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Sample records for egg allergy vaccine

  1. Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... for Recommendations This page contains information about egg allergy and flu vaccination. Summary: CDC and its Advisory ...

  2. MMR vaccination of children with egg allergy is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorthe Vestergård; Jørgensen, Inger Merete

    2013-01-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is part of the Danish Childhood Vaccination Programme. It is known that children may react with anaphylaxis to MMR vaccines containing traces of egg protein. In Denmark, national clinical guidelines recommend that children with egg allergy be referred...... to vaccination at a paediatric ward despite changed recommendations in other countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with egg allergy presented with anaphylactic/allergic reactions to MMR vaccination and to discuss whether Danish recommendations should be upheld....

  3. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Egg Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Egg Allergy What's in ... but it's worth it. What Happens With an Egg Allergy? Eggs aren't bad. But when you' ...

  4. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with eggs. Prevention is the name of the game with food allergies, so it's important for kids ... protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If ...

  5. Is hospital based MMR vaccination for children with egg allergy here to stay?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, C P

    2010-01-01

    Egg allergy is incorrectly considered to constitute a contraindication to MMR in the community, despite a long history of its safe administration to egg allergic children. The product insert perpetuates this misinformation but the Irish guidelines from the RCPI are unequivocal. We reviewed all paediatric cases vaccinated in our hospital in 2007-2008. Forty seven of 91 children receiving vaccinations in hospital, had been referred for MMR due to concerns regarding egg allergy. In 32% (n=15), GP referral for vaccination was made despite correspondence from the clinic advising routine vaccination in the community. Nineteen were second MMR immunisations, which should all have occurred in the community. Unnecessary hospital referral for MMR vaccination is an extra burden on hospital resources, and causes unwarranted anxiety amongst parents of children with egg allergy. A change in practice seems difficult to achieve, as many referrals happen despite individualised correspondence to GPs and other referring clinicians outlining the current guidelines.

  6. Safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine in atopic children with egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul J; Southern, Jo; Andrews, Nick J; Miller, Elizabeth; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is an intranasal vaccine recently incorporated into the United Kingdom immunization schedule. However, it contains egg protein and, in the absence of safety data, is contraindicated in patients with egg allergy. Furthermore, North American guidelines recommend against its use in asthmatic children. We sought to assess the safety of LAIV in children with egg allergy. We performed a prospective, multicenter, open-label, phase IV intervention study involving 11 secondary/tertiary centers in the United Kingdom. Children with egg allergy (defined as a convincing clinical reaction to egg within the past 12 months and/or >95% likelihood of clinical egg allergy as per published criteria) were recruited. LAIV was administered under medical supervision, with observation for 1 hour and telephone follow-up 72 hours later. Four hundred thirty-three doses were administered to 282 children with egg allergy (median, 4.9 years; range, 2-17 years); 115 (41%) had experienced prior anaphylaxis to egg. A physician's diagnosis of asthma/recurrent wheezing was noted in 67%, and 51% were receiving regular preventer therapy. There were no systemic allergic reactions (upper 95% CI for population, 1.3%). Eight children experienced mild self-limiting symptoms, which might have been due an IgE-mediated allergic reaction. Twenty-six (9.4%; 95% CI for population, 6.2% to 13.4%) children experienced lower respiratory tract symptoms within 72 hours, including 13 with parent-reported wheeze. None of these episodes required medical intervention beyond routine treatment. In contrast to current recommendations, LAIV appears to be safe for use in children with egg allergy. Furthermore, the vaccine appears to be well tolerated in children with a diagnosis of asthma or recurrent wheeze. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Technical report on the development of egg allergy vaccine using novel technology fused with radiation technology and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-01-15

    Type I allergy has become increasingly prevalent over the past few decades. Current immunotherapy for allergic disease is effective in the treatment of respiratory allergies by administration of natural allergen extracts. Injection of food allergen extract can bring on high rate of adverse systemic reaction. Such traditional injection immunotherapy for food allergy is currently not recommended because of the allergic side effects of the therapy. Therefore, effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for food allergy are urgently needed. Allergenicity of allergen by a treatment of radiation were decreased and irradiated allergen was showed immunological change in vivo. Here this study presents an approach for vaccination of irradiated allergen to prevent allergic response and the feasibility for allergy treatment by modified allergen. Gamma irradiation of OVA caused a reduced humoral and cellular immune responses specific to the allergen OVA in preventive and therapeutic effects, and its related mechanisms were associated with down-regulation of OVA-specific T cell activation in preventive effect. From adoptive cell transfer experiment results. T cell of spleen cells is critical role in the suppressive effect of humoral and cellular response on OVA-induced allergy.

  8. Technical report on the development of egg allergy vaccine using novel technology fused with radiation technology and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-01-01

    Type I allergy has become increasingly prevalent over the past few decades. Current immunotherapy for allergic disease is effective in the treatment of respiratory allergies by administration of natural allergen extracts. Injection of food allergen extract can bring on high rate of adverse systemic reaction. Such traditional injection immunotherapy for food allergy is currently not recommended because of the allergic side effects of the therapy. Therefore, effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for food allergy are urgently needed. Allergenicity of allergen by a treatment of radiation were decreased and irradiated allergen was showed immunological change in vivo. Here this study presents an approach for vaccination of irradiated allergen to prevent allergic response and the feasibility for allergy treatment by modified allergen. Gamma irradiation of OVA caused a reduced humoral and cellular immune responses specific to the allergen OVA in preventive and therapeutic effects, and its related mechanisms were associated with down-regulation of OVA-specific T cell activation in preventive effect. From adoptive cell transfer experiment results. T cell of spleen cells is critical role in the suppressive effect of humoral and cellular response on OVA-induced allergy

  9. Allergy to egg proteins in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Góngora-Meléndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1, ovoalbumin (Gal d2, ovotransferrin (Gal d3, lysozyme (Gal d4 and albumin (Gal d5. Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical Revista México 235 Góngora-Meléndez MA y col. Alergia a las proteínas del huevo en edad pediátrica Revista México diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  10. Early-life gut microbiome and egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlollahi, M; Chun, Y; Grishin, A; Wood, R A; Burks, A W; Dawson, P; Jones, S M; Leung, D Y M; Sampson, H A; Sicherer, S H; Bunyavanich, S

    2018-07-01

    Gut microbiota may play a role in egg allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy. We studied 141 children with egg allergy and controls from the multicenter Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. At enrollment (age 3 to 16 months), fecal samples were collected, and clinical evaluation, egg-specific IgE measurement, and egg skin prick test were performed. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing. Analyses for the primary outcome of egg allergy at enrollment, and the secondary outcomes of egg sensitization at enrollment and resolution of egg allergy by age 8 years, were performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology, Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles. Compared to controls, increased alpha diversity and distinct taxa (PERMANOVA P = 5.0 × 10 -4 ) characterized the early-life gut microbiome of children with egg allergy. Genera from the Lachnospiraceae, Streptococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families were differentially abundant in children with egg allergy. Predicted metagenome functional analyses showed differential purine metabolism by the gut microbiota of egg-allergic subjects (Kruskal-Wallis P adj  = 0.021). Greater gut microbiome diversity and genera from Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were associated with egg sensitization (PERMANOVA P = 5.0 × 10 -4 ). Among those with egg allergy, there was no association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy resolution by age 8 years. The distinct early-life gut microbiota in egg-allergic and egg-sensitized children identified by our study may point to targets for preventive or therapeutic intervention. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  11. Immunologic changes in children with egg allergy ingesting extensively heated egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon-Mulé, Heather; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Shreffler, Wayne G; Noone, Sally; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2008-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested that heated egg might be tolerated by some children with egg allergy. We sought to confirm tolerance of heated egg in a subset of children with egg allergy, to evaluate clinical and immunologic predictors of heated egg tolerance, to characterize immunologic changes associated with continued ingestion of heated egg, and to determine whether a diet incorporating heated egg is well tolerated. Subjects with documented IgE-mediated egg allergy underwent physician-supervised oral food challenges to extensively heated egg (in the form of a muffin and a waffle), with tolerant subjects also undergoing regular egg challenges (in a form of scrambled egg or French toast). Heated egg-tolerant subjects incorporated heated egg into their diets. Skin prick test wheal diameters and egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid IgE levels, as well as ovalbumin and ovomucoid IgG4 levels, were measured at baseline for all subjects and at 3, 6, and 12 months for those tolerant of heated egg. Sixty-four of 117 subjects tolerated heated egg, 23 tolerated regular egg, and 27 reacted to heated egg. Heated egg-reactive subjects had larger skin test wheals and greater egg white-specific, ovalbumin-specific, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels compared with heated egg- and egg-tolerant subjects. Continued ingestion of heated egg was associated with decreased skin test wheal diameters and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels and increased ovalbumin-specific and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels. The majority of subjects with egg allergy were tolerant of heated egg. Continued ingestion of heated egg was well tolerated and associated with immunologic changes that paralleled the changes observed with the development of clinical tolerance to regular egg.

  12. Transcriptional Profiling of Egg Allergy and Relationship to Disease Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kosoy

    Full Text Available Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies of childhood. There is a lack of information on the immunologic basis of egg allergy beyond the role of IgE.To use transcriptional profiling as a novel approach to uncover immunologic processes associated with different phenotypes of egg allergy.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were obtained from egg-allergic children who were defined as reactive (BER or tolerant (BET to baked egg, and from food allergic controls (AC who were egg non-allergic. PBMCs were stimulated with egg white protein. Gene transcription was measured by microarray after 24 h, and cytokine secretion by multiplex assay after 5 days.The transcriptional response of PBMCs to egg protein differed between BER and BET versus AC subjects. Compared to the AC group, the BER group displayed increased expression of genes associated with allergic inflammation as well as corresponding increased secretion of IL-5, IL-9 and TNF-α. A similar pattern was observed for the BET group. Further similarities in gene expression patterns between BER and BET groups, as well as some important differences, were revealed using a novel Immune Annotation resource developed for this project. This approach identified several novel processes not previously associated with egg allergy, including positive associations with TLR4-stimulated myeloid cells and activated NK cells, and negative associations with an induced Treg signature. Further pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes comparing BER to BET subjects showed significant enrichment of IFN-α and IFN-γ response genes, as well as genes associated with virally-infected DCs.Transcriptional profiling identified several novel pathways and processes that differed when comparing the response to egg allergen in BET, BER, and AC groups. We conclude that this approach is a useful hypothesis-generating mechanism to identify novel immune processes associated with allergy and tolerance to forms

  13. Are both early egg introduction and eczema treatment necessary for primary prevention of egg allergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Mori, Rintaro; Miyazaki, Celine; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saito, Hirohisa

    2018-06-01

    The Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) study proved that early introduction of peanut significantly prevented the development of peanut allergy. However, in regard to similar attempts to prevent egg allergy through early egg introduction, the Prevention of Egg Allergy in High-risk Infants with Eczema (PETIT) study is the only randomized intervention trial to show a statistically significant effect. Meta-analysis of those studies indicated that neither the total amount nor pretreatment of egg showed any effect on egg allergy at the age of 12 months. However, raw egg powder resulted in a significantly higher prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction, whereas use of boiled egg was much safer. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis/eczema at introduction of egg correlated significantly with the subsequent prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction. In addition, the prevalence of egg allergy in the late introduction group correlated significantly with the prevalence of atopic dermatitis at introduction, even when the atopic dermatitis was proactively treated with a topical corticosteroid ointment. It is definitely true that the number of trials and number of participants in each trial are insufficient for drawing firm conclusions, especially regarding the optimal dose, raw versus boiled, when to start, and for whom to intervene. Therefore we propose various studies that should be performed to generate stronger data and conclusions. However, on the basis of the most recent results, we postulate that simultaneous intervention by both early boiled egg introduction and eczema treatment is probably indispensable for primary prevention of egg allergy. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aluminium allergy and granulomas induced by vaccinations for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie O; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site - vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...... examine the incidence, the symptoms and the prognosis for the vaccination granulomas and the allergy. Finally we discuss the status in Denmark....

  15. Parental perceptions in egg allergy: does egg challenge make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew Stewart; Allen, Clare Wendy; Campbell, Dianne Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an oral egg challenge in egg sensitized children on parental perceptions relating to their child's allergy. A questionnaire was completed by parents for 167 children attending a tertiary paediatric clinic with egg sensitization. The questionnaires included 10 questions concerning parental perceptions of their child's egg allergy. Parental perceptions of those children who had not had an egg challenge (n = 83) were compared with those whose children had a positive (n = 27) and those with a negative (n = 57) egg challenge. A significant difference (p = parents in the CN group expected little or no future inconvenience for the child. The responses of parents whose child had undergone an egg challenge differed significantly (p = expectation of little or no future discomfort for the child and whether others treated the child differently. The performance of an egg challenge was associated with reduced adverse parental concerns. For 6/10 parameters, expectations concerning egg allergy in children who had been challenged were significantly better than those who had never been challenged irrespective of the challenge outcome. The greater certainty provided by the performance of a food challenge may be a positive outcome in both CP and CN children.

  16. Managing a child with possible allergy to vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Gomes, Eva; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Brockow, Knut; Eigenmann, Philippe A.

    2014-01-01

    Similarly to other medications, vaccines may be responsible for allergic reactions. Although IgE-mediated allergies to vaccine are extremely rare, they are clearly overdiagnosed. Indeed, accurate diagnosis of vaccine allergy is important not only to prevent serious or even life-threatening

  17. Update on the bird-egg syndrome and genuine poultry meat allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, Wolfgang; Klug, Christoph; Swoboda, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Summary Allergy to poultry meat is rare and affects both children and adults. The prevalence of poultry meat allergy is unknown, but presumably is similar to that of red meat allergy. There is no close relationship between allergy to poultry meat and allergy to red meat. Poultry meat allergy may present as primary (genuine) food allergy or as secondary food allergy resulting from cross-reactivity. Secondary poultry meat allergy may arise in the context of bird-egg-syndrome, which is due to se...

  18. Vinegar decreases allergenic response in lentil and egg food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Dueñas-Laita, A; Pineda, F; Herrero, M; Martín, B

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy results from an atypical response of the mucosal immune system to orally consumed allergens. Antacid medication inhibits the digestion of dietary proteins and causes food allergy. A decrease of the gastric pH might enhance the function of digestion and reduce the risk of food allergy. To test a possible decrease in the allergenicity of powerful food allergens (egg, chicken, lentils) with the addition of vinegar during the cooking process. We included seven patients who suffered from anaphylaxis due to egg, chicken and lentils. We added vinegar to egg, chicken and lentil processed extracts used for skin prick tests (SPT) and compared the wheal areas obtained with the same extracts sources and the same way but without vinegar addition. Immunodetection was performed with the different processed extracts and patients' sera. Only one patient consented food challenge with vinegar-marinated-chicken. Wheal areas were significantly minor with the food extract with vinegar. Immunodetection showed a decrease of the response with vinegar processed extracts. Vinegar addition during the cooking process may decrease lentil and chicken allergenicity. Copyright 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypersensitivity reactions to the Sabin vaccine in children with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, C A S; Smaldini, P L; Gervasoni, M E; Maspero, J F; Docena, G H

    2013-02-01

    The Sabin vaccine is used world-wide, and most children with food allergies receive it without incident. However, in the 2009 vaccination campaign conducted in Argentina, four children experienced immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions following vaccination. We aimed to review the medical history of the affected children, study their allergic condition after the episodes and analyse the presence of allergenic vaccine components. Patients were selected based on their immediate allergic reactions following vaccination. They were assessed for allergies to cow's milk and hen's egg. The presence of cow's milk proteins in the vaccine was tested by various immunoassays involving cow's milk- or α-lactalbumin-specific polyclonal rabbit antiserum and patient sera. All of the patients had a history of milk allergy, and no history or current evidence of egg hypersensitivity was found. Levels of cow's milk- and Sabin vaccine-specific IgE were increased, and the result of a skin prick test with cow's milk proteins or the Sabin vaccine was positive in each patient. In addition, an ELISA using specific rabbit antiserum detected α-lactalbumin in the Sabin vaccine. When α-lactalbumin was employed as a soluble inhibitor in a competitive ELISA, binding to vaccine-coated plates by cow's milk- or α-lactalbumin-specific rabbit antiserum or by patient serum containing IgE was inhibited. We have demonstrated that these patients were allergic to cow's milk, and had circulating and mast cell-bound IgE antibodies specific to cow's milk proteins. We found that the Sabin vaccine contained α-lactalbumin, which may have been responsible for the reactions elicited following vaccination with the Sabin and dual viral vaccines in combination. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Aluminium allergy and granulomas induced by vaccinations for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie O; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site - vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...

  1. Egg-Independent Influenza Vaccines and Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Manini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination remains the principal way to control seasonal infections and is the most effective method of reducing influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. Since the 1940s, the main method of producing influenza vaccines has been an egg-based production process. However, in the event of a pandemic, this method has a significant limitation, as the time lag from strain isolation to final dose formulation and validation is six months. Indeed, production in eggs is a relatively slow process and production yields are both unpredictable and highly variable from strain to strain. In particular, if the next influenza pandemic were to arise from an avian influenza virus, and thus reduce the egg-laying hen population, there would be a shortage of embryonated eggs available for vaccine manufacturing. Although the production of egg-derived vaccines will continue, new technological developments have generated a cell-culture-based influenza vaccine and other more recent platforms, such as synthetic influenza vaccines.

  2. Assessment of epicutaneous testing of a monovalent Influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine in egg allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Tracy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H1N1 is responsible for the first influenza pandemic in 41 years. In the fall of 2009, an H1N1 vaccine became available in Canada with the hopes of reducing the overall effect of the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of administering 2 different doses of a monovalent split virus 2009 H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients. Methods Patients were skin tested to the H1N1 vaccine in the outpatient paediatric and adult allergy and immunology clinics of the Health Sciences Centre and Children's Hospital of Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada. Individuals Results A total of 61 patients with egg allergy (history of an allergic reaction to egg with either positive skin test &/or specific IgE to egg >0.35 Ku/L were referred to our allergy clinics for skin testing to the H1N1 vaccine. 2 patients were excluded, one did not have a skin prick test to the H1N1 vaccine (only vaccine administration and the other passed an egg challenge during the study period. Ages ranged from 1 to 27 years (mean 5.6 years. There were 41(69.5% males and 18(30.5% females. All but one patient with a history of egg allergy, positive skin test to egg and/or elevated specific IgE level to egg had negative skin tests to the H1N1 vaccine. The 58 patients with negative skin testing to the H1N1 vaccine were administered the vaccine and observed for 30 minutes post vaccination with no adverse results. The patient with the positive skin test to the H1N1 vaccine was also administered the vaccine intramuscularly with no adverse results. Conclusions Despite concern regarding possible anaphylaxis to the H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients, in our case series 1/59(1.7% patients with sensitization to egg were also sensitized to the H1N1 vaccine. Administration of the H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients with negative H1N1 skin tests and observation is safe. Administering the vaccine in a 1 or 2 dose protocol without skin testing is a reasonable alternative

  3. All about Allergies (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergies Egg Allergy Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies Food Allergies and Travel 5 Ways to Be Prepared for an Allergy Emergency Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Allergy Testing Food Allergies Food Allergies: How to Cope Egg Allergy ...

  4. Flu Vaccine Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) ... safety of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. ...

  5. [Consensus position document on the child with an allergic reaction after vaccination or an allergy to vaccine components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría Zudaire, L; Ortigosa Del Castillo, L; Alonso Lebrero, E; Álvarez García, F J; Cortés Álvarez, N; García Sánchez, N; Martorell Aragonés, A

    2015-07-01

    Vaccinations are one of the main public health tools for the control of vaccine-preventable diseases. If a child is labeled to have had an allergic reaction to a vaccine, the next immunizations will probably be suspended in that child, with the risks involved in this decision. The rate of severe allergic reactions is very low, ranging between 0.5-1/100,000 doses. The causes of allergic reactions to vaccines, more than the vaccine itself, are often due to residual protein components in the manufacturing process, such as gelatin or egg, and rarely to yeast or latex. Most of vaccine reactions are mild, localized at the site of injection, but in some circumstances, severe anaphylactic reactions can occur. If an immediate-type allergic reaction is suspected when vaccinating, or a child allergic to some of the vaccine components has to be vaccinated, a correct diagnosis of the possible allergy has to be made. The usual components of each vaccine should be known, in order to determine if vaccination can be performed safely on the child. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Paradigm shift in the management of milk and egg allergy: baked milk and egg diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, George N; Kim, Jennifer S

    2012-02-01

    Heat treatment of several foods, including all types of cooking, has been mainly used to minimize the number of viable microbes, reduce pathogenicity, and destroy the undesirable enzymes, maintaining food quality. In addition, food processing improves sensory, nutritional, and physical properties of the foods, due to food protein denaturation. Heat-induced alterations of food proteins can attenuate allergenicity. In this article, the authors review the important role of thermal processing on milk and egg proteins, which comprise the commonest food allergies in infancy and early childhood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between specific IgE to egg components and natural history of egg allergy in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradman, Josefine; Mortz, Charlotte G; Eller, Esben

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of egg-allergic children develop tolerance over time. However, it may take numerous of consecutive egg challenges to get there as no good indices to predict tolerance exist. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serial measurements of specific IgE to egg white, ovomucoid......, ovalbumin, conalbumin, lysozyme, and egg yolk could improve the specificity of the diagnostic workup and aid in the decision when to rechallenge egg-allergic children. METHODS: The outcome of oral food challenges with hen's egg and corresponding specific IgE levels were evaluated in children referred...... to The Allergy Center within an 8-year period. The egg-allergic children were rechallenged and had specific IgE levels measured once a year. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 26 months, 287 challenges and corresponding 287 serum analyses were performed in 130 children. Of the 130 children, 99 were egg...

  8. Update on the bird-egg syndrome and genuine poultry meat allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Wolfgang; Klug, Christoph; Swoboda, Ines

    Allergy to poultry meat is rare and affects both children and adults. The prevalence of poultry meat allergy is unknown, but presumably is similar to that of red meat allergy. There is no close relationship between allergy to poultry meat and allergy to red meat. Poultry meat allergy may present as primary (genuine) food allergy or as secondary food allergy resulting from cross-reactivity. Secondary poultry meat allergy may arise in the context of bird-egg-syndrome, which is due to sensitization to serum albumins present in many tissues including muscle tissue and egg yolk (Gal d 5). Primary sensitization to serum albumin may happen via the respiratory tract through exposure to pet birds (mainly in adults) or within the context of egg allergy in early childhood. Due to the heat lability of serum albumins, reactions are often limited to the skin upon contact with raw meat. Symptoms from meat ingestion are rare and mostly mild, whereas systemic reactions are common after ingestion of raw or soft-boiled egg yolk. Primary poultry meat allergy is mainly seen in adolescents and young adults, though hypersensitivity may have started already at (pre)school age. Egg allergy is usually absent. Typical symptoms of primary poultry meat allergy include OAS (±dyspnea), gastrointestinal complaints, urticaria and angioedema. Severe anaphylaxis with cardiovascular symptoms is rare. Chicken and turkey meat are highly cross-reactive and responsible for most reactions, while duck and goose meat causes milder or no symptoms. Soups, sausages, and ham represent relevant allergen sources, too. Patients with poultry meat allergy unexpectedly often suffer from concomitant allergy to fish and possibly shrimp. Serum specific IgE against fish and shrimp is found in respectively 60 and 40 % of sera, suggestive of cross-reactive allergens in these foods. The allergens thus far recognized in genuine poultry meat are LMW proteins of 5-25 kDa. One of them has been identified as

  9. Influence of isoniazid on naturally acquired tuberculin allergy and on induction of allergy by BCG vaccination*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Raj; Bagga, A. S.; Naganna, K.; Mayurnath, S.

    1970-01-01

    Previous studies on the influence of isoniazid on the size of the tuberculin reaction have given conflicting results. A controlled study in an area with high prevalence of low-grade allergy has been carried out by the administration of isoniazid or placebo tablets. For those not vaccinated with BCG, isoniazid in a single daily dose of 5 mg/kg body-weight tended to reduce somewhat the size of the tuberculin reaction among those with reactions of 12 mm or more at the initial tuberculin test. In people who were vaccinated with BCG, isoniazid given simultaneously resulted in significantly less increase in the size of post-vaccination tuberculin reactions as compared with controls; the difference was still significant, in tests conducted 4½ months after the discontinuation of isoniazid. However, in spite of isoniazid, the post-vaccination allergy induced by BCG was quite considerable. This considerable increase in post-vaccination allergy suggests that the vaccination was successful in spite of the administration of isoniazid and makes it clear that primary chemoprophylaxis could be combined with BCG vaccination. Administration of isoniazid for 2 months is estimated to have killed about 90% of the bacilli in the BCG vaccine injected intracutaneously. PMID:5312322

  10. A longitudinal study of resolution of allergy to well-cooked and uncooked egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A; Islam, S; King, Y; Deighton, J; Szun, S; Anagnostou, K; Ewan, P

    2011-05-01

    Egg allergy is common and although resolution to uncooked egg has been demonstrated, there is lack of evidence to guide reintroduction of well-cooked egg. To examine the rate of resolution to well-cooked, compared with uncooked egg in children, and safety of egg challenges. A longitudinal study of egg-allergic children from 2004 to 2010, who underwent challenge with well-cooked and if negative, uncooked egg. Participants underwent repeat annual challenges and egg-specific IgE measurement. One hundred and eighty-one open egg challenges were performed in 95 children whose median age of allergy onset was 12 months. Fifty-three of 95 (56%) had at least one annual repeat challenge. Pre-study historical reactions occurred to baked egg in five (5%), lightly cooked in 58 (61%) and uncooked in nine (9%); respiratory reactions occurred in 11 (12%) and seven (7%) had anaphylaxis; adrenaline was used during five reactions. There were 77 well-cooked and 104 uncooked egg challenges. Tolerance was gained twice as rapidly to well-cooked than uncooked egg (median 5.6 vs. 10.3 years; Pcooked egg at 3 years and 2/3 at 6 years. Of 28/77 (37%) positive well-cooked egg challenges, 65% had cutaneous symptoms, 68% gastrointestinal and 39% rhinitis, with no other respiratory reactions. Adrenaline was not required. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE RESOLUTION: of egg allergy takes place over many years, with children outgrowing allergy to well-cooked egg approximately twice as quickly as they outgrow allergy to uncooked egg. There were no severe reactions to well-cooked egg challenge, and adrenaline was not required. Our data support initiation of home reintroduction of well-cooked egg from 2 to 3 years of age in children with previous mild reactions and no asthma. Resolution continues to occur in older children, so that despite an earlier positive challenge, attempts at reintroduction should be continued. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Oral food desensitization in children with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy: a new protocol with raw hen's egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglio, Paolo; Giampietro, Paolo G; Carello, Rossella; Gabriele, Ida; Avitabile, Simona; Galli, Elena

    2013-02-01

    Hen's egg allergy affects young children and can cause severe allergic reactions. Avoidance results in dietary limitations and can affect the quality of life, especially in cases where potentially life-threatening reactions exist. Our objective was to desensitize children with moderate-severe IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy over a 6-month period, by introducing increasing and very gradual daily doses of raw hen's egg in order to enable the children to assume 25ml of this food, or to induce tolerance to the highest possible dose. The protocol foresaw the egg reintroduction in the home setting. In this randomized, controlled open study, 20 hen's egg allergic children (10 in the active group) were admitted. A convincing history or a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge confirmed the diagnosis. Oral desensitization was performed with increasing doses starting from 0.27 mg of hen's egg proteins (1 drop of raw hen's egg diluted 1:100). We adopted an original, mathematically calculated protocol in order to ensure a constant, daily increment of doses. 8/10 children (80%) in the active group achieved the daily intake of 25ml over a 6-month period. One child (10%) could tolerate up to 2ml/day while another child (10%) failed the desensitization. Six months after enrolment only 2 children in the control group (20%) could tolerate hen's egg. We successfully desensitized 8/10 children with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy in a 6-month period. The partial outcome in the child who could tolerate 2ml/day reduced the risk of severe reactions after unnoticed introduction of egg. A regular protocol that ensures a daily constant increase of doses helps to reduce possible adverse events, thus improving safety and effectiveness. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Usefulness of antigen-specific IgE probability curves derived from the 3gAllergy assay in diagnosing egg, cow's milk, and wheat allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakura Sato

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Measurements of sIgE against egg, milk, and wheat as determined by 3gAllergy may be used as a tool to facilitate the diagnosis of food allergy in subjects with suspected food allergies. However, these probability curves should not be applied interchangeably between different assays.

  13. Specific oral tolerance induction with raw hen's egg in children with very severe egg allergy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Iride; Tripodi, Salvatore; Calvani, Mauro; Panetta, Valentina; Verga, Maria Carmela; Miceli Sopo, Stefano

    2013-02-01

    Treatment of severe egg allergy is avoidance of hen's egg (HE) and carrying self-injectable epinephrine. Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI) seems a promising alternative treatment. However, some aspects of SOTI are still considered experimental. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of an original 6-month SOTI protocol in children with very severe HE allergy using raw HE emulsion. Twenty children (age range: 5-11 yr) were randomized equally into a SOTI treatment group and a control group. The treatment group started SOTI and underwent a second challenge 6 months later. Control children were kept on an egg-free diet for 6 months and then underwent a second challenge. After 6 months, 9/10 children of the SOTI group (90%) achieved partial tolerance (at least 10 ml, but <40 ml of raw HE emulsion, in a single dose) and 1 (10%) was able to tolerate only 5 ml (no tolerance). After 6 months, nine control children tested positive to the second challenge at a dose ≤0.9 ml of raw HE emulsion, and one reacted to 1.8 ml (SOTI vs. control group p<0.0001). All children in the SOTI group had side effects, but no child had a grade 5 reaction according to the Sampson grading. Six months of SOTI with raw HE emulsion resulted in partial tolerance, with regular intake, in a significant percentage of children with severe egg allergy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Recombinant egg drop syndrome subunit vaccine offers an alternative to virus propagation in duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutter, B; Fingerut, E; Gallili, G; Eliahu, D; Perelman, B; Finger, A; Pitcovski, J

    2008-02-01

    Egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus vaccines are routinely produced in embryonated duck eggs (Solyom et al., 1982). This procedure poses the risk of dissemination of pathogens, such as avian influenza virus, as the eggs used are not from specific pathogen free birds. To address this problem, the knob and part of the shaft domain of the fibre protein of the EDS virus (termed knob-s) were expressed in Escherichia coli and assessed as a subunit vaccine. A single vaccination with the recombinant protein induced the production of anti-EDS virus antibodies, as detected by haemagglutination inhibition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization tests, for at least 20 weeks. A positive correlation was demonstrated between these three assays. A dose-response assessment showed that the vaccine was effective over the range of 2 to 64 microg protein per dose. Two vaccinations with the recombinant protein, administered before the onset of lay, induced high haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres, comparable with those induced by an inactivated whole-virus vaccine. The vaccine did not have any adverse effects on egg production, quality or weight. The present study has shown that two vaccinations with the recombinant knob-s protein elicited high neutralizing antibody titres that persisted for more than 50 weeks of lay.

  15. Safety and Efficacy of Low-Dose Oral Immunotherapy for Hen's Egg Allergy in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Sato, Sakura; Asaumi, Tomoyuki; Nagakura, Kenichi; Ogura, Kiyotake; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    The minimal dose for oral immunotherapy (OIT) tolerance is unknown. We investigated the efficacy and safety of low-dose OIT with 1/32 of the volume of a whole egg. Thirty-three children (aged ≥5 years) with egg allergies confirmed by oral food challenge against 1/32 of a heated whole egg (194 mg of egg protein) were enrolled. The OIT group ingested a scrambled egg once a day. The volume was gradually increased up to a maximum of 1/32 of a heated whole egg. Egg consumption was completely absent in the control group. There were no significant differences in background between the OIT and control groups. Respectively, 71% (15/21) and 0% (0/12) of the patients in the OIT and control groups exhibited sustained unresponsiveness to 1/32 of a whole egg 2 weeks after stopping OIT after 12 months (p egg. Egg white- or ovomucoid-specific IgE levels in the OIT group were significantly lower than at baseline after 12 months. Egg white- or ovomucoid-specific IgG as well as IgG4 levels in the OIT group were significantly higher than baseline levels after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Adverse allergic reactions were rare, and most symptoms were mild. Low-dose OIT induced sustained unresponsiveness to 1/32 and 1/2 of a whole egg, with no severe symptoms. To improve food allergies, continuous intake of small amounts of these foods may be as effective as the consumption of larger quantities. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  17. Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Allergies KidsHealth / For Teens / Allergies What's in this article? ... or Allergies? Dealing With Allergies Print What Are Allergies? Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things ...

  18. Bacterial derived proteoliposome for allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastre, Miriam; Pérez, Oliver; Labrada, Alexis; Bidot, Igor; Pérez, Jorge; Bracho, Gustavo; del Campo, Judith; Pérez, Dainerys; Facenda, Elisa; Zayas, Caridad; Rodríguez, Claudio; Sierra, Gustavo

    2006-04-12

    One current approach in developing anti allergic vaccines is the use of potent adjuvants, capable of inducing Th1 or T regulatory cells. Proteoliposomes (PL) could be a suitable adjuvant. Purified Dermatophagoides siboney (Ds) allergens were mixed with PL and adsorbed into Al(OH)3 and evaluated in mice. The Th1/Th2 responses were measured at classes, subclasses, cytokines, and DTH levels. Anti Ds response was deviated to a Thl pattern, with the production of IgG2a and gamma1FN. A positive DTH response and a dramatic decrease of specific IgE and IL5 were not detected. The low dose was more effective than high dose. These results clearly support the potential use of PL as possible adjuvants for anti-allergic vaccines.

  19. Food allergies are rarely a concern when considering vaccines for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantseva, Larisa V; Horwitz, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Routine immunization provides protection from numerous infectious diseases and substantially reduces morbidity mortality from these diseases. In the United States, vaccination programs focused on infants and children have successfully decreased the incidence of many childhood vaccine-preventable diseases. However, vaccination coverage among adolescents has remained stagnant. Contributing to this lack of coverage is that patients with food allergies might be advised unnecessarily to avoid certain vaccinations, thus potentially causing adverse personal and community health. Studies have shown that food allergies are rarely contraindications to vaccine administration. Most adolescents who avoid vaccination because of food allergy concerns are actually able to receive their appropriate vaccinations. However, there are situations when evaluation by an allergist is recommended. In the present article, the authors provide guidance for physicians when administering vaccines to patients with food allergies to prevent adverse events and improve disease protection.

  20. Clinical and immunological profile of children aged 5-9 years with persistent egg allergy before oral immunotherapy with egg. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, L; Martin-Muñoz, M F; Martorell, C; Belver, M T; Alonso Lebrero, E; Zapatero, L; Fuentes, V; Piqué, M; Plaza, A; Muñoz, C; Martorell, A; Blasco, C; Villa, B; Gómez, C; Nevot, S; García, J M; Madero, R

    2018-05-24

    In children with egg protein allergy (EA), the probability of overcoming the allergy decreases with age, and the possibility of suffering severe adverse reactions as a consequence of dietetic transgressions results in worsened quality of life. One treatment option in such cases is oral immunotherapy (OIT) with foods. We present a cohort of children with EA scheduled for OIT with pasteurized raw egg white, describing their clinical and allergic characteristics before the start of OIT. The median age was six years, and 93% of the patients also suffered other allergies (58% asthma and 38.6% allergy to more than two food groups). In the last year, 14.8% had suffered a severe reaction due to dietetic transgression with egg. The median IgE specific of egg white titer was 38.5kU/l. A double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge with cooked egg white was performed, and if the test proved positive, it was repeated with pasteurized raw egg white. The mean symptoms-provoking dose was 1.26g and 0.55g for cooked egg white and raw egg white, respectively. An IgE specific of ovomucoid titer of <2.045kU/l differentiated those patients that tolerated cooked egg white. OIT with egg is regarded as an option in patients with persistent egg allergy. In the previous challenge test, an IgE specific of ovomucoid titer of <2.045kU/l differentiates those patients that tolerate cooked egg white. Copyright © 2018 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Usefulness of antigen-specific IgE probability curves derived from the 3gAllergy assay in diagnosing egg, cow's milk, and wheat allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Sakura; Ogura, Kiyotake; Takahashi, Kyohei; Sato, Yasunori; Yanagida, Noriyuki; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-04-01

    Specific IgE (sIgE) antibody detection using the Siemens IMMULITE ® 3gAllergy™ (3gAllergy) assay have not been sufficiently examined for the diagnosis of food allergy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of measuring sIgE levels using the 3gAllergy assay to diagnose allergic reactions to egg, milk, and wheat. This retrospective study was conducted on patients with diagnosed or suspected allergies to egg, milk and wheat. Patients were divided into two groups according to their clinical reactivity to these allergens based on oral food challenge outcomes and/or convincing histories of immediate reaction to causative food(s). The sIgE levels were measured using 3gAllergy and ImmunoCAP. Predicted probability curves were estimated using logistic regression analysis. We analyzed 1561 patients, ages 0-19 y (egg = 436, milk = 499, wheat = 626). The sIgE levels determined using 3gAllergy correlated with those of ImmunoCAP, classifying 355 patients as symptomatic: egg = 149, milk = 123, wheat = 83. 3gAllergy sIgE levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic patients (P allergies. However, these probability curves should not be applied interchangeably between different assays. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PRIMARY IMUNE RESPON OF LAYER POST VACCINATED WITH THE EGG DROPS SYNDOME VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the primary immune response post vaccination using EDS inactivated vaccine polyvalent. The sample used was a commercial layer farm in the village of Tiga, regency of Bangli, Bali. A total of 25 layer which were14 weeks old vaccinated using EDS-76 inactivated vaccine containing polyvalent Newcastle disease antigen virus, infectious bronchitis and egg drop syndrome by intramuscularly injection. Examination of EDS antibody titer using serologic test by Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI test.  Egg drops syndrome antibody titer checked four times, once before vaccination, and every week for three weeks post-vaccination to see the immune responses. The average antibody titer then analyzed using an univariate of variance test followed by a test of Least Significant Difference, Duncan test and regression analysis. The result showed an increase antibody of EDS was significantly every week post vaccination. The average antibody titers of EDS are 22,6 HI unit at one weeks post vaccination, about 25,04 HI unit at two weeks post vaccination and  26,4 HI unit at three weeks post vaccination.

  3. The European Union CREATE project: a model for international standardization of allergy diagnostics and vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, Martin D.; Ferreira, Fatima; Villalba, Mayte; Cromwell, Oliver; Bryan, Donna; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Durham, Stephen; Vieths, Stefan; van Ree, Ronald; Aalbers, M.; Notten, S.; Ooievaar-de Heer, P.; Ferreira, F.; Gademaier, G.; Wallner, M.; Villalba, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Becker, W.-M.; Eberhardt, F.; Lepp, U.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Valenta, R.; Focke, M.; Bryan, D.; Dolman, C.; Das, R. G.; Vieths, S.; Fötisch, K.; Di Felice, G.; Pini, C.; Cromwell, O.; Fiebig, H.; Weber, B.; van Schijndel, H.; Dorpema, J. W.; Marco, F. M.; Monsalve, R.; Barber, D.; Caldas, E. Fernandez; Moingeon, P.; Didierlaurent, A.; André, C.; Kroon, A.; Neubauer, A.; Chapman, M.; Vailes, L.; Tsay, A.; Durham, S.; Custovic, A.; Simpson, B.; Knulst, A.; Rivas, M. Fernández; Mancebo, E. Gonzalez; Bahima, A. Cistero; Moncin, M. M. San Miguel; Mari, A.; Kinaciyan, T.; Quiralte, J.; Pauli, G.; de Blay, F.; Purohit, A.; Rak, S.

    2008-01-01

    Allergen measurements are used extensively in the formulation of allergy diagnostics and vaccines, yet no purified international allergen standards are available for calibration purposes. The aims of the European Union CREATE project were to develop international standards with verifiable allergen

  4. Recombinant allergy vaccines based on allergen-derived B cell epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Campana, Raffaela; Niederberger, Verena

    2017-09-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated allergy is the most common immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity disease. It affects more than 25% of the population. In IgE-sensitized subjects, allergen encounter can causes a variety of symptoms ranging from hayfever (allergic rhinoconjunctivitis) to asthma, skin inflammation, food allergy and severe life-threatening anaphylactic shock. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is based on vaccination with the disease-causing allergens. AIT is an extremely effective, causative and disease-modifying treatment. However, administration of natural allergens can cause severe side effects and the quality of natural allergen extracts limits its application. Research in the field of molecular allergen characterization has allowed deciphering the molecular structures of the disease-causing allergens and it has become possible to engineer novel molecular allergy vaccines which precisely target the mechanisms of the allergic immune response and even appear suitable for prophylactic allergy vaccination. Here we discuss recombinant allergy vaccines which are based on allergen-derived B cell epitopes regarding their molecular and immunological properties and review the results obtained in clinical studies with this new type of allergy vaccines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & ... these substitutes may not work as well in recipes that call for more than three ... or bananas When cooking at home, always carefully scrub the utensils you' ...

  6. Is it possible to make a diagnosis of raw, heated, and baked egg allergy in children using cutoffs? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Mauro; Arasi, Stefania; Bianchi, Annamaria; Caimmi, Davide; Cuomo, Barbara; Dondi, Arianna; Indirli, Giovanni Cosimo; La Grutta, Stefania; Panetta, Valentina; Verga, Maria Carmen

    2015-09-01

    The diagnosis of IgE-mediated egg allergy lies both on a compatible clinical history and on the results of skin prick tests (SPTs) and IgEs levels. Both tests have good sensitivity but low specificity. For this reason, oral food challenge (OFC) is the ultimate gold standard for the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature in order to identify, analyze, and synthesize the predictive value of SPT and specific IgEs both to egg white and to main egg allergens and to review the cutoffs suggested in the literature. A total of 37 articles were included in this systematic review. Studies were grouped according to the degree of cooking of the egg used for OFC, age, and type of allergen used to perform the allergy workup. In children egg allergy seems very likely when SPTs with egg white extract are ≥4 mm or specific IgEs are ≥1.7 kUA /l. In children ≥2 years, OFC could be avoided when SPTs with egg white extract are ≥10 mm or prick by prick with egg white is ≥14 mm or specific IgE is ≥7.3 kUA /l. Likewise, heated egg allergy can be diagnosed if SPTs with egg white extract are >5 and >11 mm in children egg allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Impact of Baked Egg and Baked Milk Diets on IgE- and Non-IgE-Mediated Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Julia; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2018-03-08

    Baked milk (BM) and baked egg (BE) diets are increasingly used in the management of milk and egg allergy, rather than avoidance. Children with tolerance versus reactivity to BM and BE may have smaller skin prick test and lower specific IgE, and BM-tolerant children have less basophil reactivity and more peripheral T regulatory cells. However, most milk- and egg-allergic children tolerate BM and BE and an individual's reactivity is unpredictable. Non-reactivity is due to conformational changes in the allergens. Significant differences in the published advice about methods of introduction exist from graded introduction at home to a medically supervised full dose. These approaches carry different risks and may have different immunological effects. Reactivity to BM is a predictor of a severe milk allergy. Therefore, medical supervision for BM and BE introduction is prudent. The baked diet allows dietary liberation. Most, but not all, BM- and BE-tolerant children continue eating the baked foods. The prognosis of children who can eat BM and BE is favorable with likely resolution of their allergy over the next few years. Murine models of BE diets demonstrate that heated egg can impart clinical protection against anaphylaxis and cause immune changes. Most observational human studies of BM and BE diets demonstrate clinical resolution of allergy and favorable immune changes versus regular care controls. However, the one randomized controlled trial for the BE diet in BE-tolerant children did not support an immune-modifying effect of the BE diet. Another study of BE immunotherapy is expected to be completed in 2018. There is currently no evidence for prevention of allergy with the baked diets. There may be a future role for BM and BE in liberating the diets of individuals with non-IgE-mediated allergy given recent studies that a subset of these patients can consume BM without a clinical reaction.

  8. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lurthu Reetha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  9. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetha, T Lurthu; Rajeswar, J Johnson; Harikrishnan, T J; Sukumar, K; Srinivasan, P; Kirubakaran, J John

    2016-08-01

    To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND) oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 10(4.0) egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  10. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 More on this topic for: Teens Shellfish Allergy Food Allergies and Travel My Friend Has a Food Allergy. How Can I Help? My Girlfriend Has a ... for an Allergy Emergency Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Food Allergies Egg Allergy Allergy Testing View more About Us ...

  11. Vaccination in food allergic patients | Karabus | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People with egg allergy may receive influenza vaccination routinely; however, some authorities still perform prior skinprick testing and give two-stage dosing. The purified chick embryo cell culture rabies vaccine contains egg protein, and therefore the human diploid cell and purified verocell rabies vaccines are preferred in ...

  12. Successful administration of measles-rubella-mumps vaccine by graded challenge in a case with anaphylaxis after prior vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Tuba; Sancakli, Ozlem; Ozdogru, Ece

    2017-04-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies during childhood along with cow's milk allergy. The measles-mumpsrubella (MMR) vaccine is included in the pediatric immunization schedule and contains egg protein. The currently accepted opinion is that the MMR vaccination should be done in a single dose under medical observation in patients with egg allergy. Although it is reported that the MMR vaccine is safe for that patients, there are some patients who developed anaphylaxis. Generally, the development of anaphylaxis after the previous vaccination is reported as a contraindication. We present a successful administration of MMR vaccine by gradually increased doses for a patient who developed anaphylaxis after the previous vaccination. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  13. Willingness to pay for allergy-vaccination among Danish patients with respiratory allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karin Dam

    2008-01-01

      Objective.  There were two objectives in this study: 1) To investigate the willingness to pay (WTP) for allergy-specific subcutaneous injection immunotherapy (SCIT) treatment in a cohort of respondents who suffer from rhinoconjunctivitis/asthma.   2) To investigate whether WTP was sensitive...... to the potential quality adjusted life years (QALY) gain. Methods. One hundred and forty six respondents with rhinoconjunctivitis/asthma symptoms from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark were asked to state their WTP for SCIT treatment. Respondents were presented with a dichotomous choice question which...... was followed up by an open-ended WTP follow-up question. Respondents were asked to indicate how many days a year they suffer from rhinoconjunctivitis/asthma and to describe their health state with and without rhino-conjunctivitis/asthma using the EQ-5D instrument. Results. 46.1% of the respondents were willing...

  14. For t 2 DNA vaccine prevents Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) allergy in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M-F; Song, P-P; Lin, T-M; Chiu, Y-T; Chen, Y-H

    2016-04-01

    Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) is the most prevalent allergenic biting insect in Taiwan, and 60% of the exposed subjects develop allergic reactions. Subjects with insect allergy frequently limit their outdoor activities to avoid the annoyingly intense itchy allergic reactions, leading to significant worsening of their quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only known therapy that provides long-term host immune tolerance to the allergen, but is time-consuming and cumbersome. This study tested whether the For t 2 DNA vaccine can prevent allergic symptoms in For t 2-sensitized mice. Two consecutive shots of For t 2 DNA vaccine were given to mice with a 7-day interval before sensitization with recombinant For t 2 proteins, using the two-step sensitization protocol reported previously. The For t 2 DNA vaccine at 50 μg prevented the production of For t 2-specific IgE (P allergy in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Predictive value of IgE/IgG4 antibody ratio in children with egg allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shindou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of specific IgG4 antibodies to hen’s egg white and determine their utility as a marker for the outcome of oral challenge test in children sensitized to hen’s egg Methods The hen’s egg oral food challenge test was performed in 105 sensitized children without atopic dermatitis, and the titers of egg white-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies were measured. To set the cut-off values of IgG4, IgE, and the IgE/IgG4 ratio for predicting positive results in oral challenges, receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted and the area under the curves (AUC were calculated. Results Sixty-four of 105 oral challenges with whole eggs were assessed as positive. The AUC for IgE, IgG4, and IgE/IgG4 for the prediction of positive results were 0.609, 0.724, and 0.847, respectively. Thus, the IgE/IgG4 ratio generated significantly higher specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (%, and negative predictive value (% than the individual IgE and IgG4. The negative predictive value of the IgE/IgG4 ratio was 90% at a value of 1. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the egg white-specific serum IgE/IgG4 ratio is important for predicting reactivity to egg during food challenges.

  16. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinica...

  17. Mechanisms, safety and efficacy of a B cell epitope-based vaccine for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zieglmayer

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The B cell epitope-based recombinant grass pollen allergy vaccine BM32 is well tolerated and few doses are sufficient to suppress immediate allergic reactions as well as allergen-specific T cell responses via a selective induction of allergen-specific IgG antibodies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01445002.

  18. Timing of routine infant vaccinations and risk of food allergy and eczema at one year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraly, N; Koplin, J J; Crawford, N W; Bannister, S; Flanagan, K L; Holt, P G; Gurrin, L C; Lowe, A J; Tang, M L K; Wake, M; Ponsonby, A-L; Dharmage, S C; Allen, K J

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that routine vaccinations can have nontargeted effects on susceptibility to infections and allergic disease. Such effects may depend on age at vaccination, and a delay in pertussis vaccination has been linked to reduced risk of allergic disease. We aimed to test the hypothesis that delay in vaccines containing diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) is associated with reduced risk of food allergy and other allergic diseases. HealthNuts is a population-based cohort in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve-month-old infants were skin prick-tested to common food allergens, and sensitized infants were offered oral food challenges to determine food allergy status. In this data linkage study, vaccination data for children in the HealthNuts cohort were obtained from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register. Associations were examined between age at the first dose of DTaP and allergic disease. Of 4433 children, 109 (2.5%) received the first dose of DTaP one month late (delayed DTaP). Overall, delayed DTaP was not associated with primary outcomes of food allergy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.77; 95% CI: 0.36-1.62, P = 0.49) or atopic sensitization (aOR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.35-1.24, P = 0.19). Amongst secondary outcomes, delayed DTaP was associated with reduced eczema (aOR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34-0.97, P = 0.04) and reduced use of eczema medication (aOR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.24-0.83, P = 0.01). There was no overall association between delayed DTaP and food allergy; however, children with delayed DTaP had less eczema and less use of eczema medication. Timing of routine infant immunizations may affect susceptibility to allergic disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Kids with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Recipe Substitutions Substitutions for Milk Substitutions for Egg Substitutions for Wheat and Gluten Substitutions for Soy Substitutions for Peanuts and Tree Nuts Substitutions for Corn Menu Planning for the Food Allergy Cook Food & Cooking Support Forum Allergy-Friendly Foods Allergy ...

  20. Summary and Recommendations from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Workshop "Gonorrhea Vaccines: the Way Forward".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, Lee M; Feavers, Ian M; Gray-Owen, Scott D; Jerse, Ann E; Rice, Peter A; Deal, Carolyn D

    2016-08-01

    There is an urgent need for the development of an antigonococcal vaccine due to the increasing drug resistance found in this pathogen. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have identified multidrug-resistant gonococci (GC) as among 3 "urgent" hazard-level threats to the U.S. In light of this, on 29 to 30 June 2015, the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) sponsored a workshop entitled "Gonorrhea Vaccines: the Way Forward." The goal of the workshop was to gather leaders in the field to discuss several key questions on the current status of gonorrhea vaccine research and the path forward to a licensed gonorrhea vaccine. Representatives from academia, industry, U.S. Government agencies, and a state health department were in attendance. This review summarizes each of the 4 scientific sessions and a series of 4 breakout sessions that occurred during the one and a half days of the workshop. Topics raised as high priority for future development included (i) reinvigoration of basic research to understand gonococcal infection and immunity to allow intervention in processes essential for infection; (ii) clinical infection studies to establish parallels and distinctions between in vitro and animal infection models versus natural human genital and pharyngeal infection and to inform in silico modeling of vaccine impact; and (iii) development of an integrated pipeline for preclinical and early clinical evaluation and direct comparisons of potential vaccine antigens and adjuvants and routes of delivery. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Oral immunisation of laying hens with the live vaccine strains of TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T reduces internal egg contamination with Salmonella Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantois, Inne; Ducatelle, Richard; Timbermont, Leen; Boyen, Filip; Bohez, Lotte; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; van Immerseel, Filip

    2006-09-11

    Eggs are a major source of human infections with Salmonella. Therefore controlling egg contamination in laying hen flocks is one of the main targets for control programmes. A study was carried out to assess the effect of oral vaccination with TAD Salmonella vac E, TAD Salmonella vac T and with both vaccines TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T, on colonization of the reproductive tract and internal egg contamination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis. Three groups of 30 laying hens were vaccinated at 1 day, 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age with either one of the vaccine strains, or a combination of both vaccine strains, while a fourth group was left unvaccinated. At 24 weeks of age, the birds were intravenously challenged with 0.5 ml containing 5 x 10(7)cfu Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 S1400/94. The number of oviducts from which Salmonella was isolated, was significantly lower in the vaccinated than in the non-vaccinated hens at 3 weeks post-challenge. Significantly less egg contents were Salmonella positive in the birds vaccinated with TAD Salmonella vac E or TAD Salmonella vac T (12/105 batches of eggs in both groups) than in the unvaccinated birds (28/105 batches of eggs). Internal egg contamination in the hens vaccinated with both TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T was even more reduced, as over the whole experiment, only one batch of eggs was positive. In conclusion, these data indicate that vaccination of laying hens with these live vaccines could be considered as a valuable tool in controlling internal egg contamination.

  2. Effects of a Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis Vaccine on Immune Responses in Murine Local Lymph Node and Lung Allergy Models▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandebriel, Rob J.; Gremmer, Eric R.; van Hartskamp, Michiel; Dormans, Jan A. M. A.; Mooi, Frits R.

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that in mice, diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination before Bordetella pertussis infection resulted in, besides effective clearance, immediate hypersensitivity (lung eosinophilia, increased total serum immunoglobulin E [IgE], and increased ex vivo Th2 cytokine production by cells from the bronchial lymph nodes). To better appreciate the extent of these findings, we measured DTaP vaccination effects in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) and an ovalbumin (OVA) lung allergy model. In the LLNA, mice were vaccinated or adjuvant treated before being sensitized with trimellitic anhydride (TMA; inducing a Th2-directed response) and dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB; inducing a Th1-directed response). Compared to the adjuvant-treated controls, the vaccinated mice showed a decreased response to TMA and (to a much lesser extent) an increased response to DNCB. The decreased response to TMA coincided with increased transforming growth factor β levels. With the exception of filamentous hemagglutinin, all vaccine constituents contributed to the decreased response to TMA. In the lung allergy model, sensitization induced OVA-specific IgE, lung pathology (peribronchiolitis, perivasculitis, and hypertrophy of the bronchiolar mucus cells) and increased the number of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Vaccination failed to modulate these parameters. In conclusion, although DTaP vaccination may affect the LLNA response, we found no evidence of an effect on lung allergy. PMID:17202304

  3. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A well-tolerated grass pollen-specific allergy vaccine containing a novel adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A, reduces allergic symptoms after only four preseasonal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachenberg, K J; Wheeler, A W; Stuebner, P; Horak, F

    2001-06-01

    We present data showing that a Th1-inducing adjuvant can reduce the number of injections required for allergy vaccination. Allergy vaccination is the only treatment for type 1 hypersensitivity that can alter the underlying disease process. A switch of specific T-cell activity from Th2 >Th1 to Th1 >Th2 is believed to be an important change seen after long-term vaccination therapy. An immunologic adjuvant that enhances such a switch could be used to reduce the number of injections required. This would improve compliance with the treatment and provide pharmacoeconomic advantages. Such an adjuvant is 3-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL adjuvant, Corixa). A multicentre, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical study was performed with a new standardized allergy vaccine comprising a tyrosine-adsorbed glutaraldehyde-modified grass pollen extract containing MPL adjuvant. Four subcutaneous injections of the active product were given preseasonally to 81 grass pollen-sensitive subjects, and 60 received placebo injections (tyrosine alone). Diary cards were used to record symptoms and medication taken during approximately 30 days of the grass pollen season. There was a statistical advantage in favour of the active treatment for nasal (P = 0.016) and ocular (P = 0.003) symptoms and combined symptom and medication scores (P=0.013). Titrated skin prick testing revealed a significant reduction of skin sensitivity in the active group compared to placebo (P = 0.04). Grass-pollen-specific IgG antibody was raised by active treatment (P vaccine, incorporating a Th1-inducing adjuvant, MPL, was efficacious and after only four preseasonal injections produced antibody changes normally associated with long injection schedules. This may encourage wider application of allergy vaccination. The vaccine is now available in a number of countries as Pollinex Quattro.

  5. Comparison between dot-immunoblotting assay and clinical sign determination method for quantifying avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccine by titration in embryonated eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Seong-Su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Youn, Ha-Na; Heo, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-04-01

    A sensitive and specific method for measuring the vaccine titer of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is important to commercial manufacturers for improving vaccine quality. Typically, IBV is titrated in embryonated chicken eggs, and the infectivity of the virus dilutions is determined by assessing clinical signs in the embryos as evidence of viral propagation. In this study, we used a dot-immunoblotting assay (DIA) to measure the titers of IBV vaccines that originated from different pathogenic strains or attenuation methods in embryonated eggs, and we compared this assay to the currently used method, clinical sign evaluation. To compare the two methods, we used real-time reverse transcription-PCR, which had the lowest limit of detection for propagated IBV. As a clinical sign of infection, dwarfism of the embryo was quantified using the embryo: egg (EE) index. The DIA showed 9.41% higher sensitivity and 15.5% higher specificity than the clinical sign determination method. The DIA was particularly useful for measuring the titer of IBV vaccine that did not cause apparent stunting but propagated in embryonated chicken eggs such as a heat-adapted vaccine strain. The results of this study indicate that the DIA is a rapid, sensitive, reliable method for determining IBV vaccine titer in embryonated eggs at a relatively low cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural studies of novel glycoconjugates from polymerized allergens (allergoids) and mannans as allergy vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano, Ana I.; Cañada, F. Javier; Cases, Bárbara; Sirvent, Sofia; Soria-Castro, Irene; Palomares, O; Fernández-Caldas, E.; Casanovas, Miguel; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Subiza, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy for treating IgE-mediated allergies requires high doses of the corresponding allergen. This may result in undesired side effects and, to avoid them, hypoallergenic allergens (allergoids) polymerized with glutaraldehyde are commonly used. Targeting allergoids to dendritic cells to enhance cell uptake may result in a more effective immunotherapy. Allergoids coupled to yeast mannan, as source of polymannoses, would be suitable for this purpose, since mannose-binding receptors are e...

  7. Safety and tolerability of cell culture-derived and egg-derived trivalent influenza vaccines in 3 to children and adolescents at risk of influenza-related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Domingo, Javier; de Martino, Maurizio; Lopez, Jose Garcia-Sicilia; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Villani, Alberto; Moreno-Perez, David; Hernández, María Méndez; Aldeán, Javier Álvarez; Mateen, Ahmed Abdul; Enweonye, Igwebuike; de Rooij, Richard; Chandra, Richa

    2016-08-01

    This descriptive, non-comparative, phase III study evaluated the safety and tolerability of cell culture-derived (TIVc) and egg-derived (TIV) seasonal influenza vaccines in children at risk of influenza-related complications. Four hundred and thirty subjects were randomized 2:1 to TIVc or TIV. Subjects aged 3 to vaccinated, n=89) or two doses (if not previously vaccinated, n=124) of the study vaccines; the 9 to vaccination; safety was monitored for 6 months. After any vaccination, the most frequently reported solicited local adverse event (AE) was tenderness/pain (TIVc 44%, 66%, 53% and TIV 56%, 51%, 65% in the age groups 3 to vaccine-related serious AEs were noted. New onset of chronic disease was reported in ≤1% of subjects. TIVc and TIV had acceptable tolerability and similar safety profiles in at-risk children (NCT01998477). Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autologous Stem Cell Transplant Additional Content Medical News Physical Allergy By Peter J. Delves, PhD, Professor of ... Disorders Exercise-Induced Allergic Reactions Food Allergy Mastocytosis Physical Allergy Seasonal Allergies Year-Round Allergies A physical ...

  9. Effects of egg-adaptation on receptor-binding and antigenic properties of recent influenza A (H3N2) vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lauren; Wharton, Stephen A; Martin, Stephen R; Cross, Karen; Lin, Yipu; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Daniels, Rodney S; McCauley, John W

    2016-06-01

    Influenza A virus (subtype H3N2) causes seasonal human influenza and is included as a component of influenza vaccines. The majority of vaccine viruses are isolated and propagated in eggs, which commonly results in amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. These substitutions can affect virus receptor-binding and alter virus antigenicity, thereby, obfuscating the choice of egg-propagated viruses for development into candidate vaccine viruses. To evaluate the effects of egg-adaptive substitutions seen in H3N2 vaccine viruses on sialic acid receptor-binding, we carried out quantitative measurement of virus receptor-binding using surface biolayer interferometry with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays to correlate changes in receptor avidity with antigenic properties. Included in these studies was a panel of H3N2 viruses generated by reverse genetics containing substitutions seen in recent egg-propagated vaccine viruses and corresponding cell culture-propagated wild-type viruses. These assays provide a quantitative approach to investigating the importance of individual amino acid substitutions in influenza receptor-binding. Results show that viruses with egg-adaptive HA substitutions R156Q, S219Y, and I226N, have increased binding avidity to α2,3-linked receptor-analogues and decreased binding avidity to α2,6-linked receptor-analogues. No measurable binding was detected for the viruses with amino acid substitution combination 156Q+219Y and receptor-binding increased in viruses where egg-adaptation mutations were introduced into cell culture-propagated virus. Substitutions at positions 156 and 190 appeared to be primarily responsible for low reactivity in HI assays with post-infection ferret antisera raised against 2012-2013 season H3N2 viruses. Egg-adaptive substitutions at position 186 caused substantial differences in binding avidity with an insignificant effect on antigenicity.

  10. Structural studies of novel glycoconjugates from polymerized allergens (allergoids) and mannans as allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Ana I; Javier Cañada, F; Cases, Bárbara; Sirvent, Sofia; Soria, Irene; Palomares, Oscar; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Casanovas, Miguel; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Subiza, José L

    2016-02-01

    Immunotherapy for treating IgE-mediated allergies requires high doses of the corresponding allergen. This may result in undesired side effects and, to avoid them, hypoallergenic allergens (allergoids) polymerized with glutaraldehyde are commonly used. Targeting allergoids to dendritic cells to enhance cell uptake may result in a more effective immunotherapy. Allergoids coupled to yeast mannan, as source of polymannoses, would be suitable for this purpose, since mannose-binding receptors are expressed on these cells. Conventional conjugation procedures of mannan to proteins use oxidized mannan to release reactive aldehydes able to bind to free amino groups in the protein; yet, allergoids lack these latter because their previous treatment with glutaraldehyde. The aim of this study was to obtain allergoids conjugated to mannan by an alternative approach based on just glutaraldehyde treatment, taking advantage of the mannoprotein bound to the polymannose backbone. Allergoid-mannan glycoconjugates were produced in a single step by treating with glutaraldehyde a defined mixture of allergens derived from Phleum pratense grass pollen and native mannan (non-oxidized) from Saccharomyces cerevisae. Analytical and structural studies, including 2D-DOSY and (1)H-(13)C HSQC nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, demonstrated the feasibility of such an approach. The glycoconjugates obtained were polymers of high molecular weight showing a higher stability than the native allergen or the conventional allergoid without mannan. The allergoid-mannan glycoconjugates were hypoallergenic as detected by the IgE reactivity with sera from grass allergic patients, even with lower reactivity than conventional allergoid without mannan. Thus, stable hypoallergenic allergoids conjugated to mannan suitable for using in immunotherapy can be achieved using glutaraldehyde. In contrast to mannan oxidation, the glutaraldehyde approach allows to preserve mannoses with their native geometry, which may be

  11. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge ... oral allergy syndrome? » Video: What is a red meat allergy? » Vitamin D and Food Allergy » When Should ...

  12. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Milk Allergy What's in this ... to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, which ...

  13. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  14. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué son las alergias de ...

  15. Optimization of incubation temperature in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with H9N2 vaccinal subtype of avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sedigh-Eteghad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are little information about growth properties of low pathogenic (LP avian influenza virus (AIV in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs at different incubation temperatures. Knowledge of this information increases the quantity and quality of antigen in vaccine production process. For this purpose, 10-5 dilution of AIV (A/Chicken/Iran/99/H9N2 was inoculated (Intra-allantoic into 400, 11-day old specific pathogen free (SPF ECEs in the 0.1 mL per ECE rate and incubated in 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37.5, 38, 39 ̊C for 72 hr in 65% humidity. Early death embryos in first 24 hr were removed. Amnio-allantoic fluid was withdrawn into the measuring cylinder, and tested for hemagglutination (HA activity and egg infective dose 50 (EID50. The utilizable ECEs and amnio-allantoic fluid volume was significantly increased in 35 ̊C, (p < 0.05. Significant difference in HA and EID50 titers, were seen only in 39 ̊C group. Therefore, 35°C is an optimum temperature for incubation of inoculated ECEs.

  16. Allergoid-specific T-cell reaction as a measure of the immunological response to specific immunotherapy (SIT) with a Th1-adjuvanted allergy vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Baehr, V; Hermes, A; von Baehr, R; Scherf, H P; Volk, H D; Fischer von Weikersthal-Drachenberg, K J; Woroniecki, S

    2005-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is believed to modulate CD4+ T-helper cells. In order to improve safety, SIT vaccines are often formulated with allergoids (chemically modified allergens). Interaction between T-cells and allergoids is necessary to influence cellular cytokine expression. There have been few reports on identification the early cellular effects of SIT. Patients allergic to grass and/or mugwort pollen (n= 21) were treated with a 4-shot allergy vaccine (Pollinex Quattro) containing appropriate allergoids (grass/rye and/or mugwort) adsorbed to L-tyrosine plus a Th1 adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Fourteen grass-allergic patients served as untreated controls. Using the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of these patients, an optimized lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) was employed to monitor the in vitro proliferative response of T-cells to an allergoid challenge (solubilised Pollinex Quattro) before the first and last injection and then 2 and 20 weeks after the final injection. Control challenges utilised preparations of a similar pollen vaccine without the adjuvant MPL and a tree pollen vaccine with and without MPL. The LTT showed increased LTT stimulation indices (SI) in 17/20 SIT patients when the solublised vaccine preparation was used as a challenge before the last injection and 2 weeks after, in comparison to pre-treatment levels. Twenty weeks after therapy, the SI decreased to baseline level. A vaccine challenge without MPL gave lower SI levels. A challenge of a clinically inappropriate tree allergoid vaccine gave no response, and a nontreated group also showed no response. Following a short-course SIT adjuvated with MPL, challenges of allergoids were shown to activate allergen-specific T cells in vitro. There was an additional stimulating effect when the challenge was in combination with MPL. There were no non-specific effects of MPL, shown by the tree allergoid/MPL control. The timing of the response was closely correlated to the

  17. Cow’s milk protein allergy in infants

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Deirdre

    2016-05-01

    Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in early childhood in the developed world next to egg allergy. The prevalence is estimated at three to seven per cent, with a resolution rate of 80 to 90 per cent at six years. Accurate diagnosis rests on a good clear allergy focused history.

  18. Going Nuts over Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Some 600,000 children in the US are allergic to peanuts. Of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% cite increased food-allergic students in the past five years. Peanut allergy doubled in children from 1997 to 2002, and yet peanuts are only one of six foods most often causing allergic reactions in children, including milk, eggs, wheat, soy, and tree…

  19. Dealing with food allergies in babies and children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joneja, Janice M. Vickerstaff

    2007-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 CHAPTER 14 CornAllergy ...243 CHAPTER 15 SeafoodAllergy ...253 CHAPTER 16 The Top Ten Allergens: Avoidance of Milk, Egg, Wheat, Corn, Peanuts, Soy, Tree Nuts...

  20. Comparison of reactivity to a metallic disc and 2% aluminium salt in 366 children, and reproducibility over time for 241 young adults with childhood vaccine-related aluminium contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gente Lidholm, Anette; Inerot, Annica; Gillstedt, Martin; Bergfors, Elisabet; Trollfors, Birger

    2018-07-01

    An aluminium hydroxide-adsorbed pertussis toxoid vaccine was studied in 76 000 children in the 1990s in Gothenburg, Sweden. Long-lasting itchy subcutaneous nodules at the vaccination site were seen in 745 participants. Of 495 children with itchy nodules who were patch tested for aluminium allergy, 377 were positive. In 2007-2008, 241 of the positive children were retested. Only in one third were earlier positive results reproduced. To further describe patch test reactions to different aluminium compounds in children with vaccine-induced aluminium allergy. Positive patch test results for metallic aluminium (empty Finn Chamber) and aluminium chloride hexahydrate 2% petrolatum (pet.) were analysed in 366 children with vaccine-induced persistent itching nodules tested in 1998-2002. Of those, 241 were tested a second time (2007-2008), and the patch test results of the two aluminium preparations were analysed. Patch testing with aluminium chloride hexahydrate 2% pet. is a more sensitive way to diagnose aluminium contact allergy than patch testing with metallic aluminium. A general decrease in the strength of reactions to both aluminium preparations in 241 children tested twice was observed. Aluminium contact allergy can be diagnosed by patch testing without using metallic aluminium. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  2. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun allergy Overview Sun allergy is a term often used to describe a number of conditions in which an itchy red rash occurs on skin that has been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is ...

  3. Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  4. Cockroach Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Allergist Search Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Cockroach Allergy Cockroaches are insects that live in many locations ... other children with asthma. What Is a Cockroach Allergy? Cockroaches contain a protein that is an allergen ...

  5. Latex Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  6. Mold Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma and allergies. Find certified asthma & allergy friendly® products on our certification program website or download our app on the App Store or Google Play . Medical Review October 2015. Types of Allergies Drug ... Allergy Certified Products Look for this mark to find products proven ...

  7. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  8. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Shellfish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Shellfish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al marisco About Shellfish Allergy A shellfish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  9. Drop of egg production in chickens by experimental infection with an avian metapneumovirus strain PLE8T1 derived from swollen head syndrome and the application to evaluate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Miki; Koimaru, Hiroyuki; Shiba, Masahiro; Ono, Eriko; Nagata, Tadashi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2006-08-01

    Decreases in egg production and increased incidence of abnormal eggs due to malformation of egg shells were observed in specific pathogen free (SPF) 173-day-old laying hens inoculated intravenously with an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) strain PLE8T1. This strain was derived from an isolate from broiler birds exhibiting swollen head syndrome (SHS). Some SPF birds inoculated with the virus showed, slight diarrhea without any respiratory symptoms. Thus, the PLE8T1 strain was used as a challenge virus to evaluate efficacy of aMPV vaccines. SPF chickens which received a live attenuated aMPV vaccine (NEMOVAC; Merial) at 7 or 77 days old and an inactivated aMPV vaccine (OVO-4; Merial) at 105 days old were protected against poor egg production caused by the challenge with the PLE8T1 strain. Thus, aMPV, the PLE8T1 strain passaged 22 times after isolation, from birds exhibiting SHS, could induce a drop in egg production in laying hens accompanied by malformation of egg shells. It was suggested that this challenge system could be applied to evaluate the efficacy of aMPV vaccine.

  10. Peanut allergy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2011-04-01

    Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.

  11. The Natural History of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert

    2016-01-01

    On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  13. Primary Prevention of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew J; Fleischer, David M

    2017-04-01

    Food allergy is estimated to affect approximately 8% of children in the USA. This is a disease without any known treatment or cure and, for some, a disease that can be quite severe, even life-threatening. While recent advances in potential treatment have made remarkable strides, with two food-targeted immunotherapy products now in phase III trials, perhaps the biggest gains in the field have come in the advent of potential preventative strategies to avoid the development of food allergy in high-risk individuals. There have been multiple, randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) performed in the past 5 years that have demonstrated significant risk reduction from early allergen introduction. These include two trials for early peanut introduction and five trials for early egg introduction in the first year of life. The results indicate that primary prevention of food allergy through early allergen introduction may represent a strategy that could potentially avert tens of thousands of children from becoming food allergic. In support of the data for peanut, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently sponsored an addendum to the 2010 food allergy guidelines, specifically recommending peanut be introduced in both high- and standard-risk infants to reduce the risk of developing peanut allergy. To date, no formal recommendations have been made for egg, however. This review will focus on the latest evidence supporting early introduction as a strategy to prevent food allergy, as well as on practical aspects for its successful implementation.

  14. Drug Allergy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Immunology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Ain Shams University, Cairo ... the case with food allergies).7,8 The parentral route ..... molecular-weight agents. ... and lack positive controls. ..... Immunology; Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma and.

  15. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1,3-galactose, a carbohydrate found on mammalian meat, and is associated with being bitten by the ... home. Treating Food Allergies There is currently no cure for food allergy, but there are many promising ...

  16. Allergies - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to treat food allergies because of the danger of a severe reaction. Allergy shots may need ... allergic or immunologic disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  17. Penicillin Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seizures Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from penicillin allergy Less-common penicillin allergy reactions occur days ... immune system to create an antibody to it. Penicillins and related drugs Penicillins belong to a class ...

  18. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... questions about the food you are served. When buying food, read package ingredients carefully. ... allergies in breastfed or other children to prevent future food allergies. Always discuss this with your child's ...

  19. Soy Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many foods, such as meat products, bakery goods, chocolate and breakfast cereals, may contain soy. Symptoms For ... greater risk of developing a soy allergy: Family history. You're at increased risk of allergy to ...

  20. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  1. Allergy Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to face one of the season’s biggest problems: tree pollen . Common symptoms of springtime allergies include: Runny nose Itchy eyes Sneezing Congestion “Our Spring Allergy Capitals report is a valuable tool to help identify cities where seasonal allergy symptoms can create challenges,” ...

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to a notification from the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV) on ovalbumin/egg white to be used in the manufacture of wine as clarification processing aids pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion related to a notification from the International Organisation of Vine and Wine on ovalbumin/egg white to be used in the manufacture of wine...... following double-blind placebo controlled food challenges with wines fined with ovalbumin/egg white. This application refers to new analytical methods developed for the detection of egg allergens in the fining agent and the detection of ovalbumin in wine. There were no changes in the wine manufacturing...... process and no new clinical studies were provided. Taking into account the information provided on the characterisation of the fining agents regarding their content of egg proteins other than ovalbumin, the lack of standardisation of the wine manufacturing process, and that no new clinical data have been...

  3. Comparison of egg and high yielding MDCK cell-derived live attenuated influenza virus for commercial production of trivalent influenza vaccine: in vitro cell susceptibility and influenza virus replication kinetics in permissive and semi-permissive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Althaf I; Cordeiro, Melissa; Sevilla, Elizabeth; Liu, Jonathan

    2010-05-14

    Currently MedImmune manufactures cold-adapted (ca) live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Difficulties in production scale-up and potential exposure of chicken flocks to avian influenza viruses especially in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak have prompted evaluation and development of alternative non-egg based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies. As part of MedImmune's effort to develop the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using cell culture production technologies we have investigated the use of high yielding, cloned MDCK cells as a substrate for vaccine production by assessing host range and virus replication of influenza virus produced from both SPF egg and MDCK cell production technologies. In addition to cloned MDCK cells the indicator cell lines used to evaluate the impact of producing LAIV in cells on host range and replication included two human cell lines: human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and human muco-epidermoid bronchiolar carcinoma (NCI H292) cells. The influenza viruses used to infect the indicators cell lines represented both the egg and cell culture manufacturing processes and included virus strains that composed the 2006-2007 influenza seasonal trivalent vaccine (A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/04). Results from this study demonstrate remarkable similarity between influenza viruses representing the current commercial egg produced and developmental MDCK cell produced vaccine production platforms. MedImmune's high yielding cloned MDCK cells used for the cell culture based vaccine production were highly permissive to both egg and cell produced ca attenuated influenza viruses. Both the A549 and NCI H292 cells regardless of production system were less permissive to influenza A and B viruses than the MDCK cells. Irrespective of the indicator cell line used the replication properties were similar between egg and the cell produced

  4. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  5. Quality Properties of Cakes Containing Gamma-Irradiated Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Seo, J.H.; Ahn, H.J; Byun, M.W; Kim, Y.H.; Choi, J.M.; Yook, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    As a research on the practical approaches of gamma irradiation for the reduction of egg allergy, cakes including gamma-irradiated egg white were manufactured, and rheological characteristics and sensory qualities of the cakes were evaluated. Egg white was separated from whole egg and then gamma-irradiated with the absorbed dose of 10 or 20 kGy

  6. Pet Allergy Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Pet Allergy ▸ Pet Allergy Quiz Share | Pet Allergy Quiz More than half of U.S. households ... cat family. Yet, millions of people suffer from pet allergies. Take this quiz to test your knowledge ...

  7. Food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Exploring Current and Novel Methods for the Detection and Diagnosis of Food Allergy: the Clinical Approach * Adriano Mari and Enrico Scala...

  8. Severe forms of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinho, Emanuel; Lins, Maria das Graças Moura

    To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Search in the Medline database using the terms "severe food allergy," "anaphylaxis and food allergy," "generalized urticaria and food allergy," and "food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome" in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Early life innate immune signatures of persistent food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeland, Melanie R; Koplin, Jennifer J; Dang, Thanh D; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L; Prescott, Susan L; Saffery, Richard; Martino, David J; Allen, Katrina J

    2017-11-14

    Food allergy naturally resolves in a proportion of food-allergic children without intervention; however the underlying mechanisms governing the persistence or resolution of food allergy in childhood are not understood. This study aimed to define the innate immune profiles associated with egg allergy at age 1 year, determine the phenotypic changes that occur with the development of natural tolerance in childhood, and explore the relationship between early life innate immune function and serum vitamin D. This study used longitudinally collected PBMC samples from a population-based cohort of challenge-confirmed egg-allergic infants with either persistent or transient egg allergy outcomes in childhood to phenotype and quantify the functional innate immune response associated with clinical phenotypes of egg allergy. We show that infants with persistent egg allergy exhibit a unique innate immune signature, characterized by increased numbers of circulating monocytes and dendritic cells that produce more inflammatory cytokines both at baseline and following endotoxin exposure when compared with infants with transient egg allergy. Follow-up analysis revealed that this unique innate immune signature continues into childhood in those with persistent egg allergy and that increased serum vitamin D levels correlate with changes in innate immune profiles observed in children who developed natural tolerance to egg. Early life innate immune dysfunction may represent a key immunological driver and predictor of persistent food allergy in childhood. Serum vitamin D may play an immune-modulatory role in the development of natural tolerance. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Beryllium allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenherr, S.; Pevny, I.

    1989-12-01

    Beryllium is not only a high potent allergen, but also a fotoallergen and can provoke contact allergic reactions, fotoallergic reactions, granulomatous skin reactions, pulmonary granulomatous diseases and sometimes even systemic diseases. The authors present 9 own cases of a patch test positive beryllium allergy, 7 patients with relevant allergy and 5 patients with an allergic contact stomatitis. (author)

  11. Hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortolani, Claudio; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup

    2000-01-01

    Background: Tree nuts are a common cause of food allergy in Europe. However, few studies deal with real food allergy to hazelnuts in subjects believed to be allergic to this food. Objective: We sought to select subjects with a history of allergic reactions on ingestion of hazelnut and determine how...... many of these have true allergy by means of the double-blind, placebo- controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Methods: Eighty-six subjects with a history of symptoms after hazelnut ingestion were recruited from 3 allergy centers (Milan, Zurich, and Copenhagen). All subjects underwent skin prick tests...... (SPTs) with aeroallergens and hazelnut, as well as having their specific hazelnut IgE levels determined. Diagnosis of clinical relevant food allergy was made on the basis of the DBPCFC. Results: Sixty-seven (77.9%) of 86 subjects had a positive DBPCFC result; 8 were placebo responders, and 11 were...

  12. Food allergy in Singapore: opening a new chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi

    2014-01-01

    With the exception of shellfish, the overall food allergy rates in Singapore have not reached the epidemic proportions of the West. The rates of egg, milk and fish allergies remain low. However, the patterns of some food allergies in Singapore have changed over the last decade. For example, peanut allergy, once rare in Singapore, is now the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children. Studies analysing lifestyle practices, particularly with respect to prevention of food allergy, are necessary in order for practitioners to understand global differences and maintain this low prevalence. PMID:24862746

  13. IgA attenuates anaphylaxis and subsequent immune responses in mice: possible application of IgA to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Kouya; Nakashima, Takayuki; Miyatake, Kenji; Ishibashi, Yuki; Ito, Ayaka; Kuranishi, Ayu; Taguchi, Akihito; Morioka, Ayumi; Yamamoto, Midori; Yoshino, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Administration of the influenza vaccination to patients with an egg allergy is major health concern. Contaminating egg antigens occasionally induce severe anaphylactic shock in these patients following administration of the vaccination; therefore, the development of a safer vaccination is needed. In the present study, we investigated whether a mixture of four newly and previously generated anti-ovalbumin (OVA) IgA monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could inhibit both anaphylactic shock upon a subcutaneous OVA challenge and subsequent further sensitization against OVA in passively anti-OVA IgE-sensitized mice and actively sensitized mice with an injection of OVA. The prevention of anaphylaxis by anti-OVA IgA mAbs was suggested to be mediated through the inhibition of OVA binding to allergenic antibodies such as anti-OVA IgE on mast cells and deceleration of the rate of OVA penetration from the injected site into the systemic circulation. Anti-OVA IgA mAbs inhibited further sensitization against OVA in mice actively sensitized with OVA, but did not affect sensitization against the unrelated antigen, phosphorylcholine-keyhole limpet hemocyanin co-injected with OVA. Our findings indicate that adding the anti-egg antigen IgA to the influenza vaccine should reduce not only the risk of inducing anaphylactic shock, but also undesired further sensitization against egg antigens following the vaccination without affecting the intended beneficial effect of the vaccine, namely the upregulation of immune responses to influenza viruses.

  14. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The first time ...

  15. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contain blood Abdominal cramps Runny nose Watery eyes Colic, in babies Milk allergy or milk intolerance? A ... fat milk, skim milk, buttermilk Butter Yogurt Ice cream, gelato Cheese and anything that contains cheese Half- ...

  16. Food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Waserman Susan; Watson Wade

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnost...

  17. Allergies and Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient ... life more enjoyable. Why does the body develop allergies? Allergy symptoms appear when the immune system reacts ...

  18. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print ... son la causa del asma? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But kids who ...

  19. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... risk for adverse reactions to medications. Facts about Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. ...

  20. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Allergy Shots KidsHealth / For Parents / Allergy Shots What's in ... to help a child deal with them. Why Allergy Shots Are Used An allergy occurs when the ...

  1. [VACCINES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs.

  2. Allergy, living and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R

    2012-01-01

    Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....

  3. The prevalence of food allergy: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin; Gislason, David; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Sodergren, Eva; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T.; Lindner, Titia; Goldhahn, Klaus; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; McBride, Doreen; Madsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish, and an overall estimate of food

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to a notification from the Oenological Products and Practices International Association (OENOPPIA) on lysozyme from hen‟s egg to be used in the manufacture of wine as an anti-microbial stabilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion related to a notification from the Oenological Products and Practices International Association (OENOPPIA) on lysozyme from hen‟s egg used in t...... reactions in susceptible individuals under the conditions of use proposed by the applicant. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011...... in the manufacture of wine as an anti-microbial stabilizer/additive pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC – for permanent exemption from labelling. Allergic sensitisation against lysozyme is common among egg allergic individuals. In winemaking, lysozyme is used for the control of lactic acid...... individuals have been demonstrated in wines treated with lysozyme, and a number of clinical reports (including one double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge with lysozyme) described clinical allergic reactions to lysozyme. The Panel concludes that wines treated with lysozyme may trigger adverse allergic...

  5. Chromium allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M B; Johansen, J D; Menné, Torkil

    2003-01-01

    Most studies investigating chromium allergy have been performed with Cr(VI). However, real exposure to chromium from leather products includes both Cr(III) and Cr(VI). We have determined and compared the minimum elicitation threshold (MET) concentration for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in Cr(VI)-sensitive ......Most studies investigating chromium allergy have been performed with Cr(VI). However, real exposure to chromium from leather products includes both Cr(III) and Cr(VI). We have determined and compared the minimum elicitation threshold (MET) concentration for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in Cr......(III) was concluded to play an important role in chromium allergy, because Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were both capable of eliciting eczema at low concentrations. Rather than regarding chromium dermatitis as a result of Cr(VI) allergy alone, it may be more correct to consider it as a result of a combined Cr(III) and Cr......(VI) allergy....

  6. Insect (food) allergy and allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Steffie; Verhoeckx, Kitty

    2018-05-03

    readily available, giving opportunities for future research on diagnostic allergy tests and vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cloning of the genome of a goose parvovirus vaccine strain SYG61v and rescue of infectious virions from recombinant plasmid in embryonated goose eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Duan, Jinkun; Meng, Xia; Gong, Jiansen; Jiang, Zhiwei; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2014-05-01

    The SYG61v is an attenuated goose parvovirus (GPV) that has been used as a vaccine strain in China. The genome of SYG61v was sequenced to attempt to identify the genetic basis for the attenuation of this strain. The entire genome consists of 5102 nucleotides (nts), with four nt deletions compared to that of virulent strain B. The inverted terminal repeats (ITR) are 442 nts in length, of which 360 nts form a stem region, and 43 nts constitute the bubble region. Although mutations were observed throughout the ITR, no mismatch was found in the stem. Alignment with other pathogenic GPV strains (B, 82-0321, 06-0329, and YZ99-5) indicated that there are 10 and 11 amino acid mutations in the Rep1 and VP1 proteins of SYG61v, respectively. The complete genome of SYG61v was cloned into the pBluescript II vector and an infectious plasmid pSYG61v was generated. Infectious progeny virus was successfully rescued through transfection of the plasmid pSYG61v in embryonated goose eggs and yielded viral titers similar to its parental virus, as evaluated by ELD50. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of nickel allergy varies between different population groups. Exposure regulation has proven effective in decreasing the frequency. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a significant relation between patch test reactivity and repeated open application test...... in a patch test and a dilution series of three concentrations in a ROAT, with duration of up to 21 days. Eighteen persons with no nickel allergy were included as control group for the ROAT. RESULTS: The predicted dose which will elicit a reaction in 10% of allergic individuals was calculated to be 0......-response; indeed, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of nickel allergy the elicitation threshold for the patch test is higher than the elicitation threshold (per application) for the ROAT, but is approximately the same as the accumulated elicitation threshold...

  9. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Data sources: Search in the Medline database using the terms “severe food allergy,” “anaphylaxis and food allergy,” “generalized urticaria and food allergy,” and “food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome” in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Summary of data: Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    Discussed in this paper is the prevalence of allergy and intolerance to foods in Europe. Prevalence of allergy to food additives is not included. A fully reliable estimate of the prevalence of food allergy/intolerance does not exist. Prevalence changes with age, as does the relative importance...... of the most common food allergens. The cumulative prevalence of allergy and intolerance to cow's milk during the first year of life is approximately 2%. The total prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in children is not as well documented. In 18-month-old infants the Danish estimate is 6.5%. The high...... prevalence of peanut allergy (0.5%) in British children is not reflected in the results from other European countries. Milk, egg, fish and oranges seem to be the most common causes of allergy and intolerance in European infants and children. Results from epidemiological studies combined with the knowledge...

  11. Clinical spectrum of food allergies: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Marco H-K; Wong, Wilfred H-S; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immune response towards food proteins or as a form of a food intolerance associated with a hypersensitive immune response. It should also be reproducible by a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Many reported that food reactions are not allergic but are intolerances. Food allergy often presents to clinicians as a symptom complex. This review focuses on the clinical spectrum and manifestations of various forms of food allergies. According to clinical presentations and allergy testing, there are three types of food allergy: IgE mediated, mixed (IgE/Non-IgE), and non-IgE mediated (cellular, delayed type hypersensitivity). Recent advances in food allergy in early childhood have highlighted increasing recognition of a spectrum of delayed-onset non-IgE-mediated manifestation of food allergy. Common presentations of food allergy in infancy including atopic eczema, infantile colic, and gastroesophageal reflux. These clinical observations are frequently associated with food hypersensitivity and respond to dietary elimination. Non-IgE-mediated food allergy includes a wide range of diseases, from atopic dermatitis to food protein-induced enterocolitis and from eosinophilic esophagitis to celiac disease. The most common food allergies in children include milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, treenut, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergies are usually outgrown, but peanut and treenut allergy tends to persist. The prevalence of food allergy in infancy is increasing and may affect up to 15-20 % of infants. The alarming rate of increase calls for a public health approach in the prevention and treatment of food allergy in children.

  12. Shape of Key Malaria Protein Could Help Improve Vaccine Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Featured Diseases & Conditions Food Allergy HIV/AIDS Influenza Malaria Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Tuberculosis Zika Virus Find ... To Volunteer for Vaccine Research Studies Volunteer for Malaria Vaccine Research Volunteer Profiles Q&A: Vaccine Clinical ...

  13. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C G; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is associated with increased levels of allergen-specific IgG in serum. However, it is not clear to what extent qualitative changes in the allergen binding capacity of IgG may be induced as well....

  14. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  15. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) is a preservative, which was approved for use in cosmetics in the mid-1980s. The incidence of allergy to MDBGN rose during the 1990s, but is now decreasing due to regulatory intervention. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a signif......BACKGROUND: Methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) is a preservative, which was approved for use in cosmetics in the mid-1980s. The incidence of allergy to MDBGN rose during the 1990s, but is now decreasing due to regulatory intervention. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown...... to MDBGN were tested with a dilution series of MDBGN in a patch test and a ROAT (duration up to 21 days). Seventeen people with no MDBGN allergy were included as a control group for the ROAT. RESULTS: The response frequency for the ROAT (in microg MDBGN cm(-2) per application) was significantly higher than...... the response frequency for the patch test, while the response frequency for the accumulated ROAT dose, at 1, 2 and 3 weeks was very similar to the patch test response frequency; indeed there was no statistical significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of MDBGN allergy the response frequency...

  16. Spice allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James L; Bahna, Sami L

    2011-09-01

    To provide a review on spice allergy and its implementation in clinical practice. PubMed searches were performed using spice allergy as the keyword for original and review articles. Selected references were also procured from the reviewed articles' references list. Articles were selected based on their relevance to the topic. Spices are available in a large variety and are widely used, often as blends. Spice allergy seems to be rare, reportedly affecting between 4 and 13 of 10,000 adults and occurring more often in women because of cosmetic use. No figures were available on children. Most spice allergens are degraded by digestion; therefore, IgE sensitization is mostly through inhalation of cross-reacting pollens, particularly mugwort and birch. The symptoms are more likely to be respiratory when exposure is by inhalation and cutaneous if by contact. Studies on skin testing and specific IgE assays are limited and showed low reliability. The diagnosis primarily depends on a good history taking and confirmation with oral challenge. The common use of spice blends makes identifying the particular offending component difficult, particularly because their components are inconsistent. Spices are widely used and contain multiple allergens, yet spice allergy is probably markedly underdiagnosed. There is a need for reliable skin testing extracts and serum specific IgE assays. Currently, the diagnosis depends on a good history taking and well-designed titrated challenge testing. Until immunotherapy becomes developed, treatment is strict avoidance, which may be difficult because of incomplete or vague labeling. Copyright © 2011 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What Principals Should Know About Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Describes what principals should know about recent research findings on food allergies (peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat) that can produce severe or life-threatening reactions in children. Asserts that every school should have trained staff and written procedures for reacting quickly to allergic reactions. (PKP)

  18. Soy Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... federal law. Download our resource on how to identify soy ingredients on food labels. Avoid foods that ...

  19. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... federal law. Download our resource on how to identify wheat on food labels. Avoid foods that contain ...

  20. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... federal law. Download this resource about how to identify shellfish on food labels. Avoid foods that contain ...

  1. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a retrospective ...

  2. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a ...

  3. [Diagnostics and management of food allergies in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Spiesz, Karin; Huttegger, Isidor

    2015-09-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies is increasing with large regional variability. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (cow`s milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Food reactions can be categorized in IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves mainly strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of patch test in children with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan Sozmen, Sule; Povesi Dascola, Carlotta; Gioia, Edoardo; Mastrorilli, Carla; Rizzuti, Laura; Caffarelli, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    The gold standard test for confirming whether a child has clinical hypersensitivity reactions to foods is the oral food challenge. Therefore, there is increasing interest in simpler diagnostic markers of food allergy, especially in children, to avoid oral food challenge. The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of atopy patch test in comparison with oral food challenge. We investigated 243 children (mean age, 51 months) referred for evaluation of suspected egg or cow's milk allergy. Skin prick test and atopy patch test were carried out, and after a 2 weeks elimination diet, oral food challenge was performed. Two hundred and forty-three children underwent OFC to the suspected food. We found clinically relevant food allergies in 40 (65%) children to egg and in 22 (35%) to cow's milk. The sensitivity of skin prick test for both milk and egg was 92%, specificity 91%, positive predictive value 35%, and negative predictive value of 93%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of atopy patch test for both milk and egg were 21%, 73%, 20%, and 74%, respectively. Our study suggests that there is insufficient evidence for the routine use of atopy patch test for the evaluation of egg and cow's milk allergy. OFC remains gold standard for the diagnosis of egg and milk allergy even in the presence of high costs in terms of both time and risks during application. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Fish allergy in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Cristina Y; Reche, Marta; Fiandor, Ana; Valbuena, Teresa; Cuevas, Teresa; Esteban, Manuel Martin

    2008-11-01

    Fish and its derived products play an important role in human nutrition, but they may also be a potent food allergen. Fish can be an ingested, contact, and inhalant allergen. Gad c I, a Parvalbumin, the major allergen in codfish, is considered as fish and amphibian pan-allergen. Prevalence of fish allergy appears to depend on the amount of fish eaten in the local diet. In Europe, the highest consumption occurs in Scandinavian countries, Spain and Portugal. In Spain, fish is the third most frequent allergen in children under 2 yr of age after egg and cow's milk. An adverse reaction to fish may be of non-allergic origin, due to food contamination or newly formed toxic products, but the most frequent type of adverse reactions to fish are immunologic-mediated reactions (allergic reactions). Such allergic reactions may be both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated. Most cases are IgE-mediated, due to ingestion or contact with fish or as a result of inhalation of cooking vapors. Some children develop non-IgE-mediated type allergies such as food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome. The clinical symptoms related to IgE-mediated fish allergy are most frequently acute urticaria and angioedema as well as mild oral symptoms, worsening of atopic dermatitis, respiratory symptoms such as rhinitis or asthma, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. Anaphylaxis may also occur. Among all the species studied, those from the Tunidae and Xiphiidae families appear to be the least allergenic.

  6. Understanding Food Allergies: How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe March 2017 Print this issue Understanding Food Allergies How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More En ... Allergy Therapy Seeking Allergy Relief Wise Choices Food Allergy Symptoms Pay attention to how you feel after ...

  7. Learning about Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Allergies What's in ... in the spring. Why Do Some Kids Get Allergies? People may be born with a genetic (say: ...

  8. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  9. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth / For Kids / Nut and Peanut Allergy What's ... getting worse. How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  10. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  11. Epidemiological Studies to Support the Development of Next Generation Influenza Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Joshua G; Gordon, Aubree

    2018-03-26

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently published a strategic plan for the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This plan focuses on improving understanding of influenza infection, the development of influenza immunity, and rational design of new vaccines. Epidemiological studies such as prospective, longitudinal cohort studies are essential to the completion of these objectives. In this review, we discuss the contributions of epidemiological studies to our current knowledge of vaccines and correlates of immunity, and how they can contribute to the development and evaluation of the next generation of influenza vaccines. These studies have been critical in monitoring the effectiveness of current influenza vaccines, identifying issues such as low vaccine effectiveness, reduced effectiveness among those who receive repeated vaccination, and issues related to egg adaptation during the manufacturing process. Epidemiological studies have also identified population-level correlates of protection that can inform the design and development of next generation influenza vaccines. Going forward, there is an enduring need for epidemiological studies to continue advancing knowledge of correlates of protection and the development of immunity, to evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of next generation influenza vaccines, and to inform recommendations for their use.

  12. All About Allergy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  13. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  14. Allergy-Friendly Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  15. Asthma, Allergies and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  16. Food-cooking processes modulate allergenic properties of hen's egg white proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Feng, Bai-Sui; Kong, Xiaoli; Xu, Hong; Li, Xiumin; Yang, Ping-Chang; Liu, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the allergenicity of food allergens can suppress the clinical symptoms of food allergy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of processing on the allergenic properties of hen's egg white proteins. Eggs were processed by traditional Chinese cooking, including steaming, water boiling, frying, spicing and tea boiling. The contents of processed egg protein were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; the allergenicity was evaluated by Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme allergosorbent test inhibition. Circular dichroism spectrum analysis of four major egg allergens from various egg products was performed as well. A mouse model of food allergy was developed to test the allergenicity of processed egg protein in vivo. Protein degradation was significant following tea boiling and spiced-tea boiling. The total allergenic potential of water-boiled egg and fried egg was relatively higher than that of steamed egg, spiced egg and tea-boiled egg. Challenge with proteins from raw egg, water-boiled egg and fried egg induced skewed T-helper 2 pattern responses (Th2 responses) in the intestine of mice sensitized to egg proteins; however, when the mice sensitized to egg proteins were challenged with proteins from steamed egg, spiced egg and tea-boiled egg, respectively, only weak Th2 responses were induced in their intestine. Processing by steaming, spicing, or tea boiling can weaken the allergenicity of egg proteins. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Se-Young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kwak, Tong-Kyoung; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P label, and addition of potential allergens) were necessary for an improved food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers.

  18. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Se-young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-earn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. RESULTS The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. CONCLUSIONS An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers. PMID:26425282

  19. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaru, B I; Hickstein, L; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    Allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish constitutes the majority of food allergy reactions, but reliable estimates of their prevalence are lacking. This systematic review aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of their prevalence in Europe.Studies published...... synthesis and 42 studies in the meta-analyses. Although there were significant heterogeneity between the studies, the overall pooled estimates for all age groups of self-reported lifetime prevalence of allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish were 6.0% (95% confidence...... interval: 5.7-6.4), 2.5% (2.3-2.7), 3.6% (3.0-4.2), 0.4% (0.3-0.6), 1.3% (1.2-1.5), 2.2% (1.8-2.5), and 1.3% (0.9-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of food-challenge-defined allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish was 0.6% (0.5-0.8), 0.2% (0.2-0.3), 0.1% (0...

  20. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  1. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  2. Protective effect of the DNA vaccine encoding the major house dust mite allergens on allergic inflammation in the murine model of house dust mite allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jaechun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination with naked DNA encoding antigen induces cellular and humoral immunity characterized by the activation of specific Th1 cells. Objective To evaluate the effects of vaccination with mixed naked DNA plasmids encoding Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 3, Der f 1, Der f 2, and Der f 3, the major house dust mite allergens on the allergic inflammation to the whole house dust mites (HDM crude extract. Methods Three hundred micrograms of these gene mixtures were injected into muscle of BALB/c mice. Control mice were injected with the pcDNA 3.1 blank vector. After 3 weeks, the mice were actively sensitized and inhaled with the whole house dust mite extract intranasally. Results The vaccinated mice showed a significantly decreased synthesis of total and HDM-specific IgE compared with controls. Analysis of the cytokine profile of lymphocytes after challenge with HDM crude extract revealed that mRNA expression of interferon-γ was higher in the vaccinated mice than in the controls. Reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and the prominent infiltration of CD8+ T cells were observed in histology of lung tissue from the vaccinated mice. Conclusion Vaccination with DNA encoding the major house dust mite allergens provides a promising approach for treating allergic responses to whole house dust mite allergens.

  3. Next generation immunotherapy for tree pollen allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Romeu-Bonilla, Eliezer; Heiland, Teri

    2017-10-03

    Tree pollen induced allergies are one of the major medical and public health burdens in the industrialized world. Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy (AIT) through subcutaneous injection or sublingual delivery is the only approved therapy with curative potential to pollen induced allergies. AIT often is associated with severe side effects and requires long-term treatment. Safer, more effective and convenient allergen specific immunotherapies remain an unmet need. In this review article, we discuss the current progress in applying protein and peptide-based approaches and DNA vaccines to the clinical challenges posed by tree pollen allergies through the lens of preclinical animal models and clinical trials, with an emphasis on the birch and Japanese red cedar pollen induced allergies.

  4. The chicken or the egg? Exploring bi-directional associations between Newcastle disease vaccination and village chicken flock size in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia de Bruyn

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators". This article evaluates the uptake and outcomes of fee-for-service ND vaccination programs in eight rural villages in the semi-arid central zone of Tanzania. It represents part of an interdisciplinary program seeking to address chronic undernutrition in children through improvements to existing poultry and crop systems. Newcastle disease vaccination uptake was found to vary substantially across communities and seasons, with a significantly higher level of vaccination amongst households participating in a longitudinal study of children's growth compared with non-participating households (p = 0.009. Two multivariable model analyses were used to explore associations between vaccination and chicken numbers, allowing for clustered data and socioeconomic and cultural variation amongst the population. Results demonstrated that both (a households that undertook ND vaccination had a significantly larger chicken flock size in the period between that vaccination campaign and the next compared with those that did not vaccinate (p = 0.018; and (b households with larger chicken flocks at the time of vaccination were significantly more likely to participate in vaccination programs (p < 0.001. Additionally, households vaccinating in all three vaccination campaigns held over 12 months were identified to have significantly larger chicken flocks at the end of this period (p < 0.001. Opportunities to

  5. Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine (MenB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are meningococcal group B vaccines?Two serogroup B meningococcal group B vaccines (Bexsero and Trumenba) have been licensed by the Food and Drug ... Who should not get meningococcal group B vaccine or should wait?Tell the person ... you the vaccine:If you have any severe, life-threatening allergies. ...

  6. Inactivated yellow fever 17D vaccine: development and nonclinical safety, immunogenicity and protective activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P; Lee, Cynthia K; Julander, Justin G; Brown, Alicja; Beasley, David W; Watts, Douglas M; Hayman, Edward; Guertin, Patrick; Makowiecki, Joseph; Crowell, Joseph; Levesque, Philip; Bowick, Gavin C; Morin, Merribeth; Fowler, Elizabeth; Trent, Dennis W

    2010-05-14

    In the last 10 years new concerns have arisen about safety of the live, attenuated yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine, in particular viscerotropic adverse events, which have a case-fatality rate of 64%. A non-replicating cell culture-based vaccine would not cause these adverse events, and potentially could be used in persons with precautions or contraindications to use of the live vaccine, including age 60 years, egg allergy, immune suppression, and pregnancy. We developed a whole virion vaccine from the 17D strain inactivated with beta-propiolactone, and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The inactivated vaccine was highly immunogenic in mice, hamsters, and cynomolgus macaques. After a single dose in hamsters and macaques, neutralizing antibody titers were similar to those elicited by the live 17D vaccine (YF-VAX, Sanofi Pasteur). After two doses of inactivated vaccine, neutralizing antibody titers in hamsters were significantly higher than after a single dose of YF-VAX [geometric mean titer (GMT) 20,480 vs. 1940, respectively (Pvaccine or a single dose of YF-VAX were fully protected against hepatitis, viremia, weight loss and death after challenge with YF virus (Jimenez strain). A clinical trial of the inactivated vaccine (XRX-001) has been initiated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. FOOD ALLERGY IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Balabolkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the etiology, growth mechanisms, clinical implications, diagnostics and treatment of the infant food allergy. The author highlights the status of the allergy to the proteins of cow milk within this age group of children. Alongside the article describes the modern approaches to the diet therapy of the infants with the allergy to the proteins of cow milk.Key words: infant, food allergy, allergy to the proteins of cow milk, diet therapy.

  8. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas...... that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention...

  9. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  10. Inhalant allergies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality of life in childhood, adolescence and adult food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, A; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Nielsen, D

    2017-01-01

    completed by 73 children, 49 adolescents and 29 adults with peanut, hazelnut or egg allergy. Parents (197 mothers, 120 fathers) assessed their child's HRQL using the FAQLQ-Parent form. Clinical data and threshold values were obtained from a hospital database. Significant factors for HRQL were investigated...... using univariate and multivariate regression. RESULTS: Female patients reported greater impact of food allergy on HRQL than males did. Egg and hazelnut thresholds did not affect HRQL, but lower peanut threshold was associated with worse HRQL. Both parents scored their child's HRQL better than the child...

  12. Diagnosis, management, and investigational therapies for food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Mike; Wright, Benjamin L; Jones, Stacie M; Burks, A Wesley

    2015-05-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods-2 major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The prevalence of food allergy: A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. Objective: To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. Methods: The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish....... The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. Results: A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared...

  14. An evaluation of the diagnostic value of different skin tests with egg in clinically egg-allergic children having atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine K; Høst, Arne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Skin testing is a common diagnostic procedure in food allergy, but the final diagnosis of food allergy is based on the clinical response to food challenge. We studied the value of the skin prick-prick test (SPT), skin application food test (SAFT) and atopy patch test (APT) with fresh egg extract......-allergic children were positive in SPT and 40-60% in APT. In APT and in SPT false-positive reactions to egg were observed. In this study comprising a small number of patients including control subjects, neither SAFT nor APT with fresh whole egg extract were able to increase the diagnostic accuracy in detecting egg...

  15. Socio-Cultural Matrix of Raising a Child with Food Allergies: Experiences of a Migrant Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2004-01-01

    Children with life-threatening food allergies are increasing in number in Australia. A variety of foods such as dairy milk, peanut and tree nuts, fish and egg can cause severe allergic reactions in some children. The foods that cause allergies could trigger severe breathing difficulties (anaphylaxis) for these children and, if not treated…

  16. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nwaru, B. I.; Hickstein, L.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Muraro, A.; Sheikh, A.; Halken, Susanne; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Worm, Margitta; Beyer, Kirsten; Dubois, Anthony; Eigenmann, Philippe; van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars; Cardona, Vicky; Agache, Ioana; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Akdis, Cezmi; DuToit, George; Monserrat, Fernandez Rivas; Høst, Arne; Knol, Edward; Lack, Gideon; Marchisotto, Mary Jane; Niggemann, Bodo; Skypala, Isabel; Venter, Alain Schoepfer Carina; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; Nilsson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish constitutes the majority of food allergy reactions, but reliable estimates of their prevalence are lacking. This systematic review aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of their prevalence in Europe. Studies published in

  17. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  18. Multidisciplinary Approaches to Allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao Zhongshan,; Shen, Hua-Hao; Zheng, M.; Frewer, L.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Allergy is an immunological disease caused by multiple factors and characterized by variability, specificity and complexity. "Multidisciplinary Approaches to Allergies" covers diverse aspects ranging from basic molecular mechanisms to societal issues within the framework of multidisciplinary

  19. Antihistamines for allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000549.htm Antihistamines for allergies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antihistamines are drugs that treat allergy symptoms . When taken by mouth, they come as ...

  20. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma and Food Allergies Page Content Article Body A family history of ... child may develop asthma . Children with asthma and food allergies are at increased risk for anaphylaxis, a severe ...

  1. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is to avoid being around those allergens. The doctor also may prescribe medicine for your allergies if you can't completely avoid ... Allergy-Triggered Asthma Your House: How to Make It Asthma-Safe Air Pollution & ...

  2. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Can I Deal With My Asthma? Allergy Testing Definition: Allergy-Triggered Asthma Asthma Center Asthma View more ...

  3. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  4. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  5. Referrals to a regional allergy clinic - an eleven year audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewson Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergy is a serious and apparently increasing public health problem yet relatively little is known about the types of allergy seen in routine tertiary practice, including their spatial distribution, co-occurrence or referral patterns. This study reviewed referrals over an eleven year period to a regional allergy clinic that had a well defined geographical boundary. For those patients confirmed as having an allergy we explored: (i differences over time and by demographics, (ii types of allergy, (iii co-occurrence, and (iv spatial distributions. Methods Data were extracted from consultant letters to GPs, from September 1998 to September 2009, for patients confirmed as having an allergy. Other data included referral statistics and population data by postcode. Simple descriptive analysis was used to describe types of allergy. We calculated 11 year standardised morbidity ratios for postcode districts and checked for spatial clustering. We present maps showing 11 year rates by postcode, and 'difference' maps which try to separate referral effect from possible environmental effect. Results Of 5778 referrals, 961 patients were diagnosed with an allergy. These were referred by a total of 672 different GPs. There were marked differences in referral patterns between GP practices and also individual GPs. The mean age of patients was 35 and there were considerably more females (65% than males. Airborne allergies were the most frequent (623, and there were very high rates of co-occurrence of pollen, house dust mite, and animal hair allergies. Less than half (410 patients had a food allergy, with nuts, fruit, and seafood being the most common allergens. Fifteen percent (142 had both a food and a non-food allergy. Certain food allergies were more likely to co-occur, for example, patients allergic to dairy products were more likely to be allergic to egg. There were age differences by types of allergy; people referred with food allergies were

  6. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth / For Parents / Seasonal Allergies (Hay ... español Alergia estacional (fiebre del heno) About Seasonal Allergies "Achoo!" It's your son's third sneezing fit of ...

  7. Addressing Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  8. Coconut Allergy Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Anagnostou, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant to coconut and regularly exposed via both the skin and gastrointestinal route.

  9. FOOD ALLERGY IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Santalha

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In these cases, most children had co-sensitization with other allergens, as well as another manifestation of concomitant allergy, showing the role of food allergy in allergic march. Food allergy diagnosis is extremely important, as it can be potentially serious if not prevented by food avoidance.

  10. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  11. Anesthesia in the patient with multiple drug allergies: are all allergies the same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewachter, Pascale; Mouton-Faivre, Claudie; Castells, Mariana C; Hepner, David L

    2011-06-01

    During the preoperative evaluation, patients frequently indicate 'multiple drug allergies', most of which have not been validated. Potential allergic cross-reactivity between drugs and foods is frequently considered as a risk factor for perioperative hypersensitivity. The aim of this review is to facilitate the recognition of risk factors for perioperative anaphylaxis and help the management of patients with 'multiple drug allergies' during the perioperative period. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) and antibiotics are the most common drugs triggering perioperative anaphylaxis. Quaternary ammonium ions have been suggested to be the allergenic determinant of NMBAs. Even though the 'pholcodine hypothesis' has been suggested to explain the occurrence of NMBA-induced allergy, this concept remains unclear. Although many practitioners believe that certain food allergies present an issue with the use of propofol, there is no role to contraindicate propofol in egg-allergic, soy-allergic or peanut-allergic patients. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity has been reported with seafood and iodinated drugs, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity has been reported with seafood and iodinated drugs, but there is no cross-reactivity between them. The allergenic determinants have been characterized for fish, shellfish and povidone iodine and remain unknown for contrast agents. There are many false assumptions regarding drug allergies. The main goal of this article is to review the potential cross-reactivity among specific families of drugs and foods in order to facilitate the anesthetic management of patients with 'multiple drug allergies'.

  12. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-W.; Seo, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, S.-Y.; Kim, K.-S.; Byun, M.-W.

    2005-01-01

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy

  13. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.-W.; Seo, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, S.-Y.; Kim, K.-S.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@nanum.kaeri.re.kr

    2005-04-01

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy.

  14. The Role of Baked Egg and Milk in the Diets of Allergic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Melissa L; Lanser, Bruce J

    2018-02-01

    Baked egg and baked milk are tolerated by most children who are allergic to hen's egg and cow's milk. Incorporating baked goods into the diets of allergic children may help them outgrow their primary allergy more quickly, with changes observed akin to immunotherapy. Benefits may also include increased quality of life and improved nutritional status. The search for a reliable biomarker to predict tolerance to baked goods is ongoing. Most children with a milk or egg allergy who are not previously tolerating egg or milk in baked goods should be offered an observed oral food challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential factors associated with challenge-proven food allergy phenotypes in a population cohort of infants: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, R L; Allen, K J; Dharmage, S C; Lodge, C J; Koplin, J J; Ponsonby, A-L; Wake, M; Lowe, A J; Tang, M L K; Matheson, M C; Gurrin, L C

    2015-05-01

    Food allergy, eczema and wheeze are early manifestations of allergic disease and commonly co-occur in infancy although their interrelationship is not well understood. Data from population studies are essential to determine whether there are differential drivers of multi-allergy phenotypes. We aimed to define phenotypes and risk factors of allergic disease using latent class analysis (LCA). The HealthNuts study is a prospective, population-based cohort of 5276 12-month-old infants in Melbourne, Australia. LCA was performed using the following baseline data collected at age 12 months: food sensitization (skin prick test ≥ 2 mm) and allergy (oral food challenge) to egg, peanut and sesame; early (food-sensitized eczema (16%), single egg allergy (9%), multiple food allergies (predominantly peanut) (3%) and multiple food allergies (predominantly egg) (2%). Compared to the baseline group of no allergic disease, shared risk factors for all allergic phenotypes were parents born overseas (particularly Asia), delayed introduction of egg, male gender (except for single egg allergy) and family history of allergic disease, whilst exposure to pet dogs was protective for all phenotypes. Other factors including filaggrin mutations, vitamin D and the presence of older siblings differed by phenotype. Multiple outcomes in infancy can be used to determine five distinct allergy phenotypes at the population level, which have both shared and separate risk factors suggesting differential mechanisms of disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Food Allergies: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. PMID:25680669

  17. Food allergies: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-05-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients-manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell- and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Protocols Related to Food Allergies and Intolerances in Preschools in Reykjavik, Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrastardottir, Adalheidur Ran; Thordardottir, Frida Run; Torfadottir, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore prevalence of food allergies and intolerances among children in preschools in Reykjavik, Iceland. Also, to investigate how well preschools maintain a safe environment for children with food allergies. In 2014, a questionnaire designed specifically for this study, was sent to 65 preschools. Forty-nine participated (75%) representing a total of 4225 children. Prevalence of food allergy and intolerance was determined based on medical certificates from physi-cians delivered to the preschools. Descriptive statistics were used to assess whether there were protocols related to food allergy, and if there was a difference between schools based on staff's education and number of children. The prevalence of documented food allergies/intolerances in children aged 2-6 years was 5%, 1% had severe allergy and 1% had multiple food allergies. Lactose intolerance was most frequent (2%), then milk allergy (2%) and egg allergy (1%). Only 41% preschools had a protocol that was activated if food with an allergen was accidentally given. Moreover, only 55% of preschools with children with severe -allergy reported all of their staff to have knowledge of symptoms related to anaphylaxis and only 64% were trained to respond to an anaphylactic shock. The education of preschool principals, kitchen employees and number of children in preschool were not related to having an active protocol at site. Prevalence of food allergy and intolerance was 5% in preschools in Reykjavik. Strategy for an active protocol related to food allergy was lacking in 59% of pre-schools.

  19. Food allergy in schools: The importance of government involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlis, Tanya; Bakonyi, Sarah; Williams, Lauren T

    2017-02-01

    Children have the highest rates of food-related allergic reactions. While 85% of children outgrow allergies including cow's milk and eggs by five years of age, allergies to peanuts and seafood continue into adulthood. The school setting poses a high-risk environment for allergen exposure. The aim of the present study was to examine the availability, drivers and communication of school food allergy awareness and management policies/guidelines in one Australian education jurisdiction. A cross-sectional study comprising an online survey of principals on school allergy awareness (n = 100) was conducted in public, catholic and independent primary and high schools in an Australian education jurisdiction between August 2011 and November 2012. Sixty-three per cent (17/27) of schools responding to the survey reported using food allergy management guidelines. An average of 13 students per school were reported to have a food allergy with 93% of schools reported having students with at least one food allergy. Parents, not government policy, were identified as primary drivers of food allergy guideline implementation and a third of schools provided anaphylaxis training annually. Communication of food allergy management was limited with only 42 school websites either providing access to policies/guidelines or providing a food allergy statement. Detailed awareness and management guidelines are integral for schools to adequately manage food-induced allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, in the school environment. To enable this, national government support through legislation and policy is needed to ensure a consistent, up-to-date and policed approach to food allergy management in the Australian education sector. © 2015 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  20. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  1. No evidence for contraindications to the use of propofol in adults allergic to egg, soy or peanut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asserhøj, L L; Mosbech, H; Krøigaard, M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Propofol is thought to be a potential cause of allergic reactions in patients allergic to egg, soy or peanut, since current formulations contain an emulsion that includes egg lecithin and soybean oil. However, other than six case reports lacking in confirmatory evidence of an allergic...... reaction, there is no evidence linking the two types of allergies. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of propofol allergy and to investigate if patients with specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to egg, soy or peanut tolerated propofol. METHODS: Study A examined the frequency of propofol allergy...... IgE to egg, soy or peanut. RESULTS: Four of the 153 propofol-exposed patients (2.6%) investigated in study A were diagnosed with propofol allergy. Of these, three tested positive only on intravenous provocation. None of the four had allergic symptoms when eating egg, soy or peanut and none had...

  2. Irradiated foods and allergy. From a perspective of irradiation chemistry of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    A change of protein in irradiated food has been known. There are a few reports on change of allergy of irradiated foods. Two kinds of allergy such as the immediate allergy (I type) and delayed allergy (IV type) are taken ill by foods. I type is related to irradiated foods. Allergen enters body through digestive tract. Anti body (IgE) is protein with from 10,000 to 100,000 molecular weight. Allergic disease is originated mainly by egg, milk, wheat, buckwheat, peanut and shrimp. When food is irradiated, the proteins are decomposed and produced higher and lower molecular compounds at the same time. Change of the viscosity and the sedimentation coefficient and deactivation of enzymes of β-lactoglobulin, cow albumin, egg albumin and casein were investigated. There is no report of increasing allergy by irradiation. However, some paper indicated that immunogenicity of protein was decreased by irradiation. (S.Y.)

  3. The diagnosis of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares-Weiser, K; Takwoingi, Y; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the accuracy of tests used to diagnose food allergy. METHODS: Skin prick tests (SPT), specific-IgE (sIgE), component-resolved diagnosis and the atopy patch test (APT) were compared with the reference standard of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Seven......, the pooled sensitivities were 53% (95% CI 33-72), 88% (95 % CI 76-94), and 87% (95% CI 75-94), and specificities were 88% (95% CI 76-95), 68% (95% CI 56-77), and 48% (95% CI 36-59) for APT, SPT, and sIgE, respectively. For egg, pooled sensitivities were 92% (95% CI 80-97) and 93% (95% CI 82...

  4. Evaluation of Allergy Effector Cell Function: Suppression of Basophils in Chronic Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    result of public health measures such as water decontamination, sterilization of milk , vaccinations, and antibiotic use in developed countries...activated. These molecules induce classic allergy symptoms by increasing vascular permeability, mucus secretion, and smooth muscle contraction (10, 85

  5. 75 FR 49942 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... NIAID planned activities in support of the plan, and plans for future vaccine clinical research trials..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...

  6. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  7. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  8. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  9. Research needs in allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Agache, Ioana; Bavbek, Sevim

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health...... in the field of allergy, in order to achieve sustainable results on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this most prevalent chronic disease of the 21st century.The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is the leading professional organization in the field of allergy, promoting...... excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients' Associations (EFA) is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic...

  10. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... at the FDA. Avoid Pollen, Mold and Other Allergy Triggers If your child has seasonal allergies, pay ...

  11. Parental Perception, Prevalence and Primary Care Physicians’ Knowledge on Childhood Food Allergy in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Voskresensky Baricic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy in children is increasing and the perception of food allergy among parents is even more common. In a questionnaire-based study of 702 children aged 6 to 48 months in four primary care settings, the aim was to determine the prevalence of perception vs. proven food allergy, parental anxiety and general pediatrician knowledge of food allergy. In 95/702 children (13.5% parentally-reported food was associated reactions. IgE and/or skin prick test (SPT and/or an open provocation test were performed in 48 (6.8% and allergy was proven in 38 (5.4% children. Discrepancy between parental perception and proven allergy is significant (p < 0.001, especially for food other than milk, egg and peanut (p < 0.001. Allergy to milk was the most common. Allergy to peanut was significantly more common in children ≥2 years (p < 0.05. Severe reactions occurred in 5/95 (5.2% of all children and in 5/38 (13.1% of allergic children, in 3/5 caused by peanut. Parents of children with proven allergy do not experience high degree of anxiety. The perception of food allergy among general pediatricians is limited, and in children with severe reactions precautionary measures and information to parents were insufficient. Parents and general pediatricians need additional education in food allergy.

  12. Social media as a tool for the management of food allergy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Perea, A; Cabrera-Freitag, P; Fuentes-Aparicio, V; Infante, S; Zapatero, L; Zubeldia, J M

    2018-02-07

    Food allergy heavily impairs quality of life. Avoiding the offending food requires extensive patient education. Social media have been proven a useful source of information for other chronic conditions. Our aim was to describe how pediatric patients with food allergy and their families are using social media. We performed a cross-sectional study in the Pediatric Allergy Unit of a third-level hospital. Patients with food allergy were surveyed about their disease and the use of social media. Patients over 13 years filled in the survey themselves, while parents or guardians did in the case of younger patients. We included 193 patients (162 guardians, 31 adolescents). Social media was used by 109 guardians (67.3%) and 29 adolescents (90.3%), of which 30.3% and 6.9%, respectively, used them for food allergy-allergy related purposes. Most popular websites were Facebook™ for guardians (52.2%) and YouTube™ among teenagers (80.6%). Having cow's milk and/or egg allergy was the only feature related to using social media for food allergy. Utilizing social media for food allergy information, did not correlate with the frequency of recent reactions, self-scored knowledge about food allergy or the opinion on evidence-based or alternative therapies for their disease. Most patients and guardians of patients with food allergy used social media. However, only a small portion accessed them for increasing the knowledge of their disease.

  13. Asthma, Allergies and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and immunology. © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All Rights Reserved. Legal Notices | Site ... navigation Find an Allergist/Immunologist Search Your Symptoms Ask the Expert

  14. Differentiating food allergies from food intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Stefano; Newland, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are extremely common, and generally they are attributed to allergy. However, clinical manifestations of various degrees of severity related to ingestion of foods can arise as a result of a number of disorders, only some of which can be defined as allergic, implying an immune mechanism. Recent epidemiological data in North America showed that the prevalence of food allergy in children has increased. The most common food allergens in the United States include egg, milk, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, and soy. This review examines the various forms of food intolerances (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and non-IgE mediated), including celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Immune mediated reactions can be either IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. Among the first group, Immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome are the best described. Often, but not always, IgE-mediated food allergies are entities such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. Non IgE-mediated immune mediated food reactions include celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, two increasingly recognized disorders. Finally, non-immune mediated reactions encompass different categories such as disorders of digestion and absorption, inborn errors of metabolism, as well as pharmacological and toxic reactions.

  15. International Consensus (ICON): allergic reactions to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreskin, Stephen C; Halsey, Neal A; Kelso, John M; Wood, Robert A; Hummell, Donna S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Engler, Renata J M; Gold, Michael S; Ponvert, Claude; Demoly, Pascal; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Muraro, Antonella; Li, James T; Rottem, Menachem; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Routine immunization, one of the most effective public health interventions, has effectively reduced death and morbidity due to a variety of infectious diseases. However, allergic reactions to vaccines occur very rarely and can be life threatening. Given the large numbers of vaccines administered worldwide, there is a need for an international consensus regarding the evaluation and management of allergic reactions to vaccines. Following a review of the literature, and with the active participation of representatives from the World Allergy Organization (WAO), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), and the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), the final committee was formed with the purpose of having members who represented a wide-range of countries, had previously worked on vaccine safety, and included both allergist/immunologists as well as vaccinologists. Consensus was reached on a variety of topics, including: definition of immediate allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, approaches to distinguish association from causality, approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to a previous vaccine, and approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to components of vaccines. This document provides comprehensive and internationally accepted guidelines and access to on-line documents to help practitioners around the world identify allergic reactions following immunization. It also provides a framework for the evaluation and further management of patients who present either following an allergic reaction to a vaccine or with a history of allergy to a component of vaccines.

  16. Effects of Immunosuppressants on Immune Response to Vaccine in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (nonimmunosuppressants and immunosuppressants. Data Sources: We completed an online systematic search using PubMed to identify all articles published in English between January 1990 and December 2013 assessing the effect of the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (with and without immunomodulators. The following terms were used: "inflammatory bowel disease (IBD" OR "Crohn′s disease" OR "ulcerative colitis" AND ("vaccination" OR "vaccine" AND ("corticosteroids" OR "mercaptopurine" OR "azathioprine" OR "methotrexate [MTX]" AND "immunomodulators." Study Selection: The inclusion criteria of articles were that the studies: (1 Randomized controlled trials which included patients with a diagnosis of IBD (established by standard clinical, radiographic, endoscopic, and histologic criteria; (2 exposed patients received immunomodulators for maintenance (weight-appropriate doses of 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine or within 3 months of stopping, 15 mg or more MTX per week or within 3 months of stopping; (3 exposed patients received nonimmunomodulators (no therapy, antibiotics only, mesalazine only, biological agent only such as infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab or natalizumab or within 3 months of stopping one of these agents. The exclusion criteria of articles were that the studies: (1 History of hepatitis B virus (HBV, influenza or streptococcus pneumoniae infection; (2 patients who had previously been vaccinated against HBV, influenza or streptococcus pneumoniae; (3 any medical condition known to cause immunosuppression (e.g. chronic renal failure and human immunodeficiency virus infection; (4 individuals with positive hepatitis markers or liver cirrhosis; (5 patients with a known allergy to eggs or other components of the vaccines and (6 pregnancy. Results: Patients treated with immunomodulators were associated with lower response rates to

  17. New insights into seafood allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Andreas L; Lehrer, Samuel B

    2009-06-01

    Seafood plays an important role in human nutrition worldwide, sustained by international trade of a variety of new seafood products. Increased production and consumption have resulted in more frequent reports of adverse reactions, highlighting the need for more specific diagnosis and treatment of seafood allergy. This review discusses recent literature in this field. The most recent prevalence data from Asia highlight seafood as a significant sensitizer in up to 40% of children and 33% of adults. Furthermore, the demonstration of species-specific sensitization to salt-water and fresh-water prawns and processed prawn extract should improve diagnosis. Studies on humans demonstrated for the first time that biologically active fish allergens can be detected in serum samples as early as 10 min after ingestion. These studies highlight that minute amounts of ingested seafood allergens can quickly trigger allergic symptoms; also, inhaled airborne allergens seem to induce sensitization and reactions. In the past 2 years, over 10 additional seafood allergens have been characterized. Allergen-specific detection assays in food products are available for crustacean tropomyosin; however, many specific mollusk and some fish allergens are not readily identified. Although cross-reactivity between crustacean and mollusks as well as mites is demonstrated, the often poor correlation of IgE reactivity and clinical symptoms calls for more detailed investigations. The recent development of hypoallergenic parvalbumin from carp could form the basis for safer vaccination products for treatment of fish allergy. Molecular characterization of more universal marker allergens for the three major seafood groups will improve current component-resolved clinical diagnosis and have a significant impact on the management of allergic patients, on food labeling and on future immunotherapy for seafood allergy.

  18. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borràs Eva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.

  19. Fighting Allergies at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  20. Immunology of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A

    2017-07-18

    Many consider food allergy as the "second wave" of the allergy epidemic following the "first wave" of respiratory allergy, i.e., asthma and allergic rhinitis, plaguing westernized countries, with up to 8% of young children and 2%-3% of adults in the United States now affected by hypersensitivity reactions to various foods. In the past decade, there have been great strides in our understanding of the underlying immunopathogenesis of these disorders, which have led to improved diagnostic techniques, management strategies, and therapeutic approaches. Here we will review the most recent understanding of basic mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated food allergies and novel therapeutic approaches under investigation for both the prevention and treatment of IgE-mediated food allergies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  2. Effects of single and combined Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccinations on blood electrolytes and acid-base balance in commercial egg-laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju, H A; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2011-02-01

    A previous study from our laboratory on F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum-inoculated layers showed a significant increase in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)), which is generally associated with an oxygen-dependent improvement in tissue oxygenation. The aim of this study was to determine whether a killed (bacterin) and live TS-11-strain M. gallisepticum (TS-11-MG) vaccine treatment combination could further enhance the arterial pO(2) levels in layer chickens. The experiment was conducted in 2 trials and arranged in a completely randomized experimental design with 4 treatments. The treatments consisted of a control M. gallisepticum, bacterin, TS-11-MG, and bacterin + TS-11-MG combined, with all treatments receiving the R low strain of MG at 30 wk of age (WOA). In each of the 2 trials, 160 one-day-old MG-free pullets were raised to 10 WOA and were transported to a poultry disease isolation facility. Sixteen isolation units were divided into 4 treatment groups, and each of the 4 treatment groups had 4 replication units, with 10 birds/unit (40 birds/treatment). Venous blood samples were collected at the termination of the study at 56 WOA. The TS-11-MG-vaccinated chickens had a higher (P ≤ 0.05) blood pO(2) and a lower (P ≤ 0.05) partial pressure of CO(2) when compared with the control and combined MG-vaccinated groups. However, no significant blood pO(2) differences were observed between the bacterin and TS-11-MG treatment groups. Hematocrit and blood concentrations of hemoglobin were not statistically different among treatments, but were numerically higher in the TS-11-MG treatment group. There was a significant (P ≤ 0.05) treatment effect on blood concentrations of Na(+), Ca(2+), and anion, but no significant effect on glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, or osmolality. These data suggest that the inoculation of layers with TS-11-MG was more effective in elevating pO(2) than was inoculation with TS-11-MG + bacterin combined.

  3. Seasonal inhalant insect allergy: Harmonia axyridis ladybug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, David W

    2009-08-01

    The exotic Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, has become a prominent cause of seasonal inhalant allergy (allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria) in the last two decades in North America and Europe after being introduced into the environment as an agricultural pest-control predator. Seeking winter hibernation sites, ladybug swarms will invade human habitats in the fall. Large fall swarms and smaller spring dispersions produce corresponding peaks in ladybug allergy. Ladybug allergy prevalence in endemic areas has been reported as high as 10%. For some individuals ladybug allergy is their first expression of allergic disease. Exposures at home, work, school, and in other settings may be sensitizing. Ladybug hemolymph is the primary source of allergens. Har a 1 and Har a 2 major ladybug allergens have been characterized. 'Reflex bleeding' from tibiofemoral joints (for communication and during alarm) disperses these allergens. Ladybug skin testing should be routine in endemic areas. Avoidance continues to be the first step in treatment. Allergen vaccine therapy may be effective, but a commercial extract of H. axyridis is needed.

  4. INITIAL ALLERGY PREVENTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Pampura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy prevention is an urgent pediatric issue. Food allergy spread among infants amounts to 6–8%. This review highlights the modern viewpoints on diet prevention of this pathology among children, including by means of the hypoallergic nutritional formulas.Key words: food allergy, prevention, allergies, prebiotics, children.

  5. The prevalence of food allergy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin; Gislason, David; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Sodergren, Eva; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T; Lindner, Titia; Goldhahn, Klaus; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; McBride, Doreen; Madsen, Charlotte

    2007-09-01

    There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish, and an overall estimate of food allergy. We summarized the information in 5 categories: self-reported symptoms, specific IgE positive, specific skin prick test positive, symptoms combined with sensitization, and food challenge studies. We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for publications since 1990. The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared with objective measures. There was marked heterogeneity between studies regardless of type of assessment or food item considered, and in most analyses this persisted after age stratification. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. There is a marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of food allergy that could be a result of differences in study design or methodology, or differences between populations. We recommend that measurements be made by using standardized methods, if possible food challenge. We need to be cautious in estimates of prevalence based only on self-reported food allergy.

  6. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  7. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs means...

  9. Characterization of plasma cytokines in an infant population cohort of challenge-proven food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, T D; Tang, M L K; Koplin, J J; Licciardi, P V; Eckert, J K; Tan, T; Gurrin, L C; Ponsonby, A-L; Dharmage, S C; Allen, K J

    2013-10-01

    Sensitization to food allergens indicates the production of food-specific IgE; however, sensitization is not a definite indicator of allergic reaction upon ingestion (N Engl J Med, 344, 2001, 30: J Allergy Clin Immunol, 120, 2007, 491). Currently, food challenge is the best approach to identify the presence or absence of allergy. While 95% positive predictive values (PPVs) thresholds for sIgE can assist with identifying increased likelihood of allergy among those who are sensitized, there are no specific biological markers that differentiate between allergic and sensitized individuals. To determine whether plasma serum cytokine profiles predict (i) sensitization to peanut and egg and (ii) food allergy among sensitized infants. Peanut-sensitized (PT) and egg-sensitized 14-month-old infants and nonsensitized controls enrolled in HealthNuts, a population-based study of food allergy, underwent an oral food challenge (OFC). Blood was collected within 1 h after OFC. Serum levels of Th1, Th2 and regulatory cytokines were determined in allergic (n = 79), sensitized (n = 40) and nonsensitized, nonallergic (n = 37) infants by multiplex assay. Food-sensitized infants had significantly higher plasma IL-4, IL-13, IL-12p70 and lower IL-10 levels compared to nonsensitized infants. IL-10 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in sensitized compared with allergic infants. Egg-allergic infants had significantly higher IL-13 and IL-12p70 levels compared to peanut-allergic (PA) infants. Levels of Th2-related cytokines in plasma are higher in food-sensitized infants, irrespective of clinical food allergy status. In contrast, IL-10 levels appear to predict food allergy among sensitized infants. Differences in IL-13 and IL-12p70 between egg- and peanut-allergic infants could help explain the different resolution rates of the allergies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Food Allergy Sensitization and Presentation in Siblings of Food Allergic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Walkner, Madeline M; Greenhawt, Matthew; Lau, Claudia H; Caruso, Deanna; Wang, Xiaobin; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Smith, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Many parents of food allergic children have concerns about the development of food allergies in their other children. We sought to determine prevalence of food sensitization and clinical food allergy among siblings of food allergic children. Two thousand eight hundred and thirty-four children were enrolled in the Chicago Family Cohort Food Allergy study. One thousand one hundred and twenty children (ages 0-21 years) with a food allergy (defined by a reported reaction history and evidence of food-specific IgE or skin prick test) and at least 1 biological sibling were included in this study. Among siblings of children with food allergy, 33.4% had no sensitization and no clinical symptoms to food. Fifty-three percent had a positive food serum-specific IgE or skin prick test, but no reported symptoms of food allergy. Only 13.6% of siblings were both sensitized and clinically reactive to the same food. Milk allergy was the most common allergy among siblings (5.9%), followed by egg allergy (4.4%) and peanut allergy (3.7%). In a large cohort of food allergic families, only a small proportion of siblings were both sensitized and clinically reactive to a food. Sensitization without reactivity was common among siblings. Testing for food allergy in siblings without a history of clinical reactivity appears to be unjustified. Screening may lead to negative consequences related to potential misdiagnosis and unnecessary avoidance of a food. More data are needed to determine the absolute risk of food allergy development in siblings of food allergic children. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  11. Food allergies (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  12. Occupational Animal Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stave, Gregg M

    2018-02-16

    This review explores animal allergen exposure in research laboratories and other work settings, focusing on causes and prevention. (1) Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, there is new evidence that early childhood exposure to pets produces changes in the gut microbiome that likely lead to a lower risk of allergy. (2) Anaphylaxis from laboratory animal bites occurs more frequently than suggested by prior literature. (3) Animal allergens represent an occupational hazard in a wide variety of work settings ranging from fields that work with animals to public settings like schools and public transportation where allergens are brought into or are present in the workplace. Exposure to animal allergens can result in allergy, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Animal allergy has been most studied in the research laboratory setting, where exposure reduction can prevent the development of allergy. Similar prevention approaches need to be considered for other animal work environments and in all settings where animal allergens are present.

  13. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and clinical management, and impact on quality of life, which will be used to inform clinical...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  14. Traveling with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on traveling and dining out at restaurants with food allergies. Travel Tips for the U.S. and Other Countries Get information about medications and food labeling practices in select countries. Spam Control Text: ...

  15. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  16. Allergy and allergic diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kay, A. B

    2008-01-01

    ... and Other Tolerogenic Mechanisms in Allergy and Asthma, 83 Catherine Hawrylowicz and Cezmi A. Akdis 5 IgE and IgE Receptors, 103 Brian J. Sutton, Andrew J. Beavil, Rebecca L. Beavil and James Hunt...

  17. Contact allergy to lanolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, Marloes; Overgaard, Line E K; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lanolin has been tested as lanolin alcohols (30% pet.) in baseline patch test series since 1969, and this has shown clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis cases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the temporal development of lanolin allergy (i.e. positive reaction to lanolin alcohols...... and/or Amerchol™ L-101), and the association between contact allergy to lanolin and patient characteristics from the MOAHLFA index. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of consecutively patch tested dermatitis patients (n = 9577) between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 with lanolin...... alcohols 30% pet. and Amerchol™ L-101 50% pet. was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of lanolin allergy increased from 0.45% in 2004 to 1.81% in 2015. In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, weak, significant associations were found between atopic dermatitis and lanolin and lanolin alcohols allergy...

  18. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    . This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women...... development to identify contact allergy to new allergens, reflecting the continuous developments and trends in exposure....

  19. A Survey of Self-Reported Food Allergy and Food-Related Anaphylaxis among Young Adult Students at Kuwait University, Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    To conduct a survey on self-reported food allergy to milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, wheat, and sesame, as well as reported food-related anaphylaxis and epinephrine prescription practices among Kuwaiti students attending Kuwait University. One thousand questionnaires that included data on age, gender, presence of food allergies, and associated details were distributed. All participants reporting an allergy were categorized as having a perceived food allergy. Those with a convincing clinical history and history of undergoing diagnostic food allergy testing were further categorized as having a probable food allergy. Of the 1,000 questionnaires, 865 (86.5%) were completed. Of the 865 students, 104 (12.02%) reported food allergy (perceived), and 47 of these (45.19%) were probable food allergies. For milk (46.7%), peanut (35.7%), fish (60%), and sesame (50%), probable food allergy occurred in early childhood (≤5 years) while those of egg (44.4%) and wheat (57.1%) occurred in late childhood (6-10 years), and shellfish (40%) occurred in early adolescence (11-15 years). Of the 47 students with a probable food allergy, 28 (59.6%) were moderate to severe: 20 (71%) of these moderate-to-severe allergy cases reported at least 1 food-related anaphylactic episode while 8 (29%) denied such episodes. Equally important, of the 28 students, 6 (21%) received an autoinjectable epinephrine prescription, while 22 (79%) did not receive any. In this study the reported occurrence of perceived food allergy was low and probable food allergy occurred mostly in early childhood. Milk, egg, and nut allergies were the most commonly reported in both groups. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Recombinant zoster (shingles) vaccine, RZV - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... year in the United States get shingles. Shingles vaccine (recombinant) Recombinant shingles vaccine was approved by FDA in 2017 for the ... life-threatening allergic reaction after a dose of recombinant shingles vaccine, or has a severe allergy to any component ...

  1. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.......Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22...

  2. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish consumption has increased worldwide, and there are increasing reports of adverse reactions to fish and shellfish, with an approximate prevalence of 0.5-5%. Fish allergy often develops early in life, whilst shellfish allergy tends to develop later, from adolescence onwards. Little is known about the natural history of these allergies, but both are thought to be persistent. The clinical manifestations of shellfish allergy, in particular, may vary from local to life-threatening 'anaphylactic' reactions within an individual and between individuals. Parvalbumin and tropomyosin are the two major allergens, but several other allergens have been cloned and described. These allergens are highly heat and biochemically stable, and this may in part explain the persistence of these allergies. Diagnosis requires a thorough history, skin prick and in-vitro-specific IgE tests, and oral challenges may be needed for diagnostic confirmation. Strict avoidance of these allergens is the current standard of clinical care for allergic patients, and when indicated, an anaphylactic plan with an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed. There are no published clinical trials evaluating specific oral immunotherapy for fish or shellfish allergy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Allergy in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Single and multiple food allergies in infants with proctocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, B T; Barıs, Z; Ozcay, F; Yilmaz Ozbek, O

    Food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis is a frequent cause of rectal bleeding in infants. Characteristics of infants with multiple food allergies have not been defined. This study aimed to identify characteristics of infants with proctocolitis and compare infants with single and multiple food allergies. A total of 132 infants with proctocolitis were evaluated retrospectively. All of the infants were diagnosed by a paediatric allergist and/or a paediatric gastroenterologist according to guidelines. Clinical features of the infants, as well as results of a complete blood count, skin prick test, specific immunoglobulin E, and stool examinations or colonoscopy were recorded. Cow's milk (97.7%) was the most common allergen, followed by egg (22%). Forty-five (34.1%) infants had allergies to more than one food. Infants with multiple food allergies had a higher eosinophil count (613±631.2 vs. 375±291.9) and a higher frequency of positive specific IgE and/or positive skin prick test results than that of patients with a single food allergy. Most of the patients whose symptoms persisted after two years of age had multiple food allergies. There is no difference in clinical presentations between infants with single and multiple food allergies. However, infants with multiple food allergies have a high blood total eosinophil count and are more likely to have a positive skin prick test and/or positive specific IgE results. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. IgE-mediated allergy to chlorhexidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene Heise; Krøigaard, Mogens; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999.......Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999....

  6. Adult influenza vaccination guideline | Feldman | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benefits, harms, costs. Successful vaccination may be effective. in protecting against acute respiratory tract infection, and preventing hospitalisation, complicating pneumonia and death. The vaccine is safe with only occasional reports of anaphylaxis. Contraindications to the vaccine are anaphylactic hypersensitivity to eggs, ...

  7. Efficacy of recombinant birch pollen vaccine for the treatment of birch-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Larsen, Tina H; Rak, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter, randomi......-treated group. CONCLUSION: The rBet v 1-based vaccine was safe and effective in treating birch pollen allergy, and induced a highly specific immune response.......BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter......, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to compare the following 3 vaccines in 134 adults with birch pollen allergy: recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine (rBet v 1a), licensed birch pollen extract, natural purified birch pollen allergen (nBet v 1), and placebo. Patients...

  8. Food allergy in breastfeeding babies. Hidden allergens in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Muñoz, M F; Pineda, F; García Parrado, G; Guillén, D; Rivero, D; Belver, T; Quirce, S

    2016-07-01

    Food allergy is a rare disorder among breastfeeding babies. Our aim was to identify responsible allergens in human milk. We studied babies developing allergic symptoms at the time they were breastfeeding. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with breast milk and food allergens. Specific IgE was assessed and IgE Immunoblotting experiments with breast milk were carried out to identify food allergens. Clinical evolution was evaluated after a maternal free diet. Five babies had confirmed breast milk allergy. Peanut, white egg and/or cow's milk were demonstrated as the hidden responsible allergens. No baby returned to develop symptoms once mother started a free diet. Three of these babies showed tolerance to other food allergens identified in human milk. A maternal free diet should be recommended only if food allergy is confirmed in breastfed babies.

  9. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had significant effects on hen day egg production and egg quality of egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell breaking strength, shell thickness, albumen height, Haugh Units, and IB antibody titre levels, but had no effect on percentage of shell and yolk colour. Egg weight and shell reflectivity were less favourable in the control hens. In contrast, shell breaking strength and shell thickness were highest for the group that initially received A3 vaccine in water. However, regular revaccination had some deleterious effects on egg production and egg quality. There were no significant effects of revaccination on IB antibody titres. It is concluded that there was little advantage in regularly revaccinating laying hens for IB virus, since they had received appropriate initial vaccination.

  10. The impact of plant biotechnology on food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M; Burks, A Wesley

    2011-04-01

    Concerns about food allergy and its societal growth are intertwined with the growing advances in plant biotechnology. The knowledge of plant genes and protein structures provides the key foundation to understanding biochemical processes that produce food allergy. Biotechnology offers the prospect of producing low-allergen or allergen null plants that could mitigate the allergic response. Modified low-IgE binding variants of allergens could be used as a vaccine to build immunotolerance in sensitive individuals. The potential to introduce new allergens into the food supply by biotechnology products is a regulatory concern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aluminiumallergi og granulomer som følge af vaccination hos børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie O; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site - vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...

  12. Aluminiumallergi og granulomer som følge af vaccination hos børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie Ø; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site – vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...

  13. Sesame allergy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adatia A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adil Adatia,1 Ann Elaine Clarke,2 Yarden Yanishevsky,3 Moshe Ben-Shoshan4 1Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 2Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, 3Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, 4Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children’s Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Sesame is an important global allergen affecting ~0.1% of the North American population. It is a major cause of anaphylaxis in the Middle East and is the third most common food allergen in Israel. We conducted a systematic review of original articles published in the last 10 years regarding the diagnosis and management of sesame allergy. Skin prick testing appears to be a useful predictor of sesame allergy in infants, although data are less consistent in older children and adults. The diagnostic capacity of serum-specific immunoglobulin E is poor, especially in studies that used oral food challenges to confirm the diagnosis. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge thus remains the diagnostic gold standard for sesame allergy. The cornerstone of sesame allergy management is allergen avoidance, though accidental exposures are common and patients must be prepared to treat the consequent reactions with epinephrine. Novel diagnostic and treatment options such as component-resolved diagnostics, basophil activation testing, and oral immunotherapy are under development but are not ready for mainstream clinical application. Keywords: sesame allergy, skin prick testing, specific IgE, component-resolved diagnostics, epinephrine autoinjector

  14. The Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric Patients with IgE-Mediated Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David A; Dudley, Jesse W; Spergel, Jonathan M

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic inflammatory disease that is triggered by food allergens and characterized by progressive esophageal dysfunction. Recently, EoE has been identified in patients who underwent oral immunotherapy (OIT) for IgE-mediated food allergy, suggesting an association. We sought to ascertain whether significant associations exist between IgE-mediated food allergies and EoE. Using the analysis of electronic medical record data and manual chart review, we examined our subspecialty care network of 35,528 children and adolescents to identify and characterize patients with IgE-mediated and EoE food allergy. The most common food allergens were defined, and the prevalence of EoE in patients with IgE-mediated food allergy was determined. Logistic regression was used to measure the extent to which IgE-mediated food allergy to specific foods is associated with EoE. The most common causes of EoE were milk, soy, egg, grains, and meats, an allergen pattern that is distinct from that of IgE-mediated food allergy. The prevalence of EoE in patients with IgE-mediated food allergy was higher than that reported in the general population (4.7% vs 0.04%). The distribution of IgE-mediated food allergens in patients with EoE was similar to that of the general population, and IgE-mediated allergy to egg (2.27; 1.91-2.64), milk (4.19; 3.52-4.97), or shellfish (1.55; 1.24-1.92) was significantly associated with an EoE diagnosis. Our findings support a clinical association between these conditions that has implications for the management of children with food allergy, and particular relevance to patients undergoing OIT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Moral Considerations in Pediatric Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies are common health problem among children. They carry a significant risk of severe allergic reactions. These disorders are chronic conditions in which the immune system becomes hypersensitive to some food products. It is estimated that 8% of children under the age of three have a type of food allergy. The common allergenic foods include cow’s milk, wheat, peanuts, egg, soy and fish.The mainstay of treatment is to eliminate the allergenic food from the patient’s diet which in case of a child mandates special behavioral and ethical problems. Considering the growing incidence of food allergy, and the risk of anaphylaxis, diverse moral-ethical challenges face parents, school administrators and health professionals. Older children have the right to keep the fact of their disease private and this is a matter of their autonomy and may be an effort to prevent stigmatization by other students followed by psychosocial discomfort.Some moral & ethical principles in implementing management guidelines for allergic children include: -Imagine if the patient was your own. What level of protection would you expect for him/her? -Do protective policies cause the child to be isolated from others? -Are medical recordings confidential? -Avoid unduly limiting the diet of these children. A certain scenario is an infant with cow milk allergy. In this condition specific consideration should be paid to the mother’s nutritional status when a dietary elimination strategy is to be implemented. Considering the costs /benefits of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in food allergic children is recommended.  

  16. 9 CFR 113.328 - Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.328 Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine. Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed... each serial of modified live virus vaccine shall be tested for safety as provided in this paragraph...

  17. Oral allergy syndrome to chicory associated with birch pollen allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadot, P.; Kochuyt, A.-M.; van Ree, R.; Ceuppens, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A few cases of IgE-mediated chicory allergy with oral, cutaneous, and/or respiratory symptoms are reported. We present 4 patients with inhalant birch pollen allergy and oral allergy syndrome to chicory. IgE-binding proteins in chicory and cross-reactivity with birch pollen were studied.

  18. Seasonal Allergies: Diagnosis, Treatment & Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Diagnosis, Treatment & Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents Diagnosis Testing for Allergies Knowing exactly what you are allergic to can ...

  19. Allergy and orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied and several case reports of nickel-induced contact dermatitis have been documented. Current evidence suggests that the most common allergic reaction reported in orthodontics is related to nickel in orthodontic appliances and allergic response is more common in women due to a previous sensitizing exposure from nickel in jewellery. Studies have implicated allergy in the etiology of hypo-dontia. It has also been considered as a high-risk factor for development of extensive root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. This review discusses the relationship and implications of allergy in orthodontics. PMID:24987632

  20. Lettuce contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Allergy - an environmental disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2017-06-01

    The increase in allergies is a phenomenon that is being observed in all fast-developing countries. For a long time, science has taken as a starting point that solely a genetic predisposition is a precondition for the development of an allergy. Today, knowledge of environmental factors that can alter genes or the transcription of genes in the cells, has improved. Epidemiological studies have meanwhile identified several environmental factors that have a protective or supporting effect on allergy development. The environmental microbiome has recently gained central interest. A common theme in most of the studies is diversity: reduced diversity is correlated with enhanced risk for chronic inflammatory diseases and allergy.It is now of great interest for research to further analyze such environment-gene and/or environment-human interactions on all levels - from organs to cells to small and microstructures such as genes. For immunologists, it is specifically about understanding the influencing factors and effector pathways of allergens, and to apply thereby obtained insights in the follow-up for the ultimate goal of allergy research - prevention.

  2. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  3. Advances in influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that

  4. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Food Allergy Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills at the Instit......Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills...

  6. Sesame seed allergy: Clinical manifestations and laboratory investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlollahi MR.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant-origin foods are among the most important sources of food allergic reactions. An increase in the incidence of sesame seed allergy among children and adults has been reported in recent years. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the prevalence, importance and clinical manifestations of sesame allergy among Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, 250 patients with suspected IgE-mediated food allergies completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick tests with sesame extract as well as cross-reacting foods (walnut, soya and peanut. Total IgE and sesame-specific IgE levels were measured. Patients with positive skin test reactions and/or IgE specific for sesame without clinical symptoms were considered sensitive to sesame. The patients who also had clinical symptoms with sesame consumption were diagnosed as allergic to sesame.Results: Of the 250 patients enrolled in this study, 129 were male and 121 female, with a mean age of 11.7 years. The most common food allergens were cow's milk, egg, curry, tomato and sesame. Sesame sensitivity was found in 35 patients (14.1%. Only five patients (2% had sesame allergy. Sesame-sensitive patients had a significantly higher frequency of positive prick test to cross-reacting foods when compared to non-sensitized patients (p=0.00. The type of symptom was independent of gender and age of the patients, but urticaria and dermatitis-eczema were significantly more frequent in sensitized patients (p=0.008.Conclusions: This is the first study addressing the prevalence of sesame seed allergy in Iranian population. We found sesame to be a common and important cause of food allergy. The panel of foods recommended for use in diagnostic allergy tests should be adjusted.

  7. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...... stories and photographic material provided by forty-two egg donors, this article uses feminist cluster analysis and the concept of eggpreneurship to illustrate how global egg donors negotiate reproductive agency and choice when they travel internationally to donate their eggs. In their stories, global egg...

  8. Conception et développement d'outils immunologiques pour suivre et caractériser les réponses immunitaires induites par les vaccins contre l'allergie

    OpenAIRE

    Wambre , Eric

    2008-01-01

    Type I allergy either results from a pathological inappropriate Th2 immune response or from the defective induction of immune tolerance to otherwise harmless antigen : the allergen. Recent advances have underlined the major role played by allergen-specific CD4+ T cells in the control of allergic response. However, immunological mechanisms involved remain to be better documented and could provide important information regarding peripheral tolerance induction observed in healthy individuals. Ex...

  9. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic...

  10. Similar prevalence, different spectrum: IgE-mediated food allergy among Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafayev, R; Civelek, E; Orhan, F; Yüksel, H; Boz, A B; Sekerel, B E

    2013-01-01

    Scarcity of reliable data on food allergy prevalence exists in Turkey. We aimed to assess reported and confirmed IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence, and define the spectrum of allergenic food. We prospectively evaluated the ISAAC Phase II study population for food allergy. Participants that reported experiencing food allergy symptom in the last year and/or were skin prick test positive for a predefined list of food allergens, were interviewed via telephone, and those considered as having food allergy were invited to undergo clinical investigation, including challenge tests. A total of 6963 questionnaires were available. Parental reported food allergy prevalence and skin prick sensitisation rate were 20.2 ± 0.9% and 5.9 ± 0.6%. According to the above-defined criteria, 1162 children (symptom positive n=909, skin prick test positive n=301, both positive n=48) were selected and 813 (70.0%) were interviewed via telephone. Out of 152 adolescents reporting a current complaint, 87 accepted clinical investigation. There were 12 food allergies diagnosed in nine adolescents, with food allergy prevalence of 0.16 ± 0.11%. The most common foods involved in allergic reactions were walnut (n=3) and beef meat (n=2), followed by hen's egg (n=1), peanut (n=1), spinach (n=1), kiwi (n=1), cheese (n=1), hazelnut (n=1) and peach (n=1). While parental reported food allergy prevalence was within the range reported previously, confirmed IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence among adolescents was at least 0.16%, and the spectrum of foods involved in allergy differed from Western countries, implying environmental factors may play a role. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of peanut and tree nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, G; Anagnostou, K; Boyle, R J; Brathwaite, N; Ewan, P; Fox, A T; Huber, P; Luyt, D; Till, S J; Venter, C; Clark, A T

    2017-06-01

    Peanut nut and tree nut allergy are characterised by IgE mediated reactions to nut proteins. Nut allergy is a global disease. Limited epidemiological data suggest varying prevalence in different geographical areas. Primary nut allergy affects over 2% of children and 0.5% of adults in the UK. Infants with severe eczema and/or egg allergy have a higher risk of peanut allergy. Primary nut allergy presents most commonly in the first five years of life, often after the first known ingestion with typical rapid onset IgE-mediated symptoms. The clinical diagnosis of primary nut allergy can be made by the combination of a typical clinical presentation and evidence of nut specifc IgE shown by a positive skin prick test (SPT) or specific IgE (sIgE) test. Pollen food syndrome is a distinct disorder, usually mild, with oral/pharyngeal symptoms, in the context of hay fever or pollen sensitisation, which can be triggered by nuts. It can usually be distinguish clinically from primary nut allergy. The magnitude of a SPT or sIgE relates to the probability of clinical allergy, but does not relate to clinical severity. SPT of ≥ 8 mm or sIgE ≥ 15 KU/L to peanut is highly predictive of clinical allergy. Cut off values are not available for tree nuts. Test results must be interpreted in the context of the clinical history. Diagnostic food challenges are usually not necessary but may be used to confirm or refute a conflicting history and test result. As nut allergy is likely to be a long-lived disease, nut avoidance advice is the cornerstone of management. Patients should be provided with a comprehensive management plan including avoidance advice, patient specific emergency medication and an emergency treatment plan and training in administration of emergency medication. Regular re-training is required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. RN AND ALLERGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cells are one of the few types of immune cells found in the brain'. MANAGEMENT OF AllERGIES IN HIV-INFECTED. PATIENTS. Atopy is an ever-increasing problem in HIV-infected individuals and is becoming even more prominent in the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) era. Not only are the patients developing ...

  13. Testing children for allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases are common in childhood and can cause a significant morbidity and impaired quality-of-life of the children and their families. Adequate allergy testing is the prerequisite for optimal care, including allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Children with persisting...

  14. Allergy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Allergy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 23 May 2018

  15. Drug allergy REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease. The :most dangerous but least co:m:mon for:m of drug allergy is .... immune response, and allergic reaction occur in only ... mental sensitisation by milk and aerosol.11,19 ... requires cross-linking of the high-affinity specific IgE Fc.

  16. Contact allergy to spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Van den Akker Th. (W.); I.D. Roesyanto-Mahadi (I.); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); Th. van Joost (Theo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA group of 103 patients suspected of contact allergy was tested with the European standard series, wood tars and spices; paprika, cinnamon, laurel, celery seed, nutmeg, curry, black pepper, cloves, while pepper, coriander, cacao and garlic. 32 patients (Group I) were selected on the

  17. Contact allergy to cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, E; Johansen, J D; Agner, T

    1999-01-01

    In a 2-year period, 1527 patients with contact dermatitis were investigated in the patch-test clinic. In 531 patients, allergy to cosmetics was suspected from the history and they were tested with their own cosmetic products. 40 (7.5%) (of the 531 patients) had 1 or more positive reactions, 82 (15...

  18. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps

  19. Early introduction of allergenic foods for the prevention of food allergy from an Asian perspective-An Asia Pacific Association of Pediatric Allergy, Respirology & Immunology (APAPARI) consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Elizabeth Huiwen; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Van Bever, Hugo Ps; Vichyanond, Pakit; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Wong, Gary Wk; Lee, Bee Wah

    2018-02-01

    Emerging evidence for the early introduction of allergenic foods for the prevention of food allergies, such as peanut allergy in Western populations, has led to the recent publication of guidelines in the USA and Europe recommending early peanut introduction for high-risk infants with severe eczema or egg allergy. Peanut allergy is, however, much less prevalent in Asia compared to the West. Varying patterns of food allergy are seen even within Asian countries-such as a predominance of wheat allergy in Japan and Thailand and shellfish allergy in Singapore and the Philippines. Customs and traditions, such as diet and infant feeding practices, also differ between Asian populations. Hence, there are unique challenges in adapting guidelines on early allergenic food introduction to the Asian setting. In this paper, we review the evidence and discuss the possible approaches to guide the timely introduction of allergenic food in high-risk infants in Asia. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  20. Natural course of sensitization to hen's egg in children not previously exposed to egg ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boissieu, D; Dupont, C

    2006-04-01

    Clinical adverse reactions to egg may occur in infants or children who have never eaten egg. They may be sensitized or even react at first egg ingestion. Few studies are available concerning the reality of egg white allergy in such sensitized children, the natural evolution of this condition and the appropriate decisions to make. To analyze the actuality and natural course of egg allergy in children sensitized without previous of hen's egg ingestion. We set up a clinical decision tree based on clinical history and specific egg white IgE to manage patients who had never ingested egg but were sensitized as demonstrated by a positive SPT and report a cohort of 30 such children The mean level of egg white specific IgE at first analysis, i.e. before 12 months, was high, 28.3 KU(A) /L, with a large range, from 0.6 to >100 KU(A) /L, below 6 KU(A) /L in only 8 patients. In 6 children ("no challenge" group), IgE values remained >8 KU(A) /L by the end of the survey and the oral challenge with egg was always denied. Their mean + SD IgE level was at 51.7 + 38 KU(A) /L at 1 year and 19.7 + 13 KU(A) /L at a mean age of 34 + 5 months. All had an associated anaphylactic reaction with milk and 5 were still allergic to milk by the end of the survey. In the remaining 24 infants, egg was given for the first time at a mean age of 30 + 9 months, by error in 4 cases, all exhibiting an immediate reaction, and in a hospital setting in 20, among whom 14 reacted. Among those 18, with a specific IgE level at 9.1 + 10 KU(A) /L at 28 + 9 months, 4 became tolerant between 3 and 4 years, with specific IgE levels below 1.3 KU(A) /L and a 5th one with specific IgE >100 KU(A) /L at 6 months tolerated scrambled eggs at age 7 year, with specific IgE at 2.6 KU(A) /L. In the 6 others, labeled "non allergic", egg white specific IgE levels were significantly lower, whatever the age, than in the "no challenge" group. The age at challenge was 35 + 8 months, with a mean specific IgE level at 1.0 + 0.9 KU

  1. Food crystallization and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg products can be utilized to control crystallization in a diverse realm of food products. Albumen and egg yolk can aid in the control of sugar crystal formation in candies. Egg yolk can enhance the textural properties and aid in the control of large ice crystal formation in frozen desserts. In...

  2. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, B I; Hickstein, L; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G; Muraro, A; Sheikh, A

    2014-08-01

    Allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish constitutes the majority of food allergy reactions, but reliable estimates of their prevalence are lacking. This systematic review aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of their prevalence in Europe.Studies published in Europe from January 1, 2000, to September 30, 2012, were identified from searches of four electronic databases. Two independent reviewers appraised the studies and extracted the estimates of interest. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. Fifty studies were included in a narrative synthesis and 42 studies in the meta-analyses. Although there were significant heterogeneity between the studies, the overall pooled estimates for all age groups of self-reported lifetime prevalence of allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish were 6.0% (95% confidence interval: 5.7-6.4), 2.5% (2.3-2.7), 3.6% (3.0-4.2), 0.4% (0.3-0.6), 1.3% (1.2-1.5), 2.2% (1.8-2.5), and 1.3% (0.9-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of food-challenge-defined allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish was 0.6% (0.5-0.8), 0.2% (0.2-0.3), 0.1% (0.01-0.2), 0.3% (0.1-0.4), 0.2% (0.2-0.3), 0.5% (0.08-0.8), 0.1% (0.02-0.2), and 0.1% (0.06-0.3), respectively. Allergy to cow's milk and egg was more common among younger children, while allergy to peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish was more common among the older ones. There were insufficient data to compare the estimates of soy and wheat allergy between the age groups. Allergy to most foods, except soy and peanut, appeared to be more common in Northern Europe. In summary, the lifetime self-reported prevalence of allergy to common foods in Europe ranged from 0.1 to 6.0%. The heterogeneity between studies was high, and participation rates varied across studies reaching as low as food allergies and initiating strategies to increase participation will advance this evidence base. © 2014

  3. IgE mediated food allergy in Korean children: focused on plant food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Young

    2013-01-01

    , we reveals that the peanut sensitization rate in Korea reaches 18%, and that, when sensitized to peanut, patients showed a significant tendency to have co-sensitization with house dust mites, egg white, wheat, and soybean. The higher specific IgE to peanut was related to the likelihood of the patient developing severe systemic reactions. In another study, based on the data analysis of 69 patients under 4 years of age who had suspected peanut and tree nut allergy, 22 (31.9%) were sensitized to walnut (>0.35 kU/L, 0.45-27.4 kU/L) and 6 (8.7%) experienced anaphylaxis due to a small amount of walnut exposure. Furthermore, in this review, clinical and immunological studies on plant food allergies, such as buckwheat allergy, rice allergy, barley allergy, and kiwi fruit allergy, in Korean children are discussed.

  4. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  5. Association of PCBs and allergies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Mayumi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yamamoto, Megumi; Tsuchiya, Takuto; Matsumura, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the incidence rates of childhood allergies have been rising around the world. The presence of persistent chemical pollutants in the environment and exposure to air pollutants are often cited as potential causes of childhood allergies. Accordingly, epidemiological studies of the associations between exposure to low levels of pollutants and adverse health effects are essential. However, at present no useful biomarkers for evaluating such associations have been developed. Thus, using a molecular epidemiological approach we planned to identify candidate biomarkers of pollutant-induced adverse health effects that can be used in children. In asthmatic children, we found that the serum levels of several polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener sub-types were significantly positively correlated with interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expression, whereas in a sub-group of children who displayed positive immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses to milk or egg proteins IL-22 mRNA expression was demonstrated to be useful for detecting the adverse health effects of environmental pollutants, particularly PCB congeners. In conclusion, the mRNA expression levels of IL-8 and IL-22 can be used to detect children who are at particular risk of adverse health events caused by environmental pollutants, especially PCBs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunological and radioimmunological studies in food allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, N.; Shaternikov, V.; Todorov, D.; Mazo, V.; Marokko, I.; Stoinov, S.; Dontchev, N.; Borov, B.; Drumtcheva, M.; Michailova, L.; Gmoshinsky, I.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow)

    1987-01-01

    Experiments in order to induce food allergy were carried out in guinea pigs. The sensitization with egg albumin, pasteurized cow milk and bovine serum albumin provoked anaphylactic shock. The passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, serum antibodies, liver cytochrome P-450 concentration and the anaphylactic shock were determined. Some correlation between the mortality, anaphylactic antibodies and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase system was established. The morphology of the jejunal mucosa, the activities of 5 disaccharidases, the number of immunoglobulin secreting cells (Ig SC) and the mastocytes were investigated in 35 patients with food allergy. Normal mucosa was found in 28 cases as well as a significant decrease of the lactase, sucrase and trehalase activities. An increase of IgM and IgG secreting cells and of mastocytes, different electron microscopic changes in the enterocytes (an increased number of lysosomes, appearance of vesicles in cytoplasma, shortening, enlargement and uneven distribution of microvilli) as well as symptoms of functional activity in the plasmocytes and some others were also revealed. The experimental model obtained is similar to that one in humans according to the enteral way of sensitization the high selectivity of the allergic reaction which is of reagin type as the immunoglobulin changes are involved. (author)

  7. Vaxjo: A Web-Based Vaccine Adjuvant Database and Its Application for Analysis of Vaccine Adjuvants and Their Uses in Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Sayers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bioinformatics scripts are developed and used to link vaccine adjuvants to different adjuvanted vaccines stored in the general VIOLIN vaccine database. Presently, 103 vaccine adjuvants have been curated in Vaxjo. Among these adjuvants, 98 have been used in 384 vaccines stored in VIOLIN against over 81 pathogens, cancers, or allergies. All these vaccine adjuvants are categorized and analyzed based on adjuvant types, pathogens used, and vaccine types. As a use case study of vaccine adjuvants in infectious disease vaccines, the adjuvants used in Brucella vaccines are specifically analyzed. A user-friendly web query and visualization interface is developed for interactive vaccine adjuvant search. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine adjuvants is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO in the Web Ontology Language (OWL format.

  8. Vaxjo: a web-based vaccine adjuvant database and its application for analysis of vaccine adjuvants and their uses in vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Samantha; Ulysse, Guerlain; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bioinformatics scripts are developed and used to link vaccine adjuvants to different adjuvanted vaccines stored in the general VIOLIN vaccine database. Presently, 103 vaccine adjuvants have been curated in Vaxjo. Among these adjuvants, 98 have been used in 384 vaccines stored in VIOLIN against over 81 pathogens, cancers, or allergies. All these vaccine adjuvants are categorized and analyzed based on adjuvant types, pathogens used, and vaccine types. As a use case study of vaccine adjuvants in infectious disease vaccines, the adjuvants used in Brucella vaccines are specifically analyzed. A user-friendly web query and visualization interface is developed for interactive vaccine adjuvant search. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine adjuvants is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) format.

  9. Strategic Policy for Pandemic Vaccine Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Considering, for example, the $176 million set aside each year for egg embryos that are used for nurturing the 1940s egg-based vaccine production process...Association. (2007, November). Project destiny executive summary. Unpublished document. Available upon request of author: russotp@dhec.sc.gov Associated

  10. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. A New Decade of Vaccines

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2011-09-01

    The call for a new decade of vaccines was made in December 2010. The aims are to secure the further discovery, development and delivery of vaccination. The first challenge is the acquisition of funds for the research and development of 20 new vaccines1. The Gates Foundation has pledged $10 billion for this venture. The other major players are WHO, UNICEF and the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The top priorities are TB, AIDS and Malaria. It is hoped that a Malaria vaccine will available in 3 years. The ambitious target of saving the lives of over 7 million children has been set. The programme must also address the need for vaccines in insulin dependent diabetes, cancers and degenerative diseases2.

  12. Facts and Statistics about Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Statistics with References What Is a Food Allergy? A food allergy is a medical condition in ... an emerging concern. How Many People Have Food Allergies? Researchers estimate that up to 15 million Americans ...

  13. ORAL ALLERGY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is defined as a set of clinical manifestations caused by IgE-mediated allergic  reactions  that  occur  at  oral  and  pharyngeal  mucosae  in  the  patients  with  pollen  sensitization  after ingestion of certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and spices. OAS arises from cross-reactivity between specific pollen and food allergens, due to similarity of a configuration and amino acid sequence of allergenic molecules. OAS is considered as class II food allergy, being caused by thermo- and chemolabile allergens, and it is rarely combined with generalized manifestations of food allergy. Prevalence and spectrum of the causal allergens depend on a kind of pollen sensitization. In Moscow region, as well as in Northern Europe, allergic sensitization most commonly occurs to the pollen of leaf trees, whereas OAS is mostly connected with ingestion of fruits from Rosaceae family and nuts. Since last years, a newly developed technique of component-resolved molecular diagnosis (CR diagnostics allows of more precise detection of OAS-causing allergen molecules. These data are of extreme importance for administration of adequate nutritional therapy and prediction of SIT efficiency. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 1, pp 17-28

  14. Soy sauce allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, K; Sugiura, M

    2010-07-01

    Soy sauce is well-known as a Japanese traditional seasoning, namely shoyu. Usually, shoyu means sauce made from soy. Shoyu does have not only benefits but also adverse effects. Soy sauce allergy which is not caused by soy or wheat allergy is rare. Our four patients developed cellulites and dermatitis around lips with irritation after a meal with shoyu. The age of the patients was 10, 35, 46 and 51 years; they were all female. These inflammations can be developed by two causes; first it can be caused by allergic reactions to shoyu; the second, it can be caused by histamine poisoning. It is important to determine whether inflammation is caused by allergic reactions or histamine poisoning. We determined the volume of histamine in some sauces and performed prick test and laboratory tests. Four patients had positive reactions by prick test after using some sauces. We suspected that histamine caused their symptoms, but nine normal volunteers had negative reactions. Patient's specific IgE score to soy and wheat was class 0. The results showed that the sauce made from soybean and broad bean contained histamine, but histamine in other sauces was not detected. In this study, we confirmed by prick test, four cases of soy sauce allergy, which was caused by some products during brewing. When patients with inflammations around mouth, after a meal containing or using soy sauce, are examined, it should be considered whether dermatitis or cellulites were developed by allergic reaction or by histamine poisoning.

  15. Globalisation and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation brings patients more and more into contact with products or food from other cultures or countries. Europeans may be confronted with allergens not yet known in Europe - such as dimethylfumarate - responsible for contact allergy epidemics. Moreover, "low cost" goods, not always legally imported into Europe, sometimes may lead to European legislation being circumvented and thus bring our patients into contact with components that have been banned from manufacturing processes or strongly regulated, such as nickel in jewelry or telephones, some colouring agents in clothes or preservatives in cosmetics. Disinfection measures for freight containers arriving from other continents into our harbours lead to fumigants and other toxic products contaminating the air and the transported products or goods. Globalisation can not only elicit contact allergy but also airborne contact dermatitis or food allergy. The aim of this paper is not to make an exhaustive review of cutaneous allergic problems elicited by globalisation, but to illustrate this new worldwide problem with a few meaningful examples.

  16. Apheresis in food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdah, Lamia; Leone, Giovanna; Artesani, Mariacristina; Riccardi, Carla; Mazzina, Oscar

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy and anaphylaxis has risen rapidly in developed countries, and countries with rapid industrialization may follow. Therapies include elimination diets, Oral ImmunoTherapy, and the administration of biologics, but high serum IgE levels may preclude their use. Consequently, decreasing IgE becomes a rational approach and could be obtained by immunoapheresis. The aim of this review is to evaluate the rationale and advantages of immunoapheresis. The majority of the available adsorbers remove aspecifically all classes of immunoglobulins. Recently, IgE-specific adsorbers have been approved. Data on immunoapheresis for the treatment of allergic diseases with pathologically elevated IgE levels are emerging. In atopic dermatitis, this therapy alone seems to be beneficial. IgE-selective apheresis appears to be sufficient to reduce the risk of anaphylaxis in multiple food allergy (MFA) and, when IgE titers are high, to open the way to treatment with Omalizumab. Prospective studies, with well designed protocols, are needed to assess the efficacy, tolerability, and cost-effectiveness of immunoapheresis in the field of food allergy.

  17. Analysis of food allergy in atopic dermatitis patients - association with concomitant allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Celakovská

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A few reports demonstrate the comorbidity of food allergy and allergic march in adult patients. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate, if there is some relation in atopic dermatitis patients at the age 14 years and older who suffer from food allergy to common food allergens to other allergic diseases and parameters as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, duration of atopic dermatitis, family history and onset of atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Complete dermatological and allergological examination was performed; these parameters were examined: food allergy (to wheat flour, cow milk, egg, peanuts and soy, the occurrence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, duration of atopic dermatitis, family history and onset of atopic dermatitis. The statistical evaluation of the relations among individual parameters monitored was performed. Results: Food allergy was altogether confirmed in 65 patients (29% and these patients suffer significantly more often from bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Persistent atopic dermatitis lesions and positive data in family history about atopy are recorded significantly more often in patients with confirmed food allergy to examined foods as well. On the other hand, the onset of atopic dermatitis under 5 year of age is not recorded significantly more often in patients suffering from allergy to examined foods. Conclusion: Atopic dermatitis patients suffering from food allergy suffer significantly more often from allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, persistent eczematous lesions and have positive data about atopy in their family history.

  18. The Evaluation of Food Allergy on Behavior in Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khakzad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many efforts, the etiology of autism remains unknown. Food allergy has been suggested as a pathogenic factor in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Our aim in this study was to determine whether food allergy could be considered as a risk factor for autistic children. Methods: Thirty-nine autistic children were examined by the skin prick test (SPT, and total serum IgE was evaluated by ELISA. SPTs were performed for egg whites, oranges, peanuts, tomatoes, tuna fish, walnuts, aubergines, melons, grapes, and cow milk. Parents and teachers were then asked to exclude these items from the childrens’ diets for six months. After the treatment period, the autistic children who tested positive for food allergies were re-assessed by a standard questionnaire to obtain further information about their medical histories. Results: Three of the study’s 39 autistic children (7.7% tested positive on the SPT. Total serum IgE levels were elevated in 56.4% of the subjects (mean=164±24.5, cut-off >155 IU/ml. The results showed a decreased mean in the childrens’ autistic behaviors on the Children Autism Rating Scale (CARS after both eight weeks and six months; however, this decrease was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Food allergy may play a role in the pathophysiology of autism. We conclude that avoidance of certain foods benefits the behavior of autistic children.

  19. Prevention of Allergies and Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  20. Allergy to uncommon pets: new allergies but the same allergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli eDiaz-Perales

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of exotic pet allergies has been increasing over the last decade. Years ago, the main allergy-causing domestic animals were dogs and cats, although nowadays there is an increasing number of allergic diseases related to insects, rodents, amphibians, fish, and birds, among others. The current socio-economic situation, in which more and more people have to live in small apartments, might be related to this tendency. The main allergic symptoms related to exotic pets are the same as those described for dog and cat allergy: respiratory symptoms. Animal allergens are therefore, important sensitizing agents and an important risk factor for asthma. There are 3 main protein families implicated in these allergies, which are the lipocalin superfamily, serum albumin family, and secretoglobin superfamily. Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of allergens is crucial to improvement treatment of uncommon-pet allergies.

  1. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  2. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  3. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg

  4. Trivalent MDCK cell culture-derived influenza vaccine Optaflu (Novartis Vaccines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, Alexander; Halperin, Scott A

    2009-06-01

    Annual influenza epidemics continue to have a considerable impact in both developed and developing countries. Vaccination remains the principal measure to prevent seasonal influenza and reduce associated morbidity and mortality. The WHO recommends using established mammalian cell culture lines as an alternative to egg-based substrates in the manufacture of influenza vaccine. In June 2007, the EMEA approved Optaflu, a Madin Darby canine kidney cell culture-derived influenza vaccine manufactured by Novartis Vaccines. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of cell culture-based technology for influenza vaccine production, compares immunogenicity and safety data for Optaflu with that of currently marketed conventional egg-based influenza vaccines, and considers the prospects for wider use of cell culture-based influenza vaccines.

  5. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. Clinical Management of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin L; Walkner, Madeline; Vickery, Brian P; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2015-12-01

    Food allergies have become a growing public health concern. At present the standard of care focuses on avoidance of trigger foods, education, and treatment of symptoms following accidental ingestions. This article provides a framework for primary care physicians and allergists for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of pediatric food allergy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing latex allergies at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Latex Allergy Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  8. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  9. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen so...

  10. Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.-W.; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, H.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk β-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods

  11. Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, H.-Y

    2002-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk {beta}-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods.

  12. A prospective microbiome-wide association study of food sensitization and food allergy in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica H; Lee-Sarwar, Kathleen A; Sordillo, Joanne; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Zhou, Yanjiao; O'Connor, George; Sandel, Megan; Bacharier, Leonard B; Zeiger, Robert; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Gold, Diane R; Weiss, Scott T; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the intestinal microbiome are prospectively associated with the development of asthma; less is known regarding the role of microbiome alterations in food allergy development. Intestinal microbiome samples were collected at age 3-6 months in children participating in the follow-up phase of an interventional trial of high-dose vitamin D given during pregnancy. At age 3, sensitization to foods (milk, egg, peanut, soy, wheat, walnut) was assessed. Food allergy was defined as caretaker report of healthcare provider-diagnosed allergy to the above foods prior to age 3 with evidence of IgE sensitization. Analysis was performed using Phyloseq and DESeq2; P-values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Complete data were available for 225 children; there were 87 cases of food sensitization and 14 cases of food allergy. Microbial diversity measures did not differ between food sensitization and food allergy cases and controls. The genera Haemophilus (log 2 fold change -2.15, P=.003), Dialister (log 2 fold change -2.22, P=.009), Dorea (log 2 fold change -1.65, P=.02), and Clostridium (log 2 fold change -1.47, P=.002) were underrepresented among subjects with food sensitization. The genera Citrobacter (log 2 fold change -3.41, P=.03), Oscillospira (log 2 fold change -2.80, P=.03), Lactococcus (log 2 fold change -3.19, P=.05), and Dorea (log 2 fold change -3.00, P=.05) were underrepresented among subjects with food allergy. The temporal association between bacterial colonization and food sensitization and allergy suggests that the microbiome may have a causal role in the development of food allergy. Our findings have therapeutic implications for the prevention and treatment of food allergy. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  13. The lymphocyte transformation test for the diagnosis of drug allergy: sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyfeler, B; Pichler, W J

    1997-02-01

    The diagnosis of a drug allergy is mainly based upon a very detailed history and the clinical findings. In addition, several in vitro or in vivo tests can be performed to demonstrate a sensitization to a certain drug. One of the in vitro tests is the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), which can reveal a sensitization of T-cells by an enhanced proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to a certain drug. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the LTT, 923 case histories of patients with suspected drug allergy in whom a LTT was performed were retrospectively analysed. Based on the history and provocation tests, the probability (P) of a drug allergy was estimated to be > 0.9, 0.5-0.9, 0.1-0.5 or 0.9) had a positive LTT, which indicates a sensitivity of 78%. If allergies to betalactam-antibiotics were analysed separately, the sensitivity was 74.4%. Fifteen of 102 patients where a classical drug allergy could be excluded (P sensitization could be demonstrated as well (i.e. hen's egg lysozyme, 7/7). In 632 of the 923 cases, skin tests were also performed (scratch and/or epicutaneous), for which we found a lower sensitivity than for the LTT (64%), while the specificity was the same (85%). Although our data are somewhat biased by the high number of penicillin allergies and cannot be generalized to drug allergies caused by other compounds, we conclude that the LTT is a useful diagnostic test in drug allergies, able to support the diagnosis of a drug allergy and to pinpoint the relevant drug.

  14. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  15. Egg Bungee Jump!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  16. Are all eggs equal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.

    2016-01-01

    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic

  17. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  18. Allergies and Learning/Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, James A.; Nall, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This article describes various types of allergies, how they are diagnosed medically, and the different forms of medical treatment. It also considers how allergies may affect school learning and behavior, the connection between allergies and learning and behavioral disorders, the impact of allergy medications upon classroom performance, and various…

  19. Environmental pollution and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Hirohisa; Inoue, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Environmental changes are thought to be the main factor in the rapid increase and worsening of allergic diseases. While there have been significant changes in many environmental factors, including in environments such as residential, health and sanitation, food, and water/soil/atmospheric environments, the root of each of these changes is likely an increase in chemical substances. In fact, various environmental pollutants, such as air pollutants and chemical substances, have been shown to worsen various allergies in experimental studies. For example, diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), which are an agglomeration of particles and a wide array of chemical substances, aggravate asthma, primarily due to the principle organic chemical components of DEPs. In addition, environmental chemicals such as phthalate esters, which are commonly used as plasticizers in plastic products, also aggravate atopic dermatitis. It has also become evident that extremely small nanomaterials and Asian sand dust particles can enhance allergic inflammation. While the underlying mechanisms that cause such aggravation are becoming clearer at the cellular and molecular levels, methods to easily and quickly evaluate (screen) the ever-increasing amount of environmental pollutants for exacerbating effects on allergies are also under development. To eliminate and control allergic diseases, medical measures are necessary, but it is also essential to tackle this issue by ameliorating environmental changes.

  20. Is the Atopy Patch Test Reliable in the Evaluation of Food Allergy-Related Atopic Dermatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Mahboubeh; Rafiee, Elham; Darougar, Sepideh; Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra

    2018-01-01

    Aeroallergens and food allergens are found to be relevant in atopic dermatitis. The atopy patch test (APT) can help to detect food allergies in children with atopic dermatitis. This study evaluates if the APT is a valuable tool in the diagnostic workup of children with food allergy-related atopic dermatitis. 42 children between 6 months and 12 years of age were selected at the Mofid Children Hospital. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed, and the severity of the disease was determined. At the test visit, the patients underwent a skin prick test (SPT), APT, and serum IgE level measurement for cow's milk, egg yolk, egg white, wheat, and soy. We found a sensitivity of 91.7%, a specificity of 72.7%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 88%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 80%, and an accuracy of 85.7% for APT performed for cow's milk. APT performed for egg yolk had a sensitivity and a NPV of 100%, while the same parameters obtained with egg white were 84.2 and 75%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and NPV of the APT for wheat were 100, 75, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity, PPV, and NPV of the APT for soy were 87.5, 70, and 87.5%, respectively. Our data demonstrate that the APT is a reliable diagnostic tool to evaluate suspected food allergy-related skin symptoms in childhood and infancy. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. EGG: Empirical Galaxy Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, C.; Elbaz, D.; Pannella, M.; Merlin, E.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Cullen, F.; Dunlop, J.; Ferguson, H. C.; Michałowski, M. J.; Okumura, K.; Santini, P.; Shu, X. W.; Wang, T.; White, C.

    2018-04-01

    The Empirical Galaxy Generator (EGG) generates fake galaxy catalogs and images with realistic positions, morphologies and fluxes from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared. The catalogs are generated by egg-gencat and stored in binary FITS tables (column oriented). Another program, egg-2skymaker, is used to convert the generated catalog into ASCII tables suitable for ingestion by SkyMaker (ascl:1010.066) to produce realistic high resolution images (e.g., Hubble-like), while egg-gennoise and egg-genmap can be used to generate the low resolution images (e.g., Herschel-like). These tools can be used to test source extraction codes, or to evaluate the reliability of any map-based science (stacking, dropout identification, etc.).

  2. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boye Joyce Irene

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc., soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat, and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities.

  3. Food allergy: epidemiology and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Naturally Occurring Egg Drop Syndrome Infection in Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Biđin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A decrease in the egg quality, production, fertility and hatchability without serious clinical signs of illness was recorded in turkey fl ocks in Croatia at the beginning of 2002. It was assumed that the egg drop syndrome virus might be one of the etiological agents responsible for the abnormalities in the egg production. The systematic serological monitoring, using a haemagglutination inhibition test, showed that the antibodies to the egg drop syndrome virus existed in 94.4 and 55.1% of the sera analysed in 2002 and 2003, respectively. The haemagglutination inhibition titres ranged from 16 to 128. The sera samples were randomly collected from 11 - to 46-week-old hens from the affected fl ocks. The serological evidence of the egg drop syndrome virus infection was confirmed by detection of the presence of the virus genome in the turkey sera by the polymerase chain reaction. Vaccination of the 18- and 25-week-old turkey hens against the egg drop syndrome virus started in March 2003. After this period, the presence of antibodies to the egg drop syndrome virus (the haemagglutination inhibition titres between 16 and 256 was found in 96.7% of the analysed sera, while the egg production reached normal or higher values for the Nicholas hybrid line of turkeys.

  5. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  6. International Consensus on drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H

    2014-04-01

    When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of

  7. The panel of egg allergens, Gal d 1-Gal d 5: Their improved purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Have, T. T.

    2008-01-01

    Egg proteins represent one of the most important sources evoking food allergic reactions. In order to improve allergy diagnosis, purified and well-characterized proteins are needed. Although the egg white allergens Gal d 1, 2, 3 and 4 (ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme......) are commercially available, these preparations contain impurities, which affect exact in vitro diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to set up further purification protocols and to extend the characterization of the physicochemical and immunological properties of the final batches. The egg white allergens...... Gal d 1-4 were purified from commercial preparations, whereas Gal d 5 (a-livetin) was purified from egg yolk. The final batches of Gal d 1-5 consisted of a range of isoforms with defined tertiary structure. In addition, the IgE binding capacity of the purified egg allergens was tested using allergic...

  8. Association between timing of food introduction in on first year old and the prevalence of allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael San Mauro-Martín

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food allergy is an abnormal response after ingestion of an allergen in a food where there is a proven immune mechanism. During the period of breastfeeding, infants are introducing new foods in small quantities and separately for possible allergies. All in relation to the suggested timetable for the introduction of different food groups suggested by the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition. Our project focused on studying the possible relationship between the variability of introduction of the different food groups and the development of allergies in infant.Material and Methods: Retrospective descriptive study in an incidental sample (n = 30. It evolved into an online platform with an Ad Hoc survey, in which data was recollected on the characteristics of allergy, diet, type of birth, and introduction of food were collected.Results: Allergies were found 36% fruit, 20% egg, nuts and dairy 16% and 12%, grains, legumes, seafood and vegetables 4% respectively. 89% were breastfeeding. 78% were born vaginally. 46.2% compliance with the protocol introduction and 53.8% advance or postpone the introduction.Conclusions: The data reviewed suggest that food allergies are influenced by several factors that can influence and affect the number of allergic conditions of a particular region, so it is necessary to define these variables in studies to have greater reliability in the necessary studies performed.

  9. Application of Food-specific IgG Antibody Detection in Allergy Dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yine Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of food-specific IgG antibody detection in allergy dermatoses was explored. 181 patients with allergy dermatoses were diagnosed from January to September 2014 and 20 healthy subjects were selected. Fourteen kinds of food-specific IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA method among all the subjects. The positive rates of IgG antibody of the patient group and the healthy group were respectively 65.2% and 5.0%. The positive rates of IgG antibody of egg, milk, shrimp and crab took a large proportion in three groups of patients with three kinds of allergy dermatoses of urticaria, eczema and allergic dermatitis, the proportion of which was respectively 70.2%, 77.8% and 71.7%. Among urticaria and allergic dermatitis patients with positive antibody, the positive rate of children was significantly higher than that of adults (p0.05. Allergy dermatoses are closely related to food-specific IgG antibodies, and the allergy dermatoses patients have a high incidence rate of food intolerance; detecting IgG antibody in the serum of patients is of great significance for the diagnosis and treatment of allergy dermatoses.

  10. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  11. Global issues in allergy and immunology: Parasitic infections and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Alvaro A; Cooper, Philip J; Figueiredo, Camila A; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2017-11-01

    Allergic diseases are on the increase globally in parallel with a decrease in parasitic infection. The inverse association between parasitic infections and allergy at an ecological level suggests a causal association. Studies in human subjects have generated a large knowledge base on the complexity of the interrelationship between parasitic infection and allergy. There is evidence for causal links, but the data from animal models are the most compelling: despite the strong type 2 immune responses they induce, helminth infections can suppress allergy through regulatory pathways. Conversely, many helminths can cause allergic-type inflammation, including symptoms of "classical" allergic disease. From an evolutionary perspective, subjects with an effective immune response against helminths can be more susceptible to allergy. This narrative review aims to inform readers of the most relevant up-to-date evidence on the relationship between parasites and allergy. Experiments in animal models have demonstrated the potential benefits of helminth infection or administration of helminth-derived molecules on chronic inflammatory diseases, but thus far, clinical trials in human subjects have not demonstrated unequivocal clinical benefits. Nevertheless, there is sufficiently strong evidence to support continued investigation of the potential benefits of helminth-derived therapies for the prevention or treatment of allergic and other inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Update on equine allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadok, Valerie A

    2013-12-01

    Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  14. Chemical allergy in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable interest in the immunobiological processes through which the development of allergic sensitization to chemicals is initiated and orchestrated. One of the most intriguing issues is the basis for the elicitation by chemical sensitizers of different forms of allergic...... reaction; that is, allergic contact dermatitis or sensitization of the respiratory tract associated with occupational asthma. Studies in rodents have revealed that differential forms of allergic sensitization to chemicals are, in large part at least, a function of the selective development of discrete...... functional sub-populations of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Evidence for a similar association of chemical allergy in humans with discrete T-lymphocyte populations is, however, limited. It is of some interest, therefore, that two recent articles from different teams of investigators have shed new light...

  15. [Allergy to cow's milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrier, E

    1997-04-01

    After recalling the medical reluctance as well as the risks that there are in complete elimination of milk in infants, the author presents several clinical pictures and then a classification of the immunological types: Allergic shock of neonates, digestive and extra-digestive (skin and respiratory airways) symptoms finally the rare chronic gastro-enteritis to cow milk. Non-reaginic food allergies: Acute gastro-enteropathy to cow milk, with villous atrophy and Heiner's syndrome, delayed hypersensitivities are studied, of difficult diagnosis that may cover almost all pathologies. They may be found in the digestive system, respiratory, the kidneys and even in the organs of behaviour. Migraine of food origin must be remembered. Development in regressive rules is a function of the type of allergy and the suddenness of the symptoms. Diagnosis is above all by questioning and confirmation or not by skin and in vitro tests. Certainty can only be shown by tests of elimination and re-introduction. The diet, at the same time of both diagnostic and therapeutic value, is based on the replacement of cow milk by foods that contain the same amount of proteins. It is essential, especially in the very small, to have perfect match of food so as to avoid any risk of a dramatic hypoprotinemia, which may happen if the child does not like the suggested diet, or if the parents cannot buy the substitution products. In such conditions great care must be taken to avoid provoking a crisis. Care must be taken to decide: If the elimination of cow milk is always justified each time. If it is, always check that the substituted protein is properly made, the family may change the diet mistakenly.

  16. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and some egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs were examined for both internal and external egg quality traits.Data obtained were subjected to one-way analysis of variance using the general linear procedure of SAS (2012). Differences in means were ranked using the Duncan's multiple Range test. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and other egg quality ...

  17. Modified egg as a nutritional supplement during peak brain development: a new target for fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Niva

    2009-01-01

    Though eggs have the unique capacity, like breastmilk, to concentrate essential nutrients required for early growth and brain development of offspring - i.e. n-3 PUFA, increasingly deficient and sources contaminated - cholesterol and allergy concerns often exclude them from perinatal recommendations. Egg's potential contribution of key nutrients required for peak brain development are re-evaluated vis-à-vis fortification, accessibility, and risks. Contributions of standard (USDA) and fortified (selected market-available) egg compositions to perinatal requirements for critical brain-supporting nutrients were compared to human and cow milks, and risks and recommendations evaluated. Standard egg has already higher concentrations/kcal of iron, selenium, zinc, choline, vitamins B12 and E, and essential amino acids (plus taurine) than human milk. Fortified egg could further yield significant n-3 PUFA % recommendations for pregnancy-lactation (total n-3 69.6-75.0% [DRI=1400-1300 mg/day]), including DHA (120.1-129.3%, mostly approximately 80% [calculated DRI=140-130 mg/day]), plus antioxidant vitamins A (9.0-15.2%) and E (51.6-65.3%), and minerals iodine (33.6-44.5%) and selenium (33.7-39.3%); % recommendations for children (1-3 y) even more. Cholesterol, important for nerve membranes and learning, may not be generally contraindicated in childbearing-aged women (approximately 10.5% hypercholesterolemia), and early-life egg exposure may increase tolerance. Egg-inclusive perinatal nutrition programs have shown significant contributions. Eggs, especially target-fortified, may provide a unique nutritional supplement for peak brain development continously during pregnancy, nursing, and infancy (from 6 months), especially vs. insufficiencies. Missing nutritional opportunities by egg exclusion vs. concerns of hypercholesterolemia or allergy could be addressed individually, rather than as general recommendations, warranting further research and targeted egg design.

  18. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow's milk allergy is more common in children than in adults. CaSSim ... adverse reactions to cow's milk protein such as lactose intolerance. .... possible hormonal effects on the reproductive ... formula in humans – such studies are much.

  19. Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

  20. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...... and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice....

  1. Latex allergies - for hospital patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000499.htm Latex allergies - for hospital patients To use the sharing features on this page, ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  2. Allergy Medications: Know Your Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as peanuts, or if you're allergic to bee or wasp venom. A second injection is often ... eligible candidate to mite immunotherapy in the real world. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology. 2017;13:11. Overview ...

  3. Advances in mechanisms of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Bruce S; Busse, William W

    2004-05-01

    This review summarizes selected Mechanisms of Allergy articles appearing between 2002 and 2003 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Articles chosen include those dealing with human airways disease pathophysiology, pharmacology, cell biology, cell recruitment, and genetics, as well as information from allergen challenge models in both human and nonhuman systems. When appropriate, articles from other journals have been included to supplement the topics being presented.

  4. Eggs on Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs face a very different fate. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries. In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical imaginaries that shaped...... Danish regulation of the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyse the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work, and readings in Parliament, along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that over time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current five years and today continue...... to ignite discussions on elective egg freezing. We rely on welfare-state perspectives to discuss why reproduction, in the Danish context, is seen as a legitimate and appropriate sphere to regulate, and we turn to feminist theorizing to discuss the gendered implications captured in the sociotechnical...

  5. Advances in food allergy in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert A

    2016-12-01

    This review highlights research advances in food allergy that were published in the Journal in 2015. The world of food allergy research continues to rapidly accelerate, with increasing numbers of outstanding submissions to the Journal. In 2015, important studies on the epidemiology of food allergy were published, suggesting differential rates of food allergy in specific racial and ethnic groups. Even more importantly, studies were published identifying specific risk factors for the development of peanut allergy, as well as specific prevention strategies. We also saw new studies on the diagnosis of food allergy and potential approaches to the treatment of food allergy, as well as novel mechanistic studies helping to explain the immunologic correlates of food allergy and food desensitization. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Allergy to cosmetics. I. Fragrances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika

    2004-01-01

    The authors report current information on allergy to aromatic agents present in cosmetics and products of household chemistry. In the perfume industry, about 3000 aromas are used. Single products may contain from 10 to 300 compounds. The problem of difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to odors is addressed. The mixture of 8 such products used in diagnostic screening is able to detect allergy only in about 30% of patients who do not tolerate cosmetics. Changing frequency of allergy to individual aromas is discussed. It has been now observed that cinnamon products are less allergic than chemical compounds present in oak moss. Since the 1990s of the last century, allergy to a synthetic aromatic agent, Lyral is the subject of interest in many research centers involved in studies of contact allergy. Half the cosmetics present in European markets, especially deodorants, after shave cosmetics, hand and body lotions contain this agent. It induces positive reactions in about 10% of patients allergic to aromatic agents. Detection of allergy to Lyral is difficult as it is not included in the set of commercial allergens used to diagnose hypersensitivity to aromatic agents.

  7. Geographical differences in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, Joan; García-Moral, Alba; Enrique, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Food allergy represents a health problem worldwide and leads to life-threatening reactions and even impairs quality of life. Epidemiological data during the past decades is very heterogeneous because of the use of different diagnostic procedures, and most studies have only been performed in specific geographical areas. The aim of this article is to review the available data on the geographical distribution of food allergies at the food source and molecular level and to link food allergy patterns to the aeroallergen influence in each area. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, studies performed within the EuroPrevall Project and EAACI position papers regarding food allergy were analysed. The prevalence of food allergy sensitization differs between geographical areas, probably as a consequence of differences among populations, their habits and the influence of the cross-reactivity of aeroallergens and other sources of allergens. Geographical differences in food allergy are clearly evident at the allergenic molecular level, which seems to be directly influenced by the aeroallergens of each region and associated with specific clinical patterns.

  8. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  9. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eggs. Eat or refrigerate eggs and foods containing eggs promptly after cooking. Do not keep eggs or foods made with ... water can pull bacteria into the egg. Refrigerate eggs after collection. Cook eggs thoroughly. Raw and undercooked eggs contain Salmonella ...

  10. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  11. Coping with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Coping with Food Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Allergic ... timing and location of the reaction. How Food Allergies Develop Food allergies are more common in children ...

  12. Understanding Food Allergy | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contents Understanding Food Allergy Follow us Understanding Food Allergy Latest Updates from NIH Food allergies are often ... to diagnose, prevent, and treat the disease.” Food allergy studies With so many unanswered questions surrounding food ...

  13. [Tool of nutrition education for allergic to egg and cow's milk protein in pediatric age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael

    2014-05-01

    Food allergy affects a large part of the population and their numbers are increasing. Although the knowing of this pathology is growing, allergic patients have really difficulties to lead a normal life, especially with food. Until now,this group hadn t practical tools that would help them in the development of a balanced daily diet, as there are for the general population in the form of pyramids and dietary guidelines . This work has covered this need for two of the most prevalent allergies in early life. gather information on the allergy of cow's milk protein and egg, to design a food pyramid for these patients, based on the consensus, recommendations and scientific guidance. After confirming the absence of a similar work, food pyramids allergy to egg and cow's milk protein, adapted to each, and a joint pyramid is designed to both allergies. Besides basic recommendations for healthy eating were included in general and in particular individuals, with special interest for the collective (food hygiene, food additives, cosmetics, medicines, etc). Due to the importance of nutrition in childhood and acquires the underlying difficulties this group, to properly plan the diet is very important as it can prevent accidents and long-term nutritional deficiencies. Therefore provide graphical tools and practices to this goal, is importance for population and medical and scientific community, and is the result of this work. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  15. Food allergy is associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections during childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Woicka-Kolejwa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : To find out whether children with food allergy have an increased risk of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections and of asthma. Aim: To describe the clinical profile of children diagnosed with food allergy referred to the Allergy Clinic. Material and methods : We conducted a retrospective study to assess the patients’ demographic, anthropometric and clinical data. The analysis included data of all children by the age of 10 years (registered with the Allergy Clinic between 2012 and 2013 in whom IgE mediated food allergy had been diagnosed during 18 months of observation. Results : We included 280 children into the analysis. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (rRTI, asthma and gastrointestinal (GI symptoms were observed in 153 (54.6%, 96 (34.3%, 39 (13.9%, respectively, with a significant increasing trend across age-subgroups. In children from 1 to 2 years old, sensitization to -lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.03–14.87. In older children sensitization to allergens other than milk or egg decreases the risk of rRTI (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.62; sensitization to egg decreased the risk of asthma diagnosis (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.75. We did not identify food allergens which change the risk of GI symptoms in children. This finding was consistent throughout all age-subgroups. Conclusions : Sensitization to -lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI in children under 2 years of age nearly four times. The presence of sensitization to food allergens above 3 years of age did not increase the risk of developing clinical presentation of food allergy other than atopic dermatitis.

  16. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports...

  17. Prevalence of food allergies in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakali, Schweta R; Green, Todd D; Dinakar, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the published medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergies in South Asia. A PubMed search was performed using the keywords India and food allergy, Asia and food allergy, and South Asia and food allergy for any period. Articles cited in selected studies were reviewed for their appropriateness of inclusion into this review. Publications were included that were original research and fit the topic of food allergy and South Asia. South Asia is defined as region inclusive of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A total of 169 articles were initially identified, and 47 were reviewed in detail for inclusion in this review. The primary focus was placed on 10 studies that consisted of case reports of newly reported or documented food allergy, survey studies that investigated food allergy prevalence in specific demographics, and prospective and cross-sectional studies with case controls, all of which investigated food allergy prevalence by allergy testing in a selected population. The medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergy in South Asia indicates that there is a variety of unusual and unique allergens and an overall low incidence of food allergy. There is also an association of increased food allergy prevalence in individuals who live in metropolitan regions or who migrate to communities that have adopted westernization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anaphylactic reaction to probiotics. Cow's milk and hen's egg allergens in probiotic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Muñoz, María Flora; Fortuni, Monserrat; Caminoa, Magdalena; Belver, Teresa; Quirce, Santiago; Caballero, Teresa

    2012-12-01

    Probiotics are used in the treatment of allergic diseases. We investigated the safety of probiotics for subjects with food allergy. Labels of probiotics commercially available in Spain were examined to assess their content of cow's milk or hen's egg. Skin prick tests with these compounds (20 mg/ml) were performed in five children allergic to cow's milk, five children allergic to hen's white egg, and five control subjects non-allergic to food. Three serum pools: I (positive-specific IgE to cow's milk and hen's egg white proteins), II (positive-specific IgE to cow's milk and negative to hen's egg white proteins), and III (negative-specific IgE to cow's milk and positive to hen's egg white proteins) were used to detect cow's milk and hen's egg white allergens in probiotics. ImmunoCAP(®) (Phadia), in-house ELISA, SDS-PAGE immunoblotting, and inhibition studies of these assays were performed. Proteins were quantified by enzyme-immunoassay. Eleven probiotics were studied. No label advertised about egg content, eight labels warned about lactose, lactic acid or cow's milk, one label claimed to be milk-free, and two gave no information. Cow's milk proteins were detected, by at least one lab technique, in 10/11 probiotics, three over 2.5 mg/kg (21, 52, 112 mg/kg). Hen's egg white proteins were detected in 3/11 probiotics, only one had more than 2.5 mg/kg (47 mg/kg). Probiotic compounds may contain hidden allergens of food and may not be safe for subjects with allergy to cow's milk or hen's egg. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Allergoids for allergy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Jeronimo; Gallego, Maria T; Moya, Raquel; Iraola, Victor

    2018-02-21

    Background Chemically modified allergen extracts, known as allergoids, are commonly used for treating allergic patients. In general terms, the concept of allergoids implies allergen extracts with a reduction of their allergenicity maintaining their immunogenicity. Different methods to obtain allergoids have been developed in the past years, opening attractive lines of research. Objective To review the different approaches to allergoid development as well as their characterization, mechanism of action and efficacy and safety issues. Methods A revision and analysis of the different types of allergoids has been performed, with special attention to patents submitted and granted in the last years. Additionally, updated information about the mechanism of action and clinical evidence and safety of allergoids has been discussed. Results Principally, allergoids are obtained by the polymerization of native allergen extracts with aldehydes, including formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde. However, recent patents and publications about different chemical modifications have been presented, as well as about the use of new adjuvants with allergoids. Regarding the characterization, allergoids require more sophisticated analytical methods than native extracts, as a consequence of their properties and characteristics. Conclusion In the last years, the partial understanding of the mechanism of action and the generation of clinical evidence of different types of allergoids, linked to their excellent safety profile and their convenience for a quick build up phase, have made of allergoids an excellent product for allergy treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Anaphylaxis and insect allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Jeffrey G; Minaei, Ashley A; Tracy, James M

    2010-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute-onset and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can be caused by numerous allergic triggers including stinging insects. This review focuses on recent advances, natural history, risk factors and therapeutic considerations. Recent work suggests that concerns over insect allergy diagnosis continue to exist. This is especially true with individuals who have a convincing history of a serious life-threatening anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic criteria of venom-specific IgE by skin test or in-vitro diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis. The role of occult mastocytosis or increased basophile reactivity may play a role in this subset population. Additionally, epinephrine continues to be underutilized as the primary acute intervention for an anaphylactic reaction in the emergent setting. The incidence of anaphylaxis continues to rise across all demographic groups, especially those less than 20 years of age. Fortunately, the fatalities related to anaphylaxis appear to have decreased over the past decades. Our understanding of various triggers, associated risk factors, as well as an improved understanding and utilization of biological markers such as serum tryptase have improved. Our ability to treat insect anaphylaxis by venom immunotherapy is highly effective. Unfortunately, anaphylaxis continues to be underappreciated and undertreated especially in regard to insect sting anaphylaxis. This includes the appropriate use of injectable epinephrine as the primary acute management tool. These findings suggest that continued education of the general population, primary care healthcare providers and emergency departments is required.

  1. Allergy to iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, J M; Fox, R W; Jones, R T; Yunginger, J W

    2000-08-01

    Furry animals produce allergens that can cause allergic rhinitis and asthma. In contrast, scaly animals, such as lizards, are assumed not to be allergenic. We sought to evaluate a 32-year-old man who complained of allergic rhinitis and asthma symptoms that occurred exclusively in his own home. He had dogs and cats at home but denied any increase in symptoms specifically associated with these pets. Skin prick testing initially performed to 42 common aeroallergens, including cat, dog, and house dust mite, elicited negative results. He later reported that the symptoms were worse on exposure to his pet iguanas. Skin prick tests were subsequently performed to an extract made from scales from his pet iguana. Extracts were also prepared from several zoo reptiles. Immunoassays for IgE antibody, as well as IgE immunoblots, were performed by using these extracts and the patient's serum. The skin prick test result with the pet iguana scale extract was positive. The patient's serum contained IgE antibody to his own pet iguana and to a zoo iguana. Our patient's history, skin test results, and in vitro studies clearly demonstrate that he is allergic to iguana. Physicians should be aware that such allergy to scaly pets may occur and should not restrict history taking to questions about furry pets.

  2. New guidelines for managing cow's milk allergy in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rosan

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic disease has increased markedly over the last 50 years. Food allergy usually manifests in early childhood as part of the so-called atopic march and most commonly includes one or more of the following foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts and tree nuts, wheat, sesame seed, kiwi fruit and seafood. In the UK about 2% of infants develop cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA), but as many as 15% of infants present with symptoms suggestive of an adverse reaction to cow's milk protein. The diagnosis of CMPA is based on one or more of the following: a detailed clinical history, allergy test results (skin prick testing [SPT] and/or specific immunoglobulin E [IgE]) and, if required, supervised incremental milk challenges. The majority of UK primary care centres do not have access to these tests and may also be unfamiliar with the interpretation or results. In addition, they do not have the facilities for supervised food challenges. Empirical treatment is often required pending confirmation of allergy or referral to a specialist centre, but requires clear guidelines. No consensus guidelines currently exist for the diagnosis and management of CMPA in the UK. An international task force has recently published proposed guidelines for the management of CMPA. These provide separate algorithms covering the diagnosis and management of CMPA for both breast-fed and formula-fed infants and discuss the use of hypoallergenic formulae, elimination diets and diagnostic tests. Revisions and adaptations for the UK market are required and are discussed in this article.

  3. Food entries in a large allergy data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasek, Joseph M; Goss, Foster R; Lai, Kenneth H; Lau, Jason J; Seger, Diane L; Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Wickner, Paige G; Slight, Sarah P; Chang, Frank Y; Topaz, Maxim; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li

    2016-04-01

    Accurate food adverse sensitivity documentation in electronic health records (EHRs) is crucial to patient safety. This study examined, encoded, and grouped foods that caused any adverse sensitivity in a large allergy repository using natural language processing and standard terminologies. Using the Medical Text Extraction, Reasoning, and Mapping System (MTERMS), we processed both structured and free-text entries stored in an enterprise-wide allergy repository (Partners' Enterprise-wide Allergy Repository), normalized diverse food allergen terms into concepts, and encoded these concepts using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) and Unique Ingredient Identifiers (UNII) terminologies. Concept coverage also was assessed for these two terminologies. We further categorized allergen concepts into groups and calculated the frequencies of these concepts by group. Finally, we conducted an external validation of MTERMS's performance when identifying food allergen terms, using a randomized sample from a different institution. We identified 158 552 food allergen records (2140 unique terms) in the Partners repository, corresponding to 672 food allergen concepts. High-frequency groups included shellfish (19.3%), fruits or vegetables (18.4%), dairy (9.0%), peanuts (8.5%), tree nuts (8.5%), eggs (6.0%), grains (5.1%), and additives (4.7%). Ambiguous, generic concepts such as "nuts" and "seafood" accounted for 8.8% of the records. SNOMED-CT covered more concepts than UNII in terms of exact (81.7% vs 68.0%) and partial (14.3% vs 9.7%) matches. Adverse sensitivities to food are diverse, and existing standard terminologies have gaps in their coverage of the breadth of allergy concepts. New strategies are needed to represent and standardize food adverse sensitivity concepts, to improve documentation in EHRs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For

  4. Allergy to jackfruit: a novel example of Bet v 1-related food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhaar, S. T. H. P.; Ree, R.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A. F. M.; Knulst, A. C.; Zuidmeer, L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Jackfruit allergy has been reported just once. It is unknown whether this food allergy is caused by direct sensitization or cross-sensitization to pollen allergens. OBJECTIVE: Establish whether jackfruit allergy is linked to birchpollen allergy. METHODS: Two jackfruit allergic patients

  5. Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum: Opportunities and challenges in vaccine discovery, development, and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew Q; Touchette, Nancy; Hall, B Fenton; Hwang, Angela; Hombach, Joachim

    2016-03-18

    The World Health Organization, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation convened the first Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum (GVIRF) in March 2014. This first GVIRF aimed to track recent progress of the Global Vaccine Action Plan research and development agenda, identify opportunities and challenges, promote partnerships in vaccine research, and facilitate the inclusion of all stakeholders in vaccine research and development. Leading scientists, vaccine developers, and public health officials from around the world discussed scientific and technical challenges in vaccine development, research to improve the impact of immunization, and regulatory issues. This report summarizes the discussions and conclusions from the forum participants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs. ...

  7. Fighting Allergies with Research and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fighting Allergies with Research and Information Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Director An interview with Anthony S. Fauci Are seasonal allergies on the rise? If so, why? There has ...

  8. FastStats: Allergies/Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Allergies and Hay Fever Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 12 months: 7.5% Number with reported respiratory allergies in the past 12 months: 7.6 million ...

  9. Allergies and Asthma: They Often Occur Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma information. American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. http://acaai.org/asthma/about. Accessed Dec. 8, ... Asthma symptoms. American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. http://acaai.org/asthma/symptoms. Accessed Dec. 8, ...

  10. Aspirin Allergy: What Are the Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exacerbated respiratory disease. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice. In Press. Accessed March 20, 2017. June 02, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/drug-allergy/ ...

  11. Intensive educational course in allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, A; Perez, E E; Sriaroon, P; Nguyen, D; Lockey, R F; Dorsey, M J

    2012-09-01

    A one-day intensive educational course on allergy and immunology theory and diagnostic procedure significantly increased the competency of allergy and immunology fellows-in-training. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Clinical characteristics of soybean allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Holzhauser, Thomas; Scibilia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy.......Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy....

  13. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Professionals Find an Allergist American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Seeking Relief? Find an Allergist ... shots? View All Postings Ask the Allergist Index Allergy & Asthma News Let it snow, but don’t ...

  14. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of development. Food vaccines may also help to suppress autoimmunity disorders such as Type-1. Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. INTRODUCTION. Vaccination involves the stimulation of the immune system to prepare it for the event of an invasion from a particular ...

  15. GASTROINTESTINAL FOOD ALLERGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana G. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence  of food allergies. Pathological conditions associated  with a food intolerance are becoming an increasingly urgent problem of pediatrics. According to different researchers, allergic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract occurs in 25–50% of patients with such common pathology as an allergy to cow's milk proteins. The severity of diseases  associated  with food allergies and their prognosis  depend largely on early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Difficulties and errors  in the diagnosis  of gastrointestinal  food allergies  are associated  with both subjective  and objective  reasons,  primarily due to the fact that gastrointestinal  reactions to food are often delayed and non-IgE-mediated. The article describes clinical forms of gastrointestinal food allergy according to the existing classification. Diagnostic algorithms and modern approaches  to differential diagnosis of disease based on evidence-based  medicine and corresponding to international consensus papers are given.

  16. Managing food allergies in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Jay M; Shroba, Jodi

    2014-10-01

    Food allergies are estimated to affect as many as 8 % of children with 2.5 % being allergic to peanut products. Based on the results of recent surveys, this prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades for unknown reasons. As children with food allergies reach school age, the issue is becoming more common in schools. For that reason, schools are now required to be prepared to take responsibility for the safety of food-allergic students. This review discusses the common problems surrounding management of food allergies in the school setting along with reasonable recommendations for addressing those problems. The most important component of food allergy management is for the student to get an accurate diagnosis and to then discuss development of an anaphylaxis action plan with their health-care provider. Each school should insist that a copy of such a plan be provided for each student with food allergy and that epinephrine is readily available should a student have an anaphylactic reaction. In addition to epinephrine, it is essential that school personnel be properly trained to recognize and treat allergic reactions should they occur. Known deficiencies in school preparedness have been documented in previous literature, and consequently, both state and the federal government have begun to implement policies to help with school preparedness.

  17. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  18. Teicoplanin allergy - an emerging problem in the anaesthetic allergy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, L C; Garcez, T; Hopkins, P M; Harper, N J N; Savic, S

    2015-10-01

    Anaphylaxis to teicoplanin appears to be extremely rare, with only one confirmed case report worldwide. Two anaesthetic allergy clinics in the UK have received a number of suspected cases referred for investigation, and we present here the first case series of teicoplanin allergy. We investigated 20 cases of suspected teicoplanin allergy, identified from the two clinics over a period of two years. We devised a set of five criteria to categorize the certainty of their diagnosis. These included: (1) reaction within 15 min of administration of teicoplanin, (2) ≥2 features of anaphylaxis present, (3) positive skin testing or challenge testing, (4) raised serum mast cell tryptase (MCT), (5) alternative diagnosis excluded. Based on these criteria we defined the likelihood of IgE-mediated allergy to teicoplanin as: definite-met all criteria; probable-met criteria 1.2 and 5, plus 3 or 4; uncertain-met criteria 1.2 and 5; excluded- any others. We identified 7 'definite', 7 'probable' and 2 'uncertain' cases of teicoplanin allergy. Four cases were excluded. IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to teicoplanin appears to be more common than previously thought. This is true even if only definitive cases are considered. Investigation of teicoplanin allergy is hampered by the lack of standardized skin test concentrations. In some cases, there was a severe clinical reaction, but without any skin test evidence of histamine release. The mechanism of reaction in these cases is not known and requires further study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Risk and safety requirements for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology: World Allergy Organization Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek L. Kowalski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the major concerns in the practice of allergy is related to the safety of procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. Management (diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitivity disorders involves often intentional exposure to potentially allergenic substances (during skin testing, deliberate induction in the office of allergic symptoms to offending compounds (provocation tests or intentional application of potentially dangerous substances (allergy vaccine to sensitized patients. These situations may be associated with a significant risk of unwanted, excessive or even dangerous reactions, which in many instances cannot be completely avoided. However, adverse reactions can be minimized or even avoided if a physician is fully aware of potential risk and is prepared to appropriately handle the situation. Information on the risk of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergic diseases has been accumulated in the medical literature for decades; however, except for allergen specific immunotherapy, it has never been presented in a systematic fashion. Up to now no single document addressed the risk of the most commonly used medical procedures in the allergy office nor attempted to present general requirements necessary to assure the safety of these procedures. Following review of available literature a group of allergy experts within the World Allergy Organization (WAO, representing various continents and areas of allergy expertise, presents this report on risk associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology and proposes a consensus on safety requirements for performing procedures in allergy offices. Optimal safety measures including appropriate location, type and required time of supervision, availability of safety equipment, access to specialized emergency services, etc. for various procedures have been recommended. This document should be useful for allergists with already established

  20. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  1. IgE-mediated food allergies in Swiss infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giovanni Gaspare; Eng, Peter Andreas

    2011-10-12

    To determine the most frequent food allergens causing immediate hypersensitivity reactions in Swiss children of different age groups and to investigate the clinical manifestation of IgE-mediated food allergies in young patients. The study was a prospective analysis of children referred for assessment of immediate type I food hypersensitivity reactions. The diagnostic strategy included a careful history, skin prick tests with commercial extracts and native foods, in vitro determination of specific IgE to food proteins and food challenges when appropriate. A total of 278 food allergies were identified in 151 children with a median age of 1.9 years at diagnosis. Overall, the most frequent food allergens were hen's egg (23.7%), cow's milk (20.1%), peanut (14.0%), hazelnut (10.4%), wheat (6.1%), fish (4.3%), kiwi and soy (2.2% each). In infancy, cow's milk, hen's egg and wheat were the most common allergens. In the second and third year of life however, the top three food allergens were hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut, whereas above the age of 3 years, peanut was number one, followed by hen's egg and fish. Overall, urticaria (59.0%) and angioedema (30.2%) were the most frequent clinical manifestations. Gastrointestinal symptoms were found in 25.9% and respiratory involvement in 25.2%. There were 13 cases (4.7%) of anaphylaxis to peanut, fish, cow's milk, hen's egg, wheat and shrimps. A total of eight allergens account for 83% of IgE-mediated food allergies in Swiss infants and children, with differences in the distribution and order of the most frequently involved food allergens between paediatric age groups.

  2. [Diagnostic capacity of skin prick test in egg and cow's milk allergic infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun-mei; Chen, Jing; Li, Hai-qi; Hu, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Mean diameter is the most common used parameter for wheal response assessment after skin prick test. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic capacity of mean diameter according to the outcome of oral food challenge, and to determine the cut-off points that could render food challenges unnecessary. Data of 173 children referred to the Division of Primary Child Health Care for the evaluation of suspected food allergy were prospectively studied. All children underwent skin prick test and open food challenge to the relevant food(s) in clinic. The mean wheal diameter of skin prick test was measured, and open food challenge was performed to confirm food allergy. The SPSS software package version 13.0 for windows (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for all statistical analysis. Open food challenge was taken as the gold standard for diagnosis. Diagnostic capacity of skin prick test, including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, was calculated by cross-table. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was plotted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to quantify the accuracy of the parameter. For the 173 children, 271 open food challenges were performed with egg white, egg yolk and cow's milk, In which 123 were positive, 99 children were diagnosed as food allergy. Cutaneous symptoms (87.0%) were most common, followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (9.8%). The AUC of mean diameter was 0.794 for egg white, 0.804 for egg yolk and 0.904 for cow's milk. The sensitivity of skin prick test with a cut-off value of ≥ 3 mm was ranged from 71% to 87%, while the specificity was between 31% and 57%. The authors also defined food specific skin prick test mean diameters that were 100% diagnostic for allergy to egg white (≥ 8.5 mm), egg yolk (≥ 5.5 mm), cow's milk (≥ 5.5 mm). Predictive decision points for a positive outcome of food challenges can be calculated for egg and cow's milk using mean diameter. It

  3. Evaluation of the egg transmission and pathogenicity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates genotyped as ts-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Natalie K; Ferguson-Noel, Naola

    2015-01-01

    Live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines are used for the control of respiratory disease, egg production losses and egg transmission associated with M. gallisepticum infection in long-lived poultry. The first field case of apparent increased virulence and vertical transmission of ts-11, a live M. gallisepticum vaccine, has been reported. In that study a M. gallisepticum isolate from the broiler progeny of ts-11-vaccinated breeders was genotyped as ts-11 by sequence analysis of four different genetic targets and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and found to be significantly more virulent than ts-11 vaccine. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the rate of egg transmission and pathogenicity of ts-11 vaccine and isolates recovered from ts-11-vaccinated breeders (K6222B) and their broiler progeny (K6216D) which had been genotyped as ts-11. Groups of 28-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens at 87% average weekly egg production were inoculated with sterile broth media (negative controls), ts-11 vaccine, K6222B, K6216D or R strain (positive controls) by eye-drop and aerosol. K6216D transmitted via the egg at an average rate of 4.0% in the third and fourth weeks post-infection, while egg transmission of K6222B and ts-11 vaccine was not detected. M. gallisepticum was isolated from the air sacs, ovaries and oviducts of hens infected with K6216D and K6222B, but not from those infected with ts-11 vaccine. K6216D and K6222B both induced respiratory signs and significantly more tracheal colonization and more severe tracheal and air sac lesions than ts-11 vaccine (P ≤ 0.05). There were no substantial differences in the egg production of ts-11, K6216D and K6222B infected groups. These results provide the first conclusive evidence of transovarian transmission of an isolate genotyped as ts-11 and indicate that isolates genotyed as ts-11 vary in their virulence and ability to transmit via the egg.

  4. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  5. A Principal's Guide to Children's Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…

  6. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; Dubois, A. E. J.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Wichers, H. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical

  7. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der J.P.M.; Dubois, A.E.J.; Wichers, H.J.; Jong, de N.W.; Wijk, van R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical

  8. Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI If you have ever experienced red, itchy skin, swell- ... food, you may wonder if you have a food allergy. While diagnosing food allergies can be tricky, an ...

  9. Managing the Student with Severe Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…

  10. EDITORIALS Latex allergy: 'Plight, rights and fights'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anaphylaxis and life-threatening food allergies to cross-reacting fruit allergens such as kiwi, banana, tomato and chestnuts). Latex allergy is also encountered more frequently in children with spina bifida than in other hospitalised children.[7] Sensitisation is usually confirmed by commercial latex allergy skinprick testing or by ...

  11. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Administrators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.

  12. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.

  13. Environmental and occupational allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, David; Reed, Charles E

    2010-02-01

    Airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Daily exposure comes from indoor sources, chiefly at home but occasionally at schools or offices. Seasonal exposure to outdoor allergens, pollens, and molds is another important source. Exposure to unusual substances at work causes occupational asthma, accounting for about 5% of asthma in adults. Indoor and outdoor air pollutants trigger airway inflammation and increase the severity of asthma. Diesel exhaust particles increase the production of IgE antibodies. Identification and reduction of exposure to allergens is a very important part of the management of respiratory allergic diseases. The first section of this chapter discusses domestic allergens, arthropods (mites and cockroaches), molds, and mammals (pets and mice). Indoor humidity and water damage are important factors in the production of mite and mold allergens, and discarded human food items are important sources of proliferation of cockroaches and mice. Means of identifying and reducing exposure are presented. The second section discusses outdoor allergens: pollens and molds. The particular plants or molds and the amount of exposure to these allergens is determined by the local climate, and local pollen and mold counts are available to determine the time and amount of exposure. Climate change is already having an important effect on the distribution and amount of outdoor allergens. The third section discusses indoor and outdoor air pollution and methods that individuals can take to reduce indoor pollution in addition to eliminating cigarette smoking. The fourth section discusses the diagnosis and management of occupational asthma. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, Teddy; L Menné, T

    2011-01-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and in 2005 permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up till then MI had only been used in combination with methylcholoroisthiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most...... frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products...... is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI e.g. in painters are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products...

  15. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, T; Menné, T L

    2011-01-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and in 2005 permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up till then MI had only been used in combination with methylcholoroisthiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most...... frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products...... is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI e.g. in painters are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products...

  16. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON LIFESTYLE GUIDANCE AND USE OF MANAGEMENT FORMS FOR FOOD ALLERGY IN LICENSED NURSERY SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Sato, Sakura; Murata, Junko; Seto, Akiko; Nishisako, Shin; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    There have been no reports on the use of "foods allergy disease lifestyle guidance and management forms at day care centers" (life management guidance forms) for understanding details of pupils with food allergies. The contents of lifestyle management guidance forms obtained in Sagamihara city from licensed nurseries were investigated prospectively. We compared and analyzed for the use of life management guidance forms initially in 2013 and in the fiscal year of 2014 in Sagamihara city licensed nurseries. In all, in 2013 and 2014, 9,567 and 10,069 pupils were included in licensed nurseries, and 426 (4.5%) and 447 (4.4%) pupils had food allergies, 61 (0.6%) and 61 (0.6%) had anaphylaxis, respectively.The causative foods in 2013 and 2014, respectively, included unheated hen's egg in 71.6% and 69.6%; heated hen's egg in 54.2% and 54.8%; milk in 23.0% and 23.3%; peanuts in 17.8% and 17.0%; buckwheat in 7.3% and 8.5%; and wheat in 6.3% and 8.3%. There are no significant differences in the distribution of causative foods between 2013 and 2014.Immediate-type food allergy was significantly more frequent in 2014 than in 2013 (73.0% and 78.8%, respectively; p=0.040). Using a life management guidance form will make it easier to manage food allergies in children.

  17. Now and future influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, F L

    1990-03-01

    Influenza is a modern day plague. In the young, the clinical picture is classical, but in the elderly, the disease may go unsuspected until complications such as pneumonia develop. Influenza A and B viruses are responsible, and these viruses mutate with great regularity. Antibodies to the HA and NA surface antigens of influenza viruses, both naturally and vaccine induced, are protective. The earliest influenza vaccines were crude, toxic, and ineffective. With modern purification techniques, the egg-grown viruses have been turned into safe, immunogenic, and effective killed-virus vaccines--whole virus and split virus. Surveillance permits the correct virus strains to be incorporated into each new vaccine. Those who have been experiencing the worst effects of influenza have been identified. These individuals need to be immunized each year. In the future, live influenza virus vaccines may offer the benefits of ease of administration and longer-lasting protection. Synthetic peptides, genetically engineered antigens, and even nonantigen (anti-idiotype) vaccines are possible, but such vaccines will require adjuvant enhancement. For the present, greater efforts must be made to use existing influenza vaccines.

  18. The dichotomy of pathogens and allergens in vaccination approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J. Baird

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional prophylactic vaccination to prevent illness is the primary objective of many research activities worldwide. The golden age of vaccination began with an approach called variolation in ancient China and the evolution of vaccines still continues today with modern developments such as the production of Gardasil™ against HPV and cervical cancer. The historical aspect of how different forms of vaccination have changed the face of medicine and communities is important as it dictates our future approaches on both a local and global scale. From the eradication of smallpox to the use of an experimental vaccine to save a species, this review will explore these successes in infectious disease vaccination and also discuss a few significant failures which have hampered our efforts to eradicate certain diseases. The second part of the review will explore designing a prophylactic vaccine for the growing global health concern that is allergy. Allergies are an emerging global health burden. Of particular concern is the rise of food allergies in developed countries where 1 in 10 children is currently affected. The formation of an allergic response results from the recognition of a foreign component by our immune system that is usually encountered on a regular basis. This may be a dust-mite or a prawn but this inappropriate immune response can result in a life-time of food avoidance and lifestyle restrictions. These foreign components are very similar to antigens derived from infectious pathogens. The question arises: should the allergy community be focussing on protective measures rather than ongoing therapeutic interventions to deal with these chronic inflammatory conditions? We will explore the difficulties and benefits of prophylactic vaccination against various allergens by means of genetic technology that will dictate how vaccination against allergens could be utilised in the near future.

  19. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  20. Meeting report: Global vaccine and immunization research forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew Q; Touchette, Nancy; Fenton Hall, B; Hwang, Angela; Hombach, Joachim

    2018-02-08

    Building on the success of the first Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum (GVIRF), the World Health Organization, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health in the United States of America, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation convened the second GVIRF in March 2016. Leading scientists, vaccine developers, and public health officials from around the world discussed scientific advances and innovative technologies to design and deliver vaccines as well as novel tools and approaches to increase the uptake of vaccines throughout the world. This report summarizes the discussions and conclusions from the forum participants. Copyright © 2018.

  1. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled...

  2. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leniszewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  3. FOOD ALLERGY PREVENTION IN INFANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Makarova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with new data about food tolerance induction among the children, belonging to the high risk groups disposed to atopy. Authors show the role of gut microflora in formation of child immune system, effect of breast feeding on activation of local immune response, growth stimulation of bifid bacteria and lactic acid bacilli. The present work gives the randomized research findings, which confirm the effectiveness of prolonged breast feeding, use of highly or partially hydrolyzed mixtures and timely introduction of supplemental feeding in food allergy prevention.Key words: prevention, food allergy, children, breast feeding, hypo allergic mixtures, milk protein hydrolysates, supplemental feeding, gut microflora, probiotics.

  4. Clinical update on contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Orton, David I

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to review recent findings in contact allergy, regarding clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: The biocide methyldibromo glutaronitrile was identified to be an important sensitizer. Subsequently, it was banned from leave-on cosmetics in the European Union...... a classification of newly introduced chemicals; increasingly, the local lymph node assay is supplementing and potentially replacing the guinea pig maximization test. Recent advances in occupational contact allergy include, for example, some attempts to improve diagnostics for epoxy resin and other plastic, glue...

  5. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Menné, T; Avnstorp, C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) is a synthetic fragrance ingredient. Case reports of allergy to HICC appeared in the 1980s, and HICC has recently been included in the European baseline series. Human elicitation dose-response studies performed with different allergens...... to 21 days). Seventeen persons with no HICC allergy were included as control group for the ROAT. Results The response frequency to the ROAT (in microg HICC cm(-2) per application) was significantly higher than the response frequency to the patch test at one of the tested doses. Furthermore the response...

  6. Vaccines.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Vaccines Work Vaccine Types Vaccine Ingredients Vaccines by Disease Chickenpox ... Typhoid Fever Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yellow Fever Who and When Infants, Children, and Teens ...

  7. Eczema in early childhood, sociodemographic factors and lifestyle habits are associated with food allergy: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Soller, Lianne; Harrington, Daniel W; Knoll, Megan; La Vieille, Sebastian; Fragapane, Joseph; Joseph, Lawrence; St Pierre, Yvan; Wilson, Kathie; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest an increase in food allergy prevalence over the last decade, but the contributing factors remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the most common food allergies and atopic history, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. We conducted a case-control study nested within the SPAACE study (Surveying Prevalence of Food Allergy in All Canadian Environments) – a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Cases consisted of individuals with probable food allergy (self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis) to milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, shellfish, fish, wheat, soy, or sesame. Controls consisted of nonallergic individuals, matched for age. Cases and controls were queried on personal and family history of atopy, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between atopy, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits with probable food allergy. Between September 2010 and September 2011, 480 cases and 4,950 controls completed the questionnaire. For all 9 allergens, factors associated with a higher risk of probable allergy were as follows: (1) personal history of eczema (in the first 2 years of life), asthma or hay fever (odds ratio, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.5; OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.2-3.6, and OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-3.0, respectively), (2) maternal, paternal or sibling's food allergy (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.5-5.6; OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.8-5.1, and OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.2-4.2), (3) high household income (top 20%; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0). Males and older individuals were less likely to have food allergy (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.9, and OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00). Eczema in the first 2 years of life was the strongest risk factor for egg, peanut, tree nut and fish allergy. This is the largest population-based nested case-control study exploring factors associated with food allergies. Our results reveal that, in addition to previously reported

  8. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  9. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu

    Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp.

    The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen

  10. The anti-vaccination movement and resistance to allergen-immunotherapy: a guide for clinical allergists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrmann Jason

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite over a century of clinical use and a well-documented record of efficacy and safety, a growing minority in society questions the validity of vaccination and fear that this common public health intervention is the root-cause of severe health problems. This article questions whether growing public anti-vaccine sentiments might have the potential to spill-over into other therapies distinct from vaccination, namely allergen-immunotherapy. Allergen-immunotherapy shares certain medical vernacular with vaccination (e.g., allergy shots, allergy vaccines, and thus may become "guilty by association" due to these similarities. Indeed, this article demonstrates that anti-vaccine websites have begun unduly discrediting this allergy treatment regimen. Following an explanation of the anti-vaccine movement, the article aims to provide guidance on how clinicians can respond to patient fears towards allergen-immunotherapy in the clinical setting. This guide focuses on the provision of reliable information to patients in order to dispel misconceived associations between vaccination and allergen-immunotherapy, and the discussion of the risks and benefits of both therapies in order to assist patients in making autonomous decisions about their choice of allergy treatment.

  11. Allergic reactions to milk appear sooner than reactions to hen's eggs: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2016-01-01

    Oral food challenge test doses are recommended to be performed at least 20 min apart; however, the times of symptom provocation from the start of the oral food challenge have never been compared between different foods. In this study, the durations from the start of the oral food challenge to symptom development in children with egg or milk allergy were compared. Thirty-eight and 74 children who had previously passed oral food challenges to 96 g of yogurt and pumpkin cake containing ¼ whole egg underwent oral food challenges with 200 mL raw cow's milk and 1 whole scrambled egg, respectively; of these, 15/38 and 33/74 children had a reaction. The median ages of patients with a positive challenge were 5.8 and 5.1 years for milk and eggs, respectively. The median times for the first symptom occurrence were 20 min (range, 5-55 min) and 50 min (5-480 min), respectively (p = 0.009). The first symptoms developed within 30, 60, and 90 min in 12/15 (80 %), 15/15 (100 %), and 15/15 (100 %) children with milk allergies, and in 10/33 (30.3 %), 20/33 (60.6 %), and 26/33 (78.8 %) children with egg allergies, respectively. The median times of peak symptoms were 50 min (10-210 min) and 120 min (30-560 min) (p = 0.001), and those of symptom disappearance were 90 min (30-240 min) and 180 min (80-700 min) for milk and eggs (p = 0.002), respectively. Based on the results of our study, symptoms developed within 30 min for only a subset of patients for eggs, and may even take upwards of 60 min to develop. The times of symptom disappearance were 90 min and 180 min for milk and eggs, respectively, indicating that egg-allergic patients should be observed for a longer period time than milk-allergic patients. Allergic reactions induced by milk appeared and disappeared sooner than those induced by eggs.

  12. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    -ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT...

  13. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG...

  14. The effects of Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Komarov) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical results show that 30% of the 20 birds vaccinated with Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Komarov) showed characteristic greenish yellowish diarrhoea, cumulative sharp drop in egg production (60%) while respiratory signs like gasping, sneezing and coughing were noticed in the 60% of the birds. Statistical analysis ...

  15. Cell culture based production of avian influenza vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielink, van R.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of poultry can be used as a tool to control outbreaks of avian influenza, including that of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 strains. Influenza vaccines are traditionally produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Continuous cell lines have been suggested as an alternative substrate to produce

  16. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food‐protein‐induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilo, BM; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude Elberink, JNG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula

  18. [Inappropriate test methods in allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Herold, D A

    2010-11-01

    Inappropriate test methods are increasingly utilized to diagnose allergy. They fall into two categories: I. Tests with obscure theoretical basis, missing validity and lacking reproducibility, such as bioresonance, electroacupuncture, applied kinesiology and the ALCAT-test. These methods lack both the technical and clinical validation needed to justify their use. II. Tests with real data, but misleading interpretation: Detection of IgG or IgG4-antibodies or lymphocyte proliferation tests to foods do not allow to separate healthy from diseased subjects, neither in case of food intolerance, allergy or other diagnoses. The absence of diagnostic specificity induces many false positive findings in healthy subjects. As a result unjustified diets might limit quality of life and lead to malnutrition. Proliferation of lymphocytes in response to foods can show elevated rates in patients with allergies. These values do not allow individual diagnosis of hypersensitivity due to their broad variation. Successful internet marketing, infiltration of academic programs and superficial reporting by the media promote the popularity of unqualified diagnostic tests; also in allergy. Therefore, critical observation and quick analysis of and clear comments to unqualified methods by the scientific medical societies are more important than ever.

  19. Latex allergy in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Virtič

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of natural rubber latex medical gloves in the last three decades has caused an increase in latex allergy. The majority of risk groups for allergy development include health care workers, workers in the rubber industry, atopic individuals and children with congenital malformations. Three types of pathological reactions can occur in people using latex medical gloves: irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and immediate hypersensitivity. The latex allergy is caused by constituent components of latex gloves and added powders; there are also numerous latex allergens involved in cross-reactivity between latex and fruits and vegetables, the so-called latex-fruit syndrome. The diagnosis is based on an accurate history of exposure, clinical presentation and confirmatory in vivo and in vitro tests. Prevention is the easiest, most effective and least expensive way to avoid latex allergy. Powder-free latex gloves with reduced levels of proteins and chemicals, and synthetic gloves for allergic workers must be provided in the work environment. There are already many health care institutions around the world where all latex products have been replaced by synthetic material products.

  20. [Contact allergy to henna tattoos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkjer, Bjarte; Stangeland, Katarina Zak; Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer

    2011-03-18

    Tattoos with henna colours have become very popular and the prevalence of contact allergy seems to increase. This is a short review article based on our own clinical experience and literature identified through a search in PubMed with the words "henna", "paraphenylendiamin" and "allergic contact dermatitis." A case report is included. It is well documented that many experience skin reactions after henna tattoos. The cause is almost always contact allergy to the azo compound paraphenylendiamin, which is added to speed up the process and make the colour darker. Most people, including children, get henna tattoos during vacations in Asia or the Mediterranean. Established contact allergy is permanent. Many hair-colour products contain paraphenylendiamin, and persons with contact allergy against the product may develop a very strong contact allergic eczema by use of such substances. Acute reactions are treated with local cortisone products, or with systemic steroids. Cross reaction to substances with a similar chemical structure may occur. Tattoos with paraphenylendiamin-containing henna colours should be avoided.

  1. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  2. Better use of allergy reagentia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhof, W.; Penders, T.

    1988-01-01

    In this article the use of the Phadiatoptest as a first screening for atopy is described. An allergy is developed. In this strategy unnecessary RAST for inhalation allergens is avoided. Reuse of the Phadiatoptest reagentia is possible but with a loss of result

  3. Safety of specific immunotherapy using an ultra-rush induction regimen in bee and wasp allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bożek, Andrzej; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof

    2018-02-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy to Hymenoptera venom (VIT) is a basic treatment for patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of an ultra-rush regimen compared with the rush and conventional protocols. In 31 patients with an allergy to bee venom and 82 with an allergy to wasp venom, the allergic adverse reactions during VIT were monitored. Patients were selected based on the criteria established by EAACI (European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology) recommendations. Adverse reactions during the ultra-rush immunotherapy were measured, documented and classified according to the criteria of Mueller. Ultra-rush, rush or conventional protocols of the initial phase VIT using the Venomenhal vaccine (Hal Allergy, Leiden, Netherlands) were conducted. Six (13.7%) patients on the ultra-rush regimen, 5 (14.3%) patients on the rush regimen and 9 (26.5%) on conventional VIT experienced an allergic reaction. There were no associations between the adverse allergic reactions and the following factors: gender, total IgE and allergen-specific IgE to wasp or bee venom before the VIT and cardiological drugs that were used. We found that the ultra-rush protocol (similar to the rush protocol) using the Venomenhal vaccine is safer than the conventional protocol.

  4. Efficacy and immunological actions of FAHF-2 in a murine model of multiple food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Kamal D; Bardina, Ludmilla; Sampson, Hugh A; Li, Xiu-Min

    2012-05-01

    Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) prevents anaphylaxis in a murine model of peanut allergy. Multiple food allergies (MFA) are common and associated with a higher risk of anaphylaxis. No well-characterized murine model of sensitization to multiple food allergens exists, and no satisfactory therapy for MFA is currently available. To determine the effect of FAHF-2 in a murine model of MFA. C3H/HeJ mice were orally sensitized to peanut, codfish, and egg concurrently. Oral FAHF-2 treatment commenced 1 day after completing sensitization and continued daily for 7 weeks. Mice were subsequently orally challenged with each allergen. Antibodies in sera from mice simultaneously sensitized with peanut, codfish, and egg recognized major allergens of all 3 foods, demonstrating sensitization to multiple unrelated food allergens (MFA mice). Sham-treated MFA mice exhibited anaphylactic symptoms accompanied by elevation of plasma histamine and hypothermia. In contrast, FAHF-2-treated MFA mice showed no anaphylactic symptoms, normal body temperature, and histamine levels after challenge with each allergen. Protection was accompanied by reduction in allergen-specific immunoglobulin E levels. Allergen-stimulated Th2 cytokine interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 production levels decreased, whereas the Th1 cytokine interferon-γ levels were elevated in cultured splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells in FAHF-2-treated mice. We established the first murine model of MFA. FAHF-2 prevents peanut, egg, and fish-induced anaphylactic reactions in this model, suggesting that FAHF-2 may have potential for treating human MFA. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Japanese guidelines for food allergy 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Fujisawa, Takao

    2017-04-01

    Five years have passed since the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Food Allergy (JPGFA) was first revised in 2011 from its original version. As many scientific papers related to food allergy have been published during the last 5 years, the second major revision of the JPGFA was carried out in 2016. In this guideline, food allergies are generally classified into four clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type of food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) special forms of immediate-type of food allergy such as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Much of this guideline covers the immediate-type of food allergy that is seen during childhood to adolescence. Infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy type is especially important as the onset of most food allergies occurs during infancy. We have discussed the neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy and special forms of immediate type food allergy types separately. Diagnostic procedures are highlighted, such as probability curves and component-resolved diagnosis, including the recent advancement utilizing antigen-specific IgE. The oral food challenge using a stepwise approach is recommended to avoid complete elimination of causative foods. Although oral immunotherapy (OIT) has not been approved as a routine treatment by nationwide insurance, we included a chapter for OIT, focusing on efficacy and problems. Prevention of food allergy is currently the focus of interest, and many changes were made based on recent evidence. Finally, the contraindication between adrenaline and antipsychotic drugs in Japan was discussed among related medical societies, and we reached an agreement that the use of adrenaline can be allowed based on the physician's discretion. In conclusion, this guideline encourages physicians to follow the principle to let patients

  6. Rotavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intussusception. Early vaccines were based on animal strains. More recently developed and licenced vaccines are either animal-human reassortants or are based on human strains. In India, two candidate vaccines are in the development process, but have not yet reached efficacy trials. Many challenges regarding vaccine efficacy and safety remain. In addition to completing clinical evaluations of vaccines in development in settings with the highest disease burden and virus diversity, there is also a need to consider alternative vaccine development strategies.

  7. Latex allergy in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraason, M; Sussman, G; Biagini, R; Meade, J; Beezhold, D; Germolec, D

    2000-11-01

    While less than 1% of the general population is sensitized to latex, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration estimates that 8-12% of health-care workers are sensitized. The major source of workplace exposure is powdered natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves. NRL is harvested from HEVEA: brasiliensis trees and ammoniated to prevent coagulation resulting in the hydrolysis of the latex proteins. Prior to use in manufacturing, the latex is formulated by the addition of multiple chemicals. Thus, human exposure is to a mixture of residual chemicals and hydrolyzed latex peptides. Clinical manifestations include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis (type IV), and type I immediate hypersensitivity response. Type I (IgE-mediated) NRL allergy includes contact urticaria, systemic urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis. Taking an accurate history, including questions on atopic status, food allergy, and possible reactions to latex devices makes diagnosis of type-I latex allergy possible. To confirm a diagnosis, either in vivo skin prick testing (SPT) or in vitro assays for latex-specific IgE are performed. While the SPT is regarded as a primary confirmatory test for IgE-mediated disease, the absence of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-licensed HEVEA: brasiliensis latex extract has restricted its use in diagnosis. Serological tests have, therefore, become critically important as alternative diagnostic tests. Three manufacturers currently have FDA clearance for in vitro tests, to detect NRL-specific IgE. The commercially available assays may disagree on the antibody status of an individual serum, which may be due to the assay's detecting anti-NRL IgEs to different allergenic NRL proteins. Sensitized individuals produce specific IgE antibody to at least 10 potent HEVEA: allergens, Hev b 1-Hev b 10, each of which differs in its structure, size, and net charge. The relative content and ratios of Hevs in the

  8. Dengue vaccines: Are they safe for travelers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Scott B; Aguiar, Maira

    2016-01-01

    The four dengue viruses (DENV) circulate among nearly one-half of the world's population in tropical and semitropical countries imposing a huge morbidity burden on travelers. Sanofipasteur has developed a tetravalent live-attenuated vaccine, Dengvaxia, recently approved by the World Health Organization and licensed in four dengue-endemic countries. An additional two dengue vaccines, developed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA and Takeda, are entering phase III testing. Dengvaxia is composed of four yellow fever 17D-DENV chimeras, the NIAID vaccine contains three mutagenized DENV and one DENV2/4 chimera while the Takeda vaccine contains an attenuated DENV 2 and three DENV 2-DENV chimeras. Which of these vaccines might be useful in protecting travelers against dengue infections and disease? Dengvaxia requires three doses administered over the course of one year but in addition has safety signals suggesting that susceptible individuals should not be vaccinated. The NIAID vaccine is promising as a travel vaccine as a single dose fully protected susceptible adults against live dengue 2 virus challenge. The protective efficacy and safety of the Takeda vaccine remain to be demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  10. Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limiting your intake of milk and dairy products, fish, eggs, peanuts, and other nuts during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. Monitor your baby carefully for skin rashes, breathing problems, unusual stools, or other allergic symptoms, and ...

  11. Influence of health literacy and trust in online information on food allergy quality of life and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzler, Nicholas; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Health literacy among caregivers of food allergic individuals (FAIs) is poorly described, as are the information sources sought regarding food allergy. To assess the association among health literacy, trust in online sources of information, and food allergy quality of life (QoL) and self-efficacy. An online survey was administered to caregivers of FAIs assessing health literacy (Newest Vital Sign [NVS] and the eHeals Internet health literacy index), trust in online information (Hargittai Internet credibility index and Annenberg National Health Communication Survey [ANHCS]), QoL (Food Allergy Quality of Life Parental Burden), and self-efficacy (Food Allergy Self-Efficacy Questionnaire [FASEQ]). Among 1562 respondents, 94.6% (NVS) and 61.1% (eHeals) had good health literacy, and 58% had high levels of trust in online information (both indexes). The NVS correlated poorly with the eHeals and Hargittai indexes. Hargittai and eHeals scores were moderately correlated (r = 0.37, P information (both indexes), worsening FASEQ score, blog readership, advocacy group membership, caring for multiple FAIs, and having milk or egg allergy were associated with worse FAQL-PB scores. In this sample, health literacy and trust in online information sources were high, with high trust in online information sources negatively associated with QoL. Advocacy group membership had an independent negative association with QoL. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Kianifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. Results: The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9% and skin (48.8%. 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow’s milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. Conclusions: The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  13. The prevalence of food allergy in infants in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hu, Yan; Allen, Katrina J; Ho, Marco H K; Li, Haiqi

    2011-06-01

    Over the past three decades, the prevalence of allergic diseases has markedly increased in developed countries. There has been a paucity of data on food allergy (FA) in developing countries such as China. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and the clinical features of FA in Chinese infants attending a routine well-baby clinic in Chongqing, China. From January 1st to February 28th, 2009, consecutive infants and young children aged 0-12 months attending routine well-baby checks at the Department of Primary Child Care, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, were invited to participate in the study. Parents completed questionnaires, and children were skin prick tested (SPT) to a panel of 10 foods (egg white, egg yolk, cow's milk, soybean, peanut, wheat, fish, shrimp, orange, and carrot) together of histamine and saline controls. Subjects with either a positive SPT or a positive medical history were invited to undergo an oral food challenge. Of 497 children who consented to participate, 477 (96%) participated fully in the study. Of these, 56 subjects had a positive SPT (11.3%), with 45 positive to egg, 13 to cow's milk, 2 to peanut, 1 to fish, shrimp, and orange respectively. Eighty subjects (16.1%, 80/497) participated in food challenges.   The overall prevalence of challenge-proven FA in 0- to 1-yr-old children in Chongqing, China, was 3.8% (18/477, 95% CI, 2.5-5.9%) with 2.5% (12/477) egg allergic and 1.3% (6/477) cow's milk allergic. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. SAFETY OF CELL-DERIVED SUBUNIT ADJUVANTED INFLUENZA VACCINE FOR CHILDREN VACCINATION: DOUBLE-BLIND RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kharit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the safety data for cell-derived inactivated subunit adjuvanted influenza vaccine «Grippol Neo» in children 3–17 years old in comparison with reference egg-derived inactivated subunit vaccine «Grippol plus». Good test vaccine tolerability and high efficacy profile is demonstrated. Based on the results obtained vaccine «Grippol Neo» is recommended for mass influenza prophylaxis in pediatry, including National Immunization Schedule.Key words: children, influenza, vaccination, «Grippol Neo».(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:44-49

  15. Food Allergy 101 | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issue contents Food Allergy 101 Follow us Food Allergy 101 What is a food allergy? In a person with a food allergy, the ... be life-threatening. What foods commonly cause an allergy? Foods that often cause allergic reactions in adults ...

  16. Post-transplantation Development of Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erik N; Firszt, Rafael

    2018-01-29

    The development of food allergies is increasingly being recognized as a post-solid organ transplant complication. In this article, we review the spectrum of post-transplant food allergy development and the proposed mechanisms for de novo food allergies and the clinical significance they pose. The development of new food allergies is disproportionately associated with pediatric liver transplants, where it occurs in up to 38% of select populations. The mechanism of food allergy development is not completely understood; however, it is likely promoted by unbalanced immune suppression. De novo food allergy development is a common complication of solid organ transplants with the highest risk occurring in pediatric liver transplant recipients. There are likely multiple mechanisms for food allergy development including passive transfer of membrane-bound IgE and lymphocytes from donor to recipient, as well as loss of food tolerance and active development of new food allergies. The optimal management of food allergies following organ transplants has not been well researched but may include changing the immune suppression regimen if the food allergy does not resolve without intervention.

  17. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.145 Dried egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is...

  18. Evaluation of Lethal Giant Larvae as a Schistosomiasis Vaccine Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of humans, and it is considered to be the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. Eggs produced by normally developed female worms are important in the transmission of the parasite, and they responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The tumor suppressor gene lethal giant larvae (lgl has an essential function in establishing apical-basal cell polarity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue organization. In our earlier study, downregulation of the lgl gene induced a significant reduction in the egg hatching rate of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj eggs. In this study, the Sjlgl gene was used as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis, and vaccination achieved and maintained a stable reduction of the egg hatching rate, which is consistent with previous studies, in addition to reducing the worm burden and liver egg burden in some trials.

  19. Rotavirus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452

  20. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Food Consumption and Prevalence of Asthma & Allergies Symptoms in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased significantly over the last 30 years. Genetic factors cannot explain this prevalence and a number of studies have been performed to determine the Environmental factors especially dietary factors which are effective in the incidence of these diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the food consumption and the subsequent development of asthma and other allergic disorder symptoms in 2003 of children in yazd. Methods: We performed a Descriptive cross-sectional study of selected children in primary and secondary schools in Yazd. Standardized questionnaire(ISAAC that was developed based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were distributed to parents of 2768 children aged 6-7 years and 3201 children aged 13-14 years which randomly selected. The data was analyzed by Epi6.04 and SPSS softwares. Results: The prevalence of asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and Eczema symptoms in children 6-7 years old was 10.9%, 15.5% and 7.3% and in children 13-14 years old was 20.3 %, 42.7% and 14.8% respectively. High intake of butter-fat, chocolate, sweet and Sausage were associated with an increased risk of allergic rhinitis in children 6-7 years old. High intake of chocolate, Chips, egg were associated with an increased risk of wheeze and in children 13-14 years old. Conclusion: Dietary factors are associated with asthma and allergies symptoms. Fast foods, chocolates, junk foods & sausage may increase wheezing and allergic rhinitis & eczema symptoms in childhood

  2. Bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zade, Jagdish K; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Desai, Sajjad A; Sabale, Rajendra N; Naik, Sameer P; Dhere, Rajeev M

    2014-08-11

    A bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV) containing rotavirus human-bovine (UK) reassortant strains of serotype G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 has been developed by the Serum Institute of India Ltd, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA. The vaccine underwent animal toxicity studies and Phase I and II studies in adults, toddlers and infants. It has been found safe and immunogenic and will undergo a large Phase III study to assess efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Booster HBV vaccination; is it really necessary? | Alavian | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Booster HBV vaccination; is it ...

  4. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine immune response in Egyptian children 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egypt J Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2015;13(2):45-48. 45. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine immune response in Egyptian children 15-17 years after primary immunization; should we provide a booster dose? INTRODUCTION. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. With approximately 350 million hepatitis B ...

  5. The significance of allergic contact urticaria to milk in children with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schichter-Konfino, Vered; Almog, Meital; Bamberger, Ellen; Berkowitz, Drora; Kessel, Aharon

    2015-05-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy in infancy. Food allergy is generally triggered through ingestion, but can also be triggered through skin contact. We investigated the incidence and the clinical significance of cow's milk protein (CMP)-induced contact urticaria in individuals with CMA with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). A total of 157 children of whom 133 were diagnosed with CMA were participated. The study was based on observational data gathered in the course of patient care, including a skin prick test and a 'finger test', in which cow's milk is applied on the cheek by a physician's finger to detect contact urticaria. Eighty nine of 133 patients (66.9%) had IgE-mediated CMA. Forty of these 89 (44.9%) tested positive in the finger test. Family atopy was higher in those with positive contact urticaria [21/40 (52.5%) vs. 14/49 (28.5%), p = 0.029]. Patients with positive vs. negative CMP contact urticaria had higher incidence of multiple food allergies [20 of 40 (50%) vs. 7/49 (14.3%), p milk allergy and healthy control group did not have contact urticaria to CMP. CMP contact urticaria exists only in patients with IgE-mediated CMA. A 'finger test' to CMP should be part of the evaluation of CMA patients, and positivity suggests the potential for multiple food allergies, especially to sesame and egg. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. EAACI Guidelines on allergen immunotherapy: IgE-mediated food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajno, G B; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Arasi, S; Roberts, G; Akdis, C A; Alvaro-Lozano, M; Beyer, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Burks, W; Ebisawa, M; Eigenmann, P; Knol, E; Nadeau, K C; Poulsen, L K; van Ree, R; Santos, A F; du Toit, G; Dhami, S; Nurmatov, U; Boloh, Y; Makela, M; O'Mahony, L; Papadopoulos, N; Sackesen, C; Agache, I; Angier, E; Halken, S; Jutel, M; Lau, S; Pfaar, O; Ryan, D; Sturm, G; Varga, E-M; van Wijk, R G; Sheikh, A; Muraro, A

    2018-04-01

    Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impairment of quality of life, and healthcare expenditure. There is therefore interest in novel strategies for its treatment, particularly food allergen immunotherapy (FA-AIT) through the oral (OIT), sublingual (SLIT), or epicutaneous (EPIT) routes. This Guideline, prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Task Force on Allergen Immunotherapy for IgE-mediated Food Allergy, aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for active treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy with FA-AIT. Immunotherapy relies on the delivery of gradually increasing doses of specific allergen to increase the threshold of reaction while on therapy (also known as desensitization) and ultimately to achieve post-discontinuation effectiveness (also known as tolerance or sustained unresponsiveness). Oral FA-AIT has most frequently been assessed: here, the allergen is either immediately swallowed (OIT) or held under the tongue for a period of time (SLIT). Overall, trials have found substantial benefit for patients undergoing either OIT or SLIT with respect to efficacy during treatment, particularly for cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut allergies. A benefit post-discontinuation is also suggested, but not confirmed. Adverse events during FA-AIT have been frequently reported, but few subjects discontinue FA-AIT as a result of these. Taking into account the current evidence, FA-AIT should only be performed in research centers or in clinical centers with an extensive experience in FA-AIT. Patients and their families should be provided with information about the use of FA-AIT for IgE-mediated food allergy to allow them to make an informed decision about the therapy. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  7. Diagnosis and management of food allergies: new and emerging options: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Keefe AW

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrew W O'Keefe,1,2 Sarah De Schryver,1 Jennifer Mill,3 Christopher Mill,3 Alizee Dery,1 Moshe Ben-Shoshan1 1Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL, Canada; 3Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: It is reported that 6% of children and 3% of adults have food allergies, with studies suggesting increased prevalence worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, our diagnostic capabilities and techniques for managing patients with food allergies remain limited. We have conducted a systematic review of literature published within the last 5 years on the diagnosis and management of food allergies. While the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, this assessment is resource intensive and impractical in most clinical situations. In an effort to reduce the need for the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, several risk-stratifying tests are employed, namely skin prick testing, measurement of serum-specific immunoglobulin E levels, component testing, and open food challenges. Management of food allergies typically involves allergen avoidance and carrying an epinephrine autoinjector. Clinical research trials of oral immunotherapy for some foods, including peanut, milk, egg, and peach, are under way. While oral immunotherapy is promising, its readiness for clinical application is controversial. In this review, we assess the latest studies published on the above diagnostic and management modalities, as well as novel strategies in the diagnosis and management of food allergy. Keywords: skin prick testing, oral challenge, specific IgE, component testing, oral immunotherapy, epinephrine

  8. Patterns of suspected wheat-related allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker Christensen, Morten; Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to wheat can present clinically in different forms: Sensitization to ingested wheat via the gastrointestinal tract can cause traditional food allergy or in combination with exercise, Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Sensitization to inhaled wheat flour may......). All children had atopic dermatitis, and most (13/15) outgrew their wheat allergy. Most children (13/15) had other food allergies. Challenge positive patients showed significantly higher levels of sIgE to wheat and significantly more were SPT positive than challenge negative. Group 2: Eleven out of 13...... of sIgE to ω-5-gliadin. The natural course is presently unknown. CONCLUSION: Wheat allergy can manifest in different disease entities, rendering a detailed case history and challenge mandatory. Patient age, occupation, concomitant allergies (food or inhalant) and atopic dermatitis are important factors...

  9. Risk Management for Food Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risk Management for Food Allergy is developed by a team of scientists and industry professionals who understand the importance of allergen risk assessment and presents practical, real-world guidance for food manufacturers. With more than 12 million Americans suffering from food allergies and little...... appropriate "safe" thresholds of ingredients, the food industry must take increasingly proactive steps to avoid direct or cross-contamination as well as ensuring that their products are appropriately labeled and identified for those at risk. This book covers a range of critical topics in this area, including...... indication of what is causing that number to continue to grow, food producers, packagers and distributors need to appropriately process, label and deliver their products to ensure the safety of customers with allergic conditions. By identifying risk factors during processing as well as determining...

  10. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  11. Clinical update on contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Orton, David I

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to review recent findings in contact allergy, regarding clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: The biocide methyldibromo glutaronitrile was identified to be an important sensitizer. Subsequently, it was banned from leave-on cosmetics in the European Union....... Another group of important allergens that have been studied extensively included the fragrances oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and farnesol. A new fragrance mix II has been developed for standard testing, which includes the two latter compounds. Dose response...... a classification of newly introduced chemicals; increasingly, the local lymph node assay is supplementing and potentially replacing the guinea pig maximization test. Recent advances in occupational contact allergy include, for example, some attempts to improve diagnostics for epoxy resin and other plastic, glue...

  12. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  13. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as... vaccinates and controls shall be challenged by eye-drop with virulent bronchitis virus. A separate set of... authority for use of a new lot of Master Seed Virus shall be granted by Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  14. Field testing of Schistosoma japonicum DNA vaccines in cattle in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fuhui; Zhang, Yaobi; Lin, Jiaojiao; Zuo, Xin; Shen, Wei; Cai, Yiumin; Ye, Ping; Bickle, Quentin D; Taylor, Martin G

    2002-11-01

    Vaccines are needed to reduce the zoonotic reservoir of Schistosoma japonicum infection in bovines in China. We have developed two experimental DNA vaccines and have already shown these to be capable of inducing partial protection in water buffalo naturally exposed to the risk of S. japonicum infection in the field. We now report a similar field trial in cattle, the other major bovine reservoir host species in China. Groups of cattle were vaccinated with the VRSj28 vaccine or the VRSj23 vaccine, or, to test whether protection could be enhanced by combination vaccination, with both these DNA vaccines together. After vaccination, the cattle were exposed to natural infection in the field for a period of 54 days. Worm and egg counts carried out at the end of the experiment showed that each of the vaccine groups showed partial resistance, and that combined vaccination was not more effective than vaccination with the individual plasmids.

  15. Managing Your Seasonal Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Managing Your Seasonal Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents Allergic ... and avoid collecting pollen on them. Fast Facts Allergies are reactions of your immune system to one ...

  16. Feature: Controlling Seasonal Allergies | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Controlling Seasonal Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2012 Table of Contents In ... to allergens, helping to prevent allergic reactions. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Allergen and T-Cell Reagent ...

  17. Temporal trends of preservative allergy in Denmark (1985-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Engkilde, Kåre; Lundov, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Most cosmetics and industrial products contain preservatives. Preservative allergy is common and, historically, changing contact allergy epidemics caused by preservatives have been observed. In 1997, Alan Dillarstone predicted a stable development of preservative allergy following mandatory...

  18. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... October 2014 Print this issue Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment En español ... Peanut Allergy Therapy Wise Choices Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Treatment depends on which you have. A health ...

  19. Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents Diagnosis Testing for Allergies Knowing exactly what you are allergic to can ...

  20. Allergy Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/allergybloodtest.html Allergy Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Allergy Blood Test? Allergies are a common and chronic ...

  1. NAA Comparison of Nutriens in Egg Yolk and Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangdit, S.; Maijan, P.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Food we eat has significant effects on our wellbeing. Eggs are among food products widely consumed and contain many essential nutrients. Yet eggs often are involved in dietary controversy regarding benefit versus risk. The fear of serum cholesterol has driven a large number of people away from consuming egg yolks. In this study, we assessed the nutritional importance of eggs using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique at Thai Research Reactor, operating at 1.2 MW. We investigated whether consumers miss any health benefits by choosing to eat only egg whites or yolks rather than whole natural eggs. Essential minerals such as sodium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, copper, selenium, iron and zinc are studied using three NAA loading methods: short-term individual pneumatic transfer system loading using inner-core tubes, medium-term CA3 loading and long-term Lazy Susan (LS) loading for 10 s, 7 h and 3 d, respectively. Two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were used to find the nutrient concentrations and validate the method. From the study, we found significant differences in nutritional contents between egg yolks and egg whites. Along with literature review conducted as part of this study, we evaluated the consumption choice when it comes to eggs.

  2. Genetics of allergy and allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sparks, Rachel; Waage, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    information about shared genetics between allergy, related phenotypes and autoimmunity. Studies of monogenic diseases have elucidated critical cellular pathways and protein functions responsible for allergy. These complementary approaches imply genetic mechanisms involved in Th2 immunity, T......Our understanding of the specific genetic lesions in allergy has improved in recent years due to identification of common risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and studies of rare, monogenic diseases. Large-scale GWAS have identified novel susceptibility loci and provided...

  3. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Administrators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-15

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/15/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2015.

  4. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  5. Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Hannah M.C.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environ...

  6. Food Allergy and Attentional Coping in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gauchel, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy affects approximately 9 million adults in the Unites States. The only medically approved treatment is avoidance of the allergenic food. Research has found food allergy to be associated with anxiety, depression, and lower quality of life, but has primarily focused on children. Little research has explored these associations in adults, and even less has examined the relationship between coping and food allergy in adults. Attentional coping is associated with ongoing symptom managem...

  7. Contact allergy epidemics and their controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    Contact dermatitis can be severe and lead to sick leave as well as significant healthcare expenses. The aim of this review is to present the published knowledge on 6 historical epidemics of contact allergy to apply this knowledge on the prevention and control of future contact allergy epidemics. ...... to prevent contact allergy epidemics. It is essential that dermatologist, scientists, administrators, and consumers organize and structure known methods to accelerate the control of emerging contact allergens....

  8. Eggs: the uncracked potential for improving maternal and young child nutrition among the world's poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Bunn, David A; Stewart, Christine P

    2014-06-01

    Eggs have been consumed throughout human history, though the full potential of this nutritionally complete food has yet to be realized in many resource-poor settings around the world. Eggs provide essential fatty acids, proteins, choline, vitamins A and B12 , selenium, and other critical nutrients at levels above or comparable to those found in other animal-source foods, but they are relatively more affordable. Cultural beliefs about the digestibility and cleanliness of eggs, as well as environmental concerns arising from hygiene practices and toxin exposures, remain as barriers to widespread egg consumption. There is also regional variability in egg intake levels. In Latin American countries, on average, greater proportions of young children consume eggs than in Asian or African countries. In China and Indonesia, nutrition education and social marketing have been associated with greater amounts of eggs in the diets of young children, though generally, evidence from interventions is minimal. Homestead chicken-and-egg production with appropriate vaccination, extension service, and other supports can simultaneously address poverty and nutrition in very poor rural households. With undernutrition remaining a significant problem in many parts of the world, eggs may be an uncracked part of the solution. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  9. Microbiome/microbiota and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuzaburo; Shimojo, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species, called the "gut microbiota." The recent development of sequencing technology has enabled researchers to genetically investigate and clarify the diversity of all species of commensal microbes. The collective genomes of commensal microbes are together called the "microbiome." Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, it has been proposed that the microbiota/microbiome, especially that in the gut, impacts the systemic immunity and metabolism, thus affecting the development of various immunological diseases, including allergies. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the importance of the microbiome/microbiota in the development of allergic diseases and also the results of interventional studies using probiotics or prebiotics to prevent allergies.

  10. Active treatment for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobernick, Aaron K; Burks, A Wesley

    2016-10-01

    Food allergy has grown in rapidly in prevalence, currently affecting 5% of adults and 8% of children. Management strategy is currently limited to 1) food avoidance and 2) carrying and using rescue intramuscular epinephrine/adrenaline and oral antihistamines in the case of accidental ingestion; there is no FDA approved treatment. Recently, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy have been developed as active treatment of food allergy, though none have completed phase 3 study. Efficacy and safety studies of immunotherapy have been variable, though there is clearly signal that immunotherapy will be a viable option to desensitize patients. The use of bacterial adjuvants, anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations either alone or in addition to immunotherapy may hold promise as future options for active treatment. Active prevention of food allergy through early introduction of potentially offending foods in high-risk infants will be an important means to slow the rising incidence of sensitization. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent advances in food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Julio Caruso Alcocer

    Full Text Available Summary Food allergy is a public health issue that has significantly increased worldwide in the past decade, affecting consumers’ quality of life and making increasing demands on health service resources. Despite recent advances in many areas of diagnosis and treatment, our general knowledge of the basic mechanisms of the disease remain limited i.e., not at pace with the exponential number of new cases and the explosion of new technologies. Many important key questions remain: What defines a major allergen? Why do some individuals develop food allergies and others do not? Which are the environmental factors? Could the environmental factors be monitored through epigenetics or modified by changes in the microbiome? Can tolerance to food be induced? Why are some foods more likely to trigger allergies than others? Does the route and timing of exposure have any role on sensitization? These and many other related questions remain unanswered. In this short review some of these topics are addressed in the light of recent advances in the area.

  12. Radioassay in allergy and immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluck, J.

    1983-01-01

    The discovering of IgE and the development of RIA to measure the amount of total IgE and assay IgE to specific allergens opened up a new dimension in the study of allergy. PRIST and RAST have been helpful in diagnosis as well as definition of new diseases and quality control of allergen extracts. A clinical diagnosis should not be based on an in vitro measurement alone, but must be combined with a clinical history, physical exam, and other diagnostic tests, such as skin tests. This combination of examinations is probably sufficient to make a diagnosis in the majority of cases, thus obviating the need for provocation testing, except where there are discrepancies in the data or no definitive results. Since provocation testing is time-consuming, uncomfortable, and potentially hazardous for the patient, any decrease in its frequency of use is significant. The standardization, purification, and separation of active fractions of allergens is essential to the further understanding and treatment of allergy and RAST is instrumental in this effort. It must always be kept in mind that the RAST is only as accurate and significant as the antigen that is linked to the disc. In cases where a purified, well-tested antigen is used, the results are excellent as with the codfish study. When the antigen is more variable and contains several proteins, results with RAST will be variable also. As more allergens are studied and purified, RAST will become a more important tool in allergy management

  13. Allergies Galore! Managing Allergies Is More Than a Call to 911.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Cassandra; Rebull, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Food allergies can kill a child, and camp offers many opportunities for things to go wrong. One camp with many allergic campers gathered information from parents on the extent of allergies and medications needed; educated staff about the seriousness of allergies, food preparation procedures, and snacks; and prepared an emergency plan. Family,…

  14. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: diagnosis and management of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Werfel, T.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Roberts, G.; Beyer, K.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Cardona, V.; Dubois, A.; duToit, G.; Eigenmann, P.; Fernandez Rivas, M.; Halken, S.; Hickstein, L.; Høst, A.; Knol, E.; Lack, G.; Marchisotto, M. J.; Niggemann, B.; Nwaru, B. I.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Poulsen, L. K.; Santos, A. F.; Skypala, I.; Schoepfer, A.; van Ree, R.; Venter, C.; Worm, M.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.; Panesar, S.; de Silva, D.; Soares-Weiser, K.; Sheikh, A.; Ballmer-Weber, B. K.; Nilsson, C.; de Jong, N. W.; Akdis, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impact negatively on quality of life, and prove costly in terms of medical care. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group, building on

  15. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines: managing patients with food allergy in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Agache, I.; Clark, A.; Sheikh, A.; Roberts, G.; Akdis, C. A.; Borrego, L. M.; Higgs, J.; Hourihane, J. O.'B.; Jorgensen, P.; Mazon, A.; Parmigiani, D.; Said, M.; Schnadt, S.; van Os-Medendorp, H.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Wickman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines, managing patients with food allergy (FA) in the community, intend to provide guidance to reduce the risk of accidental allergic reactions to foods in the community. This document is intended to

  16. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines : Food allergy health-related quality of life measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Dubois, Anthony; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; de Jong, N. W.; Meyer, R.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Salvilla, S.; Sheikh, A.; Worth, A.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a

  17. Japanese Guideline for Food Allergy 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urisu, Atsuo; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Aihara, Yukoh; Ito, Setsuko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Kohno, Yoichi; Kondo, Naomi

    2014-09-01

    A food allergy is defined as "a phenomenon in which adverse reactions are caused through antigen-specific immunological mechanisms after exposure to given food." Various symptoms of food allergy occur in many organs. Food allergies are classified roughly into 4 clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) food dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (i.e., specific forms of immediate food allergy). The therapy for food allergies includes treatment of and prophylactic measures against hypersensitivity such as anaphylaxis. A fundamental prophylactic measure is the elimination diet. However, elimination diets should be used only if necessary because of the patient-related burden. For this purpose, it is very important that causative foods be accurately identified. There are a number of means available to identify causative foods, including the history taking, a skin prick test, detection of antigen-specific IgE antibodies in the blood, the basophil histamine release test, the elimination diet test, and the oral challenge test, etc. Of these, the oral challenge test is the most reliable. However, it should be conducted under the supervision of experienced physicians because it may cause adverse reactions, such as anaphylaxis.

  18. Immunotherapy in allergy and cellular tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The basophil activation test (BAT) is an in vitro assay where the activation of basophils upon exposure to various IgE-challenging molecules is measured by flow cytometry. It is a cellular test able to investigate basophil behavior during allergy and allergy immunotherapy. A panoply of critical issues and suggestive advances have rendered this assay a promising yet puzzling tool to endeavor a full comprehension of innate immunity of allergy desensitization and manage allergen or monoclonal anti-IgE therapy. In this review a brief state of art of BAT in immunotherapy is described focusing onto the analytical issue pertaining BAT performance in allergy specific therapy. PMID:24717453

  19. US antibiotic stewardship and penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kara J; Calhoun, Karen H

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to improve otolaryngologists' antibiotic stewardship by detailing current approaches to penicillin allergy. Although up to 15% of hospitalized patients in the United States have a penicillin allergy recorded on their charts, fewer than 10% of these have a true penicillin allergy. Using a combination of a detailed allergy history, skin testing and graded-dose administration, many patients whose charts say 'penicillin-allergic' can safely be treated with penicillin and cross-reacting antibiotics. This permits use of narrower-spectrum antibiotics and saves money.

  20. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The epidemiology of contact allergy. Allergen exposure and recent trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P

    2009-01-01

    that the prevalence of nickel allergy is decreasing among young women whereas the prevalence of cobalt allergy remains stable. The prevalence of chromium allergy is currently increasing significantly in both sexes, mainly as a result of leather exposure. The epidemiology of fragrance allergy is changing...... high whereas the prevalence of methyldibromo glutaronitrile allergy has decreased following regulatory intervention. Finally, the prevalence of thiuram allergy is decreasing as a result of improved rubber glove production....

  2. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  3. Food allergies in children: a comparison of parental reports and skin prick test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia Metadea Aji Savitri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Food allergy is common in children and its prevalence is generally on the rise. Imprecise parental reports about reactions to particular foods can lead to unnecessary restrictions. Since children have specific growth requirements, such nutritional restrictions may have disturbing effects on children’s growth and development. Objective To compare parental reports on food reactions to skin prick test results in their children. Method Retrospective, cross sectional study using patient’s medical record data during one-year study period. Data were analyzed manually and statistically, to assess the degree of agreement (Kappa’s coefficient and significance (P. Results We collected data from 154 subjects aged 0-18 years. For every allergen assessed, parents reported more food reactions than positive skin prick test results. Allergy incidence were caused, in order, by cow’s milk and chicken (25.3%, eggs (22.1%, chocolate (20.1%, fruits (14.3%, seafood (13%, and saltwater fish (1.9%. Kappa coefficient are all poor (0.05 except for chicken (P=0.02. Conclusion Most parents tend to overestimate which food cause reactions in their children, as reactions reported were not necessarily allergenic. Therefore, every patient experiencing allergy reactions should undergo skin prick testing to confirm the possibility of allergy.

  4. Assessment of IgE-mediated food allergies in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudi, A; Karagiannidou, A; Xinias, I; Cassimos, D; Karantaglis, N; Farmaki, E; Imvrios, G; Fotoulaki, M; Eboriadou, M; Tsanakas, J

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory disease of the skin, which is characterised by a chronic relapsing course. The aim of the study was to assign the prevalence of clinically active food allergies among a group of children between 3 months and 7 years of age, with AD. Eighty-eight children with AD were screened for specific IgE antibodies to food proteins. All patients with AD and specific IgE antibodies to food proteins were subjected to Oral Food Challenges (OFCs) with the relevant foods. Food-sensitised patients with moderate levels of sIgE had clinically active food allergy to milk (39.28%) and egg (42.34%) on the basis of positive OFCs. High IgE and eosinophilia had a prevalence of almost 80% and 25%, regardless of concomitant food sensitisation and disease severity. In this study, clinically active food allergies were recognised in 26.13% of children with AD. Nevertheless, no association was confirmed between food sensitisation and AD severity. High IgE and peripheral eosinophilia have not been found more prevalent among children with severe AD nor among children with food sensitisation. Infants and younger children with AD should be screened for an underlying food allergy, regardless of disease severity. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Skin manifestations and immunological parameters in childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehling, A; Fernández, M; Córdoba, H; Sanz, M L

    1997-01-01

    According to Hansen's contact rule, the digestive system should be considered as the main shock organ, yet in food allergy, this is not the case. Very often specific food triggers clinical manifestations not involving the digestive system; that is, reactions are manifested either in the respiratory system, as asthma or rhinitis, or in the skin. In these cases the BALT (broncho-alveolar lymphoid tissue) and GALT (gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue) units play a basic role in the sensitizations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequent skin manifestations of food allergy among children, and the most frequently involved foods. We also thought it interesting to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of the different standard immunological parameters utilized by the study team in food allergy. All patients underwent intracutaneous tests with 12 groups of the most frequent food allergens, as well as serum IgE, antigen-specific IgE against foods, and antigen-specific histamine release tests. Antigen-specific IgG4 determination was performed in some cases. The results obtained confirmed previous studies, the most common manifestations being: angioedema (48%), followed by urticaria (31%) and atopic dermatitis (21%). Regarding the frequency of sensitization to different food allergens, in mono- or polisensitization, fish and egg stand out in our environment. Certain food allergens are more frequently responsible for specific skin manifestations. Thus, for fish sensitization, the most frequent skin manifestation is atopic dermatitis (50%); for egg sensitization, angioedema is the most frequent skin manifestation (50%); and for milk, urticaria (50%). Finally, and in agreement with previous works regarding the diagnostic reliability of in vitro techniques, we found that the histamine release test offered the highest percentage of diagnostic reliability. Only for sensitization to milk proteins did antigen-specific IgE demonstrate higher reliability. Once again, we

  6. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L.K.; Hansen, Tine Kjær; Norgaard, A.

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  7. DHEC: Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data, Maps - SC Public Health Diseases and Conditions Flu Tuberculosis STD/HIV and Viral Hepatitis Zika Illnesses E. coli Listeriosis Salmonella Hepatitis A Shellfish Monitoring and Regulation Certified Shippers Vaccines Teen and Preteen Vaccines Vaccines Needed for School Admission Related Topics Perinatal Hepatitis

  8. Allergy Testing in Children With Low-Risk Penicillin Allergy Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyles, David; Adams, Juan; Chiu, Asriani; Simpson, Pippa; Nimmer, Mark; Brousseau, David C

    2017-08-01

    Penicillin allergy is commonly reported in the pediatric emergency department (ED). True penicillin allergy is rare, yet the diagnosis results from the denial of first-line antibiotics. We hypothesize that all children presenting to the pediatric ED with symptoms deemed to be low-risk for immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity will return negative results for true penicillin allergy. Parents of children aged 4 to 18 years old presenting to the pediatric ED with a history of parent-reported penicillin allergy completed an allergy questionnaire. A prespecified 100 children categorized as low-risk on the basis of reported symptoms completed penicillin allergy testing by using a standard 3-tier testing process. The percent of children with negative allergy testing results was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. Five hundred ninety-seven parents completed the questionnaire describing their child's reported allergy symptoms. Three hundred two (51%) children had low-risk symptoms and were eligible for testing. Of those, 100 children were tested for penicillin allergy. The median (interquartile range) age at testing was 9 years (5-12). The median (interquartile range) age at allergy diagnosis was 1 year (9 months-3 years). Rash (97 [97%]) and itching (63 [63%]) were the most commonly reported allergy symptoms. Overall, 100 children (100%; 95% confidence interval 96.4%-100%) were found to have negative results for penicillin allergy and had their labeled penicillin allergy removed from their medical record. All children categorized as low-risk by our penicillin allergy questionnaire were found to have negative results for true penicillin allergy. The utilization of this questionnaire in the pediatric ED may facilitate increased use of first-line penicillin antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Vitamin D insufficiency in the first 6 months of infancy and challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy at 1 year of age: a case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, J; Koplin, J J; Allen, K J; Tang, M L K; Collier, F; Carlin, J B; Saffery, R; Burgner, D; Ranganathan, S; Dwyer, T; Ward, A C; Moreno-Betancur, M; Clarke, M; Ponsonby, A L; Vuillermin, P

    2017-08-01

    Ecological evidence suggests vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) due to lower ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure may be a risk factor for IgE-mediated food allergy. However, there are no studies relating directly measured VDI during early infancy to subsequent challenge-proven food allergy. To prospectively investigate the association between VDI during infancy and challenge-proven food allergy at 1 year. In a birth cohort (n = 1074), we used a case-cohort design to compare 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)D 3 ) levels among infants with food allergy vs a random subcohort (n = 274). The primary exposures were VDI (25(OH)D 3 allergy status at 1 year was determined by formal challenge. Binomial regression was used to examine associations between VDI, UVR exposure dose and food allergy and investigate potential confounding. Within the random subcohort, VDI was present in 45% (105/233) of newborns and 24% (55/227) of infants at 6 months. Food allergy prevalence at 1 year was 7.7% (61/786), and 6.5% (53/808) were egg-allergic. There was no evidence of an association between VDI at either birth (aRR 1.25, 95% CI 0.70-2.22) or 6 months (aRR 0.93, 95% CI 0.41-2.14) and food allergy at 1 year. There was no evidence that VDI during the first 6 months of infancy is a risk factor for food allergy at 1 year of age. These findings primarily relate to egg allergy, and larger studies are required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Willingness to pay for allergy-vaccination among Danish patients with respiratory allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karin Dam; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elicit willingness to pay (WTP) for allergen-specific subcutaneous injection immunotherapy (SCIT) in a cohort of respondents suffering from allergic-rhinoconjunctivitis (a-RC)/asthma, and to investigate how patients self-select to SCIT according to need.......The aim of this study was to elicit willingness to pay (WTP) for allergen-specific subcutaneous injection immunotherapy (SCIT) in a cohort of respondents suffering from allergic-rhinoconjunctivitis (a-RC)/asthma, and to investigate how patients self-select to SCIT according to need....

  11. Effect of Egg Orientation on Malposition in Hatching Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effects of orientation in the hatching eggs on hatching results and position disorders, so the eggs were placed in incubator for 3 groups as orientation of normal, horizontal and small end up. In this study, 1680 hatching eggs were divided into 3 groups with 7 replicates of 80 eggs in each. Hatchability of fertile eggs, malformation ratio, malposition ratio, weight loss ratio, chick quality, embryo death ratios in the early, middle and late stage of embriogenesis and mortality ratio were investigated in this research. There were significant differences among the groups in terms of egg weight loss ratio, embryo death in the late stage of embriogenesis, malposition ratio, hatching rate , whereas no significant differences among the groups in respect to malformation ratio, chick quality, embryo death in early and late embriogenesis. It was determined that the late embrionic mortality increased because of the position errors in case of hatching eggs orientation and the head of the embryo in small end up of eggs.

  12. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  13. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  14. The changing geoepidemiology of food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Patrick S C; Shu, Shang-An; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    The science of food allergy has been rapidly evolving before our eyes in the past half century. Like other allergic disorders, the prevalence of food allergies has dramatically increased, and coupled with the increased public awareness of anaphylaxis due to food allergy, this has driven an explosion in basic and clinical research in this extremely broad subject. Treatment of food allergies has evolved and practices such as food challenges have become an integral part of an allergy practice. The impact of the increase of food allergy has driven package labeling laws, legislation on emergency treatment availability in schools and other public places, and school policy. But to this day, our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergy is still incomplete. There are the most obvious IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions, but then multiple previously unidentified conditions such as eosinophilic esophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, milk protein allergy, food-induced atopic dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, and others have complicated the diagnosis and management of many of our patients who are unable to tolerate certain foods. Many of these conditions are not IgE-mediated, but may be T cell-driven diseases. The role of T regulatory cells and immune tolerance and the newly discovered immunological role of vitamin D have shed light on the variable clinical presentation of food allergy and the development of new methods of immunotherapy in an example of bench-to-bedside research. Component-resolved diagnostic techniques have already begun to allow us to more precisely define the epitopes that are targeted in food allergic patients. The development of biological modulators, research on genomics and proteomics, and epigenetic techniques all offer promising avenues for new modes of therapy of food allergy in the twenty-first century.

  15. Updates on the web-based VIOLIN vaccine database and analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun; Racz, Rebecca; Sayers, Samantha; Lin, Yu; Todd, Thomas; Hur, Junguk; Li, Xinna; Patel, Mukti; Zhao, Boyang; Chung, Monica; Ostrow, Joseph; Sylora, Andrew; Dungarani, Priya; Ulysse, Guerlain; Kochhar, Kanika; Vidri, Boris; Strait, Kelsey; Jourdian, George W; Xiang, Zuoshuang

    2014-01-01

    The integrative Vaccine Investigation and Online Information Network (VIOLIN) vaccine research database and analysis system (http://www.violinet.org) curates, stores, analyses and integrates various vaccine-associated research data. Since its first publication in NAR in 2008, significant updates have been made. Starting from 211 vaccines annotated at the end of 2007, VIOLIN now includes over 3240 vaccines for 192 infectious diseases and eight noninfectious diseases (e.g. cancers and allergies). Under the umbrella of VIOLIN, >10 relatively independent programs are developed. For example, Protegen stores over 800 protective antigens experimentally proven valid for vaccine development. VirmugenDB annotated over 200 'virmugens', a term coined by us to represent those virulence factor genes that can be mutated to generate successful live attenuated vaccines. Specific patterns were identified from the genes collected in Protegen and VirmugenDB. VIOLIN also includes Vaxign, the first web-based vaccine candidate prediction program based on reverse vaccinology. VIOLIN collects and analyzes different vaccine components including vaccine adjuvants (Vaxjo) and DNA vaccine plasmids (DNAVaxDB). VIOLIN includes licensed human vaccines (Huvax) and veterinary vaccines (Vevax). The Vaccine Ontology is applied to standardize and integrate various data in VIOLIN. VIOLIN also hosts the Ontology of Vaccine Adverse Events (OVAE) that logically represents adverse events associated with licensed human vaccines.

  16. The impact of new technologies on vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, G P; Diwan, M; Razvi, F; Malhotra, R

    1999-01-01

    efficiently in plants. These recombinant antibodies are opening out an era of highly specific and safe therapeutic interventions. Human recombinant antibodies would be invaluable for treating patients with terminal tetanus and rabies. Antibodies are already in use for treatment of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and allergies. An advantage of preformed antibodies directed at a defined target and given in adequate amounts is the certainty of efficacy in every recipient, in contrast to vaccines, where the quality and quantum of immune response varies from individual to individual.

  17. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  18. Quality of life measures for food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Food allergy has become an emerging health problem in Western societies. Although food allergy is characterized by a relatively low mortality and an almost continual absence of physical symptoms, food allergic patients are continually confronted with the possibility of potentially severe reactions

  19. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nurses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the leadership role of school nurses in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  20. Fragrance allergy and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrance ingredients can cause contact allergy, which may affect quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have investigated this topic. OBJECTIVES: To investigate QoL life among subjects with a fragrance allergy as compared with other eczema patients. METHODS: A case-control survey...