novel Ras-Mediated Signal Transduction Component in C. elegans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DesJardins, Edward

    1999-01-01

    ... (oncogenes). A subset of proto-oncogenes comprise the RAS signal transduction pathway. Vulval development in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans is controlled by a RAS signal transduction pathway. C...

  15. Radiochemical data obtained by α spectrometry on unrecrystallized fossil coral samples from the Egyptian shoreline of the north-western Red Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choukri, A.; Hakam, O.K.; Reyss, J.L.; Plaziat, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, radiochemical results obtained by α spectrometry on 80 unrecrystallized fossil coral samples from the Egyptian shoreline of the north-western Red Sea are presented and discussed. The coral samples were collected in Egypt from the emerged 5e coral reef terraces over 500km from The Ras Gharib-Ras Shukeir depression (28 deg. 10 ' ) in the north to Wadi Lahami (north of Ras Banas, 24 deg. 10 ' ) in the south. The statistical description of radiochemical results (concentrations of U and Th radioisotopes, 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios and ages) obtained on a great number of coral samples showed that it is possible to establish methodological criterions which could be used to validate the measured ages before confronting them to the geological context of sampling sites. The obtained results confirm that the unrecrystallized corals ( 232 Th 238 U varies between 2.2 and 4.9ppm around an average of 3.18+/-0.65ppm. 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios are between 1.08 and 1.28 with an averaged value of 1.164+/-0.016 which exceeds that of present day sea water but which is in agreement with the ratio of 1.16 measured by a precise mass spectrometry in many Pleistocene coral samples. Except three samples dated at least 100ka, the radiochemical age of 5e coral samples vary between 108 and 131ka with an average value of 122.2ka and a standard deviation of 4.3ka. Except for samples from the Zeit area, the reef terrace is between 2 and 6m above the present sea level. This position is similar to the highest sea level from the last interglacial according to the glacio-isostatic rebound calculated for stable regions. This work proves that the large tectonic motions which affected the studied area after the Oligocene ceased after at least the last interglacial period

  16. Rasputin, the Drosophila homologue of the RasGAP SH3 binding protein, functions in ras- and Rho-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazman, C; Mayes, C A; Fanto, M; Haynes, S R; Mlodzik, M

    2000-04-01

    The small GTPase Ras plays an important role in many cellular signaling processes. Ras activity is negatively regulated by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). It has been proposed that RasGAP may also function as an effector of Ras activity. We have identified and characterized the Drosophila homologue of the RasGAP-binding protein G3BP encoded by rasputin (rin). rin mutants are viable and display defects in photoreceptor recruitment and ommatidial polarity in the eye. Mutations in rin/G3BP genetically interact with components of the Ras signaling pathway that function at the level of Ras and above, but not with Raf/MAPK pathway components. These interactions suggest that Rin is required as an effector in Ras signaling during eye development, supporting an effector role for RasGAP. The ommatidial polarity phenotypes of rin are similar to those of RhoA and the polarity genes, e.g. fz and dsh. Although rin/G3BP interacts genetically with RhoA, affecting both photoreceptor differentiation and polarity, it does not interact with the gain-of-function genotypes of fz and dsh. These data suggest that Rin is not a general component of polarity generation, but serves a function specific to Ras and RhoA signaling pathways.

  17. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Modeling Tools: Integration of Advanced Sediment Transport Tools into HEC-RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    sediment transport within the USACE HEC River Analysis System ( HEC - RAS ) software package and to determine its applicability to Regional Sediment...Management (RSM) challenges. HEC - RAS SEDIMENT MODELING BACKGROUND: HEC - RAS performs (1) one- dimensional (1D) steady and unsteady hydraulic river ...Albuquerque (SPA)), and recently, the USACE RSM Program. HEC - RAS is one of several hydraulic modeling codes available for river analysis in the

  18. Oncogenic K-Ras Activates p38 to Maintain Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation during MEK Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winan J. van Houdt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colon carcinomas frequently contain activating mutations in the K-ras proto-oncogene. K-ras itself is a poor drug target and drug development efforts have mostly focused on components of the classical Ras-activated MEK/ERK pathway. Here we have studied whether endogenous oncogenic K-ras affects the dependency of colorectal tumor cells on MEK/ERK signaling.

  19. The formation of fat-derived flavour compounds during the ripening of Gouda-type cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cheese flavour is an important quality attribute, and is mainly formed during cheese ripening. Besides compounds that are formed from protein and carbohydrates, milk fat-derived compounds are essential for cheese flavour. Before, but mainly during ripening, free fatty acids, lactones, ketones,

  20. Effect of cheese and butter intake on metabolites in urine using an untargeted metabolomics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Ritz, Christian; Schou, Simon Stubbe

    2014-01-01

    Cheese intake has been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations when compared to butter of equal fat content. An untargeted metabolite profiling may reveal exposure markers of cheese but may also contribute with markers which can help explain how the intake of cheese...

  1. Expression and release of proteolytic enzymes of Lactococcus lactis : ripening of UF-cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Semi-hard cheese types, such as Gouda, cannot be satisfactorily produced when using ultrafiltration technology. Although the cheese yield increases using this method, the higher financial return is completely lost by the (poor) quality of the cheese. The work described in this thesis is

  2. A comparative study of the fatty acid profiles in commercial sheep cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, C.; Toro-Mujica, P.; Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the FA profile of sheep cheese marketed in Chile. Fifty-eight cheeses were collected from supermarkets of 5 different Chilean cities including 34 sheep cheeses, 7 from goat's milk, 11 from cow's milk, 4 from a mixture of sheep, goat and cow's milk...

  3. Determination of lactic acid bacteria in Kaºar cheese and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) arise in Kaşar cheese, an artisanal pasta filata cheese produced in Turkey from raw milk without starter addition or pasteurized milk with starter culture. In this study, 13 samples of Kaşar cheese that were produced from raw milk were used as reference materials. LAB were characterized by using ...

  4. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in ripened cheese : their formation and their contribution to flavour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.J.M.

    1997-01-01


    Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour

  5. Evaluation of the Mechanical Durability of the Egyptian Machine Readable Booklet Passport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmoud Yosri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the first Egyptian booklet Machine Readable Passport/ MRP has been issued and its security and informative standard quality levels were proved in a research published in 2011. Here the durability profiles of the Egyptian MRP have been evaluated. Seven mechanical durability tests were applied on the Egyptian MRP. Such tests are specified in the International Civil Aviation Organization / ICAO standard requirements documents. These seven very severe durability tests resulted in that the Egyptian MRP has achieved better & higher results than the values detected in ICAO-Doc N0232: Durability of Machine Readable Passports - Version: 3.2. Hence, this research had proved the complete conformance between the Egyptian MRP mechanical durability profiles to the international requirements. The Egyptian booklet MRP doesn’t need any obligatory modification concerning its mechanical durability profiles.

  6. Quality evaluation of parmesan-type cheese: a chemometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jaster

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parmesan-type cheeses are the most consumed special cheeses in Brazil. It is generally sold in retail shops, either grated or in wedge-shaped pieces, and its quality varies considerably, which is reflected directly in its price. There is lack of processing standardization and, since the ripening period is fundamental for the quality of this hard, semi-fat cooked cheese, this stage seems to be the thin line between low and high quality products. It is important to note that the Italian Parmegiano Reggiano is matured for a period of twelve months, as well as its rival Grana Padano, and this long ripening period causes changes making them gourmet, highly-valued cheeses. In the present study, twelve different Parmesan-type cheeses were purchased from the Brazilian retail market and evaluated for microbiological, physicochemical, and instrumental parameters. Heterogeneous quality was confirmed by microbiological problems detected in the samples and physicochemical composition that did not meet current Brazilian specifications. The use of principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis made it possible to separate the samples into three distinct groups, mainly due to different acidity and moisture levels, water activity, and hardness values. The price per kg was also considered and was correlated with moisture, acidity, and texture.

  7. Influence of selected factors on browning of Camembert cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Alexandra; Dillinger, Klaus; Eliskases-Lechner, Frieda; Loureiro, Virgílio; Ginzinger, Wolfgang; Rohm, Harald

    2002-05-01

    Experimental Camembert cheeses were made to investigate the effects on browning of the following factors: inoculation with Yarrowia lipolytica, the use of Penicillium candidum strains with different proteolytic activity, the addition of tyrosine, and the addition of Mn2+ thus leading to 16 different variants of cheese. Two physical colour parameters were used to describe browning, depending on the location in the cheeses: a whiteness index for the outside browning (mould mycelium), and a brownness index for the inside browning (surface of the cheese body). Mn2+ promoted a significant increase of browning at both locations, whereas Yar. lipolytica had the opposite effect. Outside browning was significantly more intense when using the Pen. candidum strain with higher proteolytic activity. A significant interaction was found between Yar. lipolytica and Pen. candidum. The yeast had no effect in combination with a low proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum, but significantly reduced proteolysis and browning in combination with a high proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum. We further confirmed that both strains of Pen. candidum were able to produce brown pigments from tyrosine and thus both are presumably responsible for the browning activity in this type of cheese.

  8. Transfer of Orally Administered Terpenes in Goat Milk and Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Poulopoulou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships between terpenes’ intake and their presence in animal tissues (blood and milk as well as in the final product (cheese. Eight dairy goats were divided in two balanced groups, representing control (C and treatment (T group. In T group oral administration of a mixture of terpenes (α-pinene, limonene and β-caryophyllene was applied over a period of 18 d. Cheese was produced, from C and T groups separately, on three time points, twice during the period of terpenes’ oral administration and once after the end of experiment. Terpenes were identified in blood by extraction using petroleum ether and in milk and cheese by the use of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME method, followed by GC-MS analysis. Chemical properties of the milk and the produced cheeses were analyzed and found not differing between the two groups. Limonene and α-pinene were found in all blood and milk samples of the T group after a lag-phase of 3 d, while β-caryophyllene was determined only in few milk samples. Moreover, none of the terpenes were traced in blood and milk of C animals. In cheese, terpenes’ concentrations presented a more complicated pattern implying that terpenes may not be reliable feed tracers. We concluded that monoterpenes can be regarded as potential feed tracers for authentification of goat milk, but further research is required on factors affecting their transfer.

  9. Increasing stringiness of low-fat mozzarella string cheese using polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, E N; Oberg, C J; Motawee, M M; Martini, S; McMahon, D J

    2015-07-01

    When fat content of pasta filata cheese is lowered, a loss of fibrous texture occurs and low-fat (LF) mozzarella cheese loses stringiness, making it unsuitable for the manufacture of string cheese. We investigated the use of various polysaccharides that could act as fat mimetics during the stretching and extruding process to aid in protein strand formation and increase stringiness. Low-fat mozzarella cheese curd was made, salted, and then 3.6-kg batches were heated in hot (80°) 5% brine, stretched, and formed into a homogeneous mass. Hot (80°C) slurries of various polysaccharides were then mixed with the hot cheese and formed into LF string cheese using a small piston-driven extruder. Polysaccharides used included waxy corn starch, waxy rice starch, instant tapioca starch, polydextrose, xanthan gum, and guar gum. Adding starch slurries increased cheese moisture content by up to 1.6% but was not effective at increasing stringiness. Xanthan gum functioned best as a fat mimetic and produced LF string cheese that most closely visually resembled commercial string cheese made using low-moisture part skim (LMPS) mozzarella cheese without any increase in moisture content. Extent of stringiness was determined by pulling apart the cheese longitudinally and observing size, length, and appearance of individual cheese strings. Hardness was determined using a modified Warner-Bratzler shear test. When LF string cheese was made using a 10% xanthan gum slurry added at ~1%, increased consumer flavor liking was observed, with scores after 2wk of storage of 6.44 and 6.24 compared with 5.89 for the LF control cheese; although this was lower than an LMPS string cheese that scored 7.27. The 2-wk-old LF string cheeses containing xanthan gum were considered still slightly too firm using a just-about-right (JAR) test, whereas the LMPS string cheese was considered as JAR for texture. With further storage up to 8wk, all of the LF string cheeses softened (JAR score was closer to 3

  10. Guanosine triphosphatase activating protein (GAP) interacts with the p21 ras effector binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adari, H; Lowy, D R; Willumsen, B M

    1988-01-01

    A cytoplasmic protein that greatly enhances the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity of N-ras protein but does not affect the activity of oncogenic ras mutants has been recently described. This protein (GAP) is shown here to be ubiquitous in higher eukaryotes and to interact with H-ras as w...

  11. The ras1 function of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mediates pheromone-induced transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Davey, William John; Egel, R

    1992-01-01

    Loss of ras1+ function renders fission yeast cells unable to undergo morphological changes in response to mating pheromones, whereas cells carrying activated mutations in ras1 are hyper-responsive. This has led to the suggestion that the ras1 gene product plays a role in mating pheromone signal...

  12. Activated H-Ras regulates hematopoietic cell survival by modulating Survivin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Seiji; Pelus, Louis M.

    2004-01-01

    Survivin expression and Ras activation are regulated by hematopoietic growth factors. We investigated whether activated Ras could circumvent growth factor-regulated Survivin expression and if a Ras/Survivin axis mediates growth factor independent survival and proliferation in hematopoietic cells. Survivin expression is up-regulated by IL-3 in Ba/F3 and CD34 + cells and inhibited by the Ras inhibitor, farnesylthiosalicylic acid. Over-expression of constitutively activated H-Ras (CA-Ras) in Ba/F3 cells blocked down-modulation of Survivin expression, G 0 /G 1 arrest, and apoptosis induced by IL-3 withdrawal, while dominant-negative (DN) H-Ras down-regulated Survivin. Survivin disruption by DN T34A Survivin blocked CA-Ras-induced IL-3-independent cell survival and proliferation; however, it did not affect CA-Ras-mediated enhancement of S-phase, indicating that the anti-apoptotic activity of CA-Ras is Survivin dependent while its S-phase enhancing effect is not. These results indicate that CA-Ras modulates Survivin expression independent of hematopoietic growth factors and that a CA-Ras/Survivin axis regulates survival and proliferation of transformed hematopoietic cells

  13. MRAS: A Close but Understudied Member of the RAS Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lucy C; Rodriguez-Viciana, Pablo

    2018-01-08

    MRAS is the closest relative to the classical RAS oncoproteins and shares most regulatory and effector interactions. However, it also has unique functions, including its ability to function as a phosphatase regulatory subunit when in complex with SHOC2 and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). This phosphatase complex regulates a crucial step in the activation cycle of RAF kinases and provides a key coordinate input required for efficient ERK pathway activation and transformation by RAS. MRAS mutations rarely occur in cancer but deregulated expression may play a role in tumorigenesis in some settings. Activating mutations in MRAS (as well as SHOC2 and PP1) do occur in the RASopathy Noonan syndrome, underscoring a key role for MRAS within the RAS-ERK pathway. MRAS also has unique roles in cell migration and differentiation and has properties consistent with a key role in the regulation of cell polarity. Further investigations should shed light on what remains a relatively understudied RAS family member. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  14. Pressure modulation of Ras-membrane interactions and intervesicle transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shobhna; Werkmüller, Alexander; Goody, Roger S; Waldmann, Herbert; Winter, Roland

    2013-04-24

    Proteins attached to the plasma membrane frequently encounter mechanical stresses, including high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) stress. Signaling pathways involving membrane-associated small GTPases (e.g., Ras) have been identified as critical loci for pressure perturbation. However, the impact of mechanical stimuli on biological outputs is still largely terra incognita. The present study explores the effect of HHP on the membrane association, dissociation, and intervesicle transfer process of N-Ras by using a FRET-based assay to obtain the kinetic parameters and volumetric properties along the reaction path of these processes. Notably, membrane association is fostered upon pressurization. Conversely, depending on the nature and lateral organization of the lipid membrane, acceleration or retardation is observed for the dissociation step. In addition, HHP can be inferred as a positive regulator of N-Ras clustering, in particular in heterogeneous membranes. The susceptibility of membrane interaction to pressure raises the idea of a role of lipidated signaling molecules as mechanosensors, transducing mechanical stimuli to chemical signals by regulating their membrane binding and dissociation. Finally, our results provide first insights into the influence of pressure on membrane-associated Ras-controlled signaling events in organisms living under extreme environmental conditions such as those that are encountered in the deep sea and sub-seafloor environments, where pressures reach the kilobar (100 MPa) range.

  15. p21-ras effector domain mutants constructed by "cassette" mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, J C; Vass, W C; Willumsen, B M

    1988-01-01

    A series of mutations encoding single-amino-acid substitutions within the v-rasH effector domain were constructed, and the ability of the mutants to induce focal transformation of NIH 3T3 cells was studied. The mutations, which spanned codons 32 to 40, were made by a "cassette" mutagenesis...

  16. BMP suppresses PTEN expression via RAS/ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stayce E; Carethers, John M

    2007-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor beta family, classically utilizes the SMAD signaling pathway for its growth suppressive effects,and loss of this signaling cascade may accelerate cell growth. In the colon cancer predisposition syndrome Juvenile Polyposis, as well as in the late progression stages of nonsyndromic colorectal cancers, SMAD4 function is typically abrogated. Here, we utilized the SMAD4-null SW480 colon cancer cell line to examine BMPs effect on a potential target gene, PTEN, and how its expression might be regulated. Initial treatment of the SMAD4-null cells with BMP resulted in mild growth suppression, but with prolonged exposure to BMP, the cells become growth stimulatory, which coincided with observed decreases in transcription and translation of PTEN, and with corresponding increases in phospho-AKT protein levels. BMP-induced PTEN suppression was mediated via the RAS/ERK pathway, as pharmacologic inhibition of RAS/ERK, or interference with protein function in the cytosol by DN-RAS prevented BMP-induced growth promotion and changes in PTEN levels, as did treatment with noggin, a BMP ligand inhibitor. Thus, BMP downregulates PTEN via RAS/ERK in a SMAD4-null environment that contributes to cell growth, and constitutes a SMAD4-independent but BMP-responsive signaling pathway.

  17. Bibliography of Selected SCSD, URBS, SSP, SEF, and RAS Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Planning Lab.

    The annotated bibliography contains publications and report listings of the following sources--(1) School Construction Systems Development (SCSD), (2) University Residential Building Systems (URBS), (3) Florida Schoolhouse Systems Project (SSP), (4) Study of Educational Facilities (SEF), and (5) Recherches en Amenagements Scolaires (RAS) Building…

  18. Lactobacillus plantarum as a Probiotic Potential from Kouzeh Cheese (Traditional Iranian Cheese) and Its Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Vahid; Khiabani, Mahmoud Sowti; Mokarram, Reza Rezaei; Hassanzadeh, Azad Mohammad; Ahmadi, Elham; Gharenaghadeh, Sasan; Karimi, Nayyer; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate and identify Lactobacillus plantarum isolates from traditional cheese, Kouzeh, and evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some food pathogens. In total, 56 lactic acid bacteria were isolated by morphological and biochemical methods, 12 of which were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by biochemical method and 11 were confirmed by molecular method. For analyzing the antimicrobial activity of these isolates properly, diffusion method was performed. The isolates were identified by 318 bp band dedicated for L. plantarum. The isolated L. plantarum represented an inhibitory activity against four of the pathogenic bacteria and showed different inhibition halos against each other. The larger halos were observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (15 ± 0.3 and 14.8 ± 0.7 mm, respectively). The inhibition halo of Escherichia coli was smaller than that of other pathogen and some L. plantarum did not show any inhibitory activity against E. coli, which were resistant to antimicrobial compounds produced by L. plantarum. The isolated L. plantarum isolates with the antimicrobial activity in this study had strong probiotic properties. These results indicated the nutritional value of Kouzeh cheese and usage of the isolated isolates as probiotic strains.

  19. The inflammatory cytokine TNFα cooperates with Ras in elevating metastasis and turns WT-Ras to a tumor-promoting entity in MCF-7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibovich-Rivkin, Tal; Liubomirski, Yulia; Meshel, Tsipi; Abashidze, Anastasia; Brisker, Daphna; Solomon, Hilla; Rotter, Varda; Weil, Miguel; Ben-Baruch, Adit

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we determined the relative contribution of two processes to breast cancer progression: (1) Intrinsic events, such as activation of the Ras pathway and down-regulation of p53; (2) The inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β, shown in our published studies to be highly expressed in tumors of >80% of breast cancer patients with recurrent disease. Using MCF-7 human breast tumor cells originally expressing WT-Ras and WT-p53, we determined the impact of the above-mentioned elements and cooperativity between them on the expression of CXCL8 (ELISA, qRT-PCR), a member of a “cancer-related chemokine cluster” that we have previously identified. Then, we determined the mechanisms involved (Ras-binding-domain assays, Western blot, luciferase), and tested the impact of Ras + TNFα on angiogenicity (chorioallantoic membrane assays) and on tumor growth at the mammary fat pad of mice and on metastasis, in vivo. Using Ras G12V that recapitulates multiple stimulations induced by receptor tyrosine kinases, we found that Ras G12V alone induced CXCL8 expression at the mRNA and protein levels, whereas down-regulation of p53 did not. TNFα and IL-1β potently induced CXCL8 expression and synergized with Ras G12V , together leading to amplified CXCL8 expression. Testing the impact of WT-Ras, which is the common form in breast cancer patients, we found that WT-Ras was not active in promoting CXCL8; however, TNFα has induced the activation of WT-Ras: joining these two elements has led to cooperative induction of CXCL8 expression, via the activation of MEK, NF-κB and AP-1. Importantly, TNFα has led to increased expression of WT-Ras in an active GTP-bound form, with properties similar to those of Ras G12V . Jointly, TNFα + Ras activities have given rise to increased angiogenesis and to elevated tumor cell dissemination to lymph nodes. TNFα cooperates with Ras in promoting the metastatic phenotype of MCF-7 breast tumor cells, and turns WT-Ras into a tumor

  20. Tradition and Creativity. Toward a Study of Intericonicity in Ancient Egyptian Art

    OpenAIRE

    Laboury, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Although a key-concept in Art historical discourse and reasoning, creativity has almost always been avoided as an issue in the discussion of Ancient Egyptian Art, as if the notion was simply irrelevant in such a context. This surprising phenomenon has clearly deep roots in the history of the western vision of Ancient Egyptian Art (and civilization). Nonetheless, the investigation of some (actually quite rare) cases of true copies in Ancient Egyptian Art reveals that creativity operated within...

  1. Effect of homogenization on the properties and microstructure of Mozzarella cheese from buffalo milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Gawad, Mona A M; Ahmed, Nawal S; El-Abd, M M; Abd El-Rafee, S

    2012-04-02

    The name pasta filata refers to a unique plasticizing and texturing treatments of the fresh curd in hot water that imparts to the finished cheese its characteristic fibrous structure and melting properties. Mozzarella cheese made from standardized homogenized and non-homogenized buffalo milk with 3 and 1.5%fat. The effect of homogenization on rheological, microstructure and sensory evaluation was carried out. Fresh raw buffalo milk and starter cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus were used. The coagulants were calf rennet powder (HA-LA). Standardized buffalo milk was homogenized at 25 kg/cm2 pressure after heating to 60°C using homogenizer. Milk and cheese were analysed. Microstructure of the cheese samples was investigated either with an application of transmission or scanning electron microscope. Statistical analyses were applied on the obtained data. Soluble nitrogen total volatile free fatty acids, soluble tyrosine and tryptophan increased with using homogenized milk and also, increased with relatively decrease in case of homogenized Mozzarella cheese. Meltability of Mozzarella cheese increased with increasing the fat content and storage period and decrease with homogenization. Mozzarella cheese firmness increased with homogenization and also, increased with progressing of storage period. Flavour score, appearance and total score of Mozzarella cheese increased with homogenization and storage period progress, while body and texture score decreased with homogenization and increased with storage period progress. Microstructure of Mozzarella cheese showed the low fat cheese tends to be harder, more crumbly and less smooth than normal. Curd granule junctions were prominent in non-homogenized milk cheese. Homogenization of milk cheese caused changes in the microstructure of the Mozzarella cheese. Microstructure studies of cheese revealed that cheese made from homogenized milk is smoother and has a finer texture than

  2. Proteolysis during ripening of Manchego cheese made from raw or pasteurized ewes' milk. Seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen; Nuñez, Manuel; Fernández-García, Estrella

    2005-08-01

    Changes in nitrogen compounds during ripening of 40 batches of Manchego cheese made from raw milk (24 batches) or pasteurized milk (16 batches) at five different dairies throughout the year were investigated. After ripening for six months, degradation of p-kappa- and beta-caseins was more intense in raw milk cheese and degradation of alpha(s2)-casein in pasteurized milk cheese. Milk pasteurization had no significant effect on breakdown of alpha(s1)-casein. Hydrophobic peptide content did not differ between raw and pasteurized milk cheese, whereas hydrophilic peptide content was higher in raw milk cheese. There were no significant differences between seasons for residual caseins, but hydrophobic peptides were at a higher level in cheese made in autumn and winter and hydrophilic peptides in cheese made in winter and spring. Raw milk cheese had a higher content of total free amino acids and of most individual free amino acids than pasteurized milk cheese. The relative percentages of the individual free amino acids were significantly different for raw milk and pasteurized milk cheeses. The relative percentages of Lys and lie increased, while those of Val, Leu and Phe decreased during ripening. There were also seasonal variations within the relative percentages of free amino acids. In raw milk cheeses, Asp and Cys were relatively more abundant in those made in autumn, Glu and Arg in cheeses made in winter, and Lys and Ile in cheeses made in spring and summer. Biogenic amines were detected only in raw milk cheese, with the highest levels of histamine, tryptamine and tyramine in cheeses made in spring, winter and spring, respectively.

  3. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula; Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 °C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  4. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula, E-mail: mpaula.junqueira@usach.c [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ecuador 3769, Santiago (Chile); Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEP 36570-000, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Miltz, Joseph [Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 {sup o}C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  5. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula; Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 o C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  6. Szekeres Swiss-cheese model and supernova observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle

    2010-01-01

    We use different particular classes of axially symmetric Szekeres Swiss-cheese models for the study of the apparent dimming of the supernovae of type Ia. We compare the results with those obtained in the corresponding Lemaitre-Tolman Swiss-cheese models. Although the quantitative picture is different the qualitative results are comparable, i.e., one cannot fully explain the dimming of the supernovae using small-scale (∼50 Mpc) inhomogeneities. To fit successfully the data we need structures of order of 500 Mpc size or larger. However, this result might be an artifact due to the use of axial light rays in axially symmetric models. Anyhow, this work is a first step in trying to use Szekeres Swiss-cheese models in cosmology and it will be followed by the study of more physical models with still less symmetry.

  7. Phenotypic Screening Identifies Protein Synthesis Inhibitors as H-Ras-Nanocluster-Increasing Tumor Growth Inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najumudeen, Arafath K; Posada, Itziar M D; Lectez, Benoit; Zhou, Yong; Landor, Sebastian K-J; Fallarero, Adyary; Vuorela, Pia; Hancock, John; Abankwa, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Ras isoforms H-, N-, and K-ras are each mutated in specific cancer types at varying frequencies and have different activities in cell fate control. On the plasma membrane, Ras proteins are laterally segregated into isoform-specific nanoscale signaling hubs, termed nanoclusters. As Ras nanoclusters are required for Ras signaling, chemical modulators of nanoclusters represent ideal candidates for the specific modulation of Ras activity in cancer drug development. We therefore conducted a chemical screen with commercial and in-house natural product libraries using a cell-based H-ras-nanoclustering FRET assay. Next to established Ras inhibitors, such as a statin and farnesyl-transferase inhibitor, we surprisingly identified five protein synthesis inhibitors as positive regulators. Using commonly employed cycloheximide as a representative compound, we show that protein synthesis inhibition increased nanoclustering and effector recruitment specifically of active H-ras but not of K-ras. Consistent with these data, cycloheximide treatment activated both Erk and Akt kinases and specifically promoted H-rasG12V-induced, but not K-rasG12V-induced, PC12 cell differentiation. Intriguingly, cycloheximide increased the number of mammospheres, which are enriched for cancer stem cells. Depletion of H-ras in combination with cycloheximide significantly reduced mammosphere formation, suggesting an exquisite synthetic lethality. The potential of cycloheximide to promote tumor cell growth was also reflected in its ability to increase breast cancer cell tumors grown in ovo. These results illustrate the possibility of identifying Ras-isoform-specific modulators using nanocluster-directed screening. They also suggest an unexpected feedback from protein synthesis inhibition to Ras signaling, which might present a vulnerability in certain tumor cell types.

  8. [Carcinogenesis and its mechanism of mutant-type[12Asp]K-ras4B gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Li-ming; Wei, Li-hui; Zhang, Ying-mei; Wang, Jian-liu; Wang, Ying; Chen, Ying; Ma, Da-long

    2002-01-01

    Ras gene plays an important role in the extra- and intra-cellular signal transduction pathway. It mediates series cascade reactions, and eventually actives transcriptional factors in nucleus. It is unknown on the mechanism of carcinogenesis of Ras gene in endometrial carcinoma, though K-ras mutant is very common in endometrial atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma. On basis of discovering the mutation in 12th codon of K-ras in endometrial carcinoma cell line, HEC-1A, we explored the carcinogenesis and molecular mechanism of mutant-type [12Asp] K-ras4B gene. (1) Full-length [12Asp]K-ras4B cDNA was amplified with RT-PCR, then inserted into pcDI eukaryotic expressive vector. (2) Morphological change, growth kinetics in vitro and tumorigencity in nude mice in vivo after-before transfection were observed. (3) To test the cell growth kinetics by methyl thiazolium tetrazolium (MTT) and [3H]thymidine incorporation method. (1) The authors have successfully constructed eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDI-[12Asp] K-ras4B; (2) To confirm that [12Asp] K-ras4B mutant can trigger the neoplastic transformation of NIH3T3 cells by test in vitro and in vivo. (3) After pMCV-RasN17 plasmid, a Ras mutant were transfected into pcDI-[12Asp] K-ras4B cells, the growth of this cell were restrained significantly in comparison with control group. (4) These findings indicate the expression of RafS621A resulted in remarkable inhibition in proliferation of pcDI-[12Asp]K-ras4B cell (P ras4B cell growth (P ras4B gene alone is able to cause neoplastic transformation in NIH3T3 cells in vitro and in vivo. (2) [12Asp]K-ras4B-induced NIH3T3 cells neoplastic transformation required Raf signaling pathway.

  9. Preliminary Discrimination of Cheese Adulteration by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a preliminary study to compare some traditional Romanian cheeses and adulterated cheeses using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. For PLS model calibration (6 concentration levels and validation (5 concentration levels sets were prepared from commercial Dalia Cheese from different manufacturers by spiking it with palm oil at concentrations ranging 2-50 % and 5-40 %, respectively. Fifteen Dalia Cheese were evaluated as external set. The spectra of each sample, after homogenization, were acquired in triplicate using a FTIR Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, with a horizontal diamond ATR accessory in the MIR region 4000-600 cm-1. Statistical methods as PLS were applied using MVC1 routines written for Matlab R2010a. As first step the optimal condition for PLS model were obtained using cross-validation on the Calibration set. Spectral region in 3873-652 cm-1, and 3 PLS-factors were stated as the best conditions and showed an R2 value of 0.9338 and a relative error in the calibration of 17.2%. Then validation set was evaluated, obtaining good recovery rates (108% and acceptable dispersion of the data (20%. The curve of actual vs. predicted values shows slope near to 1 and origin close to 0, with an R2 of 0.9695. When the external sample set was evaluated, samples F19, F21, F22 and F24, showed detectable levels of palm fats. The results proved that FTIR-PLS is a reliable non-destructive technique for a rapid quantification the level of adulteration in cheese.  The spectroscopic methods could assist the quality control authority, traders and the producers to discriminate the adulterated cheeses with palm oil.

  10. Development of volatile compounds in processed cheese during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Lund, Pia; Sørensen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work teas to study tire impact of storage conditions, such as light and temperature, on the development of volatile compounds to processed cheese. Cheese in glass containers was stored at 5, 20 or 37 degreesC in light or darkness for up to 1 yr. Dynamic headspace and gas...... chromatography/mass spectrometry leas used for quantifying 28 volatile organic compounds at eight stages during tree storage period. Through principal component analysis, three important storage parameters could be identified. Principal components 1, 2 and 3 reflected storage tinge, conditions of light...

  11. Ancient Egyptian chronology and the astronomical orientation of pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Kate

    2000-11-01

    The ancient Egyptian pyramids at Giza have never been accurately dated, although we know that they were built approximately around the middle of the third millennium BC. The chronologies of this period have been reconstructed from surviving lists of kings and the lengths of their reigns, but the lists are rare, seldom complete and contain known inconsistencies and errors. As a result, the existing chronologies for that period (the Old Kingdom) can be considered accurate only to about +/-100 years, a figure that radiocarbon dating cannot at present improve. Here I use trends in the orientation of Old Kingdom pyramids to demonstrate that the Egyptians aligned them to north by using the simultaneous transit of two circumpolar stars. Modelling the precession of these stars yields a date for the start of construction of the Great Pyramid that is accurate to +/-5 yr, thereby providing an anchor for the Old Kingdom chronologies.

  12. Egyptian Activism against Female Genital Cutting as Catachrestic Claiming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Van Raemdonck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with questions of the politics of location in knowledge and norm production within the context of Egyptian feminist activism for abandoning female genital cutting practices. It seeks to determine underlying schemes of international campaigning discourse and analyzes how these predicate and complicate Egyptian postcolonial activism. It draws on a broad literature study in addition to fieldwork in Cairo consisting of in-depth interviews with activists and policy makers. My focus is on the national Task Force against FGM from 1994 until 1999 and its subsequent cooptation by the National Council of Childhood and Motherhood. I argue through the concept of catachresis that location matters in setting the terms of anti-FGC discourse and its relation to religion.

  13. Egyptian imprints on Geto-Dacian magical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Dana

    2010-12-01

    Several characteristics of Egyptian culture and civilization could be identified in prehistoric and ancient historic Geto-Dacian territories, belonging to modern Romania (Fig. 1). From early times, magic, religion and philosophy have been part of pre-scientific medicine. Therefore these aspects are to be tackled when speaking of medicine in mythological or legendary ages. Progress of ancient Geto-Dacian medicine was principally ascribed to the interface of local civilizations with ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Such connections were well documented and understood in historic times and were mainly based on texts of renowned Greek and Roman historians. Egyptian impact upon Dacia, -the ancient name of today's Romania-, was often explained in terms of indirect Greek- or Roman-mediated influences.The Greek and then the Roman colonies on the Black sea shore, together with later Roman colonies in Dacia Felix, founded in the heart of Transylvania, enabled access for Romania to Mediterranean cultures, including that of Egypt.

  14. Bacterial microbiota of Kazakhstan cheese revealed by single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing and its comparison with Belgian, Kalmykian and Italian artisanal cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Haiyan; Xi, Xiaoxia; Hou, Qiangchuan; Feng, Shuzhen; Wuri, Laga; Bian, Yanfei; Yu, Zhongjie; Kwok, Lai-Yu; Sun, Zhihong; Sun, Tiansong

    2017-01-09

    In Kazakhstan, traditional artisanal cheeses have a long history and are widely consumed. The unique characteristics of local artisanal cheeses are almost completely preserved. However, their microbial communities have rarely been reported. The current study firstly generated the Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing bacterial diversity profiles of 6 traditional artisanal cheese samples of Kazakhstan origin, followed by comparatively analyzed the microbiota composition between the current dataset and those from cheeses originated from Belgium, Russian Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmykia) and Italy. Across the Kazakhstan cheese samples, a total of 238 bacterial species belonging to 14 phyla and 140 genera were identified. Lactococcus lactis (28.93%), Lactobacillus helveticus (26.43%), Streptococcus thermophilus (12.18%) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii (12.15%) were the dominant bacterial species for these samples. To further evaluate the cheese bacterial diversity of Kazakhstan cheeses in comparison with those from other geographic origins, 16S rRNA datasets of 36 artisanal cheeses from Belgium, Russian Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmykia) and Italy were retrieved from public databases. The cheese bacterial microbiota communities were largely different across sample origins. By principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), the structure of the Kazakhstan artisanal cheese samples was found to be different from those of the other geographic origins. Furthermore, the redundancy analysis (RDA) identified 16 bacterial OTUs as the key variables responsible for such microbiota structural difference. Our results together suggest that the diversity of bacterial communities in different groups is stratified by geographic region. This study does not only provide novel information on the bacterial microbiota of traditional artisanal cheese of Kazakhstan at species level, but also interesting insights into the bacterial diversity of artisanal

  15. Interaction between sodium chloride and texture in semi-hard Danish cheese as affected by brining time, DL-starter culture, chymosin type and cheese ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Marije; Søndergaard Kristensen, Lise; Jespersen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Reduced NaCl in semi-hard cheeses greatly affects textural and sensory properties. The interaction between cheese NaCl concentration and texture was affected by brining time (0-28 h), . dl-starter cultures (C1, C2, and C3), chymosin type (bovine or camel), and ripening time (1-12 weeks). Cheese Na...... is reducible without significant textural impact using well-defined starter cultures and camel chymosin....

  16. Dietary Behaviour Pattern and Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Egyptian Mothers: Relationships with Their Children's Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2016-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Improper dietary patterns, nonworking mothers and big family size are associated with obesity among Egyptian women. Emphasis should be given to increasing physical activity and encourage healthier diets among Egyptian mothers and their children.

  17. Unwrapping an Ancient Egyptian Mummy Using X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a project of unwrapping an ancient Egyptian mummy using x-ray computed tomography (CT). About 600 x-ray CT images were obtained through the mummified body of a female named Tjetmutjengebtiu (or Jeni for short), who was a singer in the great temple of Karnak in Egypt during the 22nd dynasty (c 945-715 BC). The x-ray CT images…

  18. Nile Crossings: Hospitality and Revenge in Egyptian Rural Narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Granara, William E.

    2010-01-01

    This essay looks at acts of hospitality and revenge as constituent elements of a broad social code in rural Egyptian narratives. By looking at five stories in particular, I argue that hospitality and revenge work in complementarity, and that they often trespass and blur each other’s social and literary borders, creating ambiguity and complexity in the stories. The traditional rules that govern hospitality are at times challenged or inverted by hostile intentions, and revenge may be exacted fo...

  19. Kenny-Caffey syndrome type 1 in an Egyptian girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb Abbass Metwalley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenny-Caffey syndrome type 1 (KCS1 (OMIM 244460 is a rare syndrome characterized by growth retardation, uniformly small slender long bones with medullary stenosis, thickened cortex of the long bones, hypocalcemia possibly with tetany at an early age and normal intelligence. The primary outcome of KCS1 is short stature. We present here an Egyptian girl aged 32 months with typical feature of KCS1.

  20. Space and protest: A tale of two Egyptian squares

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, A.A.; Van Nes, A.; Salheen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Protests and revolts take place in public space. How they can be controlled or how protests develop depend on the physical layout of the built environment. This study reveals the relationship between urban space and protest for two Egyptian squares: Tahrir Square and Rabaa Al-Adawiya in Cairo. For analysis, the research uses space syntax method. The results of this analysis are then compared with descriptions of the protest behaviour. As it turns out, the spatial properties of Tahrir square s...

  1. New Terpenes from the Egyptian Soft Coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elkhateeb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigations of the Egyptian soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi have led to the isolation of compounds 1–3 as well as the previously reported marine cembranoid diterpene sarcophine (4. Structures were elucidated by comprehensive NMR and HRMS experimentation. Isolated compounds were in vitro assayed for cytotoxic activity against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7 cell lines.

  2. Microstructure and Composition of Full Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Ultrafiltered Milk Retentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lydia; Dagastine, Raymond R.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Gras, Sally L.

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR) but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of 3.7%–5.8% w/w. The fat lost to sweet whey was higher in cheese made from cheese-milk without LCUFR or from cheese-milk with 5.8% w/w protein. At 5.8% w/w protein concentration, the porosity of the gel increased significantly and the fat globules within the gel and curd tended to pool together, which possibly contributed to the higher fat loss in the sweet whey. The microstructure of cheese from cheese-milk with a higher protein concentration was more compact, consistent with the increased hardness, although the cohesiveness was lower. These results highlight the potential use of LCUFR for the standardization of protein concentration in cheese-milk to 4%–5% w/w (equivalent to a casein to total protein ratio of 77%–79% w/w) to increase yield. Beyond this concentration, significant changes in the gel microstructure, cheese texture and fat loss were observed. PMID:28239117

  3. Morphological, molecular, and mycotoxigenic identification of dominant filamentous fungi from moldy civil cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Songul; Cetin, Bulent; Gurses, Mustafa; Dagdemir, Elif; Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan

    2012-11-01

    Moldy Civil is a mold-ripened variety of cheese produced mainly in eastern Turkey. This cheese is produced with Civil cheese and whey curd cheese (Lor). Civil cheese has had a geographical presence since 2009 and is manufactured with skim milk. In the production of Moldy Civil cheese, Civil cheese or a mixture of Civil and Lor cheese is pressed into goat skins or plastic bags and ripened for 3 months or longer. During the ripening period, natural contaminating molds grow on the surface of and inside the cheese. In this study, 186 mold strains were isolated from 41 samples of Moldy Civil cheese, and 165 of these strains were identified as Penicillium roqueforti. Identification and mycotoxicologic analyses were conducted using morphotypic and molecular methods. PCR amplicons of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 region were subjected to sequence analysis. This research is the first using molecular methods on Moldy Civil cheese. Mycotoxicologic analyses were conducted using thin-layer chromatography, and random amplified polymorphic DNA genotypes were determined using the ari1 primer. Of 165 isolates, only 28 produced no penicillic acid, P. roqueforti toxin, or roquefortine.

  4. Physicochemical and hygienic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Iranian white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzaqh Mahmoudi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing incidence of food-borne disease along with its social and economic consequences have led to conducting extensive research in order to produce safer food and develop new antimicrobial agents; among them, extensive use of probiotics and bacteriocins as biological additives is of significant importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions (growth behavior and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus acidophilus in various stages of production, ripening and storage of Iranian white cheese. Changes in pH values at different stages of cheese ripening, along with changes in organoleptic properties of cheese were also assessed. Compared to other treatments, in the treatment of cheese with probiotic agent without starter, the most significant decrease in Listeria monocytogenes count at the end of ripening stage was observed (3.16 Log per gram cheese compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Survival of probiotic bacteria in control samples of cheese were significantly higher when compared to cheese sample contaminated with Listeria (p < 0.05. White probiotic cheese with starter had the highest of sensory acceptability (p < 0.05. Listeria Monocytogenes count decreased during ripening period of probiotic white cheese but the bacteria survived in probiotic white cheese. Lactobacillus acidophilus count decreased during ripening period of white cheese but it did not lower to less than 106 CFU per g at the end of ripening and storage periods.

  5. Manufacturing of Camembert type cheese made from goat's and cow's milk and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Tonković

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of goat's and cow's milk and their mixtures on the quality of the Camembert type cheese within 30 days of its preservation. Cheeses were made of a mixture of goat's and cow's milk in the following ratios: 0:100, 30:70, 50:50, 80:20 and 100:0. They were analysed on the twelfth and thirtieth day of the cheese production. The chemical analysis of milk for cheese production, as well as the chemical composition, pH and sensorial evaluation of cheeses have been determined. It has been proven that the chemical content and type of milk influencesm sensorial evaluation of cheeses and their shelf life. The analysed cheeses, after 12th day of processing, obtained better sensorial scores than those after the 30th day. Cheeses made of goat's milk have obtained the best sensorial evaluation, although their shelf life was shorter than the rest of the cheese samples made of cow's milk and mixtures of goat's and cow's milk. The chosen storage temperature (10-11 ºC was not adequate for Camembert cheeses. Therefore, in order to prolong the shelf life above the 30-day-period and to preserve sensorial properties of the cheeses, the temperature should be lower, i.e. 5 ºC.

  6. Evolution of the taste of a bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: characterization of a matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Nicklaus, S; Septier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of ripening on the taste of a typically bitter Camembert cheese. The first step was to select a typically bitter cheese among several products obtained by different processes supposed to enhance this taste defect. Second, the evolution of cheese taste during ripening was characterized from a sensory point of view. Finally, the relative impact of fat, proteins, and water-soluble molecules on cheese taste was determined by using omission tests performed on a reconstituted cheese. These omission tests showed that cheese taste resulted mainly from the gustatory properties of water-soluble molecules but was modulated by a matrix effect due to fat, proteins, and cheese structure. The evolution of this matrix effect during ripening was discussed for each taste characteristic.

  7. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Camembert and other soft cheeses at refrigeration temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, J P; Langford, S A; Kroll, R G

    1993-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes survived and, under most conditions, multiplied when inoculated directly into the cheese milk of laboratory made Camembert cheeses. The rate and extent of growth was reduced at lower storage temperatures. Significantly higher rates of growth occurred at the surface compared with the centre of the cheeses, and these were probably associated with increased pH and proteolysis at the cheese surface due to the mould ripening process. Similar results were obtained with Camenbert cheeses surface inoculated after manufacture. There was also temperature-dependent growth of List. monocytogenes on a range of inoculated commercially manufactured soft cheeses. Significant growth occurred in Cambazola, French and English Brie, blue and white Lymeswold, French Camembert and Brie with garlic. Little if any growth occurred in blue and white Stilton, Mycella, Chaume and full fat soft cheese with garlic and herbs at the temperatures examined.

  8. Rheological and sensory properties and aroma compounds formed during ripening of soft brined cheese made from camel milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2018-01-01

    over a ripening period of 60 d. Casein degradation in soft brined camel milk cheese significantly (p fracture significantly (p ... during ripening. However, cheese made with 85 IMCU L−1 coagulant resulted in softening of cheese texture and higher salt uptake. Using descriptive sensory analysis, the experimental cheeses were described as salty, sour and firm. The volatile aroma compounds formed in soft ripened camel milk cheese...

  9. Approach for targeting Ras with small molecules that activate SOS-mediated nucleotide exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael C; Sun, Qi; Daniels, R Nathan; Camper, DeMarco; Kennedy, J Phillip; Phan, Jason; Olejniczak, Edward T; Lee, Taekyu; Waterson, Alex G; Rossanese, Olivia W; Fesik, Stephen W

    2014-03-04

    Aberrant activation of the small GTPase Ras by oncogenic mutation or constitutively active upstream receptor tyrosine kinases results in the deregulation of cellular signals governing growth and survival in ∼30% of all human cancers. However, the discovery of potent inhibitors of Ras has been difficult to achieve. Here, we report the identification of small molecules that bind to a unique pocket on the Ras:Son of Sevenless (SOS):Ras complex, increase the rate of SOS-catalyzed nucleotide exchange in vitro, and modulate Ras signaling pathways in cells. X-ray crystallography of Ras:SOS:Ras in complex with these molecules reveals that the compounds bind in a hydrophobic pocket in the CDC25 domain of SOS adjacent to the Switch II region of Ras. The structure-activity relationships exhibited by these compounds can be rationalized on the basis of multiple X-ray cocrystal structures. Mutational analyses confirmed the functional relevance of this binding site and showed it to be essential for compound activity. These molecules increase Ras-GTP levels and disrupt MAPK and PI3K signaling in cells at low micromolar concentrations. These small molecules represent tools to study the acute activation of Ras and highlight a pocket on SOS that may be exploited to modulate Ras signaling.

  10. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  11. General fire protection guidelines for egyptian nuclear facilities. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhad, S; Hussien, A Z; Hammad, F H [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the regulatory requirements of that will provide and ensure fire protection of egyptian nuclear facilities. Those facilities that use, handle and store low and/or medium radioactive substances are included. Two or more classes of occupancy are considered to occur in the same building or structure. Fir protection measures and systems were reviewed for three of the egyptian Nuclear facilities. These are egypt first nuclear reactor (ETRR-1) building and systems, hot laboratories buildings and facilities, and the building including the AECL type Is-6500 industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator {sup E}gypt`s mega gamma I{sup .} The study includes the outlines of the various aspects of fire protection with a view to define the relevant highlights and scope of egyptian guideline for nuclear installations. The study considers fire protection aspects including the following items: 1- Site selection. 2- General facility design. 3- Fire alarm, detection and suppression systems. (4- Protection for specific areas/control room, cable spreading room, computer room) 5- Fire emergency response planning. 6- Fire water supply. 7- Emergency lighting and communication. 8- Rescue and escape routes. 9- Explosion protection. 10-Manual fire fighting. 11- Security consideration in the interest of fire protection. 12- quality assurance programme. Therefore, first of all the design stage, then during the construction stage, and later during the operation stage, measures must be taken to forestall the risks associated with the outbreak of fire and to ensure that consequences of fire accidents remain limited.

  12. Whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of two Egyptian genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElHefnawi, Mahmoud; Jeon, Sungwon; Bhak, Youngjune; ElFiky, Asmaa; Horaiz, Ahmed; Jun, JeHoon; Kim, Hyunho; Bhak, Jong

    2018-05-15

    We report two Egyptian male genomes (EGP1 and EGP2) sequenced at ~ 30× sequencing depths. EGP1 had 4.7 million variants, where 198,877 were novel variants while EGP2 had 209,109 novel variants out of 4.8 million variants. The mitochondrial haplogroup of the two individuals were identified to be H7b1 and L2a1c, respectively. We also identified the Y haplogroup of EGP1 (R1b) and EGP2 (J1a2a1a2 > P58 > FGC11). EGP1 had a mutation in the NADH gene of the mitochondrial genome ND4 (m.11778 G > A) that causes Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Some SNPs shared by the two genomes were associated with an increased level of cholesterol and triglycerides, probably related with Egyptians obesity. Comparison of these genomes with African and Western-Asian genomes can provide insights on Egyptian ancestry and genetic history. This resource can be used to further understand genomic diversity and functional classification of variants as well as human migration and evolution across Africa and Western-Asia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Paleoradiology: advanced CT in the evaluation of nine Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Heidi; Torres, William E; Ernst, Randy D

    2002-01-01

    Axial thin-collimation state-of-the-art spiral computed tomography (CT) was combined with sagittal and coronal reformatting, three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, and virtual "fly-through" techniques to nondestructively study nine Egyptian mummies. These techniques provided important paleopathologic and historical information about mummification techniques, depicted anatomy in the most informative imaging plane, illustrated the soft-tissue preservation and physical appearance of mummies in superb detail, and generated an intriguing virtual tour through hollow mummified remains without harming the specimens themselves. Images generated with these methods can help archaeologists and Egyptologists understand these fascinating members of mankind and can serve as adjunct visual aids for laypersons who are interested in mummies. CT has emerged as the imaging modality of choice for the examination of Egyptian mummies due to its noninvasive cross-sectional nature and inherently superior contrast and spatial resolution. As multi-detector row CT and postprocessing tools evolve, the capabilities and applications of CT will continue to proliferate, attesting to the expanded versatility and utility of CT as a noninvasive research tool in the multidisciplinary study of Egyptian mummies. Copyright RSNA, 2002

  14. Mutational spectrum of Xeroderma pigmentosum group A in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Khalda; Messaoud, Olfa; El Darouti, Mohamad; Abdelhak, Sonia; El-Kamah, Ghada

    2014-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease characterized by hyperphotosensitivity, DNA repair defects and a predisposition to skin cancers. The most frequently occurring type worldwide is the XP group A (XPA). There is a close relationship between the clinical features that ranged from severe to mild form and the mutational site in XPA gene. The aim of this study is to carry out the mutational analysis in Egyptian patients with XP-A. This study was carried out on four unrelated Egyptian XP-A families. Clinical features were examined and direct sequencing of the coding region of XPA gene was performed in patients and their parents. Direct sequencing of the whole coding region of the XPA gene revealed the identification of two homozygous nonsense mutations: (c.553C >T; p.(Gln185)) and (c.331G>T; p.(Glu111)), which create premature, stop codon and a homodeletion (c.374delC: p.Thr125Ilefs 15) that leads to frameshift and premature translation termination. We report the identification of one novel XPA gene mutation and two known mutations in four unrelated Egyptian families with Xermoderma pigmentosum. All explored patients presented severe neurological abnormalities and have mutations located in the DNA binding domain. This report gives insight on the mutation spectrum of XP-A in Egypt. This would provide a valuable tool for early diagnosis of this severe disease. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Media and the Making of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Osman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available While views may differ on the factors that made the 2011 Egyptian revolution possible, the role of mass media will remain undisputable. The Internet-based social networks caught the Mubarak regime by surprise, and the popular disillusionment with the ‘national’ media led the public to turn to private newspapers and satellite channels for keeping pace with the events. This paper examines the role of specific media during the 18 days of the 2011 Egyptian revolution – from 25 January to 11 February, 2011 – which we have divided into four parts. It discusses how these media contributed to the unfolding of events, conceptualized the protests and the demands of the public, and presented the actors that participated in or opposed the revolution. These points are addressed by discussing the content of the Facebook pages of the Sixth of April Movement and We Are All Khalid Said, as well as that of a private Egyptian newspaper, al-Shuruq, and the state-run newspaper al-Ahram.

  16. General fire protection guidelines for egyptian nuclear facilities. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhad, S.; Hussien, A.Z.; Hammad, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the regulatory requirements of that will provide and ensure fire protection of egyptian nuclear facilities. Those facilities that use, handle and store low and/or medium radioactive substances are included. Two or more classes of occupancy are considered to occur in the same building or structure. Fir protection measures and systems were reviewed for three of the egyptian Nuclear facilities. These are egypt first nuclear reactor (ETRR-1) building and systems, hot laboratories buildings and facilities, and the building including the AECL type Is-6500 industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator E gypt's mega gamma I . The study includes the outlines of the various aspects of fire protection with a view to define the relevant highlights and scope of egyptian guideline for nuclear installations. The study considers fire protection aspects including the following items: 1- Site selection. 2- General facility design. 3- Fire alarm, detection and suppression systems. 4- Protection for specific areas/control room, cable spreading room, computer room) 5- Fire emergency response planning. 6- Fire water supply. 7- Emergency lighting and communication. 8- Rescue and escape routes. 9- Explosion protection. 10-Manual fire fighting. 11- Security consideration in the interest of fire protection. 12- quality assurance programme. Therefore, first of all the design stage, then during the construction stage, and later during the operation stage, measures must be taken to forestall the risks associated with the outbreak of fire and to ensure that consequences of fire accidents remain limited

  17. PI3K: A Crucial Piece in the RAS Signaling Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krygowska, Agata Adelajda; Castellano, Esther

    2018-06-01

    RAS proteins are key signaling switches essential for control of proliferation, differentiation, and survival of eukaryotic cells. RAS proteins are mutated in 30% of human cancers. In addition, mutations in upstream or downstream signaling components also contribute to oncogenic activation of the pathway. RAS proteins exert their functions through activation of several signaling pathways and dissecting the contributions of these effectors in normal cells and in cancer is an ongoing challenge. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge about how RAS regulates type I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), one of the main RAS effectors. RAS signaling through PI3K is necessary for normal lymphatic vasculature development and for RAS-induced transformation in vitro and in vivo, especially in lung cancer, where it is essential for tumor initiation and necessary for tumor maintenance. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  18. [Expressions of Ras and Sos1 in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and their clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zheng-Hua; Linghu, Hua; Liu, Qian-Fen

    2016-11-20

    To detect the expressions of Ras and Sos1 proteins in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tissues and explore their correlation with the clinicopathological features of the patients. The expressions of Ras and Sos1 proteins were detected immunohistochemically in 62 EOC tissues, 5 borderline ovarian cancer tissues, 15 benign epithelial ovarian neoplasm tissues, and 18 normal ovarian tissues. The EOC tissues showed significantly higher expression levels of both Ras and Sos1 than the other tissues tested (Ptissues, Ras and Sos1 proteins were expressed mostly on the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm. The expression level of Ras was correlated with pathological types of the tumor (Ptissue-specific variation of Ras expression can lend support to a specific diagnosis of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. The association of Ras and Sos1 protein expression with the tumor-free survival time of the patients awaits further investigation with a larger sample size.

  19. Production of Gouda cheese and Camembert with probiotic cultures: the suitability of some commercial probiotic cultures to be implemented in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Casteele, S; Ruyssen, T; Vanheuverzwijn, T; Van Assche, P

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of 10 probiotic cultures (L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium sp., L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei) was examined during the production and ripening of Gouda cheese and Camembert. The overall objective of this research project was to obtain a product (cheese) containing at least 10(7) probiotic cfu/g. In general 10(6) cfu of a probiotic culture must be implemented per ml cheese milk, together with the cheesestarter, to reach this objective. L. paracasei sp. have the ability to grow more than 2 log units during cheese ripening. A lower inoculation value can be considered for these cultures.

  20. Growth reduction of Listeria spp. caused by undefined industrial red smear cheese cultures and bacteriocin-producing Brevibacterium lines as evaluated in situ on soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppert, I; Valdés-Stauber, N; Götz, H; Busse, M; Scherer, S

    1997-01-01

    The undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheese which are used for the ripening of commercial red smear cheeses have a strong impact on the growth of Listeria spp. In some cases, these microbial consortia inhibit Listeria almost completely. From such undefined industrial cheese-ripening floras, linocin M18-producing (lin+) (N. Valdés-Stauber and S. Scherer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:3809-3814, 1994) and -nonproducing Brevibacterium linens strains were isolated and used as single-strain starter cultures on model red smear cheeses to evaluate their potential inhibitory effects on Listeria strains in situ. On cheeses ripened with lin+ strains, a growth reduction of L. ivanovii and L. monocytogenes of 1 to 2 log units was observed compared to cheeses ripened with lin strains. Linocin M18 activity was detected in cheeses ripened with lin+ strains but was not found in those ripened with lin strains. We suggest that production of linocin M18 contributes to the growth reduction of Listeria observed on model red smear cheeses but is unsufficient to explain the almost complete inhibition of Listeria caused by some undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheeses. PMID:9406400

  1. Wine and cheese: two products or one association? A new method for assessing wine-cheese pairing

    OpenAIRE

    Dufau, Lucie; Loiseau, Anne-Laure; Visalli, Michel; Schlich, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify which attributes impacted the dynamic liking of cheese and wine individually, as well as when consumed together. Three wines (one white, Pouilly Loché; and two red, Maranges and Beaujolais) and three cheeses (Comté, Époisses, Chaource) were individually evaluated by a group of 60 consumers using mono-intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) with simultaneous hedonic ratings. The same data acquisition screen was used for all products showing a unique ...

  2. Antioxidant activity and nutrient release from polyphenol-enriched cheese in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Langlois, Ariane; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Green tea polyphenols are recognized for their antioxidant properties and their effects on lipid digestion kinetics. Polyphenols are sensitive to degradation in the intestinal environment. Interactions with dairy proteins could modulate the stability and biological activity of polyphenols during digestion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the release of nutrients (polyphenols, fatty acids and peptides) and the antioxidant activity in polyphenol-enriched cheese containing different levels of calcium in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. The relationship between cheese matrix texture, matrix degradation and nutrient release during digestion was also studied. Green tea extract was added to milk at 0% or 0.1%, and cheeses were produced on a laboratory scale. The level of available calcium was adjusted to low (Ca(low)), regular (Ca(reg)) or high (Ca(high)) during the salting step of the cheese-making process. Cheeses were subjected to simulated digestion. The rate and extent of fatty acid release were 21% lower for Ca(low) cheese than for Ca(reg) and Ca(high) cheeses. The greater adhesiveness of Ca(low) cheese, which resulted in lower rates of matrix degradation and proteolysis, contributed to the reduced rate of lipolysis. The presence of green tea extract in cheese reduced the release of free fatty acids at the end of digestion by 7%. The addition of green tea extract increased cheese hardness but did not influence matrix degradation or proteolysis profiles. The formation of complexes between tea polyphenols and proteins within the cheese matrix resulted in a more than twofold increase in polyphenol recovery in the intestinal phase compared with the control (tea polyphenol extract incubated with polyphenol-free cheese). Antioxidant activity was 14% higher in the digest from polyphenol-enriched cheese than in the control. These results suggest that cheese is an effective matrix for the controlled release of nutrients and for the protection of green

  3. Impact of Emergent Circulating Tumor DNA RAS Mutation in Panitumumab-Treated Chemoresistant Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Won; Peeters, Marc; Thomas, Anne L; Gibbs, Peter; Hool, Kristina; Zhang, Jianqi; Ang, Agnes; Bach, Bruce Allen; Price, Timothy

    2018-06-13

    The accumulation of emergent RAS mutations during anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy is of interest as a mechanism for acquired resistance to anti-EGFR treatment. Plasma analysis of circulating tumor (ct) DNA is a minimally invasive and highly sensitive method to determine RAS mutational status. This biomarker analysis of the global phase III ASPECCT study used next-generation sequencing to detect expanded RAS ctDNA mutations in panitumumab-treated patients. Plasma samples collected at baseline and posttreatment were analyzed categorically for the presence of RAS mutations by the Plasma Select -R™ 64-gene panel at 0.1% sensitivity. Among panitumumab-treated patients with evaluable plasma samples at baseline (n = 238), 188 (79%) were wild-type (WT) RAS, and 50 (21%) were mutant RAS Of the 188 patients with baseline ctDNA WT RAS status, 164 had evaluable posttreatment results with a 32% rate of emergent RAS mutations. The median overall survival (OS) for WT and RAS mutant status by ctDNA at baseline was 13.7 (95% confidence interval: 11.5-15.4) and 7.9 months (6.4-9.6), respectively ( P < 0.0001). Clinical outcomes were not significantly different between patients with and without emergent ctDNA RAS mutations. Although patients with baseline ctDNA RAS mutations had worse outcomes than patients who were WT RAS before initiating treatment, emergent ctDNA RAS mutations were not associated with less favorable patient outcomes in panitumumab-treated patients. Further research is needed to determine a clinically relevant threshold for baseline and emergent ctDNA RAS mutations. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Ras Activity Oscillates in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Modulates Circadian Clock Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serchov, Tsvetan; Jilg, Antje; Wolf, Christian T; Radtke, Ina; Stehle, Jörg H; Heumann, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    Circadian rhythms, generated in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), are synchronized to the environmental day-night changes by photic input. The activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1,2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription play a critical role in this photoentrainment. The small GTPase Ras is one of the major upstream regulators of the ERK1,2/CREB pathway. In contrast to the well-described role of Ras in structural and functional synaptic plasticity in the adult mouse brain, the physiological regulation of Ras by photic sensory input is yet unknown. Here, we describe for the first time a circadian rhythm of Ras activity in the mouse SCN. Using synRas transgenic mice, expressing constitutively activated V12-Ha-Ras selectively in neurons, we demonstrate that enhanced Ras activation causes shortening of the circadian period length. We found upregulated expression and decreased inhibitory phosphorylation of the circadian period length modulator, glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3β), in the SCN of synRas mice. Conversely, downregulation of Ras activity by blocking its function with an antibody in oscillating cell cultures reduced protein levels and increased phosphorylation of GSK3β and lengthened the period of BMAL1 promoter-driven luciferase activity. Furthermore, enhanced Ras activity in synRas mice resulted in a potentiation of light-induced phase delays at early subjective night, and increased photic induction of pERK1,2/pCREB and c-Fos. In contrast, at late subjective night, photic activation of Ras/ERK1,2/CREB in synRas mice was not sufficient to stimulate c-Fos protein expression and phase advance the clock. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Ras activity fine tunes the period length and modulates photoentrainment of the circadian clock.

  5. The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) affects embryonic and larval development in common carp Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Pristin, M.G.; Ende, S.S.W.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may impair the growth and welfare of fish. To test the severity of contaminants accumulated in RAS, early-life stages of fish were used. Ultrafiltered water from two Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), one RAS with a high

  6. RasGRP1, but not RasGRP3, is required for efficient thymic β-selection and ERK activation downstream of CXCR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic P Golec

    Full Text Available T cell development is a highly dynamic process that is driven by interactions between developing thymocytes and the thymic microenvironment. Upon entering the thymus, the earliest thymic progenitors, called CD4(-CD8(- 'double negative' (DN thymocytes, pass through a checkpoint termed "β-selection" before maturing into CD4(+CD8(+ 'double positive' (DP thymocytes. β-selection is an important developmental checkpoint during thymopoiesis where developing DN thymocytes that successfully express the pre-T cell receptor (TCR undergo extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the DP stage. Signals transduced through the pre-TCR, chemokine receptor CXCR4 and Notch are thought to drive β-selection. Additionally, it has long been known that ERK is activated during β-selection; however the pathways regulating ERK activation remain unknown. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the β-selection events in mice lacking RasGRP1, RasGRP3 and RasGRP1 and 3. We report that RasGRP1 KO and RasGRP1/3 DKO deficient thymi show a partial developmental block at the early DN3 stage of development. Furthermore, DN3 thymocytes from RasGRP1 and RasGRP1/3 double knock-out thymi show significantly reduced proliferation, despite expression of the TCRβ chain. As a result of impaired β-selection, the pool of TCRβ(+ DN4 is significantly diminished, resulting in inefficient DN to DP development. Also, we report that RasGRP1 is required for ERK activation downstream of CXCR4 signaling, which we hypothesize represents a potential mechanism of RasGRP1 regulation of β-selection. Our results demonstrate that RasGRP1 is an important regulator of proliferation and differentiation at the β-selection checkpoint and functions downstream of CXCR4 to activate the Ras/MAPK pathway.

  7. Finding out egyptian gods' secret using analytical chemistry: biomedical properties of egyptian black makeup revealed by amperometry at single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsoba, Issa; Arbault, Stéphane; Walter, Philippe; Amatore, Christian

    2010-01-15

    Lead-based compounds were used during antiquity as both pigments and medicines in the formulation of makeup materials. Chemical analysis of cosmetics samples found in Egyptians tombs and the reconstitution of ancient recipes as reported by Greco-Roman authors have shown that two non-natural lead chlorides (laurionite Pb(OH)Cl and phosgenite Pb(2)Cl(2)CO(3)) were purposely synthesized and were used as fine powders in makeup and eye lotions. According to ancient Egyptian manuscripts, these were essential remedies for treating eye illness and skin ailments. This conclusion seems amazing because today we focus only on the well-recognized toxicity of lead salts. Here, using ultramicroelectrodes, we obtain new insights into the biochemical interactions between lead(II) ions and cells, which support the ancient medical use of sparingly soluble lead compounds. Submicromolar concentrations of Pb(2+) ions are shown to be sufficient for eliciting specific oxidative stress responses of keratinocytes. These consist essentially of an overproduction of nitrogen monoxide (NO degrees ). Owing to the biological role of NO degrees in stimulating nonspecific immunological defenses, one may argue that these lead compounds were deliberately manufactured and used in ancient Egyptian formulations to prevent and treat eye illnesses by promoting the action of immune cells.

  8. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  9. Two-stage anaerobic digestion of cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K V; Liao, P H

    1986-01-01

    A two-stage digestion of cheese whey was studied using two anaerobic rotating biological contact reactors. The second-stage reactor receiving partially treated effluent from the first-stage reactor could be operated at a hydraulic retention time of one day. The results indicated that two-stage digestion is a feasible alternative for treating whey. 6 references.

  10. The rheological and fracture properties of Gouda cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, H.

    1988-01-01

    The rheological and fracture behaviour of Gouda cheese was studied. Methods for determining these properties of visco-elastic materials are described. Application of the theory of fracture mechanics, after modification and expansion, to visco-elastic materials with a

  11. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This work consisting in use of a central composite design enables the determination of optimal process conditions concerning: leaf extract volume added (7 mL), heating temperature ...

  12. Investigation of enzyme modified cheese production by two species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(4), pp. 508-511, 25 ... were used in this study for production of enzyme modified cheese. The results showed that ... Wheat bran was used as the substrate for cultivation of the molds and ...

  13. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The... the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified...

  14. 21 CFR 133.160 - Muenster and munster cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... any other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2...

  15. 21 CFR 133.144 - Granular and stirred curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 133.144 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... this section or by any other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and... hydrogen peroxide/catalase, and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...

  16. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cooked or very slight acid or emulsifier flavor; is free from any undesirable tastes and odors. (b) Body... Administration. The average age of the cheese in the blend shall be such that the desired flavor, body and... determined on the basis of flavor, body and texture, color, and finish and appearance. (a) Flavor. Has a...

  17. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cooked or very slight acid or emulsifier flavors; is free from any undesirable tastes and odors. (b) Body... Administration. The average age of the cheese in the blend shall be such that the desired flavor, body and... determined on the basis of flavor, body and texture, color, and finish and appearance. (a) Flavor. Has a...

  18. 21 CFR 133.111 - Caciocavallo siciliano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... properties as the cheese produced when the procedure set forth in paragraph (b) of this section is used. It... purified calcium chloride in a quantity not more than 0.02 percent, calculated as anhydrous calcium... of benzoyl peroxide with potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate; but the weight of...

  19. Microbiological and proximate analyses of unripened cheese 'Wara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... may be attributed to poor hygiene of the handlers and manufacturing practices. A careful appraisal of these procedures and the use of pasteurized milk is suggested to reduce the exposure of consumers to health hazard. Key words: Raw milk, Pathogens, Coliforms, Cheese, food borne pathogens, Proximate composition.

  20. Isolation and characterization of bifidobacteria from ovine cheese

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Killer, Jiří; Vlková, E.; Musilová, S.; Tomáška, M.; Rada, V.; Kmeť, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 188, č. 1 (2014), s. 26-30 ISSN 0168-1605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Bifidobacterium sp. * ovine cheese * cultivation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2014

  1. original article microbial contamination of locally produced cheese

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. E-Mail: ... identifié fromage local (' wara ') comme un aliment à haut risque au Nigeria en raison du taux élevé de contamination, car ils sont ... automatically has been conferred to the soft cheese.

  2. We tasted a genetically modified cheese - and we like it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish consumers´ preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of benefits. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well as across countries...

  3. Cheese Matrix Microstructure Studied by Advanced Microscopic Techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burdiková, Z.; Hickey, C.; Auty, M. A. E.; Pala, J.; Švindrych, Z.; Steinmetz, I.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Hrubanová, Kamila; Sheehan, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, S3 (2014), s. 1336-1337 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : cheese matrix * cryo-SEM * confocal laser scanning microscopy Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.877, year: 2014

  4. The formation mechanism of lactones in Gouda cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.; Smit, B.; Sliwinski, E.L.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Lactones are fat-derived aroma compounds, but the formation mechanism of these compounds during ripening of Gouda cheese is unknown. Both enzymatic and chemical formation pathways were investigated in this study. Lactone formation from milk triglycerides or free fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria

  5. Penicilllium discolor, a new species from cheese, nuts and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.; Rassing, Birgitte A.

    1997-01-01

    The new species Penicillum discolor, frequently isolated from nuts, vegetables and cheese is described. It is characterised by rough, dark green conidia, synnemateous growth on malt agar and the production of the secondary metabolites chaetoglobosins A, B and C, palitantin, cyclopenin, cyclopenol...

  6. Irradiation of 'minas frescal' cheese: physical-chemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgel, Maria Sylvia de C.C. do Amaral; Spoto, Marta H.F.; Domardo, Raquel E.; Gutierrez, Erica Maria Roel

    2000-01-01

    The present work studied the viability of gamma radiation as alternative method of conservation 'minas frescal' cheese through by determining its effect on the physical-chemical properties of this product after irradiation. Cheese elaborated in the Laboratory of Food Irradiation CENA/USP, were exposed to doses of 0 (it controls); 1; 2; 3 and 4 kGy and stored under refrigeration (±5 deg C). The analysis were accomplished in the 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage considered the following parameters: acidity, pH, moisture and level of proteolysis according to methodology of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (A.O.A.C.),1995. The results revealed that the dose of 2 kGy was the most indicated for irradiation of that type of cheese, because after this treatment, the product maintained in good conditions for consumption after 14 days of storage. It was concluded that gamma radiation can be used as a method of conservation of 'minas frescal' cheese, without causing alterations in its physical-chemical characteristics. (author)

  7. Growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Soomin; Han, Minkyung; Yoon, Yohan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we developed mathematical models to describe the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on natural cheeses. A five-strain mixture of Staph. aureus was inoculated onto 15 g of Brie and Camembert cheeses at 4 log CFU/g. The samples were then stored at 4, 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C for 2-60 d, with a different storage time being used for each temperature. Total bacterial and Staph. aureus cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and mannitol salt agar, respectively. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of Staph. aureus to calculate kinetic parameters such as the maximum growth rate in log CFU units (r max; log CFU/g/h) and the lag phase duration (λ; h). The effects of temperature on the square root of r max and on the natural logarithm of λ were modelled in the second stage (secondary model). Independent experimental data (observed data) were compared with prediction and the respective root mean square error compared with the RMSE of the fit on the original data, as a measure of model performance. The total growth of bacteria was observed at 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C on both cheeses. The r max values increased with storage temperature (PCamembert cheeses.

  8. Mycotoxicogenic fungal inhibition by innovative cheese cover with aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Armando; Librán, Celia M; Berruga, M Isabel; Zalacain, Amaya; Carmona, Manuel

    2013-03-30

    The use of aromatic plants and their extracts with antimicrobial properties may be compromised in the case of cheese, as some type of fungal starter is needed during its production. Penicillium verrucosum is considered a common cheese spoiler. The aim of this study was to evaluate the innovative use of certain aromatic plants as natural cheese covers in order to prevent mycotoxicogenic fungal growth (P. verrucosum). A collection of 12 essential oils (EOs) was obtained from various aromatic plants by solvent-free microwave extraction technology, and volatile characterisation of the EOs was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The most effective EOs against P. verrucosum were obtained from Anethum graveolens, Hyssopus officinalis and Chamaemelum nobile, yielding 50% inhibition of fungal growth at concentration values lower than 0.02 µL mL⁻¹. All EOs showed high volatile heterogeneity, with α-phellandrene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone, α-pinene, camphene, 1,8-cineole, carvacrol and trans-anethole being found to be statistically significant in the antifungal model. The use of these aromatic plants as natural covers on cheese can satisfactorily inhibit the growth of some mycotoxicogenic fungal spoilers. Among the volatile compounds present, α- and β-phellandrene were confirmed as the most relevant in the inhibition. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Evaluation of the daily iron intake by non-breastfed Egyptian infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency is frequently associated with anaemia. The prevalence of anaemia among Egyptian infants and young children is 25%. Fortification of infant and followup milk-based formulae remains a valuable method for delivering iron to reduce the incidence of iron deficiency anaemia. Percentage of Egyptian ...

  10. Genetic characterization of Egyptian and Italian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2015-06-01

    The matrix of pairwise differences among breeds was used to perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. This analysis showed that the Italian breeds are clearly separated from the Egyptian breeds; moreover the Egyptian Barki breed is separated from Ossimi and Rahmani.

  11. Egyptian greenhouse cultivation at a higher level with Dutch Technology ; Annual Report 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Helm, van der F.P.M.; Blok, C.; Meijer, R.J.M.; Lahiani, Y.; Janmaat, A.; Zaki, M.; Hassan, H.

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘Egyptian greenhouse cultivation at a higher level with Dutch technology’ is co-funded under the Top Sector Programme Horticulture and Starting Materials. The project wants to realizes through the use of Dutch technology a higher level of sustainability of Egyptian protected cultivation,

  12. A study of moult-site fidelity in Egyptian geese, Alopochen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about moult and moult-site fidelity of African waterfowl. Satellite telemetry and uniquely engraved colour-rings were used to study moult-site fidelity of Egyptian geese marked at two sites in South Africa – Barberspan in the summer-rainfall region and Strandfontein in the winter-rainfall region. Twelve Egyptian ...

  13. Surface decontamination of cheddar cheese by electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1991-01-01

    Cheddar cheese samples inoculated with two different levels of Penicillium cyclopium or Aspergillus ochraceus spores were vacuum-packed and irradiated at various doses up to 3.5 kGy with electrons from a 10-MeV linear accelerator. Unirradiated cheese showed visible mold growth in 8-25 d at 10 degrees C, and 7-12 d at 15 degrees C, depending on species and spore concentration. Only marginal extension of shelf life at 15 degrees C was achieved with cheese inoculated with 10 2 cfu per sample of either of the mold spores, followed by irradiation at 0.21 or 0.52 kGy. However, at these doses the average shelf life at 10 degrees C was extended by 41.5 and 50.5 d respectively when the inoculum was A. ochraceus. When the inoculum level was increased tenfold, irradiation at 1.2 and 3.5 kGy extended the average shelf life of cheese containing P. cyclopium by 44.5 and >262 d respectively at 10 degrees C, and by 3 and >166 d respectively at 15 degrees C. The shelf life of samples containing A. ochraceus and irradiated at 1.2 or 3.5 kGy was extended by at least 255.5 d at 10 degrees C and at least 160 d at 15 degrees C. The results clearly showed that low radiation doses are effective in the mold decontamination of cheese. The results also suggest that P. cyclopium in Cheddar cheese is more radiation-resistant than A. ochraceus. This was supported by determination of radiation survival curves for the two species incorporated into Cheddar cheese: D 10 values for P. cyclopium and A. ochraceus were found to be 0.40 and 0.21 kGy respectively. The radiation sensitivity of the two organisms was found not to vary with pH in the pH range 5.0-6.2

  14. Short communication: Sensory profile of raw goat milk cheeses made with artisan kid rennet pastes from commercial-weight animals: alternative to farmhouse goat cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, M; Álvarez, S; Díaz, E; Virto, M; de Renobales, M

    2014-10-01

    The loss of traditional kid rennet pastes in the Canary Islands (Spain), as in many other regions, is most likely due to the custom of using abomasa from very young animals killed below desirable commercial weight. In addition, the reasonable price of commercial rennets (CR) has resulted in the loss of typical sensory characteristics for most farmhouse raw goat milk cheeses, placing them at a disadvantage when local and international markets are full of different cheeses, often with aggressive marketing strategies. This paper analyzes the sensory characteristics of raw goat milk cheeses made with rennet pastes prepared from commercial kid abomasa in 2 ways: dried while full of ingested milk [full, commercial, artisan kid rennet (FCKR)], or dried after being emptied of ingested milk and refilled with raw goat milk [empty, commercial, artisan kid rennet (ECKR)]. This latter practice allows the use of empty abomasa, or abomasa with grass, soil, and so on. Sensory profiles of cheeses made with FCKR and ECKR rennets were compared with those made with CR by an expert panel (n=7). The FCKR and ECKR cheeses had similar sensory profiles. Although scores for FCKR cheeses were somewhat higher than for ECKR cheeses, they were in the range found for traditional cheeses made with rennet prepared with abomasa from very young animals. The sensory profile of CR cheeses was very different. Almost 90% of consumer panelists (n=90) preferred cheeses made with the experimental rennet pastes. These results demonstrate the possibility to prepare artisan rennet pastes from commercial-weight kids in an easy way for farmhouse cheese makers using local resources that would otherwise be destroyed in abattoirs. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The muscular expression of RAS in patients with achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselbrant, A; Kostic, S; Lönroth, H

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) elicits smooth muscle contractions via activation of AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R) in the intestinal wall and in sphincter regions in several species. Achalasia is a rare swallowing disorder and is characterized by a loss of the wave-like contraction that forces food through the oesophagus and a failure of the lower oesophageal sphincter to relax during swallowing. The present study was undertaken to elucidate expression and distribution of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the muscular layer of distal normal human oesophagus as well as in patients with achalasia using western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). AT1R, together with enzyme renin and cathepsin D expression were decreased in patients with achalasia. In contrast, the mast cells chymase, cathepsin G, neprilysin and the receptor for angiotensin 1-7 peptides, the MAS receptor, were increased in patients with achalasia. The results showed the existence of a local RAS in human oesophageal muscular layer. The enzymes responsible for AngII production are different and there has been a shift in receptor physiology from AT1R to MAS receptor in patients with achalasia. These changes in the RAS might play a significant role in the physiological motor control for patients with achalasia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Manufacture and sensory analysis of reduced- and low-sodium Cheddar and Mozzarella cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brown, Kelly; Irish, David A; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    High sodium intake negatively affects consumer health, thus there is active interest in lowering sodium levels in dairy foods. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheeses were made with total salt levels of 0.7, 1.0, 1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% (wt/wt) in triplicate, thus reducing sodium by 25 to 60%. Multiple manufacturing protocols for salt reduction were used to produce cheeses with similar postpress moisture and pH, independent of the final salt levels in cheese, in order to study the role of salt in cheese acceptability. Cheese flavor was evaluated by a descriptive taste panel on a 15-point intensity scale. Consumer acceptance was evaluated by a consumer panel on a 9-point hedonic scale. Taste panels conducted with cubed Cheddar cheese (at 3 and 6mo) and cold shredded Mozzarella cheese (at 3wk) showed that consumer liking for cheese was low at 0.7 and 0.9% salt, but all cheeses containing higher salt levels (1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% salt) were comparably preferred. The cheeses had acceptable liking scores (≥6) when served as quesadilla or pizza toppings, and consumers were able to differentiate cheeses at alternate salt levels; for example, 1.8 and 1.5% salt cheeses scored similarly, as did cheeses with 1.5% and 1.35% salt, but 1.35% salt cheese scored lower than and was discernible from 1.8% salt cheese. Descriptive panelists perceived salty, sour, umami, bitter, brothy, lactone/fatty acid, and sulfur attributes as different across Mozzarella cheeses, with the perception of each significantly increasing along with salt level. Salty and buttery attributes were perceived more with increasing salt levels of Cheddar cheese by the descriptive panel at 3mo, whereas bitter, brothy, and umami attributes were perceived less at the higher salt levels. However, this trend reversed at 6mo, when perception of salty, sour, bitter, buttery, lactone/fatty acid, and umami attributes increased with salt level. We conclude that consumers can distinguish even a 30% salt

  17. Electrostatic Interactions Positively Regulate K-Ras Nanocluster Formation and Function▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Sarah J.; Ariotti, Nicholas; Goodall, Andrew; Parton, Robert G.; Hancock, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The organization of Ras proteins into plasma membrane nanoclusters is essential for high-fidelity signal transmission, but whether the nanoscale enviroments of different Ras nanoclusters regulate effector interactions is unknown. We show using high-resolution spatial mapping that Raf-1 is recruited to and retained in K-Ras-GTP nanoclusters. In contrast, Raf-1 recruited to the plasma membrane by H-Ras is not retained in H-Ras-GTP nanoclusters. Similarly, upon epidermal growth factor receptor activation, Raf-1 is preferentially recruited to K-Ras-GTP and not H-Ras-GTP nanoclusters. The formation of K-Ras-GTP nanoclusters is inhibited by phosphorylation of S181 in the C-terminal polybasic domain or enhanced by blocking S181 phosphorylation, with a concomitant reduction or increase in Raf-1 plasma membrane recruitment, respectively. Phosphorylation of S181 does not, however, regulate in vivo interactions with the nanocluster scaffold galectin-3 (Gal3), indicating separate roles for the polybasic domain and Gal3 in driving K-Ras nanocluster formation. Together, these data illustrate that Ras nanocluster composition regulates effector recruitment and highlight the importance of lipid/protein nanoscale environments to the activation of signaling cascades. PMID:18458061

  18. ASPECTS OF OBSTACLES FOR APPLYING ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru STEFEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following investigation aims to determine the aspects of obstacles for applying Activity Based Costing (ABC system in the Egyptian case and the significant differences among the effects of such obstacles . The Study used the survey method to describe and analyze the obstacles in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. This survey used the number of 392 questionnaires that were used throughout the total of 23 Egyptian manufacturing firms, during the first half of 2013. Finally, the study found some influencing obstacles for applying this system (ABC and there were significant differences among the aspects of obstacles for applying ABC system in the Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  19. The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hynes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added lactobacilli than in the control cheeses without lactobacilli. Gross composition and hydrolysis of s1 casein were similar for miniature cheeses with and without lactobacilli. In the miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 starter, the lactobacilli adjunct slightly increased the soluble nitrogen content, but that was not verified in the AM2 miniature cheeses. Phosphotungstic acid nitrogen content increased in miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 when Lactobacillus plantarum 1572 and 1310 adjunct cultures were added. That was also verified for several Lactobacillus strains, specially Lactobacillus casei 1227, for miniature cheeses manufactured with AM2 starter. Free fatty acid content increased in miniature cheeses made with lactobacilli adjuncts 1310, 1308 and 1219 with IL416 starter, and with strains 1218, 1244 and 1308 for miniature cheeses with AM2 starter. These results indicate that production of soluble nitrogen compounds as well as free fatty acid content could be influenced by the lactobacilli adjunct, depending on the starter strain.

  20. Comparison of two methods to explore consumer preferences for cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, S L; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2009-12-01

    In the past 2 decades, total sales of cottage cheese have declined 17% despite increases in sales for low-fat cottage cheese. There are no recent published studies investigating consumer preferences for cottage cheese. This study was conducted to identify and define sensory characteristics of commercial cottage cheese and to compare 2 approaches for characterizing consumer preferences: traditional preference mapping and a new composite qualitative approach, qualitative multivariate analysis (QMA). A sensory language was identified to document the sensory properties (visual, flavor, and texture) of cottage cheeses. Twenty-six commercial cottage cheeses with variable fat contents (4, 2, 1, and 0% fat) were evaluated by trained panelists using the sensory language. Eight representative cottage cheeses were selected for consumer acceptance testing (n = 110) and QMA with consumer home usage testing (n = 12), followed by internal and external preference mapping to identify key drivers. Principal component analysis of descriptive data indicated that cottage cheeses were primarily differentiated by cooked, milkfat, diacetyl, and acetaldehyde flavors and salty taste, and by firmness, smoothness, tackiness, curd size, and adhesiveness texture attributes. Similar drivers of liking (diacetyl and milkfat flavors, smooth texture, and mouthcoating) were identified by both consumer research techniques. However, the QMA technique identified controversial distinctions among the cottage cheeses and the influence of brand and pricing. These results can be used by processors to promote cottage cheese sales.