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Sample records for egg quality lipid

  1. Lipid sources in diets for egg-laying japanese quail: performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Abaker Bertipaglia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of using lipid sources of plant and animal origin in diets for Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica on production performance and internal egg quality. Japanese quails (n = 160 were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replications of five birds each. Lipid sources evaluated were: soybean oil, from poultry slaughterhouse, fish waste and grape seed. The characteristics of performance and internal egg quality were measured every 21 days for a total period of 84 days. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey’s test. There was no effect of treatments on the production performance of birds, except for feed intake, which was higher for birds fed grape seed oil in the diet. Lipid sources evaluated had no influence on the internal egg quality. It can be concluded that the lipid sources evaluated here in can be used as alternative energy in feed for laying quails, without affecting the performance and internal egg quality.

  2. Egg quality and yolk lipid composition of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut meal

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    Tatiana Fontoura Vidal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the addition of cashew nuts meal (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% to laying hen diets on egg quality and yolk composition. The variables studied were: egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh Units, percentages of shell, albumen, and yolk, moisture, total solids, total lipids, fatty acids profile, and yolk cholesterol. The addition of up to 25% of cashew nuts meal to hen diets did not affect egg quality and freshness, moisture and total solids content. However, an increase in total lipid content and a decrease in yolk pigmentation was observed. Oleic acid level increased in the yolk, whereas palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid levels decreased. The addition of cashew nuts meal increased the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio in the yolk and reduced the cholesterol content. Therefore, the use of cashew nuts meal in laying hen diets favorably modifies the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and contributes to a better acceptance of this food by consumers since it also reduces yolk cholesterol levels.

  3. Moulting patterns of Alabio and Mojosari ducks and their relation on blood lipids (tryglycerides, egg production and egg quality

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    Maijon Purba

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Moulting is a biological condition that can happen in poultry. It is resulted from the complex interaction which involves the function of thyroxine hormone. Moulting can reduce or even stop the egg production. A study was conducted to observe the moulting patterns of local ducks (Alabio and Mojosari and to determine the relation of moulting with blood lipids (triglycerides, egg production and quality. Each breed consisted of ten female dukcs were observed for moulting pattern, blood triglycerides, egg production and quality. Fourty ducks were used for simulation of egg production. Data from moulting patterns,egg production and quality were analyzed using t-based on Least Square means with Statistical Analysis System. The relation of breeds and moulting patterns with triglycerides were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. The main factor was kind of breeds, while the subfactor was the period of moulting, before and during moulting. There were not interaction in every variables between both factors. The average moulting periode of Alabio was significantly (P<0.05 shorter than that of Mojosari (69 vs 76 days. There were 40% of Alabio ducks moulting for 61-70 days, while 40% of Mojosari ducks moulting for 71-80 days. Egg production of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were higher than those Mojosari ducks. The triglycerides content of Alabio and Mojosari ducks was decreased during moulting, in Alabio ducks they were 32.02 and 27.64 μg/ml before and during moulting, while in Mojosari ducks they were 32.83 and 29.32 μg/ml respectively. Egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, and haugh unit of the two breeds increased after moulting, while yolk colour decreased. The average yolk colour of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were 6.90 and 5.11, while in Mojosari ducks they were 7.90 and 4.60 respectively.

  4. Total lipid in the broodstock diet did not affect fatty acid composition and quality of eggs of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

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    José Mª Navas

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether an increase in the quantity of lipids ingested by sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax broodstock could improve egg quality, three year-old sea bass were fed three different diets: a natural diet (Control group, and two artificial diets containing 10% or 17% of total lipids. In two consecutive reproductive seasons, the spawning results, the lipid classes and the fatty acid composition of the eggs were studied. No differences in the absolute content of lipids or in the percentage of different lipid classes were observed between the eggs from the three groups. Both experimental groups fed with the artificial diets produced eggs of poor quality, with low percentages of buoyancy and hatching. Those observed in the eggs from the Control Group were significantly higher (p> 0.01 than those of the experimental groups. The higher hatching rate of the eggs from the Control Group was associated with higher DHA:EPA and AA:EPA ratios. The data obtained showed that the fatty acid composition of the eggs was affected by the fatty acid composition of the diets but not by the total quantity of lipids administered to the broodstock.

  5. effects of various oil source on performance, egg quality, fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esmedd

    Effects of dietary oil sources on egg quality, fatty acid composition of eggs and blood lipids ... weight and egg shell quality compared to the other oils tested; fish and soyabean oil increased the omega-3 ...... lipoprotein levels in broiler chickens.

  6. Fontes de lipídios na dieta de poedeiras: desempenho produtivo e qualidade dos ovos Lipids sources on layer hen diet: performance and egg quality

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    D.D. Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de fontes de lipídios na dieta de poedeiras sobre o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade do ovo foram verificados em dois experimentos. Foram utilizados quatro tratamentos, definidos de acordo com a fonte lipídica adicionada nas rações: óleo de soja, óleo de girassol, óleo de linhaça e ração controle (sem adição de óleo. Os experimentos foram realizados com poedeiras de 20 e 54 semanas de idade, respectivamente, com duração de oito semanas. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros produtivos - consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, produção e peso dos ovos - e de qualidade do ovo - porcentagens de gema, albúmen e casca, sólidos da gema, unidades Haugh, pH do albúmen, e cor da gema. Somente o peso do ovo de poedeiras jovens foi afetado pela inclusão de óleos vegetais na ração. Esses ovos apresentaram maior peso e maior porcentagem de gema que os produzidos pelas poedeiras jovens alimentadas com ração-controle. Concluiu-se que a utilização de diferentes fontes de lipídios na ração de poedeiras não altera o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade interna dos ovos, com exceção do peso do ovo de poedeiras novas, que aumenta com a utilização de óleos vegetais.The effects of different sources of fat in the diet of layer hens on performance and egg quality were recorded in two experiments. Four treatments were defined by the lipid source added to the diets: soybean oil, sunflower oil, linseed oil and control diet (without oil added. The experiments were carried out with layers from 20 to 54 weeks of age, respectively, for eight weeks. Production parameters (feed intake, feed conversion, egg production, and egg weight and quality of eggs (percentages of yolk, albumen, and shell; total solids of yolk; Haugh units; pH of albumen; and yolk color were evaluated. Among the parameters of production and quality of the eggs, only the weight of eggs and percentage of yolk of young hens were affected by the inclusion of vegetable

  7. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and some egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and other egg quality traits for each variety were also determined. Mean egg weight was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the Brown variety (10.53g) than in the Black and White varieties. Likewise the Brown variety was significantly higher (P<0.05) in egg width, yolk weight, yolk ...

  8. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A strain of chickens which reaches a mature egg ... Subsequent rates of decline tend to be parallel and so selection for early albumen quality is effective in improving late albumen quality. The difficulty is that, in many markets, the producer is not directly penalized ... maximum total yield - an intermediate is best. If egg income.

  9. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  10. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio.

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    Ozlem Yilmaz

    Full Text Available Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  11. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in dividing Xenopus eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S.W. de; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1984-01-01

    The lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids was analyzed during first cleavage of Xaopus Levis eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements, using the lipid analogs 5-(N-hexadecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“HEDAF”) and 5-(N-tetradecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“TEDAF”) as probes. The

  12. Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and Seasons in ... and egg weight on external and internal characteristics of chicken eggs. ... Storage time did not affect (p>0.05) shell weight, shape index, egg length and egg width.

  13. Storage of Eggs in Water Affects Internal Egg Quality, Embryonic Development, and Hatchling Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3

  14. Relative contribution of lipid sources to eggs of lesser scaup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Hobson, Keith A.; Rotella, Jay J.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Parker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Studies of how birds mobilize nutrients to eggs have traditionally considered a continuum of possible allocation strategies ranging from income breeding (rely on food sources found on the breeding grounds) to capital breeding (rely on body reserves stored prior to the breeding season). For capital breeding, stored body reserves can be acquired either on or away from the breeding grounds, but it has been difficult to quantify the relative contribution of each, precluding identification of key habitats for acquiring nutrients for clutch formation. During 2006–2009, we explored the importance of spring-staging habitats versus breeding-area habitats for egg-lipid formation in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis using stable carbon (δ13C) isotope analyses. Although δ13C values for abdominal lipid reserves brought to the breeding grounds overlapped those of local amphipods, we were able to quantify the importance of local plant carbohydrates (seeds of emergent wetland plants) to the production of eggs. We compared the importance of local wetland seeds (overall δ13C: −29.1 ± 0.9‰ SD) to combined lipid stores and lipids from local amphipods (overall δ13C: −23.8 ± 2.2‰). Local seeds and stored body lipids contributed equally to egg lipid formation across years but we found evidence of annual variation in their relative importance. Wetland seeds contributed 39% (SE = 10%) to egg lipid production, and the importance of this source varied by year (90% CI = 47–75% in 2006, 13–42% in 2007, 29–65% in 2008, and 7–30% in 2009). In contrast to earlier studies that suggest lesser scaup predominantly employ a capital breeding strategy, our results suggest that in some years females may attain half of their energy for clutch formation from foods on the breeding grounds.

  15. QTL mapping of egg albumen quality in egg layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkatukia, Mervi; Tuiskula-Haavisto, Maria; Arango, Jesus; Tabell, Jonna; Schmutz, Matthias; Preisinger, Rudolf; Vilkki, Johanna

    2013-08-16

    A fresh, good quality egg has a firm and gelatinous albumen that anchors the yolk and restricts growth of microbiological pathogens. As the egg ages, the gel-like structure collapses, resulting in thin and runny albumen. Occasionally thin albumen is found in a fresh egg, giving the impression of a low quality product. A mapping population consisting of 1599 F2 hens from a cross between White Rock and Rhode Island Red lines was set up, to identify loci controlling albumen quality. The phenotype for albumen quality was evaluated by albumen height and in Haugh units (HU) measured on three consecutive eggs from each F2 hen at the age of 40 weeks. For the fine-mapping analysis, albumen height and HU were used simultaneously to eliminate contribution of the egg size to the phenotype. Linkage analysis in a small population of seven half-sib families (668 F2) with 162 microsatellite markers spread across 27 chromosomes revealed two genome-wide significant regions with additive effects for HU on chromosomes 7 and Z. In addition, two putative genome-wide quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions were identified on chromosomes 4 and 26. The QTL effects ranged from 2 to 4% of the phenotypic variance. The genome-wide significant QTL regions on chromosomes 7 and Z were selected for fine-mapping in the full set composed of 16 half-sib families. In addition, their existence was confirmed by an association analysis in an independent commercial Hy-Line pure line. We identified four chicken genomic regions that affect albumen quality. Our results also suggest that genes that affect albumen quality act both directly and indirectly through several different mechanisms. For instance, the QTL regions on both fine-mapped chromosomes 7 and Z overlapped with a previously reported QTL for eggshell quality, indicating that eggshell membranes may play a role in albumen quality.

  16. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T.R. Morris. Department of Agriculture and Horticulture, University of Reading, England. In this article the contribution which geneticists can make to egg quality i.e. eggmass, shell thickness, and albumen height is examined. Factors which the poultryman can manipulate on the farm such as the choice of a lighting system ...

  17. Effects of dietary oil sources on egg quality, fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of different oils in the diets of laying quail on their performance, egg quality, serum lipids and fatty acid composition of egg yolk. One hundred and ninety two 12-wk old Japanese quail were allocated to eight groups with two replicates containing 12 quail each. They were fed ...

  18. Effects of dietary boron on performance, egg production, egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study dietary boron at different doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg feed) was supplemented to layers from 4 to 64 weeks of age. There was no significant difference between treatments with respect of mortality, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and cracked eggs. Significant increases were observed in body ...

  19. Equations for lipid normalization of carbon stable isotope ratios in aquatic bird eggs.

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    Kyle H Elliott

    Full Text Available Stable isotope ratios are biogeochemical tracers that can be used to determine the source of nutrients and contaminants in avian eggs. However, the interpretation of stable carbon ratios in lipid-rich eggs is complicated because (13C is depleted in lipids. Variation in (13C abundance can therefore be obscured by variation in percent lipids. Past attempts to establish an algebraic equation to correct carbon isotope ratios for lipid content in eggs have been unsuccessful, possibly because they relied partly on data from coastal or migratory species that may obtain egg lipids from different habitats than egg protein. We measured carbon, nitrogen and sulphur stable isotope ratios in 175 eggs from eight species of aquatic birds. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotopes were enriched in lipid-extracted egg samples compared with non extracted egg samples. A logarithmic equation using the C∶N ratio and carbon isotope ratio from the non extracted egg tissue calculated 90% of the lipid-extracted carbon isotope ratios within ±0.5‰. Calculating separate equations for eggs laid by species in different habitats (pelagic, offshore and terrestrial-influenced improved the fit. A logarithmic equation, rather than a linear equation as often used for muscle, was necessary to accurately correct for lipid content because the relatively high lipid content of eggs compared with muscle meant that a linear relationship did not accurately approximate the relationship between percent lipids and the C∶N ratio. Because lipid extraction alters sulphur and nitrogen isotope ratios (and cannot be corrected algebraically, we suggest that isotopic measurement on bulk tissue followed by algebraic lipid normalization of carbon stable isotope ratio is often a good solution for homogenated eggs, at least when it is not possible to complete separate chemical analyses for each isotope.

  20. Determining storage related egg quality changes via digital image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Area and length measurements related to exterior and interior egg quality were determined by digital image analysis. In general, excluding the outer thin albumen area, all of the area measurements such as total egg content area and inner thick albumen area were larger in stored eggs than in fresh eggs (52.28 vs.

  1. Egg Quality Characteristics Of Isa – Brown Layers Fed Brewers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs laid by Isa-brown layers were used in this study to investigate the effect of partial substitution of biodegraded brewers' dried grains (BDG) for maize on egg quality parameters of laying hens. A total of 1,728 eggs were used for this study which spanned over a period of 84 days. Eggs were collected from laying birds fed ...

  2. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL QUALITY OF COMMERCIAL LAYING HENS EGGS WITH NORMAL AND VITREOUS EGGSHELL

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    Daniela Reis Vilela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal and external quality of eggs classified as eggs with normal eggshell and eggs with vitreous eggshell, produced by hens at three different ages. Forty-five eggs of each eggshell type, normal and vitreous, were sampled at the ages of 30, 50, and 70 weeks. The weight of the egg, in both types of eggshell, increased with the advancing age of the hen. Higher concentration of calcium was found in eggs with normal eggshells comparing to eggs with vitreous eggshells. The eggshell type did not affect phosphorus percentage. The mineral deposition of the eggshell was constant. The skin thickness increased irrespective of the shell along the reproductive life of the chicken and decreased when the bird became older. The percentage of albumen increased, while the percentage of albumen protein and pH decreased throughout the ages. Percentage of egg yolk, humidity, and pH decreased with increase of age of the laying hen, whereas crude protein and lipid increased. Eggs with vitreous eggshell showed eggshell with lower quality compared to those with normal eggshell, without, however, compromising the internal quality of albumen and yolk. Keywords: egg quality; eggshell types; physical analysis.

  3. Influence of air composition during egg storage on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.; Duijvendijk, van L.A.G.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may

  4. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

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    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  5. Microbial quality and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Manijeh Mahdavi; Mohammad Jalali; Hjieh Ghasemian Safaei; Ehsan Shamloo

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the microbial quality and the prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in table eggs in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 samples were randomly collected from various shops in Isfahan, Iran. Microbial quality of eggs evaluated by coliform count and total bacterial viable counts. Also, detection of Listeria and Salmonella in egg contents and on eggs shells was performed. Results: The mean of total viable bacteria and colifor...

  6. Laying performance and egg qualities characteristics of Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were also significantly higher values for the internal and external egg quality traits (egg weight, egg width, yolk index, Haugh unit, albumen height, albumen %, and yolk width) in T1, T2 and T3 compare to T4(10.00, 2.11, 0.17, 75.42, 1.55, 49.01and 37.3,). Key words: Egg quality, Japanese quail, laying characteristics, ...

  7. QUALITY OF TABLE EGGS ON THE CROATIAN MARKET

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    Manuela Grčević Grčević

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical quality indicators of table eggs available on the Croatian market. The research was carried out on eggs produced by two manufacturers, marked as A and B, on the 7th and 28th day of egg storing. According to the Regulations on egg quality (OJ 115/06, Art. 9, eggs are classified as class A or fresh eggs and class B or eggs for industrial processing. Referring to the weight of the eggs, the eggs of class A are divided into four grades: XL, L, M and S. Our research focused on the M weight grade eggs, because they are the most represented ones in our conditions. The following external indicators of egg quality were analyzed: shape index (%, egg weight (g, shell weight (g, shell strength (kg/cm2 and thickness (mm. Furthermore, the following indicators of inner egg quality were tested: weight of albumen and yolk (g, yolk colour, Haugh units (HU, albumen height (mm, pH of albumen and pH of yolk. Results of our research provided the following conclusions: based on evaluation of energy and protein value, eggs of the manufacturer B had better nutritive value than eggs of the manufacturer A. The results of research into quality of eggs on the 7th day of storage proved that there was statistically significant difference (P<0.001 between the A and B egg manufacturer if referring to the egg weight, shape index, shell thickness, shell weight and strength, as well as albumen weight. After the 28th day of egg storage, there was statistically significant difference (P<0.001 determined for albumen height, HU, pH values of albumen and yolk, and yolk colour (P=0.003. Based on the analysis of nutritive values and physical and chemical properties of eggs during storage, it was confirmed that eggs produced by the manufacturer B were of better quality than eggs of the manufacturer A. Eggs of both manufacturers met the requirements defined by the Croatian Regulations on egg quality.

  8. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  9. Lipid oxidation in fresh and stored eggs enriched with dietary w 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipid oxidation in fresh and stored eggs enriched with dietary w3 and w6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E and A dosages. HA Shahryar, R Salamatdoust, S Chekani-Azar, F Ahadi, T Vahdatpoor ...

  10. Microbial quality and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Mahdavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the microbial quality and the prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in table eggs in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 samples were randomly collected from various shops in Isfahan, Iran. Microbial quality of eggs evaluated by coliform count and total bacterial viable counts. Also, detection of Listeria and Salmonella in egg contents and on eggs shells was performed. Results: The mean of total viable bacteria and coliform counts in the egg contents were 3.95 × 10 4 CFU/g and 4.94 × 10 3 CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not found on the shell or content of eggs. Enterobacteriaceae families were found in 357 of 525 (68.28% and 276 of 525 (52.44% of egg shell and egg content samples, respectively. Moreover, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 175 (33.41% and 144 (25.37% of egg shell and egg content, respectively. The isolated Enterobacteriaceae were included: Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Buttiauxella agrestis, Cedecea lapagei, Cedecea davisae and Erwinia herbicola. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate although Salmonella and Listeria were not found in egg samples; however, there is an urgent need to improve the hygienic level of consumed eggs.

  11. Quality of foraging material and the effect on hens feed intake, egg production and - quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August......In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August...

  12. Performance and egg quality characteristics of egg-type chickens as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds were randomly assigned to five treatment groups: control group with no FPLE; 30ml FPLE/litre of drinking water; 60ml FPLE; 90ml FPLE and 120ml/litre FPLE respectively at 3 day intervals. Feed was given ad libitum. Eggs were collected at 2 week interval to determine external and internal egg qualities.

  13. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality | Morris | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 3 (1985) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality. TR Morris. Abstract.

  14. Performance and External Egg Quality of Layers under Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and External Egg Quality of Layers under Varying Stocking ... Study determined the performance and external egg quality of layers in locally fabricated metal-type battery cage at different stocking density. ... Birds stocked at 2/cell gained 15g/birds in weight while birds stocked 3 and 4 ... OTHER RESOURCES.

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation of detoxified Rhus verniciflua sap on egg production, yolk lipid and intestinal microflora in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byoung-Ki; Kim, Je-Hun; Zheng, Lan; Moon, Byung-Hern; Lee, Kyung-Woo

    2017-05-14

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary detoxified Rhus verniciflua sap (RVS) on production performance, egg quality, lipid fractions of egg yolk, liver and serum, and the profile of cecal microflora in laying hens. Two hundred 52-week-old Hy-Line Brown layers were randomly divided into 4 groups with 5 replicates per group (2 hens per cage, 5 cages per replicate) and were provided with one of 4 experimental diets containing 0, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2% RVS, for 6 weeks. Due to unequal intervals of RVS doses, the IML procedure of the SAS program was used to correct the contrast coefficients of orthogonal polynomial. There were no differences in feed intake and egg weight among the groups. Egg production increased (linearly and quadratically, p<0.05) with increasing levels of RVS. Eggshell thickness increased (linear, p<0.05) as the level of RVS in diets increased. The levels of blood cholesterol and activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were not altered by dietary treatments. Increasing level of RVS increased (linear, p<0.05) in population of cecal lactic acid bacteria. The content of yolk cholesterol decreased (linear, p<0.05) with increasing levels of dietary RVS, although there were no significant differences in each lipid fraction of liver. This study indicates that dietary RVS could improve laying performance and eggshell quality, and affect cecal lactic acid bacteria in a dose-dependent manner.

  16. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS BROWN EGG LAYER HENS CREATION IN TWO SYSTEMS (CAGE AND NEST BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to evaluate the effects on the eggs quality in two farming systems (bed + nest and cages for the laying hens brown-egg pullets were used 132 eggs, with six replicates for each treatment and 11 eggs each repetition, picked randomly from sheds both with 2000 DeKalb strain of laying hens housed in two sheds Brown, to create a nest bed + tubular feeders, the other one in cage system, all birds at approximately thirty weeks of age, which evaluated the following variables: weight of whole egg, egg weight without shell, albumen weight, yolk weight, yolk and albumen percentages, weight and thickness, color gem, the albumen pH and yolk, egg and classification according to RIISPOA. All collected data were analyzed by the statistical program SISVAR (2000 by Tukey test at 5% of probability. There were significant differences in the treatments studied in relation to the weight of whole egg, shelled egg weight, albumen%, skin thickness and coloration of the yolk, these results more significant to the breeding system in cages. However it can be concluded that in both systems when properly designed and managed can achieve good results and production performance of birds.

  17. Subcellular metabolite and lipid analysis of Xenopus laevis eggs by LAESI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bindesh; Sripadi, Prabhakar; Reschke, Brent R; Henderson, Holly D; Powell, Matthew J; Moody, Sally A; Vertes, Akos

    2014-01-01

    Xenopus laevis eggs are used as a biological model system for studying fertilization and early embryonic development in vertebrates. Most methods used for their molecular analysis require elaborate sample preparation including separate protocols for the water soluble and lipid components. In this study, laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), an ambient ionization technique, was used for direct mass spectrometric analysis of X. laevis eggs and early stage embryos up to five cleavage cycles. Single unfertilized and fertilized eggs, their animal and vegetal poles, and embryos through the 32-cell stage were analyzed. Fifty two small metabolite ions, including glutathione, GABA and amino acids, as well as numerous lipids including 14 fatty acids, 13 lysophosphatidylcholines, 36 phosphatidylcholines and 29 triacylglycerols were putatively identified. Additionally, some proteins, for example thymosin β4 (Xen), were also detected. On the subcellular level, the lipid profiles were found to differ between the animal and vegetal poles of the eggs. Radial profiling revealed profound compositional differences between the jelly coat vitelline/plasma membrane and egg cytoplasm. Changes in the metabolic profile of the egg following fertilization, e.g., the decline of polyamine content with the development of the embryo were observed using LAESI-MS. This approach enables the exploration of metabolic and lipid changes during the early stages of embryogenesis.

  18. Subcellular metabolite and lipid analysis of Xenopus laevis eggs by LAESI mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindesh Shrestha

    Full Text Available Xenopus laevis eggs are used as a biological model system for studying fertilization and early embryonic development in vertebrates. Most methods used for their molecular analysis require elaborate sample preparation including separate protocols for the water soluble and lipid components. In this study, laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI, an ambient ionization technique, was used for direct mass spectrometric analysis of X. laevis eggs and early stage embryos up to five cleavage cycles. Single unfertilized and fertilized eggs, their animal and vegetal poles, and embryos through the 32-cell stage were analyzed. Fifty two small metabolite ions, including glutathione, GABA and amino acids, as well as numerous lipids including 14 fatty acids, 13 lysophosphatidylcholines, 36 phosphatidylcholines and 29 triacylglycerols were putatively identified. Additionally, some proteins, for example thymosin β4 (Xen, were also detected. On the subcellular level, the lipid profiles were found to differ between the animal and vegetal poles of the eggs. Radial profiling revealed profound compositional differences between the jelly coat vitelline/plasma membrane and egg cytoplasm. Changes in the metabolic profile of the egg following fertilization, e.g., the decline of polyamine content with the development of the embryo were observed using LAESI-MS. This approach enables the exploration of metabolic and lipid changes during the early stages of embryogenesis.

  19. Effect of dietary protein sources and storage temperatures on egg internal quality of stored shell eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on the internal quality (Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, yolk hardness and yolk springiness of eggs when stored at either 4 or 28°C for 28 d. A total of 288 laying hens (32 wk of age were randomly allotted to 6 treatment groups (4 replicates per treatment and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM as the protein ingredient(s. A 6 × 2 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage temperatures (4 and 28°C as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 216 eggs was collected for egg internal quality determination. The results showed as follows: 1 lower egg quality was observed in the DRM group compared with the other groups when stored at 4 and 28°C for 28 d (P < 0.05, while there was no difference in egg internal quality among the other groups. 2 The CSP diet resulted in higher yolk hardness compared with the other diets when eggs were stored at 4°C for 28 d (P < 0.05. Lower Haugh unit was observed in the DRM and SBM-DRM groups compared with the other groups when eggs were stored for 28 d at 4°C (P < 0.05. 3 Yolk breakage occurred in the DRM group and eggs could not be analyzed for egg internal quality when stored at 28°C for 28 d. The overall results indicated that CSP or DRM as the sole dietary protein source for laying hens may adversely affect the internal quality of stored eggs as compared with the SBM diet, and half replacement of CSP combined with SBM may maintain similar egg quality to SBM diet alone for eggs stored under refrigerated conditions.

  20. Evaluation of growth performance and egg quality traits in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    90 female quails for each strain were mated to 30 males at a mating ration of 1 male to 3 females. Daily egg collection commenced as from 6 weeks ... Result obtained indicated variations at all ages (week 2, 6, 10 and 14) in body weight, weight gain and mortality in favor of black strain. Similarly, most of the egg quality traits ...

  1. Beak Amputation Effects on Performance and Egg Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of beak amputation on performance and egg quality characteristics of egg-type chickens. A total of 132 native layers (Yacon) chickens were obtained from a commercial hatchery for the study. There were four treatments in which upper and lower beaks were amputated at ...

  2. Quality traits of eggs from autosexing Easter eggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lukanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The main egg quality traits were investigated in two autosexing F1 Easter egger crosses. Partridge Araucana roosters were used as carriers of the eggshell biliverdin pigmentation gene. Maternal forms used for obtaining the two experimental crosses were high-producing layer hens carrying the sex-linked S and B genes. Experimental groups comprised F1 crosses of partridge Araucana roosters with white mutational Rhode Island hens or hens with barred colour mutation. The aim of the study was to investigated the quality traits of blue-green eggs produced by autosexing hens. The egg quality was evaluated at 38 weeks of age. Studied traits comprised egg weight (g, shape index, albumen index (AI, Haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI, yolk colour (Roche scale, 2 2 percentages of albumen, yolk and eggshell (%, eggshell surface (cm , eggshell density (mg/cm , average eggshell thickness (µm and eggshell colour. The group W was outlined with the highest egg weight – 61.03±0.47 g, and group A – with the lowest (50.91±0.32 g. The albumen and yolk quality was the best in group A, where albumen index was 0.075±0.002, Haugh units – 76.53±0.8 and yolk index – 0.491±0.009. The analysis of eggshell colour showed that eggs of group A were with the highest lightness (L* value (73.60±0.77, whereas eggs of groups W and AW had egg lightness of 60.45±0.53 and 61.11±0.55 (p<0.001 respectively. The shell colour index (SCI demonstrated a certain overlap of values in eggs with protoporphyrin and biliverdin taints. After introduction of a correction coefficient and recalculation of SCI*, the values of green eggs assumed a negative sign and could be distinguished from brown eggs.

  3. Effect of Daily Egg Ingestion with Thai Food on Serum Lipids in Hyperlipidemic Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Supanee PUTADECHAKUM; Phanachet, Pariya; Pakpeankitwattana, Varapat; Klangjareonchai, Theerawut; Roongpisuthipong, Chulaporn

    2013-01-01

    Thai food is one of the healthiest foods. In fact, several Thai dishes, such as Tom Yum soup, are currently under scientific study for their incredible health benefits. Limited data are available on the effects of egg consumption with Thai food in hyperlipidemic patients. To assess the effects of daily egg consumption with Thai food, which is known as low fat diet, on serum lipids profiles in hyperlipidemic subjects without medication treatment, the randomized crossover trial of 71 hyperlipid...

  4. Effects of egg washing and storage temperature on the quality of eggshell cuticle and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Wu, Ying-Chen; Lee, Yi-Chain; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2016-11-15

    This study investigated the quality of washed and unwashed eggs stored at 7°C (WC and UC for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) and 25°C (WR and UR for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) for 4weeks. The results show that the Haugh unit, albumin pH, thick albumin ratio, yolk index, air cell size, and S-ovalbumin content of UC were significantly the most superior, followed by those of WC, WR, and UR, in that order. Scanning electron microscopy and cuticle staining confirmed the damages and decreased cuticle coverage caused by washing and extended storage. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that cuticle composition changed significantly after washing and storage (Pegg quality, and egg washing reduced cuticle coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Express quality control of chicken eggs by machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Peretyagin, Vladimir S.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Arbuzova, Evgeniia A.

    2017-06-01

    The urgency of the task of analyzing the foodstuffs quality is determined by the strategy for the formation of a healthy lifestyle and the rational nutrition of the world population. This applies to products, such as chicken eggs. In particular, it is necessary to control the chicken eggs quality at the farm production prior to incubation in order to eliminate the possible hereditary diseases, as well as high embryonic mortality and a sharp decrease in the quality of the bred young. Up to this day, in the market there are no objective instruments of contactless express quality control as analytical equipment that allow the high-precision quality examination of the chicken eggs, which is determined by the color parameters of the eggshell (color uniformity) and yolk of eggs, and by the presence in the eggshell of various defects (cracks, growths, wrinkles, dirty). All mentioned features are usually evaluated only visually (subjectively) with the help of normalized color standards and ovoscopes. Therefore, this work is devoted to the investigation of the application opportunities of contactless express control method with the help of technical vision to implement the chicken eggs' quality analysis. As a result of the studies, a prototype with the appropriate software was proposed. Experimental studies of this equipment on a representative sample of eggs from chickens of different breeds have been carried out (the total number of analyzed samples exceeds 300 pieces). The correctness of the color analysis was verified by spectrophotometric studies of the surface of the eggshell.

  6. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial eggs from 38-week old Hisex White laying hens were used. The present study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement [vacuum, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 absorbents, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent and carbon dioxide (CO2 gas generator; storage times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, control group (fresh eggs], with three repetitions (12 eggs each. The following factors were assessed: weight maintenance during storage; Haugh unit; color and yolk index. The modified atmosphere packaging maintained the weight of the eggs during a period of 28 days. Vacuum packaging with O2 absorbent and CO2 gas generator was more efficient in maintenance of egg quality, based on the values ​​of Haugh unit and yolk index. The luminosity of the yolk was preserved during the 28 storage days in all of the packaging types used. The vacuum packaging with O2 gas absorbent and CO2 gas generator provide an increase in internal egg quality.

  7. Influence of air composition during egg storage on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijrink, I A M; van Duijvendijk, L A G; Meijerhof, R; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-09-01

    Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may reduce negative effects of prolonged egg storage because it may prevent changes in the embryo and in egg characteristics. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of high CO(2) concentrations or a low O(2) concentration in the storage air on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality. Eggs were stored for 14 d in 4 different storage air compositions: normal air (control; 20.9% O(2), 0.05% CO(2), 78.1% N(2)), 0.74% CO(2) treatment (20.8% O(2), 0.74% CO(2), 77.5% N(2)), 1.5% CO(2) treatment (20.6% O(2), 1.5% CO(2), 77.0% N(2))(,) or 3.0% O(2) treatment (3.0% O(2), 0.04% CO(2), 96.0% N(2)). The storage temperature was 16 degrees C and the RH was 75%. Results showed that the change in albumen pH and albumen height between oviposition and the end of storage was less in the 0.74 and 1.5% CO(2) treatments than in the control and 3.0% O(2) treatments (P storage air had a positive effect on albumen height and albumen pH, it is concluded that the storage air compositions, studied in the current study, do not affect embryonic development, hatchability, or chick quality when eggs are stored for 14 d at a storage temperature of 16 degrees C.

  8. Chicken Nuggets Quality Affected by the Egg White Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herly Evanuarini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the binding agent which could be used in the production of chicken nuggets is egg white. The different frying temperature and time will result in different physical, chemical and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of addition egg white to the nuggets' quality. This research consisted of one level of experiment was designed in Fully Randomized Design. The  experiment result showed that the best product was produced by adding 10 % egg white. This product had hardness value of 30.10 N, Cutting stress: of 5.13 N, elasticity of 0.333 s/g, and the organoleptic score for texture and taste were 6.50 and 6.44 respectively.   Keywords: Chicken nuggets, egg white

  9. Genetic analysis of egg quality traits in White Leghorn chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra Nath Chatterjee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to estimate the genetic parameters and to assess the inheritance pattern of egg quality traits in White Leghorns. Materials and Methods: Data on 480 eggs produced by 40 week old pullets of 4 genetic groups were used for studying egg quality traits. Heritabilities and correlations were estimated by full sib correlation method using Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood (LSMLMW computer program. Results: The egg weight, haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index, yolk weight, albumen weight, shell weight and shell thickness ranged from 50.01 ± 0.48 to 53.89 ± 0.43 g, 65.38 ± 0.92 to 80.98 ± 1.01, 0.341 ± 0.003 to 0.353 ± 0.003, 0.056 ± 0.002 to 0.087 ± 0.002, 14.16 ± 0.13 to 15.58 ± 0.12 g, 30.92 ± 0.39 to 33.18 ± 0.39 g, 4.32 ± 0.05 to 5.12 ± 0.05 g and 0.336 ± 0.003 to 0.376 ± 0.003 mm, respectively. Heritability estimates for egg weight, yolk index, albumen index and albumen weight ranged from low to medium while those of haugh unit, yolk weight, shell weight and shell thickness ranged from low to high. The genetic and phenotypic correlations of egg weight with other egg quality traits except shell quality traits were mostly positive and moderate to high. High positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between haugh unit and other traits were observed. Genetic correlation of yolk weight with albumen weight was positive while that with shell quality traits was mostly negative. Shell weight was positively correlated with shell thickness. Conclusion: Significant genetic group differences were observed for various egg quality traits studied. The heritability estimates for different egg quality traits were low to moderate. The association among egg quality traits was positive in general. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 263-266

  10. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23965957

  11. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Kyung Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. The Effect of Addition Pineapple Peel Meal (Ananas comosus (L Merr in Diet on Total Egg and Egg Duck Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharlien Muharlien

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of addition pinneapple peel meal in diet on total egg and egg quality duck. Materials of the research were 60 mojosari ducks at seven months old. The treatment of pineapple peel meal addition in diet were treatment on level of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%. Variable were numbers of egg, egg shell thickness, fat and cholesterol egg yolk. The datas were analyzed using ANOVA from Randomized Block Design (RBD, if the result had significant effect, would be continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result showed that an addition pineapple peel meal in  duck diet had no effect (P>0,05 on numbers of egg and thick of egg shell, however, it had  highly significant effect (P<0,01 on fat  and  cholesterol  egg  yolk . The concluded showed that the addition of pineaple peel meal  in ducks diet can be decreasing fat and cholesterol egg yolk and can not decreasing numbers of egg and egg shell tick. Keywords: Mojosari ducks, total egg, egg shell thick, egg yolk fat, and egg yolk cholesterol

  13. Effect of daily egg ingestion with thai food on serum lipids in hyperlipidemic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putadechakum, Supanee; Phanachet, Pariya; Pakpeankitwattana, Varapat; Klangjareonchai, Theerawut; Roongpisuthipong, Chulaporn

    2013-01-01

    Thai food is one of the healthiest foods. In fact, several Thai dishes, such as Tom Yum soup, are currently under scientific study for their incredible health benefits. Limited data are available on the effects of egg consumption with Thai food in hyperlipidemic patients. To assess the effects of daily egg consumption with Thai food, which is known as low fat diet, on serum lipids profiles in hyperlipidemic subjects without medication treatment, the randomized crossover trial of 71 hyperlipidemic adults (8 men, 63 women) were randomly to one of the two sequences of one and three eggs/day for 4 weeks. Each treatment was separated by a four-week washout period (egg-free). Our data indicated that one or three eggs/day consumption were significantly increases total serum cholesterol (221.54 ± 42.54 and 225.31 ± 45.06 versus 211.57 ± 39.98 mg/dL) and LDL-C levels (141.38 ± 38.23 and 145.48 ± 39.33 versus 133.44 ± 34.52 mg/dL) as compared to egg-free period. No significant change of serum TG, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C levels was observed after 1 or 3 eggs consumption daily in this study.

  14. Quality characteristic of spray-drying egg white powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Zhao, Songning; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yiding; Liu, Jingbo; Xu, Menglei

    2013-10-01

    Spray drying is a useful method for developing egg process and utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects on spray drying condition of egg white. The optimized conditions were spraying flow 22 mL/min, feeding temperature 39.8 °C and inlet-air temperature 178.2 °C. Results of sulfydryl (SH) groups measurement indicated conformation structure have changed resulting in protein molecule occur S-S crosslinking phenomenon when heating. It led to free SH content decreased during spray drying process. There was almost no change of differential scanning calorimetry between fresh egg white and spray-drying egg white powder (EWP). For a given protein, the apparent SH reactivity is in turn influenced by the physico-chemical characteristics of the reactant. The phenomenon illustrated the thermal denaturation of these proteins was unrelated to their free SH contents. Color measurement was used to study browning level. EWP in optimized conditions revealed insignificant brown stain. Swelling capacity and scanning electron micrograph both proved well quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP. Results suggested spray drying under the optimized conditions present suitable and alternative method for egg processing industrial implementation. Egg food industrialization needs new drying method to extend shelf-life. The purpose of the study was to provide optimal process of healthy and nutritional instant spray-drying EWP and study quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP.

  15. Performance And Egg Quality Of Hens Fed Cocoa Husk Based Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hen performance and egg quality. The trial was conducted for 10 weeks. Egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed consumption (FC), and feed efficiency (FE) were criteria of comparison. Others were feed cost/kg egg, shell weight, percentage shell and yolk colour index. Inclusion of 10 and 20% CHM in ...

  16. Storage of Hatching Eggs : Effects of storage and early incubation conditions on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chicken quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: egg storage, embryonic development, albumen quality, hatchability, chick quality It is well known that an increase in the storage duration increases incubation duration and decreases hatchability and chick quality. The negative effects of prolonged egg storage (> 7 days) may be

  17. Impacts of Limestone Multi-particle Size on Production Performance, Egg Shell Quality, and Egg Quality in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Guo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of single or multi-particle size limestone on the egg shell quality, egg production, egg quality and feed intake in laying hens. A total of 280 laying hens (ISA brown were used in this 10-wk trial. Laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 14 replications per treatment and 5 adjacent cages as a replication (hens were caged individually. The experimental treatments were: i L, basal diet+10% large particle limestone; ii LS1, basal diet+8% large particle limestone+2% small particle limestone; iii LS2, basal diet+6% large particle limestone+4% small particle limestone; iv S, basal diet+10% small particle limestone. The egg production was unaffected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in S treatment was lighter than other treatments (p<0.05. The egg specific gravity in S treatment was lower than other treatments (p<0.05. The eggshell strength and eggshell thickness in S treatment were decreased when compared with other dietary treatments (p<0.05. The laying hens in LS1 and LS2 treatment had a higher average feed intake than the other two treatments (p<0.05. Collectively, the dietary multi-particle size limestone supplementation could be as efficient as large particle size limestone.

  18. Characterization of lipids and antioxidant capacity of novel nutraceutical egg products developed with omega-3-rich oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Nissan M; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Beamer, Sarah K; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-01-15

    Cardiovascular disease has had an unquestioned status of the number one cause of death in the US since 1921. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have cardio-protective benefits. However, egg is typically a poor source of ω-3 PUFAs and, in general, the American diet is low in these cardio-protective fatty acids. Novel, nutritionally enhanced egg products were developed by substituting yolk with ω-3 PUFA-rich flaxseed, menhaden, algae, or krill oil. Experimental egg products matched composition of hen egg (whole egg). The experimental egg products, mixed whole egg, and a liquid egg product (Egg Beaters) were microwave-cooked and compared. Although fat, protein, and moisture contents of experimental egg products matched (P > 0.05) mixed whole egg, experimental egg products had more (P oil added, a higher (P krill oil, which had even more phospholipids than mixed whole egg. Analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances showed that lipid oxidation of experimental egg products was lower (P 0.05) to mixed whole egg, except for experimental egg products with krill oil. However, peroxide value showed that all egg samples had minimal oxidation. Experimental egg products developed with menhaden or flaxseed oil had the highest (P krill oil likely contained a natural antioxidant, astaxanthin. This study demonstrated an alternative approach to developing novel, nutraceutical egg products. Instead of dietary modification of chicken feed, yolk substitution with ω-3 PUFAs oils resulted in enhancement of ω-3 PUFAs beyond levels possible to achieve by modifying chicken feed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  20. The effect of fermentation of sludge with Neorospora sp on the egg performances and quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosi Fenita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to produce enriched eggs (high concentration in protein, amino acid and β-karoten but law in lipid and cholesterol content. An experiment was conducted to study the utilization of fermented palm oil sludge (LSF using neurospora sp for layer. The present study was done based on Randomized Design in which 100 layer were distributed to five treatment group as follow: Layers were fed diet with (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% LSF. Experimental results showed that LSF significantly (P 0.05. LSF reduced egg smell, improved taste of egg and yolk colur (P < 0.05. Protein and fat, contents of eggs were significantly reduced (P < 0.05 and cholesterol content of eggs was significantly reduced (P < 0.01. Utilization LSF increased the content of β-karoten yolk (P < 0.01, and modified the composition of amino acid in yolk. In conclusion, utilization of LSF improved egg quality, reduced egg cholesterol dan lipid and modified the composition of amino acid in yolk.

  1. Lipid oxidation in fresh and stored eggs enriched with dietary w 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were planned to study the influence of dietary fat sources (fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO)) and dietary doses of -tocopheryl acetate (-TA) (0, 60 and 120 mg/kg of feed) and vitamin A (0 IU, 10000 IU and 20000 IU) on lipid oxidation of stored eggs in three stages of 0 or fresh, 1 and 2 months of storage time.

  2. Performance and egg quality of aged laying hens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg shape index and eggshell weight did not differ among treatments. Eggshell thickness and eggshell breaking strength were higher in hens fed with MBM as compared to control and OSM fed birds. Similar to the tendency in shell quality, MBM inclusion in the diet tended to enhance albumen height and Haugh unit.

  3. Performance response and egg qualities of laying birds fed enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theperformance response and egg qualities o laying birds fed enzyme supplemented PKC diets asreplacement for maize was investigated wth 210, 20 week old layng pullets of Dominant Black strain at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Nigeria. The birds which ust come into ...

  4. Effects of storage time and temperature on lipid oxidation of egg powders enriched with natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matumoto-Pintro, Paula Toshimi; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Croge, Camila; da Silva, Denise Felix; Ospina-Roja, Ivan Camilo; Guerra, Ana Flávia Quiles Garcia

    2017-08-01

    The lipid fraction of egg powder may be affected by storage conditions due to the development of oxidative rancidity caused by polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study evaluated egg powders enriched with antioxidants [tocopherol, catechin, lycopene, and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)] for conjugated dienes (during a 90-day period) and for malonaldehydes (during a 210-day period) at 25±2 and 4±1°C. The presence of lycopene and BHA increases the total phenolic compounds in the enriched egg powders, and BHA exhibits the most antioxidant activity, as quantified by an ABTS assay. Egg powders enriched with antioxidants do not show any reduction in conjugate diene production compared to controls, and no effect of storage temperature is observed; however, in the production of malonaldehyde, greater stability is observed at 4°C, and catechin is more effective in reducing oxidation during storage. The results show that natural antioxidants can be used in egg powder instead of synthetic compounds to reduce malonaldehyde production during storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin deposition in the whole egg of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin concentrations in the eggs of commercial laying hens. A total of 1,800 25-week-old Lohman pink-shell hens were randomly assigned to four dietary vitamin treatments as follows: NRC(1994 level, NRC (1994 level with Hy.D® (25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol, Local level (current average industry level in China and OVN® level (optimum vitamin nutrition level, with 10 replicates per treatment and 45 layers per replicate. Hens were housed in commercial laying cages with three birds per cage and given ad libitum access to feed. Results showed the hens that received the fortified vitamin levels in the OVN® treatment had a significantly (p<0.05 lower number of cracked (.47% and dirty eggs (.27%, and increased egg deposition of vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, 25-OH-D3, vitamin E, vitamin B1, biotin and pantothenate (p<0.05. Treatments had no significant effect on egg-shape index, egg specific gravity, Haugh units and eggshell thickness. Hens fed the NRC-Hy.D® combination also experienced a significant decrease in cracked and dirty eggs (.70% and .44%, respectively and an increased deposition of 25-OH-D3 in comparison with the NRC treatment. Results of the present study suggest that that the Local treatment was able to improve egg quality parameters of laying hens, but resulted in more cracked and dirty eggs. OVN® reduced the number of cracked eggs and dirty eggs, and improved the deposition of several vitamins in eggs. With the addition of Hy.D®, eggshell strength and 25-OH-D3 deposition in eggs were also improved, and cracked and dirty egg rates declined.

  6. Quality of organic eggs of hybrid and Italian breed hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, C; Marangon, A

    2012-09-01

    The quality of eggs laid by 2 hybrid and 2 Italian dual-purpose genotypes of hens reared under organic farming system was studied. Hens belonging to Hy-Line Brown (brown eggshell, HLB), Hy-Line White (white eggshell, HLW), Ermellinata di Rovigo (brown eggshell, E), and Robusta maculata (brown eggshell, R) genotypes were reared from 24 to 43 wk of age. The trial was carried out from July to December, with environmental temperature ranging from 25°C (±5°C, summer) to 13°C (±7°C, autumn). The HLB eggs were heavier (P HLB, HLW, R, and E (40.7, 38.3, 32.7, 34.1 g, respectively). The E and R yolk weights were similar (16.2 g) and higher (P HLB (15.8 vs. 15.5 g). The HLB showed the highest (P HLB yolk had the lowest (P < 0.01) saturated fatty acids (33.8 vs. 34.9%), and R yolks showed the lowest (P < 0.01) monounsaturated fatty acids (36.3 vs. 38.0%) and the highest (P < 0.01) polyunsaturated fatty acids (28.7 vs. 27.4%) than the other groups. The HLW yolk showed the highest (P < 0.01) n-6/n-3 ratio (13.7) in comparison to the other 3 groups (12.8). During 21 d of storage (at 21°C and 62% RH), the E eggs showed the lowest (P < 0.01) quality (albumen height, 4.93 vs. 5.56 mm; Haugh units, 71 vs. 74). A sensory profile of boiled eggs showed differences (P < 0.05) in odor and flavor sensations and in certain yolk and albumen texture properties according to genotype. The quality of organic eggs from different genotypes differs in relation to the strain but also the interaction with the environmental conditions has to be considered.

  7. Adult nutrition and butterfly fitness: effects of diet quality on reproductive output, egg composition, and egg hatching success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interactions between storage reserves and adult income, and that the latter may contribute significantly to reproduction. Effects of adult diet were commonly assessed by determining the number and/or size of the eggs produced, whilst its consequences for egg composition and offspring viability were largely neglected (as is generally true for insects. We here specifically focus on these latter issues by using the fruit-feeding tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which is highly dependent on adult-derived carbohydrates for reproduction. Results Adult diet of female B. anynana had pronounced effects on fecundity, egg composition and egg hatching success, with butterflies feeding on the complex nutrition of banana fruit performing best. Adding vitamins and minerals to a sucrose-based diet increased fecundity, but not offspring viability. All other groups (plain sucrose solution, sucrose solution enriched with lipids or yeast had a substantially lower fecundity and egg hatching success compared to the banana group. Differences were particularly pronounced later in life, presumably indicating the depletion of essential nutrients in sucrose-fed females. Effects of adult diet on egg composition were not straightforward, indicating complex interactions among specific compounds. There was some evidence that total egg energy and water content were related to hatching success, while egg protein, lipid, glycogen and free carbohydrate content did not seem to limit successful development. Conclusion The patterns shown here exemplify the complexity of reproductive resource allocation in B. anynana, and the need to consider egg composition and offspring viability when trying to estimate the effects of adult nutrition on fitness in this

  8. Effects of Schistosoma mansoni worms and eggs on circulating cholesterol and liver lipids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ronald G; Jackson, Christopher L; Griffiths, Keith; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    It has previously been shown that experimental infections of the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni, the adult worms of which reside in the blood stream of the mammalian host, significantly reduced atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E gene knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. These effects occurred in tandem with a lowering of serum total cholesterol levels in both apoE(-/-) and random-bred laboratory mice and a beneficial increase in the proportion of HDL to LDL cholesterol. To better understand how the parasitic infections induce these effects we have here investigated the involvement of adult worms and their eggs on lipids in the host. Our results indicate that the serum cholesterol-lowering effect is mediated by factors released from S. mansoni eggs, while the presence of adult worms seemed to have had little or no effect. It was also observed that high levels of lipids, particularly triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters, present in the uninfected livers of both random-bred and apoE(-/-)mice fed a high-fat diet were not present in livers of the schistosome-infected mice.

  9. Effect of probiotics and humic acid on egg production and internal quality parameters of laying hens eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our experiment was to evaluate the influence of probiotic preparation based on lactobacillus, probiotic preparation based on enterococci or humic acid on egg production and selected internal egg quality parameters of laying hens hybrid Lohman Brown Lite. For housing hens (n ​​= 60 three storey enriched battery cage was used in which hens were divided in groups (n = 15. In the control group of hens complete feed mixtures without any additions were fed. In the first experimental group complete feed mixture was enriched with probiotic lactobacilli based preparation in a dose of 0.5 g.kg-1. In the second experimental group probiotic enterococci based preparation was added to the feed mixture at a dose of 0.5 g.kg-1. The third experimental group was enriched with 0.5% concentration of humic acid. All groups were fed ad libitum. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily. Complete analysis of the table egg quality was used to evaluate quality parameters: yolk weight (g, yolk index, yolk colour (°HLR, albumen weight (g, Haugh Units (HU, albumen index. The results show that supplementation of feed mixture with both kind probiotics as well as humic acid increased egg production (P>0.05 (values of average intensity of laying in the order of the groups: 90.5; 91.9; 91.6 and 92.3 %. The addition of probiotics also positively influenced egg weight (P>0.05. The qualitative parameters of egg internal content were with probiotics or humic acids addition insignificantly influenced (P>0.05. Doses of supplements used in this study did not significant negatively influenced monitored egg quality parameters. Based on these findings and the beneficial effects of substances on the poultry health confirmed by other authors we recommend use of these substances as supplements to the feed mixtures for laying hens.

  10. The efficacy of using exogenous enzymes cocktail on production, egg quality, egg nutrients and blood metabolites of laying hens fed distiller's dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Chaudhry, M T; Mahrose, K M; Noreldin, A; Emam, M; Alagawany, M

    2017-10-08

    An experiment was performed using 120 Hisex Brown laying hens for evaluating the effects of different inclusion levels of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with or without enzyme cocktail on performance, egg quality, egg nutrients and blood metabolites in laying hens through 22-42 weeks of age. A 4 × 2 factorial design experiment was performed including four substitution levels of DDGS (0, 250, 500 and 750 g/kg respectively) and two enzyme cocktail levels (0 and 250 mg/kg diet). The used enzyme in this study "Gallazyme" composed of xylanase, Trichoderma longibrachiatum (600 units/g), protease, Bacillus subtilis (8,000 units/g) and amylase and Bacillus amyloliquofaciens (800 units/g). The control diet showed the best feed efficiency followed by the intermediate levels of DDGS. The lowest value of feed efficiency was found in the group fed the highest level of DDGS. Enzyme addition improved feed efficiency and decreased laying rate. Increasing DDGS levels was associated with albumin and shell thickness increases. Dietary DDGS depressed all egg components except the organic matter which maximised in enzyme-treated groups. Increasing DDGS level was accompanied by increase in yolk cholesterol and total lipids. No significant impacts were detected with enzymes supplementation on yolk lipids profile. Excepting serum calcium and phosphorous, all serum constituents increased with increasing level of DDGS. Using enzyme markedly depressed serum ammonia by 15.02% and increased calcium by 6.44% compared with enzyme-free diets. Interaction between DDGS and enzyme was significant on most of studied parameters. It could be concluded that using enzyme cocktail in DDGS-based diets may improve feed efficiency and egg quality, in addition to lowering blood ammonia and increasing blood calcium. It is recommended to substitute SBM by DDGS up to 500 g/kg diet. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of egg shell quality and washing on Salmonella Infantis penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah; Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R; Sexton, M; May, D; Kiermeier, A

    2013-07-15

    The vast majority of eggs in Australia are washed prior to packing to remove dirt and fecal material and to reduce the microbial contamination of the egg shell. The egg contents can be an ideal growth medium for microorganisms which can result in human illness if eggs are stored improperly and eaten raw or undercooked, and it is estimated that egg-related salmonellosis is costing Australia $44 million per year. Egg shell characteristics such as shell thickness, amount of cuticle present, and thickness of individual egg shell layers can affect the ease with which bacteria can penetrate the egg shell and washing could partially or completely remove the cuticle layer. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of egg washing on cuticle cover and effects of egg shell quality and cuticle cover on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. A higher incidence of unfavorable ultrastructural variables of the mammillary layer such as late fusion, type B bodies, type A bodies, poor cap quality, alignment, depression, erosion and cubics were recorded in Salmonella penetrated areas of egg shells. The influence of egg washing on the ability of Salmonella Infantis on the egg shell surface to enter the egg internal contents was also investigated using culture-based agar egg penetration and real-time qPCR based experiments. The results from the current study indicate that washing affected cuticle cover. There were no significant differences in Salmonella Infantis penetration of washed or unwashed eggs. Egg shell translucency may have effects on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detection of Salmonella Infantis from egg shell wash and internal contents than traditional microbiological methods. The agar egg and whole egg inoculation experiments indicated that Salmonella Infantis penetrated the egg shells. Egg washing not only can be highly effective at removing Salmonella Infantis from the egg shell surface

  12. Dietary fatty acid enrichment increases egg size and quality of yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M; Masdeu, M; Hale, P; Sibbons, C M; Holt, W V

    2014-02-01

    Seahorses populations in the wild have been declining and to restore them a better knowledge of seahorse reproduction is required. This study examines the effect of dietary quality on seahorse fecundity and egg quality. Two different diets were tested with Hippocampus kuda females: frozen mysis (control) and frozen mysis enriched with a liposome spray containing essential fatty acids. Diets were given to females (two groups of five) over a seven week period. After this period, males (fed the control diet) and females were paired and the eggs dropped by the females were collected. Fatty acid profile were analysed and eggs were counted and measured. Results showed that females fed on enriched mysis had larger eggs and that these had a higher content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids. The size of the egg was especially affected in the first spawn, where egg size for females fed the enriched diet was significantly higher than the egg size from control females. This effect was reduced in the following spawning where no significant differences were found. Egg size is an important quality descriptor as seahorse juveniles originating from smaller eggs and/or eggs of poor quality will have less chances of overcoming adverse conditions in the wild and consequently have lower survival and growth rates. This study shows that enriching frozen mysis with polyunsaturated fatty acids increases egg size and egg quality of H. kuda. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of ingestion of egg on serum lipid profile in healthy young free-living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Gayatri; Bijlani, R L; Mahapatra, S C; Mehta, Nalin; Lakshmy, R; Vashisht, Suman; Manchanda, S C

    2002-10-01

    Egg is a major source of dietary cholesterol. Previous studies on the effect of egg on serum lipid profile have given conflicting results. Further, the serum lipid response to egg shows marked individual variation. Since the variation is at least partly genetically determined, and the response depends partly on the overall diet, studies on different ethnic groups are important. There is hardly any study on the subject available on Indians. In the present investigation, eighteen healthy young volunteers (7 male, 11 female) on a lacto-vegetarian diet were given one boiled egg per day for 8 wk in a randomized controlled cross-over study. Compared to the values obtained after 8 wk of egg-free period, the mean serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides were not significantly different after 8 wk of egg consumption. However, the serum total cholesterol after 4 wk of egg consumption was significantly higher than the control values. Further, seven subjects out of 18 had an appreciable elevation of serum total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol, or both, after 8 wk of egg consumption. The study suggests that in young healthy Indian subjects on a vegetarian diet, consuming one egg per day raises serum cholesterol levels at 4 wk but in the majority baseline values are restored by 8 wk. However, some hyper-responders continue to have elevated serum cholesterol even at 8 wk. Knowing the response of an individual may be important before making egg consumption a regular habit.

  14. Determination of the quality of stripe-marked and cracked eggs during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chi Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Stripe marks, which occasionally occur on the shell, do not cause breakage to the shell and shell membranes of eggs. This study investigated the quality of intact eggs (IEs, minor stripe-marked eggs (MEs, severe stripe-marked eggs (SEs, and cracked eggs (CEs during 3-week storage at 25°C. Methods Shell eggs were collected the day after being laid and were washed. Among them, eggs without any visual cracks or stripe marks on the shells were evaluated as IEs by the plant employees using candling in a darkened egg storage room; the remaining eggs exhibited some eggshell defects. At day 3, the eggs were further categorized into IEs, MEs, SEs, CEs, and broken eggs (BEs on the basis of the description given. Except BEs, which were discarded, the remaining eggs were stored at 25°C (approximate relative humidity 50% and then analyzed. Results Stripe marks were observed primarily within the first 3 days after washing. At day 3, CEs had significantly (p<0.05 lower Haugh unit values, but all eggs had grades AA or A, according to the United States Department of Agriculture standard. As storage time increased, differences in egg quality between groups were more obvious. IEs had the highest eggshell breaking strength. During storage, the total plate counts and pathogens, namely Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp., were not detectable in the internal content of IEs and SEs. Conclusion In conclusion, cracks degraded egg quality severely and minor stripe marks only slightly influenced the egg quality.

  15. Fatty Acid Profile of Neutral and Polar Lipid Fraction of Wild Eggs and Hatchlings from Wild and Captive Reared Broodstock of Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Estefanell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The culture of Octopus vulgaris is constrained by unsolved problems in paralarvae rearing, mainly associated to the unknown nutritional requirements of this species in early stages. In this article we studied the fatty acid profile (total, neutral, and polar lipid fractions in wild eggs and wild hatchlings, collected in Gran Canaria (SW (Spain with artificial dens, in comparison to hatchlings obtained in captivity from broodstock fed on trash fish species. Total lipids were 11.5–13.5% dw, with the polar fraction representing a 70.6–75.5% of total lipid, with lower values in wild hatchling in comparison with captive ones. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was the main component in neutral and polar fatty acid profile in all samples, underlying its importance in this species. Decreasing levels of saturates and arachidonic acid (ARA from wild eggs to hatchlings, mainly associated to the polar fraction, suggest their use during embryonic development. In hatchlings, increasing levels of oleic acid in the neutral fraction and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA in the polar fraction, suggests their importance in hatchlings quality. Wild hatchlings showed in the polar fraction higher oleic acid and ARA, and lower DHA/ARA and EPA/ARA ratios in comparison with captive hatchlings, suggesting a difference in paralarvae nutritional status. These results suggest the importance of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, oleic acid, and ARA, presented in the adequate lipid fraction, in the diet of broodstock and paralarvae of O. vulgaris.

  16. Interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of carboxymethylcellulose and egg albumin for controlled release of lipid lowering drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppana, Rashmi; Kulkarni, Raghavendra V; Mutalik, Srinivas S; Setty, C Mallikarjun; Sa, Biswanath

    2010-01-01

    Novel interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and egg albumin loaded with a lipid lowering drug, simvastatin, were prepared by ionotropic gelation and covalent cross-linking method. The IPN beads were characterized by differential scanning colorimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry to understand the crystalline nature of the drug after entrapment into IPN matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to find the chemical stability of drug in the polymer matrix and scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the surface morphology. The ionically cross-linked beads were capable of releasing drug up to 7 h, whereas the drug release was extended up to 12 h in case of dual cross-linked beads. The beads which were prepared with higher concentration of glutaraldehyde released the drug more slowly. The release data were fitted to an empirical equation to determine the transport mechanism, which indicated the non-Fickian trend for drug transport.

  17. Egg production and egg quality in free-range laying hens housed at different outdoor stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Lee, C; Hinch, G N; Roberts, J R

    2017-09-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha). Hen-day production was tracked from 21 through 35 weeks with eggs visually graded daily for external deformities. All eggs laid on one day were weighed each week. Eggs were collected from each pen at 25, 30, and 36 weeks and analyzed for egg quality. There were no effects of outdoor stocking density on average hen-day percentage production (P = 0.67), egg weight (P = 0.09), percentages of deformed eggs (P = 0.30), shell reflectivity (P = 0.74), shell breaking strength (P = 0.07), shell deformation (P = 0.83), or shell thickness (P = 0.24). Eggs from hens in the highest density had the highest percentage shell weight (P = 0.004) and eggs from the lowest density had the highest yolk color score (P < 0.001). The amount of cuticle present did not differ between densities (P = 0.95) but some aspects of shell colors (P ≤ 0.01) and location of protoporphyrin IX (P = 0.046) varied. Hen age affected the majority of measurements. Stocking density differences may be related to hen diet as previous radio-frequency identification tracking of individual hens in these flocks showed birds used the range for longer in the lowest density and the least in the highest density, including depleting the range of vegetation sooner in the smaller ranges. An additional study assessing the relationship between individual hen range use, nutrition, and egg

  18. Dry cured ham quality as related to lipid quality of raw material and lipid changes during processing: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles, Gandemer

    2009-01-01

    Lipids play a key role in sensory traits of dry cured hams. Both the quantity and the composition of lipids in raw material affect dry-cured hams quality. The lipid characteristics strongly depend on rearing systems developed in different area in Europe. During processing, lipids undergo lipolysis and oxidation. Phospholipids are the main substrates of both lipolysis and oxidation. Lipolysis forms free fatty acids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids all along the process. Lipids are also subj...

  19. Quality of eggs produced by laying chickens fed lowgossypol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated an increase in egg production with increasing levels of CSM in the diet up to 10 per cent level of inclusion. The addition of CSM to the diets had no significant effects on egg weight, Haugh unit values (HUV), yolk index, and yolk colour scores. However, egg yolk colour tended to improve with increasing ...

  20. Effects of lutein-enriched egg yolk in buttermilk or skimmed milk on serum lipids & lipoproteins of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severins, N; Mensink, R P; Plat, J

    2015-02-01

    Earlier studies in our group suggested that traditionally prepared buttermilk influences cholesterol metabolism. We therefore designed a study to evaluate whether traditionally prepared buttermilk lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or prevents the LDL-C raising effect of egg yolks. Mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly allocated to one of four diet groups consuming daily at lunch 80 ml skimmed milk with (n = 23) or without (n = 25) lutein-enriched egg yolk (28 g from 1.5 eggs providing 323 mg cholesterol) or traditionally prepared buttermilk with (n = 23) or without (n = 21) lutein-enriched egg yolk during a 12 week period. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure concentrations of serum lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, liver and kidney function markers, and plasma lutein, zeaxanthin and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Egg yolk consumption significantly increased serum total cholesterol (total-C) (p = 0.035) and LDL-C concentrations (p = 0.022). Buttermilk did not change the effects of egg yolk on serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. There was a trend towards significant lower total-C (p = 0.077), but not LDL-C (p = 0.204) concentrations in the buttermilk groups. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.001) in the egg yolk groups. In mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, daily consumption of traditionally prepared buttermilk for 12 weeks did not lower serum total-C or LDL-C concentrations, nor did it prevent the serum total-C and LDL-C raising effect of daily egg yolk consumption. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01566305. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EFFECT OF UNRIPE GRAPE JUICE (VERJUICE ON PLASMA LIPID LEVELS IN RABBITS RENDERED HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC BY FEEDING EGG YOLK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aminian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Since many years it has been a general belief in Iranian traditional medicine that unripe grape juice (verjuice has lipid-lowering effect. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. Fifty rabbits were selected and divided into 5 groups with 10 rabbits in each. Group 1 had no supplemental diet. Group 2 were fed 10 ml egg yolk daily and group 3 were fed 10 ml egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for six weeks. In the second part of study, 20 rabbits rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding egg yolk for six weeks, then they were divided into two groups: Group 4 received 10 ml of the egg yolk daily, and group 5 received 10 ml of the egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for the next 6 weeks. The plasma lipid profiles were measured at the beginning and then every two weeks. In the first part of study total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentrations in group 2 rose 10 times in comparison with group 1, but addition of verjuice in group 3 did not prevent rising of these values. In the second part of study, TC and LDL-C values rose in groups 4 and 5 in a parallel fashion. Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglyceride (TG were not statistically significant throughout the study. In conclusion, this study did not support preventive or therapeutic effect of verjuice in hypercholesterolemia.

  2. Egg performance, egg quality, and nutrient utilization in laying hens fed diets with different levels of rapeseed expeller cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SWIATKIEWICZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of rapeseed expeller cake (RC in the diet of laying hens on egg performance, egg quality, retention and excretion of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus, and metabolizability of energy. The experiment was carried out with 72 Bovans Brown hens, from 28 to 53 weeks of age. Experimental treatment consisted of four isonitrogenous and isocaloric corn-soybean diets (as calculated: 17% crude protein, 11.6 MJ/kg metabolizable energy, 0.81% lysine, 0.36% methionine, 3.60% calcium and 0.37% available phosphorus, containing 0, 4, 6 or 8% RC. The RC used was produced from double zero rapeseed and contained 29.3% crude protein, 17.4% crude fat, 10.8% crude fibre, 0.63% calcium, 0.97% phosphorus, 1.91% lysine and 0.84% methionine. During the experimental period, the dietary level of RC had no significant effects on egg performance and egg quality parameters. Boiled eggs from hens fed a diet with 8% RC were characterized by an inferior flavour to those from other groups. There were no treatment effects on nitrogen balance or metabolizability of energy, though the highest dietary level of RC negatively affected retention and excretion of calcium and phosphorus.;

  3. Effect of organic selenium and zinc on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary inclusion of organic trace minerals selenium and zinc on the performance and internal and external egg quality of Japanese quails submitted to heat stress. Data on egg production, feed conversion (kg feed intake/kg eggs and dozen eggs, egg weight, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (% of 144 quails were evaluated for 112 days, divided in eight cycles of 14 days. Birds were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design into four treatments (control; 0.3ppm Se; 60ppm Zn and 0.3ppm Se + 60ppm Zn with six replicates each. There were no differences (p> 0.05 in egg production (%, egg mass (g/hen/day, feed conversion per egg mass (kg/kg, feed conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dz, average egg weight (g, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight (g, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (%. However, quails fed the combination of Se and Zn presented higher (p < 0.05 feed intake (28.73 g/hen/day. Those fed only organic selenium had higher average daily egg production (30.17 eggs/day, and those fed the diet only supplemented with zinc presented higher mortality (p < 0.05. The results of the present study suggest that the supplementation of organic trace minerals in Japanese quails diets submitted to heat stress does not significantly influence quail performance and internal egg quality, whereas the supplementation of the combination of organic Zn and Se increases feed intake.

  4. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Meng, Fanyu; Su, Yingying; Wang, Lisha; Zhang, Runxiang; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest) layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC) on exterior quality of eggs. One hundred and sixty-eight (168) Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III). Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC) and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III). Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01) in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01). The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01). The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs.

  5. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC on exterior quality of eggs. Methods One hundred and sixty-eight (168 Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC, medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I, medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II, and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III. Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III. Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. Results The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01 in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01. The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01. The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. Conclusion SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs.

  6. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Meng, Fanyu; Su, Yingying; Wang, Lisha; Zhang, Runxiang; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest) layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC) on exterior quality of eggs. Methods One hundred and sixty-eight (168) Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III). Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC) and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III). Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. Results The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01) in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01). The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01). The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. Conclusion SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs. PMID:28231694

  7. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering egg quality or production in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6-fatty acids and extruding defatted seed meal results in high protein meal (~40%) containing residual n-3 fatty acids. We examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina seed meal to commercial laying hens on egg production, quality, ...

  8. Effect of cadmium doses on chickens. 3. Long term influence of cadmium on feed consumption weight gain, egg performance and egg shell quality of laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suelz, M.; Hardebeck, H.; Krampitz, G.

    1974-01-01

    In long-lasting experiments the application of Cd resulted in a decreased state of health (nephritis) of hens. Feed consumption, weight gain and egg production were reduced. Egg shell quality was not changed under practical Cd-concentrations. Studies of the ultrastructure of egg shells of animals fed with Cd did not yield any hints of damages. The protein-profiles of egg shells revealed an additional component under Cd-application. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Effects of Storage Methods and Lenght of Storage on some Quality Parameters of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudusola, IO.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters of Japanese quail eggs, as affected by storage method and length in 21days, were assessed using 140 eggs collected from 7-week old birds. Eggs were stored using refrigeration, oiling, black polythene bag or on a tray at room temperature (30 oc as a control. This study determines the best storage condition and optimum storage length storage for quail eggs. Egg quality parameters measured included egg weight, shell weight, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, haugh unit and egg weight loss. Effects on the chemical composition of eggs were determined with proximate analysis. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA with storage method and duration as the two main effects. There were progressive increases in weight losses with increased length of storage for all storage methods. Haugh units decreased progressively per storage method as length of storage increased (P< 0.05. Control and refrigeration methods do not differ significantly in all proximate composition except for protein. There were significant differences (P< 0.05 in length of storage for all proximate composition. Eggs maintained desired internal quality when stored for 4 days at room temperature. Refrigeration could be used for storage of eggs up to 7 days; where it is unavailable oiling could be used.

  10. Effect of superdosing phytase on productive performance and egg quality in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyuk; Pitargue, Franco Martinez; Jung, Hyunjung; Han, Gi Ppeum; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of superdosing phytase on productive performance and egg quality in laying hens. A total of 200 42-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted into 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 5 replicates consisting of 8 hens per replicate. The positive control (PC) and negative control diets (NC) were prepared based on the recommended P levels in layer diets. Supplemental phytase was added to the negative control diet at 10,000 (SD10), 20,000 (SD20), or 30,000 (SD30) fytase units (FTU)/kg. Productive performance was summarized for 6 weeks from 42 weeks to 47 weeks of age. Egg quality was assessed from 4 eggs per replicate randomly collected at the conclusion of the experiment. The SD20 treatment had greater (p<0.05) hen-day egg production than PC, NC, and SD10 treatment groups. There was no difference in hen-day egg production between SD20 and SD30 treatment groups. However, SD30 treatment had greater (p<0.05) hen-day egg production than PC treatment, but showed no difference in hen-day egg production as compared to NC and SD10 treatment groups. However, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments. Egg quality including eggshell strength, eggshell color, egg yolk color, and haugh unit was not influenced by dietary treatments. Superdosing level of 20,000 FTU/kg phytase in diets has a positive effect on egg production rate, but no beneficial effect on egg quality in laying hens.

  11. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    OpenAIRE

    H Mohammadi Emarat; A Golian; A Tahmasbi; H Kermanshahi

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15%) and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37%) and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age) each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed ...

  12. Genetic Analyses of Egg Quality in Khorasan Razavi Native Fowl Using the Bayesian Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirkhah Z

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters influencing egg quality in Khorasan Razavi native fowl. (CoVariance components were estimated by the Bayesian statistical method via Gibbs sampling in GIBBS3F90 software. 1000 eggs (28-29 weeks old were collected from 775 hens of the ninth generation of Khorasan-Razavi Province native fowl breeding center. External (egg weight,specific gravity, long length, short length, shape index, shell strength, shell weight, shell thickness and internal (yolk diameter, yolk height, yolk weight, yolk index, albumen diameter, albumen height, albumen weight, albumen index, Haugh unit egg quality traits were measured. Six univariate animal models were used for estimation of genetic parameters and the best model for each trait was determined by deviance information criterion (DIC. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between traits were estimated using bivariate animal model. Direct heritability estimates ranged from 0.10 (egg width to 0.39 (yolk index. For all traits except albumen diameter and albumen index, the inclusion of maternal effects in the model resulted in considerable reduction in direct heritability. Genetic correlations of egg weight with shell strength and shell thickness were negative. In conclusion, due to genetic correlations among external and internal egg quality traits, selection based on egg weight and shell thickness may improve external and internal egg quality traits. Also, including maternal effects in the form of genetic or permanent environment in the statistical model resulted in more accurate estimates for most traits.

  13. The table eggs and their quality in small-scale breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose this study was to investigate quality of the table eggs, their damage and soiling in various age of the laying hens (47-62 weeks during the second phase of the laying cycle. The object of the research was table eggs, egg white, egg shell, damage and soiling of the egg shell. The eggs were of the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the non-cage system with deep litter and free range at small-scale breeding. In the breeding system with free range at small-scale conditions were secured requirements for laying hens in accordance with welfare principles. The eggs were collected each day at 4:00 pm. Weights of egg and egg shell samples of were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N. A white weight was calculated. Damage and soiling of eggs were investigated under the desk lamp lighting up to 100 W bulb. Statistical evaluation of the results was carried out in the program system SAS. From the existing conclusions of the various scientific and professional published works, it is known that both quality and safety are interrelated. In many works are the risk factors referred together as the quality standards. We found an important fact in assessing the trend of values of the egg shell weight, depending on the age of laying hens. Based on this fact, it can be assumed that the values of egg shell weight were not directly related to egg weight and egg white weight. It follows that the egg shell weight must be assessed comprehensively, and account must be taken of other factors. For the characteristics of the deformed egg shape has been one pc, representing 3.33% of the samples taken for analysis of eggs at 53 weeks of age of the total sampled eggs. In the following 56 weeks of age hens laying eggs there was not a deformed shape. The next subsequent sampling 59 weeks of age laying hens were recorded two pcs of eggs with deformed shape, i.e. 6.67%. At the last sampling of eggs at age 62 weeks, the number of eggs with deformed shape increased to

  14. Laying performances and egg quality of local barred hens under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study was designated to evaluate the laying performances and egg traits in local barred hens. Sixteen (16) hens and 4 cocks were used, divided into 4 experimental units of 4 hens and 1 cock per unit. Methodology and Results: The following parameters were studied: feed intake (g/bird/day), egg production ...

  15. Egg Qualities and Performance Characteristics of Laying Chicken in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters measured included daily feed intake, initial and final body weights, hen – day production, mortality rate, feed conversion ratio, feed cost per dozen eggs, egg weight, shell thickness, albumen weight, yolk weight, haugh unit, yolk length and yolk index. Housing system has significant effects (p <0.05) on the ...

  16. Effect of dietary sodium nitrate consumption on egg production, egg quality characteristics and some blood indices in native hens of west azarbaijan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safary, H; Daneshyar, M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age), blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn't affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05) but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32) (p0.05). No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05). Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (psodium nitrate at wk 32 of age (p>0.05). Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (pnitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass).

  17. Microbial quality of industrial liquid egg white: assumptions on spoiling issues in egg-based chilled desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, Clarisse; Daoud, Amina; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Gautier, Michel; Jan, Sophie; Baron, Florence

    2015-02-01

    As a 1st step, this study aimed at investigating the microbial quality of liquid egg white in a French egg processing company. Thirty raw and 33 pasteurized liquid egg white samples were analyzed. Pasteurization was globally found efficient on mesophilic contaminants (1.7 ± 1.6 and 0.8 ± 0.9 log CFU/mL in raw and pasteurized samples, respectively), including for the control of Salmonella. However, Gram-positive enterococci were still detected in the pasteurized samples. As a 2nd step, a representative bacterial collection was built for exploring the spoilage issue in egg-based chilled desserts. Custard cream was chosen as growth medium since this food is widely used for the production of French chilled desserts. All of the 166 isolates of the bacterial collection were shown to be able to grow and to induce spoilage of the custard cream at refrigeration temperature (10 °C). Several spoilage types were highlighted in the custard cream, on the basis of changes regarding pH, consistency, production of holes or gas. As a 3rd step, bacterial enzymatic activities were explored on custard cream-based agar media. The bacterial collection was reduced to 43 isolates, based on further selection regarding the genera and the spoilage types previously highlighted. Albeit to different degrees, all these isolates were able to produce proteases. A large part of these isolates also expressed lipolytic and amylolytic activities. This study emphasizes the need to control egg white contamination and especially with Gram-positive heat-resistant Enterococi, in order to guarantee the shelf life of egg-based chilled desserts. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Layer performance, fatty acid profile and the quality of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sipho Mabusela

    2017-12-14

    Dec 14, 2017 ... It was concluded that, although MOWSM inclusion improved yolk colour, maintained external egg quality, and improved the fatty acid profile, the deleterious effect that it had on layer performance indicated that it may not be fed to early-lay hens at these respective levels. Keywords: Alternative protein, egg ...

  19. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Peng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control, 9 (OCT9, 18 (OCT18, and 27 (OCT27 mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p0.05 among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

  20. Performance and egg quality traits of egg-type chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the performance of egg type chickens fed diets where Cottonseed cake (CSC) replaced Soybean cake (SBC) in five experimental rations such that 0% (control), 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% of CSC replaced SBC. The design of the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD). Chemical analysis ...

  1. Egg Production and Quality of Quails Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Methionine and Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of choline chloride supplementation at 1500 ppm in diets containing various levels of methionine on egg production and egg quality in quails. A total of 180 birds, at 6 week-old quail were divided into 18 experimental units, and assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial design experiment with 3 replications (10 birds each in each treatment. The birds were offered diets containing choline chloride at either 0 (A1 or 1500 ppm (A2, with three levels of methionine namely, low (0.19%, B1, standard (0.79%, B2 and, high (1.05%, B3. The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks. Supplementation of choline chloride in low methionine diet significantly (P<0.05 increased egg production, egg mass, and egg weight as compared to those without choline chloride supplementation. Supplementation of choline chloride significantly (P<0.05 increased egg yolk weight but decreased albumen and egg shell weight as compared to those fed diets without choline chloride supplementation. It can be concluded that supplementation of choline chloride to a diet containing low methionine increased egg production, without affecting egg quality.

  2. Effect of hesperidin dietary supplementation on hen performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliomytis, M; Orfanou, H; Petrou, E; Charismiadou, M A; Simitzis, P E; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-02-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with hesperidin (one or 3 g/kg of feed) for 31 d on the performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability of brown and white laying hens (26-wk old). 2. Supplementation with hesperidin did not affect egg production, egg weight and egg quality traits. 3. No hesperidin effect on yolk and plasma cholesterol was observed. A strain effect was found with lower total and per g yolk cholesterol of brown hens in comparison to the white ones. 4. Oxidative stability of egg yolk, expressed as ng MDA/g yolk, was significantly improved in the hesperidin groups even from the first week of supplementation. At the same time, a significant improvement in the oxidative stability of egg yolk due to the incorporation of hesperidin in hens' diet was observed after 30 and 90 d of storage at 20°C and 4°C, respectively. 5. No hesperidin by strain interaction was detected for any of the traits measured. 6. In conclusion, incorporation of hesperidin to laying hens' feed did not affect productive and egg qualitative traits. On the other hand, dietary hesperidin supplementation significantly improved oxidative stability of both fresh and stored eggs. Antioxidant properties of hesperidin seem to make it a promising natural agent for improving the shelf life of eggs.

  3. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  4. Turmeric root and annato seed in second-cycle layer diets: performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Laganá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of annato (Bixa orellana L. and turmeric (Turmeric longa L. in layer feeds on live performance, egg quality, and yolk pigmentation and depigmentation time. A number of 144 layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with four treatments with six replicates of six birds each. In the basal diet, sorghum replaced 50% of corn, and was supplemented or not with natural pigments to composse the following treatments: Control (0% pigments, AS (2.0% annato, TR (2% turmeric and ASTR (1% annato and 1% turmeric. Egg weight (g, egg production (%, egg mass (%, feed intake (g, feed conversion ratio (kg/dz and kg/kg and mortality were evaluated. The following egg quality parameters were evaluated: specific gravity (SG; yolk, albumen, and eggshell percentages, and yolk color. The treatments did not influence layer performance or egg quality parameters, except for egg production and yolk color. The dietary inclusion of 1% turmeric root and 1% annato seed promoted higher egg production. Diets containing annato resulted in more saturated, more intense, and redder yolk color, with increasing pigment deposition after day 10, with maximum values obtained on day 28. Dried turmeric root did not promote good yolk pigmentation, resulting in higher presence of white in the yolk, which was stabilized on day 4. Three days after pigments were withdrawn from the feeds, yolk color faded in the treatments with annato inclusion.

  5. Analysis of changes in egg quality of broiler breeders during the first reproduction period

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helena Kontecka; Sebastian Nowaczewski; Marta M. Sierszuła

    2012-01-01

    .... The aim of the study was to analyse the physical characteristics, morphological composition and quality of individual components of the eggs of Cobb 500 broiler breeders during the first year of reproduction...

  6. Egg Quality Traits and their Repeatability Estimates in High and Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg Quality Traits and their Repeatability Estimates in High and Low Body Weight Lines of Crossbred normal Feather, Naked Neck and Frizzle Chicken. ... Shell thickness was not significantly different in both body weight lines, while yolk index ...

  7. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  8. Effects of Xylem-Sap Composition on Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Egg Maturation on High- and Low-Quality Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisterson, Mark S; Wallis, Christopher M; Stenger, Drake C

    2017-04-01

    Glassy-winged sharpshooters must feed as adults to produce mature eggs. Cowpea and sunflower are both readily accepted by the glassy-winged sharpshooter for feeding, but egg production on sunflower was reported to be lower than egg production on cowpea. To better understand the role of adult diet in egg production, effects of xylem-sap chemistry on glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation was compared for females confined to cowpea and sunflower. Females confined to cowpea consumed more xylem-sap than females held on sunflower. In response, females held on cowpea produced more eggs, had heavier bodies, and greater lipid content than females held on sunflower. Analysis of cowpea and sunflower xylem-sap found that 17 of 19 amino acids were more concentrated in cowpea xylem-sap than in sunflower xylem-sap. Thus, decreased consumption of sunflower xylem-sap was likely owing to perceived lower quality, with decreased egg production owing to a combination of decreased feeding and lower return per unit volume of xylem-sap consumed. Examination of pairwise correlation coefficients among amino acids indicated that concentrations of several amino acids within a plant species were correlated. Principal component analyses identified latent variables describing amino acid composition of xylem-sap. For females held on cowpea, egg maturation was affected by test date, volume of excreta produced, and principal components describing amino acid composition of xylem-sap. Principal component analyses aided in identifying amino acids that were positively or negatively associated with egg production, although determining causality with respect to key nutritional requirements for glassy-winged sharpshooter egg production will require additional testing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Nutritional characteristics and quality of eggs from laying hens fed on a diet supplemented with chestnut tannin extract (Castanea sativa Miller).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minieri, S; Buccioni, A; Serra, A; Galigani, I; Pezzati, A; Rapaccini, S; Antongiovanni, M

    2016-12-01

    The trial was performed with 80 laying hens belonging to two Tuscan autochthonous breeds: 40 birds of the Mugellese (MU) breed and 40 of the White Leghorn (WL) breed. The animals were allotted to 4 groups of individually caged 20 hens each: two groups were fed on a commercial diet and worked as the control groups (MUC and WLC); the other two groups received the same diet, integrated with 2 g of chestnut tannin (CT) extract per kg of diet (MUT and WLT). A sample of 70 eggs were randomly collected and analysed for cholesterol content, fatty acid (FA) profile, weight, thickness of shell and colour of yolk. Physical parameters, including yolk colour, and indices of egg quality were not affected by the treatments. The concentration of unsaturated FAs increased, whereas cholesterol was significantly decreased: -17% in WLT and -9% in MUT. Dietary supplementation with CT extract resulted in a modification of lipid composition, towards a more healthy quality of eggs.

  10. Effects of organic mineral dietary supplementation on production performance and egg quality of white layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIM Fernandes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed at evaluating the effect of organic trace mineral supplementation of commercial layer diets on productive performance and egg quality. One-hundred-ninety-two Hy Line W36 white 69-w-old layers were distributed into a completely randomized design with three treatments, and eight replicates, with eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal diet supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (R1, and two others experimental diets containing 0.250 ppm (R2 and 0.500 ppm (R3 of an organic source of zinc, manganese, and selenium. Feed intake (g/bird/day, feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen egg and kg/kg egg, egg weight (g, egg production (%, thin and cracked eggshells (%, specific gravity (g/mL, Haugh Units, total egg solids (%, yolk yield, white and shell yields (%, eggshell thickness, and egg Se content were evaluated Tukey's test analyzed differences among means at 5% of probability using PROC GLM in SAS (2000. Although not significant as compared to the non-supplemented diet, improvements on relative cracked-plus-thin shells were observed with the use of organic mineral blend. The addition of the organic blend to the diet at 0.250 kg/ton resulted in (p<0.05 higher total egg solids. Also, as compared to eggs from control group, fresh and dried yolk yields were higher with the dietary inclusion of the organic mineral blend at 0.250 and 0.500 kg/ton.

  11. Broiler meat quality: Proteins and lipids of muscle tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proteins and lipids of muscle tissue are important meat quality parameters. They contribute substantially to the nutritional characteristics of meat. A number of studies has been conducted on the effect of different factors on the protein and lipid content of broiler meat. Given the above, the subject matter of the present paper ...

  12. Mother-Offspring Relations: Prey Quality and Maternal Size Affect Egg Size of an Acariphagous Lady Beetle in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Riddick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated mother-offspring relations in a lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise that utilizes spider mites as prey. Our objectives were to determine if (1 prey quality affects egg size, (2 maternal size correlates with egg size, and (3 egg size affects hatching success. We fed predators spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch from lima bean Phaseolus lunatus L. foliage in the laboratory. Mothers of unknown body size offered high rather than low quality spider mites since birth produced larger eggs. Mothers of known body size offered only high quality spider mites, produced eggs of variable size, but mean egg size correlated positively with hind femur length. Mothers laid their eggs singly, rather than in batches, and eggs were large relative to femur size. Egg size did not affect hatch success; mean hatch rate exceeded 95% regardless of egg size. In conclusion, the quality of prey consumed by S. punctillum mothers while in the larval stage can affect their size as adults and, consequently, the size of their eggs. The behavior of laying eggs singly, the positive relationship between maternal size and mean egg size, and the high rate of egg hatch suggest that S. punctillum mothers invest heavily in offspring.

  13. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity become extreme upon fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Laat, S.W. de

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids have been studied in unfertilized and fertilizedxaqpus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein-labeled fatty acids

  14. PERFORMANCE AND EGGS QUALITY OF HENS OF GENETIC RESOURCES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Ledvinka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the performance and technological values of eggs of Czech Hen and Oravka breeds housed on litter. The assumption was that the genotype of hens affects their performance, egg weight, and parameters of yolk, albumen and eggshell quality. A total of 30 pullets of Czech Hen breed and 30 pullets of Oravka breed in the age of 17 weeks were included in to the experiment. Environmental conditions corresponded to the standard requirements for laying hens in observed type of housing system. Hen day egg production, egg yield, daily feed consumption per hen, feed consumption per egg and egg weight, egg shape index, proportion and index of yolk and albumen,yolk colour and Haugh units score were monitored in the experiment. From the parameters of eggshell, proportion, thickness, strength and colour of eggshell were observed. Performance parameters of laying hens weren't affected by the genotype of hens. Czech Hen breed showed insignificantly the higher value in all indicators. The significantly (P≤0.01 and P≤0.001 better values of eggshell quality parameters were detected in Czech Hen breed. We found out that Czech Hen breed had also statistically significantly lighter colour of eggshell. There were no significant interbreed differences in egg weight, proportion of yolk and albumen. The egg shape index was significantly higher in Oravka. Index of yolk and albumen was also significantly (P≤0.001 higher in Oravka. Haugh units score, that reflect the quality of the eggs, were found significantly (P≤0.001higher in Oravka too. On the other hand, yolk colour was detected significantly (P≤0.001 darker for the Czech Hen.

  15. Age influence on quality of shell and penetration in bacterial laying lightweight eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Smaniotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the influence of the bird’s age on the quality of the shell and percentage of bacterial penetration in commercial eggs. White-shelled commercial eggs were used, laid by light laying hens in their first laying cycle at 21, 39, 51, and 62 weeks of age. Shell quality evaluations comprised: egg weight, specific gravity, percentage and thickness of shell, number and size of pores. For evaluations regarding bacterial penetration, strains of several enterobacterias and one salmonella were used, all of which resistant to Nalidixic acid (100µg/ml. The method employed for evaluation of bacterial penetration was filling the eggs with growth medium. The data were subjected to variance analysis with 5% of probability using SAS (Education Analytical Software, 2013. Eveb though increase in the laying hen's age caused reduction of the quality of eggshells, it failed to affect the percentage of penetration of the bacterial samples evaluated.

  16. Effect of Some Egg Quality Traits on Hatching Results in Brown Pure Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the influence of eggshell thickness, albumen height, yolk height and haugh unit on hatching results. A total of 746 eggs, which were obtained and evaluated for egg quality parameters from 100 brown pure line hens of 42 weeks of age, were used. Eggs were collected from each hen for 12 days and individual incubation was carried out. Eggs were grouped based on quality parameters and evaluated accordingly. The findings suggested that hatchability, hatchability of fertile eggs, early, mid and late embryonic mortality did not differ in terms of haugh unit, albumen height, eggshell thickness and yolk height groups. However, early embryonic mortality was found different between the yolk height groups. No relationship was determined among albumen height, haugh unit, eggshell thickness and hatching results. There was no relation between yolk height and hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability, mid and late embryonic mortalities but was a positive correlation with early embryonic mortality. The results of the present study demonstrate that egg quality parameters studied here had no influence on hatching results except that early embryonic mortality increased with the yolk height.

  17. Relative Importance of External Quality Attributes of Shell Eggs: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An inferential comparison of the attributes however, showed that size and cleanliness were rated higher (P0.05) sub-class differences. Respondents expected large eggs to have more edible material; clean shells to signify freshness and safety, while dark ...

  18. The effect of eggshell apex abnormalities on table egg quality during storage in 2 seasons of the year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, M D M; Santos, F F; Machado, L S; Verinaud, M S; Oliveira, J M; Soares, N M; Nascimento, E R; Pereira, V L A

    2014-10-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae infection of hens has been associated with problems of eggshell quality called eggshell apex abnormalities (EAA). Little is known about the quality of EAA eggs from a commercial point of view, especially during their storage. The study aimed to examine the differences between EAA and normal eggs during storage under controlled conditions in 2 seasons, summer and winter, by comparing internal and external quality parameters. In a conventional egg production farm with white laying hens of varying ages in the city of Bastos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, 232 eggs were used in the summer season and 400 eggs in the winter season. Half of the eggs had EAA, and the other half were considered normal eggs for each season. The eggs were analyzed at 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d after being laid and stored from 24.6 to 25.8°C in summer and from 24 to 25°C in winter. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in the average egg weight between EAA and normal eggs at any studied time point, but in both seasons, the weight loss in EAA eggs was higher than in normal eggs. The losses in Haugh unit scores from the first to the last measurements were approximately 40% regardless of egg type or season of production. In comparing eggshell thickness, only the apices of the EAA eggs were thinner (P eggshell weight (P > 0.05) or eggshell percentage (P > 0.05). The eggshell strength of the EAA eggs was lower (P < 0.0001) than normal eggs in both the summer (16.57%) and winter (19.86%). The presence of EAA did not affect the internal quality of the egg, but was related to a greater loss of external quality and weight during storage. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Influence of artificial lighting on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMTD Jácome

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the egg production chain produces fresh eggs for the consumer market and for processing. Layers are housed in battery cage systems. Rearing and development farms are separate from egg-production farms. Considering the recent advance of Brazilian chicken egg production, scientific knowledge on management practices are required to disseminate and to consistently apply this knowledge to improve such practices. Artificial lighting is widely used in poultry reproduction, both in the production of hatchable eggs and of commercial eggs. Light is required for the release of hormones responsible for reproduction; however, the best lighting practices to stimulate laying poultry during the reproductive period still need to be determined, with the aim of saving electric energy, and therefore, to dilute production costs and comply with environmental sustainability requirements. This review showed that layers are indeed photostimulated with more than 12 hours of light, independently of the artificial lighting program applied. Results demonstrate that artificial lighting programs influence egg production, but not egg quality parameters. Intermittent lighting programs are good alternatives when layers are housed in open-sided houses, which are typically used in Brazil. Transcranial light reception is the most important route for the stimulation of reproduction in poultry.

  20. Effect of production system and flock age on eggshell and egg internal quality measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, Sami; Omar, Amal Saleh; Roberts, Juliet; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality was measured in eggs from different flocks that were reared together and then allocated to different production systems. Eggs were processed for measurements of eggshell and egg internal quality variables, scoring of ultrastructural mammillary layer features, completeness of cuticle cover, and protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) quantification. There was a significant main effect (P system on shell reflectivity, egg weight, and egg internal quality and significant effects of flock age on most measurements. The mammillary layer ultrastructural variables showed no clear relationship with production system and flock age. However, there was a significant interaction between production system and flock age for mammillary cap, early and late fusions. Cuticle cover ([Formula: see text]), was significantly higher in barn eggs (19.20), followed by free range (17.57), and cage eggs (15.99). Completeness of cuticle cover was significantly higher in eggs from the 44 week old flock than for 64 week and 73 week old flocks. For eggshells with cuticle intact, there was a significant main effect of both production system and flock age, and significant interaction between the two, for shell reflectivity, L*a*b* values and amount of PP IX. For PP IX, when this difference was calculated for the cuticle alone, there were no statistically significant differences. In 1 g of shell with and without cuticle, there was more PP IX in cage eggs (9.49 × 10(-8), 7.90 × 10(-8 )mM) followed by free range (8.24 × 10(-8), 6.90 × 10(-8 )mM), and barn eggs (8.64 × 10(-8), 7.28 × 10(-8 )mM). Similar trends were recorded for the amount of PP IX in 1 g of cuticle, but the difference was not statistically significant. The amount of PP IX decreased significantly with increasing flock age. Comparing the cage and barn production systems at 68 week of flock age, there was no difference for the amount of PP IX in shell with or without cuticle, or in the cuticle alone. Eggs from the cage production

  1. Determining Tocotrienol Rich Fraction Effects on Laying, Mortality and Egg Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardhati, M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The public interest and awareness in healthier lifestyle has increased the demand of functional food, nutraceuticals and designer foods, which has resulted in the creation of new foods in marketplace, for instance designer and specialty eggs. A feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the laying performance of H&N layer chickens fed diets supplemented with tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF, as well as to quantify tocopherol and tocotrienol accumulation in eggs and their effect on egg quality. A total of 300 H&N laying hens (17-wk old were randomly allocated to 50 battery cages with 6 birds per cage. The birds were assigned equally to 6 different treatment diets; commercial diet (F1, corn-soy based diet (F2, corn-soy based diet added with 25ppm (F3, 50ppm (F4, 75ppm (F5 and 100ppm (F6 of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF. Egg production and egg quality measurements were not significantly different (P>0.05 between treatments. Egg yolk from hens fed TRF supplemented diets contained more tocotrienol compared to those fed corn-soy based diet (P0.05. As feeding time progressed, the tocotrienol content tended to accumulate in the egg yolks (P<0.05.

  2. Reproductive broodstock performance and egg quality of wild-caught and first-generation domesticated Seriola rivoliana reared under same culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F Quiñones-Arreola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Almaco jack, Seriola rivoliana as well as some related species is of great interest in marine fish aquaculture. However, there are few studies about their reproduction in captivity. In this research work, reproductive performance and egg quality in two groups of adult Seriola rivoliana, caught in the wild and domesticated-F1 analyzed and compared, reared under optimal maturation conditions in a commercial private Laboratory. A total of 28 wild adult (>5 kg were caught at La Paz Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and 30 adult domesticated-F1 broodstock (>5 kg, were obtained from an original stock of 1,000 juveniles (3.5 g body weight produced at Kona Blue (Hawaii, USA sea farm. Fishes were transported to the Rancheros del Mar commercial private hatchery, where they were grown to adult size. Both groups were evaluated during eight months (May to December 2012 and compared in terms of reproduction performance (total number of spawning events, monthly spawning frequency, total number of eggs, total number of eggs per mL, and fertilization rate, egg biochemical composition (total proteins, total lipids, total carbohydrates, and triacylglycerides and egg diameter. Results indicated that wild caught broostock showed a better reproductive performance in terms of fertilization rate, total number of spawning, monthly spawning frequency and total number of eggs produced. However, biochemical composition and egg diameter did not show statistical differences (P < 0.05 between two groups. The reproductive performance of broodstock and quality of eggs analyzed in this study are important traits to improve the aquaculture management of this species.

  3. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during the last stage of embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alava, Juan Jose [School of the Environment, University of South Carolina, 702G Byrnes Building, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States) and Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 219 Ft. Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)]. E-mail: jalavasa@sfu.ca; Keller, Jennifer M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)]. E-mail: Jennifer.Keller@noaa.gov; Kucklick, John R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); Wyneken, Jeanette [Florida Atlantic University, Department of Biological Sciences, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Crowder, Larry [Duke University Marine Laboratory, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516 (United States); Scott, Geoffrey I. [Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 219 Ft. Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Data are scarce describing the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in sea turtle eggs. The purpose of this study was to establish appropriate sample collection methodology to monitor these contaminants in sea turtle eggs. Contaminant concentrations were measured in yolk samples from eggs that failed to hatch from three loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests collected in southern Florida to determine if concentrations change through embryonic development. One to three egg yolk samples per nest were analyzed from early, middle, and late developmental stages (n = 22 eggs total). PCB and pesticide concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Geometric mean concentrations of {sigma}PCBs (52 congeners), {sigma}DDTs, {sigma}chlordanes, and dieldrin in all eggs were 65.0 (range = 7.11 to 3930 ng/g lipid), 67.1 (range = 7.88 to 1340 ng/g lipid), 37.0 (range = 4.04 to 685 ng/g lipid), and 11.1 ng/g lipid (range = 1.69 to 44.0 ng/g lipid), respectively. Early and middle developmental stage samples had similar concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides on a wet-mass basis (ng/g tissue extracted), but the concentrations doubled by the late stage. This increase is most likely attributable to the 50% increase in lipid content observed in the late-stage yolk. These findings indicate that an early-stage sample cannot be directly compared to a late-stage sample, especially from different nests. These preliminary findings also allowed us to calculate the minimum number of eggs per nest required for analysis to obtain an acceptable mean concentration per nest. More research is required to investigate geographical trends of contaminant concentrations and potential health effects (i.e., abnormalities) caused by these contaminants on sea turtle development.

  4. Performance and egg quality of aged laying hens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    initiation of the second egg production period, were housed in cages located in a three-deck battery-type cage block. .... 2 Supplied per kilogram of diet: 80 mg manganese, 80 mg iron, 60 mg zinc, 5 mg copper, 0.2 mg cobalt, 0.5 mg iodine, ... preserved in airtight containers and stored at 10 °C in an air-conditioned room.

  5. Juniper oil improves oxidative stability and eggshell and albumin quality of quail eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, S S; Yesilbag, D; Meral, Y; Cetin, I; Biricik, H

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of juniper oil (JO) dietary supplementation on the laying performance, egg traits and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations of quail. 2. A total of 400 female Pharaoh quails were equally divided into 4 groups containing 100 quails (5 replicates of 20 quails each). The study included a control treatment with no diet additives, and the treatments were as follows: (group 1) 100 mg JO/kg; (group 2) 200 mg JO/kg; (group 3) 300 mg JO/kg. The experiment was carried out for 60 d. 3. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences in body weight, egg weight, egg mass, egg shape index, yolk colour, egg production, feed consumption or feed efficiency. 4. The Haugh unit was increased in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control group. Dietary fortification with JO improved eggshell thickness and breaking strength compared to the control group. Furthermore, the damaged egg ratio was significantly decreased in group 3 compared to the control. The increasing concentration of JO (200 and 300 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in egg yolk MDA concentration after 15 and 30 d of storage at 20°C. 5. It was concluded that inclusion of JO in layer diets can improve egg quality characteristics in terms of Haugh unit, eggshell thickness and breaking strength. Moreover, supplementation of JO in the diets of quail may enhance the antioxidant status of eggs, and the most effective doses of JO were 200 and 300 mg/kg.

  6. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vega-López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010, were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls and non-consumers (n = 57. Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal or 14%; p = 0.033, protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031, total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039, monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020, and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004, and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070 and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082. Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  7. Quality Changes of N-3 PUFAs Enriched and Conventional Eggs under Different Home Storage Conditions with Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs enriched eggs are popular for their enrichment of PUFAs, but their freshness and quality are prone to decline with time, particularly if storage conditions are not well maintained. Home storage is the last but a neglected important tach in eggs supply chain, but few studies are available on the egg storage in the home stage. This study aimed to evaluate the internal quality change of both n-3 PUFAs enriched and conventional eggs by simulating eggs stored at consumers’ home in refrigeration and under room temperature. The egg quality indices (Haugh unit, yolk index, weight, and albumen pH were adopted and analyzed for both storage conditions. Wireless sensor network (WSN was used for real-time monitoring of the temperature and humidity during storage. The results showed that temperature, humidity and time of storage all have an influence on the freshness of both n-3 PUFAs enriched and conventional eggs and there is no significant difference happened to n-3 PUFAs enriched eggs and conventional eggs. Refrigeration can decelerate the quality deterioration of both n-3 PUFAs enriched and conventional eggs and consumers should be educated about how to maintain the internal quality of eggs during home storage.

  8. Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendri, Imen; Khannous, Lamia; Mallek, Zouhir; Traore, Al Ibrahim; Gharsallah, Néji; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2012-06-07

    The health benefits of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are generally recognized. Unfortunately, in most Mediterranean countries, the recommended daily intake of these compounds is rarely met. Therefore, enrichment of commonly occurring foods can boost intake of these fatty acids. In this regard, eggs are an interesting target, as they form an integral part of the diet. Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to Laying Hens feed at concentrations 1% or 2% and was evaluated for its effects on performance of the production and on egg quality. The Laying Hens were given access to 110 g of feed mixtures daily that was either a basal diet or a 'zeolite diet' (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 1% or 2%). It was found that zeolite treatment had a positive and significatif (pegg height and eggshell strength. While dietary zeolite supplementation tended to/or has no significant effects on total egg, eggshell, yolk and albumen weights. It was found also that zeolite mainly increases level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg. This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for Laying Hens, as part of a comprehensive program to control egg quality and to increase level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg.

  9. Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The health benefits of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are generally recognized. Unfortunately, in most Mediterranean countries, the recommended daily intake of these compounds is rarely met. Therefore, enrichment of commonly occurring foods can boost intake of these fatty acids. In this regard, eggs are an interesting target, as they form an integral part of the diet. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to Laying Hens feed at concentrations 1% or 2% and was evaluated for its effects on performance of the production and on egg quality. The Laying Hens were given access to 110 g of feed mixtures daily that was either a basal diet or a ‘zeolite diet’ (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 1% or 2%). It was found that zeolite treatment had a positive and significatif (p zeolite supplementation tended to/or has no significant effects on total egg, eggshell, yolk and albumen weights. It was found also that zeolite mainly increases level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg. Conclusion This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for Laying Hens, as part of a comprehensive program to control egg quality and to increase level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg. PMID:22676421

  10. Effect of thermal stress on fertility and egg quality of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S

    2016-10-01

    Heat stress is one of the major causes of a decreased performance of laying quail in tropical and subtropical countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature humidity index (THI) on fertility aspects, external and internal egg quality parameters in Japanese quail. One hundred and forty four (144) Japanese quail, 12 of weeks age, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, lower than 70), H 1 (at moderate THI, 70-75) and H 2 (at high THI, 76-80). Quail in the control and H 1 groups had significant greater fertility (p=0.021) and hatchability % (p=0.037), compared with H 2 group. Quail in the control group (at low THI) laid heavier egg weight with a higher external (egg weight (p=0.03), shell thickness, shell weight, eggshell ratio and eggshell density (p=0.001)) and internal egg quality score (albumin weight (p=0.026), yolk height (p=0.003), yolk index (p=0.039) and Haugh unit (p=0.001)). Otherwise, such quality traits were compromised in heat-stressed quail. At the high THI level, egg weight had a significant positive correlation with albumin weight (r=0.58, pegg quality traits, indicating a detrimental policy of economic income. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quail performance and egg quality at the end of production fed with varying levels of calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Santos de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of dietary calcium on performance, egg quality, and the amount of calcium retained in the meat and excreted by Japanese quails at the final production. Four hundred 46-58-week-old Japanese quails were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of five calcium level treatments: T1 = 2.95%, T2 = 3.25%, T3 = 3.55%, T4 = 3.85% and T5 = 4.15% calcium. The performance variables included feed intake (g bird-1 day-1, egg production (%, feed conversion by egg mass and per dozen eggs, egg mass (g, and viability. For egg quality, we assessed egg weight, percentage of albumen, yolk weight, percentage of shell, and shell thickness. We also evaluated the amount of calcium present in the meat and the amount of calcium excreted by quails. Increasing levels of calcium linearly influenced feed conversion, weight of yolk, and percentage of eggshell. Shell thickness increased up to the 3.85% calcium treatment. Calcium content of the meat differed among the quails; the quails fed the lowest level of calcium (2.95% showed higher calcium content in meat, whereas calcium excretion increased with increasing levels of calcium in the diet. In conclusion, the addition of 3.85% of calcium in quail feed at the end of production improved eggshell quality, and maintained internal quality and performance within the recommended standards for the production phase tested in quails. Levels higher than 3.85% calcium negatively influenced the parameters analyzed.

  12. Effect of dietary organic selenium and zinc on the internal egg quality of quail eggs for different periods and under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IB Fernandez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal quality of eggs of Japanese quails fed diets supplemented with chelated selenium and zinc. The experiment was carried out for 120 days, and 144 birds were divided in random blocks into four treatments (control; 0.3 ppm Se; 60 ppm Zn and 0.3 ppm Se + 60 ppm Zn. Ten, 14, 18, and 22 weeks after the beginning of lay, eggs were collected and stored under two different temperatures (environmental temperature or refrigeration and for 10, 20, and 30 days. Eggs were analyzed for: Haugh units (HU, albumen height (AH, yolk index (YI, and albumen index (AI. Parameters were only statistically influenced by the interaction between dietary treatment and storage time. It was concluded that the addition of organic Se and Zn influenced internal egg quality when eggs were stored up to 20 days, independently of storage temperature, suggesting that the combined supplementation of organic Se and Zn improve internal egg quality and extend egg shelf life.

  13. Is it possible to increase the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs without affecting their technological and/or sensorial quality and the laying performance of hens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, E; Chartrin, P; Lessire, M; Meteau, K; Chesneau, G; Guillevic, M; Mourot, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) content of eggs without affecting their sensorial and/or technological properties or the laying performance of hens. Laying hens from line 477 were divided into 5 groups corresponding to 5 different diets over the laying period: control diet (C) and diets containing extruded linseed with a high level of fibre (ELHF), extruded linseed with a low level of fibre (ELLF), microalgae, or a combination of 75% ELLF and 25% MA (ELLF+MA). Dietary enrichment with n-3 FA had no effect on the laying performance, hen body weight or egg white viscosity. The egg yolks produced by hens fed the diet containing microalgae were redder than egg yolks from the other groups, suggesting the presence of red pigments in the microalgae preparation. However, the colour difference was low and not perceptible to the human eye. Moreover, colour measurement of egg yolks by sensorial analysis panellists using the Roche colour fan did not reveal a diet effect on this parameter. Egg yolk lipid content was not affected by diet. The egg yolk of hens fed on diets containing linseed and/or microalgae had greater n-3 FA content (×2.5 to 2.9 compared to group C). Linseed mainly increased the linolenic acid content (×3.0 to 3.4 compared to group C) and the microalgae increased the LC n-3 FA content (×4.1 compared to group C). Dietary enrichment with n-3 FA had no effect on the sensorial quality of shell cooked eggs except for the "unusual flavour" criterion for which the score was higher for the MA group compared to the other groups and corresponded to a fishy flavour.

  14. The effect of the clove essential oil to the production and quality of lyaing hens eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum essential oil to the egg production parameters and egg quality of laying hens. A total of 40 Lohmann Brown laying hens were divided into 4 groups (n = 10. The laying hens were fed 20 weeks ad libitum. The control group was fed with complete feed mixtures without additives. The first group of hens was fed a diet with complete feed mixtures with 0.3 mg.kg-1 of clove essential oil. The second group of hens was fed a diet with complete feed mixtures with 0.6 mg.kg-1 of clove oil and the third group of hens was fed a diet with complete feed mixtures with 1 mg.kg-1 of clove oil. Egg production, egg weight (g, specific egg weight, albumen weight (g, albumen index, Haugh Units (HU, yolk weight (g, yolk index, yolk color (HLR were studied. The results show that the addition of clove oil, especially in the group of laying hens with the addition of 1 mg.kg-1 clove oil had no significantly different (P>0.05 to the egg production (the order of the groups: 90.3; 91.8; 91.3; 92.6 %. In egg weight were found no significant differences between groups. The addition of 1 mg.kg-1 clove oil had significant (P>0.05 influenced the albumen index and the addition of 0.6 mg.kg-1 and 1 mg.kg-1 clove oil had significant (P>0.05 influenced Haugh units. In the control group was found not significant (P>0.05 different in yolk weight compared with other groups. In the other parameters of egg quality (albumen weight, yolk index, yolk colour with the addition of clove oil were found no significant differences between groups.

  15. Lipid oxidation in fresh and stored eggs enriched with dietary ω3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... oil (SO)) and dietary doses of α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TA) (0, 60 and 120 mg/kg of feed) and vitamin A (0. IU, 10000 IU and ... The results showed that TBA value in fresh and stored eggs was higher in groups containing fish oil than other ..... affected by dietary oregano essential oil and α-tocopheryl acetate.

  16. The Effect of Calcium and Available Phosphorus Levels on Performance, Egg Quality and Bone Characteristics of Japanese Quails at End of the Egg-Production Phase

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    CLN Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Calcium (Ca and available phosphorus (avP requirements for egg production are different between the beginning and the end of the egg-production cycle. The objective of this study was to estimate the Ca and avP requirements of Japanese quails at end of the production phase. In total, 256 Japanese quails with 48 weeks of age were randomly distributed in 2 x 2 factorial arrangement consisting of two Ca levels (29 and 38 g/kg and two avP levels (1.5 and 3.0 g/kg, totaling four treatments with eight replicates of eight hens each. The variables evaluated were feed intake (FI; egg production (EP; marketable egg production (MEP; egg weight (EW; egg mass (EM; feed conversion ratio per egg mass (FCRM; feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs (FCRD; livability (L; yolk weight (YW, albumen weight (AW, eggshell weight (SW; yolk percentage (YP, albumen percentage (AP, eggshell percentage (SP, specific egg weight (SEW; bone calcium percentage (BCa, bone phosphorus percentage (BP, bone ash weight (Bash and bone ash percentage (PBash. There was no interaction between Ca and avP levels for any of the evaluated parameters, except for SEW. Quail performance was not influenced by the treatments, except for MEP. Bone characteristics were not influenced by the tested dietary Ca and avP levels. However, SW and SP increased and AP decreased as dietary Ca level increased. The dietary supplementation of 38 g Ca/kg and 3.0 g avP/kg may increase marketable egg production and the egg quality of Japanese quails at end of the production cycle.

  17. Nutritional modulation of health, egg quality and environmental pollution of the layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available World egg production and consumption have been increasing for the past decades. Traditional strategies in poultry nutrition have made vital contributions to this great growth in quantity. However, current global issues should be considered in modern egg production such as growing populations and food security, food safety and quality, limited resources and environmental problems. The development of knowledge of poultry nutrition and modern biotechnology provides novel nutritional approaches to closely fit the requirement of pullets and laying hens, which will consequently decrease the nutrition emissions and maintain the lower cost of feed. Nutrition has also been widely accepted as a strategy to influence health and diseases of laying hens. The maintenance of good health is an important prerequisite for improving productivity and egg quality. In addition, there are many measures and strategies for minimizing the incidence of egg defects and providing a choice of lifestyle to enhance human health. This paper reviews current research progress on developing innovative technologies and strategies to maximize animal health and performance, improve the quality of egg products and minimize pollution caused by poultry production.

  18. The effect of foeniculum vulgare essence on production performance, egg quality and reproductive parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Taki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fennel essence on performance, egg quality and ovarian morphology of commercial laying eggs for ten weeks. In this experiment, one hundred and forty 30-wk-old commercial egg laying type Hy-Line (W36 were randomly assigned into 4 treatments with 5 replicates and 8 birds per each. Treatments were a control (0.0% essence and diets containing 200, 400 and 600 ppm fennel essence. Performance parameters include egg weight and egg production was recorded daily and feed intake, FCR and egg quality parameters were measured weekly. At the end of the experiment, 2 birds of each replicate was randomly selected and slaughtered for analysis of ovarian morphology. Different levels of fennel essence no significant effect on egg production. Different levels of fennel essence no significant effect on egg production. Levels of 200 and 400 ppm of fennel essence showed a significant increase in egg weight. Levels of fennel essence had no significant effect on feed intake and FCR but it caused significant increase in yolk color and had significant effect on the properties of egg shell. Levels of essence had no significant effect on the relative weight of the ovary, oviduct and stroma but 200 ppm of fennel essence had significant effect on weight of large yellow follicles. The results showed that the addition of fennel essence improved egg weight, egg shell and yolk color and had a significant effect on the large yellow follicles.

  19. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi-Fard M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  20. Role of temperature and hosts (Sitotroga cereallela and Corcyra cephalonica egg age on the quality production of Trichogramma chilonis

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    Farzana Perveen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for efficient and quality production of the stingless wasp, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii with respect to rearing temperature and host egg age of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier and the rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton on its biology. Maximum parasitism was observed 95.7 and 84.3% at 28 C degree, while minimum parasitism was 61.3 and 39.6% at 32 C degree on S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. The most favorable temperature was 28 oC on which maximum parasitism and adult emergence were obtained from S. cereallela eggs. Maximum parasitism was observed 97.4 and 79.4% in 2 h old, while minimum parasitism was 24.6 and 17.3% in 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. Parasitism by T. chilonis decreased with increasing host eggs age. Maximum adult T. chilonis emergence was 98.2% in 2 h old eggs, while minimum emergence was 21.5% on 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela. Adult T. chilonis longevity on the host eggs of different ages of female wasp was non-significantly different to each other except the 2 and 12 h old eggs which were significantly different from rest of the treatments in both hosts' eggs of different ages. Maximum female longevity was 4.0 d on 2 h fresh eggs C. cephalonica, while minimum was 3.0 d on 24-48 h old S. cereallela eggs. The female ratio for different host eggs age was almost non-significant to each other except 2 h old eggs with maximum number of female (64. The results showed that T. chilonis preferred young eggs when offered older eggs, simultaneously.

  1. The effects of egg and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides addition on gluten-free sorghum bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of whole egg addition (as is) at 20, 25, or 30% (flour basis) on sorghum bread quality was evaluated. The use of the antistaling agent diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM) at 0.5% (flour basis) at each of the egg addition levels was also studied. Evaluated quality facto...

  2. Effect of cage tier and age on performance, egg quality and stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cage tier and age on performance characteristics of layer hybrids, egg quality and some stress parameters. Ninety laying hens (hybrid ATAK-S) of similar bodyweights were used in the experiment. They were housed in three-tier conventional battery cages (bottom, ...

  3. Effects of dietary Mn-methionine supplementation on the egg quality of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L L; Zhang, N N; Gong, Y J; Zhou, M Y; Zhan, H Q; Zou, X T

    2017-10-25

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary manganese-methionine (Mn-Met) supplementation on the egg quality of laying hens. A total of 480 Jinghong-1 strain layers aged 53 wk were divided into 5 groups with 6 replicates of 16 layers. Birds in the control group were fed a diet supplemented with 60 mg Mn/kg in the form of MnSO4; the birds in other 4 experimental groups were fed a diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg Mn/kg as Mn-Met, respectively. Dietary Mn-Met treatments significantly affected (P  0.05) in the eggshell gland (ESG) in the expression of calbindin-D28k (CaBP-D28k) mRNA in response to any diet treatment. In conclusion, dietary Mn-Met supplementation increased internal egg quality and the ultrastructure of the eggshell. Compared to the control, 60 mg/kg Mn-Met treatment resulted in improving egg quality, and 20 mg/kg Mn-Met treatment had similar effects the control treatment had on the egg quality. This indicates that the inorganic Mn can be replaced by the lower concentration of Mn-Met. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Nutritional Quality of Eggs of Amberlink and Hyline Layers Fed on Different Levels of Provitamin A-Biofortified Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GW Zeina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was conducted to determine the interaction of types of maize (Provitamin A-biofortified maize (PABM versus white maize and strain of laying birds (Amberlink and Hyline on nutritional quality of eggs. Twenty-one of each of Amberlink and Hyline laying hens were fed on three diets for 30 days. Birds were distributed in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement constituting three diets (0, 50 or 100 % of PABM and two strains (Amberlink & Hyline. There was a diet × strain interaction on egg shell weight, average daily feed intake, egg production, egg weight and egg shell thickness. Eggs produced by layers under 100 % PABM had lighter eggshell weight and lower eggshell percentage. In contrast, eggs produced by layers under 50 % PABM diet had signi-ficantly higher eggshell percentage, heavier egg shell weight and thicker eggshell. As the level of PABM increased, the yellow and red hue (Hunter a* and b* values significantly increased while the lightness values (Hunter L* values decreased. As the level of PABM in the ration increased, the vitamin A content of the egg yolk also significantly increased. Assimilation of vitamin A from feed to egg yolk in Amberlink and Hyline hens was similar. Hence, egg enrichment with vitamin A can be achieved by using PABM in layers ration. The use of high level of PABM had a negative effect on the eggshell quality traits.

  5. Membrane lipids of the stallion spermatozoon in relation to sperm quality and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, B Macías; Fernández, L González; Ferrusola, C Ortega; Salazar-Sandoval, C; Rodríguez, A Morillo; Martinez, H Rodríguez; Tapia, J A; Morcuende, D; Peña, F J

    2011-02-01

    Lipids were extracted from ejaculated spermatozoa from seven individual stallions to distinguish neutral lipids (NL) and polar lipids (PL) and determine their variation among stallions and their relationship with sperm quality and sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. The isolated fatty acids were correlated with sperm quality (membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and expression of active caspases) and the sensitivity of the sperm plasma membrane to LPO. The miristic (C14: 0), palmitic (C16: 0), stearic (C18: 0) and oleic (C18: 1n9) acids were predominant among the NLs. Within the phospholipid fraction, the docosapentanoic acid (C22: 5n6) was dominant, albeit varying among stallions. Surprisingly, the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively correlated with sperm quality and a low propensity for LPO, probably because these particular fatty acids provide a higher fluidity of the plasma membrane. The stallion showing the poorest sperm membrane integrity plus a high level of LPO in his ejaculate had a lower percentage (p<0.05) of this fatty acid in his sperm plasma membranes. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Impact of Breakfasts (with or without Eggs on Body Weight Regulation and Blood Lipids in University Students over a 14-Week Semester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M. Rueda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of breakfast type on body weight and blood lipids were evaluated in university freshman. Seventy-three subjects were instructed to consume a breakfast with eggs (Egg Breakfast, EB, n = 39 or without (Non-Egg Breakfast, NEB, n = 34, five times/week for 14 weeks. Breakfast composition, anthropometric measurements and blood lipids were measured at multiple times. During the study, mean weight change was 1.6 ± 5.3 lbs (0.73 ± 2.41 kg, but there was no difference between groups. Both groups consumed similar calories for breakfast at all time-points. The EB group consumed significantly more calories at breakfast from protein, total fat and saturated fat, but significantly fewer calories from carbohydrate at every time-point. Cholesterol consumption at breakfast in the EB group was significantly higher than the NEB group at all time points. Breakfast food choices (other than eggs were similar between groups. Blood lipids were similar between groups at all time points, indicating that the additional 400 mg/day of dietary cholesterol did not negatively impact blood lipids.

  7. Impact of breakfasts (with or without eggs) on body weight regulation and blood lipids in university students over a 14-week semester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Janice M; Khosla, Pramod

    2013-12-16

    The effects of breakfast type on body weight and blood lipids were evaluated in university freshman. Seventy-three subjects were instructed to consume a breakfast with eggs (Egg Breakfast, EB, n = 39) or without (Non-Egg Breakfast, NEB, n = 34), five times/week for 14 weeks. Breakfast composition, anthropometric measurements and blood lipids were measured at multiple times. During the study, mean weight change was 1.6 ± 5.3 lbs (0.73 ± 2.41 kg), but there was no difference between groups. Both groups consumed similar calories for breakfast at all time-points. The EB group consumed significantly more calories at breakfast from protein, total fat and saturated fat, but significantly fewer calories from carbohydrate at every time-point. Cholesterol consumption at breakfast in the EB group was significantly higher than the NEB group at all time points. Breakfast food choices (other than eggs) were similar between groups. Blood lipids were similar between groups at all time points, indicating that the additional 400 mg/day of dietary cholesterol did not negatively impact blood lipids.

  8. Increasing persistency in lay and stabilising egg quality in longer laying cycles. What are the challenges?

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, M. M.; Nys, Y.; Dunn, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    1. In the past 50 years, selection starting initially at the breed level and then using quantitative genetics coupled with a sophisticated breeding pyramid, has resulted in a very productive hybrid for a variety of traits associated with egg production.\\ud 2. One major trait currently being developed further is persistency of lay and the concept of the ‘long life’ layer. Persistency in lay however cannot be achieved without due consideration of how to sustain egg quality and the health and we...

  9. Effect of nanosilicon dioxide on growth performance, egg quality, liver histopathology and concentration of calcium, phosphorus and silicon in egg, liver and bone in laying quails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Samira; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir

    2017-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of nanosilicon dioxide (nSiO2) on performance, egg quality, liver histopathology and concentration of calcium (Ca), phosphorus and silicon (Si) in egg, liver and bone in laying quails. The experiment was administered using 60 laying quails at 16-26 weeks of age with five treatments [0 (control), 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg nSiO2 per kg of diet] and four replicates in a completely randomized design. During the experiment, the amount of feed intake was recorded weekly and performance parameters were measured. During the last 3 days of the experiment, all of the eggs in each replicate were collected and egg quality parameters were measured. At the end of 26 weeks of age, the birds were sacrificed and blood samples were collected. Liver samples from each treatment were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological assessment. The right thigh bone and a portion of liver were inserted in plastic bags and stored at - 20. The results showed that nSiO2 supplementation significantly affected egg weight and egg mass (P liver enzymes in plasma and the liver tissue histopathology were not significantly affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary supplementation of nSiO2 could improve bone density and performance without any adverse effect on the health of laying quails.

  10. Effect of nanosilicon dioxide on growth performance, egg quality, liver histopathology and concentration of calcium, phosphorus and silicon in egg, liver and bone in laying quails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Samira; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir

    2017-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of nanosilicon dioxide (nSiO2) on performance, egg quality, liver histopathology and concentration of calcium (Ca), phosphorus and silicon (Si) in egg, liver and bone in laying quails. The experiment was administered using 60 laying quails at 16-26 weeks of age with five treatments [0 (control), 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg nSiO2 per kg of diet] and four replicates in a completely randomized design. During the experiment, the amount of feed intake was recorded weekly and performance parameters were measured. During the last 3 days of the experiment, all of the eggs in each replicate were collected and egg quality parameters were measured. At the end of 26 weeks of age, the birds were sacrificed and blood samples were collected. Liver samples from each treatment were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological assessment. The right thigh bone and a portion of liver were inserted in plastic bags and stored at - 20. The results showed that nSiO2 supplementation significantly affected egg weight and egg mass ( P liver enzymes in plasma and the liver tissue histopathology were not significantly affected ( P > 0.05) by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary supplementation of nSiO2 could improve bone density and performance without any adverse effect on the health of laying quails.

  11. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50. The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%, had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05 and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05. Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z H; Gong, J G; Zhao, G X; Lin, X; Liu, Y C; Ma, K W

    2017-10-01

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 360 Beijing PINK-1 laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly distributed among five dietary treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 12 hens. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg diet resveratrol. The study lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week of adaptation and 8 weeks of the main experimental period. 3. The results indicated that dietary resveratrol significantly improved feed conversion ratios during 5-8 weeks and 1-8 weeks of the trial. Increasing dietary concentrations of the resveratrol linearly improved Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs. 4. The content of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum and cholesterol in yolk was significantly decreased by dietary resveratrol, and there were significant linear correlations between these indexes and resveratrol supplemental levels. 5. Dietary resveratrol supplementation significantly improved serum Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in groups with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg resveratrol as compared to the control, respectively. However, supplementation of resveratrol did not affect the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). 6. It is concluded that resveratrol supplementation has a positive effect on performance, lipid-related traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens.

  13. Effects on egg quality traits of genotype and diets with mussel meal or wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, H; Jönsson, L; Johansson, L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects on exterior and interior egg quality and sensory characteristics of eggs from hens fed diets with admixtures of 3.5 or 7.0% of mussel meal or 20% wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The mussel meal diets followed organic standards, whereas the DDGS diet was formulated for hens in conventional production. Standard diets, one organic and one conventional from a Swedish feed manufacturer, were included for comparison. The study used 164 Hy-Line White W-98 and 164 Hy-Line Brown layers housed in small-group furnished cages. Egg flavor or odor was not affected by genotype. Egg flavor intensity was stronger in eggs from hens fed either of the mussel diets or the standard organic diet compared with the conventional diet. There were no differences between any of the diets in egg odor intensity, off-flavor, or off-odor. The mussel diets and the standard organic diet gave stronger yolk pigmentation than the conventional and DDGS diet, respectively. Manure DM was lower with the admixture of 7.0% mussel meal than 3.5%. There was a tendency (P < 0.10) toward a difference between diets in dirty eggs, and the percentage was highest with 7.0% mussel meal. Diet or genotype had no effect on egg weight, albumen height, shell deformation, shell breaking strength, or proportion of cracked eggs. Genotype differences were found in weight percentage of albumen, yolk, and shell and in the presence of blood and meat spots and in percentage of dirty eggs. In conclusion, the majority of egg quality traits were unaffected by the diets studied. With the admixture of DDGS used in the present study, the characteristics of eggs were similar to those of eggs produced on the conventional standard diet. There was no indication of impaired egg odor or flavor with the used fractions of DDGS or mussel meal.

  14. Effects of dietary red yeast (Sporidiobolus pararoseus) on production performance and egg quality of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapingkae, W; Panyachai, K; Yachai, M; Doan, H V

    2017-06-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary red yeast (Sporidiobolus pararoseus) on production performance and egg quality of laying hens. A total of 200 Esa Brown laying hens (23 weeks of age) were allocated equally to negative control group (no yeast supplement); positive control group (2 g/kg of Saccharomyces cerevisiae); 0.5, 1, 2 g/kg red yeast respectively. The experiment was lasted for 12 weeks. Feed intake, hen-day egg production and egg weight were not different between control and supplemented groups. However, yeast-supplemented groups were significantly improved feed efficiency (p  .05) differences among yeast-supplemented groups were observed. The hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzymeA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity was significantly lower (p < .05) in the 2 g/kg red yeast-supplemented group compared to the control and other red yeast-supplemented groups. Concentrations of caecal short-chain fatty acids was increased (p < .05) in laying hens fed 1 and 2 g/kg red yeast as compared to the control group. Dietary administration of 2 g/kg red yeast (S. pararoceus) significantly improved egg yolk colour, decrease serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Dietary Protein Sources Affect Internal Quality of Raw and Cooked Shell Eggs under Refrigerated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. C. Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on the internal quality of refrigerated eggs. A total of 360 laying hens (32 wk of age were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (five replicates per treatment and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM as the protein ingredient(s. A 6×3 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage time (0 d, 2 wk, and 4 wk as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 270 eggs were collected for egg quality determination. The egg Haugh unit (HU in the CSP, SBM-DRM, and DRM groups were significantly lower than those in the SBM and SBM-CSP groups. The hardness and springiness of the cooked yolk in the CSP group were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups. A lower HU, lower yolk index and higher albumen pH were observed in the DRM group compared to the SBM and SBM-CSP groups when the eggs were stored to 4 wk, and the HU was improved in the CSP-DRM group compared to the DRM group (p<0.05. Higher yolk hardness was observed in the CSP group compared to the other groups during storage (p<0.05, but the hardness of the cooked yolk in the SBM-CSP and CSP-DRM groups showed no difference in comparison to the SBM group. In conclusion, CSP may ameliorate the negative effects of DRM on the HU of refrigerated eggs, and SBM or DRM may alleviate the adverse effects of CSP on yolk hardness.

  16. Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the different feed additives studied in poultry production, clinoptilolite, an aluminosilicate capable of adsorbing harmful substances and of improving live performance and egg and meat quality, was evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of layers. In total, 576 layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement (three calcium levels - 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and four clinoptilolite levels - 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%, with 12 treatments of six replicates of eight birds each. The experiment included four 28-d cycles. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. There was a significant interaction between the evaluated factors for egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and egg mass. The lowest calcium level resulted in worse performance and eggshell quality. Clinoptilolite levels affected albumen and yolk content. It was concluded that up to 0.50% inclusion of clinoptilolite in layer diets does not benefit layer performance or eggshell quality. Although the inclusion of only 2.5% calcium in layer diets is not recommended, it is possible to add 3.1% because it promoted similar results as the recommended level of 3.7%.

  17. No nutritional benefits of egg cannibalism for Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on a high-quality diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, A H; Michaud, J P; Bayoumy, M H; Awadalla, S S; El-Gendy, M

    2017-09-11

    Egg cannibalism serves various functions in the Coccinellidae. Here we examined the fitness consequences of egg cannibalism by neonates, fourth instar larvae, and prereproductive adults of Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, with beetles fed a diet of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs. Cannibalism of two eggs by neonates had no effect on development, and cannibalism of five eggs by fourth instars did not benefit any aspect of reproduction, but delayed pupation slightly. Cannibalism of eggs by pre-reproductive adults had no effect on reproductive success in any combination of reciprocal crosses of cannibals and non-cannibals. Females did not recognize, nor avoid consuming, their own clutches, and cannibalism propensity did not change following mating and onset of oviposition in either sex. These results contrast with those for more strictly aphidophagous species in which larvae gain developmental benefits, and females may recognize and avoid filial egg clusters while using cannibalism to interfere with conspecific females, whereas males reduce egg cannibalism after mating because they cannot recognize filial clusters. Egg cannibalism may confer developmental benefits to C. maculata when diet is suboptimal, as previously shown, but no such benefits were evident on the high-quality E. kuehniella egg diet. Female C. maculata do not require aphids to reproduce and distribute their eggs broadly in the environment, given that larvae can develop on pollen and non-aphid prey. Thus, C. maculata is not subject to the intraspecific competition that selects for cannibalism in more aphidophagous species, and also lacks many secondary adaptations associated with the behaviour.

  18. Comparison of Aviary, Barn and Conventional Cage Raising of Chickens on Laying Performance and Egg Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahammed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to compare the productive performance of three different layer raising systems; conventional cage (CC, barn (BR and aviary (AV. The AV is welfare bestowed housing that allows free locomotion for birds within the BR. The BR allows bird’s free locomotion inside BR but without multilevel structures. Both pullets and cockerels were housed together in both AV and BR, but only pullets in CC. Seventeen weeks old Lohmann Brown Lite (n = 800 pullets were housed in AV during this study. The same age layer pullets were simultaneously assigned to either at CC or BR to compare egg production performance with AV. The duration of experiment was 40 weeks (from 21st to 60th week. There were no remarkable differences in egg production, hen day egg production (HDEP and average egg weight among three rearing systems. First 20 weeks (phase-1 average HDEP (% of AV, CC, and BR were 85.9, 88.8, 87.1 and average egg weights (g were 57.5, 59.9, and 56.9 respectively. Those of the remaining 20 weeks (phase-2 were 87.1, 87.9, 85.5 and 64.2, 63.0 62.1, respectively. Daily feed intakes (122 g, 110 g, 125 g; feed conversion ratio (2.4, 2.1, 2.5 and daily egg mass (53.9 g, 54.4 g, 52.8 g data from AV, CC, and BR were not influenced significantly by the respective raising systems. Daily feed intake of layers in both AV (124 g and BR (127 g tended to be higher than that in CC (113 g during phase-2. Overall, exterior egg quality (dirty and cracked eggs in both phases was superior in BR compared with AV and CC, whereas CC generated intermediate results. This study indicated that the HDEP per se in AV and BR were not significantly different from that in CC. The study implied that the facility depreciation cost for AV and cost for increased feed intake in AV compared to CC are believed to be critical to evaluate the cost effectiveness of egg production in AV.

  19. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D

    2011-12-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers.

  20. Egg quality in laying hens exposed to Mycoplasma gallisepticum F-strain attenuated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, L D S; Santos, F F D; Togashi, C K; Abreu, D L D C; Pimentel, J C; Sesti, L; Pereira, V L D A; Nascimento, E R D

    2017-04-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, reduction in feed intake, lower and uneven growth, decline in egg production and quality, and increase in mortality. Among the attenuated vaccination strains, MGF can reduce clinical signs and lesions in layer hens, stimulate immune responses of cellular and humoral basis, act as an instrument of competitive exclusion in relation to field strains, and reduce the use of antimicrobials. This study aimed to investigate the effects of attenuated MG F-strain vaccination on egg quality in 3 groups of 30 hens each, being one control and 2 vaccinated. Vaccination was applied by ocular route at 8 and 12 wk of age. Comparisons were made among unvaccinated hens; vaccinated at 8 wk of age; and vaccinated at 8 and 12 wk of age. There were no statistical differences in eggshell thickness and weight among groups. Eggs from twice vaccinated birds yielded a Haugh unit significantly lower than the other groups without affecting egg classification. There was no significant difference in ELISA results between the vaccinated groups. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fendri Imen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health benefits of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are generally recognized. Unfortunately, in most Mediterranean countries, the recommended daily intake of these compounds is rarely met. Therefore, enrichment of commonly occurring foods can boost intake of these fatty acids. In this regard, eggs are an interesting target, as they form an integral part of the diet. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites was added to Laying Hens feed at concentrations 1% or 2% and was evaluated for its effects on performance of the production and on egg quality. The Laying Hens were given access to 110 g of feed mixtures daily that was either a basal diet or a ‘zeolite diet’ (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 1% or 2%. It was found that zeolite treatment had a positive and significatif (p  Conclusion This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for Laying Hens, as part of a comprehensive program to control egg quality and to increase level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg.

  2. Monitoring storage time and quality attribute of egg based on electronic nose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yongwei [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Jun Wang, E-mail: jwang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Bo Zhou; Qiujun Lu [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2009-09-21

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of an electronic nose (E-nose) technique for monitoring egg storage time and quality attributes. An electronic nose was used to distinguish eggs under cool and room-temperature storage by means of principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), BP neural network (BPNN) and the combination of a genetic algorithm and BP neural network (GANN). Results showed that the E-nose could distinguish eggs of different storage time under cool and room-temperature storage by LDA, PCA, BPNN and GANN; better prediction values were obtained by GANN than by BPNN. Relationships were established between the E-nose signal and egg quality indices (Haugh unit and yolk factor) by quadratic polynomial step regression (QPSR). The prediction models for Haugh unit and yolk factor indicated a good prediction performance. The Haugh unit model had a standard error of prediction of 3.74 and correlation coefficient 0.91; the yolk factor model had a 0.02 SEP and 0.93 correlation coefficient between predicted and measured values respectively.

  3. A comparison of fatty acid composition and quality aspects of eggs and larvae from cultured and wild broodstock of common sole ( Solea solea L . )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Suhr, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Eggs from a F-1 cultured broodstock of sole were compared with eggs from wild-caught breeders throughout one spawning season, to evaluate if egg quality may be affected by culture-related conditions. Fourteen batches of eggs from cultured broodstock and 17 batches from wild-caught sole were compa...

  4. Evaluation of Muscodor cinnamomi as an egg biofumigant for the reduction of microorganisms on eggshell surfaces and its effect on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarach, Nakarin; Kaewyana, Chariya; Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn; Kumla, Jaturong; Matsui, Kenji; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2017-03-06

    The presence of microorganisms on the eggshell surface is a factor of consideration in determining egg quality. These microorganisms can contribute to egg spoilage and can infect the egg. In this study, 18 morphotypes of microorganisms were isolated from eggshells. Morphological, biochemical, physiological and molecular analyses were used to identify these morphotypes into 7 species; Bacillus drentensis, Staphylococcus arlettae, Stap. cohnii, Stap. kloosii, Stap. saprophyticus, Stap. sciuri and Stap. xylosus. The potential of Muscodor cinnamomi to reduce the presence of microorganisms on eggshells by biological fumigation was investigated. The result showed that 16 strains of the tested microorganisms were inactivated after the exposure of the fungal volatile organic compounds. The most abundant compound was 2-methylpropanoic acid, followed by 3-methylbutan-1-ol. Our results indicated that a 24-h period of fumigation of 100g rye grain culture of M. cinnamomi was the minimum dose that could significantly reduce the number of microorganisms on the eggshell surface. Fumigated eggs from both box and cabinet fumigation trials showed significantly lower microbial numbers on the eggshell than non-fumigated eggs during the storage period of 14days. It was found that the values of the yolk index, albumen index and the Haugh unit of the eggs decreased during this storage time. However, those values of the fumigated eggs from both fumigation trials were found to be significantly higher than the non-fumigated eggs after the 24-h fumigation period and following storage for 5, 7 and 14days. However, the values of the albumen index were not found to have significantly increased over 5days of the box trial. This study is the first to report on mycofumigation activity for the purposes of reducing the presence of microorganisms on the surface of eggshells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of quantity of added eggs on whole meal pasta quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the convenience of different chemical and rheological methods for determining the quality of two spelt cultivars for pasta making and the influence of egg quantity on whole meal pasta quality. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit has been calculated to show significant differences between different samples. Score analysis is being useful tool for accessing the effect of eggs to spelt pasta quality, and this analysis proved that though lower scores (0.270 for rheological characteristics experienced with cultivar Eco, the addition of eggs is positively contributing to the spelt pasta quality yielding the best score for pasta (0.75, contrary to the cultivar Austria attributed with superior rheology scores. Whole meal spelt is characterised by lower Ca, but higher Fe and Mn content in comparison to bread wheat. In comparison with common pasta, spelt is a suitable raw material for a new product with improved functional properties at the market.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRI 46005 i br. TR 31055

  6. Limestone particle sizes and lighting regimens on egg and bone quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Patrícia de Souza Xavier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of limestone particle sizes in the diet and of lighting regimes on the egg and bone quality and on the performance of commercial laying hens. Three hundred Hissex White layers, at 18 weeks of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 5×2 factorial arrangement (coarse limestone in the diet at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%; with or without artificial light, with five replicates of six birds. No significant interaction was observed between particle sizes and lighting regime for the evaluated parameters. There was no significant effect of coarse limestone level in the diet on the performance and egg quality of hens; however, bone deformity (3.23 to 4.01 mm, strength (5.19 to 6.70 kgf cm-2, and mineral matter (51.09 to 59.61% improved as the proportion of coarse limestone increased. For lighting regime, the treatment with artificial light yielded higher Haugh unit values (87.17 vs. 85.54 than that with natural light only. Greater limestone particles improve bone quality of laying hens, and the use of artificial light can benefit the albumen quality of the eggs.

  7. Diet composition and quality for Calanus finmarchicus egg production and hatching success off south-west Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Gudfinnsson, H.G.; Gislason, A.

    2002-01-01

    (0.4 mg m(-3)). Excluding this high production rate from statistical analysis, the remaining egg-production rates were found to be positively correlated with phytoplankton biomass, as well as with parameters representing healthy phytoplankton condition, food quality and diatom-type fatty acids....... Hatching success of eggs was negatively correlated with some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids related to phytoplankton senescence....

  8. Quality of life in families with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anette

    2013-01-01

    and for their family members. Methods: The cohort comprises an existing database with 394 Danish children, teenagers and adults diagnosed with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy in accordance with EAACI guidelines. We use the validated Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQ). The questionnaires have been......). The siblings receive an age-adjusted questionnaire. The parents to children from 8 years and above also receive a Parent Form. Mothers and fathers receive separate questionnaires. The patients and their relatives are invited by letter with a link to the homepage www.datafabrikken.dk and a code for each family......Quality of life in families with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy Anette Stensgaard, Audrey DunnGalvin, Dorthe Nielsen, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen (Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, ORCA (Odense Research Centre for Anaphylaxis), Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark) Aim...

  9. The effects of different levels of L-carnitine and fat on performance and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. REZAEI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L-carnitine is used as feed additive in poultry diets to increase yield and to improve feed efficiency. The major role of L-carnitine appears to be the transport of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for ƒÀ oxidation. This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of two levels of fat (10 and 30 g kg-1 DM and two levels of L-carnitine (0 and 250 mg kg-1 on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens in a factorial arrangement (2~2 with completely randomized design with six replicates and four laying hens in each replicate. During the experiment feed intake, egg weight, egg production, feed conversion ratio, and some blood parameters (triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, egg quality (albumen height, egg shell thickness, egg shell breaking strength, and cholesterol content of eggs were measured. Results of this experiment indicated that supplementation of L-carnitine in laying hens diets had not significant effect on performance, cholesterol content of eggs, but decreased the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL in blood serum and increased albumen height of eggs significantly (p

  10. Improvement of frozen semen quality of Garut Sheep through the addition of α-tocopherol into yolk egg-skim milk diluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdis

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The sperm is very fragile to lipid peroxide reaction, that it can easily broken during the process of freezing. To eliminate this consequences an antioxidant agent added into the extender. A research was done to observe the effect of antioxidant agent α-tocoferrol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT presence in the extender on the quality of frozen semen. Once week, semen from six male Garut sheep ages about 2.5 years old was collected using artificial vagina and egg yolk skim-milk diluent used as the extender. The semen were treated in egg yolk skim-milk diluent without antioxidant as control, in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol 0,2 g/100 ml diluent and in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with butylated hydroxytoluene 0,2 g/100 ml diluent. The after thawing observation shown that in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol had life percentage (75.0 ± 3.5% vs 64.8 ± 7.8% and membrane intact percentage (65.8 ± 6.8 % vs 55.2 ± 8.3% significantly higher than control (P<0,05 but insignificantly different from with BHT addition. The presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent, the motility percentage consideraly higher (P<0.05 than (45.8 ± 3.8% using BHT addition (40.0 ± 4.5% but not different from control (41.7 ± 4.1%; while acrosomal intake percentage after α-tocoferrol (54.8% ± 3.3% expressively higher (p,0.05 than BHT addition (49.7 ± 3.6% or control (49.8 ± 3.5%. In conclusion the presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent could improve the quality of Garut sheep frozen semen.

  11. Effect of temperature on lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates levels during development from egg extrusion to juvenile stage of Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, Marcelo; Villarreal, Humberto; Racotta, Ilie S

    2003-05-01

    The influence of temperature on biochemical composition, survival and duration of development of Cherax quadricarinatus from egg extrusion to juvenile was analyzed. Berried females were individually subjected to each of 22, 25, 28 and 31 degrees C (n=5 per temperature). Egg samples were obtained every 3 days from egg extrusion to juvenile stage for biochemical analysis. Duration of development and survival decreased with increasing temperature. At 22 and 25 degrees C half of the initial lipid content was consumed during development. At 28 and 31 degrees C, 80% of the initial amount of lipids was consumed. For proteins, depletion rate was significantly lower at 25 degrees C (36% of the initial amount) than at 22, 28 and 31 degrees C (61-65% of the initial amount). For carbohydrates, a significant consumption was observed only at 22 degrees C. Total energy consumption was lower at 22 and 25 degrees C than at 28 and 31 degrees C. We conclude that 22-25 degrees C is the optimal temperature range for C. quadricarinatus egg incubation, although 25 degrees C might be better in terms of development duration in terms of survival, energy cost and protein consumption.

  12. Binding interaction of differently charged fluorescent probes with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and the effect of β-cyclodextrin on the lipid-probe complexes: A fluorometric investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Pronab; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Jana, Barnali; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2015-05-01

    Interaction of cationic phenosafranin (PSF), anionic 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) and non-ionic nile red (NR) have been studied with the zwitterionic phospholipid, egg yolk L-α-phosphatidylcholine (EYPC). The study reveals discernible binding interactions of the three fluorescent probes with the EYPC lipid vesicle. Once the binding of the probes with the lipid is established, the effect of cyclic oligosaccharide, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), on these lipid bound probes has been investigated. Different fluorometric techniques suggest that addition of β-CD to the probe-lipid complexes leads to the release of the probes from the lipid medium through the formation of probe-β-CD inclusion complexes. A competitive binding of the probes between β-cyclodextrin and the lipid is ascribed to be responsible for the effect. This provides an easy avenue for the removal of the probe molecules from the lipid environment. Extension of this work with drug molecules in cell membranes is expected to give rise to a strategy for the removal of adsorbed drugs from the cell membranes by the use of non-toxic β-cyclodextrin.

  13. Melatonin implantation improved the egg-laying rate and quality in hens past their peak egg-laying age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yaxiong; Yang, Minghui; Zhu, Kuanfeng; Wang, Liang; Song, Yukun; Wang, Jing; Qin, Wenxiang; Xu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Guoshi

    2016-01-01

    The egg-laying rates of hens approximately 470 days of age exhibited a positive correlation to blood melatonin levels. The hens with an egg-laying rate <30%, 30~90% and ≥90% had blood melatonin levels of 5.8 ± 2.6, 74.0 ± 32.9 and 445.9 ± 115.3 ng/ml, respectively. When 10 mg of melatonin was implanted into the hens at 300, 360, 470 and 550 days of age, the egg-laying rates increased 4.63 ± 0.46%, 8.38 ± 1.45%, 4.93 ± 0.85% and 7.93 ± 0.91%, respectively, compared to that of the controls. Melatonin implantation in hens at 300–470 days of age was observed to enhance egg production and reduce the rate of appearance of sharpei eggs. Melatonin (10 mg) implanted in hens 360 days of age did not influence the blood levels of progesterone (P4) or the gene expression levels of ovarian follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), oestradiol receptor alpha (ERα), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) or melatonin receptor 1 (MT1). In contrast, melatonin significantly elevated the serum oestradiol-17β (E2) content, down-regulated the gene expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor (GnIHR), and enhanced the expression of melatonin receptor 2 (MT2). This result indicates that the improved egg-laying rate by melatonin was the result of increased serum oestradiol and decreased ovarian GnIHR. These alterations may be mediated by MT2 activation. PMID:28008984

  14. Dry cured ham quality as related to lipid quality of raw material and lipid changes during processing: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles, Gandemer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipids play a key role in sensory traits of dry cured hams. Both the quantity and the composition of lipids in raw material affect dry-cured hams quality. The lipid characteristics strongly depend on rearing systems developed in different area in Europe. During processing, lipids undergo lipolysis and oxidation. Phospholipids are the main substrates of both lipolysis and oxidation. Lipolysis forms free fatty acids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids all along the process. Lipids are also subjected to oxidation which forms many volatile compounds. These volatiles affect in the aroma of dry-cured hams and are associated with aroma notes such as rancid, aged meat or dry-cured. According to the genotype and the rearing conditions of pigs and the parameters of processing, dry-cured hams have specific sensory profiles. This paper reviews the present knowledge on lipids and dry-cured ham quality.Los lípidos desempeñan un papel fundamental en las características sensoriales de los jamones curados. Tanto la cantidad como la composición de los lípidos de las materias primas afectan a la calidad de los jamones. Las características de los lípidos dependen en gran medida de los sistemas de crianza desarrollados en las diferentes zonas de Europa. Durante el proceso, los lípidos sufren reacciones como la lipolisis y la oxidación. La lipolisis genera ácidos grasos libres a lo largo de todo el proceso, siendo los más abundantes los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. Los lípidos también están sujetos a la oxidación, la cual genera muchos compuestos volátiles. Estos volátiles afectan al aroma de los jamones curados asociándose a notas tales como la rancidez, carne vieja o curado. De acuerdo con el genotipo y las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y los parámetros del proceso, los jamones curados tienen un perfil sensorial específico. En este artículo se examinan los conocimientos actuales sobre los lípidos y la calidad del jamón curado.

  15. Exterior and interior physical quality of egg of laying hens fed diets containing different dietary purslane levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Pranoto, D.; Salim, W. N.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, beta-carotene and various antioxidants. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea) in the diets of laying hens on physical quality of eggs. A total of 125 Hy-Line Brown hens (54 weeks old) were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The diets were supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for 5 weeks after a typical period of adaptation (7 days). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. A total of 25 egg samples of day 28 and day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment) were collected to analyse exterior and interior physical quality of eggs. The data were analysed using ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that feeding different purslane meal levels in the diets improved egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk colour. The highest intensity of yolk colour was obtained with the diet containing 8% purslane meal. However, dietary treatments did not affect egg index, albumen index, yolk index, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh Unit. It is concluded that including purslane meal to laying hen diets increases the physical qualities of the eggs.

  16. Studies on the egg quality of Penaeus monodon Fabricius based on morphology and hatching rates

    OpenAIRE

    Primavera, Jurgenne; Posadas, Ruth

    1980-01-01

    Eggs of P. monodon are classified into 5 different types on the basis of morphological criteria and hatching rates: A sub(1) eggs, which undergo normal development with 58% hatching rate; A sub(2) eggs, which show delayed and/or abnormal development with 32% hatching rate; B eggs, which are unfertilized and characterized by irregular cytoplasmic formation; C eggs, which are unfertilized and show no change in appearance; and D eggs, which are unfertilized and show extensive bacterial presence....

  17. Serum lipid profiles are associated with semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to explore the associations between different lipid profiles and semen quality in a large-scale general male population. Sperm concentration, total sperm motility, progressive motility, and normal sperm morphology of total 7601 participants were recorded. The association of these semen parameters with the triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein of serum lipid profiles was analyzed. Sperm concentration was statistically positively correlated with triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein (adjusted P = 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively. Total sperm motility and progressive motility were statistically increased with increasing low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels (both adjusted P = 0.008 and P < 0.001, respectively. The similar J-shaped associations (high-low-low-high were noted between individual lipid profile and normal sperm morphology, especially low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol with statistical significance (adjusted P = 0.017 and P = 0.021, respectively. The prevalence of abnormal total sperm motility and progressive motility was decreased in participants with high levels of cholesterol (P = 0.008 and P = 0.019, respectively, and the reverse J-shaped associations (low-high-high-low were noted between high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, and the prevalence of abnormal normal sperm morphology (P = 0.010, P = 0.037, and P = 0.025, respectively. A high cholesterol level was associated with better sperm motility. Similar J-shaped associations were noted between all lipid profiles and normal sperm morphology; meanwhile, the reverse J-shaped trends were identified between them and abnormal normal sperm morphology prevalence.

  18. Rearing conditions determine offspring survival independent of egg quality : A cross-foster experiment with Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Bakker, T; Saaltink, DJ; Verhulst, S; Saaltink, Dirk-Jan

    Variation in rearing conditions, due either to parental or to environmental quality, can result in offspring of different quality (e.g. body condition, immune function). However, evidence is accumulating that egg size and composition can also affect offspring quality. In Oystercatchers Haematopus

  19. Heavy-atom derivatives in lipidic cubic phases: results on hen egg-white lysozyme tetragonal derivative crystals with Gd-HPDO3A complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Eric; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva; Vicat, Jean; Kahn, Richard

    2004-08-01

    Gd-HPDO3A, a neutral gadolinium complex, is a good candidate for obtaining heavy-atom-derivative crystals by the lipidic cubic phase crystallization method known to be effective for membrane proteins. Gadolinium-derivative crystals of hen egg-white lysozyme were obtained by co-crystallizing the protein with 100 mM Gd-HPDO3A in a monoolein cubic phase. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.7 A using Cu Kalpha radiation from a rotating-anode generator. Two binding sites of the gadolinium complex were located from the strong gadolinium anomalous signal. The Gd-atom positions and their refined occupancies were found to be identical to those found in derivative crystals of hen egg-white lysozyme obtained by co-crystallizing the protein with 100 mM Gd-HPDO3A using the hanging-drop technique. Moreover, the refined structures are isomorphous. The lipidic cubic phase is not disturbed by the high concentration of Gd-HPDO3A. This experiment demonstrates that a gadolinium complex, Gd-HPDO3A, can be used to obtain derivative crystals by the lipidic cubic phase crystallization method. Further studies with membrane proteins that are known to crystallize in lipidic cubic phases will be undertaken with Gd-HPDO3A and other Gd complexes to test whether derivative crystals with high Gd-site occupancies can be obtained.

  20. New technologies to enhance quality and safety of table eggs: ultra-violet treatment and modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Pasquali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of ultra-violet (UV treatment alone and in combination with 100% CO2 modified atmosphere packaging (MAP was evaluated both on the survival of naturally occurring bacteria, as well as on quality parameters of table eggs during 28 days of storage at 21°C. Table eggs were collected from the conveyor belt after the UV module, and placed on carton trays. A representative number of carton trays were packed in a high barrier multilayer pouch filled with 100% CO2. All eggs were stored at 21°C and analysed at 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Eggs not treated with UV and not packed were also included. On the eggshells total colony count, total coliforms and faecal coliforms counts, as well as the detection of Salmonella spp. were investigated. Moreover, chemical-functional parameters such as weight loss, albumen pH and Haugh Unit (HU were evaluated. The total colony count on UV treated table eggs was approximately 1 log10 CFU/g lower than untreated eggs (2.27 vs 3.29 log10 CFU/g. During storage, CO2 packed eggs maintained the initial values of HU, whereas the albumen pH decreased up to 1.5-2 points in comparison to unpacked eggs. The UV treatment was effective in reducing the total colony count on the surface of table eggs. MAP showed a great potential in maintaining/enhance the technological properties of egg constituents (higher foam stability of the albumen for meringue preparation without significantly impacting on the microbial load of table eggs.

  1. Egg production, egg quality and crop content of Rhode Island Red hens grazing on natural tropical vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Khaled Abouelezz Fouad; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the suitability of the outdoor system for Rhode Island Red hens under the tropical conditions of southern Mexico. Twelve floor pens, each containing four birds, were divided randomly into two groups. The first group was raised indoors only, while each of the second group replicates had access to an outdoor area with natural-grown vegetation from 0800 to 1700 hours daily. Both groups fed ad libitum on a commercial layers diet. The results revealed no differences in body weight between treatments. The outdoor group recorded significantly higher egg laying rate (86.90 vs. 78.05 %), higher egg mass (50.66 vs. 45.30 g egg/hen/day), and higher feed intake (103.70 vs. 97.67 g/day) versus the indoor group. The outdoor group had eggs with darker yellow yolks (9.46 vs. 5.46), lower yolk, and higher albumen proportions (P crop content of the outdoor hens consisted of 86.55 % concentrated feed, 6.30 % plant material, 2.27 % grit stones, 1.69 % snails and oyster shells, 1.25 % seeds, 0.95 % farm wastes, and 0.99 % insects, worms, and larvae. Of the outdoor hens, 43.1 % was observed to be in the range at each scanning time. The outdoor system in the tropics had beneficial effects on Rhode Island Red hen performance, and the hens utilized the outdoor area effectively and obtained various feed items.

  2. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation with Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairon Más-Toro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the dietary supplementation of powdered leaves of Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens, a total of 160 White Leghorn birds (Hybrid L-33 of 27 weeks of age were allotted during 70 days, according to completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet fed without or with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia. Supplementation of 1.0 and 1.5% of M. citrifolia powder increased the egg weight (P0.05 among treatments. Also, supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0% of M. citrifolia increased the shell thickness and the yolk color was pigmented by this medicinal plant. It recommended the dietary supplementation of 1.0% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia on laying hen diets to improve the egg weight, shell thickness and yolk color.

  4. Increasing persistency in lay and stabilising egg quality in longer laying cycles. What are the challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, M M; Nys, Y; Dunn, I C

    2016-06-01

    In the past 50 years, selection starting initially at the breed level and then using quantitative genetics coupled with a sophisticated breeding pyramid, has resulted in a very productive hybrid for a variety of traits associated with egg production. One major trait currently being developed further is persistency of lay and the concept of the "long life" layer. Persistency in lay however cannot be achieved without due consideration of how to sustain egg quality and the health and welfare of the birds in longer laying cycles. These multiple goals require knowledge and consideration of the bird's physiology, nutritional requirements, which vary depending on age and management system, reproductive status and choice of the selection criteria applied. The recent advent of molecular genetics offers considerable hope that these multiple elements can be balanced for the good of all in the industry including the hens. The "long life" layer, which will be capable of producing 500 eggs in a laying cycle of 100 weeks, is therefore on the horizon, bringing with it the benefits of a more efficient utilisation of diminishing resources, including land, water, raw materials for feed as well as a reduction in waste, and an overall reduced carbon footprint.

  5. Effect of diatomaceous earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Yee, A; Rhee, Y-J; Cheng, K M

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. Half the hens of each breed were fed diets supplemented with DE (2%). Their internal parasite loads were assessed by biweekly fecal egg counts (FEC) and by postmortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementing DE in diets of LB hens, the more parasite-resistant breed, did not significantly affect their FEC and adult parasite load. However, BB hens treated with dietary DE had significantly lower Capillaria FEC, slightly lower Eimeria FEC, fewer birds infected with Heterakis, and significantly lower Heterakis worm burden than control BB hens. Both BB and LB hens fed the diet containing DE were significantly heavier, laid more eggs, and consumed more feed than hens fed the control diet, but feed efficiency did not differ between the 2 dietary treatments. Additionally, BB hens consuming the DE diet laid larger eggs containing more albumen and yolk than hens consuming the control diet. In a subsequent experiment, the effectiveness of DE to treat a Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation was tested. Relative to controls, both breeds of hens that were dusted with DE had reduced number of mites. The results of this study indicate the DE has the potential to be an effective treatment to help control parasites and improve production of organically raised, free-range layer hens.

  6. Effect Of Fish Oil Alone or In Combination With Tomato Powder Supplementation In Feed On Egg Quality of Local Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizal Andri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg quality of local ducks. Fivety 28-weeks old female local ducks with initial egg production of 4 days before research was 55.00 + 4.08% (coefficient of variation 7.42% were randomly distributed to five treatments with 2 repetition and 5 birds of each. The treatmens were T0: basal feed (control; T1: basal feed + 1500 ppm fish oil ; T2: basal feed + 3000 ppm fish oil; T3: basal feed + 1500 ppm fish oil + 150 ppm tomato powder; T4: basal feed + 3000 ppm fish oil + 150 ppm tomato powder. Variable observed in this research were egg shape index, egg shell weight, yolk weight, and albumen weight. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova based on Completely Randomized Design, if significant effect appear was then continued with Duncan Multiple Range Test. The result showed that there were no significant effect (P>0.05 of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg shape index, egg shell weight, yolk weight, and albumen weight of local ducks. The conclusion of this research is that there was no effect of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg quality of local ducks.

  7. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel.

  8. Effects of different levels of expanded perlite on the performance and egg quality traits of laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Oguz,Fatma Karakas; Gumus,Hidir; Oguz,Mustafa Numan; Bugdayci, Kadir Emre; Dagli,Hüseyin; Ozturk, Yasin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influence of different levels of expanded perlite on the performance and egg quality traits was studied in laying hens. Forty Lohmann Brown females at 30 weeks of age were randomly assigned to four groups consisting of five replicates with two hens in each. Four diet groups were supplemented with 0% (control group), 1%, 2%, and 3% perlite, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. There were no significant differences in final body weight, feed intake, egg yield, and...

  9. Ovary transcriptome profiling via artificial intelligence reveals a transcriptomic fingerprint predicting egg quality in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Chapman

    Full Text Available Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis, a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233 representing 90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold, with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1% to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic "fingerprint". Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive fitness.

  10. Assessing Consumer Emotional Responses in the Presence and Absence of Critical Quality Attributes: A Case Study with Chicken Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardy, Wisdom; Sae-Eaw, Amporn; Sriwattana, Sujinda; No, Hong Kyoon; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2015-07-01

    Effects of attribute presence and absence on the emotional profile and consumer acceptability of products with varying qualities were assessed using eggs as an example. An online survey (n = 320) was used to evaluate emotional responses and acceptability to 5 types of egg quality attributes: intrinsic, aesthetic, extrinsic, expediency, and wholesome/safety, for both present and absent conditions. Attribute absence rather than presence evoked greater consumer discriminating emotions associated with eggs. Mean emotion intensity elicited by the presence of all quality attributes ranged from 1.67 (intrinsic; guilty) to 4.05 (wholesome; good) versus 2.01 (wholesome; satisfied) to 3.29 (wholesome; disgusted) when absent. Key positive emotions elicited by presence of attributes were active, calm, good, interested, happy, safe, and satisfied; while dominant negative emotions elicited by absence of attributes included disgusted and worried. Wholesome quality (constituted by egg freshness, "packing/best-before-date" and absence of visible cracks) exhibited the highest liking (7.65) and emotion intensities, while the emotional responses to both the presence and absence of intrinsic quality (constituted by nutrient-fortified egg, organic egg, and USDA-certified farm egg) were similar, reflecting their dynamic effects on emotions. Emotions and acceptability were more correlated for attribute absence than presence; and good, happy, and satisfied emotions were strongly related to egg acceptability (r ≥ 0.6). Egg product/packaging design can be oriented toward emphasizing wholesome and expedient attributes, since they enhance good, safe, and satisfied emotions, while minimizing disgust, worry, and boredom. The use of emotional responses and hedonic testing regarding attribute presence and absence would allow for improved selection of attributes critical to consumer acceptance of products. Assessing effects of attribute presence compared with absence on food-evoked emotions may

  11. Effects of Deinococcus spp. supplement on egg quality traits in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, I-Chen; Wu, Szu-Yin; Liou, Jenn-Fa; Liu, Hsiao-Hui; Chen, Jiau-Hua; Chen, Chin-Chu

    2017-10-25

    To counter the ill effects of synthetic dyes, bacterial pigment production as an alternative is now one of the promising and emerging fields of research. This study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of Deinococcus genus on the egg quality traits in laying hens. In study I, 24 single comb White Leghorn layers were fed with various 1 wt % Deinococcus bacterial strains for 10 d. In study II, 84 brown Hendrix layers were fed with one of 4 diets containing 0, 0.2, 1, or 5 wt % Deinococcus sp. GKB-Aid 1995 powder for 12 wk. In study III, 60 White Leghorn laying hens were fed either with or without 1 wt % Deinococcus sp. GKB-Aid 1995 powder, 1 wt % Deinococcus sp. GKB-Aid 1995 granules, or 1 wt % Deinococcus sp. GKB-Aid 1995 oily granules for 10 successive d. In all of the experiments, feeding Deinococcus powder did not affect egg quality traits except for the yolk color. In particular, supplementation with all Deinococcus powder treatments changed the yolk color (P < 0.05) in study I, with the best pigmentation score obtained by D. grandis and Deinococcus sp. GKB-Aid 1995. Moreover, longer supplementation of Deinococcus sp. GKB-Aid 1995 in study II had a significant effect on feed conversion ratio. With these findings under consideration, the present study suggests that the Deinococcus species, especially Deinococcus sp. GKB-Aid 1995, can be an excellent candidate for improving egg yolk color in laying hens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Effects of long-term supplementation of laying hens with high concentrations of cholecalciferol on performance and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persia, M E; Higgins, M; Wang, T; Trample, D; Bobeck, E A

    2013-11-01

    There is current interest in increasing human vitamin D dietary intake without having to modify human eating habits. One method to increase human dietary vitamin D intake is to generate eggs with increased concentrations of vitamin D through high-concentration vitamin D feeding in the diets of laying hens. Although eggs can be produced with high concentrations of vitamin D, the consequences of these diets on hen performance and egg quality have not been validated. The objective of this research is to quantify the effects of high concentrations of cholecalciferol (D3) on laying hen performance and egg quality. Hy-Line W36 laying hens were placed on 1 of 5 experimental diets for 40 wk: 1) control (contained 2,200 IU of D3/kg of diet), 2) control + 7,500 IU of D3/kg of diet (9,700 IU of D3/kg of diet total), 3) control + 15,000 IU of D3/kg of diet (17,200 IU of D3/kg of diet total), 4) control + 22,500 IU of D3/kg of diet (24,700 IU of D3/kg of diet total), and 5) control + 100,000 IU of D3/kg of diet (102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet total). Egg production and hen mortality were monitored daily. Feed intake was determined weekly. Eggs were collected at predetermined points throughout the 40-wk period (19 to 58 wk of bird age) for assessment of egg weight, egg component weights, Haugh unit, yolk color score, specific gravity, egg mass, and feed efficiency. There were no consistent differences among the dietary treatments over the experimental period. Hens supplemented with up to 102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet resulted in no significant reductions in egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg component weights, yolk color, Haugh units, and specific gravity in comparison with the control-fed hens (P > 0.05). These data suggest the addition of cholecalciferol to the diet of the laying hen at concentrations up to 102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet had no consistent negative effects on laying hen performance or egg quality.

  13. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering quality or production in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakani, Radhika; Fowler, Justin; Haq, Akram-Ul; Murphy, Eric J; Rosenberger, Thad A; Berhow, Mark; Bailey, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and extruding the seeds results in high protein meal (*40%) containing high levels of n-3 fatty acids. In this study, we examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina meal to commercial laying hens, measuring egg production, quality, and fatty acid composition. Lohmann White Leghorn hens (29 weeks old) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups (n = 25 per group) and data was collected over a 12 week production period. All the treatment groups were fed a corn soy based experimental diet containing 0% (control), 5, or 10% extruded camelina meal. We found no significant differences in percent hen-day egg production and feed consumed per dozen eggs. Egg shell strength was significantly higher in both camelina groups compared to the controls. Egg total n-3 fatty acid content increased 1.9- and 2.7-fold in 5 and 10% camelina groups respectively relative to the control. A similar increase in DHA content also occurred. Further camelina meal did not alter glucosinolate levels and no detectable glucosinolates or metabolic product isothiocyanates were found in the eggs from either the 5 or 10% camelina groups. These results indicate that camelina meal is a viable dietary source of n-3 fatty acids for poultry and its dietary inclusion results in eggs enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

  14. Effects of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk and L-cysteine supplementation on quality of cryopreserved boar semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched hen egg yolks and L-cysteine supplementation on the qualities of the cryopreserved boar semen. A total of 15 ejaculates from 5 Pietrain boars were divided into 4 groups according to the compositions of the freezing extenders used, that is, normal hen egg yolk (group I), DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group II), normal hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L−1 of cysteine supplementation (group III) and DHA-enriched hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L−1 of cysteine supplementation (group IV). The semen was cryopreserved using controlled rate freezer and was thawed at 50°C for 12 s. Progressive motility, sperm viability, acrosome integrity and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane of the post-thawed semen were evaluated. The supplementation of L-cysteine in the freezing extender alone (group III) improved progressive motility (P 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of antioxidant L-cysteine alone or in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk significantly improved the post-thawed semen qualities, especially progressive motility and acrosome integrity. PMID:19633681

  15. RESEARCH REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL QUALITY VALUES OF JAPANESE QUAIL EGGS OBTAINED AT THE MIDDLE OF THE LAYING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA TEUŞAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail is one of the smallest bird subspecies which has been tamed by man, being industrially raised in our days in many states over the world. This avian subspecies produces over 300 eggs, and though there are about 6 races and different varieties, there are very little data in the scientific literature regarding the quality values for eggs of Japanese quail hatching eggs collected from hens at the end of the laying – physical values (pH value of the eggs components, albumen index, yolk index The present paper wants to bring a series of data regarding some of these indicators. The pH values was determined with an portable pH-oximeter, and to establish the other two quality indexes we used a device fitted with callipers taking into account: height of the dense egg white (albumen, minimum and maximum diameter of the dense and fluid egg white, height and the diameter of the yolk. The albumen pH recorded values of 8.90, and the yolk pH values of 6.07. The statistical mean for the 130 values of albumen index taken in study was 0.048. The mean value of yolk index was 0.399. The obtained results are normal for the period of quail’s life.

  16. Ovary transcriptome profiling via artificial intelligence reveals a transcriptomic fingerprint predicting egg quality in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert W; Reading, Benjamin J; Sullivan, Craig V

    2014-01-01

    Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233) representing 90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive fitness.

  17. Effect of Fennel and Thymus vulgaris Extracts with and without Flaxseed on Performance and Eggs Quality of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vakili

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fennel and Thymyus valgaris extracts with and without flaxseed on performance and egg quality of laying hens (Hy line W-36. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 200 laying hens in 5 treatments and 5 replicates (with 8 hen in each replicate for 12 weeks. The hens were fed isocaloric and iso nitrogenous diets according to NRC 1994 but differ in the plant extracts. The plant extracts used in this study consisted of an alcoholic extract of fennel and thyme that the value of 40 ml/kg feed was sprayed. The results of this study showed that egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio not significantly but feed consumption and egg weight has significantly effects (P>0/05.The index of yolk color in the group received Thymyus valgaris and flaxseed was significantly different from other treatment groups (P

  18. The nutritional effect of Moringa oleifera fresh leaves as feed supplement on Rhode Island Red hen egg production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elezz Fouad Mohammed, Khaled; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of Moringa oleifera fresh leaves (MOL) as feed supplement on the performance and egg quality of Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens under the tropical conditions of Yucatan, Mexico. Forty-eight RIR hens were allocated in 12 floor pen replicates each with four birds. Thereafter, the replicates were divided into three groups which were corresponded to ad libitum feed (control), ad libitum feed supplemented with MOL T1 (AL + MOL) and restricted feed amount (20% lower than control) with MOL T2 (RCD + MOL), respectively. T1 (AL + MOL) had higher egg laying rate (71.4% versus 66.6%), higher daily egg mass production (45.4 versus 41.9 g/day), lower feed intake (121.3 versus 127.5 g/day) and better feed conversion ratio (2.8 versus 3.2 g feed:g egg) versus control. T2 / (RCD + MOL) had lower values of body weight, egg laying rate, egg weight and egg mass, and recorded better feed conversion ratio than the control group. The control group recorded a higher percentage of pecked eggs versus T1 and T2 (6.5% versus 1.2% and 2.0 %). Similar intake of MOL (3.1 and 3.4 g DM/day) was recorded in T1 (AL + MOL) and T2 (RCD + MOL). Yolk color was improved significantly in T1 (AL + MOL) than both control and T2 (RCD + MOL), while T2 (RCD + MOL) had eggs with lower yolk and higher albumen percentages than the other two ad libitum groups. The results suggest that MOL could be used successfully as sustainable tropical feed resource for RIR hens.

  19. Efficacy of protein, symbiotic and probiotic supplementation on production performance and egg quality characteristics in molted layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Haseeb; Rahman, Zia Ur

    2016-10-01

    Two hundred white leg horn layers at 70 weeks of age were induced to molt with high dietary zinc (3 g/kg of feed); thereafter, birds were equally and randomly divided (n = 50 each) into four groups keeping G1 as control (CP 16 % diet, no other supplement), G2 (CP 18 % diet), G3 (CP 16 % diet + symbiotic; Perfectin® at 85 mg/L in drinking water daily), and G4 (CP 16 % diet + probiotic; Protexin® at 85 mg/L in drinking water daily). The egg production record was maintained throughout the experiment period, and egg quality parameters were performed at 5 %, peak, and end of post molt production stage. The overall egg production was highest in G2 (74.51 %) followed by G3 (64.95 %) and G4 (65.03 %) and lowest in G1 (58.51 %). The overall egg weight, length, diameter, weight and diameter of albumin and yolk, egg shell thickness as well as egg shell breaking strength increased (P ≤ 0.01) in G2 and G3 as compared to G1. The albumin height, yolk height, yolk index, and haugh unit score decreased (P ≤ 0.01) in G2 and G3 as compared to G1. FCR/12 eggs improved in all the supplemented groups as compared to control (G1). The bacterial contamination of eggs was seen in G1. Conclusively, it was observed in the current experiment that the supplementation with protein, probiotic, and symbiotic did improve the production quality and potential in molted layers.

  20. Effects of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on the quality, antioxidant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected on external and internal egg qualities, total cholesterol, lipid profile and lutein content of eggs. The result showed that yolk colour, high density lipoprotein and lutein content increased in the eggs of layers fed MOML supplemented diets. The egg cholesterol and low density lipoprotein reduced with ...

  1. Effects of dynamic feeding low and high methionine diets on egg quality traits in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Lin, X; Zhou, X; Wan, D; Wang, Z; Wu, X; Yin, Y

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of dynamic feeding low and high methionine (MET) diets on performance, egg quality traits, and serum metabolites in laying hens. A total of 180 laying hens (Brown Hy-line, 41 wk old) were allocated into 3 equal groups with 6 replicates each. The average egg production (EP) of each group was around 87% during one-week statistics before the formal experiment (P = 0.989). The control group (CON) received the control diet (contained 0.30% MET) at both 07:30 h and 15:30 hours. The low-high group (LH) received a low MET diet (containing 0.27% MET) at 07:30 h and high MET diet (containing 0.33% MET) at 15:30 hours. The high-low group (HL) received a high MET diet at 07:30 h and low MET diet at 15:30 hours. After 10 wk, blood samples were collected at 4-hour intervals in a daily cycle initially starting at 07:30 h before feeding. Results showed that the MET intake of a d was not influenced by the treatments (P > 0.05), respectively. The EP of the LH and HL group increased by 2.28 and 2.45% when compared with the CON group (P > 0.05). The hens in the LH group had a lower albumen ratio and thicker eggshell thickness than both CON and HL groups. Egg yolk ratio of the LH group was higher than the HL group (P < 0.05). The serum total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), total protein (TP), and calcium (Ca) of the LH group was significantly lower at 07:30 h than the CON and HL groups, and the serum TG of the HL group was lower at 07:30 h than the CON group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the LH group also had the lowest value of serum TP at 23:30 h and 03:30 h (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that dynamic feeding low and high MET diets might alter the circadian variation of serum TC, TG, TP, and Ca, which is consistent with the change of component ratio of egg albumen and yolk and eggshell thickness. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality: the effects of linings and litter provision in furnished cages for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinebretière, M; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Michel, V

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of litter provision and linings used for nests and pecking and scratching areas on cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality. Research was carried out in furnished cages, each housing 60 beak-trimmed ISA Brown hens. Four different treatments were compared in a factorial arrangement, including 2 different nest linings (artificial turf vs. plastic mesh), either used alone or combined with the use of litter (wheat bran) spread over the rubber mat in the pecking and scratching area (PSA). An additional treatment, using artificial turf mat in the PSA and nests (as commonly used in commercial flocks), was used to compare the effect of PSA lining in the other treatments. We observed laying location, the number of dirty and broken eggs, the microbiological contamination of eggshells according to laying location, and general cage hygiene. The use of nests for laying decreased when they were lined with plastic mesh. Eggs laid outside the nest were of lower quality than those laid inside it, and this was particularly true for eggs laid in the PSA. Although hygiene was low on artificial turf mats, eggs laid on PSA covered with a rubber mat were dirtier and had a higher count of mesophilic bacteria on the eggshell than those laid on PSA covered with an artificial turf mat. Rubber mats in PSA were rapidly destroyed and proved to be unsuitable. The provision of litter had no effect on cage hygiene but substantially increased wear on mats. This study shows nest lining and litter provision methods to be key factors that need to be taken into account to encourage the use of nest boxes for laying, and hence, to ensure good egg quality. Further research into new linings for PSA is needed for the future improvement of egg-laying conditions.

  3. Rat liver mitochondrial membrane characteristics and mitochondrial functions are more profoundly altered by dietary lipid quantity than by dietary lipid quality: effect of different nutritional lipid patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Manar; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Fouret, Gilles; Chabi, Béatrice; Crouzier, David; Ferreri, Carla; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal; Cristol, Jean Paul; Carbonneau, Marie-Annette; Coudray, Charles

    2012-03-01

    Dietary lipids are known to affect the composition of the biological membrane and functions that are involved in cell death and survival. The mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes are membrane protein complexes whose function depends on the composition and fluidity of the mitochondrial membrane lipid. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of different nutritional patterns of dietary lipids on liver mitochondrial functions. A total of forty-eight Wistar male rats were divided into six groups and fed for 12 weeks with a basal diet, lard diet or fish oil diet, containing either 50 or 300 g lipid/kg. The 30 % lipid intake increased liver NEFA, TAG and cholesterol levels, increased mitochondrial NEFA and TAG, and decreased phospholipid (PL) levels. SFA, PUFA and unsaturation index (UI) increased, whereas MUFA and trans-fatty acids (FA) decreased in the mitochondrial membrane PL in 30 % fat diet-fed rats compared with 5 % lipid diet-fed rats. PL UI increased with fish oil diet v. basal and lard-rich diets, and PL trans-FA increased with lard diet v. basal and fish oil diets. The 30 % lipid diet intake increased mitochondrial membrane potential, membrane fluidity, mitochondrial respiration and complex V activity, and decreased complex III and IV activities. With regard to lipid quality effects, β-oxidation decreased with the intake of basal or fish oil diets compared with that of the lard diet. The intake of a fish oil diet decreased complex III and IV activities compared with both the basal and lard diets. In conclusion, the characteristics and mitochondrial functions of the rat liver mitochondrial membrane are more profoundly altered by the quantity of dietary lipid than by its quality, which may have profound impacts on the pathogenesis and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  4. Surface lipids of queen-laid eggs do not regulate queen production in a fission-performing ant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Camille; Lenoir, Alain; Cerdá, Xim; Boulay, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    In animal societies, most collective and individual decision making depends on the presence of reproductive individuals. The efficient transmission of information among reproductive and non-reproductive individuals is therefore a determinant of colony organization. In social insects, the presence of a queen modulates multiple colonial activities. In many species, it negatively affects worker reproduction and the development of diploid larvae into future queens. The queen mostly signals her presence through pheromone emission, but the means by which these chemicals are distributed in the colony are still unclear. In several ant species, queen-laid eggs are the vehicle of the queen signal. The aim of this study was to investigate whether queen-laid eggs of the ant Aphaenogaster senilis possess queen-specific cuticular hydrocarbons and/or Dufour or poison gland compounds, and whether the presence of eggs inhibited larval development into queens. Our results show that the queen- and worker-laid eggs shared cuticular and Dufour hydrocarbons with the adults; however, their poison gland compounds were not similar. Queen-laid eggs had more dimethylalkanes and possessed a queen-specific mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons composed of 3,11 + 3,9 + 3,7-dimethylnonacosane, in higher proportions than did worker-laid eggs. Even though the queen-laid eggs were biochemically similar to the queen, their addition to experimentally queenless groups did not prevent the development of new queens. More studies are needed on the means by which queen ant pheromones are transmitted in the colony, and how these mechanisms correlates with life history traits.

  5. Protective effects of Opuntia ficus-indica extract on ram sperm quality, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allai, Larbi; Druart, Xavier; Öztürk, Mehmet; BenMoula, Anass; Nasser, Boubker; El Amiri, Bouchra

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess the phenolic composition of the acetone extract from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes (ACTEX) and its effects on ram semen variables, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage at 5°C for up to 72h in skim milk and Tris egg yolk extenders. Semen samples from five rams were pooled extended with Tris-egg yolk (TEY) or skim milk (SM) extenders containing ACTEX (0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%) at a final concentration of 0.8×109 sperm/ml and stored for up to 72h at 5°C. The sperm variables were evaluated at different time periods (8, 24, 48 and 72h). Sperm total motility and viability were superior in TEY than in SM whereas the progressive motility, membrane integrity, abnormality and spontaneous lipid peroxidation were greater in SM compared to TEY (P<0.05). The results also indicated that the inclusion of 1% ACTEX in the SM or TEY extender increased the sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity, and decreased the abnormality, lipids peroxidation up to 72h in storage compared to control group. Similarly, even at 72h of storage, 1% ACTEX can efficiently decrease the negative effects of liquid storage on sperm DNA fragmentation (P<0.05). In conclusion, SM and TEY supplemented with 1% of ACTEX can improve the quality of ram semen. Further studies are required to identify the active components in ACTEX involved in its effect on ram sperm preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Egg lipids - Determination and practical application of egg quality measures toward reliable culture of high-value marine finfish species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There is increasing global awareness of the need for sustainable aquaculture. Aquaculture represents a potential mechanism for supplementing wild fish harvests,...

  7. Sensory quality and energy use for scrambled eggs and beef patties heated in institutional microwave and convection ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, M.L.

    1982-05-01

    Scrambled eggs (96 portions) and beef patties (96 portions) were heated in institutional microwave and convection ovens to determine energy use in heating and sensory quality of food. For both products, significantly (P < 0.01) more energy (BTU) was used for heating in the convection than in the microwave oven and respective amounts (BTU) were 28658.7 and 9385.7 for eggs; 31313.3 and 9365.0 for beef patties. All scores for sensory quality were significantly (P < 0.01) higher for eggs heated in the microwave than in the convection, but for beef patties, scores were higher for all characteristics and significantly (P < 0.01) higher for appearance, flavor, and general acceptability after heating in the convection rather than the microwave oven.

  8. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.001) and yolk percentage (P < 0.05) as well as yolk cholesterol and β-carotene contents (P < 0.001), which were improved in hens fed the LFA diet. Including LFA increased serum β-carotene and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that partially replacing conventional SBM as protein source with low-fiber alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Roderick Nigel [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 41, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)]. E-mail: nigel.finn@bio.uib.no

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and respiratory biology with an extended section on the xenobiotic toxicology of the early stages. Past and present data reveal that the eggs of salmonids are among the largest shed by any broadcast spawning teleost. Once ovulated, the physicochemical properties of the ovarian fluid provide temporary protection from external perturbations and maintain the eggs in good physiological condition until spawning. Following fertilisation and during early development the major structures protecting the embryo from poor water quality are the vitelline membrane, the enveloping layer and the chorion. The vitelline membrane is one of the least permeable membranes known, while the semi-permeable chorion provides both physical and chemical defense against metals, pathogens, and xenobiotic chemicals. In part these structures explain the lower sensitivity of the eggs to chemical imbalance compared to the larvae, however the lower metabolic rate and the chronology of gene expression and translational control suggest that developmental competence also plays a decisive role. In addition, maternal effect genes provide a defense potential until the mid-blastula transition. The transition between maternal effect genes and zygotic genes is a critical period for the embryo. The perivitelline fluids are an important trap for cations, but are also the major barrier to diffusion of gases and solutes. Acidic environmental pH interferes with acid-base and hydromineral balance but also increases the risk of aluminium and heavy metal intoxication. These risks are ameliorated somewhat by

  10. Performance, Body Temperature and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Vitamins D and C Under Three Environmental Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria DE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted in a climatic chamber to determine the effects of vitamins D3 and C supplementation on performance, body temperature, and egg quality under thermoneutral temperature (24.8º to 27.0º C, a cyclic heat stress (26.2º C for 16 h and 32.1º C for 8 h and a constant heat stress (30.0º to 32.0º C for three weeks in each temperature. One hundred forty-four White Leghorn hens aged 31 weeks were used in a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of 3 x 3: vitamin D3 (2,500, 3,000, and 3,500 IU/kg and vitamin C (0, 200, and 400 ppm, with a total of nine treatments with four replicates of four hens each. Parameters measured included feed intake (FI, feed:gain (FG, egg production (EP, egg weight (EW, egg mass (EM, rectal (RT and dorsal temperatures (DT, percentages of albumen (AP and yolk (YP, Haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI, shell percent (SP, shell thickness (ST and egg specific gravity (ESG. Vitamin D3 influenced the parameters SP, ST, ESG and DT; vitamin C influenced YI, SP and ESG. There was no influence of environmental temperature only on HU. It was concluded that higher levels of vitamin D3 and 200 or 400 ppm of vitamin C can be improve eggshell quality and that heat stress impaired the main characteristics evaluated.

  11. Effects of different levels of expanded perlite on the performance and egg quality traits of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Karakas Oguz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The influence of different levels of expanded perlite on the performance and egg quality traits was studied in laying hens. Forty Lohmann Brown females at 30 weeks of age were randomly assigned to four groups consisting of five replicates with two hens in each. Four diet groups were supplemented with 0% (control group, 1%, 2%, and 3% perlite, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. There were no significant differences in final body weight, feed intake, egg yield, and egg weight. Feed conversion ratio and egg weight decreased with addition of 2% perlite. Dietary perlite supplementation has no significant effects on shape, yolk, and albumen index. Haugh unit was affected significantly by addition of 2% perlite. Fecal pH, dry matter, and NH3-N did not significantly differ among treatments. Dietary perlite has no negative effect on performance and egg quality traits except 2% perlite group. Dietary expanded perlite can be added at 1% level in laying hen rations without changing the animal performance.

  12. The effect of phytobiotics, organic acids and humic acids on the utility and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the assessment of an influence of supplement of dietary herbal additive in combination with organic acids into feed mixture or drinking water of laying hens on performance parameters and egg quality. The Lohmann Brown Lite laying hens (n = 30 were divided into 3 groups (n = 10, and fed for 20 weeks ad libitum with complete feed mixtures (CFM. Hens in the control group received the complete feed mixture (CFM and drank drinking water without any supplements. In the first experimental group hens received CFM without supplements but phytobiotics (bergamot oil (Citrus bergamia, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, clove (Syzygium aromaticum, pepper (Piper nigrum in combination with the fumaric acid and citric acid at 60 mg per 1 liter of water were added to their drinking water. In the second experimental group was CFM enriched with humic acids in the concentration of 0.5%, and phytobiotcs with organic acids at the same dose as in the first experimental group were added to their drinking water. Monitored parameters: body weight (g, egg production (%, the weight of all produced eggs (g, egg albumen weight (g, egg albumen index, Haugh unit (HU, egg yolk weight (g, egg yolk index, egg yolk colour (° HLR, egg shell weight (g and egg shell strength (N.cm-2. The results showed no significant differences between the both experimental groups and the control group in the parameter body weight of hens (P>0.05. The highest average body weight was found in the hens from the second experimental group (values in the order of groups:  1792.22 ± 80.85; 1768.42 ±55.55; 1820.12 ±78.56 g±S.D.. We observed positive trend of increasing of egg production by adding of used supplements, especially in the second experimental group with the addition of humic acids, although with no statistically significant difference compared to the control group (P>0.05. The mean laying intensity in the order of groups: 90.42; 91.16; 91.56%. We observed statistically

  13. Effect Of Fish Oil Alone or In Combination With Tomato Powder Supplementation In Feed On Egg Quality of Local Ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Faizal Andri; Eko Widodo; Osfar Sjofjan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg quality of local ducks. Fivety 28-weeks old female local ducks with initial egg production of 4 days before research was 55.00 + 4.08% (coefficient of variation 7.42%) were randomly distributed to five treatments with 2 repetition and 5 birds of each. The treatmens were T0: basal feed (control); T1: basal feed + 1500 ppm fish oil ; T2: basal feed + 3...

  14. Conjugated linoleic acids alter the fatty acid composition and physical properties of egg yolk and albumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Bruce A; Feng, Shulin; Strom, Anna K; DeVitt, Amy A; Yu, Liangli; Li, Yong

    2003-11-05

    Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the fatty acid composition of different egg compartments after storage were studied. Four dietary treatments [supplemented with safflower oil (SAFF, control group), DHA, CLAs plus DHA (CAD), and CLAs alone] were administered to Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) laying hens. Eggs from the different treatment groups were collected and stored for 10 weeks at 4 degrees C before analysis. Fatty acids from the yolk (yolk granules and plasma), egg albumen, and vitelline membrane were analyzed by gas chromatography. The yolk of eggs from hens given CLAs had significantly higher amounts of saturated fatty acids, typically 16:0 and 18:0, but lower amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) compared to eggs from the control group (SAFF). CLA content was highest in the yolk and present in both neutral and polar lipids, with the greatest concentrations in neutral lipids. DHA was incorporated mainly into yolk polar lipids. Lipids in yolk plasma and granules contained similar amounts of CLAs. The fatty acid compositions of vitelline membrane and egg albumen mirrored that of the egg yolk. CLA supplementation resulted in hard and rubbery yolks when compared to hard-cooked eggs from the control group. This study showed that feeding CLAs to hens led to accumulation of the isomers in polar and neutral lipids of the egg yolk and that these isomers migrated into egg albumen. Because the sensory properties of hard-cooked eggs were negatively affected by the enrichment of a mixture of CLA isomers in this study, further research should be conducted to evaluate how the different isomers alter the properties of egg yolk and albumen so that the quality of designed eggs containing CLAs and DHA can be improved.

  15. The effect of storage temperature on the quality of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rahim

    Egg yolk from Group B had higher levels of c-9, t-11 and t-10, c-12 CLA than the control group. The ratio of total saturated to unsaturated fatty acids (SFA/UFA) increased 2.4-fold in the eggs from CLA-fed hens. CLA eggs stored at 4 ºC had higher pH values in yolk and lower pH values in albumen compared to those from the ...

  16. Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Performance, Egg Quality, Tissue Zinc Content, Bone Parameters, and Antioxidative Status in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Mehdi; Shariatmadari, Farid; Torshizi, Mohammad Amir Karimi; Ahmadi, Hamed

    2017-10-18

    The objective of this study was to observe the effects of dietary supplementation with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on performance, egg quality, tissue Zn content, bone parameters, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) content in laying hens. A total of 288 laying hens at 64 weeks of age were randomly assigned to 4 treatments, 6 replicates, with 12 birds each. Experimental diets included the based diet (without Zn supplementation), and basal diet supplemented with 40, 80, and 120 mg Zn/kg from ZnO-NPs. Feed intake and egg mass were significantly higher in the 40 and 80 ZnO-NPs groups than the other groups. The birds in the 80 ZnO-NPs group had significantly higher egg product than the 120 ZnO-NPs and control groups. Egg shell thickness and shell strength significantly increased in the 40 and 80 ZnO-NPs groups. Moreover, Haugh unit significantly improved in the groups supplemented with ZnO-NPs, compared to the control group. Bone-breaking strength was significantly greater in the 80 ZnO-NPs group than the 120 ZnO-NPs and control groups. Also, ash weight was significantly greater in the 40 and 80 ZnO-NPs groups than the control group. There were significant differences among the groups in the Zn content in plasma, tibia, liver, pancreas, and egg. Relative to the control group, ZnO-NPs supplementation significantly increased the activities of SOD in the liver, pancreas, and plasma. The MDA content in egg was significantly reduced in the groups supplemented with ZnO-NPs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ZnO-NPs as dietary supplementation can improve the performance of laying hens, and levels of 40 to 80 ZnO-NPs are the optimal concentrations.

  17. Egg Quality during the Pubertal Transition—Is Youth All It’s Cracked Up to Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca E. Duncan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is well accepted that egg quality decreases with advanced maternal age, we do not know how it is affected at the earliest ages during the pubertal transition—likely because this young population is not typically reproducing. However, in the setting of fertility preservation, more childhood cancer patients are surviving their diagnosis due to medical advances, forcing patients and their families to consider their future fertility at a very young age. Ex vivo in vitro maturation, in which cumulus oocyte complexes harvested from ovarian tissue are cultured to obtain mature gametes, is gaining traction as a fertility preservation method that is coupled to ovarian tissue cryopreservation. This method is particularly suitable for prepubertal and young adolescent girls, although live births have not yet been reported in gametes derived from females during the pubertal transition. Importantly, the period immediately following menarche in primate species (non-human primate and human is characterized by relative subfecundity or sterility, and data from agricultural species and humans suggest that this may in part be due to increased chromosomal abnormalities in the egg. Together these data provide a compelling rationale for pushing the age boundary of when egg quality is considered, for performing further basic research to understand egg quality during this period, and for appropriately counseling patients.

  18. Effects of faba beans with different concentrations of vicine and convicine on egg production, egg quality and red blood cells in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessire, M; Gallo, V; Prato, M; Akide-Ndunge, O; Mandili, G; Marget, P; Arese, P; Duc, G

    2017-08-01

    The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a potential source of proteins for poultry, mainly for laying hens whose protein requirements are lower than those of other birds such as growing broilers and turkeys. However, this feedstuff contains anti-nutritional factors, that is, vicine (V) and convicine (C) that are already known to reduce laying hen performance. The aim of the experiment reported here was to evaluate the effects of a wide range of dietary V and C concentrations in laying hens. Two trials were performed with laying hens fed diets including 20% or 25% of faba bean genotypes highly contrasting in V+C content. In Trial 1, faba beans from two tannin-containing cultivars, but with high or low V+C content were dehulled in order to eliminate the tannin effect. In addition to the contrasting levels of V+C in the two cultivars, two intermediate levels of V+C were obtained by mixing the two cultivars (70/30 and 30/70). In Trial 2, two isogenic zero-tannin faba bean genotypes with high or low V+C content were used. In both trials, a classical corn-soybean diet was also offered to control hens. Each experimental diet was given to 48 laying hens for 140 (Trial 1) or 89 (Trial 2) days. Laying performance and egg quality were measured. The redox sensitivity of red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by measuring hemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in these cells. Egg weight was significantly reduced by the diets containing the highest concentrations of V+C (Pbean genotypes with low concentrations of V+C can therefore be used in laying hen diets up to 25% without any detrimental effects on performance levels or egg characteristics, without any risk of hemolysis of RBCs.

  19. Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, affects performance, egg quality, and gut microbiota of layer hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of red seaweed supplementation to standard poultry diets on production performance, egg quality, intestinal histology, and cecal short-chain fatty acids in Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens. A total of 160 birds were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups. Control hens were fed a basal layer diet; positive control hens were fed a diet containing 2% inulin; and 6 treatment groups were fed a diet containing one of the following; 0.5, 1, or 2% Chondrus crispus (CC0.5, CC1, and CC2, respectively) and one of the same 3 levels of Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG0.5, SG1, and SG2, respectively). Dietary supplementation had no significant effect on the feed intake, BW, egg production, fecal moisture content, and blood serum profile of the birds. The feed conversion ratio per gram of egg was significantly more efficient (P = 0.001) for CC2 and SG2 treatments. Moreover, SG1 supplementation increased egg yolk weight (P = 0.0035) and birds with CC1 supplementation had higher egg weight (P = 0.0006). The SG2 and CC2 groups had greater (P Seaweed supplementation increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria [e.g., Bifidobacterium longum (4- to 14-fold), Streptococcus salivarius (4- to 15-fold)] and importantly reduced the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in the gut of the chicken. Additionally, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, including acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, and i-butyric acid, were significantly higher (P red seaweed inclusions can act as a potential prebiotic to improve performance, egg quality, and overall gut health in layer hens. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Lipid Quality in Infant Nutrition: Current Knowledge and Future Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delplanque, Bernadette; Gibson, Robert; Koletzko, Berthold; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTDietary lipids are key for infants to not only meet their high energy needs but also fulfill numerous metabolic and physiological functions critical to their growth, development, and health...

  1. Role of lipid reactions in quality of oat products

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, P; Laakso, S

    2008-01-01

    In traditional oat processing practice the control of lipid reactions relies largely on empirical experiences and dogmatic principles rather than on profound understanding of the underlying mechanisms. However, in todays global food markets, the industry faces strict challenges in the development of new processes and applications where the prior experience is unsatisfactory or insufficient. The storage stability of novel oat products can be greatly enhanced by taking the mechanisms of lipid d...

  2. Dependence of the effects of dietary cholesterol and experimental conditions on serum lipids in man. III. The effect on serum cholesterol of removal of eggs from the diet of free-living habitually egg-eating people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsgeest-Schoute, D. C.; Hermus, R. J.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Hautvast, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-four healthy free living volunteers were used to study the effect of the removal of eggs from a habitual egg-rich diet. The subjects, recruited by advertising, normally consumed at least 1 egg per day. During the 3-week experimental period they were not allowed to eat any eggs or products

  3. The effects of apple pulp and probiotic on performance, egg quality traits and blood parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaz Noranian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Apple is one of the most important fruits that is produced in the large amount in Iran. It is a good source of vitamins and minerals and active fiber. Most of the apples that product in Iran are use in food industry for producing different kinds of apple juices. After Juicing, more than 20% of apple, remain as waste. The remained matter contain considerable amount of vitamins and minerals that usually found in fresh apple, moreover it is rich source of pectin and crude fiber. Generally this byproduct discharge to environment and cause some serious environmental problems. It is thought that use of apple pulp as a part of apple waste in laying hens diets not only prevent some environmental problems, but also can improve their performance, egg quality traits, and blood biochemical parameters and reduce the production cost. The current study has been designed to investigate these traits. Materials and Methods This experiment was carried out on 192 Hi-line (W36 laying hens in a completely randomized design as (2*2 factorial arrangement with two levels of apple pulp (0 and 4% and two levels of probiotic (protexin (0 and 0.005% in 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 birds per replicate for 12 weeks (65-76 weeks. Results and Discussion Using apple pulp and probiotic in diets improved the egg production performance, egg quality traits and blood parameters of laying hens (P0.05. Probiotic improved egg weight, egg production percentage, egg mass, feed conversion ratio and Haugh unit. In interaction effects, using apple pulp and probiotic improved the performance and egg quality traits of laying hens. The highest egg weight, egg production, egg mass and the best feed conversion were obtained with diet containing 4% apple pulp and 0.005% probiotic. Also the highest amount of albumin, eggshell thickness and Haugh unit were observed with 4% apple pulp and 0.05% probiotic. Apple pulp decreased the blood levels of triglyceride, cholesterol and albumin

  4. Food supplementation reveals constraints and adaptability of egg quality in the magpie Pica pica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siitari, Heli; Alatalo, Rauno; Pihlaja, Marjo; Hamalainen, Jenny; Blount, Jonathan D.; Groothuis, Ton G.; Hytonen, Vesa P.; Surai, Peter; Soulsbury, Carl D.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the deposition of limited maternal resources to eggs can reflect the optimal allocation to manipulate offspring phenotype, or constraints caused by maternal condition. We examined multiple maternal substances transferred to eggs in the magpie Pica pica to test the hypothesis that

  5. The effect of storage temperature on the quality of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rahim

    , Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras-Turkey ..... migration of minerals between the yolk and albumen of eggs from hens fed a diet supplemented with 0.5%. CLA when eggs were stored in 4 ºC for 10 weeks.

  6. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR, a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05 at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6 to 0.383 (T4. Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics.

  7. Substitution of Soybean Meal with Indigofera zollingeriana Top Leaf Meal on Egg Quality of Cortunix cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Faradillah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the substitution of soybean meal (SBM with Indigofera zollingeriana top leaf meal (ILM in the diet on egg quality of Japanese quails. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications (ten quails of each replication. The dietary treatment contained five combination of SBM and ILM, R0= diets contained 18% SBM without ILM, R1= diet contained 16.2% SBM and 2.66% ILM, R2= diet contained 14.4% SBM and 5.32% ILM, R3= diet contained 12.6% SBM and 7.98% ILM, R4= diet contained 9% SBM and 13.3% ILM. The results showed that the use of 13.3% ILM (R4 significantly (P<0.05 increased feed consumption, egg weight, yolk colour score, egg cholesterol, and reduced malondialdehyde level. The conclusion of this study was I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could be used as much as 13.3% in the diets. The use of I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could improve the quality of eggs physically and chemically.

  8. Effects of Cold and Heat Stress on Egg Quality Traits of a Newly Developed Native Hybrid Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ATAK-S is a newly developed native hybrid layer. Although the laying performance of this hybrid has been studied and determined, the performance response of the hybrid to different environmental temperature conditions is not known. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the effect of cold and heat stress on egg quality traits. Hens were divided into three different groups; control (20°C, low (12°C and high (32°C. A total of 360 hens, with 120 in each of the groups, were used in the study. Hens were held in three tier battery cages in an environmentally controlled poultry house. The study lasted for 3 weeks. No differences were found among different groups in terms of shape index, albumen height and Haugh unit of the egg quality traits. It was found that the differences among the heat groups in terms of egg shell breaking strength, egg weight, shell thickness and yolk colour were significant and the value of these traits decreased under the heat stress conditions, whereas they were not affected from the cold stress.

  9. Impact of supplementing diets with propolis on productive performance, egg quality traits and some haematological variables of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, A A A; El-Sheikh, T M

    2017-06-01

    One hundred and twenty eight, 28-weeks-old Lohmann LSL hybrid layers were used in this experiment, which lasted 12 weeks to investigate the effect of propolis supplementation on the productive performance, egg quality traits and haematological variables of laying hens. All hens were randomly classified into four equal experimental groups, eight replicates (4 birds/each). Hens in group 1 were fed on a commercial diet and considered as control group, while those in groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed on the same commercial diet and supplemented with 250, 500 and 1000 mg propolis/kg diet. The obtained results revealed that daily feed consumption/hen increased insignificantly with increasing propolis level than that of the control group. Regarding the means of egg mass and egg production rate, it was observed that the laying hens fed diets containing 250 and 1000 mg propolis/kg significantly (p < 0.05) produced more and heaver egg in comparison with control group. External egg quality traits have not affected with increasing the level of propolis, while eggshell weight was significantly (p < 0.05) increased. The internal egg quality traits except albumen and yolk percentages increased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing propolis level for treated hens as compared to those in the control. Concerning the haematological parameters, the results showed that the levels of total protein and globulin increased significantly with increasing propolis level, while cholesterol and liver enzymes were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Heterophils count of hens in the treated groups significantly decreased, whereas the lymphocyte count significantly increased, resulting in a decreased H/L ratio than that of the control group. Thus, it could be concluded that the supplementation of 250 mg propolis/kg diet is highly recommended to improving egg production, blood constituent and haematological parameters of the commercial laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal

  10. Seasonal trends in adenylate nucleotide content in eggs of recruit and repeat spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) and implications for egg quality and buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Mi; Svardal, Asbjørn M.; Eide, Torunn; Thorsen, Anders; Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd

    2012-10-01

    Seasonal and ontogenetic variation in egg buoyancy (egg specific gravity; ρ) (n = 63) and nucleotide content (n = 46) were examined for wild-caught Atlantic (Barents Sea) cod (Gadus morhua) held in captivity over two successive spawning seasons, i.e. each female (n = 5) was studied both as recruit and repeat spawner. All eggs were naturally spawned and fertilized, and incubated under optimal condition in flow-through aquaria. Egg diameter and egg dry weight declined steadily during the spawning period, while stage-specific ρ was approximately constant between egg batches (typically around 15 in total). Within each egg batch, i.e. during egg incubation, ρ significantly decreased from the time of gastrulation to before hatching, accompanied by increased contents of ATP and ADP. Altogether, we found that adenylate energy charge (EC) (EC = ([ATP] + 0.5 [ADP]) / ([ATP] + [ADP] + [AMP]) positively affected egg buoyancy (P = 0.013) in concert with egg developmental stage (P cod eggs in the field would show comparably similar trends in ρ and levels of nucleotides.

  11. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in a molluscan egg: Evidence for an animal/vegetal polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S.W. de; Speksnijder, J.E.; Dohmen, M.R.; Zoelen, E. van; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Bluemink, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lateral diffusion of the lipid analog C₁₄-diI (3', 3'-dihexadecylindocarbocyanine iodide) was measured in the plasma membrane of early embryos of the mollusc Nassarius reticulatus using the FPR-(Fluorescence Photobleaching Recovery) method. At almost all stages measured (from

  12. Female nutrition and assisted reproduction in European eel: influences on oogenesis and egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipa

    maturation scale, which may result in an increase in production of viable European eel eggs. Overall, this PhD project contributed to the development of assisted reproduction procedures by providing new and valuable knowledge about the factors influencing the maturational response of European female eels...... in techniques for induction of maturation and fertilization of the eggs has enabled the production of many viable eggs and yolk-sac larvae that are able of exogenous feeding. The present studies have contributed to this progress by addressing some of the challenges commonly associated with the induction...

  13. Egg shell quality and microstructure as affected by vitamin C, other feed additives and high environmental temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Boushy, A.R.

    1966-01-01

    The effects of climatic stress on egg formation (weight, shape, formation period, clutch size and blood calcium) and shell quality were estimated in White Leghorn and White Plymouth Rock hens. Constant environments were used with 85°F 75- 80% r.h., 75-77°F 50-60% r.h. and 55°F 50-60% r.h. as well as

  14. Role of lipid reactions in quality of oat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. LEHTINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In traditional oat processing practice the control of lipid reactions relies largely on empirical experiences and dogmatic principles rather than on profound understanding of the underlying mechanisms. However, in today’s global food markets, the industry faces strict challenges in the development of new processes and applications where the prior experience is unsatisfactory or insufficient. The storage stability of novel oat products can be greatly enhanced by taking the mechanisms of lipid deterioration into account, and by adjusting the processing conditions accordingly so that these reactions can be minimized. The lipid reactions in oat products result in two different unwanted properties: bitter, astringent, taste or a rancid flavor. Chemically, these properties are associated to enzymatic hydrolysis of ester bonds and non-enzymatic oxidation of unsaturated fatty acyl chains respectively. The processing history oat product has a huge impact on which of these reactions predominates in oat products. The review focuses on the reactions of lipids in processed oat products, and identifies factors that are critical for enhanced shelf-life.;

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic zinc on laying performance, egg quality and some biochemical parameters of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Alagawany, M; Amer, S A; Arif, M; Wahdan, K M M; El-Kholy, M S

    2017-10-09

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc methionine (Zn-Met) supplementation on the performance, egg quality, antioxidant status and some biochemical parameters of blood serum in laying hens from 22 to 34 weeks of age. A total of 120 Hisex Brown laying hens of 22-week-old were randomly allocated into five treatments with six cage replicates for each (four hens/replicate). Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet with no Zn-Met supplementation (control group) and basal diet supplemented with 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. No significant differences were observed on body weight, body weight gain or feed conversion ratio due to dietary Zn-Met supplementation. However, highly significant impact was observed on daily feed intake. Egg number, egg weight and egg mass were increased in the group fed diet supplemented with the highest level of Zn-Met (100 mg/kg of diet) as compared to other groups. All egg quality traits were statistically (p > .05 or .01) affected as a response to dietary Zn-Met supplementation except egg shape index, shell percentage and yolk index. In comparison with the control group, dietary supplementation of 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg decreased serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels. Serum cholesterol level was increased with all dietary levels of Zn-Met in comparison with the control group. Dietary Zn-Met supplementation increased the serum content of zinc, where the highest values were recorded with 50 and 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. Dietary Zn-Met levels did not affect the antioxidant indices in blood serum except for the activity of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD). The activity of Cu-Zn-SOD was increased with Zn-Met supplementations with no differences among supplemental zinc levels. It is concluded that dietary Zn-Met supplementation reduced serum triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and increased Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability of laying hens, and the addition of 100 mg Zn

  16. The Effects of KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushka Lokhande

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment. Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p0.05 on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p0.05 on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens.

  17. Analysis of quinolone antibiotics in eggs: preparation and characterization of a raw material for method validation and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, V; Companyó, R; Guiteras, J

    2012-10-01

    A quality control material for the analysis of quinolone residues in egg samples has been prepared. Homogenized fresh whole egg spiked with nine quinolones (marbofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, difloxacin, oxolinic acid and flumequine), at the concentration level of 500 μg kg(-1) was lyophilized and homogenized to obtain the reference material. The homogeneity of both the bulk and the packed material was verified. Two different strategies, classical and isochronous, were used for the stability study. Conclusions obtained with the classical and isochronous approaches were similar, but the variability of the isochronous results was lower and this led to lower material uncertainty. The reference material was found to be stable for at least 1 year when stored at either room temperature, 4 °C or -20 °C; -80 °C was taken as reference temperature in all cases. The determination of quinolones in eggs was carried out by a previously developed and validated method making use of a pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The suitability of the material prepared was demonstrated by using a lyophilized egg material spiked with nine quinolones as sample in a proficiency test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Egg Production and Physical Quality in Cortunix cortunix japonica Fed Diet Containing Piperine as Phytogenic Feed Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hilmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic feed additive on quail performances and egg quality. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications and used ten quails with one week of age in each replication. The piperine was added to the diets at concentrations of 0 (T0, 15 (T1, 30 (T2, 45 (T3, and 60 mg/kg body weight (T4 for 8 consecutive weeks. The results showed that addition of 60 mg/kg body weight (T4 of piperine significantly (P<0.05 reduced feed consumption, egg production, egg mass, income over feed cost (IOFC, and increased water consumption as compared to the other treatments. The addition of 15-60 mg piperine/kg body weight significantly (P<0.05 reduced eggshell weight and increased egg yolk color score. The conclusion of this experiment was that the addition of piperine at 15-45 mg/kg body weight could be used as phytogenic feed additive to improve performance, IOFC, haugh unit, and yolk color.

  19. Effects of Excess Dietary Fluoride on Serum Biochemical Indices, Egg Quality, and Concentrations of Fluoride in Soft Organs, Eggs, and Serum of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Liping; Li, Lanlan; Qi, Mingxing; Zhou, Minyao; Zhang, Nannan; Zou, Xiaoting

    2017-03-09

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of excess dietary fluoride (F) on serum biochemical indices, egg quality, and concentrations of F in soft tissues, eggs, and serum of laying hens. Commercial laying hens (n = 576, 51 weeks of age) were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 16 birds. The basal diets contained fluorine inclusions at a level of 16 mg/kg, and graded sodium fluoride was added to the basal diet to achieve fluorine inclusions, respectively, at a level of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 mg/kg in the experimental diets. Dietary F levels at 600, 800, and 1000 mg/kg decreased (P < 0.05) albumin height and yolk color, while eggshell strength and eggshell thickness significantly decreased at 800 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, compared with the control group. Fluoride concentrations in eggshell, albumin, yolk, liver, kidney, ovary, and oviduct responded to dietary F levels positively, and F concentrations in eggshell were the highest. Fluorine concentrations in albumin and yolk increased with the feeding time at the same dietary F levels (P < 0.05). Dietary F level at 400 mg/kg increased serum calcium level and activity of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary F levels at 600 mg/kg decreased albumin height and yolk color, while eggshell strength and eggshell thickness significantly decreased at 800 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. F concentrations in soft tissues, albumin, yolk, and eggshell of layers had a positive correlation with dietary F levels. By disturbing Ca and phosphorus metabolism, dietary F levels affected the formation of eggshell, reducing eggshell strength and eggshell thickness.

  20. Evaluation of egg quality traits of endangered Nicobari fowl and its crosses under intensive and backyard system of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Choudhuri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the present study, egg quality traits of endangered Nicobari fowl and its crosses (Nicorock and Nishibari were evaluated under intensive (deep litter as well as backyard system, in the regions of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Materials and Methods: Fresh eggs (15 of all the three genetic groups of birds were collected randomly from institute farm (intensive system and from farmers’ field. The eggs were collected from adult birds (50 weeks of age 3 times with 5 in number in each time. All the genetic groups of birds were subjected to same husbandry practices. The eggs were subjected to external and internal quality parameters study. Results: The effect of genetic groups on egg weight was significant (p<0.05 for all the groups. Nicorock had significantly higher egg weight (g (56.79±0.77 in comparison to Nicobari (53.20±0.34 and Nishibari (48.98±0.22 under intensive system of management. Under backyard condition, the egg weight (g of Nicorock (48.60±1.04 was significantly higher than Nicobari but not with Nishibari. In general, the egg weight was found less under backyard system than intensive system that might be due to scavenging nature of birds. Egg length, egg width and shape index differed significantly (p<0.05 among the genetic groups. Yolk index of Nicorock was significantly (p<0.05 higher than Nishibari under intensive as well as backyard condition. The shell thickness varied significantly (p<0.05 among different genetic groups. Haugh unit of Nicorock was significantly (p<0.05 lower in comparison to Nicobari and Nishibari under intensive system, but did not vary significantly among genetic groups under backyard condition. Conclusions: The study revealed that there was a significant effect of genetic groups on different egg quality traits; both in intensive system and backyard condition.

  1. Egg marketing in national supermarkets: specialty eggs--part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P H; Koelkebeck, K W; Bell, D D; Carey, J B; Anderson, K E; Darre, M J

    2001-04-01

    Large eggs promoted as having one or more features beyond conventional white or brown shell eggs (specialty eggs) were evaluated for quality and price in a national retail study. Subtypes of specialty eggs included: nutritionally altered eggs, organic eggs, fertile eggs, eggs from welfare-managed hens, or hens fed all-vegetable diets. Extension Poultry Specialists in California (CA), Connecticut, Illinois, North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Texas conducted a survey of egg quality and price and compared 246 dozen specialty eggs with 390 dozen conventional white shell eggs during the summer of 1996. Age of the eggs based on carton dating indicated specialty eggs were older (16.5 d) than white eggs (11.7 d). Average egg weights for specialty compared to white were 60.2 and 59.6 g, respectively. Interior egg quality evaluations including albumen height, Haugh units (HU), and percentage HU 5.0 mm, 67.5, and 10.6%, respectively) compared to specialty eggs (4.7 mm, 63.8, and 16.3%). Although the percentage of cracked eggs was similar between specialty and white eggs (5.4 and 5.7%), the percentage of leakers was threefold higher for the specialty eggs (1.0 vs. 0.3%). Egg price was substantially higher for the specialty eggs, averaging $2.18/dozen with a range from 0.88 to $4.38, compared to white eggs, averaging $1.23/dozen and ranging from 0.39 to $2.35.

  2. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  3. Effects of the host and parasitoid densities on the quality production of Trichogramma chilonis on lepidopterous (Sitotroga cereallela and Corcyra cephalonica eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for efficient and quality production of the stingless wasp, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii with respect to rearing host and parasitoid densities of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier and the rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton on its biology. For host density,percentage parasitism and adult longevity was the highest at 20 eggs whereas emergence was the highest from 10 eggs of S. cereallela while of C. cephalonica percentage parasitism and emergence was the highest at 10 eggs. For parasitoid density, parasitism was the highest at 5 pairs of T. chilonis. Percentage of emergence and longevity remained similar among all the 5 treatments. It is concluded that S. cereallela eggs more suitable as compare to C. cephalonica eggs for mass and quality rearing of parasitoid, T. chilonis.

  4. Effect of different split-feeding treatments on performance, egg quality, and bone quality of individually housed aged laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, A; Maertens, L; Ampe, B; Buyse, J; Zoons, J; Delezie, E

    2017-10-25

    In order to try to combat the effect of age on eggshell quality in aged laying hens, 5 split-feeding treatments were compared with conventional feeding between 75 and 92 wk of age. In the conventional treatment (T1), the same morning (M) and afternoon (A) diet was fed containing fine (FL) and coarse (CL) limestone at a 50:50 ratio. In the split treatments, the ratio of FL and CL was 50:50 or 30:70, and time of administration (M/A) differed. The following treatments were given: T2 = 50FL-M:50CL-A, T3 = 50CL-M:50FL-A, T4 = 30FL-M:20FL-A+50CL-A, T5 = 30FL-M:70CL-A, and T6 = 0M:30FL-A+70CL-A. A total of 12 individually housed Dekalb white hens was used per treatment. Feed intake, nutrient intake, and laying % was lower in T1 compared to all split treatments (P ≤ 0.001). Due to this low performance in T1, split feeding could not be compared to the conventional system in this trial. By the end of the trial, eggshell quality was improved in T1 as a result of low laying % and more frequent and longer laying pauses. In the split treatments, laying % and feed intake were similar, except in T3 in which a decrease was observed after 81 wk (P ≤ 0.05). Egg weight was higher in T5 and T6 due to higher total and morning protein intake compared to T3 (P ≤ 0.05). Feeding only 50FL-A in T3 not only resulted in lower performance but also in consistently lower shell thickness, indicating a negative effect of suboptimal limestone supplementation. In the split-feeding system, the most optimal combination of morning and afternoon diet was a morning diet with only FL and an afternoon diet with only CL (T2), which both provided ∼50% of the total daily Ca intake. Shell breaking strength and dynamic stiffness could be maintained on this diet between 75 and 92 weeks. Decreasing the amount of Ca in the morning and increasing it in the afternoon did not improve shell quality traits. Bone quality was not affected by limestone particle size or inclusion level in the split

  5. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    /kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced...... with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and -carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange...

  6. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  7. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  8. Changes in lipids and their effect on the quality of freeze-dried meat meals

    OpenAIRE

    Zdzisław Domiszewski; Dominika Plust; Karolina Wasilewska

    2013-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is the main chemical reaction that determines stability of freeze-dried food. The aim of this research was to determine the quality of lipids in 10 types of freeze-dried food and in meals prepared from them. Lipids were extracted using the Bligh and Dyer method and the following parameters were determined: oxidation level (PV, AsV, CD), hydrolysis level (AV) and fatty acid composition (FA). An analysis of the level of oxidation and hydrolysis in freeze-dried food revealed a wi...

  9. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Ding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks. For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks, period 2 (58 to 61 weeks, and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks. For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly improved (P < 0.05 at weeks 58 to 61, and the eggshell thickness was significantly increased (P < 0.05 at week 65. However, egg production, egg weight, feed intake, FCR and other egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color and eggshell strength were not affected by the dietary treatment. In addition, compared with the control diet, protein digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased (P < 0.05, and fat digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05, but Enviva EO had no effect on energy apparent digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

  10. Assessing the role of food quality in the production and hatching of Temora longicornis eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Visser, Andre; Jespersen, C.

    2009-01-01

    We utilized the varying fatty acid composition of phytoplankton to create 19 different food treatments based on different ratios of 5 potentially important fatty acids and offered these to the copepod Temora longicornis. Egg production and hatching was monitored and related to ingested carbon......, dietary fatty acids and the utilization of maternal fatty acid reserves. Egg production rates depended on ingested carbon and the fatty acid 20:5n-3 from the diet and from the female reserves. Hatching success showed a significant dependence on the ingested and maternal fatty acids 22:6n-3, 18:5n-3 and 18......:3n-3. Production of nauplii as a combination of egg production and hatching was highly dependent on the fatty acid 22:6n-3 and carbon ingestion. The study confirms the importance of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for copepod reproduction and indicates that the female differentially utilizes its...

  11. Safety evaluation of daidzein in laying hens: Effects on laying performance, hatchability, egg quality, clinical blood parameters, and organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Qu, L; Shen, M M; Li, S M; Dou, T C; Hu, Y P; Wang, K H

    2017-07-01

    Daidzein has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement, particularly for postpeak-estrus animals, as a safe and natural alternative estrogen-like compound. However, there is little available safety data of daidzein in laying hens. A study was conducted to examine if high-dose daidzein affected the safety of hens, including mortality, laying performance, egg quality, hematological parameters, clinical chemical parameters, organ development parameters, and hatchability. A total of 2,448 42-wk-old Rugao laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 6 replicates of 102 birds each (612 laying hens per group). After a 2-wk acclimation period, the birds were fed diets supplemented with 0, 10, 100, or 200 mg/kg of daidzein for 12 wk. The hatchability of setting eggs increased linearly with increasing dietary daidzein supplementation (P = 0.034), while the hatchability of fertile eggs also tended to increase linearly (P = 0.069). The red cell distribution width (RCDW) and coefficient variation of RCDW showed an increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing dietary daidzein supplementation (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). No statistically significant changes were observed in mortality, laying performance, egg quality, clinical chemistry parameters, or organ development parameters (P > 0.05). The magnitude of these hematological changes was such that they were considered to be of no toxicological significance. Therefore, a nominal daidzein concentration of 200 mg/kg is not expected to cause adverse effects following daily administration to laying hens for 84 d. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Effects of Different Fertility Rates on Chick Quality and Hatching Parameters in Hatching Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail Durmuş; Serdar Kamanlı; Yeliz Kaşko Arıcı; Mehmet Akif Özcan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the hatching parameters differences between the hatching eggs which were controlled or not for fertility at 18th day of embryo development in the hatchery unit. Hatching was conducted with hatching eggs of Atak-S commercial layers parent stocks. Four treatment groups were constituted; 1) 95% fertility, fertility control at 18th day, 2) 95% fertility, no fertility control at 18th day, 3) 75% fertility, no fertility control at 18th day and 4) 50% fertilit...

  13. Effects of oregano (Oregano Onites) on performance, hatchability and egg quality parameters of laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cangir Uyarlar; A. Burhaneddin Akkaya; Erol Sengor; E. Hesna Sahin; Mehmet Yardimci; Ibrahim Sadi Cetingul; Ismail Bayram

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of different inclusion levels of oregano into the diet on daily feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, egg production, hatchability, egg palatability, egg...

  14. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Whole Date Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torki M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the effects of β-mannanase-based enzyme (Hemicell® on productive performance and egg quality in diets containing graded levels of Whole date waste (WDW fed to laying hens. A total of 336 Hy-line leghorn hens after production peak were randomly divided into 56 cages. Eight iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement including four levels of WDW (0, 10, 20 and 30% and 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase (0 or 0.06 % were prepared. Each dietary treatment was fed to 7 cages (6 birds/cage from 32 to 38 wk of age. During the experiment, daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake were measured. At the 6th wk, egg quality traits were also recorded. The results showed that there was no interaction between WDW inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and egg traits. Dietary supplementation of WDW more than 10% significantly decreased egg production and egg mass compared to no WDW recipient hens (control diet during the entire experiment (P. Inclusion of 30% WDW to the diet, significantly increased overall feed conversion ratio compared to the control group (P. The treatment with 20 and 30% WDW also resulted in lower eggshell thickness as compared to 10% WDW (P. The dietary inclusion of 10% WDW also increased yolk index as compared to the control and 30% WDW groups (P. Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on productive performance as well as egg quality characteristics. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that WDW could be included to laying hens diets up to 10% with no deleterious effects on performance and egg quality characteristics.

  15. Effect of Supplementation Purslane (Portulaca oleracea as a Source of Alpha-Linolenic Acid on Production Performance and Physical Quality of Egg of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Kartikasari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion plant source of n 3 fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3 on the diets of layers on production performance and physical quality of eggs. A total of  125 Hy-Line Brown hens (38 weeks old were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for five weeks following a seven day adaptation period. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. Feed intake (FI measured weekly and feed consumption ratio (FCR was calculated at the end of the trial. A total of 25 egg yolk samples of day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment were collected to analyse physical quality of eggs. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analyzed using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Results showed that the incorporation of plants rich in ALA did not modify FI, FCR, and egg production. Supplementation of purslane meal in the diets had no effect on physical quality of eggs, including egg weight, yolk weight, albumen index, yolk index and Haugh Unit (HU. The average of egg weight and yolk weight were 60,5 and 15.3 g, respectively. Diet containing purslane meal increased yolk colour. In conclusion, laying hens that fed diet supplemented with purslane meal rich in ALA improved yolk colour and did not change the production performance of the laying hens or the qualities of the eggs.

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of thymol, synbiotic and their combination on performance, egg quality and serum metabolic profile of Hy-Line Brown hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wareth, A A A

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of thymol, synbiotic (Biomin, IMBO) and their combination in laying hen diets on laying performance, egg quality and serum metabolic profile from 24 to 36 weeks of age. Treatment groups were fed on a control diet, the control diet supplemented with thymol (250 mg/kg), the control diet supplemented with synbiotic (250 mg/kg) or the control diet supplemented with a combination of thymol (250 mg/kg) and synbiotic (250 mg/kg). Supplementation of thymol and synbiotic, separately as well as combined, improved egg weight, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio from 24 to 36 weeks of age. The eggs obtained from thymol, synbiotic or their combination treatments displayed higher values of shell thickness, Haugh unit and shell percentage compared to the control. Serum cholesterol significantly decreased in the single or combined form of thymol and synbiotic supplementation treatments.

  17. Egg Speckling Patterns Do Not Advertise Offspring Quality or Influence Male Provisioning in Great Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoddard, M.C.; Fayet, A.; Kilner, R.M.; Hinde, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a

  18. Selection for antibody response against sheep red blood cells and layer age affect egg quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    1. After 22 generations of divergent selection for antibody response against sheep red blood cells (SRBC), hatchability differed between the selected lines. Whether there is a relationship between hatchability and egg traits in these lines is not clear. 2. The aim of the present study was to

  19. Layer performance, fatty acid profile and the quality of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sipho Mabusela

    2017-12-14

    Dec 14, 2017 ... measured using a digital balance scale (The Lab Depot, Inc.). The EST was assessed by measuring the thickness of the pointy, equator and blunt end of the egg using ..... Cassava root chips and Moringa oleifera leaf meal as alternative feed ingredients in the layer ration. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 23, 614-624.

  20. The effect of storage temperature on the quality of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rahim

    or change of egg yolk pH during cold storage (Ahn et al., 1999). ..... showed that the t-10, c-12 CLA inhibited liver stearoyl-CoA desaturase enzyme activity, an enzyme .... acid reduces plasma lipoproteins and early aortic atherogenesis in ...

  1. Effect of storage temperature on the quality of eggs from conjugated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fed laying hens. ... For pH measurements, 30 eggs from each group were stored at 4 C or room temperature (21-24°C) for one, two or three weeks. Dietary CLA caused higher levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and lower levels of C16:1(n-7) and ...

  2. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter K M; Phuc, Pham D; Konradsen, Flemming; Klank, Lise T; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-12-16

    For centuries farmers in Vietnam have fertilized their fields with human excreta collected directly from their household latrines. Contrary to the official guideline of six-month storage, the households usually only store human excreta for three to four months before use, since this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum into heaps of human excreta, a die-off experiment was conducted under conditions similar to those commonly used in Vietnamese latrines. Half a ton of human excreta was divided into five heaps containing increasing concentrations of lime from 0% to 11%. Regardless of the starting pH, which varied from 9.4 to 11.6, a >99% die-off of eggs was obtained after 105 to 117 days of storage for all lime concentrations and 97% of eggs were non-viable after 88 days of storage. The most critical parameter found to determine the die-off process was the amount of ammonia (urine) in the excreta which indicates that longer storage periods are needed for parasite egg die-off if urine is separated from the excreta. By inactivating >99% of all A. suum eggs in human excreta during a storage period of only three months the commonly used Double Vault Composting (DVC) latrine, in which urine is not separated, could therefore potentially provide a hygienic acceptable fertilizer.

  3. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalsgaard Anders

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For centuries farmers in Vietnam have fertilized their fields with human excreta collected directly from their household latrines. Contrary to the official guideline of six-month storage, the households usually only store human excreta for three to four months before use, since this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. Methods By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum into heaps of human excreta, a die-off experiment was conducted under conditions similar to those commonly used in Vietnamese latrines. Half a ton of human excreta was divided into five heaps containing increasing concentrations of lime from 0% to 11%. Results Regardless of the starting pH, which varied from 9.4 to 11.6, a >99% die-off of eggs was obtained after 105 to 117 days of storage for all lime concentrations and 97% of eggs were non-viable after 88 days of storage. The most critical parameter found to determine the die-off process was the amount of ammonia (urine in the excreta which indicates that longer storage periods are needed for parasite egg die-off if urine is separated from the excreta. Conclusion By inactivating >99% of all A. suum eggs in human excreta during a storage period of only three months the commonly used Double Vault Composting (DVC latrine, in which urine is not separated, could therefore potentially provide a hygienic acceptable fertilizer.

  4. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  5. Effect of group size on performance and egg quality of laying hens during 20 to 36 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Bovera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve knowledge on the effect of group size on productive performance and egg quality of hens raised in furnished cages equally designed. A total of 520, 15-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens were divided into 2 groups to have a similar initial body weight (average 1392±16.3 g. The cages of S25 group (240 L x 78 W x 50 H cm, 749 cm2/hen hosted a total of 200 hens, while those of S40 group (462 L x 65 W x 50 H, 751 cm2/hen included 320 birds. Experimental data were recorded after an adaptation period of 5 weeks (20 to 36 weeks of age. Hens were submitted to 15 h of light/d. The average temperature inside the building was 24.6±2.5°C over the entire experimental period with higher values at 24, 26, 28 and 30 weeks of age. The relative humidity recorded inside the building was 55% at week 20 and 60% all through the experimental period. Hens raised from S40 group had lower percentage of egg production (84.91 vs 88.90%, P<0.01 and higher feed conversion ratio (2.70 vs 2.25, P<0.0001 than S25 group. The percentage of eggs laid out of the nest was higher in S25 than S40 group (0.26 vs 0.19%, P<0.01. As expected, the week of age affected almost all the parameters (feed intake, body weight, laying percentage, egg weight, yolk, shell and albumen indexes, shell thickness, Haugh unit. However, the effect of group size was particularly evident during the hot period.

  6. Egg quality and blood parameters of “Bianca di Saluzzo” and Isa Brown hens kept under free range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Doglione

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg quality traits and some blood parameters of Bianca di Saluzzo hen (BSh were compared to Isa Brown hen (IBh. Birds were reared in free range conditions. Weightofthewholeegg Weight of the whole egg was higher (P≤0.01 for IBh, due to its higher amount of albumen (P≤0.01 whereas BSh egg showed the highest weight and relative percentage of yolk (PP≤0.01. IBh and BSh egg chemical composition was similar.Totalredcellsdidnotshowstatisticaldifferencesbetweengroups,whiletotalleucocytes Total red cells did not show statistical differences between groups, while total leucocytes were lower (P≤0.05 forBShhens. Heterophyl/Lymphocyte(H/L ratioof BShwaslower (P for BSh hens. Heterophyl/Lymphocyte(H/L ratioof BShwaslower (P . Heterophyl/Lymphocyte(H/L ratioof BShwaslower (P Heterophyl/Lymphocyte (H/L ratio of BSh was lower (P (PP≤0.01 than IBh(0.33 IBh (0.33 (0.33 vs. 0.82.IBh 0.82. IBh IBh α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGPmeanconcentrationswereaffectedbytime: (AGP mean concentrations were affected by time: the values registered after 15 d (T1 and 2 months (T2 of observation were similar (345±132 and 279±58 μg/mlrespectively,whileAGPvalueregisteredafter4months(T3weresignificantlyhigher μg/ml respectively,whileAGPvalueregisteredafter4months(T3weresignificantlyhigher , while AGP value registered after 4 months (T3 were significantly higher (700±487 μg/ml;BShdidnotdisplayanyAGPstatisticalvariationovertime.IBhalbuminmeancon- μg/ml; BShdidnotdisplayanyAGPstatisticalvariationovertime.IBhalbuminmeancon- BSh did not display any AGP statistical variation over time. IBh albumin mean con- centration (1.62 g/dL was statistically lower than BSh values (1.89 g/dL; in both groups no effect of time of sampling was recorded. Acutephaseprotein(APPvaluesofBShsuggestedamoreadaptive Acute phase protein (APPvaluesofBShsuggestedamoreadaptive (APP values of BSh suggested a more adaptive attitude to free range conditions and appeared more constant over time. The present

  7. Effect of sodium selenite and selenium yeast on performance, egg quality, antioxidant capacity, and selenium deposition of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X J; Qin, P; Li, W X; Ma, Q G; Ji, C; Zhang, J Y; Zhao, L H

    2017-09-01

    This study compared the effects of sodium selenite and selenium yeast and their combination on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant capacity, and selenium (Se) contents in tissues and eggs. Two-hundred-eighty-eight Jing Hong layers that were similar in laying rate (87.5 ± 0.38%) and body weight (1.70 ± 0.02 kg) were randomly distributed into 4 treatments for 11 wk (from 203 d old to 279 d old) with 9 replicates of 8 hens per replicate. The diets (corn-soybean meal diet) were supplemented with 0 [blank control (BC)], 0.3 mg/kg Se from sodium selenite (SS), 0.15 mg/kg Se from sodium selenite and 0.15 mg/kg Se from Se yeast (SS+SY), or 0.3 mg/kg Se from Se yeast (SY). Results showed that the laying rate of the SS+SY group increased significantly (P 0.05) in egg quality between the Se-supplemented diets and the BC diet. The serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was increased (P < 0.01) in hens fed Se-supplemented diets compared to the BC diet. The liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the SY group was increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the BC group. Significant increase (P < 0.01) due to SY supplementation was noted in the serum vitamin E content compared to BC and SS. Layers fed Se-supplemented diets had higher (P < 0.01) contents of Se in the serum, liver, and kidney compared to the BC diet. Compared to BC, Se content in eggs was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by feeding supplementary Se. In conclusion, the effects of SS and Se yeast were approximately equal in promoting antioxidant capacity of laying hens, while Se yeast is easier to deposit into eggs and tissues. The diet with added equal amounts of the 2 sources of Se was more cost effective and affordable than a comparable amount of Se yeast to obtain the promising production performance and nearly similar Se deposition. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation with red yeast rice on laying performance, egg quality and serum traits of laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Sun; Yifei Wu; Xin Wang; Yong Liu; Xiaohong Yao; Jiangwu Tang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of red yeast rice on production performance, egg quality and serum traits of laying hens, 288 laying hens (40-week-old) were randomly assigned into four groups with 6 replications of 12 birds each. Hens were provided with diets containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 5 g/kg red yeast rice for 8- weeks. Results showed that dietary supplementation of red yeast rice had no effect (P>0.05) on laying performance over the entire feeding period. Albumen height (quadratic, cubic, P<...

  9. Effect of combination of chitosan coating and irradiation on physicochemical and functional properties of chicken egg during room-temperature storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xianxe [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Aera; Kim, Dong Hun [Quality Control and Utilization of Animal Products, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bong Duk [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mooha [Division of Food and Animal Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    The effect of combination of chitosan coating and irradiation on quality and storage stability of shell egg was investigated. Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on eggshell was not detected by irradiation of 2.0 kGy at day 0 and/or chitosan coating (1%, pH 5.0) after 3 days of storage. One-day-old fresh chicken egg was chitosan coated and irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy by gamma ray. The egg samples were stored at room temperature for 14 days and the effects of the combination treatment on internal physicochemical and functional properties were investigated. The Haugh unit of egg was decreased by irradiation even at 0.5 kGy. Irradiation increased the lipid oxidation in egg yolk at 2 kGy but the egg with chitosan coating reduced the level of lipid oxidation. Irradiation increased the foaming ability of egg white and decreased viscosity of egg yolk and white. Results suggested that combination of irradiation and chitosan coating can improve safety of shell egg but irradiation treatment may reduce the egg quality for direct consumption. However, an improved functional property for further processing and efficient separation of egg white and yolk can be expected for egg processing industry using irradiation.

  10. Effects of dietary fatty acids on the production and quality of eggs and larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Støttrup, Josianne; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    –173% higher in eggs than in diets. Cod fed the diet with the lowest EPA/ARA ratio had the greatest egg production. Eggs from fish on a diet with high ARA level had significantly higher fertilization and hatching success than those fed low levels of ARA. This diet produced on average 71 viable eggs g 1 female...

  11. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, specific gravity, Haugh unit, and shell percentage were significantly affected by the addition of SMP. In conclusion, in our study, SMP added to a diet containing L. acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics.

  12. EFFECT OF THYME ESSENTIAL OIL ADDITION ON PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TABLE EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Essentialoils areintensivefragrant, oilyliquidsubstances containedindifferent parts of theplant. Their function is based on organoleptic effect and stimulation of organism to the production of digestive juices. Result is ahigherdigestibilityandabsorption of nutirents. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral,antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with thyme essential oils on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied.Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks on diets with thyme essential oil supplemented. In the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with thyme essential oil addition in a dose 0.5 g/kg, in the second one some essential oil in a dose 1g/kg. The results suggest that all of qualitative parameters of egg internal content (yolk weight (g, yolk index, percentage portion egg yolk (%, yolk index, yolk colour (°HLR, albumen weight (g, percentage portion of albumen (%, Haugh Units (HU, albumen index were with thyme essential oil addition insignificantly influenced (P>0.05. The number of coliforms, enterococci, fungi and yeasts decreased with increasing dose of oil. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  13. Separate and Joint Associations of Shift Work and Sleep Quality with Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Luenda E; Gu, Ja K; Tinney-Zara, Cathy A; Fekedulegn, Desta; Ma, Claudia C; Baughman, Penelope; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2016-06-01

    Shift work and/or sleep quality may affect health. We investigated whether shift work and sleep quality, separately and jointly, were associated with abnormal levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), and low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 360 police officers (27.5% women). Triglycerides, TC, and high-density lipoprotein were analyzed on the Abbott Architect; low-density lipoprotein was calculated. Shift work was assessed using City of Buffalo payroll work history records. Sleep quality (good, ≤ 5; intermediate, 6-8; poor, ≥ 9) was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. A shift work + sleep quality variable was created: day plus good sleep; day plus poor sleep; afternoon/night plus good; and poor sleep quality. Mean values of lipid biomarkers were compared across categories of the exposures using analysis of variance/analysis of covariance. Shift work was not significantly associated with lipids. However, as sleep quality worsened, mean levels of triglycerides and TC gradually increased but only among female officers (age- and race-adjusted p = 0.013 and 0.030, respectively). Age significantly modified the association between sleep quality and TC. Among officers ≥ 40 years old, those reporting poor sleep quality had a significantly higher mean level of TC (202.9 ± 3.7 mg/dL) compared with those reporting good sleep quality (190.6 ± 4.0 mg/dL) (gender- and race-adjusted p = 0.010). Female officers who worked the day shift and also reported good sleep quality had the lowest mean level of TC compared with women in the other three categories (p = 0.014). Sleep quality and its combined influence with shift work may play a role in the alteration of some lipid measures.

  14. Effects of dietary supplementation with red yeast rice on laying performance, egg quality and serum traits of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the influence of red yeast rice on production performance, egg quality and serum traits of laying hens, 288 laying hens (40-week-old were randomly assigned into four groups with 6 replications of 12 birds each. Hens were provided with diets containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 5 g/kg red yeast rice for 8- weeks. Results showed that dietary supplementation of red yeast rice had no effect (P>0.05 on laying performance over the entire feeding period. Albumen height (quadratic, cubic, P<0.05 and Haugh units (quadratic, P<0.05 were increased with gradient addition of red yeast rice. Moreover, albumen height and Haugh units were higher (P<0.05 in 1 and 5 g/kg red yeast rice groups, with an exception of albumen height in 1 g/kg group at day 28. Yolk cholesterol content was lower (P<0.05 in 5 g/kg red yeast rice-supplemented group at day 56. There were decreased (P<0.05 contents of serum cholesterol and triglyceride, but higher (P<0.05 concentration of serum calcium in the 1 and 5 g/kg red yeast rice-treated hens compared with the control group. Serum level of very-low-density lipoprotein was also reduced (P<0.05 in 5 g/kg red yeast rice-treated hens. The results suggest that red yeast rice could lower serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels and improve the egg quality in laying hens.

  15. Effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H S; Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Lee, D G; Lee, S; Kil, D Y

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens. A total of 300 57-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to one of 5 treatment groups (feeding duration) with 6 replicates consisting of 5 consecutive cages with 2 hens per cage. Diets were formulated to contain either 0% (the control diet) or 20% DDGS. Experimental diets were fed to hens for 12 wk. The feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS was 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 wk before the conclusion of the experiment. Feeding the diet containing 20% DDGS for 3, 6, or 9 wk followed feeding the control diet for 9, 6, or 3 wk, respectively. The data for productive performance were summarized for 12 wk of the feeding trial. Results indicated that increasing feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS had no effects on productive performance of laying hens, but increased egg yolk color (linear, P Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks also were increased (linear, P lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks in laying hens. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Effects of crude protein levels on egg quality traits of brown layers raised in two production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Faria Viana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was the evaluation of egg quality of 30 to 45-week-old brown layers, raised in cages or on floor, supplemented with amino acids, using the ideal protein concept with levels of 14, 15, 16, and 18% crude protein. A total of 400 birds (Hy-sex Brown were used, distributed into two breeding systems (conventional cage or floor. The evaluated variables were the yolk relative weight, yolk height, albumen relative weight, albumen height, specific gravity, eggshell thickness, and eggshell weight. Treatments consisted of reduced levels of crude protein and were provided to both groups equally. We adopted a completely randomized design, in a factorial scheme, composed of two breeding systems and four levels of crude protein, totaling eight treatments. Five replicates per treatment and 10 birds per experimental unit were used. The breeding system on floor was configured as an option in the breeding of brown layers, of Hy-sex Brown commercial lineage, in the period between the 30th and the 45th week of age, since it presents results equivalent to the ones obtained in the breeding system in cages, having the egg quality as parameter. The system of production on floor is configured as an option in the farming of brown layers, of the commercial lineage Hy-sex Brown.

  17. Quality of eggs traded in different markets at Imperatriz, Maranhão, Brazil Qualidade de ovos comercializados em diferentes estabelecimentos na cidade de Imperatriz-MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Rocha Barros Dourado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was led for evaluating the quality of white eggs from different places (supermarkets, free markets and poultry farm eggs. A completely randomized design was used with three treatments (commercial places and five replicates (36 eggs for experimental unit. The studied variables were egg weight, integrity of the shell, albume weight, yolk weight, shell weight, albume % , yolk %, shell%, pH of the yolk and pH of the albume. The obtained data were analyzed by the GLM procedure of the SAS program. White eggs of the day (from the farm and from supermarkets presented the best results (P <0.05 for egg weight and the worst for dirty eggs percentage. Eggs differed (P <0.05 for most of the quality variables, except pH of the yolk. Eggs from supermarkets and free markets are out of the established quality pattern for the suitable category in the label of the packing. Eggs from poultry farm eggs showed the best quality.O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a qualidade de ovos brancos de granjas de diferentes tipos de estabelecimentos (supermercados, feiras livres e na própria granja. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (estabelecimentos comerciais e cinco repetições (36 ovos por parcela experimental. As variáveis estudadas foram: peso dos ovos, integridade da casca, peso do albúmen, peso da casca, % gema, % de albúmen, pH da gema e pH do albúmen. Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente pelo procedimento GLM do programa SAS. Os ovos brancos do dia (da granja e os comercializados em supermercados apresentaram melhores resultados (P<0,05 para peso do ovo e pior para porcentagem de ovos sujos. Os ovos diferiram (P<0,05 para a maioria das variáveis de qualidade interna, exceto pH da gema. Conclui-se que os ovos comercializados em supermercados e feiras livres estão fora do padrão de qualidade estabelecido para a categoria indicada no rótulo das embalagens, sendo os comercializados na

  18. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (pprotein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (pChickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (pmeat increased significantly (pmeat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative performances of eggs and embryos of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) in toxicity bioassays used for assessment of marine sediment quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrovyan, A; Rodríguez-Romero, A; Salamanca, M J; Del Valls, T A; Riba, I; Serrano, F

    2013-05-15

    The potential toxicity of sediments from various ports was assessed by means of two different liquid-phase toxicity bioassays (acute and chronic) with embryos and eggs of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Performances of embryos and eggs of P. lividus in these bioassays were compared for their interchangeable applicability in integrated sediment quality assessment. The obtained endpoints (percentages of normally developed plutei and fertilized eggs) were linked to physical and chemical properties of sediments and demonstrated dependence on sediment contamination. The endpoints in the two bioassays were strongly correlated and generally exhibited similar tendency throughout the samples. Therein, embryos demonstrated higher sensitivity to elutriate exposure, compared to eggs. It was concluded that these tests could be used interchangeably for testing toxicity of marine sediments. Preferential use of any of the bioassays can be determined by the discriminatory capacity of the test or vulnerability consideration of the test subject to the surrounding conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most options. That's where you'll find vegan foods that are made without eggs or egg products. When preparing your own food, you can substitute one of these egg alternatives in your recipes. Each of these replaces one egg (these substitutes ...

  1. Ground annatto seeds (Bixa orellana L. in sorghum-based commercial layer diets and their effects on performance, egg quality, and yolk pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demands for healthy foods have stimulated the research on the use of natural products in animal nutrition. Annatto can be used a pigmentation source to improve yolk color of commercial eggs. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of the inclusion of ground annatto seeds on the performance and egg quality of layers fed sorghum-based diets. A total of 336 40-w-old hens were distributed according to randomized blocks into seven treatments with six replicates of eight birds each. The following treatments were applied: T1- egg production feed based on corn and soybean meal; T2- egg production feed based on sorghum and soybean meal; T3, T4, T5, T6, and T7- egg production feed based on sorghum supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% ground annatto seeds, respectively. As to performance parameters, only egg production was influenced, with hens fed the corn-based diet producing more eggs than those fed the sorghum-based diet with inclusion of 1.5 and 2.5% de annatto. The only egg quality parameter affected by treatments was the color of yolk, which pigmentation increased with increasing levels of ground annatto seeds. It is concluded that ground annatto seeds can be supplemented in sorghum-based production feeds for layers, and that the inclusion level of 0.89% is sufficient to promote the same yolk pigmentation as that obtained with corn-based diets.

  2. Maize kernel size and texture: production parameters, quality of eggs of the laying hens and electricity intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javer Alves Vieira Filho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of maize corn size and texture on the performance parameters of laying hens and power consumption required for grinding maize corn were evaluated. The experiment was carried out on 384 Isa Brown hens, 36 weeks old, penned in a conventional aviary with 562.5 cm2 bird-1 stocking rate. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized 2 x 3 factorial design (maize textures: flint and dent; and milling degree: fine, medium and coarse with eight replicates of eight birds per plot. Data were evaluated with SISVAR and means were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. Difference was reported for the variable texture and flint increased the variables feed intake and egg weight. Significant difference in the characteristics of egg quality occurred only for the colorof the yolk. Larger corn sizes consumed less electricity during grinding. The maize flint cultivar had a lower 31.7% power consumption when compared to that of the dent cultivar.

  3. Gamma radiation influence on internal quality factors of eggs; Influencia da radiacao gama nos fatores de qualidade interna de ovos de consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pombo, Carolina R.; Mano, Sergio B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos]. E-mail: carolpombo@yahoo.com.br; mtasbm@vm.uff.br; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2005-07-01

    Poultry egg is a fundamental item in the human diet due to its high nutritional value. Its treatment by irradiation in order to eliminate pathogenic bacteria has been authorized in the USA in 2000 limited to a dose of 3 kGy in contrast to the requirements of the Brazilian legislation that does not establish quantitative dose limits. However research on the sensory properties of irradiated eggs is still scarce in the literature. In this work, possible changes in the internal quality factors of eggs were investigated. The samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kGy at an average dose rate of 1.7 kGy/h in the research Cesium-137 irradiation facility at the Technological Center of the Army (CTEx) situated in Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro (RJ). A total of 300 eggs sorted in 6 lots, one for each dose, were kept at room temperature being periodically inspected up to 20 days. The samples were analyzed for the following indicators of the internal quality of the eggs: Haugh unity, air chamber, yolk index, pH of the white and pH of the yolk. The results indicated that irradiation damages the structure of the white of the eggs reducing its consistency in addition to changing other parameters related to their internal quality. Therefore, it has been concluded that irradiation is not appropriate for the treatment of whole eggs in the conditions studied in this work. (author)

  4. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter K. M.; Phuc, Pham D.; Konradsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Background: For centuries farmers in Vietnam have fertilized their fields with human excreta collected directly from their household latrines. Contrary to the official guideline of six-month storage, the households usually only store human excreta for three to four months before use, since...... this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. Methods: By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum...... into heaps of human excreta, a die-off experiment was conducted under conditions similar to those commonly used in Vietnamese latrines. Half a ton of human excreta was divided into five heaps containing increasing concentrations of lime from 0% to 11%. Results: Regardless of the starting pH, which varied...

  5. Effect of the Inclusion of Organic Copper, Manganese, And Zinc in The Diet of Layers on Mineral Excretion, Egg Production, and Eggshell Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LSS Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed at evaluating the replacement of inorganic copper, manganese, and zinc sources by organic sources in the diet of laying hens during the second laying cycle in trace mineral excretion, egg production, and eggshell quality. Two hundred and fifty 100-week-old Dekalb hens were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments with five replicates of ten birds each. The control treatment consisted of a basal diet with all trace minerals in the inorganic form. The other treatments consisted of a basal diet with a mixture of the minerals copper, manganese, and zinc in the organic form with concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, and 70% of the levels of inclusion of inorganic mineral sources in the control treatment. Trace mineral excretion was determined in five layers per treatment by the method of total excreta collection. Excreta trace mineral contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Egg production and eggshell quality were determined by the mass of the eggs and the egg specific gravity, respectively. For all trace minerals examined, the dietary supplementation with organic sources reduced trace mineral excretion compared with the control group, even at 70% inclusion level, without compromising egg production or eggshell quality. The replacement of the inorganic trace mineral sources by organics source effectively reduced the excretion of copper, manganese, and zinc by laying hens in the second laying cycle.

  6. Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix and the effects on egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINE A.P. ROLL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01 and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01. All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.

  7. Effect of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill. Used as a Feed Additive on The Egg Quality of Laying Hens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Gharaghani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, one hundred and twenty 40-wk-old White Leghorn laying hens were submitted to two different thermal conditions (24° C vs. 34° C and were fed three levels (0, 10, or and 20 g/kg of dietof fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. as a feed additive in. This study was carried out according to a factorial design consisting of two temperatures and three fennel levels with five 5 replicates each (n = 2 × 3 × 5. Performance, egg production, egg quality, and oxidative product levels (malondialdehyde, MDA, and carbonyl in the eggs were measured before and after heat exposure. The results showed that the tested temperatures did not affect egg production (p>0.05, but the production of eggs with broken shell and feed intake were affected by heat stress (p0.05, but increased yolk triglyceride levels. Hens that consumed fennel presented lower yolk cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05. In general, fennel fruit influenced egg yolk cholesterol and triglyceride contents, and because of its antioxidant properties, it may alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on laying hens.

  8. EGG QUALITY AND HATCHABILITY OF In situ - REARED KEDU AND CEMANI HENS FED DIET OF FARMER FORMULATION SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Wahyuni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation in Kedu andCemani hens reraed in situ and given farmer-formulated diet on egg performances. A total of 120 femaleand 24 male birds were equally divided into two groups of Kedu and Cemani, with average body weightof 1890+216.79 and 1830+396.23 g, respectively. Basal ration was based on the diet formulated by thefarmer (R1 consisting of corn (30%, rice bran (50%, protein concentrate (15%, and premix (5%.Dietary treatments evaluated were R1 (without additional vitamin E, and the other three were theinclusion of DL α-tocopheryl acetate into the R1 diet up to 2 (R2, 4 (R3 and 6 IU (R4. The experimentwas arranged in a Randomized Block Design with 4 treatments, and 2 different groups of hen (Kedu andCemani were assigned as block. Parameters observed were feed consumption, hen day production, feedconversion ratio, egg quality, fertility, and hatchability. The result showed that vitamin Esupplementation did not affect whatever parameters, except egg fertility. Egg hatchability between Keduand Cemani hens was significantly different (p<0.05. Trend comparison test indicated significantlylinear (p<0.05 for fertility and hatchability. In conclusion, vitamin E supplementation up to 6 IUincreased linearly egg fertility and hatchability of about 5-8%, and egg hatchability of Kedu hens washigher (11% than that of Cemani.

  9. The fatty acid and cholesterol composition of enriched egg yolk lipids obtained by modifying hens’ diets with fish oil and flaxseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçyn, Hasan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fish oil and flaxseed in the diets of laying hens on the cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg lipids were studied. Isa-White laying hens and five experimental diets were used. The first diet was used as the control. Fish oil (1.5%, flaxseed (4.32% and 8.64 or both of them (1.5% fish oil and 4.32% flaxseed were added to the others and hens were fed for 30 and 60 days. The cholesterol and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined. No significant difference (pSe han estudiado los efectos producidos por la presencia de aceite de pescado y linaza, en la dieta de gallinas ponedoras, sobre la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de los lípidos del huevo. Se han utilizado gallinas ponedoras Isa-White y cinco tipos de dietas experimentales. La primera dieta fue usada como control. Se añadió aceite de pescado (1.5%, linaza (4.32% y 8.64 o ambos (1.5% aceite de pescado y 4.32% linaza a las otras dietas y se alimentó a las gallinas durante 30 y 60 días, determinándose la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de las yemas. No se encontró diferencia significativa (p<0.05 debida a las dietas en el contenido de colesterol de las yemas excepto en la que contenía 8.64% de linaza. El contenido total de ácidos grasos saturados disminuyó en todas las dietas en comparación con la dieta control. El contenido total de ácidos grasos n-3 fue significativamente mayor en todas las dietas. El cambio predominante en las dietas que contenían linaza se encontró en el contenido de ácido linolénico. El contenido de los ácidos eicosapentaenoico, docosapentaenoico y docosahexaenoico de todas las dietas fue significativamente mayor.

  10. Effect of different levels of dried citrus pulp on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens in early phase of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazok, Ahmad; Rezaei, Mansour; Sayyahzadeh, Hadi

    2010-04-01

    Utilization of agricultural wastes in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried citrus pulp (DCP) is a potential source of some valuable nutrients for animal and poultry. In an experiment with completely randomized design, the effect of different levels (0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 16%) of DCP was evaluated on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens from 25 to 37 weeks of age. The birds were randomly allocated to five groups with six replicates and three birds in each replicate. The results showed that with increasing the level of DCP up to 12%, there were no significant differences among treatments for feed intake, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, final body weight, yolk index, and yolk color. There were no significant differences between treatments in shell thickness, eggshell index, egg score, and Haugh unit. Utilization of DCP up to 16% significantly increased serum glucose and high-density lipoprotein and reduced cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Results of the present study indicated that use of 12% DCP in laying hen diets had no adverse effect on performance and egg quality of laying hens in early phase of production.

  11. Vitamins C and E can Alleviate Adverse Effects of Heat Stress on Live Weight and Some Egg Quality Profiles of Layer Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ajakaiye1*, M. Cuesta-Mazorra and J. R. Garcia-Diaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of vitamins C and E on live weight and egg quality profile of layer hens subjected in situ to heat stress. Hybrid White Leghorn (L33 layer hens (n=720 and 39 weeks old, were randomly allotted to 4 treatments containing 0, 150 mg vitamin C, 150 mg (150 IU vitamin E, and 150 mg vitamin C plus 150 mg vitamin E/kg of diet. Final live weight in supplemented groups were significantly (P<0.05 higher than control. Egg, egg yolk and egg albumen weight in groups administered with vitamins E and C+E were very significantly higher compared with control, meanwhile, the same indicators were only significantly (P<0.05 higher in vitamin C group compared with control. Similarly, eggshell weight was significantly (P<0.05 higher in all treated groups, with the highest value recorded in group supplemented with vitamins C+E compared with control. By sustaining bird’s live weight and increasing egg quality indicators, it is concluded that both antioxidants offered protective effect against the thermally stressful hot-humid condition.

  12. The effects of egg albumin incorporation on quality attributes of pale, soft, exudative (PSE-like) turkey rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Burcu; Serdaroğlu, Meltem

    2017-05-01

    Pale, soft, exudative (PSE-like) poultry phenomenon has been a growing problem in meat industry in terms of quality and economic losses, thus data is required to evaluate PSE raw material in product formulations. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of egg albumin (EA) utilization on quality characteristics of PSE-like turkey rolls. Turkey Pectoralis major muscles were exposed to either 40 °C to stimulate typical processing causing PSE or 0 °C to reduce PSE and keep the muscles "normal". Turkey rolls were prepared in nine different formulations; using 100% normal (N), 50% normal + 50% PSE (NP) or 100% PSE meat (P). Treatments also included 0, 1 or 2% EA. Addition of EA increased protein content of all samples. L*, a* and b* values were affected by PSE level. Increased levels of PSE caused decreased processing yields, while EA incorporation increased processing yield of the samples. Addition of 1% EA increased water-holding capacity (WHC) of the samples, while higher level of EA (2%) caused decrement in the same. Addition of either 1% or 2% EA was effective in reducing purge loss in P samples. Texture profile analysis showed that EA addition rather had considerable effects on N samples. Sensory scores showed that 1% EA utilization has the potential to increase mostly the mouthfeel of PSE-like products. Results showed that EA could be used as a promising ingredient that improved overall quality of PSE-like turkey rolls.

  13. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oil and 1 teaspoon (5 milliliters) of baking powder for each egg. When you're cutting out eggs, you'll want to make sure you're still getting protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, ...

  14. Effect of yeast with bacteriocin from rumen bacteria on laying performance, blood biochemistry, faecal microbiota and egg quality of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H T; Shih, W Y; Chen, S W; Wang, S Y

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yeast with bacteriocin from Ruminococcus albus 7 (albusin B) on physiological state and production performance of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 26-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn (Hyline) laying hens were assigned into five groups including: (i) control group, (ii) yeast control (YC), (iii) 0.125% yeast with bacteriocin (0.125B), (iv) 0.25% yeast with bacteriocin (0.25B) and (v) 0.5% yeast with bacteriocin (0.5B). All supplements were added to the experimental diets of the hens from 26 to 46 weeks of age. Samples were collected every 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from the wing vein for blood biochemical parameters assay, and faecal samples were collected by swab for the microbiota test. The egg production performance was recorded daily, and fresh eggs were collected for quality test. The blood biochemical assay results indicated that the addition of yeast with bacteriocin decreased the AST (aspartate aminotransferase) activity and it also affects the lactate concentration in laying hen blood. The result of egg quality indicated that yeast with bacteriocin supplementation had no effect on the mass of yolk and the strength of eggshell, but it had positive effect on the laying performance under hot environment. Low concentration bacteriocin (0.125B) supplementation could decrease total yolk cholesterol. The faecal microbiota result indicated that the supplementation of bacteriocin increased the lactobacilli counts. The yeast with bacteriocin supplementation significantly decreased the clostridia counts under hot environment condition, especially in hens receiving 0.25B. Combining the data from clinic chemistry, faecal microbiota, egg production and egg quality, the 0.25B supplementation may result in the best physiological parameter and egg production performance of laying hen. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Administration of extract Salix tetrasperma combined with extract of turmeric and neem to improve eggs quality of chicken reared under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of eggs might decrease when hens under heat stress. A further study found that a specific plant extracts could reduce the impacts of heat stress. The aim of this study was to determine effects of Salix tetrasperma plant extract in combination with extract of turmeric and neem to improve egg quality and productivity of laying hens under heat stress. Sixty laying hens strain Isa Brown of 6 months old were used and reared in individual cages. The feed and drinking water were supplied ad libitum. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design with five treatments (two controls and three treatments and each treatment consisted of 12 replication. Treatment consisted of with (KP and without (KP commercial anti-stress supplement. Formulations of extract were S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l water (EJ, S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 250 mg / l + neem 250 mg / l (EJ+K1, and S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 500 mg / l + neem 500 mg / l drinking water (EJ+K2. The hens were exposed to heat stress for 5 hours per day at a temperature range of 34.0±1.0°C. Supplements were dissolved in drinking water and were given for 30 days in the morning and noon. Results showed that a single extract of S. tetrasperma or the combination of an extract of turmeric and neem were significantly increased thickness of eggshell (P<0.05, but did not affect color of egg yolk, height albumin, egg weight, and HU value. Extract of S. tetrasperma combined with turmeric and neem extract dissolved in drinking water for 30 days in laying hens reared under heat stress could not improved quality of the eggs, but may increase thickness of the egg shell and cause decreased water consumption.

  16. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation in japanese quail raised in a tropical environment on nutrient intake, productive performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. V. Geron

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding 0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% ascorbic acid to the diet of laying Japanese quail raised in the tropics on nutrient intake, productive performance and egg quality. Eighty Japanese quail were divided to receive four inclusion levels of ascorbic acid. A completely randomized design was used and the results were submitted to analysis of variance. The differences observed were analyzed by regression at a 5% level of significance. The addition of 0, 0.01, 0.02% and 0.03% ascorbic acid to the diet of quail did not influence dry matter intake (DMI, organic matter intake (OMI or crude protein intake (CPI, expressed as g/animal/day, g/kg0.75 and % body weight. Mean DMI, OMI and CPI were 46.53, 44.0 and 11.0 g/animal/day, respectively. However, there was a quadratic effect on neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI. Maximum NDFI was 9.19 g/animal/day for the inclusion level of 0.01% ascorbic acid in the diet of laying Japanese quail. The addition of ascorbic acid to the diet of laying quail did not alter (P>0.05 egg production or productivity, with a mean egg production of 3.06 eggs/cage/day and 0.77 eggs/animal/day and mean productivity of 76.5%. The addition of 0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% ascorbic acid also did not alter egg weight (g, yolk and albumen weight (g, or egg and yolk diameter (mm. However, the addition of ascorbic acid to the quail diet exerted a quadratic effect (P<0.05 on egg height (mm and shell weight (g. The lowest egg height and shell weight were 2.99 mm and 1.25 g, respectively, for inclusion levels of 0.017% and 0.023% ascorbic acid in the quail diets. For shell thickness (mm and yolk height (mm, the addition of ascorbic acid exerted a quadratic effect (P<0.05, with maximum values of 0.031 mm and 1.42 mm, respectively, for 0.024% and 0.017% ascorbic acid in the diets. The addition of up to 0.03% ascorbic acid to the diet of laying quail raised in the tropics does not alter nutrient

  17. The influence of Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Starfish (Asterias rubens) meals on production performance, egg quality and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afrose, Sadia; Hammershøj, Marianne; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2016-01-01

    . The egg weight was not different from the egg weights of control diets, but the inclusion of 4 g mussel meal resulted in a lower (P egg weight than 8 g and 12 g mussel meal per 100 g feed. The egg shell strength was not affected by any of the diets. The egg yolk colour was lower (P ...The aim of the study was to evaluate mussel meal and starfish meals as protein sources for organic layers by studying the effect on production performance, nutrient digestibility and egg quality. A total of 300 Hisex white laying hens (20-week old) were distributed randomly to 6 dietary treatment...... groups, each with five replicates, including a control diet providing fish meal, 3 diets providing mussel meal (4, 8 and 12 g/100 g) and 2 diets providing starfish meal (4 and 8 g/100 g). Laying rate, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, mortality and live weight of the hens did not differ among treatments...

  18. Beef quality of young Angus×Nellore cattle supplemented with rumen-protected lipids during rearing and fatting periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E N; Polizel Neto, A; Roça, R O; Faria, M H; Resende, F D; Siqueira, G R; Pinheiro, R S B

    2014-12-01

    This work evaluated the beef quality parameters of 108 bulls randomly administered to three treatments during rearing in pastures and two treatments during fatting in feedlots, including mineral and rumen-protected lipids. Meat and fat color, cooking yield, shear force, sensorial traits and chemical and fatty acid compositions were evaluated. Generally, the beef quality parameters were not affected by the rumen protected lipids; however, supplementation with rumen-protected lipids during the rearing period yielded darker beef and brighter fat and increased beef tenderness in meat aged for 28days compared to the meat from animals that received only mineral supplementation. In addition, the percent of meat polyunsaturated fatty acids was negatively affected by the inclusion of protected lipids, yielding 5.58 and 3.72% in animals fed with and without rumen-protected lipids, respectively, during the fatting period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Black pepper (Piper nigrum in diets for laying hens on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Duque Melo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the increasing levels (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6% of black pepper in diets for laying hens on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters. Hissex White hens (n=168 at 30 weeks of age were used. The experimental method was completely randomized with seven treatments with four replicates of six birds each. Estimates of black pepper levels were determined by polynomial regression. The performance showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. The eggshell percentage was significantly influenced (p < 0.05, in which the level of 0.30% inclusion impaired eggshell quality. Triglycerides level increased significantly (p < 0.05, according to increasing levels of black pepper in the diet. It can be concluded that black pepper can be used in diets for laying hens as phytogenic additive without harming the performance. However, this inclusion causes a reduction in eggshell percentage and an increase in the level of triglycerides in the bloodstream.

  20. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa R. Winkler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet. Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01 and response to cooking (p < 0.01, while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05 in control eggs (34.1 g than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g or oat-wheat (31.2 g diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however

  1. The role of disinfectant resistance of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis in recurring infections in Pennsylvania egg quality assurance program monitored flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Sherrill; Benson, Charles E; Munro, Donald S; Rankin, Shelly C; Ziegler, Andre E; Eckroade, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    The Pennsylvania egg quality assurance program (PEQAP) has made major gains in the reduction of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis (S. enteritidis). However, S. enteritidis continues to be a major food safety concern for the commercial egg laying industry. Despite intensive control efforts through PEQAP, some commercial egg layer houses still remain positive for S. enteritidis. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether S. enteritidis isolates obtained from historically environmentally S. enteritidis-positive houses were resistant to commonly used disinfectants. Archived S. enteritidis isolates (environmental, rodent, or egg) were compared with recently obtained isolates from the environment, rodents, or eggs from the same S. enteritidis-positive house. In addition, the isolates were compared with archived isolates from those premises that appeared to have eliminated S. enteritidis from their layer facilities. The official methods of the use-dilution analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists were used to evaluate each disinfectant product. Two phenolic, one quaternary ammonium, and one combination product containing quaternary ammonium and formaldehyde were evaluated, in addition to one sodium hypochlorite detergent. All products diluted according to the manufacturers' recommendations killed the S. enteritidis isolates in this test system. There was no difference in susceptibility or resistance to the disinfectants used between the isolates from those facilities that remained S. enteritidis-positive and those that appeared to have eliminated S. enteritidis from their facility.

  2. Effect of Fluorescent vs. Poultry-Specific Light-Emitting Diode Lights on Production Performance and Egg Quality of W-36 Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Xin, Hongwei; Sekhon, Jasreen; Wang, Tong

    2017-12-20

    More energy-efficient, durable, affordable, and dimmable light-emitting diode (LED) lights are finding applications in poultry production. However, data are lacking on controlled comparative studies concerning the impact of such lights during the pullet rearing and subsequent laying phase. This study evaluated two types of poultry-specific LED light (PS-LED) vs. fluorescent light (FL) with regards to their effects on hen laying performance. A total of 432 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were tested in two batches using four environmental chambers (nine cages per chamber and 6 birds per cage) from 17 to 41 weeks of age (WOA). Dim-to-red PS-LED and warm-white FL were used in the laying phase. The hens had been reared under a dim-to-blue PS-LED or a warm-white FL from 1 to 16 WOA. The measured performance variables included 1) timing of sexual maturity, 2) egg production performance, 3) egg quality, and 4) egg yolk cholesterol. Results showed that the two types of light used during the laying phase had comparable performance responses for all response parameters (P > 0.05) with a few exceptions. Specifically, eggs laid from hens in the PS-LED treatment had lower shell thickness (P = 0.01) and strength (P = 0.03) than those in the FL treatment at 41 WOA. The two types of light used during the rearing phase did not influence the 17 to 41 WOA laying performance, except that hens reared under the PS-LED laid eggs with lower shell thickness (P = 0.02) at 32 WOA as compared to hens reared under the FL. This study demonstrates that the emerging poultry-specific LED lights yield comparable production performance and egg quality of W-36 laying hens to the traditional fluorescent lights. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Effect of host quality of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on performance of the egg parasitoid Uscana Iariophaga (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzen, J.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Development and reproductive success of the solitary egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan were examined after development in eggs of the bruchid storage pest Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius reared at either low or high densities on cowpea seeds and laid at day 1 and 4 of maternal life. Both

  4. Effect of different diluents on the quality of sperm sexing cows with a gradient albumin (egg white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervandi M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Damage of spermatozoa membrane in sexing procces with albumin gradient can decrease the quality of spermatozoa, thus to solve that need diluents for protect spermatozoa membrane to make good quality. The aim of this research is to know the best diluents between Andromed and CEP2 (cauda epididymal plasma + 0% of yolk to keep the quality of Limousin Cow’s Spermatozoa from sexing procces with albumin’s gradient. Parameters measured for the quality of spermatozoa were : spermatozoa motility, spermatozoa viability, spermatozoa abnormality, spermatozoa concentration, and spermatozoa motility, membrane integrity, spermatozoa capacity, and acrosom reaction. Observation of membrane integrity using HOS (Hypoosmotic Swelling Test, observation of capacity and acrosom reaction using fluoresen CTC (Chortetracycline dye. Result show that Andomed diluents and CEP2 + 10% yolk in top layer and bottom (X and (Y layer can keep the quality of Limousin Cow’s spermatozoa in sexing procces include spermatozoa motility (X 62,5%, Y 58%, (X 56,5%, Y 55%, viability (X 91,64%, Y 91,51% (X 89,87%, Y 93,51%, spermatozoa’s concentration (X 643 million /ml, Y518 million /ml (X648 million/ml, Y517 million/ml, total spermatozoa are motil (X373,60 juta/ml, Y187,80 million/ml (X 296,03 miliion/ml, Y 187,38 million/ml , and have low abnormality (X 4,11%, Y 4,38%, (X 6,42%, Y 4,04%. Andromed diluents and CEP2 + 10% yolk can keep the integrity of spermatozoa membrane (X 87,60%, Y 80,26% (X 79,61%, Y 81,03%, remains well and have the spermatozoa are not yet capacitation(X 87,60%, Y83,71% (X 79,61%, Y 81,03% remains high, spermatozoa capacity (X 9,76%, Y 9,92% (X 13,45%, Y 8,95%, dan acrosom reaction (X 4,11%, Y 4,38%, (X 6,42%, Y 4,04% remains low. Andromed diluents was not different (P > 0,05 from CEP2 diluents + 10% yolk in keeping the quality of Limousin Cow Spermatozoa from the sexing process with albumin’s gradient (egg white.

  5. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  6. The effects of using of probiotic, organic acid and blends of some medicinal herbs on performance, egg quality, blood biochemical and immunity parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sayiedpiran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of using of probiotic, organic acid and blends of some medicinal herbs on performance, egg quality, blood biochemical and immunity parameters of laying hens. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with one hundred and ninety two of Hy-Line (W36 laying hens from 37 to 49 weeks of age. There were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates and 12 hens in each replicate. The treatments included: 1 control group 2 using 0.005 % of probiotic (Protexin®, 3 using 0.2% of propionic acid and treatment 4 using blends of medicinal herbs (‌‌zizaphora, Menta pulagum, peppermint and nettle. The results showed that there were some significant difference in performance and egg quality between experimental groups (p>0.05. The highest amount of egg mass production (51.38g, and the best value of feed conversion (2.04, were observed in experiment group 3. Whereas the best yolk color index (4.5 was observed in experiment group 4. There were not observed any significantly difference between experimental groups in blood biochemical and immunity parameters. With consideration in obtained results in laying hens using probiotic, organic acid and blends of some medicinal herbs have positive effects on performance and egg yolk color.

  7. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  8. Dietary inclusion of raw faba bean instead of soybean meal and enzyme supplementation in laying hens: Effect on performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 160 Hisex Brown laying hens to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of faba bean (FB and enzyme supplementation on productive performance and egg quality parameters. The experimental diets consisted of five levels of FB: 0% (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, substituting soybean meal (SBM, and two levels of enzyme supplementation (0 or 250 mg/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to four replicate groups and the experiment lasted 22 weeks. A positive relationship (P  0.05. The main effect of FB levels replacing for SBM affected (P < 0.05 yolk and shell percentages, yolk index, yolk to albumen ratio, shell thickness and egg shape index. It can be concluded that FB and enzyme supplementation could be included in hens diet at less than 50% instead of SBM to support egg productive performance, however higher raw FB levels negatively affected egg production indices and quality.

  9. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164 at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i 0 mg/kg, ii 25 mg/kg, iii 50 mg/kg, and iv 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05 by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009 and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to

  10. Polyphenols in Eucalyptus leaves improved the egg and meat qualities and protected against ethanol-induced oxidative damage in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Chen, H; Li, W; Miao, J; Chen, N; Shao, X; Cao, Y

    2017-03-09

    Polyphenols in Eucalyptus leaves (PE) were value resources due to various pharmacological activities, but data on the effect on laying hens are very scare. This study was conducted to determine the effect of PE on the laying performance, egg traits, meat quality, antioxidant status and liver tissues of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 256-day-old Yueqinhuang laying hens were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (different levels of PE at 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.2 g/kg diet) for 63 days with 15 replicates per group. Addition of 0.8 g/kg PE not only improved the egg trait by increasing the eggshell thickness and decreasing MDA production and cholesterol content in the egg yolk, but also significantly enhanced meat quality of hens, as suggested by the increase pH45 min (p < .01) and a* value, and decrease drip loss rate (p < .01). Meanwhile, under acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage condition, supplementation of 0.8 g/kg PE enhanced the serum antioxidant status by increasing enzymatic activities (GSH-PX, T-SOD, T-AOC), inhibited oxidative damage and provided protective effect to liver tissue. In conclusion, addition of 0.8 g/kg PE not only improved the egg traits and meat quality without obvious adverse effects, but also increased the serum antioxidant status of the hens and protected their liver tissue from ethanol-induced oxidative damage. This study indicated that PE could be utilized as an effective feed additive for laying hens to improve health performance and egg traits. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effect of dietary supplementation of Ligustrum lucidum on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X L; He, W L; Yang, M L; Yan, Y M; Xue, Y H; Zhao, S T

    2017-11-01

    The fruit of Ligustrum lucidum (FLL, Nuzhenzi in Chinese) is an important traditional medicine, and have attracted significant research attention because of their various biological activities. However, there are few research reports available on the use of FLL as a feed additive in livestock nutrition, particularly in layers. This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementation of the diet of laying hens with FLL on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites. A total of 360 72-week-old hens were allocated to three dietary treatments (eight replications of 15 hens/treatment group) and were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with an inclusion level of 0.25% or 0.50% of FLL powder in the final feed, until 78 weeks of age. Hens were housed in a three-tier cage system. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Blood samples and eggs were collected at the end of the experiment. The results showed that dietary supplementation with FLL did not affect egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell thickness, albumen height, egg yolk color, eggshell breaking strength or egg shape index. However, FLL supplementation significantly decreased (P<0.001) mortality, cracked-egg rate and blood serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase, and increased (P<0.001) blood serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No differences in serum levels of total protein, albumin, glucose, calcium, aspartate aminotransferase or alkaline phosphatase were observed in hens fed FLL compared with the control group. It can be concluded that FLL, at a supplementation level of 0.25% final feed, can be used as an effective feed additive to improve the performance of laying hens during the late laying period.

  12. Productive performance, egg quality, blood constituents, immune functions, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens fed diets with different levels of Yucca schidigera extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; El-Kholy, Mohamed S

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera extract on productive performance, egg quality, blood metabolites, immune function, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens. A total of 96 36-week-old hens were allocated into four groups, the control diet or the diet supplemented with 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg of yucca extract, from 36 to 52 weeks of age. Hens were divided into four equal groups replicated six times with four hens per replicate. As a result of this study, there were no linearly or quadratically differences in body weight change (BWC), feed consumption (FC), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and egg weight (EW) due to yucca treatments at different ages, except FCR and EW that were improved with yucca supplementation during 36-40 weeks of age. Supplemental dietary yucca up to 100 mg/kg diet led to significant improvement in egg number (EN) and egg mass (EM). Egg qualities were not linearly or quadratically affected by yucca treatments except shell thickness was quadratically (P albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Comparing to the control group, yucca addition to laying hen diets resulted in a significant linear (P < 0.001) and quadratic (P = 0. 010) decrease in blood ammonia-N and urea-N, respectively. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level in serum were quadratically improved in yucca groups. The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased with yucca addition in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, yucca supplemented up to 100 mg/kg diet can be used as effective feed additive to improve productive performance, blood profile, and antioxidant enzyme activities in laying hens.

  13. Fermented feed for laying hens: effect on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F

    2009-01-01

    1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1·2-1:1·4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg....../kg feed), high numbers of lactic acid bacteria (log 9-10 CFU/g feed) and a pH of approximately 4·5. Feed fermentation reduced the concentration of dietary sugar from 32·1 to 7·3 g/kg DM and the phytate bound phosphorus from 2·7 to 1·9 g/kg DM. 3. Fermented feed seemed to loose attractiveness for the birds...... quite rapidly, resulting in a more aggressive behaviour and a poorer plumage condition than in birds given dry feed. The use of fermented feed reduced the litter DM content. 4. During the experimental period, the body weight gain of hens receiving fermented feed was 80 g higher than of hens fed the dry...

  14. Supplementation of fine and coarse limestone in different ratios in a split feeding system: Effects on performance, egg quality, and bone strength in old laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, A; Maertens, L; Ampe, B; Buyse, J; Zoons, J; Delezie, E

    2017-06-01

    Different ratios of fine- (FL) and coarse limestone (CL) were compared (50FL:50CL, 30FL:70CL, 0FL:100CL) in conventional (C) and split feeding (S) for their effects on performance, egg quality traits, and bone quality of old, brown laying hens (72 to 83 wk). Each treatment consisted of 42 hens (7 hens × 6 replicates). In the C system diets supplemented with limestone were provided during the whole day, whereas in the S system a morning diet was fed without added limestone, and only the afternoon diet was supplemented with different limestone ratios. Highest laying %, egg mass, and lowest feed conversion were found in the C system with 50FL:50CL and 0FL:100CL and in the S system with 30FL:70CL between 76 and 79 wk (P ≤ 0.001). Reduced cracked egg % was found when 0FL:100CL was supplemented in the C system and 30FL:70CL in the S system between 72 and 83 wk (P ≤ 0.001). Tibia ash content was higher in the S system compared to the C system (P = 0.005); tibia breaking strength, however, did not differ between feeding systems. Egg quality traits were not improved by S feeding. However, at 83 wk, S feeding resulted in higher breaking strength, but lower shell thickness compared to the C system (P = 0.036, P ≤ 0.001, respectively). Therefore, hens in the S feeding system might have been able to form a structurally superior shell compared to the C system. For further investigation, instead of restricting limestone supplementation solely to the afternoon, it might be a better approach to provide FL and CL at a different time of the d in a split feeding system to improve shell quality in old, brown laying hens in an extended production cycle. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. INFLUENCE OF ASCORBIC ACID ON EGG QUALITY INFLUÊNCIA DO ÁCIDO ASCÓRBICO NA QUALIDADE DO OVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves de SOUZA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The egg quality may be influenced by some nutrients added to laying hens diets and among these nutrients, the ascorbic acid is included. According to some researches, this acid, besides of improving the quality, it can increase the egg production and weight. In addition, it reduces the quantity of cracked eggs and food intake. In order to contribute with more information, this experiment was developed. Concentrations of 100; 150 and 200mg/kg of ascorbic acid were added to rations of laying hens during 60 days, with the objective of determining the influence of ascorbic acid on the quality of eggs kept under room temperature conditions (26.7 ± 2.2°C and 60 ± 5% moisture for a period of 28 days. A total of 1440 eggs were used, being 720 of white shell and 720 of brown shell. Egg quality was determined by Haugh unit and yolk index, every 7 days. The obtained results allowed to conclude that ascorbic acid, independent on the level of supplementation, was not enough to decrease.A qualidade dos ovos pode ser influenciada por alguns nutrientes adicionados à dieta das aves e entre esses nutrientes se inclui o ácido ascórbico, que segundo alguns pesquisadores, além de melhorar a qualidade, pode aumentar a produção e o peso dos ovos e diminuir a quantidade de ovos trincados e o consumo de ração. Com a finalidade de tentar contribuir com mais algumas informações, desenvolveu esse experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do ácido ascórbico sobre a qualidade de ovos brancos e marrons mantidos sob condições de ambiente (26,7 ± 2,2°C e 60 ± 5%UR, por um período de 28 dias. Foram utilizados 1440 ovos, sendo 720 de casca branca e 720 de casca marrom. Foram adicionadas à ração de aves, durante 60 dias, concentrações de 100, 150 e 200mg/kg de ácido ascórbico. A qualidade dos ovos foi determinada de 7 em 7 dias, avaliando-se a unidade Haugh e o índice gema. Os dados obtidos permitiram concluir que a suplementação com o

  16. Influence of soy oil source and dietary supplementation of vitamins E and C on the oxidation status of serum and egg yolk, and the lipid profile of egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandoust, H; Ahn, D U

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding vitamins E and C to diets containing 3.5% refined soy oil (SO), recycled soy oil (RSO), or acidulated soy oil soapstocks (ASS) on 1) fatty acid (FA) profile, and cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations of yolk, and 2) the oxidation status of serum and yolk. Twelve dietary treatments, using 3 oil sources, 2 levels of vitamin E (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), and 2 levels of vitamin C (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), were prepared. A total of 300 W36 Hy-line laying hens, from 44 to 56 weeks of age, were placed in 60 cages (5 birds/cage) and 5 cages were randomly assigned to one of the 12 diets. Blood samples and eggs were collected after 84 d on trial. No interactions among main effects were found for any of the traits studied. Oil sources had little effects on the FA profile of the yolk, except for C18:3 that was higher (P-value of oil source used in diet, but also by the supplementation of vitamin E and C. The results showed that triglyceride profile, but not cholesterol content, of egg was affected by fatty acid profile of the supplemental oil and the vitamin C and E supplementations. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Effect of Royal Jelly on behavioural patterns, feather quality, egg quality and some haematological parameters in laying hens at the late stage of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, M S

    2017-10-13

    The aim was to elucidate the impact of Royal Jelly (RJ) on behavioural patterns, feather cover, egg quality and some blood haematological indices in laying hens (58-64 weeks of age). A total of 108 Tetra Brown laying hens were used in the current trial. The birds were divided into three equal groups (36 birds each). The pure RJ was prepared for immediate injection subcutaneously, as follows: the first treated group (RJ1 :100 mg/kg); the second treated group (RJ2 :200 mg/kg); the control group. The eating and drinking activities in the RJ2 group were significantly (p = .009 and .015 respectively) higher than the control and RJ1 groups. Furthermore, the aggressive pecks, feather pecks and threating behaviour in the RJ2 group were significantly (p = .005, .001 and .039 respectively) lower than the control and RJ1 groups. Both RJ-treated groups had the best feather cover on the neck and abdomen regions (p = .010 and .001 respectively; Figure ). Both RJ-treated groups had a significantly higher eggshell ratio (p = .019) and shell thickness (p = .001) in comparison with the control group. The albumen height, Haugh units and yolk index in both RJ-treated groups were significantly greater than those recorded in the control group (p = .026, .001 and .022 respectively). The erythrocyte and total leucocyte counts in the RJ2 group were significantly higher than those reported in the control and RJ1 groups (p = .029 and .013 respectively); however, the heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and heterophil % in both RJ-treated groups were significantly the lowest (p = .001 and .039). In conclusion, birds in the RJ2 group had superior feather cover, welfare and behavioural indices, probably due to the impact of active flavonoids components of RJ on laying hen performance. Furthermore, the RJ-treated groups had significantly improved egg quality parameters and some blood haematological indices. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Impact of dietary precursor ALA versus preformed DHA on fatty acid profiles of eggs, liver and adipose tissue and expression of genes associated with hepatic lipid metabolism in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijat, M; Eck, P; House, J D

    2017-04-01

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and preformed longer chain PUFA (LCPUFA, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) differ in their egg LCPUFA enrichment efficiency. However, mechanisms leading to these differences are unclear. To this end, omega-3 PUFA contents in different lipid classes, including triacylglycerol (TAG) and total phospholipid (PL) in yolk, liver and adipose, as well as the expression of key hepatic enzymes in lipid metabolism were evaluated in laying hens in response to changes in dietary supply. Seventy Lohmann hens (n=10/treatment) consumed either a control diet (0.03% total omega-3 PUFA), or the control with supplementation (0.20%, 0.40% and 0.60% total omega-3 PUFA) from either flaxseed oil or algal product, as sources of ALA (precursor) or DHA (preformed), respectively. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design, and data were analyzed using the Proc Mixed procedure of SAS. ALA accumulated as a function of intake (P<0.0001) in total and lipid classes of yolk, liver and adipose (TAG only) for ALA- and DHA-fed hens. Unlike flaxseed oil, preformed-DHA contributed to greater (P<0.0001) accumulation of LCPUFA in yolk total PL and TAG pool, as well as adipose TAG. This may relate to elevated (P<0.0001) expression of acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL1). No difference in hepatic EPA level in total lipids was noted between both treatment groups; EPAliver=2.1493x-0.0064; R(2)=0.70, P<0.0001 (x=dietary omega-3 PUFA). The latter result may highlight the role of hepatic EPA in the regulation of LCPUFA metabolism in laying hens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effects of simultaneous supplementation of laying hens with α-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid resources on egg quality and n-3 fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingping; Tang, Chuanqiu; Ding, Zongqing; Huang, Hui; Sun, Yong

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simultaneous supplementation of laying hens with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) resources (flax, perilla, and Eucommia ulmoides [E. ulmoides] seeds) and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) resources (Schizochytrium sp.) on egg quality and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) profile. Dietary treatments were as follows: i) diet C (control diet); ii) diet F (diet C+10% flaxseeds); iii) diet P, (diet C+10% perilla seeds); iv) diet E (diet C+10% E. ulmoides seeds); v) diet A (diet C+1.5% microalage); vi) diet AF (diet C+10% flaxseeds+1.5% microalage); vii) diet AP (diet C+10% perilla seeds+1.5% microalgae); viii) diet AE (diet C+10% E. ulmoides seeds+ 1.5% microalage). Egg weight, yolk weight and production ratio were not significantly affected by either algae or in combination with seeds (p>0.05). No significant difference was observed in ALA and DHA concentration in eggs between flaxseed, perila, and E. ulmodies seeds supplementation alone (p>0.05). N-3 PUFA in eggs was slightly improved by microalgae supplementation. The best supplementation, a combination of microalgae and perilla seeds, elevated (p<0.05) ALA from 19.7 to 202.5 mg/egg and EPA+DHA from 27.5 to 159.7 mg/egg. Highest n-3 PUFA enrichment (379.6 mg/yolk) was observed with supplementation of a combination of perilla seed and microalgae (362.2 mg/yolk), followed by a combination of flaxseed and microalgae (348.4 mg/yolk). The ALA, EPA, and DHA content obtained with a combination of microalgae and seeds surpassed the total sum of that obtained with microalgae or ALA-seeds alone. It is feasible to enrich eggs with n-3 PUFAs by perilla or E. ulmodies seeds instead of flaxseeds. Simultaneous supplementation of microalgae and seeds helped improve the transfer from EPA and docosapentaenoic acid into DHA.

  20. Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail ( at Low Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body’s homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks were equally divided into three groups (20/group based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1 obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05 in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly (p<0.01 to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail.

  1. Effects of parenteral gibberellic acid and dietary supplementaion of vitamin D3 on egg quality and physiological characteristics in aged laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Razuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parenteral gibberellic acid (GA3 and/or vitamin D3 supplementation in diet on egg quality and blood physiological characteristics in aged laying hens. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens aging 73-week were randomly assigned to equal three treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3 with equal 3 replicas in each group. The birds of group T1 (control group were injected subcutaneously (SC with sesame oil at 0.2 mL/kg body weight. The birds of group T2 were given with GA3 at 400 µg/kg b.wt., SC, whereas group T3 had diet containing vitamin D3 at 500 IU/kg feed. Relative weight of albumen and egg shell, Haugh unit, shell thickness, serum glucose, serum calcium, serum phosphorous, serum estradiol, and bone calcium absorption were significantly increased in the birds of group T2 and T3. On the other hand, relative weight of yolk, yolk cholesterol, and serum cholesterol were significantly decreased in group T2 and T3 as compared to group T1. However, serum protein and albumen were unaffected in the treatments. In conclusion, the parenteral GA3 and vitamin D3 supplementation in diet could improve egg quality traits and serum blood biochemical perperties in agend laying hens.

  2. Oxidative quality of commercial fried nuts: evaluation of a surface and an internal lipid fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative quality of commercial fried nuts was evaluated by independent analyses of two lipid fractions, the surface oil, and the internal lipid fraction. The nuts studied were 6 samples of almonds, 10 samples of peanuts, 4 samples of sunflower seeds and 2 samples of cashew nuts. The oil content, peroxide value, polymer content, and fatty acid composition were analyzed. The results showed two lipid fractions with different oxidation status. Higher oxidation levels were normally found in the oil fraction more exposed  to air, although considerably higher oxidation status in the internal oil was also detected in various samples. Oxidative quality was also evaluated in selected samples of each nut after 1 year of storage at room temperature, in the dark . Only the almonds and cashew nuts exhibited acceptable oxidative quality after storage. In addition, a study on the changes due to frying and the contribution of the frying oil to the lipids in the final product showed that the composition of the surface oil can be changed by the incorporation of substantial contents of the frying fat. Consequently, the frying fat may exert some effect on the oxidative quality and oxidative stability of the surface oil.En este estudio se evalúa la calidad oxidativa de muestras comerciales de frutos secos fritos mediante el análisis independiente de dos fracciones lipídicas, el aceite superficial, fácilmente extraíble con disolventes orgánicos, y la fracción de lípidos internos. Las muestras estudiadas fueron 6 muestras de almendras, 10 muestras de cacahuetes, 4 muestras de pipas de girasol y 2 muestras de anacardos. Se analizaron el contenido de aceite, el índice de peróxidos, el contenido de polímeros y la composición de ácidos grasos. Los resultados mostraron dos fracciones lipídicas con diferente estado de oxidación. Mayores niveles de oxidación fueron normalmente encontrados en la fracción más expuesta al aire, aunque estados de oxidaci

  3. Skin lipids of the striped plateau lizard ( Sceloporus virgatus) correlate with female receptivity and reproductive quality alongside visual ornaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jay K.; Wallace, Alisa K.; Weiss, Stacey L.

    2017-10-01

    Sex pheromones can perform a variety of functions ranging from revealing the location of suitable mates to being honest signals of mate quality, and they are used in the mate selection process by many species of reptile. In this study, we determined whether the skin lipids of female striped plateau lizards ( Sceloporus virgatus) can predict the reproductive quality of females, thereby having the potential to serve as pheromones. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified 17 compounds present in skin lipids of female lizards. Using principal component analysis to compare the skin lipid profile of receptive and non-receptive females, we determined that an uncharacterized compound may allow for chemical identification of receptive mates. We also compared extracted principal components to measures of female fitness and reproductive qualities and found that the level of two 18 carbon fatty acids present in a female's skin lipids may indicate her clutch size. Finally, we compared the information content of the skin lipids to that of female-specific color ornaments to assess whether chemical and visual cues transmit different information or not. We found that the chroma of a female's orange throat patch is also related to her clutch size, suggesting that chemical signals may reinforce the information communicated by visual ornamentation in this species which would support the "backup signals" hypothesis for multiple signals.

  4. Skin lipids of the striped plateau lizard (Sceloporus virgatus) correlate with female receptivity and reproductive quality alongside visual ornaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jay K; Wallace, Alisa K; Weiss, Stacey L

    2017-09-14

    Sex pheromones can perform a variety of functions ranging from revealing the location of suitable mates to being honest signals of mate quality, and they are used in the mate selection process by many species of reptile. In this study, we determined whether the skin lipids of female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus) can predict the reproductive quality of females, thereby having the potential to serve as pheromones. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified 17 compounds present in skin lipids of female lizards. Using principal component analysis to compare the skin lipid profile of receptive and non-receptive females, we determined that an uncharacterized compound may allow for chemical identification of receptive mates. We also compared extracted principal components to measures of female fitness and reproductive qualities and found that the level of two 18 carbon fatty acids present in a female's skin lipids may indicate her clutch size. Finally, we compared the information content of the skin lipids to that of female-specific color ornaments to assess whether chemical and visual cues transmit different information or not. We found that the chroma of a female's orange throat patch is also related to her clutch size, suggesting that chemical signals may reinforce the information communicated by visual ornamentation in this species which would support the "backup signals" hypothesis for multiple signals.

  5. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Foroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P≤0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P≤0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P≤0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P≤0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P≤0.01. Significant (P≤0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

  6. The Dietary Effects of Fermented (CBT on Production Performance, Liver Lipids and Intestinal Microflora in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zheng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermented Chlorella vulgaris CBT® was evaluated for its effects on egg production, egg quality, liver lipids and intestinal microflora in laying hens. One hundred and eight Hy-line Brown layers (n = 108, 80 wk of age, were fed a basal diet supplemented with CBT® at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 42 d. Egg production was measured daily and egg quality was measured every two weeks. Five eggs from each replicate were collected randomly to determine egg quality. Egg production increased linearly with increasing levels of CBT® supplementation (p<0.05, although there was no significant effect of treatment on feed intake. Egg yolk color (p<0.001 and Haugh unit (p<0.01 improved linearly with increasing dietary CBT®. Hepatic triacylglycerol level was linearly decreased with increasing dietary CBT® (p<0.05. The supplemental CBT® resulted in linear (p<0.001 and quadratic (p<0.01 response in population of cecal lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, fermented Chlorella vulgaris supplemented to laying hen diets improved egg production, egg yolk color, Haugh unit and positively affected the contents of hepatic triacylglycerol and the profiles of cecal microflora.

  7. Efeitos do tipo de bebedouro sobre a qualidade da água e o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais Effect of the drinking system on water quality and laying hen performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Kimie Togashi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos da forma de fornecimento de água sobre o desempenho e a qualidade de ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Utilizaram-se 100 poedeiras comerciais com 44 semanas de idade distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos (tipos de bebedouros: taça e nipple, cada um com dez repetições de cinco aves. O experimento foi conduzido durante 63 dias, divididos em três períodos de 21 dias. As aves que utilizaram bebedouro tipo nipple apresentaram maior porcentagem de postura e melhor conversão alimentar. A qualidade dos ovos não foi influenciada pelo tipo de bebedouro utilizado. O uso de bebedouro tipo nipple possibilita o fornecimento de água com melhor qualidade microbiológica para as poedeiras e, conseqüentemente, favorece o desempenho das aves.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different forms of water supply for laying hens on performance and egg and water quality. Two types of drinking system were evaluated: cup and nipple. In each treatment 10 replicates had been used, composed for five hens. The experiment lasted 63 days, divided in three periods of 21 days. Data of performance and egg quality were submitted to variance analysis and, when the differences were significant, they were compared by F test. Data of microbiological quality were compared by qui-square test. Hens submitted to nipple drinking system showed greater egg production and better feed conversion. No treatment differences on egg quality were detected. However, in the evaluations of the water bacteriological quality it was evident that the nipple drinking system provides better water quality and performance of laying hens.

  8. Influence of dietary lipid and protein sources on the sensory quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after ice storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The influence of dietary protein and lipid sources on the quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied. The protein and oil sources were fishmeal, fish oil, and organic vegetable protein and oils. Sensory profiling was performed during 3 to 14 days of ice storage along...

  9. Influence of in ovo mercury exposure, lake acidity, and other factors on common loon egg and chick quality in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a field study in Wisconsin to characterize in ovo mercury (Hg) exposure in common loons (Gavia immer). Total Hg mass fractions ranged from 0.17 to 1.23 ìg/g wet weight (ww) in eggs collected from nests on lakes representing a wide range of pH (5.0 - 8.1) and ...

  10. Dietary levels of chia: influence on hen weight, egg production and sensory quality, for two strains of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2002-05-01

    1. Laying hens, 225 white and 225 brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet with diets containing 70, 140, 210 and 280 g/kg chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. 2. Hen weight was not significantly affected by diet; however, manure production was less for the hens fed on chia. 3. Egg weight and production, yolk weight, and yolk percentage were determined at d 0, 30, 43, 58, 72 and 90. 4. A sensory evaluation was conducted on eggs produced during the last week of the trial. 5. No significant differences in egg production were found among treatments for the brown hens. 6. With the 280 g/kg chia diet, the white hens produced fewer and lighter eggs than did the hens fed on the control diet. 7. No significant differences were detected in yolk weight until d 90. 8. On this date the yolks produced by the white hens fed on the 70 g/kg chia diet were significantly lighter in weight, whereas the brown hens produced significantly heavier yolks, compared with the hens fed on the control diet. 9. Yolk weight as a percentage of egg weight was lower for white hens throughout the trial except on d 58 with the 140 g/kg chia diet. Significant differences, however, were detected only with the 70 g/ kg chia diet on d 90 and with the 210 g/kg chia diet on d 58, 72 and 90. 10. No significant differences in taste preference or flavour were found among any of the chia treatments and the control.

  11. Co-culturing Chlorella minutissima with Escherichia coli can increase neutral lipid production and improve biodiesel quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Brendan T; Labavitch, John M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2015-09-01

    Lipid productivity and fatty acid composition are important metrics for the production of high quality biodiesel from algae. Our previous results showed that co-culturing the green alga Chlorella minutissima with Escherichia coli under high-substrate mixotrophic conditions enhanced both culture growth and crude lipid content. To investigate further, we analyzed neutral lipid content and fatty acid content and composition of axenic cultures and co-cultures produced under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. We found that co-culturing C. minutissima with E. coli under high substrate conditions (10 g/L) increased neutral lipid content 1.9- to 3.1-fold and fatty acid content 1.5- to 2.6-fold compared to equivalent axenic C. minutissima cultures. These same co-cultures also exhibited a significant fatty acid shift away from trienoic and toward monoenoic fatty acids thereby improving the quality of the synthesized fatty acids for biodiesel production. Further investigation suggested that E. coli facilitates substrate uptake by the algae and that the resulting growth enhancement induces a nitrogen-limited condition. Enhanced carbon uptake coupled with nitrogen limitation is the likely cause of the observed neutral lipid accumulation and fatty acid profile changes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) on meat quality and egg fatty acid composition of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, H; Konca, Y; Durmuscelebi, F

    2017-04-26

    This study was conducted in two separate experiments. Experiment I was conducted to investigate the effects of hemp seed (HS) on meat quality traits, and experiment II was designed to determine egg fatty acid (FA) composition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). In experiment I and experiment II treatments, groups were as follows: (i) control (not included HS0), (ii) 5% HS inclusion to diets, (iii) 10% HS inclusion to diets and (iv) 20% HS inclusion to diets. In experiment I, a total of 192 7-day-old-quail were fed with HS diets for 5 weeks, and end of the experiment I, a total of 64 quail (16 each) slaughtered and meat samples were analysed for meat colour, pH, cooking and thawing loss and FA composition. In experiment II, a total of 120 8-week-old laying quail were fed with experimental diets for 6 weeks and egg FA composition were determined. Breast meat cooking loss was significantly lower in 20% supplemented group (p Hemp seed inclusion to diets caused a linear and cubic increase in redness (a*) of hip meat (p Hemp seed addition was provided lower palmitoleic and oleic FAs in quail eggs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, HS supplementation to quail diets may increase quail meat redness and meat and egg yolk omega-3 FA content and decrease cooking loss of quail meats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Desensitization to a whole egg by rush oral immunotherapy improves the quality of life of guardians: A multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, delayed-start design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh-Nagato, Naoka; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Nagao, Mizuho; Fujisawa, Takao; Shimojo, Naoki; Iwata, Tsutomu

    2017-08-01

    Patients with food allergies and their families have a significantly reduced health-related quality of life (QOL). We performed a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, delayed-start design study to clarify the efficacy and safety of rush oral immunotherapy (rOIT) and its impact on the participants' daily life and their guardians (UMIN000003943). Forty-five participants were randomly divided into an early-start group and a late-start group. The early-start group received rOIT for 3 months, while the late-start group continued the egg elimination diet (control). In the next stage, both groups received OIT until all participants had finished 12 months of maintenance OIT. The ratio of the participants in whom an increase of the TD was achieved in the first stage was significantly higher in the early-start group (87.0%), than in the late-start group (22.7%). The QOL of the guardians in the early-start group significantly improved after the first stage (65.2%), in comparison to the late-start group (31.8%). During 12 months of rOIT, the serum ovomucoid-specific IgE levels, the percentage of CD203c + basophils upon stimulation with egg white, and the wheal size to egg white were decreased, while the serum ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels were increased. However, approximately 80% of the participants in the early-start group showed an allergic reaction during the first stage of the study, whereas none of the patients in the late-start group experienced an allergic reaction. rOIT induced desensitization to egg and thus improved the QOL of guardians; however, the participants experienced frequent allergic reactions due to the treatment. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The transmission color value: a novel egg quality measure for recording shell color used for monitoring the stress and health status of a brown layer flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, K; Vaesen, I; Loffel, J; Kemps, B; Kamers, B; Perianu, C; Zoons, J; Darius, P; Decuypere, E; De Baerdemaeker, J; De Ketelaere, B

    2010-03-01

    Stress and diseases have the potential to influence the deposition of eggshell pigmentation during egg formation. Therefore, defining the shell color of eggs on a daily basis could be a representative method for monitoring stress or health status of a flock and maintaining good performance. A novel way of measuring eggshell color based on visible-near infrared transmission spectroscopy transmission spectra was defined: the transmission color value (TCV). The TCV was calculated as the ratio between the transmission at 643 nm (maximum absorbance of the pigmentation molecule protoporphyrin IX) and the transmission at 610 nm (a reference wavelength). Experiments were carried out to investigate the relevance of TCV for monitoring flock stress and health or even anticipating any factors unfavorable to performance. In 2 small experimental flocks, deliberate heat stress challenges were applied. A medium-scale experimental flock in an aviary was monitored on a daily basis during the whole productive period. From the deliberate heat stress challenges, it was seen that stress had a significant effect on eggshell pigmentation. This observation was confirmed in a daily monitored flock, in which, for example, an infectious bronchitis infection occurred. These stress situations were quickly reflected by an increased TCV value: more transmission due to less pigmentation and hence less absorbance at the pigmentation wavelength. Furthermore, for the observed problems in the daily monitoring, the TCV value signaled the problem earlier (4 d) than the average egg weight or even signaled when the other parameters did not signal anything. Measuring the TCV of all eggs produced on a daily basis provides relevant information on the stress or health status of a flock of brown layers. This could be used as an early detection of stress situations or emerging diseases, even before important quality and health damage can occur.

  15. Effect of dietary β-mannanase on productive performance, egg quality, and utilization of dietary energy and nutrients in aged laying hens raised under hot climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Chan Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary β-mannanase on productive performance, egg quality, and utilization of dietary energy and nutrients in aged laying hens raised under hot climatic conditions. Methods A total of 320 84-wk-old Hy-line Brown aged laying hens were allotted to one of four treatments with eight replicates in a completely randomized design. Two dietary treatments with high energy (HE; 2,800 kcal/kg nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy [AMEn] and low energy (LE; 2,700 kcal/kg AMEn were formulated. Two additional diets were prepared by adding 0.04% (MN4 or 0.08% β-mannanase (MN8 to LE treatment diets. The feeding trial was conducted for 28 d, covering a period from July to August in South Korea. The average daily room temperature and relative humidity were 29.2°C and 83%, respectively. Results Productive performance, egg quality, and cloacal temperature were not influenced by dietary treatments. The measured AMEn values for MN8 diets were similar to those for HE diets, which were greater (p<0.05 than those for LE and MN4 diets. However, the AMEn values for MN8 diets did not differ from those for LE and MN4 diets. Conclusion The addition of β-mannanase to low energy diets increases energy values for diets fed to aged laying hens. However, this increase has little positive impacts on performance and egg quality. These results indicate that dietary β-mannanase does not mitigate the heat stress of aged laying hens raised under hot climatic conditions.

  16. Effect of dietary β-mannanase on productive performance, egg quality, and utilization of dietary energy and nutrients in aged laying hens raised under hot climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Chan; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Pitargue, Franco Martinez; Koo, Do Yoon; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary β-mannanase on productive performance, egg quality, and utilization of dietary energy and nutrients in aged laying hens raised under hot climatic conditions. A total of 320 84-wk-old Hy-line Brown aged laying hens were allotted to one of four treatments with eight replicates in a completely randomized design. Two dietary treatments with high energy (HE; 2,800 kcal/kg nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy [AMEn]) and low energy (LE; 2,700 kcal/kg AMEn) were formulated. Two additional diets were prepared by adding 0.04% (MN4) or 0.08% β-mannanase (MN8) to LE treatment diets. The feeding trial was conducted for 28 d, covering a period from July to August in South Korea. The average daily room temperature and relative humidity were 29.2°C and 83%, respectively. Productive performance, egg quality, and cloacal temperature were not influenced by dietary treatments. The measured AMEn values for MN8 diets were similar to those for HE diets, which were greater (p<0.05) than those for LE and MN4 diets. However, the AMEn values for MN8 diets did not differ from those for LE and MN4 diets. The addition of β-mannanase to low energy diets increases energy values for diets fed to aged laying hens. However, this increase has little positive impacts on performance and egg quality. These results indicate that dietary β-mannanase does not mitigate the heat stress of aged laying hens raised under hot climatic conditions.

  17. Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. 3. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. 4. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. 5. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. 6. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens.

  18. GH replacement in hypopituitarism improves lipid profile and quality of life independently of changes in obesity variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, P.; Boquete, H.; Fideleff, H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: GH deficiency (GHD) in adults is characterized by elevated body mass index (BMI), increased waist girth (WG) and increased fat mass (FM). Information about how these indicators of obesity affect the lipid profile and quality of life (QoL) of GHD subjects is scarce. It is also unclear how...... with normal WG, n=434 with increased WG) and FM (n=357) and according to changes in these variables after 1 year of GH replacement. Serum IGF-I concentrations, lipid concentrations and QoL using the QoL Assessment of GHD in Adults questionnaire were assessed at baseline and after 1 year of treatment. RESULTS...... replacement, total and LDL cholesterol and QoL improved in all BMI, WG and FM groups. CONCLUSIONS: Variables of obesity adversely affect the already unfavourable lipid profile in GHD subjects by decreasing HDL cholesterol, but do not counteract the positive effect of GH replacement on LDL cholesterol...

  19. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  20. Fatty acid and cholesterol profiles and hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic, and thrombogenic indices of table eggs in the retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Youssef A; Al-Harthi, Mohammed A; Korish, Mohamed A; Shiboob, Mohamed M

    2015-10-27

    Eggs are an important source of food due to its favorable effects on human health derived from the protein, fats, minerals, vitamins and bioactive components. We studied the effects of source of eggs in the retail market on fatty acids, lipid profiles and antioxidant status in eggs. Eggs from four sources named A, B, C, and D in the retail market were collected to determine fatty acid, total lipid, and cholesterol profiles; hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic and thrombotic indices; antioxidant status (e.g., of malondialdehyde); and total antioxidant capacity in the whole edible parts of eggs (albumen + yolk) and egg yolk. Samples were collected four times and pooled over times to represent 5 and 10 samples per source for determinations of fatty acids and determinations of lipid profiles and antioxidant status, respectively. Fatty acid, total lipid, and cholesterol profiles; hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic and thrombotic indices; presence of malondialdehyde; and total antioxidant capacity in the whole edible parts of eggs and egg yolk showed significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) among different sources of eggs in retail market. Source D showed higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and linoleic and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)/polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio but lower levels of MUFA and linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaeonic (EPA), decohexaenoic (DHA), and total ω9 fatty acids and lower unsaturated fatty acids (UFA)/SFA ratio. Similar trend was shown in fatty acids profiles of the whole edible parts of eggs. On the other hand, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, and atherogenic and thrombogenic indices and total antioxidant capacity of source D were significantly higher than those of other source, but levels of hypocholesterolemic index, and malondialdehyde levels were lower for source D. Eggs in the retail market in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia, from May to August 2015 showed a

  1. Single and Combined Impacts of Vitamin A and Selenium in Diet on Productive Performance, Egg Quality, and Some Blood Parameters of Laying Hens During Hot Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; Mahrose, Khalid; Askar, Ali A; Alagawany, Mahmoud; Arif, Muhammad; Saeed, Muhammad; Abbasi, Farzana; Soomro, Rab Nawaz; Siyal, Farman Ali; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum

    2017-05-01

    A study was conducted using 162 Bovans laying hens to investigate the impacts of extra dietary vitamin A (0, 8000, 16,000 IU/kg), selenium (0, 0.25, 0.50 mg/kg), and their combinations on the performance, egg quality, and blood biological parameters of laying hens during summer months. Supplemental vitamin A up to 16,000 IU/kg diet significantly (P selenium revealed high statistical (P = 0.001) differences. All egg quality criteria were not significantly (P selenium-enriched groups. There were no significant impacts of selenium treatments in layer diets on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes studied except alanine transferase (ALT) and thyroxin (T4), as compared with the control group. Hematological parameters were not affected by vitamin A treatment except PCV% which decreased with vitamin A supplementation. Hemoglobin and lymphocytes were increased with increasing dietary selenium level. In conclusion, the combined supplementary concentrations of vitamin A (16,000 IU/kg) and selenium (0.25 mg/kg) might be needed for better production and health of laying hens reared under heat stress conditions.

  2. In an Egg Shell: Egg to Chick to Egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon Electric Company, Chula Vista, CA.

    The goals of this program include enabling students to learn about the anatomy of an avian egg, egg formation, bird embryo development, and the process of egg incubation. This guide is designed to accompany the hands-on experience of incubation and hatching chicken eggs and is organized in three sections. The teaching materials section includes…

  3. Lipids in herbage : their fate in the rumen of dairy cows and implications for milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, A.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes the fatty-acid profile of lipids in milk and herbage normally included in dairy diets. The next section deals with the possible effects of forage management on lipid intake in dairy cows. Then a detailed account is given of the fate of fatty acids in the rumen, showing that

  4. Effect of host availability and egg load in Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and its consequences on progeny quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso L. Hohmann

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to determine whether Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti manifested a somatic-gametic trade-off and whether it was affected by host availability and host size. Large wasps produced on Trichoplusia ni Hübner and limited to five or 15 T. ni eggs daily, produced a similar number of progeny as wasps offered hosts from emergence. Similar results were obtained when they were deprived of T. ni eggs for one, three, five, or ten days and then provided with unlimited hosts daily until death. In contrast, small wasps produced from Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier and deprived of T. ni eggs for one to three days suffered a significant reduction in progeny production. Regardless of size, the egg load of non-ovipositing wasps increased significantly with time and a positive relationship existed between the life span of a female and the length of time she was deprived of hosts.Experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar se fêmeas de Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae têm a habilidade de direcionar a alocação de recursos (reprodução/longevidade e se esse comportamento é afetado pela disponibilidade e pelo tamanho dos hospedeiros. Fêmeas de parasitóides grandes, oriundas de ovos de Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, expostas a cinco ou 15 ovos de T. ni, diariamente, produziram número similar de descendentes que aquelas fêmeas que tiveram acesso a número ilimitado de hospedeiros desde a emergência. Resultados similares foram obtidos quando elas foram mantidas temporariamente sem ovos de T. ni durante um, três, cinco ou dez dias, e então providas com um suplemento ilimitado de hospedeiros. Contrariamente, fêmeas pequenas, oriundas de ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, mantidas temporariamente sem ovos de T. ni durante um período de um a três dias, apresentaram uma redução significativa no número de descendentes produzidos. Independentemente do

  5. Conversion efficiency and oil quality of low-lipid high-protein and high-lipid low-protein microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Zhidan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Lu, Haifeng; Duan, Na; Liu, Minsheng; Zhu, Zhangbing; Si, Buchun

    2014-02-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising technology for converting algae into biocrude oil. Here, HTL of a low-lipid high-protein microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp.) and a high-lipid low-protein microalgae (Chlorella sp.) was studied. An orthogonal design was applied to investigate the effects of reaction temperature (220-300°C), retention time (30-90 min), and total solid content (TS, 15-25%wt) of the feedstock. The highest biocrude yield for Nannochloropsis sp. was 55% at 260°C, 60 min and 25%wt, and for Chlorella sp. was 82.9% at 220°C, 90 min and 25%wt. The maximum higher heating values (HHV) of biocrude oil from both algae were ∼ 37 MJ/kg. GC-MS revealed a various distribution of chemical compounds in biocrude. In particular, the highest hydrocarbons content was 29.8% and 17.9% for Nannochloropsis and Chlorella sp., respectively. This study suggests that algae composition greatly influences oil yield and quality, but may not be in similar effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Orm1 and Orm2 are conserved endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins regulating lipid homeostasis and protein quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sumin; Lone, Museer A.; Schneiter, Roger; CHANG, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Yeast members of the ORMDL family of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins play a central role in lipid homeostasis and protein quality control. In the absence of yeast Orm1 and Orm2, accumulation of long chain base, a sphingolipid precursor, suggests dysregulation of sphingolipid synthesis. Physical interaction between Orm1 and Orm2 and serine palmitoyltransferase, responsible for the first committed step in sphingolipid synthesis, further supports a role for the Orm proteins in regul...

  7. Heritability of body surface temperature in hens estimated by infrared thermography at normal or hot temperatures and genetic correlations with egg and feather quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, T; Zerjal, T; Rodenburg, T B; Fablet, J; Tixier-Boichard, M; Pinard-van der Laan, M H; Mignon-Grasteau, S

    2016-10-01

    Exposure of laying hens to chronic heat stress results in loss of egg production. It should be possible to improve hen resilience to chronic heat stress by genetic selection but measuring their sensitivity through internal temperature is time consuming and is not very precise. In this study we used infrared thermography to measure the hen's capacity to dissipate heat, in a commercial line of laying hens subjected to cycles of neutral (N, 19.6°C) or high (H, 28.4°C) ambient temperatures. Mean body temperatures (BT) were estimated from 9355 infrared images of wing, comb and shank taken from 1200 hens. Genetic parameters were estimated separately for N and H temperatures. Correlations between BT and plumage condition were also investigated. Wing temperature had low heritability (0.00 to 0.09), consistent with the fact that wing temperature mainly reflects the environmental temperature and is not a zone of heat dissipation. The heritability of comb temperature was higher, from 0.15 to 0.19 in N and H conditions, respectively. Finally, the shank temperature provided the highest heritability estimates, with values of 0.20 to 0.22 in H and N conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results show that heat dissipation is partly under genetic control. Interestingly, the genetic correlation between plumage condition and shank and comb temperatures indicated that birds with poor condition plumage also had the possibility to dissipate heat through featherless areas. Genetic correlations of temperature measurements with egg quality showed that temperatures were correlated with egg width and weight, yolk brightness and yellowness and Haugh units only under H conditions. In contrast, shell colour was correlated with leg temperature only at thermo-neutrality.

  8. The effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on performance, egg quality and blood constituents of laying hens grown under high ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Harthi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 216 laying hens was kept at high ambient temperature (32±4°C, 60% relative humidity from week 24 to 32 of age. Birds were divided in 8 treatments with 9 replicates of 3 hens each. The groups were fed the same basal diet and submitted to these dietary treatments: control, un-supplemented; green tea (GT, fed GT at 1 g/kg diet; brown marine algae (BMA, fed BMA at 1 g/kg diet; vitamin E (vit. E, fed vit. E at 300 mg/kg diet; GT+BMA, fed GT and BMA at 1 g/kg of each; GT+vit. E, fed GT and vit. E at 1 g and 300 mg/kg, respectively; BMA+vit. E, fed BMA and vit. E at 1 g and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Feeding BMA at 0.1% increased laying rate by 1.2% and improved feed conversion ratio by 5.2% compared to the control. Vitamin E significantly increased shell thickness by 6.6% and Haugh unit by 4.6% compared to the control. In addition, BMA+vit. E or GT+vit. E increased yolk colour by 9.1 and 10.7%, and Haugh unit of stored eggs by 10.9 and 11.1%. Cholesterol of fresh eggs and plasma were significantly decreased by 16.0 and 9.4% due to supplementation with BMA, and by 19.2 and 8.1% with vit. E addition. Plasma phosphorus increased by 19.1% after vit. E+BMA supplementation. In conclusion, use of BMA or vit. E or GT in laying hens diets which grow under heat stress is recommended as it improves production performance and egg quality.

  9. Effect of squash seed meal (Cucurbita moschata on broiler performance, sensory meat quality, and blood lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YM Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, 240 Cobb-500® broilers reared from1 to 49 days, and distributed according to a completely experimental randomized design with four treatments of four replicates each in order to evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of 0, 33, 66 or 100 g/kg of squash seed meal (SSM (Cucurbita moschata on the performance, carcass yield, serum lipid profile and sensory meat quality of broilers. Significant differences (p<0.05 were detected in performance, carcass weight, weight and breast yield, and leg weight. The best results were obtained with 33 and 66 g/kg as compared to the control diet and 100 g SSM /kg. Abdominal fat decreased with the inclusion of 66 and 100 g SSM / kg, but the sensory quality of breast and thighs was not affected by the inclusion of SSM. The serum levels of total cholesterol, very low density (VLDL and low density (LDL lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose and atherogenic index decreased with the inclusion of 100 g/kg of SSM, except for high density lipoproteins (HDL, which increased. The inclusion of 0, 33, 66 and 100 g/kg of SSM in broiler diets, partially replacing soybean meal and vegetable oil, improved live performance and edible portions yield. In addition, abdominal fat and serum levels of harmful lipids were reduced, whereas serum levels of beneficial lipids increased. There was no effect on meat sensory quality.

  10. Dietary fat and carbohydrate quality have independent effects on postprandial glucose and lipid responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Tan, Kevin Wei Jie; Lim, Joseph Zhien; Magkos, Faidon; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-10-21

    The magnitude of postprandial lipemia is influenced not only by the amount but also the type of fat and carbohydrate consumed. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in postprandial glucose and lipid responses after a mixed meal containing low- or high-glycemic-index (GI) carbohydrate and three different types of fat varying in the degree of saturation in healthy subjects. A randomized, controlled, single-blinded crossover study was conducted in 20 healthy Chinese men. Subjects consumed in random order six experimental isocaloric meals that differed in carbohydrate and fat quality, and contained 40 g of either saturated fat (SFA, butter), monounsaturated fat (MUFA, olive oil) or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA, grapeseed oil), and 50 g of either low-GI (basmati rice) or high-GI (jasmine rice) carbohydrate. Glucose, insulin, c-peptide, triglycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were measured over 4 h. For all substrates evaluated, there were no significant interactions between fat and carbohydrate. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for TG was significantly lower after the SFA and PUFA meals compared with the MUFA meal, irrespective of GI. No significant difference was found for NEFA iAUC in all treatments. Glucose, insulin and c-peptide iAUCs were significantly lower after ingestion of low-GI than high-GI meals, independent of the type of fat. A carbohydrate-rich meal (of either low or high GI) that contains butter or grapeseed oil results in lower postprandial TG concentrations relative to olive oil in healthy Chinese males. Glucose, insulin and c-peptide responses, however, are directly dependent on the GI of the meal and not on the degree of saturation of dietary fat. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02585427.

  11. Effect of glutamine supplementation and replacement of tris-egg yolk based extender with defatted cow milk on spermatozoa quality after equilibration and thawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Dawra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation of glutamine and replacement of Tris-egg yolk (TE based buffer with defatted cow milk on the spermatozoa quality after equilibration and thawing. Materials and Methods: Semen was collected from five Bhadawari bulls biweekly, and a total of 30 ejaculates were taken. The semen ejaculates were pooled and divided into three equal parts. The pooled semen was diluted by TE based extender (control, TE + glutamine (8 mM (T1 and 50% TE + 50% deffated cow milk + glutamine (8 mM (T2. At two stages viz. after equilibration and after 12 h of cryopreservation (thawed samples, progressive motility, percent live, and percent acrosomal damage of the spermatozoa was assessed. Results: Supplementation of glutamine improved (p<0.05 the spermatozoa quality with respect to the progressive motility, percent live and acrosomal damage both post-equilibration and post-thaw. T2 improved (p<0.05 the spermatozoa quality as compared to control, however; it was less (p<0.05 effective as compared T1 both post-equilibration and post-thaw. Conclusion: From the results of present study it can be concluded that glutamine supplementation was effective in maintaining post-equilibration and post-thaw spermatozoa quality whereas defatted cow milk was not as effective as TE based buffer in the extender in improving the spermatozoa quality.

  12. Effects of Curcuma longa rhizome powder on egg quality, performance and some physiological indices of laying hens fed different levels of metabolizable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, Mahsa; Mahdavi, Amir Hossein; Samie, Abdol-Hossein; Mehri, Mehran

    2017-03-01

    High-energy diets of laying hens may improve roductive performance, although some negative effects may also appear with respect to egg quality and physiological parameters. Curcuma longa rhizome powder (CRP) has beneficial effects on health indices of the birds through antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, especially when the birds experience nutritional stress. Increasing dietary CRP enhanced egg quality by improving eggshell thickness and hardness but decreasing yolk cholesterol content (P < 0.05). The best feed conversion ratio was obtained in birds fed high-apparent metabolizable energy (AME) diets supplemented with 2.0 g kg -1 CRP (P < 0.05). Although increasing dietary AME elevated the serum concentration of triglycerides (P < 0.05) and enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.05), dietary inclusion of CRP alleviates the blood levels of these enzymes (P < 0.01). Low level of dietary CRP boosted the immune responses to Newcastle virus (P < 0.01) and sheep red blood cells (P < 0.05) antigens but decreased the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05). Inclusion of at least 2.0 g kg -1 CRP in the diet of laying decreased Escherichia coli enumerations in the ileal content (P < 0.01) and improved villus height, crypt depth and goblet cell numbers (P < 0.05). An improvement in the productive performance of laying hens fed high-energy diets might be associated with decreasing health indices and product quality, which could potentially be amended by nutritional modifications such as incorporating medicinal herbs in the feed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Influence of Vitamin E Supplemented Diet on Charque Quality and Lipid Stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Facco, EMP; Lage, ME; Godoy, HT

    2009-01-01

    The present work evaluated and compared the lipid oxidation of charque, taken from, the semi-tendinosus muscle of animals from the Nelore breed (Bos taurus indicus), supplemented with α-tocopherol. Charque was produced submitting the samples to salt moisture, salt drying and exposition to the sun for dehydration until water activity values (Aw) reached 0.75. The statistical analysis of the results showed that there were no significant differences in the values of cholesterol, total lipid...

  14. The Addition of White Turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria Concentrated Base on Quality Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenol, Protein Content and Salt Content of Salted Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu’addimah Mu’addimah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research was to determine the effect of Curcuma zedoaria concentrated addition on quality antioxidant activity, total phenols, protein content and salt content of salted egg. The materials were duck’s egg, water, salt, and essence of white turmeric. The method was experiment using Complete Randomized Design (CRD with five treatments and three for replications. The Curcuma zedoaria juice research were divided into P0 (0%, P1 (10%, P2 (20%, P3 (30% and P4 (40%. Data was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and then continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT, if it was found significant effect among treatmeants. The result showed that the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice indicated highly significant different effect (P<0.01 on antioxidant activity, protein content and salt content, but significantly effect (P<0.05 on total phenol. The best treatment was the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice 40% were indicated of antioxidant activity, total phenol, protein content and the salt content was 99.80 mg/g, 0.16%, 9.96%, 2.43% respectively.

  15. Assessing the Functional Limitations of Lipids and Fatty Acids for Diet Determination: The Importance of Tissue Type, Quantity, and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Meyer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and fatty acid (FA analysis is commonly used to describe the trophic ecology of an increasing number of taxa. However, the applicability of these analyses is contingent upon the collection and storage of sufficient high quality tissue, the limitations of which are previously unexplored in elasmobranchs. Using samples from 110 white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, collected throughout Australia, we investigated the importance of tissue type, sample quantity, and quality for reliable lipid class and FA analysis. We determined that muscle and sub-dermal tissue contain distinct lipid class and FA profiles, and were not directly comparable. Muscle samples as small as 12 mg dry weight (49 mg wet weight, provided reliable and consistent FA profiles, while sub-dermal tissue samples of 40 mg dry weight (186 mg wet weight or greater were required to yield consistent profiles. This validates the suitability of minimally invasive sampling methods such as punch biopsies. The integrity of FA profiles in muscle was compromised after 24 h at ambient temperature (~20°C, making these degraded samples unreliable for accurate determination of dietary sources, yet sub-dermal tissue retained stable FA profiles under the same conditions, suggesting it may be a more robust tissue for trophic ecology work with potentially degraded samples. However, muscle samples archived for up to 16 years in −20°C retain their FA profiles, highlighting that tissue from museum or private collections can yield valid insights into the trophic ecology of marine elasmobranchs.

  16. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed ( P < 0.05). The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg ( P < 0.05), so that serum content of cholesterol decreased, but egg shell thickness and Hough unit increased in the hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  17. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Kobayashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets.

  18. Chemical characterization of lignin and lipid fractions in industrial hemp bast fibers used for manufacturing high-quality paper pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ana; Rodríguez, Isabel M; del Río, José C

    2006-03-22

    The chemical composition of lignin and lipids of bast fibers from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) used for high-quality paper pulp production was studied. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of fibers showed a lignin with a p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl unit (H:G:S) molar proportion of 13:53:34 (S/G ratio of 0.64). p-Hydroxycinnamic acids, namely, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, were found in only trace amounts. Among the lipids, the main compounds identified by GC/MS of the hemp fibers extracts were series of n-alkanes, free and esterified sterols and triterpenols, waxes, and long-chain n-fatty acids. Other compounds such as n-aldehydes, n-fatty alcohols, steroid hydrocarbons, and steroid and triterpenoid ketones as well as steryl glycosides were also found.

  19. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Habara, Masaaki; Ikezazki, Hidekazu; Chen, Ronggang; Naito, Yoshinobu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets. PMID:22319306

  20. Effects of long-term Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 1.921 supplementation on performance, egg quality, and fecal and cecal microbiota of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J R; Dong, X F; Liu, S; Tong, J M

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of long-term Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 1.921 supplementation on the performance, egg quality, and fecal/cecal microbiota of laying hens. A total of 360 28-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allocated into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each for 24 weeks. The experimental treatments included a basal diet without additions (Con) and the basal diet supplemented with 1.0 × 105 (B1), 1.0 × 106 (B2), 1.0 × 107 (B3), and 1.0 × 108 (B4) cfu/g B. subtilis CGMCC 1.921. The results showed that feed:egg ratio significantly decreased (P  0.05) among treatments. Eggshell strength significantly improved (P < 0.05) in groups B1 (wk 8, 16, 20, and 24), B2 (wk 20 and 24), and B3 (wk 8, 16, 20, and 24). Fecal E. coli counts significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in groups B1 (wk 16), B2 (wk 12, 16, 20, and 24), B3 (wk 12, 20, and 24), and B4 (wk 16, 20, and 24). Lactobacillus in cecal digesta of groups B1, B3, and B4 increased significantly (P < 0.01). Bifidobacterium in cecal digesta of groups B1, B2, B3, and B4 increased significantly (P < 0.05). Bifidobacterium counts increased linearly (P = 0.015) and quadratically (P = 0.004) as B. subtilis CGMCC 1.921 supplementation increased. Compared with Con, E. coli in the cecal digesta of groups B2 and B4 decreased significantly (P < 0.01). C. perfringens in the cecal digesta of groups B3 and B4 decreased significantly (P < 0.05). E. coli:Lactobacillus ratio decreased in group B1 (P < 0.05) and B2, B3, and B4 (P < 0.01). Therefore, the probiotic B. subtilis CGMCC 1.921 effectively improved performance and egg quality via the reduction of fecal E. coli and beneficial modulation of cecal microbiota. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Feeding Broodstock on a Diet Containing Vitamin E and Fish Oil Improve Eggs and Larval Quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Darwisito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary vitamin E and n-3 fatty acids on the gonad maturation, egg and larva quality of Nile tilapia. Fish were treated by various combinations of dietary dosage of vitamin E (50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg feed and fish oil (10, 20, 30, and 40 g/kg feed. Three hundreds and twenty pairs of broodstock fish (female at stage of maturity II were selected and used for this experiment. Fish were fed on the experimental diets three times a day at satiation. The tested of parameters such as gonad somatic index, egg diameter, fecundity, number of spawned fish, hatching rate, and survival rate. Results of the experiment indicated that supplementation of vitamin E and fish oil stimulated gonad development and increased fecundity, hatching rate and survival rate of Nile tilapia larva. Combination of vitamin E 150 mg/kg feed and fish oil 30 g/kg feed significantly improved egg and larva quality of Nile tilapia. Thus, combination of vitamin E in 150 mg/kg diet with fish oil in dose 30 g/kg diet give the best reproduction performance. Keywords: Nile tilapia,  fish oil, vitamin E, reproduction performance   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan kadar kombinasi vitamin E dan asam lemak esensial n-3 untuk pematangan gonad, kualitas telur dan larva ikan nila. Adapun dosis dari masing-masing perlakuan terdiri dari 4 taraf. Untuk vitamin E yaitu: 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg,  dan 200 mg/kg pakan  sedangkan minyak ikan yaitu: 10 g/kg, 20 g/kg, 30 g/kg dan 40 g/kg pakan. Ikan uji yang digunakan sebanyak 320 ekor induk betina dan 320 ekor induk jantan dan diseleksi.  Setiap hari ikan diberi pakan uji 2 kali sehari (pagi dan sore secara at satiation. Selama periode pemeliharaan parameter yang diamati meliputi: indeks gonad somatik, diameter telur, fekunditas, jumlah induk yang memijah, derajat tetas telur, dan ketahanan hidup larva. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pakan dengan kombinasi

  2. Quality Control of Photosystem II: Lipid Peroxidation Accelerates Photoinhibition under Excessive Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Anna; Taninaka, Yoshito; Ishikawa, Tomomi; Hori, Haruka; Nanba, Daisuke; Imai, Aya; Morita, Noriko; Yoshioka-Nishimura, Miho; Izumi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Yoko; Kobayashi, Hideki; Mizusawa, Naoki; Wada, Hajime; Yamamoto, Yasusi

    2012-01-01

    Environmental stresses lower the efficiency of photosynthesis and sometimes cause irreversible damage to plant functions. When spinach thylakoids and Photosystem II membranes were illuminated with excessive visible light (100–1,000 µmol photons m−1 s−1) for 10 min at either 20°C or 30°C, the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II decreased as the light intensity and temperature increased. Reactive oxygen species and endogenous cationic radicals produced through a photochemical reaction at and/or near the reaction center have been implicated in the damage to the D1 protein. Here we present evidence that lipid peroxidation induced by the illumination is involved in the damage to the D1 protein and the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II. This is reasoned from the results that considerable lipid peroxidation occurred in the thylakoids in the light, and that lipoxygenase externally added in the dark induced inhibition of Photosystem II activity in the thylakoids, production of singlet oxygen, which was monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping, and damage to the D1 protein, in parallel with lipid peroxidation. Modification of the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II by malondialdehyde as well as oxidation of the subunits was also observed. We suggest that mainly singlet oxygen formed through lipid peroxidation under light stress participates in damaging the Photosystem II subunits. PMID:23300595

  3. Quality control of photosystem II: lipid peroxidation accelerates photoinhibition under excessive illumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffanie Chan

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses lower the efficiency of photosynthesis and sometimes cause irreversible damage to plant functions. When spinach thylakoids and Photosystem II membranes were illuminated with excessive visible light (100-1,000 µmol photons m(-1 s(-1 for 10 min at either 20°C or 30°C, the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II decreased as the light intensity and temperature increased. Reactive oxygen species and endogenous cationic radicals produced through a photochemical reaction at and/or near the reaction center have been implicated in the damage to the D1 protein. Here we present evidence that lipid peroxidation induced by the illumination is involved in the damage to the D1 protein and the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II. This is reasoned from the results that considerable lipid peroxidation occurred in the thylakoids in the light, and that lipoxygenase externally added in the dark induced inhibition of Photosystem II activity in the thylakoids, production of singlet oxygen, which was monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping, and damage to the D1 protein, in parallel with lipid peroxidation. Modification of the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II by malondialdehyde as well as oxidation of the subunits was also observed. We suggest that mainly singlet oxygen formed through lipid peroxidation under light stress participates in damaging the Photosystem II subunits.

  4. Traits of eggshells and shell membranes of translucent eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-He; Li, Ya-Jie; Liu, Long; Liu, Jing-Shou; Bao, Man; Yang, Ning; Zhuo-Cheng, Hou; Ning, Zhong-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Translucent eggshells negatively affect the appearance of eggs and decrease their economic value. Translocation and accumulation of water from the contents to the shells of eggs are frequent occurrences. Causes of translucent eggshell formation have been investigated, but the primary reason is uncertain. In previous studies, scientists have found that the thickness of the eggshell membrane was significantly different between translucent and opaque eggs. However, there are some conflicts among studies. We performed 2 experiments with 3 breeding flocks of chickens to target the reasons for egg translucence. In experiment 1, eggs of 1,024 Brown-Egg Dwarf Layers (DWL) were used. Approximately 1,600 eggs were collected over 2 consecutive days. They were stored for 3 days, and then 120 translucent and 120 opaque eggs were selected for measurement of egg quality traits and weight loss over several weeks. In experiment 2, we used DWL and White Leghorn pure line (WLL) for assessment of eggshell ultrastructure and membrane traits. We chose 120 translucent and 120 opaque eggs from 3,500 DWL eggs and 125 translucent and 125 opaque eggs from 5,028 WLL eggs. The results are as follows: (1) translucent eggs had greater eggshell strength and lower ultimate failure stress of shell membrane than opaque eggs in both DWL and WLL groups, (2) translucent eggs had thicker shells and thinner shell membranes than opaque eggs in DWL, (3) no significant differences were found in either gas pore or bubble pore traits between translucent and opaque eggs in either line, and (4) no significant differences were detected in internal egg quality or weight loss between translucent and opaque eggs in either line. In summary, the present study suggests that variations in both eggshells and shell membrane structures are implicated in the formation of translucent eggs. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Pharmaceutical quality evaluation of lipid emulsions containing PGE1: alteration in the number of large particles in infusion solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hiroko; Saito, Haruna; Yomota, Chikako; Kawanishi, Toru

    2009-08-13

    There are two generics of a parenteral lipid emulsion of prostaglandin E1 (PGE(1)) (Lipo-PGE(1)) in addition to two innovators. It was reported the change from innovator to generic in clinical practice caused the slowing of drip rate and formation of aggregates in the infusion line. Thus, we investigated the difference of pharmaceutical quality in these Lipo-PGE(1) formulations. After mixing with some infusion solutions, the mean diameter and number of large particles were determined. Although the mean diameter did not change in any infusion solutions, the number of large particles (diameter >1.0 microm) dramatically increased in generics with Hartmann's solution pH 8 or Lactec injection with 7% sodium bicarbonate. Next, we investigated the effect of these infusion solutions on the retention rate of PGE(1) in lipid particles. The retention rate of PGE(1) in these two infusion solutions decreased more quickly than that in normal saline. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among the formulations tested. Our results suggest that there is no difference between innovators and generics except in mixing with these infusion solutions. Furthermore, that monitoring the number of large particles can be an effective means of evaluating pharmaceutical interactions and/or the stability of lipid emulsions.

  6. Effects of egg order on organic and inorganic element concentrations and egg characteristics in tree swallows, tachycineta bicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Gray, B.R.; Custer, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    The laying order of tree swallow eggs was identified from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA, and eggs were chemically analyzed individually to document possible effects of laying order on organic contaminant and inorganic element concentrations. Effects of laying order on other parameters such as egg weight, size, and lipid and moisture content also were assessed. Some effects of egg order on total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected, but the effect was not uniform across individual females or between years. In 2004, clutches with higher total PCBs tended to have concentrations decline across egg order, whereas clutches with lower concentrations of PCBs tended to increase across egg order. In contrast, in 2005, there was a tendency for concentrations to increase across egg order. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were highly variable within and among clutches in both years. The directionality of egg order associations (i.e., slopes) for trace elements was element dependent, was positive for Mn and Zn, was negative for B, and had no slope for Cr. Whole egg weight increased across egg order. Percentage lipid was variable within a clutch, with no pattern common across all females. Percentage lipid was also correlated with organic contaminant concentration. In highly contaminated environments, higher lipid content could have the unanticipated corollary of having higher concentrations of lipophilic contaminants such as PCBs. To reduce the effect of high variation within a clutch when assessing contamination exposure, it is recommended that two eggs per clutch be collected and pooled for chemical analysis. We further recommend that, as long as the two eggs are randomly collected, the additional effort needed to identify and collect specific eggs is not warranted. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  7. Effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris by replacing soybean meal on egg fertility and qualities of chicks of white leghorn hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Fikru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (PKBM by replacing soybean meal (SBM on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick quality of white leghorn (WL hens. A total of 225 white leghorn hens (195 layers and 30 cocks with uniform body weight (BW and age were randomly distributed into 15 pens and assigned to five treatments (i.e., T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. A total of 360 eggs collected from all the treatment birds were used for the analysis. The feeds of the treatments were SBM substituted by PKBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Replacement of SBM with PKBM in the diet did not affect the fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, chick length, chick weight, and chick quality by visual score. As no difference is observed, 100% replacement of SBM by PKBM (dosed at 100 g/kg concentrate diet is possible.

  8. Hydraulic and water-quality data collection for the investigation of Great Lakes tributaries for Asian carp spawning and egg-transport suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    If the invasive Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) migrate to the Great Lakes, in spite of the efforts to stop their advancement, these species will require the fast-flowing water of the Great Lakes tributaries for spawning and recruitment in order to establish a growing population. Two Lake Michigan tributaries (the Milwaukee and St. Joseph Rivers) and two Lake Erie tributaries (the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers) were investigated to determine if these tributaries possess the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to allow successful spawning of Asian carps. To examine this issue, standard U.S. Geological Survey sampling protocols and instrumentation for discharge and water-quality measurements were used, together with differential global positioning system data for georeferencing. Non-standard data-processing techniques, combined with detailed laboratory analysis of Asian carp egg characteristics, allowed an assessment of the transport capabilities of each of these four tributaries. This assessment is based solely on analysis of observed data and did not utilize the collected data for detailed transport modeling.

  9. Characteristics of reared game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical characteristics of game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg were studied and compared with domesticfowl (Gallus gallus domesticus’s egg. The birds were housed in individual cages in a environmentally controlled room(T=18÷20°C; 16L:8D and fed ad libitum standard breeder diet. A sample of thirty eggs was analysed for each phase of thelaying period (beginning, peak and end. The following chemico-physical parameters: egg, albumen, yolk and shell weight;yolk colour; egg and shell dry matter (DM; shell thickness (blunt end, pointed end and middle part were measured. Theprotein, lipid, and cholesterol content was evaluated; the fatty acid (FA profile analysed. We observed: egg weight averageof 34.5g ; a high proportion of yolk (37% in the whole egg (Y/E, consequently, a high lipid content of 13.9%; a protein contentDM of 44.3%; the fatty acid composition was similar to that of chicken egg and the oleic acid (36.4% was the majorproportion of the total fatty acids, as in the domestic fowl. The rearing pheasant’s egg has a high nutritive concentration, dueto high ratio yolk/whole egg, with biological and nutritional characteristics similar to domestic fowl’s egg.

  10. Development of indicators for assessing the quality of prescribing of lipid-lowering drugs: data from the pharmacotherapeutic quality circles in Hesse, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert; Köster; Ihle, P; von Ferber, L

    2001-11-01

    To develop indicators based on prescription analysis in order to assess adherence using guidelines and to monitor prescribing behavior. SETTING AND MATERIAL: Eleven pharmacotherapeutic circles (PTC) of the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (KV Hesse; 10 PTCs including 155 GPs as participants, mostly high prescribers; one circle with 11 moderators trained in pharmacology). These provided a total of 183,997 drug prescriptions involving 54,970 patients (prescriptions reimbursed by the substitute fund--Ersatzkassen--II. quarter 2000); claims form from 151 GPs. On average, 5.1% of the patients with prescriptions received lipid-lowering drugs. Development and application of indicators based on the guideline for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia developed by a GP's guideline group of the quality circles in Hesse (Hausärztliche Leitliniengruppe Hessen). The ratio of prescribing for primary and secondary prevention was chosen as a top indicator for measuring adherence to the guideline. Prescribing for secondary prevention was assessed by a set of special diagnoses. The second indicator relates to patient groups (here: older than 75 years) where the benefit of prescribing is not clear. Further indicators measure the prescribing of first choice drugs, avoidance of risk combinations and costconscious prescribing. The indicators are presented in the prescription analysis and will be discussed during the circle meeting. On average, the moderators prescribed 34% of the lipid-lowering drugs for primary prevention, the GP circle participants 36.7%. On average, moderators and GP participants prescribed lipid-lowering drugs for 4.9% and 7.5% of patients older than 75 years, respectively (6% and 22% in primary prevention). Approximately, 28% of all lipid-lowering drugs issued by the participants involved simvastatin and pravastatin as first-choice drugs compared to 36.5% in the case of the moderators. The prescribing of statins with fibrates or macrolides in

  11. Egg dumping in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallamy, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Females that place eggs under the care of conspecifics have been labeled egg dumpers. Egg dumping is an effective reproductive alternative that lowers risks for, and has the potential to increase fecundity in, its practitioners. Although insect egg dumpers can be social parasites of the maternal behavior of egg recipients, dumping is more likely to be a viable reproductive alternative when the costs to egg recipients are low and thus the defense by potential hosts against egg dumping intrusions is minimal. These conditions are met in insects that guard only eggs or in insects whose eggs hatch into self-supporting precocial young that need little beyond defense from parents. When this is the case, egg dumping is favored by natural and/or kin selection as a mechanism by which dumpers can avoid parental risks and increase fecundity, and egg recipients can enhance offspring survival by diluting predation.

  12. Repeated bouts of dehydration deplete nutrient reserves and reduce egg production in the mosquito Culex pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B.; Patrick, Kevin R.; Desai, Karina; Hardesty, Jeffrey J.; Krause, Tyler B.; Denlinger, David L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study of the mosquito, Culex pipiens, we examined the impact of multiple bouts of dehydration and rehydration on survival, depletion of metabolic reserves and egg production in both non-diapausing and diapausing females. Mosquitoes provided with access to sugar during rehydration survived longer than those allowed to rehydrate without sugar, and their survival was similar to that of mosquitoes of the same age that were not dehydrated. Among mosquitoes not provided with sugar, each dehydration bout reduced the mosquito's dry mass – an effect likely to be due to the utilization of carbohydrates and lipid reserves. The toll on glycogen and lipid reserves is likely to be especially costly for diapausing mosquitoes that are dependent on these stored reserves for winter survival. Egg production in both non-diapausing and post-diapausing C. pipiens was also reduced in response to multiple bouts of dehydration. Although egg quality was not compromised, the number of eggs produced was reduced. Both non-diapausing and diapausing females can compensate for the nutrient loss due to dehydration by sugar feeding but the opportunity to feed on sugar is likely to be rarely available in the overwintering habitat of diapausing females, thus the impact of dehydration may be especially pronounced in overwintering populations of C. pipiens. PMID:20675546

  13. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  14. Effects of parsley supplementation on the seminal quality, blood lipid profile and oxidant status of young and old male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. El-Gindy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The high unsaturation levels of spermatozoal membrane make it very susceptible to oxidative damage and this problem increases with advancing age. In this study, the aim is to investigate whether parsley seed (PS has a protective effect on semen quality, serum lipid profile and antioxidative status of old and young bucks. Male rabbits (n= 36 (18 young 9-12 mo old and 18 old 36-42 mo old were each assigned to 3 dietary treatments (a control and 2 levels of PS: 0.3 and 0.6 kg/100 kg diet to evaluate the ability of parsley to enhance bucks’ reproductive status. Most of the studied traits were adversely affected by age of rabbit bucks. On the other hand, the inclusion of PS significantly boosted ejaculate volume and improved mass motility concentration and total sperm output. Seminal plasma and blood serum total antioxidant capacity increased, while serum lipid peroxidase decreased with parsley treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of parsley seed alleviates most semen quality parameters and counteracts oxidative stress, especially with the advance of age (seminal plasma and blood serum of total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde.

  15. Orm1 and Orm2 are conserved endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins regulating lipid homeostasis and protein quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sumin; Lone, Museer A.; Schneiter, Roger; Chang, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Yeast members of the ORMDL family of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins play a central role in lipid homeostasis and protein quality control. In the absence of yeast Orm1 and Orm2, accumulation of long chain base, a sphingolipid precursor, suggests dysregulation of sphingolipid synthesis. Physical interaction between Orm1 and Orm2 and serine palmitoyltransferase, responsible for the first committed step in sphingolipid synthesis, further supports a role for the Orm proteins in regulating sphingolipid synthesis. Phospholipid homeostasis is also affected in orm1Δ orm2Δ cells: the cells are inositol auxotrophs with impaired transcriptional regulation of genes encoding phospholipid biosynthesis enzymes. Strikingly, impaired growth of orm1Δ orm2Δ cells is associated with constitutive unfolded protein response, sensitivity to stress, and slow ER-to-Golgi transport. Inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis suppresses orm1Δ orm2Δ phenotypes, including ER stress, suggesting that disrupted sphingolipid homeostasis accounts for pleiotropic phenotypes. Thus, the yeast Orm proteins control membrane biogenesis by coordinating lipid homeostasis with protein quality control. PMID:20212121

  16. Indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain

  17. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS BETWEEN EGG WEIGHT AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    variety) obtained from 60 eight weeks old Japanese quails of three different plumage colour varieties: Pharaoh Quail (Black), A & M white (White) and Manchurian Gold (Brown) at 8-14 weeks of age were used in this study. Eggs were examined for both internal and external egg quality traits.Data obtained were subjected to ...

  18. Dietary Brazilian red pepper essential oil on pork meat quality and lipid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Dias Gois

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding pigs with diets containing increasing levels of Brazilian red pepper essential oil ( Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on the physical attributes, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of precooked meat. Seventy-two weanling pigs (5.7±0.8kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design experiment with four treatments, six replicates per treatment, and three animals per experimental unit (pen. Animals were fed with a basal diet supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 1,500mg kg-1 Brazilian red pepper essential oil during the 35-d experimental period. At the end of the experiment, one animal per experimental unit (16.4±2.2kg was slaughtered to sample Longissimus dorsi muscle for analysis. Dietary supplementation of Brazilian red pepper had no effect (P>0.05 on pork meat color, pH, cooking loss and shear force. Inclusion of essential oil in the diet provided a linear increase (P<0.05 of the saturated fatty acids content of L. dorsi, especially myristic (C14:0 and stearic (C18:0 fatty acids. Utilization of essential oil in pig diets reduced significantly the production of secondary lipid oxidation compounds measured as TBARS in raw pork meat (P<0.001 and immediately after cooking (P<0.001. However, during 8-d storage assay, the addition of essential oil in the diet did not protect pork meat lipids from oxidation. Therefore, Brazilian red pepper added to pig diets increased the saturated fatty acids content and reduced lipid oxidation in fresh meat and short-term heat treatment without affecting pork meat physical attributes.

  19. Rational use of dietary enzymes and lipids to improve broiler performance and meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Teresa Paula Costa

    2011-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências Veterinárias. Especialidade de Ciências Biológicas e Biomédicas. The importance of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) and the use of novel enzymes with specific catalytic activities to improve the nutritive value of barley based diets for broilers and the effectiveness of a lipidic supplementation to improve the levels of benefic fatty acids in broilers meat remain to be investigated. In this work we studied the importance of a β-glucan binding domain (CBM...

  20. Influence of the Dietary Polyunsaturation Level on Chicken Meat Quality: Lipid Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Cortinas Hernández, Lucía

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the influence of increasing amounts of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TA) supplementation on lipid oxidation of raw and cooked thigh meat stored under refrigeration. One hundred ninety-two female, 1-d-old, broiler chickens were randomly distributed into 16 experimental treatments resulting from the combination of 4 levels of dietary PUFA (15, 34, 45, and 61 g/kg) and 4 levels of supplementation with α-TA (0,...

  1. KARAKTERISTIK FISIK, KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN UJI ORGANOLEPTIK TELUR AYAM MERAWANG DENGAN PEMBERIAN PAKAN BERSUPLEMEN OMEGA-3 [Physical Characteristic, Chemical Composition and Organoleptic Test of Merawang Chicken Egg Fed with Omega-3 Supplementation Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Rahayu HS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg is a good quality animal protein source. The quality of the egg can be improved with spesific feeding, such as omega-3 supplemented diet. Merawang chicken is one of local Indonesian chicken domesticated at Bangka Island, South Sumatera, and popular as a layer bird. The aim of this research was to study the effect of omega-3 supplementation on the physical characteristic, chemical composition and organoleptic test of Merawang chicken eggs. One hundred and thirty six eggs (73 eggs were control and 63 eggs was omega-3 suplemented were collected from 64 Merawang chicken for eleven weeks. Feeding were arranged isonitrogenous (15.8% and isocaloric (2650 kkal/kg, and fed ad libitum. Omega-3 feeding was produced from fermentation of soybean waste (ampas tahu and mold (Rhizopus oligosporus, then mixed with sea fish oil waste (1:1, w/w. The result showed that no significant effect of the treatment on physical characteristic parameter. Omega-3 eggs significantly (P<0.05 increased the ratio of width and length of eggs. The score of yolk was increased in omega-3 eggs which indicated increase of omega-3 fatty acids and Æ’Ã’ caroten contents. The total lipid and cholesterol contents were lower (P<0.05 in omega-3 eggs, however, omega-3 fatty acids component (linolenat, EPA and DHA increased 10 and 6 times than control. Organoleptic test of colour, flavor, texture and taste of white portion, yolk portion and whole eggs were generally accepted by the panelis, both in the control and omega-3 eggs.

  2. Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de ovo integral pasteurizado produzido com e sem a etapa de lavagem no processamento Influence of washing in the microbial quality of pasteurized egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Casale Aragon-Alegro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Microrganismos patogênicos podem contaminar ovos em diferentes estágios do processamento. Na tentativa de reduzir problemas decorrentes dessa contaminação por microrganismos patogênicos e/ou deteriorantes, os ovos são submetidos a processos como lavagem da casca e pasteurização. Vários estudos mostraram que alguns agentes químicos utilizados nessa lavagem podem causar danos físicos ao produto, facilitando a entrada de microrganismos através da casca. O nosso objetivo foi avaliar a eficiência da lavagem dos ovos, anteriormente à quebra, na redução da contaminação de ovo integral líquido. Foram colhidas amostras de ovo integral em 3 pontos da linha de produção, provenientes de ovos lavados e não lavados. Foram feitas pesquisa de Salmonella sp e enumeração de S. aureus, L. monocytogenes e bactérias aeróbias. Os resultados foram analisados no nível de significância de 5% e pôde-se concluir que o emprego, ou não, da etapa de lavagem não tem influência na qualidade microbiológica do produto final.Pathogenic microrganisms can contaminate eggs at different stages of processing. In an attempt to reduce problems resulting from contamination by pathogenic and/or deteriorating microrganisms, the eggs are submitted to processes such as washing the egg shell and pasteurization. Some studies have shown that chemical agents used to wash the egg shells can cause physical damage to the product, facilitating the entry of microrganisms through the shell. Our aim was to evaluate the efficiency of washing the eggs, prior to breaking them, to reduce the contamination of whole liquid egg (intended for pasteurization. Samples of whole eggs from both washed and unwashed eggs were taken at three points in the production line. Tests for Salmonella sp and enumeration of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria were carried out. The results were analysed at the significant level of 5% and it was concluded that whether the eggs were

  3. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  4. Efeito da suplementação enzimática no desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais = Effects of the enzyme complex supplementation on the performance and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Eiko Murakami

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da utilização de um complexo multienzimático sobre o desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram utilizadas 336 poedeiras comerciais, HyLine W36, com 29 semanas de idade distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 7 tratamentos e 6 repetições de 8 aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta basal suplementada com o complexo enzimático nos níveis de 400 ou 500 ppm com valorização do nível de proteína, energia metabolizável e aminoácidos do farelo de soja em 5/5/5, 7/7/7 e 7/7/9%, respectivamente. As variáveisestudadas foram: consumo de ração (g ave-1 dia-1, conversão alimentar (kg dz-1 de ovos, peso médio dos ovos (g, produção de ovos (%, gravidade específica (g mL-1, Unidade Haugh, coloração da gema, percentuais de sólidos totais, de gema, clara e casca (%,espessura da casca (mm e composição bromatológica das excretas. A adição do complexo multienzimático apresentou resultados produtivos e de qualidade dos ovos semelhantes à dieta controle.The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a commercial enzyme complex on the performance and egg quality of commerciallaying hens. A total of 336 29-week old Hyline W36 layers were allocated to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and six replications of eight birds each. The treatments consisted of the basal diet supplemented with inclusion of (500 or 400ppm, overestimating the percentages of protein, ME and amino acids of the soybean meal by 5:5:5, 7:7:7 and 7:7:9, respectively. The studied variables were: feed intake (g bird-1 day-1, feed:egg (kg feed-1 egg dozen-1, egg weight (g, egg laying percentage (hen day-1 specific gravity (g ml-1, Haugh Unit, color of the egg yolk, total solids percentage (%, egg yolk percentage, albumen and eggshell (%, eggshell thickness (mm and chemical compositionof hen manure. The inclusion of enzyme complex in the

  5. Physico-chemical analysis of eggs of native fowl, duck and goose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 135 eggs (50 chicken, 50 duck and 35 goose eggs) were collected from farmers' doors from adjoining rural areas of Bhubaneswar for egg quality traits and chemical analysis. The mean values of quality traits of egg weight, volume, albumin weight, yolk weight, shell weight, shell thickness, shape index, albumin ...

  6. Effect of various levels of catalase antioxidant in semen extenders on lipid peroxidation and semen quality after the freeze-thawing bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Asadpour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of different concentrations of catalase in two extenders on motility, viability and lipid peroxidation bull spermatozoa during semen freezing process. Thirty ejaculates collected from ten Holstein bulls were pooled and evaluated at 37 °C. Pool ejaculated was split into two main experimental groups, 1 and 2. In experiment 1, specimen was diluted to a final concentration of 30 × 106 spermatozoa with citrate-egg yolk and in experiment 2; specimen was diluted with tris-egg yolk extender to the same concentration. In both experiments diluted semen was divided into three aliquots, including a control and two test groups. Each aliquot was rediluted with an equal volume of extender either without (control or with one of the antioxidants contained one of the following antioxidants: catalase (CAT; 100 IU mL-1 catalase (CAT; 200 IU mL-1 and control group. No significant differences were observed in sperm viability and motility following addition of catalase enzyme at concentration of 100 IU mL-1 and 200 IU mL-1 to citrate-egg yolk extender. But the highest sperm viability was achieved by addition of 100 IU mL-1 and 200 IU mL-1 catalase to tris-egg yolk semen extender compared with the control group (P < 0.05. Malondialdehyde levels did not change with addition of catalase in both extenders compared with the control group. The obtained results provide a new approach to the cryopreservation of bull semen, and could positively contribute to intensive cattle production.

  7. Comparison of bacteriological qualities of various egg yolk sources and the in vitro and in vivo fertilizing potential of bovine semen frozen in egg yolk or lecithin based diluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousseau, S; Brillard, J P; Marguant-Le Guienne, B; Guérin, B; Camus, A; Lechat, M

    1998-10-01

    The addition of components of animal origin (egg yolk, milk) to most commercial diluents used to freeze bull semen represents a potential risk of contamination of the doses with bacteria or mycoplasma. A series of quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed to detect microbiological contamination observed in Biociphos plus (a new lecithin-glycerol based freezing salt buffer), in an egg yolk diluent (Triladyl) or in an egg yolk + milk-based (Laiciphos) diluent of bull semen. The 2 diluents containing animal products showed moderate (10 to 60 CFU/mL) contamination (17/17 samples) with bacteria or mycoplasma, or both, while no contamination was observed in the 6 examined batches of Biociphos plus. Biociphos plus was also compared with another commercial diluent (Laiciphos) for use in freezing bull semen intended for in vitro and/or in vivo fertilization. No difference (P > 0.05) could be detected between the 2 diluents for in vitro fertility rates (percentage of cleaved zygotes: 85.7% and 88.0%, respectively, for Laiciphos and Biociphos plus). Similarly, 2 series of comparisons conducted in dairy cows artificially inseminated with semen frozen in either Biociphos plus or Laiciphos showed no difference in fertilizing capacity (tested at 60 to 90 d; P > 0.05) irrespective of the age of the bulls (Trial 1, bulls aged 14 to 15 m.o.; Trial 2, bulls aged 2 to 5 yr, field trials). It is concluded that, in addition to maintaining the fertilizing capacity of bull semen at levels comparable to those observed with standard freezing diluent, Biociphos plus also prevents microbiological contamination by bacteria or mycoplasma, both of which are generally present in the various commercially available sources of egg yolk.

  8. Changes in Quality of Native and Frozenthawed Semen in Relation to Two Collections Performed in a 24-hour Interval and Adition of Clarified Egg Yolk to Extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folková P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of repeated semen collection and the substitution of normal egg yolk with clarified egg yolk to commercially produced semen extender on qualitative parameters of frozen-thawed canine semen. Two semen collections were scheduled in a 24-hour interval and in each of six dogs, three 1st and three 2nd collections were performed. The frozen-thawed sperm samples were prepared either with clarified or normal egg yolk and motility and viability were evaluated. The effect of the sequence of semen collection was demonstrated by significant differences in motility and also in viability of sperms both in native and frozen-thawed ejaculate. The percentage of viable sperms was significantly higher in samples from the 2nd compared to the 1st collection. This trend was the same also in motility except in native ejaculate. The addition of clarified egg yolk was beneficial for higher survival of sperms immediately after thawing and also after 30 min of incubation, compared to samples with normal egg yolk. Sperm motility evaluated after thawing was higher in samples with clarified egg yolk, without an apparent connection with semen collection sequence. The decrease of values of the qualitative parameters of sperms observed in the period of 30 min of incubation was significantly slowed down when clarified egg yolk was used. This was especially obvious in samples from the 2nd collection.

  9. Fatty acid and cholesterol profiles and hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic, and thrombogenic indices of table eggs in the retail market

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Youssef A.; Mohammed A. Al-Harthi; Korish, Mohamed A.; Shiboob, Mohamed M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eggs are an important source of food due to its favorable effects on human health derived from the protein, fats, minerals, vitamins and bioactive components. We studied the effects of source of eggs in the retail market on fatty acids, lipid profiles and antioxidant status in eggs. Methods Eggs from four sources named A, B, C, and D in the retail market were collected to determine fatty acid, total lipid, and cholesterol profiles; hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic and thrombotic in...

  10. Effect of egg washing and correlation between eggshell characteristics and egg penetration by various Salmonella Typhimurium strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav C Gole

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, causing an estimated 11,992 cases of infection in Australia per year. Egg or egg product related salmonellosis is a major concern for the egg industry. Worldwide, S. Typhimurium is one of the most common serovars identified in Salmonella food poisoning cases. The current study investigated the ability of five S. Typhimurium strains to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods. All S. Typhimurium strains were able to penetrate eggshells and survive in egg albumen (at 20°C according to whole egg penetration results. Polymerase Chain Reaction results demonstrated that S. Typhimurium strain 2 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL, and strain 5 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL egg penetration was significantly higher (p<0.05 in washed eggs when compared to unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis of the agar penetration experiment indicated that S. Typhimurium was able to penetrate washed eggs at a significantly higher rate when compared to unwashed eggs (p<0.05. When compared to unwashed eggs, washed eggs also had significantly damaged cuticles. Statistical analysis also indicated that eggshell penetration by S. Typhimurium was related to various eggshell ultrastructural features such as cap quality, alignment, erosion, confluence, Type B bodies and cuticle cover.

  11. Impact of improving quality of dialysis fluid on oxidative stress and lipid profile in hemodialysis patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elkabbaj, Driss; Bahadi, Abdelali; Cherrah, Yahia; Errasfa, Mourad; Eljaoudi, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of malondialdehyde as an oxidative stress marker in the same hemodialysis patients after changing the quality of dialysate with ultrapure dialysis fluid. Methods...

  12. Competitiveness of the EU egg sector, base year 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this report the impact of reducing or removing import levies on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied, for both shell eggs and whole egg powder. As a result of the costs of transportation, import levies and the effects on product quality and safety, there will barely be imports of

  13. Chemical features, cholesterol and energy content of table hen eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... legislation, on the chemical and nutritional quality of table eggs. The biological material consisted of eggs laid by 1200 Lohmann Brown hens, aged 27 weeks, fed similarly (a corn-wheat-soymeal diet). Conventional AOAC methods were used to analyse the eggs, and gross energy was calculated based on organic matter ...

  14. Sustainable household egg production to enhance household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple method of keeping laying hens has been developed with the aim of improving family nutrition through the provision of high quality egg protein at low cost. A unit is kept at a family's home and provides on average six eggs per day for daily household consumption after a number of eggs have been sold to cover the ...

  15. Tomato powder in laying hen diets: effects on concentrations of yolk carotenoids and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, F; Orhan, C; Sahin, N; Sahin, K; Hayirli, A

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of tomato powder supplementation on performance, egg quality, serum and egg yolk carotenoids, vitamins and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in were investigated in laying hens in mid-lay. 2. A total of 90 laying hens, 49 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 replicate cages, 5 birds per cage. Birds were randomly fed on one of three diets: basal diet and basal diet added with 5 or 10 g tomato powder per kg diet. 3. As tomato powder concentration increased, there were linear increases in feed intake, egg production, egg weight and yolk colour and a linear decrease in feed conversion. Shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh unit remained unchanged in response to dietary treatments. 4. Concentrations of serum and egg yolk lycopene, β-carotene, lutein and vitamin A increased for both diets including tomato powder, whereas MDA decreased linearly with increasing supplemental tomato powder concentration. 5. Tomato powder supplementation increased egg production persistency and increased carotenoids and vitamin A contents in egg yolk, accompanied by reduced yolk lipid peroxidation.

  16. Influence of intramuscular fat content on lipid composition, sensory qualities and consumer acceptability of cured cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, X; Mourot, J; Lebret, B; Gilbert, S; Monin, G

    2000-05-01

    The present study is part of a project which aims to examine the influence of intramuscular fat (IMF) content on the sensory attributes and consumer acceptability of pork. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of IMF level in muscle semimembranosus (SM) on the composition of its lipid fraction and on the sensory qualities and consumer acceptability of cured cooked hams. Thirty-two carcasses were selected 24 h after slaughter from 125 Duroc × Landrace castrated male pigs showing large variability in SM muscle IMF content and were assigned to four IMF groups: ≤2%, 2-3%, 3-4% and >4%. Cured cooked ham slices were evaluated by a trained expert panel of 12 members and by a group of 56 consumers. Results from lipid analyses indicate that (i) an increase in IMF content was almost entirely reflected by an increase in the triglyceride content of the muscle and (ii) higher IMF levels were associated with higher free fatty acid and monoglyceride and lower cholesterol levels. The sensory evaluation of marbling significantly increased with IMF level, whereas other sensory qualities were unaffected. High IMF levels significantly depreciated the consumer perception of fat, aspect, taste and smell of ham slices. Overall, slices with the highest IMF levels got the least favourable rating by consumers. The present study indicates that increased IMF levels in muscle semimembranosus do not have significant effects on the sensory attributes of cured cooked hams, apart from the perception of marbling. However, high IMF levels have detrimental effects on the acceptability by consumers. © 2000 Society of Chemical Industry. Copyright © 2000 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTRO TECHNOLOGICAL OZONIZATION OF EGG STORES OF POULTRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshin A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitization of eggs is an essential way to fight bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. Hatchability of eggs and the safety of day-old chicks are dependent on the quality of eggs processing. Leading scientists of our country have proved high efficacy of ozone application for processing of hatching eggs. To obtain a positive result by this method of sanitizing hatching eggs ozone, it is necessary to create a uniform concentration of ozone around the egg store volume. Decrease in ozone conc...

  18. Influence of vitamin E supplemented diet on charque quality and lipid stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete Maria Pesamosca Facco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated and compared the lipid oxidation of charque, taken from, the semi-tendinosus muscle of animals from the Nelore breed (Bos taurus indicus, supplemented with α-tocopherol. Charque was produced submitting the samples to salt moisture, salt drying and exposition to the sun for dehydration until water activity values (Aw reached 0.75. The statistical analysis of the results showed that there were no significant differences in the values of cholesterol, total lipids, fatty acids and substances relative to tiobarbituric acid (TBARS and tocopherol as the samples were controlled and supplemented, respectively. Despite this, the values of TBARS and cholesterol were lower in the samples with the supplement of α-tocopherol. The supplementation, at the levels used showed no significant result in the addition of α-tocopherol in the feeding of animals destined for the processing of charque.O processamento do charque acelera as reações oxidativas. Com o intuito de diminuir as conseqüências dessas reações indesejáveis, lançase mão do uso de antioxidantes, principalmente os naturais, que são mais bem aceitos pela população consumidora. O presente trabalho avaliou e comparou a oxidação lipídica do charque, obtido a partir de ponta de agulha de bovinos da raça Nelore, suplementados com 1000mg/dia/cabeça de α-tocoferol e sem a suplementação. A análise estatística dos resultados mostrou que não houve diferença significativa nos valores de colesterol (168,4 e 160,9, lipídios totais (8,4 e 8,5, TBARS (1,4 e 1,3 e α-tocoferol para as amostras controle e suplementadas, respectivamente. Foram identificados 35 ácidos graxos Os principais ácidos graxos presentes nas amostras de charque foram: C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, sendo majoritário o C18:1n9. A suplementação, nos níveis utilizados não mostrou resultados significativos na adição do α-tocoferol na alimentação de bovinos destinado ao

  19. Quail egg yield and quality of the Coturnix coturnix response to the addition level of agave inulin to the drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jorge Pérez de la Mora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of agave inulin addition to drinking water, one hundred (65 days old Coturnix coturnix japonica hens were divided randomly into four groups with five birds per cage. Twenty five birds were assigned to each of the following treatments: i control; addition of agave inulin in the drinking water at; ii 2.0% (w/w, iii 4.0%; and iv 6%. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks. Inulin increased (P0.05. The egg weight was similar among treatments (average 12.70 g and varied slightly with the inulin level (P=0.0537. The egg shell (percentage of the egg was not influenced by the inulin. But, the calcium concentration in the eggshell of the present trial varied with the level on the agave inulin in the drinking water (P0.05. Then, the agave inulin addition to the drinking water increases the egg yield of Japanese quails.

  20. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, M.; S. N. G. Socoloski; Komiyama, C M [UNESP; M. S. Lemos; J. C. O. Silva; Ribeiro,R.P.; M. B. Vendramel; E. C. Reginato; Vieira, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells...

  1. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P < 0.05). The EP, EM, and EW increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P < 0.05), so that serum content of glucose and triglyceride decreased and the plasma content of zinc increased in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  2. Sesame and flaxseed oil: nutritional quality and effects on serum lipids and glucose in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the nutritional value of sesame and flaxseed oils and their effects on the lipid and glucose profile of rats fed diets containing different fat combinations. Fatty acid composition, refractive index, and iodine and saponification values were analyzed to characterize the oils. In the biological assay, Wistar rats were fed different diets, whose fat composition consisted of varying combinations of flaxseed oil, sesame oil, and animal fat. The primary constituents of the sesame oil were oleic (28.6%, linoleic (28.4%, and lauric acid (14.6%; for the flaxseed oil they were alpha-linolenic (39.90%, oleic (17.97% and linoleic acid (12.25%. The iodine and saponification values of the oils were within the reference range. Rats fed flaxseed oil-based diets had the lowest serum cholesterol values, whereas rats fed diets with flaxseed oil + sesame oil + animal fat had the highest glucose levels. HDL levels decreased significantly with flaxseed oil. Sesame and flaxseed oils are sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and the flaxseed oil-based diet had a hypocholesterolemic effect, whereas sesame oil showed oxidative stability since it contains high levels of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids.

  3. Carbohydrate quality and quantity affect glucose and lipid metabolism during weight regain in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerpusch, Merit; Enderle, Janna; Eggeling, Ben; Braun, Wiebke; Johannsen, Maike; Pape, Detlef; Müller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2013-10-01

    In this controlled, parallel-group feeding trial, we examined the impact of carbohydrate (CHO) intake and glycemic index (GI) on glucose and lipid metabolism during refeeding after weight loss. Healthy men (n = 32 total, age: 25.5 ± 3.9 y, BMI: 23.5 ± 2.0 kg/m2) overconsumed diets containing either 50% or 65% CHO for 1 wk (+50% of energy requirements) and then underwent 3 wk of calorie restriction (CR; -50%) followed by 2 wk of overconsuming (refeeding, +50%) the same diet but with either a low or high GI (40 vs.70 during CR, 41 vs.74 during refeeding) so that glycemic load (GL; dietary CHO content x GI) differed between groups during all phases. Glucose profiles were assessed by continuous interstitial glucose monitoring, insulin sensitivity (IS) by fasting blood sampling, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and liver fat by MRI. Daytime area under the curve-glucose during refeeding was higher with high compared with low GI (P = 0.01) and 65% compared with 50% CHO intake (P = 0.05) and correlated with dietary GL (r = 0.71; P fat also improved with CR (-17 ± 38 mg/dL and -1.1 ± 1.3%; P fat were elevated above baseline values with 65% CHO intake only (+59.9 ± 37.5 mg/dL and +1.1 ± 1.7%, P-interaction fat.

  4. Seasonal and interpopulational variability in fecundity, egg size, and elemental composition (CHN) of eggs and larvae in a grapsoid crab, Chasmagnathus granulatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Claudia C.; Spivak, Eduardo D.; Anger, Klaus

    2007-12-01

    Reproductive traits at the beginning and the end of the annual reproductive season were compared between two populations of the intertidal crab Chasmagnathus granulatus living in ecologically contrasting habitats: (1) Mar Chiquita (MC) (37°45'S, 57°19'W), a highly productive estuarine coastal lagoon with strong salinity fluctuations. (2) San Antonio Bay (SA) (40°46'S, 64°50'), a physically stable but less productive coastal marine environment. Number, size, and elemental composition (CHN) of eggs and larvae differed significantly between populations. Regardless of the season, more but smaller eggs and larvae were produced in MC, while eggs and larvae from SA revealed higher dry mass and C/N ratios indicating higher lipid content. A latitudinal temperature gradient cannot explain these patterns, suggesting that other environmental factors including salinity, quality or quantity of benthic food sources and productivity may be responsible. In both populations, fecundity and biomass per egg were higher at the beginning as compared to the end of the reproductive season. As a consequence, the reproductive effort was consistently maximal at the beginning of the season. At MC, also variability was found between two successive years. Intraspecific (both interpopulational and seasonal) variations in reproductive and developmental traits may be important for the formation of physiologically different metapopulations along the wide geographic range of C. granulatus.

  5. Effects of feeding transgenic corn with mCry1Ac or maroACC gene to laying hens for 12 weeks on growth, egg quality and organ health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, R Q; Chen, L; Gao, L X; Zhang, L L; Yao, B; Yang, X G; Zhang, H F

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feeding two transgenic corn lines containing the mCry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis strain (BT-799) and the maroACC gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain (CC-2), respectively, on growth, egg quality and organ health indicators. Expression of the mCry1Ac gene confers resistance to Pyrausta nubilalis and the maroACC gene confers tolerance to herbicides. Healthy hens (n=96 placed in cages; 3 hens/cage) were randomly assigned to one of four corn-soybean meal dietary treatments (8 cages/treatment) formulated with the following corn: non-transgenic near-isoline control corn (control), BT-799 corn, CC-2 corn and commercially available non-transgenic reference corn (reference). The experiment was divided into three 4-week phases (week 1 to 4, week 5 to 8 and week 9 to 12), during which hens were fed mash diets. Performance (BW, feed intake and egg production) and egg quality were determined. Following slaughter at the end of 12 weeks of feeding (n=8/treatment), carcass yield and organ weights (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidneys, stomach and ovary) were recorded; organs and intestines were sampled for histological analysis. Analysis of serum biochemistry parameters to assess the liver and kidney function were performed. No differences in BW, egg production and production efficiency were observed between hens consuming the control diet and hens consuming the BT-799 or CC-2 diet. Haugh unit measures and egg component weights were similar between the control and test groups. Carcass yield was not affected by the diet treatment. Similar organosomatic indices and serum parameters did not indicate the characteristics of organ dysfunction. All observed values of the BT-799 and CC-2 groups were within the calculated tolerance intervals. This research indicates that the performance, egg quality, organ health and carcass yield of laying hens fed diets containing the BT-799 or CC-2 corn line were similar

  6. Effects of Supplemental Chromium Propionate on Serum Lipids, Carcass Traits, and Meat Quality of Heat-Stressed Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang; Ao, Degulina; Zhou, Bo; Spears, Jerry W; Lin, Xi; Huang, Yanling

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chromium from chromium propionate (CrPro) on serum lipids, carcass traits, and breast meat quality in heat-stressed birds. A total of 210 1-day-old male broilers were randomly allotted by initial body weight (BW) into 5 treatments with 7 replicates with 6 birds per replicate pen for 42 days. The treatments included a basal corn-soybean meal diet and basal diet supplemented with 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 mg Cr/kg diet. Birds had ad libitum access to feed and distilled-deionized water at normal conditions for 1-3 weeks with little or no stress, and then birds were housed under heat stress conditions with 35 ± 2 °C ambient temperature for 4-6 weeks. Results showed that serum triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.0006) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) (P = 0.0038) concentrations were decreased linearly as Cr dose increased. Compared with other groups, birds receiving 0.8 or 1.6 mg Cr/kg had lower TG (P = 0.0015). Compared to control birds, birds fed diets with 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 mg Cr/kg supplementation had lower LDLC (P = 0.0006). However, the total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) concentrations in serum were not affected by treatment (P > 0.05). No difference was observed in BW, the relative weights of breast muscle, thigh muscle and abdominal fat (P > 0.05), and breast meat quality (Ph15min, Ph24h, L(*), a(*), b(*), cooking loss, shear force) among the treatments (P > 0.05). Results from this study indicated that CrPro supplementation could be beneficial to serum lipids metabolism of heat-stressed broiler chickens by decreasing TG and LDLC contents, but had no impacts on meat quality and carcass traits of the heat-stressed broilers.

  7. Impact of Improving Quality of Dialysis Fluid on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Profile in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Elkabbaj, Driss; Bahadi, Abdelali; Cherrah, Yahia; Errasfa, Mourad; Eljaoudi, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of malondialdehyde as an oxidative stress marker in the same hemodialysis patients after changing the quality of dialysate with ultrapure dialysis fluid. Methods. This prospective study concerns hemodialysis patients; all patients were in the first step treated with conventional dialysate, and in the second step (three months later) the same patients were treated with online produced ultrapure dialysis fluid. The malondialdehyde, C-reactive pro...

  8. Promoting lipid utilization with l-carnitine to improve oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Kylie R; Robker, Rebecca L

    2012-09-01

    Successful embryo and fetal development is dependent on the quality of the oocyte from which it was derived. Several studies to date have demonstrated the link between appropriate metabolism and sufficient ATP production with oocyte quality and preimplantation embryo development. Metabolism of fatty acids for the purpose of synthesizing ATP occurs within mitochondria via β-oxidation and entry of fatty acids into this organelle is the rate-limiting step in this process. Transport of activated fatty acids into mitochondria is catalyzed by carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPTI) which also requires the metabolite carnitine. Once inside the mitochondrial matrix, fatty acids are broken down into acetyl CoA molecules which are further metabolized via the TCA cycle and electron transport chain to produce ATP. The potential to improve oocyte quality by modulating fatty acid metabolism and β-oxidation with carnitine in culture media formulations or via dietary supplementation has received little attention. This review summarizes studies to date investigating the developmental importance of β-oxidation through the use of metabolic inhibitors and whether regulation by carnitine, in vitro or in vivo, has beneficial effects on oocyte and embryo development. Overall, there is little evidence to date that dietary carnitine can improve oocyte quality or female fertility; however inclusion of l-carnitine to in vitro oocyte maturation and embryo growth media improves embryo outcomes, most likely by supplying the oocyte and embryo with an essential co-factor required to utilize fatty acids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of different cage tiers and age on egg performance, egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admOUjg

    2014-10-04

    Oct 4, 2014 ... with an electronic balance at the same time every day to calculate hen-day egg production (HDEP) and henhouse ... short diameters of albumen, and diameter of yolk with a digital calliper (± 0.001 mm). ..... Albumen quality of eggs from five commercial strains of white leghorn hens during one year of lay.

  10. The Effect of Exercise Training on Quality and Quantity of Sleep and Lipid Profile in Renal Transplant Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pooranfar, S; Shakoor, E; Shafahi, MJ; Salesi, M; Karimi, MH; Roozbeh, J; Hasheminasab, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients undergoing renal transplantation consume immunosuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. Cardiovascular complications and reduced quality of sleep are among the side effects of these drugs. Studies have indicated that the use of non-therapeutic methods such as exercise is important to reduce these complications. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a period of exercise training, as a non-therapeutic method, on quality and quantity of sleep and lipid profile in renal t...

  11. Quality by design case study 1: Design of 5-fluorouracil loaded lipid nanoparticles by the W/O/W double emulsion - Solvent evaporation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amasya, Gulin; Badilli, Ulya; Aksu, Buket; Tarimci, Nilufer

    2016-03-10

    With Quality by Design (QbD), a systematic approach involving design and development of all production processes to achieve the final product with a predetermined quality, you work within a design space that determines the critical formulation and process parameters. Verification of the quality of the final product is no longer necessary. In the current study, the QbD approach was used in the preparation of lipid nanoparticle formulations to improve skin penetration of 5-Fluorouracil, a widely-used compound for treating non-melanoma skin cancer. 5-Fluorouracil-loaded lipid nanoparticles were prepared by the W/O/W double emulsion - solvent evaporation method. Artificial neural network software was used to evaluate the data obtained from the lipid nanoparticle formulations, to establish the design space, and to optimize the formulations. Two different artificial neural network models were developed. The limit values of the design space of the inputs and outputs obtained by both models were found to be within the knowledge space. The optimal formulations recommended by the models were prepared and the critical quality attributes belonging to those formulations were assigned. The experimental results remained within the design space limit values. Consequently, optimal formulations with the critical quality attributes determined to achieve the Quality Target Product Profile were successfully obtained within the design space by following the QbD steps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancing the quality and lipid stability of chicken nuggets using natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Imran, Ali; Nadeem, Muhammad Tahir; Sohaib, Muhammad; Saeed, Farhan; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Hussain, Shahzad

    2017-06-08

    Current day consumers prefer natural antioxidants to synthetic antioxidants because they are more active. However, the activity generally depends on the specific condition and composition of food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid on the quality characteristics, antioxidant status, fatty acid profile, and sensory attributes of chicken nuggets. Six types of diets were prepared for feeding the chickens to evaluate the quality of nuggets made from the leg meat of these experimental animals. These included control, diet enriched with wheat germ oil (WGO), which is a rich natural source of α-tocopherol (AT), diet with added AT or α-lipoic acid (ALA), diet with a combination of either ALA and WGO (ALA + WGO) or ALA and synthetic AT (ALA + AT). ALA has great synergism with synthetic as well as natural AT (WGO). The diet with WGO and ALA showed the best potential with respect to both antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. HPLC results revealed that the chicken nuggets made from WGO + ALA group showed maximum deposition of AT and ALA. The stability of the nuggets from control group was found to be significantly lower than that of nuggets from the WGO + ALA group. Total fatty acid content too was higher in the nuggets from this group. The poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be higher in the nuggets from the groups fed with a combination of natural and synthetic antioxidants. It is concluded that the combination of natural and synthetic antioxidants in the animal feed exerts a synergistic effect in enhancing the stability and quality of chicken nuggets.

  13. Payment for egg donation and surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbock, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved.

  14. Lipid fraction quality of milk produced by Minhota (Portuguese autochthonous breed) compared to Holstein Friesian cow's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Heryka M M; Campos, Sílvia D; Casal, Susana; Alves, Rui; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2012-12-01

    Minhota and Holstein Friesian cows (15 from each breed) were selected from several farms located in the north of Portugal, all under similar feeding regime. Milk samples from individual cows were collected once a month, during one year, to take into account different lactation stages and feeding seasonal changes. Holstein milk was found to have higher content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6, and trans fatty acids, while Minhota milk had significantly higher monounsaturated fatty acids content. No statistical differences were observed for omega-3 and saturated fatty acids contents, mostly due to the high dispersion observed in Minhota milk samples. The average amount of conjugated linoleic acid was higher in Minhota breed, but the high dispersion of values reduced the statistical significance. Cholesterol content, expressed as mg kg(-1) of fat, was higher in Holstein than in Minhota milk. The results indicate that Minhota milk has important nutritional qualities that deserve attention, but the wide individual variation found within animals from this breed suggests a high genetic variability. Following this, the selection of some of these animals for intensive milk production could improve milk quality. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Motion compensated image processing and optimal parameters for egg crack detection using modified pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell eggs with microcracks are often undetected during egg grading processes. In the past, a modified pressure imaging system was developed to detect eggs with microcracks without adversely affecting the quality of normal intact eggs. The basic idea of the modified pressure imaging system was to ap...

  16. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  17. Does egg colouration reflect male condition in birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Dixon, Heather; Vergara, Pablo; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Fargallo, Juan A.

    2010-05-01

    How colouration provides information about individuals in birds has been a central issue in recent decades. Although much information has been derived, little is known about the adaptive significance of egg colouration in birds. A recent idea suggests that biliverdin- and porphyrin-pigmented eggs may act as a post-mating sexual signal for males to assess female quality. In birds, it is common for males to influence prelaying female condition by courtship feeding. Using Eurasian kestrels, a species that lays protoporphyrin-pigmented eggs, we descriptively assessed the influence of male feeding on egg pigmentation by considering female phenotype, condition, breeding parameters and male body condition. We found that older females and females with greyer tails (an index of individual quality) produce highly pigmented eggs. However, male body condition was the only variable that explained egg colouration when considered together with the female-related variables. Therefore, females that mated with males in better condition laid highly pigmented eggs. With the same species, we also explored the cost of producing protoporphyrin-pigmented eggs using a food-supply experiment before the laying period. Food supplementation did not increase egg pigmentation, but hatching success and egg mass were positively related to egg colouration only in food supplied pairs. We suggest that egg colouration might be costly to produce and probably suggests egg quality. However, this cost cannot be explained by female quality, but by male condition instead. In general, our results do not support the theory that egg colouration is a post-mating sexual signal in species where males determine female condition at the time of laying.

  18. Heritability of body surface temperature in hens estimated by infrared thermography at normal or hot temperatures and genetic correlations with egg and feather quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyau, T.; Zerjal, T.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Fablet, J.; Tixier-Boichard, M.; Pinard-van der Laan, M.H.; Mignon-Grasteau, S.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of laying hens to chronic heat stress results in loss of egg production. It should be possible to improve hen resilience to chronic heat stress by genetic selection but measuring their sensitivity through internal temperature is time consuming and is not very precise. In this study we

  19. Ultrastructure of the egg apparatus of Spinacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Wilms

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The egg apparatus of Spinacia was studied from the time the embryo sac reaches its maximal size to just before fertilization, i.e., until about 8-9 hours after pollination. At maturity each synergid has a large elongated nucleus and prominent chalazal vacuoles, Numerous mitochondria, plastids, dictyosomes, free ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER, and lipid bodies are present. The cell wall exists only around the micropylar half of the synergids and each cell has a distinct, striated filiform apparatus. In general, degeneration of one synergid starts after pollination. The egg cell has a spherical nucleus and nucleolus and a large micropylar vacuole. Numerous mitochondria, some plastids with starch grains, dictyosomes, free ribosomes, and HER are present. A continuous cell wall is absent around the chalazal end of the egg cell.

  20. Quality by Design (QbD)-enabled development of aceclofenac loaded-nano structured lipid carriers (NLCs): An improved dermatokinetic profile for inflammatory disorder(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neeraj K; Sharma, Gajanand; Singh, Bhupinder; Nirbhavane, Pradip; Tyagi, Rajeev K; Shukla, Rahul; Katare, O P

    2017-01-30

    Present study was designed to prepare and characterize aceclofenac loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) employing Quality by Design (QbD)-oriented approach. The NLCs were evaluated for their transdermal penetration potential and stability. Aceclofenac loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were prepared & characterized, by employing Quality by Design (QbD)-oriented approach and further evaluated for transdermal penetration potential and stability. Different lipids and surfactants were chosen to prepare NLCs using microemulsion method as critical material attributes (CMAs). A 3(3) factorial design was used for optimization of NLCs, and evaluating them for different critical quality attributes (CQAs), viz. particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, in vitro drug release, entrapment efficiency. The effect of CMAs such as lipids, oil: lipid ratio and concentration of surfactants on CQAs viz. drug entrapment efficiency and particle size were systematically evaluated to optimize NLCs. The optimized NLCs were further incorporated into carbopol gel and characterized for texture and rheology profile followed by in vitro and in vivo evaluations. The optimized ACE-NLCs were found to be spherical, nanometric in size with higher drug loading and entrapment efficiency. Results of the in vitro drug release study showed that the developed formulation followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model showing Fickian diffusion. The release was biphasic i.e., initial burst release followed by sustained drug release upto 48h. The optimized NLCs-based gel formulation showed superior texture, rheological profile and showed better cell uptake efficiency on hyperkeratinocytic cells (HaCaT cell lines) with higher ex vivo skin permeability efficiency vis-à-vis marketed formulation. In conclusion, dermatokinetic modeling and pharmacodynamic study using carrageenan induced edema mice suggests that aceclofenac loaded NLCs hydrogel may provide a better delivery alternative to target

  1. Evaluating quality and its determinants in lipid control for secondary prevention of heart disease and stroke in primary care: a study in an inner London Borough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodhia, Hiten; Kun, Liu; Logan Ellis, Hugh; Crompton, James; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Williams, Helen; Hodgkinson, Anna; Balazs, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess quality of management and determinants in lipid control for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using multilevel regression models. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Inner London borough, with a primary care registered population of 378 000 (2013). Participants 48/49 participating general practices with 7869 patients on heart disease/stroke registers were included. Outcome measures (1) Recording of current total cholesterol levels and lipid control according to national evidence-based standards. (2) Assessment of quality by age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, presence of other risks or comorbidity in meeting both lipid measurement and control standards. Results Some process standards were not met. Patients with a current cholesterol measurement >5 mmol/L were less likely to have a current statin prescription (adjusted OR=3.10; 95% CI 2.70 to 3.56). They were more likely to have clustering of other CVD risk factors. Women were significantly more likely to have raised cholesterol after adjustment for other factors (adjusted OR=1.74; 95% CI 1.53 to 1.98). Conclusions In this study, the key factor that explained poor lipid control in people with CVD was having no current prescription record of a statin. Women were more likely to have poorly controlled cholesterol (independent of comorbid risk factors and after adjusting for age, ethnicity, deprivation index and practice-level variation). Women with CVD should be offered statin prescription and may require higher statin dosage for improved control. PMID:26656014

  2. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinical trial, atopy

  3. Forage fish quality: seasonal lipid dynamics of herring (Clupea harengus L.) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates lipid content and fatty acid composition of two important forage fish, sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Seasonal variation in lipids was studied during three periods following the annual reproductive cycle considering...... potential differences relating to fish size, sex, and reproductive status. The isopod Saduria entomon, being at times an important prey for predatory fish, was included for comparison. In both sprat and herring, lipid content and absolute contents of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) varied...... seasonally with high levelstowards the end of the annual zooplankton production cycle, succeeded by a decline. Lipid content and fatty acid composition differed significantly between sprat and herring. Sprat lipid content was higher than herring, increasing with fish size and characterized by large...

  4. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  5. Spinning eggs and ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction between the egg and the surface on which it spins.

  6. New parameters for evaluating the quality of commercial krill oil capsules from the aspect of lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Bruheim, Inge; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    different commercial krill oil capsules through parameters such as: investigation of chemical compositions (bioactive compounds such as phospholipids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants), hydrophobic pyrroles, and volatile profiles (lipid and Strecker-derived volatiles, pyridines, pyrazines......, and their alkyl derivatives, sulphur and amino compounds). The data of chemical composition of krill oil were correlated well with those from volatile measurement. Through investigating volatile profile, new insights into the lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil were obtained......, and the quality among different commercial krill oil products was differentiated. Practical applications: Different from fish oil, krill oil has a much more complex matrix. Therefore, classical techniques, which are useful to differentiate the quality of fish oil are not applicable to krill oil. This work...

  7. A comparison of bleeding efficiency, microbiological quality and lipid oxidation in goats subjected to conscious halal slaughter and slaughter following minimal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabow, A B; Sazili, A Q; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Ab Kadir, M Z A; Abdulla, N R; Nakyinsige, K; Kaka, U; Adeyemi, K D

    2015-06-01

    The study assessed the effect of conscious halal slaughter and slaughter following minimal anesthesia on bleeding efficiency of goats and keeping quality of goat meat. Ten Boer cross bucks were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or minimal anesthesia prior to slaughter (AS). The blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of hemoglobin and myoglobin content in longissimus lumborum muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and lipid oxidation. Blood loss at exsanguination, residual hemoglobin and lipid oxidation were not significantly different (p>0.05) between HS and AS. Lactic acid bacteria was the only microbe that was significantly elevated after 24h of storage at 4°C in the AS group. In conclusion, slaughtering goats under minimal anesthesia or fully conscious did not affect bleeding efficiency and keeping quality of goat meat. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Effect of Canola Oil and Vitamin A on Egg Characteristics and Egg Cholesterol in Laying Hens During Hot Summer Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahmad*1, Ahsan-ul-Haq2, M Yousaf2, Z Kamran1, Ata-ur-Rehman3, MU Suhail1 and HA Samad1

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Canola oil and vitamin A were evaluated for their effects on egg characteristics, egg cholesterol and egg triglycerides (TG in laying hens prone to heat-stress during summer months. Four levels of canola oil (0, 2, 3 and 4% of diet in combination with two levels of vitamin A (3,000 or 10,000 IU/kg of diet were fed to laying hens for a period of 12 weeks. Various egg-quality parameters were measured on weekly basis while, serum TG, egg cholesterol and TG contents were analyzed during the last week of the trial. The results of the study showed that the egg weight, egg mass, yolk weight, Haugh unit score, shell thickness, shell weight and egg breaking-strength were similar (P>0.05 for all canola oil levels supplemented to the laying hens. Higher egg weight and egg mass (P0.05 by increasing canola oil or vitamin A levels in the diet of laying hens. It might be concluded from the results of the present study that canola oil as a source of omega-3 fatty acids can be included in the diet of laying hens without compromising the quality characteristics of the eggs.

  9. Effects of wheat cultivar, metabolizable energy level, and xylanase supplementation to laying hens diet on performance, egg quality traits, and selected blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mirzaee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was conducted to evaluate the effects of two dietary apparent metabolizable energy (AME levels (2,720 and 2,580 kcal kg-1 diet and enzyme (0 and 0.3 g kg-1 diet, Grindazym® GP 15,000 with mostly xylanase activity supplementation on the performance of laying hens fed diets based on two wheat cultivars (Marvdasht and Sardari. Experimental diets were formulated to have a constant energy to protein ratio and were fed to 65-wk-old Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens for 7 wk. The lower level of AME reduced egg production and egg mass (p<0.05 and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. Enzyme addition increased feed intake of the birds fed a diet with Sardari cultivar (p<0.05 but had no effect on feed intake of the birds fed a diet with Marvdasht cultivar (p>0.05. Nevertheless, birds receiving diets based on Marvdasht cultivar had higher feed intake and egg mass than that of those receiving diets based on Sardari cultivar (p<0.05. The birds fed diets based on Marvdasht cultivar produced less undesired eggs and had better yolk color as compared with the birds fed diets based on Sardari cultivar (p<0.05. The serum concentration of glucose increased by enzyme supplementation when birds receiving lower AME level (p<0.05. These results indicate that enzyme supplementation may have a positive effect on the feed intake of laying hens when fed on wheat-based diets; however, this effect is cultivar dependent and does not necessarily mean that enzyme supplementation always benefit production.

  10. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais submetidas às dietas com diferentes óleos vegetais Performance and quality of eggs of commercial laying hens submitted to the diets with different vegetal oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Euquério de Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adição de diferentes óleos vegetais em rações para poedeiras comerciais sobre o desempenho e a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos. Foram utilizadas 224 poedeiras da linhagem Hy Line W-36, distribuídas em um delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos de quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em sete rações com 2850 kcal EM/kg e 18% de proteína bruta: T1- controle; T2 - 2% óleo de soja; T3- 4% óleo de soja; T4- 2% óleo de linhaça; T5- 4% óleo de linhaça; T6- 2% óleo de algodão; T7- 4% óleo de algodão. As variáveis estudadas foram: produção de ovos (ave/dia, consumo de ração (g/ave/dia, peso dos ovos (g, conversão alimentar (kg/kg, percentagem de gema, clara e casca, coloração da gema e teor de colesterol dos ovos (mg/g. A adição do óleo vegetal não alterou as características de desempenho, a qualidade e o teor de colesterol nos ovos, em relação à dieta sem óleo. A adição de 4% de óleo vegetal melhorou a coloração da gema, entretanto, a linhaça ocasionou uma redução na percentagem da gema. A suplementação de óleo vegetal nas dietas de poedeiras não alterou o teor de colesterol dos ovos.It was evaluated the influence of the addition of different vegetal oils in diets for commercial laying hens on performance and internal and external egg quality. We used 224 laying hens Hy Line W-36, distributed in a randomized block design with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of seven diets with 2850 kcal ME/kg and 18% crude protein: T1 - control diet; T2 - 2% soybean oil; T3 - 4% soybean oil; T4 - 2% linseed oil; T5 - 4% linseed oil; T6 - 2% cottonseed oil; T7 - 4% cottonseed oil. The variables studied were: eggs production (hen/day, feed intake (g/hen/day, egg weight (g, feed:egg mass ratio (kg/kg, shell and albumen, yolk percentages, yolk coloration and cholesterol eggs (mg/g. The addition of vegetal oil did not alter the

  11. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENTS INCLUSION OF THE ENRICHED DIET ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Trajan Gjorgovska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional manipulation and genetic selection for egg size and production may lead to changes in egg components. This experiment was carried out to analyze the egg structure parameters of eggs produced by Hisex Brown laying hens fed with diet with different supplements inclusion. The intensity of egg production was significantly higher in the groups fed with enriched feed with iodine (90.00%, vitamin E (90.00% and selenium (91.98%, and significantly lower in the group fed with DHA inclusion feed (76.00% in respect to the control group (82.00%, confidence interval of 95%. Concerning diet supplemented with selenium and diet supplemented with vitamin E, the egg yolk weight was statistically different compared with the control group (confidence interval of 95%. The yolk weight averaged 1.80 g and 1.29 g more than yolk weight in the control eggs, respectively. The egg shell weight was statistically different in diet enriched with iodine compared with the control. The egg shell weight averaged 1.48 g less per egg for the eggs enriched with iodine with 17.45% less underweight than the control eggs. Enriched eggs offer consumer a variety of value-added options for their egg purchase. Although enriched eggs may provide consumers with a specific quality attribute or healthful ingredient, they do not appear to provide quality and value in a traditional sense as defined by the standards of quality and grade.

  12. Effects of dietary yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition and humoral immune response of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Sakine; Yalçin, Suzan; Cakin, Kemal; Eltan, Onder; Dağaşan, Levent

    2010-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary yeast autolysate on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of laying hens during a 16 week period. A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age, were allocated equally to one control group and four treatment groups. Yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, InteWall) was used at levels of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) in the diets of the first, second, third and fourth treatment groups respectively. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, feed intake and egg traits. Yeast autolysate supplementation increased egg production (P Yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) decreased egg yolk cholesterol level as mg g(-1) yolk (P yeast autolysate supplementation. Dietary yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) had beneficial effects on performance, egg cholesterol content and humoral immune response. It is concluded that 2 g kg(-1) yeast autolysate will be enough to have beneficial effects in laying hens. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The fate of lipids during development and cold-storage of eggs in the laboratory-reared calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa Dana, and in response to different algal diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Bell, J.G.; Sargent, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa was sampled throughout one generation to examine the fate of lipids during development in culture. Effects of dietary input were examined by feeding A. tonsa for at least one generation with specific monoalgal cultures. Four different algae were tested: the cryp...

  14. Are all eggs equal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.

    2016-01-01

    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic

  15. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...

  16. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  17. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamila Nimalaratne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides. In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.

  18. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Wu, Jianping

    2015-09-24

    Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides). In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.

  19. Comparative proteome analysis of egg yolk plasma proteins during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dan; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu

    2017-06-01

    Physical changes such as chicken egg white thinning and egg yolk flattening occur during storage, implying a decline in egg quality. To reveal the deteriorative process related to chicken egg internal quality, a comparative proteomic method was used in this study to analyze the alterations in egg yolk plasma proteins at different storage times (0, 20 and 40 days) under an ambient temperature of 22 ± 2 °C. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, 33 protein spots representing 12 proteins were identified with significant (P albumin, vitellogenin fragments, IgY chains, ovalbumin, ovoinhibitor, α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like, hemopexin, transthyretin, apolipoprotein A-I and β 2 -glycoprotein I precursor. Accelerating degradation for most egg yolk plasma proteins was observed after prolonged storage (from day 20 to day 40). It is likely that the increased degradation of protease inhibitors such as ovoinhibitor and α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like during prolonged storage lead to an imbalance of protease and antiprotease in egg yolk, which may play a key role in the degradation of egg yolk proteins. These findings will provide an insight into the effects of storage on egg yolk protein changes and give a deeper understanding of the deteriorative process of chicken egg yolk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The influence of lipid composition on the barrier properties of band 3-containing lipid vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogevest, P. van; Maine, A.P.M. du; Kruijff, B. de; Gier, J. de

    1984-01-01

    Band 3 protein has been incorporated into lipid vesicles consisting of 94:6 (molar ratio) egg phosphatidylcholine-bovine heart phosphatidylserine or total erythrocyte lipids by means of a Triton X-100 Bio-Beads method, with an additional sonication step prior to the removal of the detergent. This

  1. Rheological properties, oxidative stability, and tocopherol content during storage of fried dough made with Silky fowl egg: comparison with hen egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosaki, T

    2010-05-01

    Eggs from Silky fowl and White Leghorn hens were used to prepare fried dough. The rheological properties, lipid oxidative stability, and trans, trans-2,4-decadienal and tocopherol content of fried dough made with Silky fowl egg were compared with dough made with hen egg. The fried dough was stored in a glass bottle at 50 degrees C in the dark for 12 d. The fried dough made with Silky fowl egg showed little change in hardness and adhesion for 12 d at 50 degrees C. However, in the fried dough made with hen egg, hardness increased drastically and adhesion decreased. The fried dough made with Silky fowl egg showed restricted generation of hydroperoxides during 12 d in storage at 50 degrees C. In contrast, the fried dough made with hen egg showed an increased amount of hydroperoxides during the 12-d storage. The lowest concentration of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal was observed in fried dough made with Silky fowl egg, whereas the concentration of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal in fried dough made with hen egg was significantly increased. Total tocopherols in fried dough made with Silky fowl egg were degraded 23.3 mg/100 g of fried dough by the end of the experimental period at 50 degrees C. In contrast, total tocopherols in the fried dough made with hen egg were degraded 40 mg/100 g of fried dough. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids decreased and the hydroperoxide content increased with storage time. The unsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio and hydroperoxide and tocopherol contents were lower in fried dough made with Silky fowl egg than in that made with hen egg, indicating decreased lipid oxidation. The present experiment suggests that the use of Silky fowl egg could improve the rheological properties, oxidative stability, and trans, trans-2,4-decadienal and tocopherol contents of fried dough.

  2. Energy source in the developing eggs of the Indian horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Aguiar, Q.; Saldanha, C.

    Wet weight, dry weight, water content, ash weight, soluble and insoluble proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and glycogen were determined from 0 to 40th day after fertilization of the developing eggs of the Indian horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas...

  3. The effect of protein and lipid source in organic feed for (organic) rainbow trout on sensory quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Green-Petersen, Ditte; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    of vegetable protein. While the lipid sources were fish, linseed, sunflower, rapeseed and grape seed oil. After slaughtering all fish were frozen (-40°C) until the sensory experiment was performed, for which the trout were thawed and stored for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in ice respectively. The sensory experiment...... and texture. After 3 days of storage in ice an impact of lipid source is seen. Inclusion of linseed oil resulted in a sensory profile comparable to the use of fish oil in the feed. While some of the other vegetable oils, especially grape seed oil results in a sensory profile rather different from the trout......-life is increased by feeding the fish with vegetable protein compared to fish meal. The conclusion of the experiment therefore was that both dietary vegetable protein and lipid sources can influence on sensory characteristics of trout stored in ice....

  4. Evaluating quality and its determinants in lipid control for secondary prevention of heart disease and stroke in primary care: a study in an inner London Borough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodhia, Hiten; Kun, Liu; Logan Ellis, Hugh; Crompton, James; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Williams, Helen; Hodgkinson, Anna; Balazs, John

    2015-12-09

    To assess quality of management and determinants in lipid control for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using multilevel regression models. Cross-sectional study. Inner London borough, with a primary care registered population of 378,000 (2013). 48/49 participating general practices with 7869 patients on heart disease/stroke registers were included. (1) Recording of current total cholesterol levels and lipid control according to national evidence-based standards. (2) Assessment of quality by age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, presence of other risks or comorbidity in meeting both lipid measurement and control standards. Some process standards were not met. Patients with a current cholesterol measurement >5 mmol/L were less likely to have a current statin prescription (adjusted OR=3.10; 95% CI 2.70 to 3.56). They were more likely to have clustering of other CVD risk factors. Women were significantly more likely to have raised cholesterol after adjustment for other factors (adjusted OR=1.74; 95% CI 1.53 to 1.98). In this study, the key factor that explained poor lipid control in people with CVD was having no current prescription record of a statin. Women were more likely to have poorly controlled cholesterol (independent of comorbid risk factors and after adjusting for age, ethnicity, deprivation index and practice-level variation). Women with CVD should be offered statin prescription and may require higher statin dosage for improved control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Influence of dietary vitamin E supplementation on meat quality traits and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in the Beijing-you chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W J; Zhao, G P; Chen, J L; Zheng, M Q; Wen, J

    2009-03-01

    1. The effects of dietary vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) on carcase and meat quality, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition of muscle lipids, and gene expression related to lipid metabolism were studied in Beijing-you chickens. 2. A total of 360 female birds were distributed among 6 treatments, containing 6 replicates, each of 10 birds. The feed for each treatment was supplemented with vitamin E (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg feed). At 120 d, 30 birds from each treatment were slaughtered to examine the effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on evaluated traits. 3. The results showed that supplemental vitamin E in diet significantly increased alpha-tocopherol contents of breast and thigh muscles, reduced the drip loss and improved tenderness but did not influence carcase yield, meat colour or pH value 24 h after slaughter. 4. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values decreased with increase in dietary vitamin E, and the addition of 100 mg/kg or more vitamin E had a beneficial effect on oxidative stability as indicated by TBARS values during storage up to 7 d. 5. Dietary vitamin E supplementation significantly altered fatty acid composition of breast muscle. Supplementing with 200 mg/kg vitamin E led to lower saturated fatty acids and greater polyunsaturated fatty acids proportions in breast muscle than control and 10 mg/kg vitamin E treatments. 6. Vitamin E supplementation significantly inhibited expression of the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) gene (cPLA(2)) in breast muscle, while enhancing that of the peroxisome proliterator-activated receptor beta (PPAP-beta) and heart fatty acid binding protein genes (H-FABP). The results indicate that dietary supplementation with vitamin E increased lipid stability in muscle and improved meat quality and fatty acid composition, probably by its influence on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism.

  6. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.

    1996-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  7. Biomass and lipid enhancement in Chlorella sp. with emphasis on biodiesel quality assessment through detailed FAME signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekh, Ajam Yakub; Shrivastava, Preeti; Gupta, Ankit; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Devi, Sivanesan Saravana; Mudliar, Sandeep N

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the concentrations of MgSO4, salinity and light intensity were optimised for maximum biomass productivity and lipid content in Chlorella sp. Lipid synthesized at varied experimental conditions was also assessed in detail for biodiesel properties through FAME analysis. FAMEs mainly composed of C16:0, C16:1(9), C16:3(7, 10, 13), C18:0, C18:1(11), C18:2(9, 12), C18:3(9, 12, 15). The optimum biomass productivity (372.50mgL(-1)d(-1)) and lipid content (32.57%) was obtained at MgSO4-150ppm; salinity-12.5ppm, and light intensity-25μmolm(-2)s(-1). However, at this condition the cetane number, a major biodiesel property was not complying with worldwide biodiesel standard. Therefore, further optimisations were done to check the suitability of biodiesel fuel. The optimum biomass productivity (348.47mgL(-1)d(-1)) and lipid content (12.43%) with suitable biodiesel fuel properties was obtained at MgSO4-50ppm, salinity-25ppm and light intensity-100μmolm(-2)s(-1). The validation experiments confirmed the closeness of predicted and measured response values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Engineering of budesonide-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles using a quality-by-design approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leng, Donglei; Thanki, Kaushik; Fattal, Elias

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease, characterized by persistent airflow limitation and chronic inflammation. The purpose of this study was to design lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles loaded with the corticosteroid budesonide, which could potentially be combined wit...

  9. Effects of dietary trace mineral sources and levels fed to layers in their second laying cycle on the quality of eggs stored at different temperatures and for different periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESPB Saldanha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of trace mineral levels and sources supplemented to diets fed to semi-heavy layers in their second laying cycle on the quality of eggs stored for 14 days at different temperatures. The experimental diets consisted of the inclusion of inorganic trace minerals (T1 - control: 100% ITM and five supplementation levels of organic trace minerals (carboaminophopho chelates (110, 100, 90, 80, and 70% OTM. Trace mineral inclusion levels (mg/kg feed were: T1: control - 100% ITM: Zn (54, Fe (54, Mn (72, Cu (10, I (0.61 Se (0.3; T2 - 110% OTM: Zn (59.4, Fe (59.4, Mn (79.2, Cu (11.88, I (1.21 Se (0.59; T3 - 100%: OTM: Zn (54, Fe (54, Mn (72, Cu (10.8, I (1.10 Se (0.54; T4 - 90% OTM: Zn (48.6, Fe (48.6, Mn (64.8, Cu (9.72, I (0.99 Se (0.49; T5 - 80% OTM: Zn (43.2, Fe (43.2, Mn (57.6, Cu (8.64, I (0.88, Se (0.43; T6 - 70% OTM: Zn (37.8, Fe (37.8, Mn (50.4, Cu (7.56, I (0.77 Se (0.38. A completely randomized experimental design in a split-plot arrangement with 60 treatments of four replicates each was applied. The combination of six diets versus storage temperature (room or under refrigeration was randomized in plots, whereas the sub-plots consisted of storage times (0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days. Data were submitted to analysis of variance of a model in slip-plots in time using the software package SAS (2000 at 5% probability level. It was concluded that 70% OTM supplementation can be used with no damage to egg quality, independently from storage temperature or time. The quality of refrigerated eggs stored up to 14 days is better than those stored at room temperature.

  10. Relationship of PCDD/F concentrations in duck-egg farmers and consumption of ranched duck eggs in central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Po-Chin; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2010-11-01

    The 2004 food market-basket survey in Taiwan found high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in duck eggs. A subsequent survey in Chang-Hua County, central Taiwan, found nine duck farms for egg production and duck eggs that were highly contaminated by PCDD/Fs in the secondary sampling and analysis during the years 2004 to 2005. Duck-egg farmers eat duck eggs rather than chicken eggs, and the aim of the current study was to evaluate how eating contaminated duck eggs affected serum PCDD/F accumulation and PCDD/F profiles in family members of duck-egg farmers. Forty-two family members of duck-egg farmers and 88 residents living nearby (control group) were recruited. Serum PCDD/F levels were significantly higher in duck-egg farmers than in the control group (28.1 vs 18.6 pg World Health Organization toxic equivalency [TEQ]/g lipid, WHO-TEQ). Significant differences in PCDD/F levels were found for most congeners, especially for 2,3,4,7,8-penta-chlorinated dibenzofurans. Elevated serum PCDD/F levels were positively associated with an increase in monthly duck-egg consumption after adjustments for fish consumption. The current result contradicted results of our previous study, which showed a positive association between fish intake and serum PCDD/F levels. The matter of cultivation in the contaminant area in Chang-Hua County should be considered more seriously. © 2010 SETAC

  11. [Public drinking water supply and egg laying by Aedes aegypti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gisela R A Monteiro; Chaves, Leonardo Suveges Moreira; Serpa, Lígia Leandro Nunes; Arduíno, Marylene de Brito; Chaves, Francisco José Moreira

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of the quality of publicly supplied water in domestic water tanks on egg laying by female Aedes aegypti. Laboratory study on immature Ae. aegypti, collected from water-tanks in the municipality of Potim, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Each cage contained three types of water in which eggs could be laid: Three choice per test were simultaneously used to deposit the eggs, ovipositor (A) with water collected from a water tank in Taubaté, ovipositor (B) with distilled water (control) and ovipositor (C) water collected from a water tank in the municipality of Potim. Physiochemical parameters were analyzed. The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to analyze the mean number of eggs in each water sample and the Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner test was used in making comparisons. To evaluate egg laying, an ovipositional activity index was adopted. A significant difference in the number of eggs was found between the liquid solutions tested (H = 45; p water tank samples originating from deep wells (C), was statistically superior to water samples from water tanks originating from superficial wells (A) (p water (A). In all three tests, the first position was the most productive in all tested solutions. Only water sample (C) produced a positive index (0.54), i.e., attractive to egg laying. Water quality influences egg laying by Aedes aegypti. The high concentrations of ammonium nitrate in public water supplies suggest that this chemical component was responsible for attracting pregnant female Aedes aegypti to lay eggs in these environments.

  12. Effect of dietary fat source on fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 30 weeks of age, 12 eggs per treatment were randomly selected for analyses of egg yolk fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values (PV). Dietary lipid sources affected FAME, TBARS and PV of egg yolk significantly. The fish oil treatment resulted in the highest ...

  13. Effect of dietary fat source on fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina Muller

    Birds received the experimental diets from 20 weeks of age. At 30 weeks of age, 12 eggs per treatment were randomly selected for analyses of egg yolk fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values (PV). Dietary lipid sources affected. FAME, TBARS and PV of egg yolk ...

  14. Relationships among egg size, composition, and energy: a comparative study of geminate sea urchins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin S McAlister

    Full Text Available Egg size is one of the fundamental parameters in the life histories of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the relationships among egg size, composition, and energetic content in a phylogenetically controlled context. We investigated the associations among egg size, composition, and energy using a comparative system, geminate species formed by the closure of the Central American Seaway. We examined western Atlantic (WA and eastern Pacific (EP species in three echinoid genera, Echinometra, Eucidaris, and Diadema. In the genus with the largest difference in egg size between geminates (Echinometra, the eggs of WA species were larger, lipid rich and protein poor compared to the smaller eggs of their EP geminate. In addition, the larger WA eggs had significantly greater total egg energy and summed biochemical constituents yet significantly lower egg energy density (energy-per-unit-volume. However, the genera with smaller (Eucidaris or no (Diadema differences in egg size were not significantly different in summed biochemical constituents, total egg energy, or energy density. Theoretical models generally assume a strong tradeoff between egg size and fecundity that limits energetic investment and constrains life history evolution. We show that even among closely-related taxa, large eggs cannot be assumed to be scaled-up small eggs either in terms of energy or composition. Although our data comes exclusively from echinoid echinoderms, this pattern may be generalizable to other marine invertebrate taxa. Because egg composition and egg size do not necessarily evolve in lockstep, selective factors such as sperm limitation could act on egg volume without necessarily affecting maternal or larval energetics.

  15. In vitro assessment of soybean lecithin and egg yolk based diluents for cryopreservation of goat semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, Hossein; Towhidi, Armin; Zhandi, Mahdi; Bahreini, Majid; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    Soybean lecithin is a suitable plant-based cryoprotectant for freezing ruminant sperm. Optimum level of lecithin was not clear for goat semen cryopreservation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soybean lecithin in semen extender on post-thaw sperm quality including CASA-motion parameters, viability, plasma membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation. Semen samples were collected from 4 Mahabadi bucks using an artificial vagina. Different concentrations of soy lecithin (SL, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% w/v) were compared to 15% (v/v) egg yolk-based extender (TR-EY). No significant difference was observed for sperm progressive motility, viability or plasma membrane integrity in 1.5% SL media (33.8%, 66%, and 62.7%, respectively) and TR-EY medium (35.4%, 67.2%, and 64.9%, respectively). Sperm motion characteristics (VAP, VSL, VCL, ALH and LIN) and rapid spermatozoa were improved with extender containing 1% and 1.5% SL, compared to TR-EY extender. Furthermore, egg yolk produced significantly higher malondialdehyde (4.02±0.21) than other groups. Results suggest that the optimal lecithin concentration in the semen extender was 1.5% and also soy lecithin can substitute for egg yolk during cryopreservation for caprine sperm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Consuming Two Eggs per Day, as Compared to an Oatmeal Breakfast, Decreases Plasma Ghrelin while Maintaining the LDL/HDL Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missimer, Amanda; DiMarco, Diana M; Andersen, Catherine J; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-01-29

    Eggs contain high quality protein, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, yet regular consumption is still met with uncertainty. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of consuming two eggs per day or a heart-healthy oatmeal breakfast on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and satiety measures in a young, healthy population. Fifty subjects participated in a randomized crossover clinical intervention; subjects were randomly allocated to consume either two eggs or one packet of oatmeal per day for breakfast for four weeks. After a three-week washout period, participants were allocated to the alternative breakfast. Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each intervention period to assess plasma lipids and plasma ghrelin. Subjects completed visual analog scales (VAS) concurrent to dietary records to assess satiety and hunger. Along with an increase in cholesterol intake, there were significant increases in both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol following the egg consumption period (p oatmeal breakfast, two eggs per day do not adversely affect the biomarkers associated with CVD risk, but increase satiety throughout the day in a young healthy population.

  17. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  18. Unique roles for lipids in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, S T

    1991-02-01

    The dynamic interplay among lipids has been exploited by S. mansoni to evolve some unique processes that are vital for its long-term survival within the mammalian host. Lipids are required by the parasite not only to maintain its surface integrity and structural requirements but also for egg production and cell-cell signalling. However, S. mansoni is incapable of synthesizing essential lipids and must obtain these from its host. In this review, Stephen Furlong describes the roles and routes of acquisition o f lipids by this parasite.

  19. Effect of dietary lipid saturation on the production performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patron Saint of Ladybugs

    Dietary lipid saturation level had no effect on daily feed intake of hens, hen-day egg production, egg output and live weight of hens during the peak-of-lay period. The mono-unsaturated n-9 diet (high oleic acid sunflower oil) had the lowest feed efficiency (0.47), while that of the control-, polyunsaturated n-6. (sunflower oil) ...

  20. Copepod reproduction is unaffected by diatom aldehydes or lipid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Koski, Marja; Jonasdottir, Sigrun

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether reduced reproductive success of copepods fed with diatoms was related to nutritional imbalances with regard to essential lipids or to the production of inhibitory aldehydes. In 10-d laboratory experiments, feeding, egg production, egg hatching success, and fecal pellet...

  1. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of an active packaging with citrus extract on lipid oxidation and sensory quality of cooked turkey meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Claudia; Álvarez, Rocío; O'Sullivan, Michael; Dowling, Denis P; Gargan, Sean Óg; Monahan, Frank J

    2014-03-01

    An antioxidant active packaging was prepared by coating a citrus extract, consisting of a mixture of carboxylic acids and flavanones, on polyethylene terephthalate trays. The effect of the packaging in reducing lipid oxidation in cooked turkey meat and on meat pH, colour characteristics and sensorial parameters was investigated. An untrained sensory panel evaluated the odour, taste, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability of the meat, using triangle, paired preference and quantitative response scale tests. A comparison between the antioxidant effects of the different components of the extract was also carried out. The packaging led to a significant reduction in lipid oxidation. After 2 days of refrigerated storage the sensory panel detected differences in odour and, after 4 days, rated the meat stored in the active packaging higher for tenderness and overall acceptability. Citric acid appeared to be the most important component of the extract with regard to its antioxidant potency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in eggs of little owls (Athene noctua) from Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, Veerle [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)]. E-mail: adrian.covaci@ua.ac.be; Maervoet, Johan [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dauwe, Tom [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Voorspoels, Stefan [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Schepens, Paul [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Eens, Marcel [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2005-07-15

    Residues of brominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 40 eggs of little owls (Athene noctua), a terrestrial top predator from Belgium. The major organohalogens detected were PCBs (median 2,600 ng/g lipid, range 790-23000 ng/g lipid). PCB 153,138/163, 170, 180 and 187 were the predominant congeners and constituted 71% of total sum PCBs. PBDEs were measurable in all samples, but their concentrations were much lower than for PCBs, with a range from 29-572 ng/g lipid (median 108 ng/g lipid). The most prevalent PBDE congeners in little owl egg samples were BDE 47, 99 and 153. This profile differs from the profile in marine bird species, for which BDE 47 was the dominant congener, indicating that terrestrial birds may be more exposed to higher brominated BDE congeners than marine birds. The fully brominated BDE 209 could be detected in one egg sample (17 ng/g lipid), suggesting that higher brominated BDEs may accumulate in terrestrial food chains. Brominated biphenyl (BB) 153 was determined in all egg samples, with levels ranging from 0.6 to 5.6 ng/g lipid (median 1.3 ng/g lipid). Additionally, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) could be identified and quantified in only two eggs at levels of 20 and 50 ng/g lipid. OCPs were present at low concentrations, suggesting a rather low contamination of the sampled environment with OCPs (median concentrations of sum DDTs: 826 ng/g lipid, sum chlordanes: 1,016 ng/g lipid, sum HCHs: 273 ng/g lipid). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) were also found at low median levels of 134 and 3.4 ng/g lipid, respectively. Concentrations of most analytes were significantly higher in eggs collected from deserted nests in comparison to addled (unhatched) eggs, while eggshell thickness did not differ between deserted and addled eggs. No significant correlations were found between eggshell thickness and the analysed organohalogens. - PBDEs are measurable

  4. Supercritical fluid techniques as methods of analyses for individual triacylglycerols and other lipids important for the quality of rapeseed oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Buskov, S.; Møller, P.

    Toward enhanced value of cruciferous oilseed crops by optimal production and use of the high quality seed components......Toward enhanced value of cruciferous oilseed crops by optimal production and use of the high quality seed components...

  5. Effect of length of lay of Nigeria indigenous chickens on their egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and thirty eggs collected from the second to the seventh month of production, from a flock of the Nigeria indigenous (NI) chickens, were analysed to determine the effect of the length of lay on egg composition and shell quality. The weights of the whole egg and its components as well as shell thickness were ...

  6. Advanced Oxidation Process sanitation of hatching eggs reduces Salmonella in broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of Salmonella contamination of eggs is important in improving the microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. Developing interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination of eggs is important to improving the microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery. Previously, the hydr...

  7. Hen's egg as a source of valuable biologically active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Herman, Marta; Starostecka, Ewa

    2016-07-06

    The aim of this article is to show current knowledge concerning valuable substances biologically active present in hen eggs and underline important nutritive role of hen eggs. Hen egg is a good source of nutrients such as proteins, vitamins (A, B2, B6, B12, D, E, K), minerals and lipids. The significant part of lipids is a group of unsaturated phospholipids, which are components of cell membranes, act protectively on the cardiovascular system and contribute to a decrease of cholesterol level and blood pressure. Therefore, the consumption of unsaturated phospholipids is recommended especially in patients suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. Another important substance is egg cystatin, which has a wide spectrum of biological functions, for example the ability to stimulate cell growth, inhibit inflammatory processes and has antibacterial and antiviral properties. Other substance presented in the egg white which helps fight bacteria is lysozyme. It is used in medicine as an aid in antibiotic therapy and analgesic in the course of infection, as well as in tumor malignancies. Among the components contained in the egg yolk there is also immunoglobulin Y which due to its therapeutic importance deserves special attention. Its use offers the possibility of replacing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of bacterial infections of digestive system, as well as an opportunity for the development of medicine associated with passive immunization of patients. The egg is a rich source of retinol which gradual depletion in the organism causes many eye pathologies. A very important and useful part of the egg, used in medicine is a shell and its membranes, due to the high collagen content relevant in the treatment of connective tissue diseases.

  8. Effects of amino acids and metabolizable energy on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals. Full Length ... reproductive performance of broiler breeder (50 to 64 weeks of age). ... Nutrition of broiler breeder hens can influence egg quality ..... books, Guelph, ontario.

  9. The effect of exercise training on quality and quantity of sleep and lipid profile in renal transplant patients: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooranfar, S; Shakoor, E; Shafahi, Mj; Salesi, M; Karimi, Mh; Roozbeh, J; Hasheminasab, M

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing renal transplantation consume immunosuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. Cardiovascular complications and reduced quality of sleep are among the side effects of these drugs. Studies have indicated that the use of non-therapeutic methods such as exercise is important to reduce these complications. To evaluate the effect of a period of exercise training, as a non-therapeutic method, on quality and quantity of sleep and lipid profile in renal transplant patients. 44 renal transplant recipients were selected to participate in the study and randomized into exercise (n=29) and control (n=15) groups. The exercise group participated in a cumulative exercise program 3 days a week for 10 weeks in 60-90-minute exercise sessions. Control group subjects did not participate in any regular exercise activity during this period. Sleep quality of the subjects was evaluated using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire; the sleep quantity was assessed by recording the duration of convenient nocturnal sleep of the subjects. Physiological sleep-related variables (serum triglyceride [TG], and total, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol) were measured before and after 10 weeks of exercise training In exercise training group, sleep quality of the subjects was improved by 27%; the sleep quantity was increased by 30 minutes (pexercise training in the exercise group compared to the control group, however, no change was observed in serum HDL level in exercise group compared to the control. There was also a significant (p=0.05) difference in sleep quality and quantity between control and exercise groups. However, there was no correlation between changing quality and quantity of sleep with sleep-related physiological factors. 10 weeks of exercise activity improved the quality and quantity of sleep as well as a number of sleep-related physiological parameters in renal transplant recipients, and would be an

  10. Effect of Beeswax, Gelatin and Aloe vera Gel Coatings on Physical Properties and Shelf Life of Chicken Eggs Stored at 30°C

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Iroshan Mudannayaka; Dissanayakage Surakshi Wimangika Rajapaksha; Kodithuwakku Arachchilage Heshan Taraka Kodithuwakku

    2016-01-01

    Present study was to determine the effect of beeswax, gelatin and Aloe vera gel coatings on internal quality and shelf life of chicken eggs compared to uncoated and mineral oil coated eggs. Four hundred and seventy five brown shell eggs were obtained from 32 weeks old Lohmann classic brown layers and all the eggs were randomly divided into five groups as ninety five eggs per group. Mineral oil, beeswax, Aloe vera gel and gelatin coatings were applied on eggs as four treatments and...

  11. Antral follicle count (AFC) can be used in the prediction of ovarian response but cannot predict the oocyte/embryo quality or the in vitro fertilization outcome in an egg donation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Marco Antonio Barreto; Garrido, Nicolás; Alvarez, Claudio; Bellver, José; Meseguer, Marcos; Pellicer, Antonio; Remohí, José

    2009-01-01

    To verify whether the antral follicle count (AFC) could predict ovarian response, oocyte/embryo quality, and IVF outcome. Prospective study. Instituto Universitario-Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad, Valencia, Spain. One thousand seventy-four donors and 975 oocyte recipient cycles. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), endometrial preparation, IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection, ET. COH and oocyte/embryo quality parameters and IVF outcome. We observed lower E(2) levels and fewer mature retrieved oocyte numbers among donors who showed an AFC that was <10. These donors also showed significantly higher cancellation and no-donation rates; poor and/or insufficient response was the principal cause (82%). However, there were no differences among the groups regarding embryo development parameters and IVF outcome. AFC is a noninvasive and simple tool that can improve the oocyte donor's selection of an egg donation program. This study suggests that AFC is a good predictor of ovarian response but cannot be used to predict oocyte/embryo quality or IVF outcome.

  12. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com dietas contendo óleos de soja e canola Performance and eggs quality in laying hens fed diets with soybean and canola oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a influência da adição de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja e canola sobre os índices de desempenho e qualidade interna e externa dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais semipesadas da linhagem Bovans Goldline durante cinco períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 280 aves com 18 semanas de idade, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos em um esquema fatorial 2 × 3 + 1 (dois tipos de óleo e três níveis de óleo mais um testemunha adicional com cinco repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de óleo de soja e de canola não alteraram o consumo de ração, os pesos dos ovos, de albúmen, de gema e de casca, as porcentagens de albúmen, de gema e de casca e a gravidade específica dos ovos. Houve influência significativa da interação tipo × nível de óleo sobre a produção de ovos e a conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos. Com o aumento do nível de óleo de soja, os resultados obtidos para estas variáveis melhoraram, entretanto, a conversão por massa de ovo piorou com o aumento dos níveis de óleo de canola. A adição de óleo de soja promoveu desempenho melhor que o obtido com óleo de canola.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of soybean and canola oil added in crescent levels on production performance indexes and internal and external egg quality of brown commercial layers of the strain Bovans Goldline during five periods of 28 days. Two hundred and eighty hens with 18 weeks old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with seven diets in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement (oil type and oil level, and an additional control, with 5 replicates of 8 hens per experimental unit. The soybean and canola oil levels did not affect the feed consumption; egg, albumen, yolk and shell weights; albumen, yolk and shell percentages, neither the specific gravity. There was an interaction between type and oils levels on egg production and mass

  13. Chemical composition and microbial loads of chicken table eggs from retail markets in urban settings of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewonetu Kebede Senbeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of microbial load, chemical quality, pH and cholesterol level, a total of 400 table eggs were randomly collected from 10 retailers situated at major urban settings in Eastern Ethiopia and Haramaya University Poultry Farm, Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using SAS. High moisture and cholesterol levels and low pH and huge microbial load were detected in the eggs. Exposure of eggs to sunlight in the market and transportation of eggs from farm to the retail market might influence in lowering moisture and increasing pH. Huge microbial contamination of eggs from retailers at urban settings could be due to unhygienic handling of the eggs, lack of standard storage and transportation facilities. Storing of eggs in refrigeration condition and protection of direct sun light could be helpful in maintaining quality eggs. Introduction of refrigeration systems and construction of shades in markets are suggested to maintain and improve quality of eggs sold in markets.

  14. A research study to determine the effect of Total Quality Management (TQM) on employee morale in Plant Procedures Division at EG&G, Rocky Flats, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Erleen F. [Univ. of Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1994-01-01

    EG&G at Rocky Flats, Golden, Colorado, experienced a high amount of low morale, due to the plant site having been designated to close, and the uneasiness of the working force was very visible. Some employees accepted early retirement in October 1992, however, all received letters of 120 days notice in March 1993, and were advised several cuts Would be made by October 1, 1993. This information alone caused many insecurities in employees, and caused morale to decrease even more. This is an in depth study of morale, which was upgraded in Plant Procedures Group (PPG), through the effect of TQM. The primary research included a survey of employees with results included. The study also increased additional questions in PPG, some of which were added to the agenda of the Process Improvement Team (PIT) to improve PPG in the eyes of customers. Statistics did show that morale improved, not necessarily because of TQM or the progress of the Process Improvement Team (PIT), but due to efforts of the staff implementing the principles of TQM the best they knew how.

  15. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityay I.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds.

  16. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  17. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae from washed and unwashed commercial shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, Michael T; Jones, Deana R; Northcutt, Julie K; Cox, Nelson A; Harrison, Mark A

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of processing on the safety and quality of retail shell eggs, a storage study was conducted with unwashed and commercially washed eggs. This work demonstrated that commercial processing decreased microbial contamination of eggshells. To know which species persisted during storage on washed or unwashed eggs, Enterobacteriaceae isolates were selected and identified biochemically. For each of three replications, shell eggs were purchased from a commercial processing plant, transported back to the laboratory, and stored at 4 degrees C. Once a week for 6 weeks, 12 eggs for each treatment (washed and unwashed control) were rinsed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. A 1-ml aliquot of each sample was plated onto violet red bile glucose agar with overlay and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Following incubation, plates were observed for colonies characteristic of the family Enterobacteriaceae. A maximum of 10 isolates per positive sample were streaked for isolation before being identified to the genus or species level using commercially available biochemical strips. Although most of the isolates from the unwashed control eggs belonged to the genera Escherichia or Enterobacter, many other genera and species were identified. These included Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Pantoea, Providencia, Rahnella, Salmonella, Serratia, and Yersinia. Non-Enterobacteriaceae also recovered from the unwashed egg samples included Xanthomonas and Flavimonas. Very few washed egg samples were contaminated with any of these bacteria. These data provide useful information on the effectiveness of processing in removing microorganisms from commercial shell eggs.

  18. The effect of Ramada