Sample records for egg albumin foam

  1. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alsaati, Hytham A; Ditzler, Danielle; Burapatana, Vorakan; Tanner, Robert D


    ...) away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents...

  2. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytham A. Alsaati


    Full Text Available Oil, coal and chemical fires are often difficult to put out using water. In certain hydrocarbon fires, protein foam can extinguish fires better than water by keeping air (oxygen away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents. This paper begins to deal with the effect of the foam bulk pH, foam protein concentration and generating air flow rate into the foam on the fire extinguishing time in laboratory experiments. A Bunsen burner was used to generate a small, controlled laboratory fire within a plastic container, which represented a point source in a partially open room in the experiments. The Bunsen burner represents a gaseous hydrocarbon fire, which can be difficult to extinguish. Both a low pH foam and one made with a high air flow rate favor a reduction in time required to put out the Bunsen burner flame.Chamas produzidas por óleo, carvão e produtos químicos (incêndios provocados são difíceis de ser extinguidos com água. Algumas chamas de hidrocarbonetos podem ser extinguidas por espumas protéicas melhor do que a manutenção de ar (oxigênio fora do alcance das chamas ou pelo sopramento da chama para longe da sua fonte. Albumina de ovo é uma proteína relativamente barata e é representativa dentre as proteínas usadas como espuma para a (supressão extinção de agentes causadores de incêndio. Este artigo trata do estudo do efeito do pH e concentração da espuma protéica, além da geração de ar no interior da espuma, sobre o tempo de extinção de incêndio em experimentos laboratoriais. Nos experimentos um bico de Bunsen foi usado para gerar uma pequena chama, controlada em um container de plástico, representando uma fonte pontual em um ambiente parcialmente aberto. A chama do bico de Bunsen representa uma chama gasosa de hidrocarbonetos, que são dif

  3. Effect of lidocaine on ovalbumin and egg albumin foam stability. (United States)

    Burapatana, Vorakan; Butler, Ernest E; Chauhan, Gaurav; Hartig, Sean; Kincaid, Helen; Wang, Tong; Samsudin, Shayrizal; Tanner, Robert D


    Foam fractionation is a simple separation process that can remove and concentrate hydrophobic molecules such as proteins, surfactants, and organic wastes from an aqueous solution. Bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin have been widely used as model proteins due to their strong foaming potential and low price. Here, we study the effect of lidocaine on albumin foam, since drugs like lidocaine are known to bind with albumin. We observed that lidocaine not only enhances the amount of foam produced but also the stability of that foam as well. The foam stability was evaluated as the decay rate constant of the foam, determined from a change in height (or volume) of the foam over a given time period.

  4. Holograms with egg albumin (United States)

    Pérez-Salinas, P.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Perez, A.; Grande-Grande, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.


    Two components of the egg as the albumen and their proteins are used for holographic recorded applying lithography technique. This matrix was composed by albumen-glucose and by protein-glucose. The results obtained for the parameter diffraction efficiency with our matrix albumen-glucose was it from 44.1% and for the matrix protein-glucose were two maximums of diffraction efficiency, reached about the mixture ovoalbumin-glucose (6.2*10 -1%) and avidin-glucose (4.7*10 -1%).

  5. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin


    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira


    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to diatomite at pH6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30°C was about 100-fold larger than that of nativ...

  6. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin. (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira


    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.05 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto diatomite at pH 6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30 degrees C was about 100-fold larger than that of native egg albumin; however, the adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin decreased to about 1/100 with temperature decreasing from 30 to 6 degrees C. The saturated adsorption amount of egg albumin was also increased by the methylation. The flocculating ability of methylated egg albumin was examined with a diatomite suspension at 6 and 30 degrees C in the pH range from pH 2 to 11. The diatomite suspension was effectively flocculated by the addition of small amounts of methylated egg albumin (only 0.5-1 wt% against diatomite) over a wide pH range from pH 3 to 10.


    Mirsky, A E


    1. The same number of SH groups reduces ferricyanide in surface films of egg albumin as in albumin denatured by urea, guanidine hydrochloride, Duponol, or heat, provided the ferricyanide reacts with films while they still are at the surface and with the denatured proteins while the denaturing agent (urea, heat, etc.) is present. 2. The SH groups of a suspension of egg albumin made by clumping together many surface films react with ferricyanide in the same sluggish and incomplete manner as do the groups in egg albumin denatured by concentrated urea when the urea is diluted or in albumin denatured by heat when the solution is allowed to cool off. 3. The known change in configuration of the egg albumin molecule when it forms part of a surface film explains why SH groups in the film react with ferricyanide whereas those in native egg albumin do not. In the native egg albumin molecule groups in the interior are inaccessible to certain reagents. A film is so thin that there are no inaccessible groups. 4. Because of the marked resemblance in the properties of egg albumin in surface films and of egg albumin after denaturation by the recognized denaturing agents, it may be supposed that the same fundamental change takes place in denaturation as in film formation-indeed, that film formation is one of the numerous examples of denaturation. This would mean that in general the SH groups of denatured egg albumin reduce ferricyanide and react with certain other reagents because they are no longer inaccessible to these reagents.


    Anson, M L


    1. 1 cc. of 0.001 M ferricyanide, tetrathionate, or p-chloromercuribenzoate is required to abolish the SH groups of 10 mg. of denatured egg albumin in guanidine hydrochloride or Duponol PC solution. Both the nitroprusside test and the ferricyanide reduction test are used to show that the SH groups have been abolished. 2. 1 cc. of 0.001 M ferrocyanide is formed when ferricyanide is added to 10 mg. of denatured egg albumin in neutral guanidine hydrochloride or urea solution. The amount of ferricyanide reduced to ferrocyanide by the SH groups of the denatured egg albumin is, within wide limits, independent of the ferricyanide concentration. 3. Ferricyanide and p-chloromercuribenzoate react more rapidly than tetrathionate with the SH groups of denatured egg albumin in both guanidine hydrochloride solution and in Duponol PC solution. 4. Cyanide inhibits the oxidation of the SH groups of denatured egg albumin by ferricyanide. 5. Some samples of guanidine hydrochloride contain impurities which bring about the abolition of SH groups of denatured egg albumin and so interfere with the SH titration and the nitroprusside test. This interference can be diminished by using especially purified guanidine hydrochloride, adding the titrating agent before the protein has been allowed to stand in guanidine hydrochloride solution, and carrying out the nitroprusside test in the presence of a small amount of cyanide. 6. The SH groups of egg albumin can be abolished by reaction of the native form of the protein with iodine. It is possible to oxidize all the SH groups with iodine without oxidizing many of the SH groups beyond the S-S stage and without converting many tyrosine groups into di-iodotyrosine groups. 7. p-chloromercuribenzoate combines with native egg albumin either not at all or much more loosely than it combines with the SH groups of denatured egg albumin or of cysteine. 8. The compound of mercuribenzoate and SH, like the compound of aldehyde and SH and like the SH in native


    Landsteiner, K.; van der Scheer, J.


    Experiments are presented on the cross reactions of hen egg albumin immune sera with egg albumins of other species by means of exhaustion with heterologous proteins and by inhibition tests. From the results it can be concluded that the sera contain multiple, qualitatively distinct antibodies. For this, two not mutually exclusive explanations come into consideration: the presence in proteins of a number of different, perhaps similar, complex determinants, and the fact, established by previous results, that one antigenic grouping can call forth the formation of diverse antibodies. It is inferred that cross reactions between proteins of kindred species are ascribable, in general, to similarity in determinant structures, and not to the distribution of identical determinant groups among the related proteins. PMID:19870974


    Mirsky, A E


    1. The reaction between ferricyanide and egg albumin in solutions of urea, guanidine hydrochloride, and Duponol has been investigated. 2. In neutral medium ferricyanide oxidizes all the SH groups of egg albumin that give a color reaction with nitroprusside. In neutral medium ferricyanide appears to react only with the SH groups of egg albumin. The quantity of ferrocyanide formed can accordingly be considered the equivalent of the number of SH groups in egg albumin detectable with nitroprusside. 3. In solutions of urea, guanidine hydrochloride, and Duponol sufficiently concentrated so that all the egg albumin present is denatured, the same number of SH groups are found-equivalent to a cysteine content of 0.96 per cent. 4. In denaturation of egg albumin loss of solubility (solubility not in presence of the denaturing agent, but solubility examined in water at the isoelectric point) and appearance of reactive SH groups are integral parts of the same process. As denaturation proceeds in urea, SH groups are liberated only in the egg albumin with altered solubility and in this albumin the maximum number of SH groups is liberated. In a molecule of egg albumin either all of its SH groups that give a test with nitroprusside are liberated or none of them are.

  11. Adsorption of egg albumin onto methylated yeast biomass


    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira; Maruyama, Hideo


    A new biosorbent, methylated yeast (MeYE), was prepared for the adsorptive separation of proteins from aqueous solutions. Yeast was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 80% of the carboxylic groups of yeast could be methylated within 9 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to MeYE was studied to evaluate the protein adsorption ability of MeYE. At near neutral pH, egg albumin was scarcely adsorbed to unmethylated yeast and the adsorption amount of egg albumin...

  12. Adsorption of egg albumin onto methylated yeast biomass. (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira; Maruyama, Hideo


    A new biosorbent, methylated yeast (MeYE), was prepared for the adsorptive separation of proteins from aqueous solutions. Yeast was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 80% of the carboxylic groups of yeast could be methylated within 9 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto MeYE was studied to evaluate the protein adsorption ability of MeYE. At near neutral pH, egg albumin was scarcely adsorbed onto unmethylated yeast and the adsorbed amount of egg albumin increased with increasing methylation degree. The amount of egg albumin adsorbed onto MeYE increased with increasing pH from 4 to 7 and steeply decreased above pH 7. The Langmuir isotherm was applied to determine the apparent adsorption constant and the saturated adsorbed amount of egg albumin on MeYE. Both the apparent adsorption constant and the saturated adsorbed amount increased with the degree of methylation. The saturated adsorbed amount of egg albumin onto MeYE having methylation degree 77% was 8.41 x 10(-6) mol g(-1) or 0.378 gg(-1) at near neutral pH.


    Anson, M L


    The following facts have been established experimentally. 1. In the presence of the synthetic detergent, Duponol PC, there is a definite reaction between dilute ferricyanide and denatured egg albumin. 0.001 mM of ferrocyanide is formed by the oxidation of 10 mg. of denatured egg albumin despite considerable variation in the time, temperature, and pH of the reaction and in the concentration of ferricyanide. 2. If the concentration of ferricyanide is sufficiently high, then the reaction between ferricyanide and denatured egg albumin in Duponol solution is indefinite. More ferrocyanide is formed the longer the time of reaction, the higher the temperature, the more alkaline the solution, and the higher the concentration of ferricyanide. 3. Denatured egg albumin which has been treated with formaldehyde or iodoacetamide, both of which abolish the SH groups of cysteine, does not reduce dilute ferricyanide in Duponol PC solution. 4. Cysteine is the only amino acid which is known to have a definite reaction with ferricyanide or which is known to react with dilute ferricyanide at all. The cysteine-free proteins which have been tried do not reduce dilute ferricyanide in Duponol PC solution. 5. Concentrated ferricyanide oxidizes cystine, tyrosine, and tryptophane and proteins which contain these amino acids but not cysteine. The reactions are indefinite, more ferrocyanide being formed, the higher the temperature and the concentration of ferricyanide. 6. The amount of ferrocyanide formed from denatured egg albumin and a given amount of ferricyanide is less in the absence than in the presence of Duponol PC. 7. The amount of ferrocyanide formed when denatured egg albumin reacts with ferricyanide in the absence of Duponol PC depends on the temperature and ferricyanide concentration throughout the whole range of ferricyanide concentrations, even in the low range of ferricyanide concentrations in which ferricyanide does not react with amino adds other than cysteine. The foregoing


    Anson, M L


    The following experimental results have been obtained. 1. Native egg albumin treated with iodine and then denatured no longer gives a nitroprusside test or reduces dilute ferricyanide in neutral Duponol PC solution. 2. More iodine is needed to abolish the ferricyanide reduction if the reaction between native egg albumin and iodine is carried out at pH 6.8 than if the reaction is carried out at pH 3.2. At pH 6.8 iodine reacts with tyrosine as well as with cysteine. 3. Cysteine and tryptophane are the only amino acids with reducing groups which are known to react with dilute iodine at pH 3.2 The reducing power of cysteine is abolished by the reaction with iodine, whereas the reducing power of tryptophane remains intact. Pepsin and chymotrypsinogen which contain tryptophane but not cysteine, do not react at all with dilute iodine at pH 3.2. 4. Native egg albumin treated with iodoacetamide at pH 9.0 and then denatured by Duponol PC reduces only 60 per cent as much dilute ferricyanide as egg albumin which has not been treated with iodoacetamide. 5. The SH group is the only protein reducing group which is known to react with iodoacetamide. The simplest explanation of the new observation that the SH groups of egg albumin can be modified by reactions with the native form of the protein is that the native egg albumin has free and accessible but relatively unreactive SH groups which can react with iodine and iodoacetamide despite the fact that they do not react with ferricyanide, porphyrindin, or nitroprusside. Preliminary experiments suggested by the results with egg albumin indicate that the tobacco mosaic virus is modified by iodine at pH 2.8 without being inactivated and that the tobacco mosaic and rabbit papilloma viruses are not inactivated by iodoacetamide at pH 8.0.

  15. Effects of x- and ultraviolet radiation on egg albumin solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buturlakin, M.S.; Bolycheva, E.V.


    The changes in amino acid radicals of tyrosine and tryptophan under the influence of different forms of radiation with change in medium pH were investigated. Acid and neutral egg albumin solutions were exposed to x radiation and ultraviolet radiation and the absorbed doses were determined. The changes in solvent perturbation absorption spectra were discussed.


    Clark, Janet Howell


    The coagulation of isoelectric egg albumin solutions, on exposure to ultraviolet radiation, involves three distinct processes, (1) the light denaturation of the albumin molecule, (2) a reaction between the light denatured molecule and water which may be similar to heat denaturation but occurs at a lower temperature, and (3), the flocculation of the denatured molecules to form a coagulum. The light denaturation is unimolecular, independent of temperature, and occurs over a wide pH range. The reaction between the light denatured molecule and water has a temperature coefficient of 10+ and occurs rapidly at 40°C., a temperature at which heat denaturation is inappreciable. PMID:19872919


    Clark, J H


    The extent of urea denaturation depends on the concentration of protein and urea and also on the temperature of the solution. Egg albumin solutions (0.9 per cent) are not denatured by 20 per cent urea, denature slowly with 25 per cent urea, and denature rapidly with 35 per cent urea at room temperature. At a higher temperature 30 per cent urea is rapidly effective. Denaturation of the egg albumin molecule by radiation or by heat is accompanied by structural changes as evidenced by optical rotation values, but is not accompanied by association or dissociation of the molecule in the pH range outside the zone in which aggregation follows denaturation. Denaturation of the egg albumin molecule by urea produces no change in optical rotation until the concentration of urea is high enough to dissociate the molecule. In the presence of urea a urea-protein complex is formed in which the protein is denatured but cannot flocculate because of the dispersive action of the urea. This prevents flocculation of proteins exposed to radiation and subsequent heating to 40 degrees C. as the urea-protein complex is not broken down at a temperature of 40 degrees C. The presence of urea therefore prevents the flocculation of proteins denatured by radiation. The urea-protein complex is broken down by heating to 55-58 degrees C. so that the molecules aggregate at a temperature below the temperature of rapid heat denaturation. This appears to be an acceleration of heat denaturation or a lowering of the heat denaturation temperature, but in reality is an effect of heat on the urea-protein complex which frees the urea-denatured protein and permits its aggregation.

  18. Egg albumin microspheres containing paracetamol for oral administration. II. In vivo investigation. (United States)

    Torrado, J J; Illum, L; Cadorniga, R; Davis, S S


    Egg albumin microspheres containing paracetamol for oral administration were prepared and their in vivo characteristics evaluated. The egg albumin microspheres were able to improve the organoleptic characteristics of paracetamol formulations. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of three different formulations of paracetamol were evaluated in six volunteers. The formulations administered orally were: (1) Paracetamol granulated with lactose (reference), (2) Egg albumin microspheres and (3) Egg albumin microspheres coated with polymethacrylate. The pharmacokinetic characteristics for formulations 1 and 2 were similar but formulation 3 gave significant differences (p less than 0.05) in Ka, Cmax and tmax. No significant differences in relative bioavailability were observed.


    Dow, P


    An experimental study has been made of the adsorption of purified egg albumin, from aqueous solution, on collodion membranes. At protein concentrations of 4 to 7 per cent apparent saturation values were obtained which resembled closely the results obtained with gelatin, showing a maximum at pH 5.0 and lower values on either side of this region. Over large ranges of protein concentration, however, the curves for the adsorption from solutions removed in either direction from the isoelectric point exhibited a different shape from the hyperbola obtained in the neighborhood of pH 5.0. The addition of NaCl to solutions on the acid side tended to obliterate the effect of the pH difference; on the alkaline side it greatly increased the adsorption. The adsorption at 25 degrees was about twice as great as that at 1 degrees . The theory of the swelling of submicroscopic particles, advanced to account for the adsorption behavior of gelatin, is not sufficient to explain the results obtained with egg albumin. It is suggested that the effect is related to alterations in the forces causing the retention of the protein on the membranes.


    Clark, J H


    Evidence is brought forward to show that at concentrations of urea high enough to split the egg albumin molecule the solubility changes produced by urea are profoundly modified. The degree of precipitation after dialysis is the net result of two changes produced by the urea: the first, normally spoken of as denaturation, which makes the protein insoluble in dilute solution and the second, a splitting of the molecule which makes it soluble. These two reactions may proceed independently and simultaneously or the second reaction may follow the first, taking place in the denatured molecule only. In view of the decrease in the opalescence with time, the latter process is more probable. Both of these reactions have positive temperature coefficients, but as the concentration of urea increases the second reaction is more affected by increase in temperature than the first, and consequently the resulting opalescence decreases rather than increases with temperature. This accounts for and explains reports of negative temperature coefficients of denaturation, when denaturation is measured by the amount of insoluble material found on dilution. The occurrence of these two reactions, one leading to an increase and the other to a decrease in the amount of insoluble protein, should be taken into account when denaturation changes in egg albumin with urea are studied.


    Sørensen, S. P. L.; Linderstrøm-Lang, K.; Lund, Ellen


    Introduction. A description is given of the principle followed in the experimental determination of the ionisation of egg albumin, its capacity to combine with acids and bases. Egg albumin is regarded as an ampholyte, and in accordance with J. N. Brønsted's definition of acids and bases, ampholytes are considered as substances capable of both taking up and giving off hydrogen ions. The theoretical treatment of the capacity of ampholytes to combine with acids (and bases) has been carried out on this basis. Section A. Several experimental series are noted, comprising the determination of the activity coefficient of the hydrogen ion (fH) in ammonium chloride solutions of different concentration. Section B. The general method of experimental determination of the ionisation (capacity to combine with adds and bases) of egg albumin in ammonium chloride and potassium chloride solutions is briefly described, and the results of the experiments are compared. Section C. 1). In a brief theoretical survey we have suggested that distinction should be made between isoelectric and isoionic reaction of an ampholyte, the former defined as the hydrogen ion activity (value of paH) at which the mean valency of the ampholyte is 0, the latter as the hydrogen ion activity at which the quantity of acid or base combined with the ampholyte is 0; or, as we prefer to express it, the hydrogen ion activity at which the specific hydrogen ionisation of the ampholyte is 0. If the ampholyte does not combine with other ions than the hydrogen ion, then isoelectric and isoionic reaction coincide. Isoionic reaction is determined by acid-combining experiments. The principle of this determination is briefly described. A theoretical investigation of the alteration with salt concentration of both isoelectric (isoionic) reaction and the shape and direction of the ionisation curves is made, with regard to ampholytes capable only of combining with hydrogen ions, on the basis of the Debye-Hückel formulæ and


    Sørensen, S P; Linderstrøm-Lang, K; Lund, E


    Introduction. A description is given of the principle followed in the experimental determination of the ionisation of egg albumin, its capacity to combine with acids and bases. Egg albumin is regarded as an ampholyte, and in accordance with J. N. Brønsted's definition of acids and bases, ampholytes are considered as substances capable of both taking up and giving off hydrogen ions. The theoretical treatment of the capacity of ampholytes to combine with acids (and bases) has been carried out on this basis. Section A. Several experimental series are noted, comprising the determination of the activity coefficient of the hydrogen ion (fH) in ammonium chloride solutions of different concentration. Section B. The general method of experimental determination of the ionisation (capacity to combine with adds and bases) of egg albumin in ammonium chloride and potassium chloride solutions is briefly described, and the results of the experiments are compared. Section C. 1). In a brief theoretical survey we have suggested that distinction should be made between isoelectric and isoionic reaction of an ampholyte, the former defined as the hydrogen ion activity (value of paH) at which the mean valency of the ampholyte is 0, the latter as the hydrogen ion activity at which the quantity of acid or base combined with the ampholyte is 0; or, as we prefer to express it, the hydrogen ion activity at which the specific hydrogen ionisation of the ampholyte is 0. If the ampholyte does not combine with other ions than the hydrogen ion, then isoelectric and isoionic reaction coincide. Isoionic reaction is determined by acid-combining experiments. The principle of this determination is briefly described. A theoretical investigation of the alteration with salt concentration of both isoelectric (isoionic) reaction and the shape and direction of the ionisation curves is made, with regard to ampholytes capable only of combining with hydrogen ions, on the basis of the Debye-Hückel formulae and

  3. Use of hydrogen peroxide-egg albumin to eliminate nonspecific staining in immunoperoxidase techniques. (United States)

    Zehr, D R


    The application of hydrogen peroxide and egg albumin to paraffin sections before immunostaining prevents nonspecific staining by immunoperoxidase techniques. This method is more effective than pretreating secions with normal sera, or using either egg albumin or hydrogen peroxide separately, or using diluted antisera with prolonged incuabations in the staining procedure.

  4. [Effects of union of albumin and egg yolk on human semen cryopreservation]. (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Hui; Zhao, Hu; Xiong, Cheng-Liang; Sheng, Ji-Yun; Zhou, Jie-Ling


    To provide a more effective cryoprotective medium (CPM), effect of union of albumin and egg yolk on human sperm cryopreservation was studied. Egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate was regarded as CPM of the control group and egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate with different concentrations of albumin (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 g/L) were regarded as CPMs of experiment groups. Before and after cryopreservation, sperm movement parameters were assessed by using computer-aided sperm analyzer (CASA) system, and then egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate group added 1 g/L albumin was selected, whose movement parameters were the best among the experimental groups, and egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrateto group as the control to compare sperm survival rate, membrane integrity, function of mitochondrion and ultrastruction. Sperm in egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate added I g/L albumin showed significantly higher motility, viability than those in the control group and other experimental groups (P egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate group added 1 g/L albumin had significantly higher survival rate, head unpigmenting rate than those in control group (P egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate group added I g/L albumin manifested significantly higher succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity than that in control group (P albumin and egg yolk has better effects on human sperm cryopreservation than those of solitary use of egg yolk. The action of albumin is related to its concentration, and albumin combining with egg yolk may have plus and complementary effects on human sperm cryopreservation.

  5. The effects of passive antibodies to egg albumin on active immunity in lambs to Brucella abortus and egg albumin. (United States)

    Williams, M R; Halliday, R; MacLeod, A R


    The long-term effects of colostrum on active immunity to two unrelated antigens are described. Lambs were fed with pooled colostrum--to equalise passive immunity--with or without added antibodies to egg albumin (Ea). There were significant breed differences in the response both to Brucella abortus measured at one month of age, and to Ea, measured at three months of age, although there was no significant correlation between the responses to the two antigens, either within or between breeds. Surprisingly, whereas antibodies to Ea caused a four-fold reduction in antibody production to B abortus, they did not affect the overall mean response to Ea. But the timing of the response to Ea was significantly affected, suggesting that the low persisting concentrations of antibody had caused qualitative changes in the response.

  6. Potentiated reagin response to egg albumin in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infected rats (United States)

    Orr, T. S. C.; Riley, Patricia; Doe, J. E.


    The potentiated reagin response induced by infection with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis after sensitization with egg albumin and Bordetella pertussis vaccine was investigated to reveal the time course of the potentiated reagin response and the maximum reagin titre attained. The potentiated reagin response was found to be transitory but during this period high reagin titres to egg albumin were recorded. Rat sensitized to egg albumin and treated with N. brasiliensis crude worm extract instead of an infection did not show a potentiated response. PMID:5102245

  7. Effects of kerosene on airway sensitization to egg albumin in guinea pig. (United States)

    Casacó, A; Carvajal, D; Noa, M; González, R; García, M; Rodríguez de la Vega, A


    We undertook a study to determine if pre-exposure to kerosene smoke enhances airway sensitization to egg albumin in the guinea pig. Kerosene vapor inhalation for 15 days, 1 hour daily, in similar conditions to which some housewives who use kerosene as cooking fuel are exposed elicited tracheal damage characterized by signs of dysplasia and inflammatory infiltrate. When these animals were exposed to egg albumin aerosol there was an increase in the antialbumin antibody blood titer and an increased response to egg albumin in the isolated tracheal preparation (Schultz-Dale reaction), We conclude that the airway damage elicited by inhalation of kerosene vapor increase antigen absorption and thereby antibody formation.

  8. Endothelins promote egg albumin-induced intestinal anaphylaxis in rats. (United States)

    Shigematsu, T; Miura, S; Hirokawa, M; Hokari, R; Higuchi, H; Tsuzuki, Y; Kimura, H; Nakatsumi, R C; Serizawa, H; Saito, H; Ishii, H


    The basic mechanisms of food allergies are still unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate whether endothelins (ETs) in the intestinal mucosa are involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal anaphylaxis. Sprague-Dawley rats were sensitized to chicken egg albumin (EA) by intraperitoneal injection. Fourteen days after sensitization, EA was administered in the jejunal segments to induce intestinal anaphylaxis. Net water outflux and histamine release into loops and serum concentrations of rat mast cell protease II (RMCP-II) were determined. ET-1 and ET-3 concentrations in the jejunal mucosa were determined, and expression of the corresponding messenger RNAs was examined by competitive polymerase chain reaction. In sensitized animals, challenge with intraluminal antigen caused a significant increase in net water outflux and histamine release together with an elevation of serum RMCP-II concentrations. Mucosal concentrations of ET-1 and ET-3 and expression of their messenger RNAs were significantly increased in sensitized animals after EA challenge. Treatment with an ETA-receptor antagonist, but not an ETB-receptor antagonist, attenuated the increase in net water outflux, histamine release, and serum RMCP-II concentrations in rats with EA-induced intestinal anaphylaxis. Release of ETs in the intestinal mucosa increased in sensitized animals after EA challenge. ETs may play a significant role in the development of intestinal anaphylaxis via an ETA receptor.

  9. Tableting characteristics of micro-aggregated egg albumin particles containing paracetamol. (United States)

    Torrado-Durán, J J; Torrado, S; Cadórniga, R; Augsburger, L L


    The tableting characteristics of micro-aggregated egg albumin particles containing paracetamol were evaluated and compared with non-micro-encapsulated paracetamol and coagulated egg albumin particles. Mean yield pressure values of micro-aggregated egg albumin particles containing paracetamol and coagulated egg albumin particles were 30.5 and 49.3 MPa, respectively, which were lower than the mean yield pressure obtained for paracetamol (97.5 MPa). Paracetamol tablets obtained with micro-aggregated egg albumin particles did not show the capping characteristic of conventional paracetamol tablets. Crushing strength of paracetamol tablets obtained with egg micro-aggegated particles was similar to that obtained using paracetamol granulated with povidone and gelatin as binders at 3 and 6% (w/w) concentrations. Drug release from the paracetamol tablets depends on the choice of excipients. Crospovidone showed good protective characteristics for the tableting of micro-aggregated particles. Crushing strength of paracetamol tablets formed from egg albumin-coated particles could be increased using crospovidone or microcrystalline cellulose as fillers and was decreased by the use of magnesium stearate. Nevertheless, magnesium stearate was useful to decrease the ejection force.

  10. Egg on their faces. The story of human albumin solution. (United States)

    Roberts, Ian; Bunn, Frances


    In 1998, the Cochrane Injuries Group published the results of a systematic review of human albumin administration in critically ill patients. The results showed that the risk of death in patients receiving albumin was 14%, and the risk of death in patients not receiving albumin was 8%, suggesting that for every 17 critically ill patients treated with albumin there is one extra death. The results were widely reported in the television and print media throughout the world and stimulated an immediate response from the drug regulatory agencies, the plasma products industry, and the medical profession. Despite vigorous attempts by the plasma products industry to limit the effect of the systematic review on albumin sales, the use of albumin declined steeply, showing that evidence from systematic reviews can have an important effect on clinical care.

  11. Studies on the carotenoids in the muscle of salmon--V. Combination of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin with bovine serum albumin and egg albumin. (United States)

    Henmi, H; Hata, M; Takeuchi, M


    1. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and/or egg albumin were bound to astaxanthin or canthaxanthin easily and the spectroscopic characteristics of these complexes were similar to those of astaxanthin or canthaxanthin in the salmon muscle. 2. This result indicates that astaxanthin-BSA, -egg albumin, canthaxanthin-BSA and -egg albumin complexes were basically similar to astaxanthin-actomyosin and/or canthaxanthin-actomyosin complex in the salmon muscle. 3. The binding of salmon actomyosin to astaxanthin or canthaxanthin is not specific.

  12. Identification of a component of crystalline egg albumin bactericidal for thermophilic aerobic sporeformers. (United States)

    Ashton, D H; Wilson, A A; Evancho, G M


    During an investigation of the effect of basic and acidic proteins on the growth of thermophilic aerobic sporeformers, crystalline egg albumin was found to be strongly bactericidal. This finding was uncharacteristic of acidic proteins. The bactericidal fraction was heat sensitive and separated from the non-bactericidal albumin fraction during gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. Cells of Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Bacillus stearothermophilus were lysed rapidly by the bactericidal component, leading to its tentative identification as lysozyme. The bactericidal substance possessed an electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulfate identical to that of crystalline egg white lysozyme. Users of crystalline egg albumin are cautioned that commerical preparations may be contaminated with lysozyme. Destruction of the thermophilic aerobes by lysozyme should be considered when performing counts on egg products.

  13. Production of Nigella sativa Beverage Powder under Foam Mat Drying Using Egg Albumen as a Foaming Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhazirah Affandi


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of producing Nigella sativa powder under a foam mat drying technique. A central, composite design of experiments was used to optimize the drying condition and compare the solubility, the antioxidant and mineral content of roasted Nigella sativa, and the foam mat dried Nigella sativa powder. Foams were prepared from Nigella sativa solution by adding different concentrations of egg albumen (2.5%, 8.75%, and 15% w/w and methyl cellulose (0, 0.5% and 1% w/w, using whipping times of 2, 5, and 8 min. The drying temperature was set at 50–70 °C, with a foam thickness of 1, 2, and 3 mm. The optimum recorded conditions for the foaming process were 15% of egg albumen concentration, 0.69% of methyl cellulose concentration, and a whipping time of 8 min. Thus, the optimum conditions for the drying process were 60 °C, with 2 mm of foam thickness. The results showed that there were significant differences in DPPH inhibition, the total phenolic content, and mineral content, whereas no significant differences were recorded in the water solubility index between the roasted Nigella sativa and the foam mat dried Nigella sativa powder.

  14. Characteristics of beta-adrenoceptors in tracheal smooth muscle of guinea pig sensitized by egg albumin. (United States)

    Nakagoshi, A; Koike, K; Takayanagi, I


    The effect of pretreatment with egg albumin was examined on the beta-adrenoceptors in guinea pig isolated trachea. Befunolol and carteolol acted as partial agonists and their pA2 values were significantly larger than their corresponding pD2 values in tracheae from both untreated guinea pigs and those treated with egg albumin, suggesting that the beta-adrenoceptors contain two different affinity sites. The Scatchard plot of specific [3H]befunolol binding showed two affinity sites of the receptor (high and low affinity sites) in tracheae from both untreated animals and those treated with egg albumin. The pKD values of befunolol for both low and high affinity sites were in agreement with their respective pD2 and pA2 values. The intrinsic activities of befunolol and carteolol and the pD2 values of the test drugs were decreased by the treatment with egg albumin. The treatment with egg albumin also decreased the total amount of the two affinity sites of the receptor without any change in affinity. The present results support the partial blockade of beta-adrenoceptors in asthma proposed by Szentivanyi.


    Barker, H A


    1. The denaturation rate of partially dried crystallizable egg albumin is greatly decreased by decreasing its water content. 2. The temperature of denaturation, defined as the temperature at which half of the protein becomes insoluble in distilled water after a definite time of heating, is a linear function of the relative humidity with which the protein is in equilibrium. 3. By applying the Arrhenius equation it is shown that the rate of heat denaturation at a given temperature is an exponential function of the relative humidity. 4. The application of the observed relations to the analysis of the mechanism of thermal death of microorganisms is suggested. 5. The water content of native and heat-denatured egg albumin is determined as a function of the relative humidity of water vapor. It is shown that the heat-denatured modification takes up approximately 80 per cent as much water at all relative humidities as does native egg albumin.

  16. Decreased Schultz-Dale reaction in airways from sensitized guinea pigs treated with threshold concentrations of egg albumin in vivo. (United States)

    Hedman, S E; Andersson, R G


    Treatment of egg albumin sensitized guinea pigs with repeated concentrations of egg albumin changed the Schultz-Dale response. The dose-response curve of egg albumin on the trachea was shifted to the right. Both the amount of SRS-A and histamine released by antigen exposure from sensitized or desensitized guinea pig lungs were almost similar. Regarding the number of H1-receptors in an isolated membrane fraction from the lungs of sensitized and desensitized guinea pigs, no significant difference was observed. on the contrary, the receptor-response to SRS-A was found to be decreased in desensitized trachea in comparison with sensitized trachea. The treatment of guinea pigs with repeated threshold concentrations of histamine did not change the contractile response neither to histamine nor to egg albumin. The decreased Schultz-Dale response after repeated egg albumin treatment in vivo might depend on desensitization of a hypothetical SRS-A receptor.

  17. Relative efficacy of egg albumin as blocking agent in dot immunobinding assay for detection of group B coxsackieviruses. (United States)

    Pandya, G; Tuteja, U; Jana, A M


    Non specific binding (NSB) is an important factor affecting sensitivity and specificity in dot immunobinding assay (DIA). Several blocking agents e.g. egg albumin, casein, gelatin, milk powder and goat serum were evaluated for their relative efficacy vis-a-vis bovine serum albumin (BSA) for DIA system purported for detection of group B coxsackieviruses (CVB). The results suggest that egg albumin (5%) which is economical and readily available may act as an effective blocking agent in DIA system.

  18. Effects of Maillard browned egg albumin on drug-metabolizing enzyme systems in the rat. (United States)

    Pintauro, S J; Lucchina, L A


    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified diet containing 5% Maillard browned egg albumin (EA-B) or browned hydrolysed egg albumin (HEA-B) for 10 wk. Control animals were pair-fed a corresponding isocaloric, isonitrogenous non-browned egg albumin (EA-C) or hydrolysed egg albumin (HEA-C) diet. At the end of 10 wk, the rats were killed and hepatic, small intestinal and colonic microsomes and cytosol fractions were prepared by ultracentrifugation. Animals fed EA-B exhibited significantly (P less than 0.05) increased hepatic benzo[alpha]pyrene hydroxylase activity and significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased colonic aminopyrine N-demethylase activity compared to control (EA-C) animals. HEA-B-fed animals also exhibited a significant (P less than 0.05) decrease in colonic aminopyrine N-demethylase activity compared with HEA-C controls, but no significant differences were detected in hepatic or small intestinal enzyme activities in this group. These data suggest that Maillard browned protein products may modify hepatic and/or colonic drug-metabolizing enzyme system activities, and may thus contribute to alterations in the metabolism of endogenous substrates and of exogenous drugs, precarcinogens and other xenobiotics.

  19. Enhancement of dissolution and absorption of mefenamic acid by egg albumin. (United States)

    Imai, T; Nohdomi, K; Acartürk, F; Otagiri, M


    The dissolution behavior and absorption of mefenamic acid following oral and rectal administration from drug:egg albumin solid dispersions have been studied in comparison with those of the drug alone. The interaction of drug with egg albumin in aqueous solution and solid state were examined by solubility analysis, dialysis experiments, and X-ray diffractometry. The results showed that the dissolution rate of mefenamic acid, and also the release of drug from witepsol H-15 suppositories, were significantly increased by using egg albumin:drug solid dispersions. Although egg albumin:drug solid dispersion enhanced the mean serum levels and the area under serum concentration-time curves after oral and rectal administration compared with those of the drug alone, no significant differences were found between the mean residence time values of drug and its solid dispersion. It was also noted that the extent of bioavailability of mefenamic acid and its solid dispersion following oral administration was significantly greater than that following rectal administration.

  20. Egg albumin microspheres containing paracetamol for oral administration. I. In vitro characterization. (United States)

    Torrado, J J; Illum, L; Cadorniga, R; Davis, S S


    Different egg albumin microsphere systems for oral administration of paracetamol were prepared by the emulsion and capillary extrusion methods. The size of the microspheres depended on the method used to produce the microcapsules and also the size of the crystals of paracetamol. The effect of the following factors on in vitro dissolution were studied: different denaturation processes, variation in the ratio of paracetamol to albumin, size of microspheres, remnant oil in the microspheres, and the coating of the microspheres with membranes of polymethacrylates (Eudragit). The most important factors to control the release of paracetamol from the microspheres were the denaturation process and the use of waxes and membranes to delay the release of paracetamol from the microspheres. The egg albumin microspheres were very porous and permeable to water and thus the release of the paracetamol from the matrix was usually fast unless the microspheres were suitably coated, with, for example, Eudragit RL or RS.

  1. Nonliposomal approach--a study of preparation of egg albumin nanospheres containing amphotericin-B. (United States)

    Santhi, K; Dhanaraj, S A; Rajendran, S D; Raja, K; Ponnusankar, S; Suresh, B


    The stability of liposomes after introduction into the body is presently being discussed and needs thorough understanding. Hence, as a nonliposomal approach, egg albumin nanospheres were prepared by the pH-coacervation method, and a preliminary study was carried out of the influence of process variables on the size and shape of nanospheres by changing the pH of the albumin solution, concentration of albumin solution, and volume of cross-linking agent. The batch prepared with an albumin medium of pH 9, 2% concentration, and 100 microliters of 4% glutaraldehyde-ethanol solution was found to have a spherical uniform shape with an average size of 497.6 nm. The ideal batch was loaded with the systemic antifungal drug amphotericin-B. Drug-loaded nanospheres were evaluated to study their in vitro release. They were found to exhibit a biphasic pattern with a cumulative percentage release of 97.7%.

  2. Heating rate of egg albumin solution and its change during Ohmic heating. (United States)

    Imai, T; Uemura, K; Noguchi, A


    Ohmic heating of egg albumin solution (10 w/v%) was examined at 50-10 kHz under a constant 10 V/cm. The heating rate of the solution was almost constant and increased slightly as the frequency increased. The gel formation was observed at about 75 degrees C and the heating rate increased above this temperature irrespective of the frequency used. The solution and gel showed almost the same impedance at the examined temperature (20-90 degrees C) and frequency (10 Hz-100 kHz). When the concentration of egg albumin was reduced to 2 w/v%, no gel was formed and a constant heating rate at over 75 degrees C was observed. The breaking strength of the gels showed little difference among the gels prepared by boiling water or Ohmic heating. These results suggest that the liquid components are not compartmentalized in the gel and that the sudden increase of heating rate above 75 degrees C was caused by the reduction of heat transfer of the gel at its phase change to the gel. Ohmic heating was also applied to the fresh egg white at the same conditions as that of the egg albumin solution. The fresh egg white did not show any sudden increase of heating rate until it reached 90 degrees C. However, the homogenized fresh egg white and its soluble part separated beforehand showed a slightly reduced heating rate and a sudden increase at about 60 degrees C. These results suggest that the gelatinous component of fresh egg white such as ovomucin represses the transfer of generated heat during Ohmic heating.

  3. Comparison of soy-protein and egg albumin on endogenously secreted zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberleas, D.; Smith, J.C.


    Male albino rats (Charles River) were maintained on a basal soy-protein diet, unsupplemented with Zn and with 1.6% Ca for 4 weeks (Ca)(Phy)/(Zn) = 9.4(molar). Animals were subdivided in 2 expts. between soy-protein 0.8% Ca, 11.24 mg Zn/Kg diet (4.2(molar)) or 1.6% Ca, 11.21 mg Zn/Kg (9.4(molar)) and egg albumin 0.8% Ca, 0.46 mg Zn/Kg diet and 1.6% Ca, 0.37 mg Zn/Kg diet at which time each animal was injected with 10 /sup 65/Zn. Daily fecal collections were made for 14 days and ratios of /sup 65/Zn Soy:Egg alb. calculated. The very low concentration of Zn in the egg albumin diet restricted the pancreatic secretion of Zn and the differential effect of phytate on these diets was not apparent as shown earlier with soy and casein diets. This was also reflected in the growth rates of the exptl. groups in that the egg albumin fed rats gained -4.4 and -9.0 g/wk; soy fed rats gained 28.0 and 17.3 g/wk.

  4. Albumen foam stability and s-ovalbumin contents in eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACC Alleoni


    Full Text Available Food products such as breads, cakes, crackers, meringues, ice creams and several bakery items depend on air incorporation to maintain their texture and structure during or after processing. Proteins are utilized in the food industry since they improve texture attributes through their ability to encapsulate and retain air. The objectives of this work were to quantify s-ovalbumin contents in albumen and to determine alterations in egg white foam stability in fresh eggs, and in eggs coated and non-coated with a whey protein-based concentrate film (WPC, stored at 25°C for 28 days. The volume of drained liquid was higher in non-coated eggs than in coated eggs stored at 25°C at all storage periods. The difference on the third day of storage was in the order of 59% between coated and non-coated eggs, while on the twenty-eighth day it was 202%. During the storage period, an increase in pH and drainage volume was observed for non-coated eggs. After three days, the non-coated eggs showed a s-ovalbumin content 33% higher than coated eggs; this increase jumped to 205% at 28 days of storage. There was a positive correlation between s-ovalbumin content and the volume of drained liquid for coated and non-coated eggs; in other words, when the s-ovalbumin content increased, there was an increase in the volume of drained liquid and a decrease in foam stability. WPC coating maintain egg quality, since it is an effective barrier against the loss of CO2, avoiding changes in the pH of egg white.

  5. An unknown guinea-pig immunoglobulin with strong antibody activity to egg albumin (United States)

    Van Es, L.; Harink, Hermina Kwant-Den; Pondman, K. W.


    About 50 per cent of guinea-pigs immunized with egg albumin possess strong antibody activity in an immunoglobulin class with antigenic properties different from those of the well-known guinea-pig immunoglobulins. This immunoglobulin is present in normal guinea-pig serum in very small amounts and its concentration rises during immunization with egg albumin. Immunization with bovine insulin or bovine γ-globulin does not stimulate increased synthesis of this immunoglobulin class. Owing to the special conditions that are needed for its stimulation it is provisionally called IgS. It was found to be a heat stable 6.5S immunoglobulin and is not involved in PCA reactions. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4123962

  6. Preparation of Curcumin Loaded Egg Albumin Nanoparticles Using Acetone and Optimization of Desolvation Process. (United States)

    Aniesrani Delfiya, D S; Thangavel, K; Amirtham, D


    In this study, acetone was used as a desolvating agent to prepare the curcumin-loaded egg albumin nanoparticles. Response surface methodology was employed to analyze the influence of process parameters namely concentration (5-15%w/v) and pH (5-7) of egg albumin solution on solubility, curcumin loading and entrapment efficiency, nanoparticles yield and particle size. Optimum processing conditions obtained from response surface analysis were found to be the egg albumin solution concentration of 8.85%w/v and pH of 5. At this optimum condition, the solubility of 33.57%, curcumin loading of 4.125%, curcumin entrapment efficiency of 55.23%, yield of 72.85% and particles size of 232.6 nm were obtained and these values were related to the values which are predicted using polynomial model equations. Thus, the model equations generated for each response was validated and it can be used to predict the response values at any concentration and pH.

  7. Minimum and optimum physiological doses of egg albumin and mutton protein in newly weaned rats. (United States)

    Dibák, O; Krajcovicová, M; Kopec, Z


    Using diets with a mounting egg albumin and mutton protein concentration, the authors determined the optimum physiological doses, which are identical with the maximum of linearity of the given parameters, from changes in body nitrogen, body weight and body water. The regression equations of the lines from these parameters were used to determine the minimum physiological doses for newly weaned rats. The optimum and minimum physiological doses of the amino acids in the relevant dietary proteins were also determined by analysing the source for its nitrogen content and other components and for the amino acid spectrum. The optimum dose of egg albumin protein for newly weaned rats was 1.69 g/day (on a 15% protein diet) and of mutton protein 2.56 g/day (on a 12.5% protein diet), with daily amounts of 60 mg methionine, 93 mg phenylalanine, 112 mg valine and 60 mg tyrosine for both proteins. The minimum doses of egg albumin and mutton protein, determined from changes in body nitrogen were 282 mg and 213 mg/day respectively [methionine 10.4 (4.7) mg/day, phenylalanine 16.1 (7.5) mg/day, valine 19.1 (9.2) mg/day and tyrosine 9.8 (5.2) mg/day)].

  8. The pharmacological action of pronase-digested egg albumin upon cerebral hypoxia. (United States)

    Ishii, S; Sato, K; Watanabe, H; Kobayashi, M; Shimizu, T


    The purification of a substance which protects mitochondrial activity against its decay in association with various cerebral pathologies, and the effect of this substance in vitro and in vivo have been mentioned. Defatted egg albumin was hydrolyzed with pronase, and diafiltrated through mesh, to obtain fractions of molecular weight less than 5,000. The diafiltrate was further fractionated using Sephadex G-25 column chromatography, and a fraction which had a protective action against the decay of mitochondrial DNP-ATPase activity was gathered. This digested egg albumin (DEA 5,000 S) showed no immunological reaction and seemingly penetrated well through the cell membrane. DEA 5,000 S prevented the decay of DNP-ATPase activity and swelling of brain mitochondria during aging in vitro. Also, the administration of DEA 5,000 S in vivo shortened the duration of unconsciousness and reduced EEG abnormalities in rats subjected to hypoxia in a special chamber filled with N2 gas. It is suggested that this Digested Egg Albumin has a marked action in restoring the function of metabolically impaired brain.

  9. ZnS nanosheets: Egg albumin and microwave-assisted synthesis and optical properties (United States)

    Tian, Xiuying; Wen, Jin; Hu, Jilin; Chen, Zhanjun; Wang, Shumei; Peng, Hongxia; Li, Jing


    ZnS nanosheets were prepared via egg albumin and microwave-assisted method. The phases, crystalline lattice structures, morphologies, chemical and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field-emission scanning electron microscope(FE-SEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and fluorescence(FL) spectrometer and growth mechanism of ZnS nanosheets was investigated. The results showed that all samples were pure cubic zinc blende with polycrystalline structure. The width of ZnS nanosheets with a rectangular nanostructure was in the range of 450-750 nm. The chemical interaction existed between egg albumin molecules and ZnS nanoparticles via the amide/carboxylate group. The band gap value calculated was 3.72 eV. The band at around 440 nm was attributed to the sulfur vacancies of the ZnS nanosheets. With increasing volumes of egg albumin, the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of ZnS samples firstly increased and then decreased, attributed to concentration quenching.

  10. Egg albumin as a nanoreactor for growing single-crystalline Fe3O4 nanotubes with high yields. (United States)

    Geng, Baoyou; Zhan, Fangming; Jiang, Han; Guo, Yijun; Xing, Zhoujing


    Single-crystalline Fe(3)O(4) nanotubes have been synthesized successfully by using egg albumin as a nanoreactor; these three-dimensional material nanotubes are formed through a rolling mechanism under mild biological conditions.


    Marshak, A.


    1. Egg albumin when injected into an ameba or discharged into the solution about it raises the apparent pH of the cytoplasm of the ameba. 2. With time the cytoplasm returns to the original pH 6.9 if the nucleus is present. Amebae that have received repeated injections of albumin in some cases extrude their nuclei. In these cells the cytoplasm remains at the more alkaline pH induced by the albumin for at least 12 hours. 3. When a 2 per cent solution of albumin is introduced into a suspension of amebae there is a temporary marked rise in the rate at which CO2 is given off with no corresponding rise in O2 uptake. 4. The results observed can be explained if the albumin discharged onto the surface of the ameba rapidly enters the cell and there becomes distributed in a phase of the cytoplasm other than the one which contains the phenol red. PMID:19873412

  12. Foaming in wet flue gas desulfurization plants: Laboratory‐scale investigation of long‐term performance of antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren


    Spontaneous foaming can cause a range of operational problems in industrial processes such as wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This work investigates the performance of selected antifoaming agents (Nalco FM‐37, Foamtrol 2290, and rapeseed oil) on foams generated by egg white albumin (protein......), sodium dodecyl sulfate, and adipic acid at conditions of relevance for wet FGD plants. The addition of antifoaming agents breaks any existing foam and causes an induction period without foaming, after which the foam gradually will begin to reappear. Foaming by egg white albumin (2 g/L) at 0.014 m/s could...

  13. The morphometry of the glomerular epithelial cell and its foot processes after the injection of bovine serum albumin or egg albumin. (United States)

    Brewer, D B; Filip, O


    The intraperitoneal injection of 1 g of bovine serum albumin daily for 5 days was shown by electron-microscope morphometry to cause swelling of the glomerular epithelial cells and very severe loss of foot processes. However, these changes were found in only 70 per cent. of glomeruli and the other 30 per cent. remained normal. After 7 days' recovery following five daily injections of 1 g of bovine serum albumin, the swelling of the glomerular epithelial cells had subsided and the foot process reappeared. These changes were accompanied by severe proteinuria which resolved only slowly when the injections were stopped. After daily injections of 0-8 g of egg albumin for 5 days there was no swelling of the glomerular epithelial cells and only very slight loss of foot processes detectable only by morphometry. There was a less severe proteinuria than after injections of bovine serum albumin and it resolved more rapidly when injections were stopped. It is suggested that these differences arise from the fact that bovine serum albumin is reabsorbed by the glomerular epithelial cell but egg albumin is not. Two of four rats allowed to recover for 7 days after five daily injections of 1 g of bovine serum albumin had unusual glomerular lesions.

  14. The Physical and Linear Viscoelastic Properties of Fresh Wet Foams Based on Egg White Proteins and Selected Hydrocolloids


    Ptaszek, Paweł; Żmudziński, Daniel; KRUK, Joanna; Kaczmarczyk, Kacper; Rożnowski, Wojciech; Berski, Wiktor


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of fresh foams based on egg white proteins, xanthan gum and gum Arabic. The distributions of the size of gas bubbles suspended in liquid were determined, as well as density and volume fraction of gas phase of the generated foams. Additionally, the viscoelastic properties in the linear range were measured, and the results were analyzed with the use of the fractional Zener model. It was shown, that foam supplementation with hyd...

  15. Preparation and in vitro Evaluation of Ethylcellulose Coated Egg Albumin Microspheres of Diltiazem Hydrochloride. (United States)

    Shailesh, Tp; Vipul, Pd; Girishbhai, Jk; Manish, Cj


    The aim of the present investigation was to develop sustained release ethylcellulose-coated egg albumin microspheres of diltiazem hydrochloride (DH) to improve patient compliance. The microspheres were prepared by the w/o emulsion thermal cross-linking method using different proportion of the polymer to drug ratio (1.0:1.0, 1.0:1.5 and 1.0:2.0). A 3(2) full factorial design was employed to optimize two independent variables, polymer to drug ratio (X(1)) and surfactant concentration (X(2)) on dependent variables, namely % drug loading, % drug release in 60 min (Y(60)) and the time required for 80 % drug release (t(80)) were selected as dependable variable. Optimized formulation was compared to its sustained release tablet available in market. The polymer to drug ratio was optimized to 1:1 at which a high drug entrapment efficiency 79.20% ± 0.7% and the geometric mean diameter 47.30 ± 1.5 mm were found. All batches showed a biphasic release pattern; initial burst release effect (55% DH in 1 h) and then were released completely within 6 h. In situ coating of optimized egg albumin DH microspheres using 7.5% ethylcellulose significantly reduced the burst effect and provided a slow release of DH for 8-10 h. Finally, it was concluded that ethylcellulose-coated egg albumin DH microspheres is suitable for oral SR devices in the treatment of angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension due to their size and release profile.

  16. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.-W.; Seo, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, S.-Y.; Kim, K.-S.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail:


    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy.

  17. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white (United States)

    Lee, Ju.-Woon; Seo, Ji.-Hyun; Kim, Jae.-Hun; Lee, Soo.-Young; Kim, Kwan.-Soo; Byun, Myung.-Woo


    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy.

  18. Preparation and characterization of novel biocompatible cryogels of poly (vinyl alcohol) and egg-albumin and their water sorption study. (United States)

    Bajpai, A K; Saini, Rajesh


    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and egg albumin are water-soluble, biocompatible and biodegradable polymers and have been widely employed in biomedical fields. In this paper, novel physically cross-linked hydrogels composed of poly (vinyl alcohol) and egg albumin were prepared by cyclic freezing/thawing processes of aqueous solutions containing PVA and egg albumin. The FTIR analysis of prepared cryogels indicated that egg albumin was successfully introduced into the formed hydrogel possibly via hydrogen bonds among hydroxyl groups, amide groups and amino groups present in PVA and egg albumin. The gels were also characterized thermally and morphologically by DSC and SEM-techniques, respectively. The prepared so called 'cryogels' were evaluated for their water uptake potential and influence of various factors such as chemical architecture of the spongy hydrogels, pH and temperature of the swelling bath were investigated on the degree of water sorption by the cryogels. The effect of salt solution and various simulated biological fluids on the swelling of cryogel was also studied. The in vitro biocompatibility of the prepared cryogel was also judged by methods such as protein (BSA) adsorption, blood clot formation and percentage hemolysis measurements.

  19. The anti-inflammatory activity of garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum) on egg albumin-induced oedema and granuloma tissue formation in rats. (United States)

    Anosike, Chioma A; Obidoa, Onyechi; Ezeanyika, Lawrence U S


    To evaluate the possible anti-inflammatory effect of garden egg [Solanum aethiopicum (S. aethiopicum)] using experimentally induced inflammatory models in rats. Oedema was induced on the rat hind paw by the injection of 0.1 mL undiluted fresh egg albumin (philogistic agent) into the subplantar surface of the rat paw. Tissue granuloma was induced in the rats by the implantation of two autoclaved cotton pellets (30 mg) under the flank of previously shaved back of anaesthetised rats. Garden egg extract doses were administered to the rats for seven consecutive days. On day 8, the animals were killed and the pellets surrounded by granuloma tissue were dissected out and dried. Extracts of garden egg significantly (Pegg albumin-induced rat paw oedema and also significantly (Pegg (S. aethiopicum) have anti-inflammatory activity in the models studied. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbopol gel containing chitosan-egg albumin nanoparticles for transdermal aceclofenac delivery. (United States)

    Jana, Sougata; Manna, Sreejan; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Basu, Sanat Kumar


    In the present work, various aceclofenac-loaded chitosan-egg albumin nanoparticles were prepared through heat coagulation method. These aceclofenac-loaded nanoparticles were characterized by FE-SEM, FTIR, DSC and P-XRD analyses. The in vitro drug release from nanoparticles showed sustained drug release over 8h. Aceclofenac-loaded nanoparticles (prepared using 200mg chitosan, 500 mg egg albumin and 2% (w/v) NaTPP) showed highest drug entrapment (96.32±1.52%), 352.90 nm average particle diameter and -22.10 mV zeta potential, which was used for further preparation of Carbopol 940 gel for transdermal application. The prepared gel exhibited sustained ex vivo permeation of aceclofenac over 8h through excised mouse skin. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenean-induced rats demonstrated comparative higher inhibition of swelling of rat paw edema by the prepared gel compared with that of the marketed aceclofenac gel over 4 h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmaceutical properties of freeze-dried formulations of egg albumin, several drugs and olive oil. (United States)

    Tsuji, Y; Kakegawa, H; Miyataka, H; Nishiki, M; Matsumoto, H; Satoh, T


    The freeze-dried ternary formulations of meclizine (MZ, an anti-motion sickness drug), prednisolone (PRED, an anti-inflammatory drug) and norfloxacin (NFLX, an anti-microbial drug) which are poorly water-soluble and are low bioavailability drugs, were prepared using egg albumin and olive oil. The powder X-ray diffractions, the dissolution rate and the bioavailabilities in vivo of these formulations were studied in comparison with each drug alone. By forming ternary formulations of these drugs, the dissolution rates of the drugs from the formulations were significantly improved compared with each drug alone. The results of their powder X-ray diffraction measurements showed that these drugs in the ternary formulations presented in an amorphous form, indicating increased dissolution rates. On the other hand, the plasma concentrations of these drugs increased significantly after oral administration in formulations to rats, except for the NFLX formulation, and the areas under the concentration-time curves (AUC) of the ternary formulations of MZ, PRED and NFLX were 2.1, 1.6 and 1.3 times those of the drugs alone, respectively. From these results, it was proven that formulations consisting of egg albumin, olive oil and poorly water-soluble drugs were useful preparations for improving the drug's disadvantageous pharmaceutical properties.

  2. Egg albumin-assisted preparation, characterization and influencing factors of Dumbbell-shaped BaCO{sub 3} superstructures

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    Ni Yonghong, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Li Xiaolong [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Hong Jianming; Ma Xiang [Centers of Modern Analysis, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    Dumbbell-shaped barium carbonate superstructures were successfully synthesized in the aqueous system containing egg albumin and ethylenediaminetetraacetate disodium (EDTA-2Na), employing BaCl{sub 2}, NaHCO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O as the starting reagents. The as-prepared product was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Some factors influencing the morphology of BaCO{sub 3} crystals, such as the time, the amounts of egg albumin and EDTA-2Na, were studied. Experimental facts showed that a proper amount of egg albumin and EDTA-2Na played crucial roles in the formation of dumbbell-shaped BaCO{sub 3} superstructures.

  3. Potent bronchodilating effects of enprofylline and theophylline on contractions induced by egg albumin or by slow reacting substance (SRS). (United States)

    Hedman, S E; Andersson, R G


    Isolated sensitized guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle tone was induced by use of egg albumin or SRS-A (slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis). The dose-response relationships of theophylline and enprofylline were studied on these preparations. Enprofylline was more potent than theophylline in relaxing the egg albumin- or SRS-A-induced tracheal muscle tone. The theophylline relaxation-curve was significantly shifted to the left after addition of adenosine-deaminase to the egg albumin-contracted trachea, but this was not observed with the enprofylline relaxation-curve. In SRS-A-contracted tracheas, the addition of adenosine-deaminase did not significantly alter the relaxation curves of theophylline or enprofylline. It is therefore suggested that the relaxing effects of theophylline and enprofylline on SRS-A-induced contractions, at the therapeutically relevant concentrations demonstrated in this study, might be of importance for the anti-asthmatic effects of xanthines.

  4. Pengaruh Waktu Fermentasi Terhadap Sifat Fungsional Dan Warna Tepung Albumin Telur Itik


    Pujimulyani, Dwiyati; Andiwarsana, Sunar; Suprapti, Suprapti


    The objective of this experiment was to produce fermented duck egg albumin powder and to evaluate its functional properties and colour, as well. The fermentation of duck egg albumin at room temperature was done for 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours, terminated with the addition of lactic acid 1 H 0.05% and drying in a cabinet drier at 45°C for 8 hours. The functional properties of duck egg albumin powder characterized were coagulant hardness, foaming capacity foam density. The results showed that fer...

  5. Pengaruh Waktu Fermentasi terhadap Sifat Fungsional dan Warna Tepung Albumin Telur Itik


    Pujimulyani, Dwiyati; Andiwarsana, Sunar; Suprapti, Suprapti


    The objective of this experiment was to produce fermented duck egg albumin powder and to evaluate its functional properties and colour, as well. The fermentation of duck egg albumin at room temperature was done for 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours, terminated with the addition of lactic acid 1 H 0.05% and drying in a cabinet drier at 45°C for 8 hours. The functional properties of duck egg albumin powder characterized were coagulant hardness, foaming capacity foam density. The results showed that fer...

  6. Pharmacological and pharmaceutical properties of freeze-dried formulations of egg albumin, indomethacin, olive oil, or fatty acids. (United States)

    Tsuji, Y; Kakegawa, H; Miyataka, H; Matsumoto, H; Satoh, T


    Formulations consisting of egg albumin, indomethacin (IND), and olive oil or fatty acids, were prepared by vigorous stirring using a high-speed homogenizer and subsequent freeze-drying. To confirm the anti-inflammatory properties and ulcerogenic effects of the formulations, we examined the action of the formulations on carrageenan-induced edema in rats as well as their ulcerogenic actions in the same species. Compared with IND alone, albumin-IND-olive oil (9:1:4.3), albumin-IND-linolenic acid (9:1:4.3), albumin-IND-linolic acid (9:1:4.3), albumin-IND-oleic acid (9:1:4.3), albumin-IND-stearic acid (9:1:4.3), and albumin-IND-tristearin (9:1:4.3) formulations all exhibited a more potent inhibitory effect on carrageenan-induced edema. In addition, the inhibitory effects on edema formation of an albumin-IND (9:1) complex was as strong as that of IND alone. These results suggested that the bioavailability of IND was increased by olive oil, fatty acid, and tristearin as absorbefacient agents. The increase in the bioavailability was evident from the fact that the mean plasma levels, maximum plasma levels (Cmax), and area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) values after oral administration of the albumin-IND-olive oil (9:1:4.3) formulation was significantly greater than that after administration of the drug alone. With respect to their ulcerogenic properties, the formulations were significantly less active than IND alone, suggesting that a reduction in the ulcerogenic activity of IND was by produced complexation with egg albumin.

  7. AnIn-vitroInvestigation of Swelling Controlled Delivery of Insulin from Egg Albumin Nanocarriers. (United States)

    Mahobia, Swati; Bajpai, Jaya; Bajpai, Anil Kumar


    The aim of the present work was to prepare and characterize biopolymer nanocarriers and evaluate their suitability in possible oral delivery of insulin. The egg albumin biopolymer was used to prepare nanoparticles which were further characterized by Fourier transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential, Dynamic Light scattering (DLS) and cytotoxicity. From the characterization studies the size of the nanoparticles washemoly found to lie in the range 20-80 nm with surface charge of -23 mV and also offering extremely fair biocompatibility.. The in-vitro biocompatibility of the prepared nanocarriers was judged by BSA adsorption test and haemolysis assay. The in vitro release kinetics of the insulin loaded nanoparticles was studied in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution, and the influence of various factors such as pH, temperature and simulated physiological fluids was studied on the controlled release of insulin.

  8. Hydrophobic interaction adsorption of hen egg white proteins albumin, conalbumin, and lysozyme. (United States)

    Rojas, Edwin E Garcia; dos Reis Coimbra, Jane S; Minim, Luis A; Saraiva, Sérgio H; da Silva, César A Sodré


    Hydrophobic adsorption equilibrium data of the hen egg white proteins albumin, conalbumin, and lysozyme were obtained in batch systems, at 25 degrees C, using the Streamline Phenyl resin as adsorbent. The influence of three types of salt, NaCl, Na(2)SO(4), or (NH(4))(2)SO(4), and their concentration on the equilibrium data were evaluated. The salt Na(2)SO(4) showed the higher interaction with the studied proteins, thus favoring the adsorption of proteins by the adsorbent, even though each type of salt interacted in a distinct manner with each protein. The isotherm models of Langmuir, Langmuir exponential, and Chen and Sun were well fitted to the equilibrium data, with no significant difference being observed at the 5% level of significance. The mass transfer model applied simulated correctly adsorption kinetics of the proteins under the studied conditions.

  9. Interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of carboxymethylcellulose and egg albumin for controlled release of lipid lowering drug. (United States)

    Boppana, Rashmi; Kulkarni, Raghavendra V; Mutalik, Srinivas S; Setty, C Mallikarjun; Sa, Biswanath


    Novel interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and egg albumin loaded with a lipid lowering drug, simvastatin, were prepared by ionotropic gelation and covalent cross-linking method. The IPN beads were characterized by differential scanning colorimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry to understand the crystalline nature of the drug after entrapment into IPN matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to find the chemical stability of drug in the polymer matrix and scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the surface morphology. The ionically cross-linked beads were capable of releasing drug up to 7 h, whereas the drug release was extended up to 12 h in case of dual cross-linked beads. The beads which were prepared with higher concentration of glutaraldehyde released the drug more slowly. The release data were fitted to an empirical equation to determine the transport mechanism, which indicated the non-Fickian trend for drug transport.

  10. The Physical and Linear Viscoelastic Properties of Fresh Wet Foams Based on Egg White Proteins and Selected Hydrocolloids. (United States)

    Ptaszek, Paweł; Zmudziński, Daniel; Kruk, Joanna; Kaczmarczyk, Kacper; Rożnowski, Wojciech; Berski, Wiktor


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of fresh foams based on egg white proteins, xanthan gum and gum Arabic. The distributions of the size of gas bubbles suspended in liquid were determined, as well as density and volume fraction of gas phase of the generated foams. Additionally, the viscoelastic properties in the linear range were measured, and the results were analyzed with the use of the fractional Zener model. It was shown, that foam supplementation with hydrocolloids considerably decreased their volume fraction of gas phase in comparison to pure egg white protein-based foams. Application of gum Arabic did not cause an increase in the size of foam bubbles when compared to pure white egg foam, whereas application of xanthan gum significantly decreased the size of the bubbles. Application of the fractional Zener model allowed to determine the relaxation times, their intensity in analyzed suspensions and also equilibrium module (Ge ). The increase in the concentration of xanthan gum resulted in the prolongation of the relaxation time and increased its intensity. Gum Arabic, when added, weakened the viscoelastic properties of the mixture as a viscoelastic solid.


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    Moh Takdir


    The aim of this research was to determine the proportion, viability and motility of X and Y ram spermatozoa separated with egg white albumin. Sperm samples derived from Garut ram, which was collected by using an artificial vagina. Observations were made on spermatozoa fraction above and below each medium fraction treatment. There are treatment egg white albumin as separation medium, each medium consisting of fractions top and bottom fraction with different concentration: 1 P0 = sperma before separation (control; 2 P1 = 10% above fraction + 30% lower fraction; P2 = 25% + 45%; P3 = 25% + 75%. Data proportion of X and Y, viability and motility were analyzed statistically by Completely Randomized Design patern in the direction followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test for data with a real difference. Separation with egg white albumin affect significantly increased the proportion of spermatozoa X and Y (P≤0.05, but tends to decrease the viability and motility of spermatozoa.The proportion of spermatozoa X and Y was highest in treatment P3,76.76% of spermatozoa X (fraction above 25% and 79.81% spermatozoa Y (75% lower fraction, with an average viability obtained respectively 68,9% (fraction above and 59,7% (bottom fraction, motility 77,5% (fraction above dan 84,0% (bottom fraction. It was concluded that the egg white albumin is very effective in changing the proportions of X and Y ram sperm with the quality of spermatozoa after separation feasible for applications insemination or processed into frozen semen.   (Keywords: Garut ram, White egg albumin, Spermatozoa X and Y

  12. Comparisons among serum, egg albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of basal and stimulated adrenocortical activity of laying hens. (United States)

    Cook, N J; Renema, R; Wilkinson, C; Schaefer, A L


    1. Serial blood samples from individual birds were analysed for corticosterone concentrations under basal and stimulated conditions, and matched to eggs from the same birds for comparison to albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone. 2. Serum corticosterone exhibited increases in response to stimulation by ACTH and Handling stress. There were no significant increases in egg albumin or yolk concentrations of corticosterone following stimulation. 3. Several significant correlations were observed between the mean and area under the curve (AUC) measurements of serum corticosterone concentrations with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid from 1 to 2 d later. 4. The results demonstrated a relationship between endogenous concentrations of serum corticosterone that reflected daily adrenocortical output with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid the following day. 5. The results do not support the concept of albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of acute adrenocortical responses to stimulation.

  13. Effect of pH and interaction between egg white protein and hydroxypropymethylcellulose in bulk aqueous medium on foaming properties. (United States)

    Sadahira, Mitie S; Lopes, Fernanda C Rezende; Rodrigues, Maria I; Yamada, Aureo T; Cunha, Rosiane L; Netto, Flavia M


    Egg white protein (EW) is used as surface-active ingredient in aerated food and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) is a polysaccharide that behaves as a surfactant. This study aimed at investigating the effects of process parameters biopolymer concentration (2.0-5.0%, w/w), EW:HPMC ratio (2:1-18:1), pH (3.0-6.0), and the influence of biopolymers' behavior in aqueous solution at different pH on the foaming properties (overrun, drainage, and bubble growth rate). Process parameters had effect on foaming properties. The pH was the major factor influencing the type of EW/HPMC interaction and affected the foaming properties of biopolymer mixture. At pH 3.0, EW and HPMC showed thermodynamic compatibility leading to better foaming properties, higher foaming capacity, and stability than without HPMC addition whereas at pH 4.5 and 6.0, EW and HPMC are incompatible that causes lower stability concerning the disproportionation comparing to foam without HPMC. At pH between 3.0 and 4.5, HPMC improves foaming properties of aerated products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of atorvastatin on antibody, interleukin-4 and gamma-interferon production in mice immunized with egg albumin. (United States)

    El-Haibi, Christelle; Rahal, Elias; Khauli, Raja B; Abdelnoor, Alexander M


    Three-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, are widely used as the drug of choice for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, actions beyond that of simply lowering cholesterol levels have been reported. This study aims at evaluating the effect of atorvastatin on antibody interleukin-4 and gamma-interferon production in mice immunized with egg albumin. Antibody levels were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cytokine transcripts by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results indicated that repeated daily doses of 40 mg/Kg body weight of atorvastatin following immunization suppressed the antibody response in mice to egg albumin. Moreover, a decline in interleukin-4 and gamma-interferon transcripts was observed.

  15. Binding and textural properties of beef gels processed with κ-carrageenan, egg albumin and microbial transglutaminase. (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z


    The combined influence of κ-carrageenan (κ-CGN, 0.5%) and egg albumin (EA, 2%) on quality characteristics of beef gels processed without or with 0.5% microbial transglutaminase (MTG) was investigated. Beef gel properties were determined by measuring textural, hydration and colour characteristics. κ-Carrageenan favourably affected hydration properties and thermal stability, yielding lower cooking loss, purge and expressible moisture. It also increased hardness and fracturability of beef gels, but was unable to improve springiness or cohesiveness. Egg albumin either alone or in combination with MTG generally has been found to be inferior to κ-carrageenan for functionality in comminuted meat systems. Addition of EA produced an increase in lightness and yellowness, and a decrease in redness of beef gels, while the presence of κ-carrageenan resulted in lower L(∗) and b(∗), and higher a(∗) values. No significant influence of MTG on gel colour parameters was observed.

  16. Pharmacological and pharmaceutical properties of freeze-dried formulations of egg albumin, indomethacin, olive oil, or fatty acids. II. (United States)

    Tsuji, Y; Kakegawa, H; Miyataka, H; Matsumoto, H; Satoh, T


    To confirm the increased bioavailability of indomethacin (IND) when incorporated in a preparation with egg albumin and olive oil, we studied the detailed pharmaceutical characteristics of a ternary formulation consisting of egg albumin, IND and olive oil. From the results of X-ray powder diffraction measurements, the drug in the formulation was found to be in an amorphous form. When orally administered to rats, the ternary formulation significantly increased the plasma concentration and cumulative biliary and urinary excretion of IND alone as well as the urinary excretion of its major metabolite, desmethylindomethacin, compared with the drug alone. In addition, the dissolution rate of IND from the formulation was higher than that of the drug alone. These results clearly suggest that the bioavailability of IND was markedly improved by incorporating it in a protein-drug formulation containing olive oil as an absorbefacient element, and this effect may be due to an increased absorption of IND.

  17. Albumin is synthesized in epididymis and aggregates in a high molecular mass glycoprotein complex involved in sperm-egg fertilization.

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    Kélen Fabíola Arroteia

    Full Text Available The epididymis has an important role in the maturation of sperm for fertilization, but little is known about the epididymal molecules involved in sperm modifications during this process. We have previously described the expression pattern for an antigen in epididymal epithelial cells that reacts with the monoclonal antibody (mAb TRA 54. Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analyses suggest that the epitope of the epididymal antigen probably involves a sugar moiety that is released into the epididymal lumen in an androgen-dependent manner and subsequently binds to luminal sperm. Using column chromatography, SDS-PAGE with in situ digestion and mass spectrometry, we have identified the protein recognized by mAb TRA 54 in mouse epididymal epithelial cells. The ∼65 kDa protein is part of a high molecular mass complex (∼260 kDa that is also present in the sperm acrosomal vesicle and is completely released after the acrosomal reaction. The amino acid sequence of the protein corresponded to that of albumin. Immunoprecipitates with anti-albumin antibody contained the antigen recognized by mAb TRA 54, indicating that the epididymal molecule recognized by mAb TRA 54 is albumin. RT-PCR detected albumin mRNA in the epididymis and fertilization assays in vitro showed that the glycoprotein complex containing albumin was involved in the ability of sperm to recognize and penetrate the egg zona pellucida. Together, these results indicate that epididymal-derived albumin participates in the formation of a high molecular mass glycoprotein complex that has an important role in egg fertilization.

  18. Albumin is synthesized in epididymis and aggregates in a high molecular mass glycoprotein complex involved in sperm-egg fertilization. (United States)

    Arroteia, Kélen Fabíola; Barbieri, Mainara Ferreira; Souza, Gustavo Henrique Martins Ferreira; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Hyslop, Stephen; Alvares, Lúcia Elvira; Pereira, Luís Antonio Violin Dias


    The epididymis has an important role in the maturation of sperm for fertilization, but little is known about the epididymal molecules involved in sperm modifications during this process. We have previously described the expression pattern for an antigen in epididymal epithelial cells that reacts with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) TRA 54. Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analyses suggest that the epitope of the epididymal antigen probably involves a sugar moiety that is released into the epididymal lumen in an androgen-dependent manner and subsequently binds to luminal sperm. Using column chromatography, SDS-PAGE with in situ digestion and mass spectrometry, we have identified the protein recognized by mAb TRA 54 in mouse epididymal epithelial cells. The ∼65 kDa protein is part of a high molecular mass complex (∼260 kDa) that is also present in the sperm acrosomal vesicle and is completely released after the acrosomal reaction. The amino acid sequence of the protein corresponded to that of albumin. Immunoprecipitates with anti-albumin antibody contained the antigen recognized by mAb TRA 54, indicating that the epididymal molecule recognized by mAb TRA 54 is albumin. RT-PCR detected albumin mRNA in the epididymis and fertilization assays in vitro showed that the glycoprotein complex containing albumin was involved in the ability of sperm to recognize and penetrate the egg zona pellucida. Together, these results indicate that epididymal-derived albumin participates in the formation of a high molecular mass glycoprotein complex that has an important role in egg fertilization.


    Heidelberger, M; Kendall, F E


    1. A quantitative theory of the precipitin reaction based on the laws of classical chemistry has now been found applicable to the crystalline egg albumin-antibody system. Equations derived from the theory permit the calculation of the behavior of an anti-egg albumin serum over most of the reaction range after a few quantitative analyses have been made for the nitrogen precipitated. Data of other workers also conform to the proposed equations. 2. The empirical relation, shown to have advantages in the dye antidye system, may also be used for the Ea-A reaction. 3. Serum from the same animal after successive courses exhibits progressive changes which have been described graphically and quantitatively. These changes are believed to consist in the formation of more and more antibody capable of reacting with a larger number of chemically different groupings in the antigen molecule. 4. Evidence is presented that anti-egg albumin is not homogeneous, and that even after prolonged immunization the antiserum contains much low-grade antibody, incapable of forming precipitates unless more reactive precipitin is present. 5. Factors affecting the equivalence point ratio are discussed.

  20. Shelf life study of egg albumin in pasteurized and non-pasteurized eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    A twelve week shelf life study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. The goal of the study was to correlate the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior eg...

  1. Effects of foaming and antifoaming agents on the performance of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren


    Foaming is a common phenomenon in industrial processes, including wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants. A systemic investigation of the influence of two foaming agents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and egg white albumin (protein), and two commercial antifoams on a wet FGD pilot plant...

  2. Role of pH-induced structural change in protein aggregation in foam fractionation of bovine serum albumin

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    Rui Li


    Full Text Available For reducing protein aggregation in foam fractionation, the role of pH-induced structural change in the interface-induced protein aggregation was analyzed using bovine serum albumin (BSA as a model protein. The results show that the decrease in pH from 7.0 to 3.0 gradually unfolded the BSA structure to increase the molecular size and the relative content of β-sheet and thus reduced the stability of BSA in the aqueous solution. At the isoelectric point (pH 4.7, BSA suffered the lowest level in protein aggregation induced by the gas–liquid interface. In the pH range from 7.0 to 4.7, most BSA aggregates were formed in the defoaming process while in the pH range from 4.7 to 3.0, the BSA aggregates were formed at the gas–liquid interface due to the unfolded BSA structure and they further aggregated to form insoluble ones in the desorption process.

  3. Studies on the antibodies in rabbit antisera responsible for sensitization of human skin. I. The role of impurities in crystalline egg albumin in stimulating the production of skin-sensitizing antibody. (United States)



    The capacity of rabbit anti-egg albumin sera to sensitize human skin has been studied. It has been shown that passive transfer by these sera is completely unrelated to the egg albumin-anti-egg albumin system, as demonstrated by a failure of passive transfer by some antisera containing ample anti-egg albumin and persistence of passive transfer in other antisera from which all anti-egg albumin had been removed by precipitation with homologous antigen. Three preparations of non-precipitating anti-egg albumin have been shown to have sensitizing capacities which bear no relation to their non-precipitating anti-egg albumin contents. From a portion of one of these the non-precipitating anti-egg albumin was removed without impairing its sensitizing ability, while in another portion obliteration of the sensitizing capacity was accomplished without reducing the anti-egg albumin. Evidence is presented to show that there are at least two possible antibodies in anti-egg albumin sera which are capable of inducing skin sensitivity and that they are antibodies against egg white impurities in crystalline egg albumin other than anti-conalbumin, anti-ovomucoid, and anti-lysozyme. The usefulness of a suitable quantitative precipitin technic for the analysis for antibodies against antigen impurities and for their selective absorption from sera is illustrated. The principle governing the procedure is described. The technic allows for the determination of a given trace antibody by working with such small concentrations of its purified specific antigen that whatever other antigen-antibody compounds are formed simultaneously with that to be determined will be below their solubility levels and consequently will not contribute appreciably to the precipitate.

  4. Juniper oil improves oxidative stability and eggshell and albumin quality of quail eggs. (United States)

    Cengiz, S S; Yesilbag, D; Meral, Y; Cetin, I; Biricik, H


    1. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of juniper oil (JO) dietary supplementation on the laying performance, egg traits and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations of quail. 2. A total of 400 female Pharaoh quails were equally divided into 4 groups containing 100 quails (5 replicates of 20 quails each). The study included a control treatment with no diet additives, and the treatments were as follows: (group 1) 100 mg JO/kg; (group 2) 200 mg JO/kg; (group 3) 300 mg JO/kg. The experiment was carried out for 60 d. 3. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences in body weight, egg weight, egg mass, egg shape index, yolk colour, egg production, feed consumption or feed efficiency. 4. The Haugh unit was increased in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control group. Dietary fortification with JO improved eggshell thickness and breaking strength compared to the control group. Furthermore, the damaged egg ratio was significantly decreased in group 3 compared to the control. The increasing concentration of JO (200 and 300 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in egg yolk MDA concentration after 15 and 30 d of storage at 20°C. 5. It was concluded that inclusion of JO in layer diets can improve egg quality characteristics in terms of Haugh unit, eggshell thickness and breaking strength. Moreover, supplementation of JO in the diets of quail may enhance the antioxidant status of eggs, and the most effective doses of JO were 200 and 300 mg/kg.


    Heidelberger, M; Treffers, H P; Mayer, M


    1. In two rabbits subjected to prolonged injections with crystalline egg albumin the antibodies in one showed progressive changes such as noted in an earlier paper; the antibodies in the other did not. 2. The significance of this behavior in the production of sera for therapeutic use is pointed out. 3. Quantitative studies are reported on the low grade or incomplete antibody present in the early stages of immunization of a horse with egg albumin. 4. Quantitative studies on the flocculating antibody from later bleedings from the horse are given, and the dissociation of the soluble pre-zone compounds by rabbit anti-egg albumin is studied. Rough velocity estimations are reported. 5. The bearing of the findings on the mechanism of precipitin and flocculation reactions and of the Danysz effect is discussed in terms of the union of multivalent antigen with multivalent antibody.


    Lewis, Margaret Reed


    It is difficult to understand what factors may be concerned in the formation of the al. granules. The phenomenon may be concerned with changes in the cell membrane due to an abnormal environment; that is, material which would otherwise be excluded may be permitted to enter the cell, or, on the other hand, certain substances may be prevented from passing out of the cells. Previous investigators have shown that mesenchyme cells sometimes engulf certain foreign bodies, and it is possible that the solution of white of egg is ingested in the same manner. When a solution of peptone was placed on the cells instead of egg white, the phenomenon did not occur (Fig. 13); the cell remained normal and degenerated in the usual manner (Fig. 14). This would seem to indicate that the al. granules are not formed from peptone. Regardless of the factors involved, it is evident that egg albumin in the medium of tissue cultures of chick embryos causes the formation of numerous large granules in the cytoplasm of the connective tissue cells. This phenomenon is associated with unfavorable conditions for the life of the cells and results in the rapid death of the cultures. PMID:19868511

  7. Female calves born resulted from an artificial inseminatioan (AI using sexed sperm separated with egg albumin coloum

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    Situmorang p


    Full Text Available An efforts to alter the sex ratio of calves born could be made by separating spermatozoa bearing X and Y chromosome. The object of this study is to increase the female dairy calves born resulted from artificial insemination using the sexed sperm. There were 2 activities conducted which were 1 Spermatozoa separation based on two egg albumin column with a concentration of 10% as the upper column (UC and 30% as the lower column (LC and 2 AI using semen from UC. Experiment designed was completely randomized designed with three separation time (10, 20 and 30 minutes for the treatments. Semen from UC which is expected rich in spermatozoa X, diluted in Tris Citrate extender to give a final concentration of 100 million sperm/cc and frozen to - 196°C for AI purposes. Results showed that separation of semen using egg albumin column, affects the size of head of spermatozoa. The means of length, width and area size of head spermatozoa were 8.7 µm, 4.7 µm, 35.7 µm2 and 8.4 µm, 4.6 µm, 33.7 µm2 for UC and LC respectively. The livability of sperm from UC and LC were not statistically significant different. The mean percentage of motile (%M, live sperm (%L and intact apical ridge (%IAR were 77.8, 85.5, 78.1 and 76.1, 83.5, 78.4 for UC and LC respectively. Separation time did not significantly affect the size of spermatozoa heads of UC semen. The mean length, width and area size of head of spermatozoa were 8.7 µm, 4.5 µm, 36.1 µm2; 8.7 µm, 4.8 µm, 36.2 µm2 and 8.5 µm, 4.7 µm, 34.8 µm2 for 10; 20 and 30 minutes respectively. From total of 160 calves born showed that the female calves born was 65%. It is concluded that AI using sexed sperm separated with egg albumin could increase the percentage of female calve born.

  8. Preliminary studies on the effect of rebamipide against the trypsin and egg-albumin induced experimental model of asthma. (United States)

    Gohil, Priyanshee; Thakkar, Himani; Gohil, Unnati; Deshpande, Shrikalp


    The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of rebamipide in experimentally induced bronchial asthma in mice. Trypsin and egg-albumin induced chronic model of asthma was used and various parameters were measured on the 35th day. The asthmatic control group showed lower level of haemoglobin saturation with oxygen, tidal volume, airflow rate and higher respiratory rate, serum bicarbonate level, eosinophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histamine level compared to the normal control group. Dexamethasone and rebamipide treated groups showed the return of all the above parameters towards normal values. Histopathological examination of lungs showed more prominent alveolar and muscular layer destruction in the asthmatic control group than in dexamethasone and rebamipide treated groups. Rebamipide showed a beneficial effect and might be used for the treatment of bronchial asthma.

  9. Effects of transglutaminase on the rheological and noodle-making characteristics of oat dough containing vital wheat gluten or egg albumin (United States)

    Incorporating exogenous proteins into food production is a common practice for improving processing characteristics. In the present study, oat dough containing 15% (w/w, blends of protein-oat flour basis [POB]) vital wheat gluten (VWG) or 15% (w/w, POB) egg albumin (EA) were used to produce noodles ...


    Loeb, Jacques


    1. While crystalline egg albumin is highly soluble in water at low temperature at the pH of its isoelectric point, it is coagulated by heating. It has long been known that this coagulation can be prevented by adding either acid or alkali, whereby the protein is ionized. 2. It is shown in this paper that salts with trivalent or tetravalent ions, e.g. LaCl3 or Na4Fe(CN)6, are also able to prevent the heat coagulation of albumin at the isoelectric point (i.e. pH 4.8), while salts with a divalent ion, e.g. CaCl2, BaCl4, Na2SO4, or salts like NaCl, have no such effect. 3. This is in harmony with the fact shown in a preceding paper that salts with trivalent or tetravalent ions can cause the ionization of proteins at its isoelectric point and thus give rise to a membrane potential between micellæ of isoelectric protein and surrounding aqueous solution, while the above mentioned salts with divalent and monovalent ions have apparently no such effect. PMID:19871973

  11. The studies of density, apparent molar volume, and viscosity of bovine serum albumin, egg albumin, and lysozyme in aqueous and RbI, CsI, and DTAB aqueous solutions at 303.15 K. (United States)

    Singh, Man; Chand, Hema; Gupta, K C


    Density (rho), apparent molar volume (V(phi)), and viscosity (eta) of 0.0010 to 0.0018% (w/v) of bovine serum albumin (BSA), egg albumin, and lysozyme in 0.0002, 0.0004, and 0.0008 M aqueous RbI and CsI, and (dodecyl)(trimethyl)ammonium bromide (DTAB) solutions were obtained. The experimental data were regressed against composition, and constants are used to elucidate the conformational changes in protein molecules. With salt concentration, the density of proteins is found to decrease, and the order of the effect of additives on density is observed as CsI > RbI > DTAB. The trend of apparent molar volume of proteins is found as BSA > egg-albumin > lysozyme for three additives. In general, eta values of BSA remain higher for all compositions of RbI than that of egg-albumin for CsI and DTAB. These orders of the data indicate the strength of intermolecular forces between proteins and salts, and are helpful for understanding the denaturation of proteins.

  12. Functional and rheological properties of amaranth albumins extracted from two Mexican varieties. (United States)

    Silva-Sánchez, C; González-Castañeda, J; de León-Rodríguez, A; Barba de la Rosa, A P


    The functional and rheological properties of amaranth albumins isolates extracted from two new Mexican varieties were determined. Functional properties tested were protein solubility, foaming, water and oil absorption capacities, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability. The maximum solubility values for both amaranth albumins were found above pH 6 and values were compared to the solubility of egg albumins. Albumins from amaranth showed excellent foaming capacity and foaming stability at pH 5, suggesting that this protein could be used as whipping agents as egg albumins, also the water and oil absorption capacities reached their maximum values at acidic pH, suggesting that amaranth albumins could be appropriate in preparation of acidic foods. The rheological test based on farinograms and alveograms showed that wheat flour supplemented with 1% amaranth albumins improves the dough properties due to higher mixing stability and the bread had better crumb characteristics. In addition of the known high nutritional values of amaranth albumins, our results indicate the high potential for use of these proteins as an ingredient in food preparations.

  13. The effects of egg albumin incorporation on quality attributes of pale, soft, exudative (PSE-like) turkey rolls. (United States)

    Öztürk, Burcu; Serdaroğlu, Meltem


    Pale, soft, exudative (PSE-like) poultry phenomenon has been a growing problem in meat industry in terms of quality and economic losses, thus data is required to evaluate PSE raw material in product formulations. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of egg albumin (EA) utilization on quality characteristics of PSE-like turkey rolls. Turkey Pectoralis major muscles were exposed to either 40 °C to stimulate typical processing causing PSE or 0 °C to reduce PSE and keep the muscles "normal". Turkey rolls were prepared in nine different formulations; using 100% normal (N), 50% normal + 50% PSE (NP) or 100% PSE meat (P). Treatments also included 0, 1 or 2% EA. Addition of EA increased protein content of all samples. L*, a* and b* values were affected by PSE level. Increased levels of PSE caused decreased processing yields, while EA incorporation increased processing yield of the samples. Addition of 1% EA increased water-holding capacity (WHC) of the samples, while higher level of EA (2%) caused decrement in the same. Addition of either 1% or 2% EA was effective in reducing purge loss in P samples. Texture profile analysis showed that EA addition rather had considerable effects on N samples. Sensory scores showed that 1% EA utilization has the potential to increase mostly the mouthfeel of PSE-like products. Results showed that EA could be used as a promising ingredient that improved overall quality of PSE-like turkey rolls.

  14. Formation of complexes between tannic acid with bovine serum albumin, egg ovalbumin and bovine beta-lactoglobulin. (United States)

    Xie, Liyang; Wehling, Randy L; Ciftci, Ozan; Zhang, Yue


    Tannic acid (TA) shows strong interactions with proteins and the resulting complexes can be utilized as delivery systems for oral drugs. The complexation of TA with three proteins including bovine serum albumin (BSA), egg ovalbumin (EA) and bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) at pH 7.4 was studied. The tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence of all three proteins was quenched by TA in a static quenching mechanism. BLG showed the highest binding affinity and a smallest binding distance with TA which may suggest that BLG-TA is the most stable complex. The results of circular dichroism, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra suggested that the protein structures have been changed at different levels and helix structure was affected more significant than β-strand. Zeta-potential of all three proteins was more negative after binding with TA, which is favorable for the stabilization of protein based nanoparticles. Information derived from this work could be important to potentially use TA-protein complexes as nanoencapsulation systems for oral drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of the effect of gelatine, egg albumin and cross-flow microfiltration on the phenolic composition of Pinotage wine. (United States)

    Oberholster, A; Carstens, L M; du Toit, W J


    The effect of fining and cross-flow microfiltration on the phenolic composition of red wine was investigated. Both gelatine (G) and egg albumin (EA) fining decreased the mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) of tannin significantly by 26.4% and 25.2%, respectively, compared to the control (C). Cross-flow microfiltration (CF) also decreased the mDP significantly by 25%. Thus, the fining agents and cross-flow microfiltration selectively removed the highly polymerised phenols. After 3.5 months of bottle ageing, differences between the different treatments and the control decreased. CF had the most significant effect on the flavan-3-ol and polymeric phenol (tannin) content of the wines compared to the control followed by G fining. CF and EA treatments significantly decreased the total pigment content compared to C. CF was also the only treatment that could be distinguished from the other treatments by sensory analysis. All treatments improved clarity of the wines with cross-flow microfiltration having the largest effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Loeb, J


    1. This paper gives measurements of the influence of various electrolytes on the cataphoretic P.D. of particles of collodion coated with gelatin, of particles of casein, and of particles of boiled egg albumin in water at different pH. The influence of the same electrolyte was about the same in all three proteins. 2. It was found that the salts can be divided into two groups according to their effect on the P.D. at the isoelectric point. The salts of the first group including salts of the type of NaCl, CaCl(2), and Na(2)SO(4) affect the P.D. of proteins at the isoelectric point but little; the second group includes salts with a trivalent or tetravalent ion such as LaCl(3) or Na(4)Fe(CN)(6). These latter salts produce a high P.D. on the isoelectric particles, LaCl(3) making them positively and Na(4)Fe(CN)(6) making them negatively charged. This difference in the action of the two groups of salts agrees with the observations on the effect of the same salts on the anomalous osmosis through collodion membranes coated with gelatin. 3. At pH 4.0 the three proteins have a positive cataphoretic charge which is increased by LaCl(3) but not by NaCl or CaCl(2), and which is reversed by Na(4)Fe(CN)(6), the latter salt making the cataphoretic charge of the particles strongly negative. 4. At pH 5.8 the protein particles have a negative cataphoretic charge which is strongly increased by Na(4)Fe(CN)(6) but practically not at all by Na(2)SO(4) or NaCl, and which is reversed by LaCl(3). the latter salt making the cataphoretic charge of the particles strongly positive. 5. The fact that electrolytes affect the cataphoretic P.D. of protein particles in the same way, no matter whether the protein is denatured egg albumin or a genuine protein like gelatin, furnishes proof that the solutions of genuine proteins such as crystalline egg albumin or gelatin are not diaphasic systems, since we shall show in a subsequent paper that proteins insoluble in water, e.g. denatured egg albumin, are

  17. Effect of human serum albumin on the kinetics of 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N-N'-N″ Triacetylchitotrioside hydrolysis catalyzed by hen egg white lysozyme. (United States)

    Calderon, Cristian; Abuin, Elsa; Lissi, Eduardo; Montecinos, Rodrigo


    The effect of human serum albumin (HSA) addition on the rate of hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N-N'-N″ triacetylchitotrioside ((NAG)(3)-MUF) catalyzed by hen egg white lysozyme has been measured in aqueous solution (citrate buffer 50 mM pH = 5.2 at 37 °C). The presence of HSA leads to a decrease in the rate of the process. The reaction follows a Michaelis-Menten mechanism under all the conditions employed. The catalytic rate constant decreases tenfold when the albumin concentration increases, while the Michaelis constant remains almost constant in the albumin concentration range employed. Ultracentrifugation experiments indicate that the main origin of the observed variation in the kinetic behavior is related to the existence of an HSA-lysozyme interaction. Interestingly, the dependence of the catalytic rate constant with albumin concentration parallels the decrease of the free enzyme concentration. We interpret these results in terms of the presence in the system of two enzyme populations; namely, the HSA associated enzyme which does not react and the free enzyme reacting as in the absence of albumin. Other factors such as association of the substrate to albumin or macromolecular crowding effects due to the presence of albumin are discarded. Theoretical modeling of the structure of the HSA-lysozyme complex shows that the Glu35 and Asp52 residues located in the active site of lysozyme are oriented toward the HSA surface. This conformation will inactivate lysozyme molecules bound to HSA.

  18. Isolation and foaming functionality of acid-soluble protein from lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernels. (United States)

    Wong, Alester; Pitts, Keith; Jayasena, Vijay; Johnson, Stuart


    Australian sweet lupin (ASL) protein is conventionally isolated by alkaline extraction/acid precipitation, leaving a waste stream containing acid-soluble proteins (ASPs) and contaminating raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). The foaming functionality of ASP isolated from ASL is not known, but ASP from another lupin species has demonstrated high foaming functionality. Pre-soaking ASL kernels increased their protein/RFO ratio; however, some protein was lost by soaking. The foaming capacity of ASL protein isolated by different methods was ranked in the following order: alkaline extraction/isoelectric precipitation extraction (novel ASP) egg white. Electrophoresis indicated enrichment of γ-conglutin and albumin peptides in ASPs and of a single peptide in the fibre residue from alkaline extraction. The high foaming capacity of ultrafiltered novel ASP, similar to that of fresh egg white, indicates the potential of this lupin protein as a food ingredient for foaming applications. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Randomized, open label, controlled clinical trial of oral administration of an egg albumin-based protein supplement to patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. (United States)

    González-Espinoza, Liliana; Gutiérrez-Chávez, Jorge; del Campo, Fabiola Martín; Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R; Cortés-Sanabria, Laura; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M


    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and is a strong predictor of increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of an egg albumin-based protein supplement on the nutritional status of CAPD patients. In this randomized, open label, controlled clinical trial, 28 CAPD patients were allocated to a study (n = 13) or a control (n = 15) group. Both groups received conventional nutritional counseling; the study group received, additionally, an oral egg albumin-based supplement. During a 6-month follow-up, all patients had monthly clinical and biochemical evaluations and quarterly assessments of adequacy of dialysis and nutrition. Serum albumin Levels were not different between groups; however, a significant increase (baseline vs final) was observed in the study group (2.64+/-0.35 vs 3.05+/-0.72 g/dL) but not in the control group (2.66+/-0.56 vs 2.80+/-0.54 mg/dL). Calorie and protein intake increased more in the study group (calories 1331+/-432 vs 1872+/-698 kcal; proteins 1.0+/-0.3 vs 1.7+/-0.7 g/kg) than in the control group (calories 1423+/-410 vs 1567+/-381 kcal; proteins 1.0+/-0.4 vs 1.0+/-0.3 g/kg). Similarly, non-protein nitrogen appearance rate (nPNA) increased significantly more in the study (1.00+/-0.23 vs 1.18+/-0.35 g/kg/day) than in the control group (0.91+/-0.11 vs 0.97+/-0.14 g/kg/ day). Triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and midarm muscle area (MAMA) displayed a nonsignificant trend to a greater increase in the study group (TSF 16.7+/-8.7 vs 18.3+/-10.7 mm; MAMA 23.8+/-6.2 vs 25.8+/-5.9 cm2) than in controls (TSF 16.4+/-5.7 vs 16.9+/-7.0 mm; MAMA 28.7+/-7.8 vs 30.0+/-7.9 cm2). At the end of follow-up, the frequency of patients with moderate or severe malnutrition decreased 6% in the control group and decreased 28% in the study group. At the final evaluation, the most important predictors of serum albumin were the oral egg albumin

  20. pH Influence on the stability of foams with protein–polysaccharide complexes at their interfaces


    Miquelim, Joice N.; Lannes, Suzana C.S.; Mezzenga, raffaele


    Food foams such as marshmallow, Chantilly and mousses have behavior and stability directly connected with their microstructure, bubble size distribution and interfacial properties. A high interfacial tension inherent to air/liquid foams interfaces affects its stability, and thus it has a direct impact on processing, storage and product handling. In this work, the interactions of egg albumin with various types of polysaccharides were investigated by drop tensiometry, interfacial rheology and f...

  1. Effect of different diluents on the quality of sperm sexing cows with a gradient albumin (egg white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervandi M


    Full Text Available Damage of spermatozoa membrane in sexing procces with albumin gradient can decrease the quality of spermatozoa, thus to solve that need diluents for protect spermatozoa membrane to make good quality. The aim of this research is to know the best diluents between Andromed and CEP2 (cauda epididymal plasma + 0% of yolk to keep the quality of Limousin Cow’s Spermatozoa from sexing procces with albumin’s gradient. Parameters measured for the quality of spermatozoa were : spermatozoa motility, spermatozoa viability, spermatozoa abnormality, spermatozoa concentration, and spermatozoa motility, membrane integrity, spermatozoa capacity, and acrosom reaction. Observation of membrane integrity using HOS (Hypoosmotic Swelling Test, observation of capacity and acrosom reaction using fluoresen CTC (Chortetracycline dye. Result show that Andomed diluents and CEP2 + 10% yolk in top layer and bottom (X and (Y layer can keep the quality of Limousin Cow’s spermatozoa in sexing procces include spermatozoa motility (X 62,5%, Y 58%, (X 56,5%, Y 55%, viability (X 91,64%, Y 91,51% (X 89,87%, Y 93,51%, spermatozoa’s concentration (X 643 million /ml, Y518 million /ml (X648 million/ml, Y517 million/ml, total spermatozoa are motil (X373,60 juta/ml, Y187,80 million/ml (X 296,03 miliion/ml, Y 187,38 million/ml , and have low abnormality (X 4,11%, Y 4,38%, (X 6,42%, Y 4,04%. Andromed diluents and CEP2 + 10% yolk can keep the integrity of spermatozoa membrane (X 87,60%, Y 80,26% (X 79,61%, Y 81,03%, remains well and have the spermatozoa are not yet capacitation(X 87,60%, Y83,71% (X 79,61%, Y 81,03% remains high, spermatozoa capacity (X 9,76%, Y 9,92% (X 13,45%, Y 8,95%, dan acrosom reaction (X 4,11%, Y 4,38%, (X 6,42%, Y 4,04% remains low. Andromed diluents was not different (P > 0,05 from CEP2 diluents + 10% yolk in keeping the quality of Limousin Cow Spermatozoa from the sexing process with albumin’s gradient (egg white.

  2. Ochratoxin A removal from red wine by several oenological fining agents: bentonite, egg albumin, allergen-free adsorbents, chitin and chitosan. (United States)

    Quintela, S; Villarán, M C; López De Armentia, I; Elejalde, E


    The ability of several oenological fining agents to remove ochratoxin A (OTA) from red wine was studied. The adsorbents tested were activated sodium bentonite, egg albumin, allergen-free adsorbents (complex PVPP, plant protein and amorphous silica (complex) and high molecular weight gelatine), and the non-toxic biodegradable polymers (chitin and chitosan). Several dosages within the oenological use range were tested and the wine pH, colour parameters and polyphenol concentration impact associated with each fining agent were studied. Generally, OTA removal achieved in all treatments was higher when the adsorbent dosage increased, but the impact on wine quality also was higher. Chitin at 50 g hl(-1) removed 18% the OTA without affecting significantly the wine-quality parameters. At the highest dosage tested the gelatine and complex treatments achieved greater OTA removal (up to 39-40%) compared with bentonite, egg albumin and chitin. Moreover, the gelatine and the complex had a lower impact on colour parameters and polyphenol concentration compared with chitosan, whilst OTA was reduced to around 40%. Chitosan achieved the greatest OTA removal (67%), but it strongly affected the wine-quality parameters. Otherwise, bentonite showed a relative efficiency to remove OTA, but the CI value decreased considerably. The egg albumin treatment only removed OTA up to 16% and moreover affected strongly the CI value and CIELab parameters. The results of this survey showed that the non-toxic chitin adsorbent and the allergen-free adsorbents tested could be considered as alternative fining agents to reduce OTA in red wine.

  3. Growth and destruction of Salmonella typhimurium in egg white foam products cooked by microwaves. (United States)

    Baldwin, R E; Cloninger, M; Fields, M L


    Currently, in both home and institutional food preparation, attempts are being made to produce high quality foods with a minimum of time and effort. Research is being carried out to develop equipment capable of cooking foods in a fraction of the time required by conventional methods; as a result, the problem arises as to the bacteriological safety of these products. We investigated the microbiological aspects of lemon and chocolate foam pies before and after cooking by microwaves for less than 2 min. Pies prepared with sterile equipment under sanitary conditions were inoculated with washed cells from a 24-hr broth culture of Salmonella typhimurium and were incubated for 24, 48, and 72 hr at 33 C. The same procedures were followed in model systems to determine the effects of various sugar and pH levels on the survival of S. typhimurium. No S. typhimurium was detected in inoculated cooked or uncooked lemon pies by the plating method; with the Lactose Broth pre-enrichment method, survivors were detected in lemon pies immediately after preparation. After electronic cooking, no survivors were detected in lemon pies by plate counts, whereas cells were recovered from chocolate pies by the Lactose Broth method. Both chocolate and lemon pies had lower counts throughout the 72-hr incubation period than the model systems compared to them. With the model systems, at pH 7.3, media containing sugar inhibited the growth of S. typhimurium but did not cause a significant reduction in counts during the incubation times studied. At pH 3.7, media without sugar yielded no cells with the Lactose Broth pre-enrichment method after 48 hr of incubation, whereas media with sugar were not sterile until after 72 hr of incubation. Apparently, the presence of sugar in the medium had a protective influence which made the lethal effect of the low pH less severe.

  4. Changes in the antigenic and immunoglobulin E-binding properties of hen's egg albumin with the combination of heat and gamma irradiation treatment. (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yook, Hong-Sun; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Myung-Chul; Byun, Myung-Woo


    This study was carried out to evaluate the changes in the allergenic and antigenic properties of hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin [OVA]) with the combination of heat and gamma irradiation treatment. OVA solution samples were treated by (i) heating (sample 1), (ii) irradiation after heating (sample 2), and (iii) heating after irradiation (sample 3). Samples were isothermally heated and irradiated at the absorption dose of 10 kGy. Competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed with blood serum to test the ability of treated OVA to bind to immunoglobulin E (IgE) and mouse murine monoclonal antibody (IgG). OVA's ability to bind to mouse IgG changed upon heating at 75 degrees C, and its ability to bind to egg-allergic IgE changed upon heating at 80 degrees C. The ELISAs showed that egg-allergic IgE did not recognize OVA very well when heated at > or = 80 degrees C, while mouse IgG retained better activity under these conditions. Egg-allergic IgE binding was low both for OVA samples treated by heating and for samples treated by irradiation followed by heating. These results show that allergies induced by OVA could be effectively reduced by the combination of heat and gamma irradiation treatment.

  5. Effect of egg albumin fining, progressive clarification and cross-flow microfiltration on the polysaccharide and proanthocyanidin composition of red varietal wines. (United States)

    Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén


    The effect of egg albumin fining, progressive clarification and cross-flow microfiltration on the polysaccharide and proanthocyanidin composition of four red varietal wines was studied in this work. Discriminant analyses were applied to achieve a possible differentiation of the wines according to treatment or grape variety. Egg albumin fining did no produce a significant decrease in the content of wine polysaccharides. Progressive clarification caused a significant reduction of mannoproteins, homogalacturonans and polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose in Graciano wines. However, both treatments reduced the total content of proanthocyanidins in all varietal wines. Cross-flow microfiltration produced the highest retention of polysaccharides and proanthocyanidins in all the wines, mainly polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, yeast mannoproteins and highly polymerized phenols. Polysaccharides rich in arabinose and mannoproteins were more retained on the ceramic membrane than polysaccharides rich in galactose and proanthocyanidins. Discriminant analyses allowed a clear differentiation of cross-flow microfiltrated wines from the rest of the wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A long-term evaluation of very low calorie semi-synthetic diets: an inpatient/outpatient study with egg albumin as the protein source. (United States)

    Howard, A N; Baird, I M


    Fifty-two obese patients were studied initially for two weeks as inpatients on very low calorie diets, containing 0.76-1.34 MJ (180-320 kcal) as 15-40 g egg albumin, 30-40 g oligosaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Patients were seen weekly after discharge from hospital. Forty-one patients were able to continue treatment for more than eight weeks, and 29 for more than 16 weeks. In terms of weight loss, 41 patients lost at least 10 kg body weight, 29 at least 15 kg, and 14 at least 20 kg; 17 patients came within 15 kg of their ideal body weight. With 40 g/day carbohydrate, the quantity of egg albumin required to give nitrogen equilibrium was estimated to be about 25 g/day. All patients were able to resume their normal activities on discharge from hospital and had no major side-effects from treatment. Routine clinical, biochemical and haematological examinations showed no significant changes. In particular, serum proteins, electrolytes, uric acid, cholesterol and blood haemoglobin and haematocrit were unaffected. Ketosis was minimal or absent. It is concluded that the use of very low calorie semi-synthetic diets is a feasible and safe method of weight reduction for obese patients.

  7. PEMBUATAN LARU YOUGHURT DENGAN METODE FOAM-MAT: DRYING KAJIAN PENAMBAHANN BUSA TELUR PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA [Production of Dried Yoghurt Starter Using Foam-Mat Drying Method: Effect of Egg White Foam Addition on Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elok Zubaedah1


    Full Text Available Yoghurt starter is usually prepared, preserved, and sold in liquid form which required special treatment. Drying is an alternative process to provide starter culture. Problem in using drying method is longer time so that the viability cell culture is low. In this experiment foam-mat drying method was used to produce dried starter culture. Addition of egg white to the starter media is expected to shorten the drying time, so and improve the viability of cell culture. This research used of randomised bock design and using addition of egg white foam as a treatment. The treatment consisted of 6 level with concentration of white egg of 0,510,15,20 and 25% and vacuum dried at 50C. The result showed that the best treatment was yoghurt starter prepared with addition of 15 % egg white foam, based on the parameters as follow : Total Lactic Acid Bacteria : 1,5 105 cfu/g, Total Lactobacillus 1,5. 104 cfu/g, total yeast and mold : 1.6 104 cfu/g, drying time 3,16 hr, pH 4,5 total acidity 0,82%.

  8. Comparison of the changes of the antigenicities of a hen's egg albumin by a gamma and an electron beam irradiation (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Soo-Young; Byun, Myung-Woo


    The study was conducted to compare the radiation types of a gamma ray and an electron beam for the inhibition and reduction of a food allergy. OVA (2 mg/ml) were irradiated at 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Patterns detected by the SDS-PAGE and an immunoblot showed that the intact OVA band disappeared and that it was dependant upon the radiation doses regardless of the radiation types. Binding abilities of the irradiated OVA against the monoclonal IgG and the egg allergic patients' IgE decreased due to a conformational change of the epitope, but differences from using the two different radiation types were not observed. The results indicate that both the radiation types can be used for an inhibition and a reduction of a food allergy regardless of the radiation types.

  9. Satiating effect of proteins in healthy subjects: a comparison of egg albumin, casein, gelatin, soy protein, pea protein, and wheat gluten. (United States)

    Lang, V; Bellisle, F; Oppert, J M; Craplet, C; Bornet, F R; Slama, G; Guy-Grand, B


    The influence of six dietary protein types (egg albumin, casein, gelatin, soy protein, pea protein, and wheat gluten) on satiety and food intake was investigated. Twelve healthy subjects ingested six protein-manipulated lunches (approximately 5.2 MJ, 22% of energy as protein) according to a within-subjects design. Test meals were controlled for energy, macronutrients, fiber, and palatability. Nearly 65% of total protein varied between sessions. After lunch, satiety was assessed for 8 h and energy and macronutrients intakes were measured for 24 h. Blood was collected for determination of postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses. Results showed no effect of the type of protein on satiety, on 24-h energy or macronutrient intakes, or on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. These findings differ in part from those obtained previously in humans, which suggested that proteins may be differentiated in terms of their satiating capacities. We conclude that varying the protein source in a mixed meal does not affect food behavior in healthy humans, probably because coingestion of carbohydrate and fat with protein buffers the kinetics of the physiologic mechanisms implicated in postprandial satiety after a protein load.

  10. The effect of egg albumin on the crystalline properties of carbamazepine in sustained release hydrophilic matrix tablets and in aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Katzhendler, I; Azoury, R; Friedman, M


    The influence of egg albumin (EA) on the crystal habit properties of carbamazepine (CBZ) in aqueous solutions, solid-state, and in sustained release matrix tablets was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot-stage microscopy (HSM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle goniometer (CAG). The results suggest that in solid-state mixtures, EA affected the polymorphic transitions of CBZ from the beta to the alpha form. In hydrated matrix tablets and aqueous solutions, EA influenced the conversion rate of CBZ to the dihydrate form depending on EA concentration. It was found that increasing EA concentration enhanced CBZ dihydrate aggregation, an effect that leads to the formation of crystals with high mechanical strength and decrease of CBZ solubility. Possible mechanisms, which explain crystal growth and aggregation, as well as alteration of CBZ polymorphic transitions in the solid-state, gel layer, and in aqueous solution were suggested. In the gel layer of hydrated tablets the kinetics of CBZ transformation to the dihydrate form, crystal growth and aggregation were influenced by various processes: matrix hydration, erosion mechanism and the formation of metastable conditions, which favor aggregation and growth. The release kinetics of CBZ from the matrix highly correlated with the crystalline and morphological changes occurring in the matrix.

  11. Membran Spermatozoa Hasil Seksing Gradien Albumin Berpengencer Andromed dan Cauda Epididymal Plasma-2 Ditambahkan Kuning Telur (MEMBRANE OF SPERM FOLLOWING GRADIENT ALBUMIN SEXING USING ANDROMED AND CEP-2 SUPPLEMENTED WITH EGG YOLK)


    Rita Fitria Purwoistri; Trinil Susilawati; Sri Rahayu


    The objective of this study was to determine sperm membrane stability after sexing with gradientalbumin (egg white) using andromed and CEP-2 supplemented with 10% egg yolk. The observations ofsperm membrane included membrane integrity, uncapacitated, capacitated  and acrosome reacted. Albumingradient was made by mixing egg white with andromed or CEP-2 supplemented with 10% egg yolk resultingin a concentration of egg whites 10%, 30% and 50%. Membrane integrity was observed using HOST(Hypoosmot...

  12. Membran Spermatozoa Hasil Seksing Gradien Albumin Berpengencer Andromed dan Cauda Epididymal Plasma-2 Ditambahkan Kuning Telur (MEMBRANE OF SPERM FOLLOWING GRADIENT ALBUMIN SEXING USING ANDROMED AND CEP-2 SUPPLEMENTED WITH EGG YOLK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Fitria Purwoistri


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine sperm membrane stability after sexing with gradientalbumin (egg white using andromed and CEP-2 supplemented with 10% egg yolk. The observations ofsperm membrane included membrane integrity, uncapacitated, capacitated  and acrosome reacted. Albumingradient was made by mixing egg white with andromed or CEP-2 supplemented with 10% egg yolk resultingin a concentration of egg whites 10%, 30% and 50%. Membrane integrity was observed using HOST(Hypoosmotic Swelling Test, while uncapacitated, capacitated and acrosome reacted sperm  were observedusing CTC (Chlortetracycline staining. The results showed that both andromed and CEP-2 supplementedwith 10% egg yolk could protect membrane integrity, uncapacitated, capacitated and acrosome reactedsperm. Andromed and CEP-2 supplement with 10% egg yolk could reduce the demage of membrane integrityand uncapacitated sperm, whereas capacitated and acrosome reacted sperm could be kept low.

  13. The effects of Alcea rosea L., Malva sylvestris L. and Salvia libanotica L. water extracts on the production of anti-egg albumin antibodies, interleukin-4, gamma interferon and interleukin-12 in BALB/c mice. (United States)

    El Ghaoui, Walid Bou Jaber; Ghanem, Elsa Bou; Chedid, Lara Abou; Abdelnoor, Alexander M


    Polysaccharides obtained from certain plants have been reported to have immunomodulatory properties. As a consequence of these reports the aim of this study was to investigate some immunomodulatory properties of water extracts of Alcea rosea L. (ARE), Malva sylvestris L. (MSE) and Salvia libanotica L. (SLE).Groups of egg albumin (EA)-immunized and -non-immunized Balb/c mice were treated with the carbohydrate-rich water extracts. Mice from each group were bled and their spleens removed at 3, 6 and 10 days post-immunization/treatment. Anti-egg albumin antibody levels in the processed sera were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RNA was extracted from spleen cells and interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and gamma-interferon transcripts were determined by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).ARE appeared to boost the antibody response to EA, but had no effect on IL-4 and gamma-interferon gene transcription. MSE and SLE appeared to have no effect on anti-EA antibody production, but enhanced IL-12 and gamma-interferon gene transcription. MSE appeared to switch off, and SLE had no effect on, IL-4 transcription.In conclusion, it appears that ARE is a B-lymphocyte polyclonal activator, and MSE and SLE are macrophage and T helper-1 (Th-1) activators. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Foam Dispenser (United States)


    William G. Simpson, a NASA/Marshall employee, invented and patented a foam mixing dispensing device. He is supplying his Simpson mixer to a number of foam applications where it is used to apply foam for insulation purposes.

  15. Vacuum Foam Drying: An Alternative to Lyophilization for Biomolecule Preservation


    R D Jangle; S S Pisal


    Vacuum foam drying is evaluated as an alternative for lyophilization for enhanced process and storage stability of bovine serum albumin. The protein protective efficiency of different stabilizers was compared in vacuum foam drying and lyophilization. Sucrose mixtures produced better foam characters than mannitol. Unlike calcium lactate, incorporation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone to sucrose synergistically enhanced the recovery of bovine serum albumin. The conformational stability and bovine serum...

  16. Egg structural characteristics of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus)


    Faris A. Al-Obaidi; Shahrazad M. Al-Shadeedi


    This study was carried out to determine egg morphology characteristics and component of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus) in Iraq. Freshly Pygmy Cormorant eggs without developed embryo were collected from Al- Tarmiya lakes north of Baghdad city to determined egg morphology characteristics including egg shape dimensions: weight, volume, specific gravity, shell, yolk, albumin weight as well as percentage of shell, yolk and albumin. Result...

  17. Foam-mat drying technology: A review. (United States)

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A


    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods, and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method that allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40-90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25-2%), egg white (3-20%), maltodextrin (0.5-05%), and gum Arabic (2-9%) are the commonly utilized additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous, and sticky products that cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying, and improved product quality it provides.

  18. The influence of isobuthyl methylxhantine (IMX and separation time on viability of spermatozoa and effectiveness of separation using egg albumin column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G Sianturi


    Full Text Available Supplementation of 3-isobuthyl-1-1-methylxanthine (IMX, as a cAMP inhibitor phosphodiesterase and could raise sperm motility, is expected to optimize the X and Y sperm separation. The purpose of this research was to observe the effect of IMX supplementation and separation time on the quality of separated sperm and the effectiveness of the method of sperm separation. Completely randomized design with 2 x 2 factorial was used in this research. The first factor was IMX (0.0 and 0.5 mM while the second factor was separation time (10 and 30 minutes. The parameters observed were sperm concentration, the percentages of sperm motility, live sperm, sperm with intact apical ridge and the ratio of spermatozoa X and Y which measured by morfometric of head sperm square. IMX supplementation did not affect sperm concentration both on 10 or 30 minutes. The 30-minute separation time significantly reduced sperm motility in upper fraction while the addition of IMX significantly reduced sperm motility in lower fraction. There were no significant differences on the percentage of live sperm and sperm with intact apical ridge in every treatment even in upper or lower fraction. The albumin column sperm separation in this research changed the ratio of X and Y spermatozoa from 49.7% : 50.3% (fresh semen to 65.1-84.0% : 16.0-34.9% in upper fraction; and to 24.0- 30.0% : 70.0-75.9% in lower fraction. The addition of IMX increased significantly X spermatozoa percentage (65.1 to 84.0% and reduced significant Y-spermatozoa percentage (34.9% to 16.0% in upper fraction. There was no significant differences on the ratio of X and Y spermatozoa between 10 and 30-minute of separation time treatment. In conclusion, the albumin column separation technique can be used to separate X and Y spermatozoa with the duration of 10 to 30 minutes separation time and did not severely affect the quality of separated sperm. The presence of IMX in separation media has no effect on the sperm

  19. Comparison of the changes of the antigenicities of a hen's egg albumin by a gamma and an electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Department of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ji-Hyun [Department of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Department of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Department of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail:


    The study was conducted to compare the radiation types of a gamma ray and an electron beam for the inhibition and reduction of a food allergy. OVA (2 mg/ml) were irradiated at 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Patterns detected by the SDS-PAGE and an immunoblot showed that the intact OVA band disappeared and that it was dependant upon the radiation doses regardless of the radiation types. Binding abilities of the irradiated OVA against the monoclonal IgG and the egg allergic patients' IgE decreased due to a conformational change of the epitope, but differences from using the two different radiation types were not observed. The results indicate that both the radiation types can be used for an inhibition and a reduction of a food allergy regardless of the radiation types.

  20. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs. (United States)

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z


    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  1. Developing an objective function to characterize the tradeoffs in salting out and the foam and droplet fractionation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry J.


    Full Text Available There are many methods for separating and purifying proteins from dilute solutions, such as salting out/precipitation, adsorption/chromatography, foam fractionation, and droplet fractionation. In order to determine the optimal condition for a selected separation and purification process, an objective function is developed. The objective function consists of three parameters, which are the protein mass recovery, the separation ratio, and the enzymatic activity ratio. In this paper the objective function is determined as a function of the pH of the bulk solution for egg albumin, cellulase, and sporamin (for foam fractionation and invertase ( for droplet fractionation. It is found that the optimal pH for all the systems except for cellulase is near their isoelectric point.

  2. Role of foam drainage in producing protein aggregates in foam fractionation. (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Yuran; Chang, Yunkang; Wu, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yanji; Chen, Xiang'e; Wang, Tao


    It is essential to obtain a clear understanding of the foam-induced protein aggregation to reduce the loss of protein functionality in foam fractionation. The major effort of this work is to explore the roles of foam drainage in protein aggregation in the entire process of foam fractionation with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. The results show that enhancing foam drainage increased the desorption of BSA molecules from the gas-liquid interface and the local concentration of desorbed molecules in foam. Therefore, it intensified the aggregation of BSA in foam fractionation. Simultaneously, it also accelerated the flow of BSA aggregates from rising foam into the residual solution along with the drained liquid. Because enhancing foam drainage increased the relative content of BSA molecules adsorbed at the gas-liquid interface, it also intensified the aggregation of BSA during both the defoaming process and the storage of the foamate. Furthermore, enhancing foam drainage more readily resulted in the formation of insoluble BSA aggregates. The results are highly important for a better understanding of foam-induced protein aggregation in foam fractionation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physico-chemical analysis of eggs of native fowl, duck and goose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 135 eggs (50 chicken, 50 duck and 35 goose eggs) were collected from farmers' doors from adjoining rural areas of Bhubaneswar for egg quality traits and chemical analysis. The mean values of quality traits of egg weight, volume, albumin weight, yolk weight, shell weight, shell thickness, shape index, albumin ...

  4. Formation and Stability of Foams Made with Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.


    Foam properties of a sunflower isolate (SI), as well as those of helianthinin and sunflower albumins (SFAs), were studied at various pH values and ionic strengths and after heat treatment. Less foam could be formed from helianthinin than from SFAs, but foam prepared with helianthinin was more stable

  5. Positive and negative impacts of specialty malts on beer foam: a comparison of various cereal products for their foaming properties. (United States)

    Combe, Alexander L; Ang, Justin K; Bamforth, Charles W


    The foam stability of beer is dependent on the presence of foam-stabilizing polypeptides derived from the cereals from which it is made. It has long been argued that there is a tendency to boost the foam-stabilizing capabilities of these polypeptides at the heating stages involved in the production of the grist materials. The present study started with the intent to confirm whether these changes occurred and to assess the extent to which different cereal products differed in their foam-stabilizing tendencies. Cereal products differ enormously in their foam-stabilizing capabilities. Heavily roasted grains, notably black malt and roast barley, do have superior foaming properties. However, certain specialty malts, notably crystal malts, display inferior foam performance. The observed foaming pattern is a balance between their content of foam-positive and foam-negative components. Products such as pale malt do contain foam-negative materials but have a net balance in favour of foam-stabilizing entities. By contrast, wheat malt and especially black malt have a heavy preponderance of foam-positive components. Crystal malt displays the converse behaviour: it contains low-molecular-weight foam-negative species. Several of the cereal products appear to contain higher-molecular-weight foam inhibitors, but it appears that they are merely species that are of inherently inferior foam-stabilizing capability to the foaming polypeptides from egg white that were employed to probe the system. The foam-damaging species derived from crystal malt carried through to beers brewed from them. Intense heating in the production of cereal products does lead to enhanced foam performance in extracts of those products. However, not all speciality malts display superior foam performance, through their development of foam-negative species of lower molecular weight. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity. (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk


    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Foam patterns (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis


    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  8. Forming foam structures with carbon foam substrates (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Coronado, Paul R.; Baumann, Theodore F.


    The invention provides foams of desired cell sizes formed from metal or ceramic materials that coat the surfaces of carbon foams which are subsequently removed. For example, metal is located over a sol-gel foam monolith. The metal is melted to produce a metal/sol-gel composition. The sol-gel foam monolith is removed, leaving a metal foam.

  9. Foam Microrheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The microrheology of liquid foams is discussed for two different regimes: static equilibrium where the capillary number Ca is zero, and the viscous regime where viscosity and surface tension are important and Ca is finite. The Surface Evolver is used to calculate the equilibrium structure of wet Kelvin foams and dry soap froths with random structure, i.e., topological disorder. The distributions of polyhedra and faces are compared with the experimental data of Matzke. Simple shearing flow of a random foam under quasistatic conditions is also described. Viscous phenomena are explored in the context of uniform expansion of 2D and 3D foams at low Reynolds number. Boundary integral methods are used to calculate the influence of Ca on the evolution of foam microstructure, which includes bubble shape and the distribution of liquid between films, Plateau borders, and (in 3D) the nodes where Plateau borders meet. The micromechanical point of view guides the development of structure-property-processing relationships for foams.

  10. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio (United States)

    ... Microalbuminuria" is slowly being replaced with the term "albuminuria," which refers to any elevation of albumin in ... detectable small amounts of albumin in their urine (albuminuria) have an increased risk of developing progressive kidney ...

  11. Temper Foam (United States)


    Fabricated by Expanded Rubber & Plastics Corporation, Temper Foam provides better impact protection for airplane passengers and enhances passenger comfort on long flights because it distributes body weight and pressure evenly over the entire contact area. Called a "memory foam" it matches the contour of the body pressing against it and returns to its original shape once the pressure is removed. As a shock absorber, a three-inch foam pad has the ability to absorb the impact of a 10-foot fall by an adult. Applications include seat cushioning for transportation vehicles, padding for furniture and a variety of athletic equipment medical applications including wheelchair padding, artificial limb socket lining, finger splint and hand padding for burn patients, special mattresses for the bedridden and dental stools. Production and sales rights are owned by Temper Foam, Inc. Material is manufactured under license by the Dewey and Almy Division of Grace Chemical Corporation. Distributors of the product are Kees Goebel Medical Specialties, Inc. and Alimed, Inc. They sell Temper Foam in bulk to the fabricators who trim it to shapes required by their customers.

  12. Release of proteins via ion exchange from albumin-heparin microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Cremers, H.F.M.; Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan


    Albumin-heparin and albumin microspheres were prepared as ion exchange gels for the controlled release of positively charged polypeptides and proteins. The adsorption isotherms of chicken egg and human lysozyme, as model proteins, on microspheres were obtained. An adsorption isotherm of chicken egg

  13. Albumin-stabilized fluorescent silver nanodots (United States)

    Sych, Tomash; Polyanichko, Alexander; Kononov, Alexei


    Ligand-stabilized Ag nanoclusters (NCs) possess many attractive features including high fluorescence quantum yield, large absorption cross-section, good photostability, large Stokes shift and two-photon absorption cross sections. While plenty of fluorescent clusters have been synthesized on various polymer templates, only a few studies have been reported on the fluorescent Ag clusters on peptides and proteins. We study silver NCs synthesized on different protein matrices, including bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, egg albumin, equine serum albumin, and lysozyme. Our results show that red-emitting Ag NCs can effectively be stabilized by the disulfide bonds in proteins and that the looser structure of the denatured protein favors formation of the clusters.

  14. Release of proteins via ion exchange from albumin-heparin microspheres


    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Cremers, H.F.M.; Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan


    Albumin-heparin and albumin microspheres were prepared as ion exchange gels for the controlled release of positively charged polypeptides and proteins. The adsorption isotherms of chicken egg and human lysozyme, as model proteins, on microspheres were obtained. An adsorption isotherm of chicken egg lysozyme on albumin-heparin microspheres was linear until saturation was abruptly reached, The adsorption isotherms of human lysozyme at low and high ionic strength were typical of adsorption isoth...

  15. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Loi Tu


    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16 % higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  16. Mathematical modeling of the foam-mat drying curves of guava pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M. G. Maciel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In foam-mat drying, the liquid food is foamed by the addition of a foaming agent, for example, albumin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adjustment of mathematical models to foam mat drying curves of guava pulp. The fits were evaluated using samples with 4 and 8% albumin (m m-1 and drying temperatures of 75, 80 and 85 °C. The samples were placed on aluminum trays. Drying was carried out in a tray dryer. The Lewis, Page, Midilli and Logarithmic models were fitted to the experimental data and evaluated based on the coefficient of determination (R2, root-mean-square error (RMSE and chi-square test. All models fitted well to experimental data and Midilli was the best. Albumin concentration and temperature influenced the drying rate; the lowest drying times occurred for the highest albumin concentration and highest drying temperature.

  17. Infiltrated carbon foam composites (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)


    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  18. Egg Allergy (United States)

    ... the most options. That's where you'll find vegan foods that are made without eggs or egg products. When preparing your own food, you can substitute one of these egg alternatives in your recipes. Each of these replaces one egg (these substitutes ...

  19. Drainage and Stratification Kinetics of Foam Films (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek


    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Foam lifetime, drainage kinetics and stability are strongly influenced by surfactant type (ionic vs non-ionic), and added proteins, particles or polymers modify typical responses. The rate at which fluid drains out from a foam film, i.e. drainage kinetics, is determined in the last stages primarily by molecular interactions and capillarity. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, colloids and polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures, a layered ordering of molecules, micelles or particles inside the foam films leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. Though stratification is observed in many confined systems including foam films containing particles or polyelectrolytes, films containing globular proteins seem not to show this behavior. Using a Scheludko-type cell, we experimentally study the drainage and stratification kinetics of horizontal foam films formed by protein-surfactant mixtures, and carefully determine how the presence of proteins influences the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of foam films.

  20. Albumin nanostructures as advanced drug delivery systems. (United States)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Ravari, Soodeh Baghaee; Zangabad, Parham Sahandi; Mirshekari, Hamed; Bozorgomid, Mahnaz; Shahreza, Somayeh; Sori, Masume; Hamblin, Michael R


    One of the biggest impacts that the nanotechnology has made on medicine and biology, has been in the area of drug delivery systems (DDSs). Many drugs suffer from serious problems concerning insolubility, instability in biological environments, poor uptake into cells and tissues, sub-optimal selectivity for targets and unwanted side effects. Nanocarriers can be designed as DDSs to overcome many of these drawbacks. One of the most versatile building blocks to prepare these nanocarriers is the ubiquitous, readily available and inexpensive protein, serum albumin. Areas covered: This review covers the use of different types of albumin (human, bovine, rat, and chicken egg) to prepare nanoparticle and microparticle-based structures to bind drugs. Various methods have been used to modify the albumin structure. A range of targeting ligands can be attached to the albumin that can be recognized by specific cell receptors that are expressed on target cells or tissues. Expert opinion: The particular advantages of albumin used in DDSs include ready availability, ease of chemical modification, good biocompatibility, and low immunogenicity. The regulatory approvals that have been received for several albumin-based therapeutic agents suggest that this approach will continue to be successfully explored.

  1. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio (United States)

    ... Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Toxoplasmosis Testing Trace Minerals Transferrin and Iron-binding Capacity ( ... Blood in Urine (Hematuria) Bone Marrow Disorders Breast Cancer Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Celiac Disease Cervical Cancer Chronic ...

  2. Responsive aqueous foams. (United States)

    Fameau, Anne-Laure; Carl, Adrian; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; von Klitzing, Regine


    Remarkable properties have emerged recently for aqueous foams, including ultrastability and responsiveness. Responsive aqueous foams refer to foams for which the stability can be switched between stable and unstable states with a change in environment or with external stimuli. Responsive foams have been obtained from various foam stabilizers, such as surfactants, proteins, polymers, and particles, and with various stimuli. Different strategies have been developed to design this type of soft material. We briefly review the two main approaches used to obtain responsive foams. The first approach is based on the responsiveness of the interfacial layer surrounding the gas bubbles, which leads to responsive foams. The second approach is based on modifications that occur in the aqueous phase inside the foam liquid channels to tune the foam stability. We will highlight the most sophisticated approaches, which use light, temperature, and magnetic fields and lead to switchable foam stability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Study of the albumin addition and drying temperature on the characteristics of tomato pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Victória de Barros Fernandes


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the addition of foaming agent and drying temperature on the powders characteristics produced using tomato pulp. The influence of the treatments on the pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, tapped density, solubility and hygroscopicity of the powders produced at drying temperatures of 60ºC and 80 ºC, with addition of albumin and with no albumin were evaluated. Higher values of acidity and lower values of pH were observed for the treatments added with albumin in both temperatures were verified. The ascorbic acid content in the pulp was significant (p<0.05 decreased with the increasing oh the drying temperature compared to the pulp in natura. The application of albumin also contributes to a decrease in the ascorbic acid content. By the other hand, the albumin addition, with consequent foaming formation in the tomato pulp, favored the production of powder materials with lower density when compared to the control treatments without albumin. The presence of albumin also caused a significant reduction (p<0.05 in the powder materials hygroscopicity. The powders solubility was increased with addition of the foaming agent where significant difference (p<0.05 among the treatments with and without albumin in both temperatures were observed.

  4. Egg Allergy (United States)

    ... oil and 1 teaspoon (5 milliliters) of baking powder for each egg. When you're cutting out eggs, you'll want to make sure you're still getting protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, ...

  5. Preparation, characterization and in vitro thrombolytic activity of a novel streptokinase foam. (United States)

    Farret, Abdo N; Azevedo, Eduardo P; Raffin, Fernanda N


    Vascular thrombosis is a potentially fatal disease. Thrombolysis represents an efficient therapeutic option, although it still presents intrinsic bleeding risks. In order to minimize this problem, intra-thrombus injections, alone or associated with some kind of mechanical thrombectomy, have been used. In this work, a new approach to thrombolysis is presented, where the preparation, characterization and in vitro thrombolytic activity of a novel streptokinase foam are reported. Foams were prepared by mixing albumin solution with CO2 at different volume ratios. Foam stability and apparent viscosity were the parameters used to characterize the foams. The volume ratio between CO2 and albumin solution that yielded the samples with the best properties was used to prepare the thrombolytic foams, where streptokinase was used as the thrombolytic agent. The thrombolytic effect of this foam was assessed in vitro by delivering it intra-thrombus and the results were compared with those of the foam without streptokinase as well as those of a regular streptokinase solution. Both foam stability and viscosity increased as the ratio of CO2:albumin solution increased and the 3:1 ratio was used to incorporate streptokinase. The in vitro thrombolytic activity study revealed that the streptokinase foam caused a 46.6 % of thrombus lysis after 30 min of experiment against 21 and 31 % of those of the foam without streptokinase and the regular streptokinase liquid solution, respectively. Thus, the use of CO2:albumin foam enhanced the in vitro thrombolytic effect of streptokinase, which indicates its potential as a novel vehicle for carrying and delivering streptokinase to targeted thrombi.

  6. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J


    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  7. Foams theory, measurements, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Saad A


    This volume discusses the physics and physical processes of foam and foaming. It delineates various measurement techniques for characterizing foams and foam properties as well as the chemistry and application of foams. The use of foams in the textile industry, personal care products, enhanced oil recovery, firefighting and mineral floatation are highlighted, and the connection between the microstructure and physical properties of foam are detailed. Coverage includes nonaqueous foams and silicone antifoams, and more.

  8. Avian Egg and Egg Coat. (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki


    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  9. Polyurethane-Foam Maskant (United States)

    Bodemeijer, R.


    Brown wax previously used to mask hardware replaced with polyurethane foam in electroplating and electroforming operations. Foam easier to apply and remove than wax and does not contaminate electrolytes.

  10. Foamed plastics in construction


    Zinovieva E.; Glotova Yu.


    The advantages of foamed plastics are low density and thermal conductivity, high moisture permeability and water resistance. The main drawback – flammability. Applications of foamed plastics in building systems determined by these parameters properties.

  11. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.


    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  12. Viscoelastic foam cushion (United States)

    Kubokawa, C. C.; Yost, C.


    Foam is viscous and elastic with unusual and useful temperature, humidity, and compression responses. Applied weight and pressure distributed equally along entire interface with foam eliminates any pressure points. Flexible urethane foam is ideal for orthopedic and prosthetic devices, sports equipment, furniture, and crash protection.

  13. Thermoforming of foam sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Remko; Pronk, Ruud M.


    Thermoforming is a widely used process for the manufacture of foam sheet products. Polystyrene foam food trays for instance can be produced by first heating the thermoplastic foam sheet, causing the gas contained to build up pressure and expand, after which a vacuum pressure can be applied to draw

  14. Foam engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server


    Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research. The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams. The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.

  15. Shooting in a foam. (United States)

    Le Goff, Anne; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe


    We study the motion of a solid sphere after its fast impact on a bath of liquid foam. We identify two regimes of deceleration. At short times, the velocity is still large and the foam behaves similar to a Newtonian fluid of constant viscosity. Then we measure a velocity threshold below which the sphere starts experiencing the foam's elasticity. We interpret this behavior using a visco-elasto-plastic model for foam rheology. Finally we discuss the possibility of stopping a projectile in the foam, and evaluate the capture efficiency.

  16. Analysis of Effective Interconnectivity of DegraPol-foams Designed for Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Hall


    Full Text Available Many wounds heal slowly and are difficult to manage. Therefore Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT was developed where polymer foams are applied and a defined negative pressure removes wound fluid, reduces bacterial burden and increases the formation of granulation tissue. Although NPWT is used successfully, its mechanisms are not well understood. In particular, different NPWT dressings were never compared. Here a poly-ester urethane Degrapol® (DP-foam was produced and compared with commercially available dressings (polyurethane-based and polyvinyl-alcohol-based in terms of apparent pore sizes, swelling and effective interconnectivity of foam pores. DP-foams contain relatively small interconnected pores; PU-foams showed large pore size and interconnectivity; whereas PVA-foams displayed heterogeneous and poorly interconnected pores. PVA-foams swelled by 40 %, whereas DP- and PU-foams remained almost without swelling. Effective interconnectivity was investigated by submitting fluorescent beads of 3, 20 and 45 mm diameter through the foams. DP- and PU-foams removed 70-90 % of all beads within 4 h, independent of the bead diameter or bead pre-adsorption with serum albumin. For PVA-foams albumin pre-adsorbed beads circulated longer, where 20 % of 3 mm and 10 % of 20 mm diameter beads circulated after 96 h. The studies indicate that efficient bead perfusion does not only depend on pore size and swelling capacity, but effective interconnectivity might also depend on chemical composition of the foam itself. In addition due to the efficient sieve-effect of the foams uptake of wound components in vivo might occur only for short time suggesting other mechanisms being decisive for success of NPWT.

  17. Foam plastics for mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demenkova, K.M.; Belyaeva, L.S.; Shamardina, I.A.; Solonitsyn, E.M. (VNIIGD (USSR))


    Evaluates properties and use of foam plastics in underground coal mines. Use of foam plastics for construction of ventilation barriers and filling voids between liners and roadway walls is discussed. Standard foam plastics used in the USSR, foam plastics developed and tested by the VNIIGD research institute and other foam plastics recommended for use in coal mines are comparatively evaluated. Plastics on a carbamide formaldehyde basis, effects of modifying additives (phenol formaldehyde resins, the GKZh-10 and GKZh-94 silicon compounds, sodium silicates and dibutyl phthalate). Compression strength of the foam plastics modified by the evaluated additives ranges from 0.2 to 0.7 MPa, mass from 75 to 130 kg/m{sup 3}. Types of sodium carbonate compounds used for foam generation are discussed.

  18. Foam process models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, Harry K.; Noble, David R.; Baer, Thomas A. (Procter & Gamble Co., West Chester, OH); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Mondy, Lisa Ann


    In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level foam processing computational model suitable for predicting the self-expansion of foam in complex geometries. The model is based on a finite element representation of the equations of motion, with the movement of the free surface represented using the level set method, and has been implemented in SIERRA/ARIA. An empirically based time- and temperature-dependent density model is used to encapsulate the complex physics of foam nucleation and growth in a numerically tractable model. The change in density with time is at the heart of the foam self-expansion as it creates the motion of the foam. This continuum-level model uses an homogenized description of foam, which does not include the gas explicitly. Results from the model are compared to temperature-instrumented flow visualization experiments giving the location of the foam front as a function of time for our EFAR model system.

  19. Effect of moderate spray drying conditions on functionality of dried egg white and whole egg. (United States)

    Ayadi, M A; Khemakhem, M; Belgith, H; Attia, H


    Dried egg and egg-derived proteins have a range of applications in baking, dressings, and confectionery products. Egg powder was produced under high time-temperature scales (approximately 160 degrees C), which led to many changes in egg components, resulting in different functional properties of eggs after reconstitution. In this study, moderate operating conditions were selected to dry egg white and whole egg using a pilot-scale spray dryer. Functional properties changes were evaluated with an appropriate statistical technique. Major finding supports that spray drying of egg white at moderate conditions (air inlet temperature ranged from 110 to 125 degrees C) resulted in a product that enhanced considerably the water holding capacity of produced gels. Moreover, gel prepared with the dried samples was firmer than that of the fresh samples. Drying at a moderate scale allowed not only the increasing of the foaming capacity and the stability of foam but also an increase in their emulsifying capacity and stability of the emulsions.

  20. Effects of egg washing and storage temperature on the quality of eggshell cuticle and eggs. (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Wu, Ying-Chen; Lee, Yi-Chain; Tan, Fa-Jui


    This study investigated the quality of washed and unwashed eggs stored at 7°C (WC and UC for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) and 25°C (WR and UR for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) for 4weeks. The results show that the Haugh unit, albumin pH, thick albumin ratio, yolk index, air cell size, and S-ovalbumin content of UC were significantly the most superior, followed by those of WC, WR, and UR, in that order. Scanning electron microscopy and cuticle staining confirmed the damages and decreased cuticle coverage caused by washing and extended storage. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that cuticle composition changed significantly after washing and storage (Pegg quality, and egg washing reduced cuticle coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini


    hour later. The antifoam potential was defined using two parameters: foaming tendency and foam stability. Foaming tendency (mL-foam/(mL-air·min)) was calculated from the volume of foam (mL) right after aeration divided by air flow rate (mL/min). Foam stability was determined as percentage of foam...... from a foaming reactor, was aerated in the cylinder with an air flow rate of 60 mL/min for 10 minutes. After that, the aeration was repeated adding different concentrations of antifoam solutions in the sample. The foam height in the cylinder was measured as soon as the aeration was stopped and again 1...

  2. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  3. Rheology of Protein Foams


    Lexis, Meike


    Foams with gas volume fractions f>fc possess peculiar rheological properties, a minimum stress called yield stress is needed to initiate foam flow and below foams behave as viscoelastic solids with a storage modulus G'>G''. Beyond the widely accepted physical models predicting elastic modulus and yield stress from the Laplace pressure within the gas bubbles and the gas volume fraction these quantities strongly depend on corresponding interfacial properties.

  4. Shape memory polymer foams (United States)

    Santo, Loredana


    Recent advances in shape memory polymer (SMP) foam research are reviewed. The SMPs belong to a new class of smart polymers which can have interesting applications in microelectromechanical systems, actuators and biomedical devices. They can respond to specific external stimulus changing their configuration and then remember the original shape. In the form of foams, the shape memory behaviour can be enhanced because they generally have higher compressibility. Considering also the low weight, and recovery force, the SMP foams are expected to have great potential applications primarily in aerospace. This review highlights the recent progress in characterization, evaluation, and proposed applications of SMP foams mainly for aerospace applications.

  5. [Allergy to egg proteins in children]. (United States)

    Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Cobos, Armando; Montiel-Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pantoja-Minguela, Cinthya Lorena; Pineda-Maldonado, Mario Luis; Piñeyro-Beltrán, Eduardo Enrique


    Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1), ovoalbumin (Gal d2), ovotransferrin (Gal d3), lysozyme (Gal d4) and albumin (Gal d5). Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  6. Drying TIME Estimation of Carrageenan-egg White Mixture at Tray Dryer


    Djaeni, Mohamad; Prasetyaningrum, Aji; Asiah, Nurul; Hartono, Ratnawati


    The drying is the last step to find carrageenan product. Currently, the carrageenan drying still deals with too long drying time. This because, during the process carrageenan and water forms gel stucture in which hampers the water diffusion to the surface. Foaming agent introduction such as egg white can be considered to break the gel structure and make the drying process being smooth and fast. This paper discusses the effect of egg white as foaming agent on the drying time of carrageenan. In...

  7. Foam Glass for Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund


    Foaming is commonly achieved by adding foaming agents such as metal oxides or metal carbonates to glass powder. At elevated temperature, the glass melt becomes viscous and the foaming agents decompose or react to form gas, causing a foamy glass melt. Subsequent cooling to room temperature, result...... in a solid foam glass. The foam glass industry employs a range of different melt precursors and foaming agents. Recycle glass is key melt precursors. Many parameters influence the foaming process and optimising the foaming conditions is very time consuming. The most challenging and attractive goal is to make...... low density foam glass for thermal insulation applications. In this thesis, it is argued that the use of metal carbonates as foaming agents is not suitable for low density foam glass. A reaction mechanism is proposed to justify this result. Furthermore, an in situ method is developed to optimise...

  8. Beer foam physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.D.


    The physical aspects of beer foam behavior were studied in terms of the four physical processes, mainly involved in the formation and breakdown of foam. These processes are, bubble formation, drainage, disproportionation and coalescence. In detail, the processes disproportionation and

  9. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina


    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  10. In an Egg Shell: Egg to Chick to Egg. (United States)

    Lyon Electric Company, Chula Vista, CA.

    The goals of this program include enabling students to learn about the anatomy of an avian egg, egg formation, bird embryo development, and the process of egg incubation. This guide is designed to accompany the hands-on experience of incubation and hatching chicken eggs and is organized in three sections. The teaching materials section includes…

  11. Use of co-precipitates of Brachystegia Eurycoma gum and egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    precipitates of Brachystegia gum and egg albumin as binder, and testing the stability of the metronidazole tablets with regard to moisture uptake and also the effect of moisture sorption on disintegration and dissolution profiles of the tablets.

  12. Oviduct modifications in foam-nesting frogs, with emphasis on the genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae) (United States)

    Furness, Andrew I.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Heyer, W. Ronald; Zug, George R.


    Various species of frogs produce foam nests that hold their eggs during development. We examined the external morphology and histology of structures associated with foam nest production in frogs of the genus Leptodactylus and a few other taxa. We found that the posterior convolutions of the oviducts in all mature female foam-nesting frogs that we examined were enlarged and compressed into globular structures. This organ-like portion of the oviduct has been called a "foam gland" and these structures almost certainly produce the secretion that is beaten by rhythmic limb movements into foam that forms the nest. However, the label "foam gland" is a misnomer because the structures are simply enlarged and tightly folded regions of the pars convoluta of the oviduct, rather than a separate structure; we suggest the name pars convoluta dilata (PCD) for this feature. Although all the foam-nesters we examined had a pars convoluta dilata, its size and shape showed considerable interspecific variation. Some of this variation likely reflects differences in the breeding behaviors among species and in the size, type, and placement of their foam nests. Other variation, particularly in size, may be associated with the physiological periodicity and reproductive state of the female, her age, and/or the number of times she has laid eggs.

  13. Rheology of aqueous foams (United States)

    Dollet, Benjamin; Raufaste, Christophe


    Aqueous foams are suspensions of bubbles inside aqueous phases. Their multiphasic composition leads to a complex rheological behavior that is useful in numerous applications, from oil recovery to food/cosmetic processing. Their structure is very similar to the one of emulsions, so that both materials share common mechanical properties. In particular, the presence of surfactants at the gas-liquid interfaces leads to peculiar interfacial and dissipative properties. Foam rheology has been an active research topics and is already reported in several reviews, most of them covering rheometry measurements at the scale of the foam, coupled with interpretations at the local scale of bubbles or interfaces. In this review, we start following this approach, then we try to cover the multiscale features of aqueous foam flows, emphasizing regimes where intermediate length scales need to be taken into account or regimes fast enough regarding internal time scales so that the flow goes beyond the quasi-static limit. xml:lang="fr"

  14. Hydrodynamics of foams (United States)

    Karakashev, Stoyan I.


    This brief review article is devoted to all the aspects related to hydrodynamics of foams. For this reason, we focused at first on the methods for studying the basic structural units of the foams—the foam films (FF) and the Plateau borders (PB), thus reviewing the literature about their drainage. After this, we scrutinized in detail the Derjaguin's works on the electrostatic disjoining pressure along with its Langmuir's interpretation, the microscopic and macroscopic approaches in the theory of the van der Waals disjoining pressure, the DLVO theory, the steric disjoining pressure of de Gennes, and the more recent works on non-DLVO forces. The basic methods for studying of foam drainage are presented as well. Engineering and other applications of foam are reviewed as well. All these aspects are presented from retrospective and perspective viewpoints.

  15. Shape memory polyurethane foams


    Kim, B. K.; Kang, S M; Lee, S. J.


    Molded flexible polyurethane (PU) foams have been synthesized from polypropylene glycol (PPG) with different molecular weights (Mw) and functionalities (f), and 2,4/2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI-80) with water as blowing agent. It was found that the glassy state properties of the foam mainly depended on the urethane group content while the rubbery state properties on the crosslink density. That is, PPG of low MW and low f (more urethane groups) provided superior glass state modulus, strength,...

  16. Rigid molecular foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckle, W.P. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mitchell, M.A. [Chemidal Corp., Palatine, IL (United States); Aspen, P.G. [Simula Inc., Phoenix, AZ (United States)


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Organic analogues to inorganic zeolites would be a significant step forward in engineered porous materials and would provide advantages in range, selectivity, tailorability, and processing. Rigid molecular foams or {open_quotes}organic zeolites{close_quotes} would not be crystalline materials and could be tailored over a broader range of pore sizes and volumes. A novel process for preparing hypercrosslinked polymeric foams has been developed via a Friedel-Crafts polycondensation reaction. A series of rigid hypercrosslinked foams have been prepared using simple rigid polyaromatic hydrocarbons including benzene, biphenyl, m-terphenyl, diphenylmethane, and polystyrene, with dichloroxylene (DCX) as the pore size. After drying the foams are robust and rigid. Densities of the resulting foams can range from 0.15 g/cc to 0.75 g/cc. Nitrogen adsorption studies have shown that by judiciously selecting monomers and the crosslinking agent along with the level of crosslinking and the cure time of the resulting gel, the pore size, pore size distribution, and the total surface area of the foam can be tailored. Surface areas range from 160 to 1,200 m{sup 2}/g with pore sizes ranging from 6 {angstrom} to 2,000 {angstrom}.

  17. Ocean foam generation and modeling (United States)

    Porter, R. A.; Bechis, K. P.


    A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine the physical and microwave properties of ocean foam. Special foam generators were designed and fabricated, using porous glass sheets, known as glass frits, as the principal element. The glass frit was sealed into a water-tight vertical box, a few centimeters from the bottom. Compressed air, applied to the lower chamber, created ocean foam from sea water lying on the frit. Foam heights of 30 cm were readily achieved, with relatively low air pressures. Special photographic techniques and analytical procedures were employed to determine foam bubble size distributions. In addition, the percentage water content of ocean foam was determined with the aid of a particulate sampling procedure. A glass frit foam generator, with pore diameters in the range 70 - 100 micrometers, produced foam with bubble distributions very similar to those found on the surface of natural ocean foam patches.

  18. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Due to the increased focus on energy savings and waste recycling foam glass materials have gained increased attention. The production process of foam glass is a potential low-cost recycle option for challenging waste, e.g. CRT glass and industrial waste (fly ash and slags). Foam glass is used...... as thermal insulating material in building and chemical industry. The large volume of gas (porosity 90 – 95%) is the main reason of the low thermal conductivity of the foam glass. If gases with lower thermal conductivity compared to air are entrapped in the glass melt, the derived foam glass will contain...... only closed pores and its overall thermal conductivity will be much lower than that of the foam glass with open pores. In this work we have prepared foam glass using different types of recycled glasses and different kinds of foaming agents. This enabled the formation of foam glasses having gas cells...

  19. Foam Assisted WAG, Snorre Revisit with New Foam Screening Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spirov, Pavel; Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Khan, Arif


    foam model was tested with sensitivity analysis on foam properties to provide a guideline for the history matching process (GOR alteration) of FAWAG Pilot of Snorre Field (Statoil). The aim was to check the authenticity of presented new foam model in commercial software whether it is implementable...... on a complex geological model for quick feasibility studies, either for onward practical pilot or as justification for more detailed technical study. The simulation showed that Foam model is applicable. The mismatch between history and actual GOR in some periods of injection is due to the complexity...... in the physics of in-situ processes. Detailed Qualitative analysis is presented for foam modeling against the FAWAG historical data that provides sharp idea of the behavior of Foam model for different foam factors, which in turn provides reasons for the unpredictable foam behavior in WFB Project and serve...

  20. Protein degradation by ruminal microorganisms from sheep fed dietary supplements of urea, casein, or albumin. (United States)

    Wallace, R J; Broderick, G A; Brammall, M L


    Ruminal fluid from sheep fed hay plus concentrate diets containing 1.8% urea, 6% casein, or 6% egg albumin had proteolytic activities of 4.12, 3.02, or 4.00 mg of [14C]casein hydrolyzed ml-1 h-1, respectively. Dietary albumin had no effect on the rate of albumin breakdown relative to that of casein (0.06). Greater numbers of highly proteolytic bacteria, mainly Butyrivibrio spp., were isolated from the rumens of sheep receiving albumin. Albumin hydrolysis by these isolates was even slower relative to that of casein (0.03) than in ruminal fluid and was similar to that found in isolates from urea- and casein-fed sheep. Hence, there appears to be no mechanism by which ruminal bacteria can alter their proteolytic activity to utilize resistant soluble protein more effectively. PMID:3579280

  1. A Microtus fortis protein, serum albumin, is a novel inhibitor of Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Li


    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasite disease and praziquantel is the only drug currently in use to control this disease. Experimental and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that Microtus fortis ( Mf is a naturally resistant vertebrate host of Schistosoma japonicum . In the present study, we found that Mf serum albumin ( Mf -albumin and the conditioned medium of pcDNA3.1- Mf -albumin caused 46.2% and 38.7% schistosomula death rates in 96 h, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the negative control (p < 0.05. We also found that mice injected with Mf -albumin had a 43.5% reduction in worm burden and a 48.1% reduction in liver eggs per gram (p < 0.05 in comparison to the control animals. To characterise the mechanisms involved in clearance, schistosomula were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Mf -albumin and fluorescent enrichment effects were found in the gut lumen of schistosomula after 48 h of incubation. Next, digestive tract excretions from schistosomula were collected and the sensitivity of Mf -albumin to digestive tract excretions was evaluated. The results indicated that schistosomula digestive tract excretions showed indigestibility of Mf -albumin. The death of schistosomula could be partially attributed to the lack of digestion of Mf -albumin by digestive tract excretions during the development of the schistosomula stage. Therefore, these data indicate the potential of Mf -albumin as one of the major selective forces for schistosomiasis.

  2. Leptin is involved in the effects of cysteamine on egg laying of hens, characteristics of eggs, and posthatch growth of broiler offspring. (United States)

    Hu, Y; Ni, Y; Ren, L; Dai, J; Zhao, R


    Cysteamine has been reported to modulate energy homeostasis and exert significant growth-promoting effects in broiler chickens. However, little is known concerning its effects on egg production of hens and the growth rate of their offspring. In the present study, 67-wk-old broiler breeders were allotted at random to control and cysteamine-supplemented (400 mg/kg) groups for 8 wk. The hatchlings were fed under the same condition until 6 wk of age. Cysteamine significantly increased the average laying rate by 2.24% (P eggs by 40.55% (P eggs by 20.15% (P egg weight, egg quality, fertility, or hatch-ability but significantly increased eggshell weight (P albumin weight (P egg yolk and albumin extracts as well as in liver homogenates of hens. Cysteamine did not affect the yolk content of T(3), thyroxine, estradiol, or glucagon, but significantly increased leptin content in liver of hens (P albumin (P eggs. These changes were accompanied by a significant downregulation of leptin receptor mRNA expression (P eggs demonstrated significantly lower body weight at hatching (P egg deposition, together with altered yolk sac leptin receptor expression, may be involved in such an effect.

  3. Improving functionality of whole egg powder by the addition of gelatine, lactose, and pullulan. (United States)

    Koç, Mehmet; Koç, Banu; Susyal, Gonca; Yilmazer, Melike Sakin; Bağdatlıoğlu, Neriman; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen


    The addition of gelatine (G), lactose (L), pullulan (P), and their mixtures at equal ratios (gelatine + lactose [GL] and gelatin + pullulan [GP]) to whole egg prior to drying was studied. Their effects on the functional properties (emulsion and gelling ability, water holding capacity of gel, foaming, color) and soluble protein content of spray dried egg powder during the 6 mo of storage at 20 °C and 50% relative humidity were investigated. It was demonstrated that the emulsion and foaming stability, water holding capacity of gel, and color change were significantly affected by the storage time, whereas storage time did not affect the strength of gel texture prepared by egg powders. Gelatine and pullulan improved the foaming stability and water holding capacity. Lactose caused a decrease in emulsion and foaming stability values. The maximum color change was observed for the plain egg powder, showing that mixing whole egg with carbohydrate- and/or protein-based additives before the drying process preserved the color of egg powder. Adding carbohydrate and/or protein caused significant changes in functional properties of egg powder. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Reducing Risk of Salmonellosis through Egg Decontamination Processes. (United States)

    Keerthirathne, Thilini Piushani; Ross, Kirstin; Fallowfield, Howard; Whiley, Harriet


    Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. However, each decontamination procedure has different effects on the properties and constituents of the egg. The pasteurization processes are the most widely used and best understood; however, they influence the coagulation, foaming and emulsifying properties of the egg. Future studies are needed to explore combinations of different decontamination methods to produce safe eggs without impacting the protein structure and usability. Currently, eggs which have undergone decontamination processes are primarily used in food prepared for vulnerable populations. However, the development of a decontamination method that does not affect egg properties and functionality could be used in food prepared for the general population to provide greater public health protection.

  5. Reducing Risk of Salmonellosis through Egg Decontamination Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilini Piushani Keerthirathne


    Full Text Available Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. However, each decontamination procedure has different effects on the properties and constituents of the egg. The pasteurization processes are the most widely used and best understood; however, they influence the coagulation, foaming and emulsifying properties of the egg. Future studies are needed to explore combinations of different decontamination methods to produce safe eggs without impacting the protein structure and usability. Currently, eggs which have undergone decontamination processes are primarily used in food prepared for vulnerable populations. However, the development of a decontamination method that does not affect egg properties and functionality could be used in food prepared for the general population to provide greater public health protection.

  6. Dielectric and Radiative Properties of Sea Foam at Microwave Frequencies: Conceptual Understanding of Foam Emissivity


    Peter W. Gaiser; Magdalena D. Anguelova


    Foam fraction can be retrieved from space-based microwave radiometric data at frequencies from 1 to 37 GHz. The retrievals require modeling of ocean surface emissivity fully covered with sea foam. To model foam emissivity well, knowledge of foam properties, both mechanical and dielectric, is necessary because these control the radiative processes in foam. We present a physical description of foam dielectric properties obtained from the foam dielectric constant including foam skin depth; foam ...

  7. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina


    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  9. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jen

    Long fibers are generally preferred for reinforcing foams for performance reasons. However, uniform dispersion is difficult to achieve because they must be mixed with liquid resin prior to foam expansion. New approaches aiming to overcome such problem have been developed at USC's Composites Center. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams with long fibers (over 6 mm in length) manufactured at USC's Composites Center have achieved promising mechanical properties and demonstrated lower density relative to conventional composite foams. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were synthesized from thermosetting polymeric microspheres (amino and phenolic microspheres), as well as thermoplastic PVC heat expandable microspheres (HEMs). Carbon and/or aramid fibers were used to reinforce the syntactic foams. Basic mechanical properties, including shear, tensile, and compression, were measured in syntactic foams and fiber-reinforced syntactic foams. Microstructure and crack propagation behavior were investigated by scanning electron microscope and light microscopy. Failure mechanisms and reinforcing mechanisms of fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were also analyzed. As expected, additions of fiber reinforcements to foams enhanced both tensile and shear properties. However, only limited enhancement in compression properties was observed, and fiber reinforcement was of limited benefit in this regard. Therefore, a hybrid foam design was explored and evaluated in an attempt to enhance compression properties. HEMs were blended with glass microspheres to produce hybrid foams, and hybrid foams were subsequently reinforced with continuous aramid fibers to produce fiber-reinforced hybrid foams. Mechanical properties of these foams were evaluated. Findings indicated that the production of hybrid foams was an effective way to enhance the compressive properties of syntactic foams, while the addition of fiber reinforcements enhanced the shear and tensile performance of syntactic foams. Another approach

  10. Long lasting decontamination foam (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.


    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  11. Production of lightweight foam glass (invited talk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass production allows low cost recycling of postconsumer glass and industrial waste materials as foaming agent or as melt resource. Foam glass is commonly produced by utilising milled glass mixed with a foaming agent. The powder mixture is heat-treated to around 10^3.7 – 10^6 Pa s, which...... result in viscous sintering and subsequent foaming of the glass melt. The porous glass melt is cooled down to room temperature to freeze-in the foam structure. The resulting foam glass is applied in constructions as a light weight material to reduce load bearing capacity and as heat insulating material...... in buildings and industry. We foam panel glass from old televisions with different foaming agents. We discuss the foaming ability and the foaming mechanism of different foaming systems. We compare several studies to define a viscous window for preparing low density foam glass. However, preparing foam glass...

  12. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs. (United States)

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely.

  13. Comparative proteome analysis of egg yolk plasma proteins during storage. (United States)

    Gao, Dan; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu


    Physical changes such as chicken egg white thinning and egg yolk flattening occur during storage, implying a decline in egg quality. To reveal the deteriorative process related to chicken egg internal quality, a comparative proteomic method was used in this study to analyze the alterations in egg yolk plasma proteins at different storage times (0, 20 and 40 days) under an ambient temperature of 22 ± 2 °C. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, 33 protein spots representing 12 proteins were identified with significant (P albumin, vitellogenin fragments, IgY chains, ovalbumin, ovoinhibitor, α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like, hemopexin, transthyretin, apolipoprotein A-I and β 2 -glycoprotein I precursor. Accelerating degradation for most egg yolk plasma proteins was observed after prolonged storage (from day 20 to day 40). It is likely that the increased degradation of protease inhibitors such as ovoinhibitor and α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like during prolonged storage lead to an imbalance of protease and antiprotease in egg yolk, which may play a key role in the degradation of egg yolk proteins. These findings will provide an insight into the effects of storage on egg yolk protein changes and give a deeper understanding of the deteriorative process of chicken egg yolk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Egg dumping in insects. (United States)

    Tallamy, Douglas W


    Females that place eggs under the care of conspecifics have been labeled egg dumpers. Egg dumping is an effective reproductive alternative that lowers risks for, and has the potential to increase fecundity in, its practitioners. Although insect egg dumpers can be social parasites of the maternal behavior of egg recipients, dumping is more likely to be a viable reproductive alternative when the costs to egg recipients are low and thus the defense by potential hosts against egg dumping intrusions is minimal. These conditions are met in insects that guard only eggs or in insects whose eggs hatch into self-supporting precocial young that need little beyond defense from parents. When this is the case, egg dumping is favored by natural and/or kin selection as a mechanism by which dumpers can avoid parental risks and increase fecundity, and egg recipients can enhance offspring survival by diluting predation.

  15. Viscosity of egg white from hens of different strains fed with commercial and natural additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Papa Spada


    Full Text Available Yolk color and egg white (albumen cleanliness and viscosity are important parameters by which consumers judge the quality of eggs. This study aimed to investigate changes in albumen viscosity during storage of eggs for up to 36 days from two different commercial laying hen strains (Carijo Barbada and Isa Brown fed a diet containing annatto (1.5 and 2.0% or a synthetic additive without synthetic colorants (control. Analyses of humidity, albumen height, pH, viscosity, foam formation, and stability were carried out on eggs. Carijo Barbada strain had smaller albumen, lower humidity and higher egg white viscosity than Isa Brown strain; however, with storage, viscosity lowered significantly on both strains. Initially, the addition of 2.0% of annatto or a synthetic additive increased viscosity in both strains, but with storage only the control maintained longer viscosity. Lower viscosity did not change foam density and stability.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Djaeni


    Full Text Available The drying is the last step to find carrageenan product. Currently, the carrageenan drying still deals with too long drying time. This because, during the process carrageenan and water forms gel stucture in which hampers the water diffusion to the surface. Foaming agent introduction such as egg white can be considered to break the gel structure and make the drying process being smooth and fast. This paper discusses the effect of egg white as foaming agent on the drying time of carrageenan. In this study, the carrageenan was mixed with egg white to form foam that can break the gel and create the pore for improving the surface area.  The carrageenan and egg white mixture was then dried at different air temperature and humidity. Results showed that the drying time was shortened with the presence of egg whiet as well as the increase of air temperature. For example, the drying time at air temperature 80oC with  20 % egg white was about 60 minutes shorter than that of without foam. In addition, the lowering air dehumidification affected the drying time positively.

  17. Novel lipid hybrid albumin nanoparticle greatly lowered toxicity of pirarubicin. (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Xuanmiao; Li, Mei; Wu, Wenqi; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Ling; Gong, Tao


    Pirarubicin (THP) is an effective anthracycline for the treatment of solid tumor. However, its potential side effects are prominent and clinical use is restricted. We aimed to develop a novel pirarubicin-oleic acid complex albumin nanoparticle (THP-OA-AN) in order to reduce the toxicity of THP. Oleic acid, human serum albumin (HSA), and egg yolk lecithin E80 was used to prepare THP-OA-AN. Prepared THP-OA-AN was characterized and animal experiments were conducted to assess its tumor suppression effect, distribution, and toxicity. Comparison between THP and THP-OA-AN showed that, with retained antitumor efficiency, the toxicity of THP-OA-AN is significantly reduced regarding bone marrow suppression, cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity, and gastrointestinal toxicity. This study developed a safe and effective formulation of THP, which has greater potential for clinic use in the tumor therapy.

  18. Shape memory polyurethane foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Kim


    Full Text Available Molded flexible polyurethane (PU foams have been synthesized from polypropylene glycol (PPG with different molecular weights (Mw and functionalities (f, and 2,4/2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI-80 with water as blowing agent. It was found that the glassy state properties of the foam mainly depended on the urethane group content while the rubbery state properties on the crosslink density. That is, PPG of low MW and low f (more urethane groups provided superior glass state modulus, strength, density, shape fixity and glass transition temperature (Tg, while that of high Mw and high f (higher crosslink density showed high rubbery modulus and shape recovery. Consequently shape fixity of low Mw PPG decreased from 85 to 72% while shape recovery increased from 52 to 63% as the content of high Mw PPG increased from 0 to 40%.

  19. Determination of the liquid pool surfactant and protein concentration for semi-batch foam fractionation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. V. Rosa


    Full Text Available A model is derived for the change with time of the concentration of a surface-active component in the liquid pool of a semi-batch foam fractionation process. The transport of surface-active material to the gas-liquid interface was assumed to be limited by the mass transfer rates, and the concentration of the adsorbed material at the interface was assumed to be in equilibrium with the concentration of liquid adjacent to the bubble gas surface. This model was compared to experimental data obtained for semi-batch foam fractionation of aqueous solutions of bovine serum albumin and cetyltrimetylammonium bromide.

  20. Foam injection molding of thermoplastic elastomers: Blowing agents, foaming process and characterization of structural foams (United States)

    Ries, S.; Spoerrer, A.; Altstaedt, V.


    Polymer foams play an important role caused by the steadily increasing demand to light weight design. In case of soft polymers, like thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), the haptic feeling of the surface is affected by the inner foam structure. Foam injection molding of TPEs leads to so called structural foam, consisting of two compact skin layers and a cellular core. The properties of soft structural foams like soft-touch, elastic and plastic behavior are affected by the resulting foam structure, e.g. thickness of the compact skins and the foam core or density. This inner structure can considerably be influenced by different processing parameters and the chosen blowing agent. This paper is focused on the selection and characterization of suitable blowing agents for foam injection molding of a TPE-blend. The aim was a high density reduction and a decent inner structure. Therefore DSC and TGA measurements were performed on different blowing agents to find out which one is appropriate for the used TPE. Moreover a new analyzing method for the description of processing characteristics by temperature dependent expansion measurements was developed. After choosing suitable blowing agents structural foams were molded with different types of blowing agents and combinations and with the breathing mold technology in order to get lower densities. The foam structure was analyzed to show the influence of the different blowing agents and combinations. Finally compression tests were performed to estimate the influence of the used blowing agent and the density reduction on the compression modulus.

  1. Fast relaxations in foam (United States)

    Krishan, Kapilanjan; Helal, Ahmed; Höhler, Reinhard; Cohen-Addad, Sylvie


    Aqueous foams present an anomalous macroscopic viscoelastic response at high frequency, previously shown to arise from collective relaxations in the disordered bubble packing. We demonstrate experimentally how these mesoscopic dynamics are in turn tuned by physico-chemical processes on the scale of the gas-liquid interfaces. Two specific local dissipation processes are identified, and we show how the rigidity of the interfaces selects the dominant one, depending on the choice of the surfactant.

  2. Fuel Stability Foam (United States)


    The third method is to add liquid chemical stabilizing additives to fuel which is likely to form insoluble products from chemical degradation 1 The treatment choice depends on the storage stability of the fuel and several highly accelerated test methods have been developed to...include carbamate, amide, urea, biuret , isocyanurate and allophanate which may interact with the polar species responsible for deposit formation. PU foams

  3. Foams structure and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cantat, Isabelle; Graner, François; Pitois, Olivier; Höhler, Reinard; Elias, Florence; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Rouyer, Florence


    This book is the first to provide a thorough description of all aspects of the physico-chemical properties of foams. It sets out what is known about their structure, their stability, and their rheology. Engineers, researchers and students will find descriptions of all the key concepts, illustrated by numerous applications, as well as experiments and exercises for the reader. A solutions manual for lecturers is available via the publisher's web site.

  4. Fiber reinforced hybrid phenolic foam (United States)

    Desai, Amit

    Hybrid composites in recent times have been developed by using more than one type of fiber reinforcement to bestow synergistic properties of the chosen filler and matrix and also facilitating the design of materials with specific properties matched to end use. However, the studies for hybrid foams have been very limited because of problems related to fiber dispersion in matrix, non uniform mixing due to presence of more than one filler and partially cured foams. An effective approach to synthesize hybrid phenolic foam has been proposed and investigated here. Hybrid composite phenolic foams were reinforced with chopped glass and aramid fibers in varied proportions. On assessing mechanical properties in compression and shear several interesting facts surfaced but overall hybrid phenolic foams exhibited a more graceful failure, greater resistance to cracking and were significantly stiffer and stronger than foams with only glass and aramid fibers. The optimum fiber ratio for the reinforced hybrid phenolic foam system was found to be 1:1 ratio of glass to aramid fibers. Also, the properties of hybrid foam were found to deviate from rule of mixture (ROM) and thus the existing theories of fiber reinforcement fell short in explaining their complex behavior. In an attempt to describe and predict mechanical behavior of hybrid foams a statistical design tool using analysis of variance technique was employed. The utilization of a statistical model for predicting foam properties was found to be an appropriate tool that affords a global perspective of the influence of process variables such as fiber weight fraction, fiber length etc. on foam properties (elastic modulus and strength). Similar approach could be extended to study other fiber composite foam systems such as polyurethane, epoxy etc. and doing so will reduce the number of experimental iterations needed to optimize foam properties and identify critical process variables. Diffusivity, accelerated aging and flammability

  5. Supplement of three eggs a week improves protein malnutrition in Thai children from rural areas. (United States)

    Mayurasakorn, Korapat; Sitphahul, Prapunpis; Hongto, Pun-orn


    Protein Malnutrition is one of the most important health indexes that affect children's growth and development. In Thailand National Health Survey 2004, 21.5% of primary school students living in the rural area were below the 90th percentile of the standard weight for age. To compare nutritional status with serum proteins and lipids, and to determine the effect of egg supplement for primary school students aged 6-15 years. A randomized experimental study was performed in 417 participants received an addition of either three or ten eggs per week for 12 consecutive weeks to basal diet. The anthropometric and biochemical indexes were measured, 29.1% and 20.8% of whom were Protein Malnutrition according to serum albumin and PreAlbumin's criteria, respectively. Albumin and PreAlbumin levels were positively correlated with Total Cholesterol and LDL-C levels. No difference in any biochemical index has been found between 3 eggs/wk group and 10 eggs/wk group. Besides, due to continuing egg supplement, Total Cholesterol, LDL and ratio of Total Cholesterol to HDL level have decreased (p eggs/wk supplements can effectively correct the problem of protein malnutrition among primary school students at risk as shown by biochemical indices, and it benefits the blood cholesterol level as well.

  6. Shape memory epoxy foams by solid-state foaming (United States)

    Squeo, E. A.; Quadrini, F.


    Epoxy foams were produced by means of solid-state foaming and their shape memory properties were evaluated together with other physical properties. Solid-state foaming consists of pressing thermosetting resin powders to produce solid tablets, heating the tablets at high temperature to generate both the formation of pores inside the resin and the resin polymerization. A nanoclay was added to the resin powder before pressing it up to a maximum content of 5 wt%. Unfilled and composite foams were characterized by density measurements and thermal analyses. Subsequently, foam samples underwent up to two thermo-mechanical cycles: each cycle consisted of the storage of a compressed shape and the subsequent thermal recovery. Compression tests were used to measure the effect of the thermo-mechanical cycles on the foam's mechanical performances and compressive toughness was extracted from the tests. It was observed that all the foams exhibited good shape memory properties also after cycling: nanoclay filler allows the foams to completely recover the initial shape and to increase the compressive and the specific compressive toughness.

  7. Dynamic Property of Aluminum Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Irie


    Full Text Available Aluminum in the foam of metallic foam is in the early stage of industrialization. It has various beneficial characteristics such as being lightweight, heat resistance, and an electromagnetic radiation shield. Therefore, the use of aluminum foam is expected to reduce the weight of equipment for transportation such as the car, trains, and aircraft. The use as energy absorption material is examined. Moreover aluminum foam can absorb the shock wave, and decrease the shock of the blast. Many researchers have reported about aluminum foam, but only a little information is available for high strain rates (103 s-1 or more. Therefore, the aluminum foam at high strain rates hasn't been not characterized yet. The purpose in this research is to evaluate the behavior of the aluminum form in the high-strain rate. In this paper, the collision test on high strain rate of the aluminum foam is investigated. After experiment, the numerical analysis model will be made. In this experiment, a powder gun was used to generate the high strain rate in aluminum foam. In-situ PVDF gauges were used for measuring pressure and the length of effectiveness that acts on the aluminum foam. The aluminum foam was accelerated to about 400 m/s from deflagration of single component powder and the foam were made to collide with the PVDF gauge. The high strain rate deformation of the aluminum form was measured at two collision speeds. As for the result, pressure was observed to go up rapidly when about 70% was compressed. From this result, it is understood that complete crush of the cell is caused when the relative volume is about 70%. In the next stage, this data will be compared with the numerical analysis.

  8. Foam Assisted WAG, Snorre Revisit with New Foam Screening Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spirov, Pavel; Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Khan, Arif


    This study deals with simulation model of Foam Assisted Water Alternating Gas (FAWAG) method that had been implemented to two Norwegian Reservoirs. Being studied on number of pilot projects, the method proved successful, but Field Scale simulation was never understood properly. New phenomenological...... foam model was tested with sensitivity analysis on foam properties to provide a guideline for the history matching process (GOR alteration) of FAWAG Pilot of Snorre Field (Statoil). The aim was to check the authenticity of presented new foam model in commercial software whether it is implementable...... on a complex geological model for quick feasibility studies, either for onward practical pilot or as justification for more detailed technical study. The simulation showed that Foam model is applicable. The mismatch between history and actual GOR in some periods of injection is due to the complexity...

  9. Albumin-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke


    binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform.......The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...

  10. Albumin-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke


    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...... binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform....

  11. Optimizing the use of surfactants and water with foams: a comparison between soapy solutions and foams for sebum detergency (United States)

    Restagno, Frederic; Valois, Pauline; Petit, Pauline; Cazeneuve, Colette; Nicolas-Morgantini, Luc; Rio, Emmnauelle; Luengo, Gustavo

    Human sebum is excreted at the skin surface by the sebaceous glands. Surfactants are the core ingredients of shampoos and other cosmetics to eliminate the excess of sebum as detergency is the classical mechanism used for hair cleaning.. In this study, we add a precise amount of sebum on different hair. We developed a new protocol to measure the cleaning efficiency of surfactant solutions and foams made with the same surfactant solutions based on a spectroscopic method. More precisely, we add a well-controlled amount of colored sebum, we clean the hair with our test foam or solution and we remove completely the unwashed sebum. The sebum remaining after washing is quantified by visible spectroscopy. We tested either classical detergents such as SLES at different concentrations or white egg. The studies were performed on natural or bleached hair. In all the studied case, it was not possible to observe any difference in the cleaning efficiency between the bulk solutions and the foams made from the solutions. This study could allow to develop new shampoos formulations or dispensers in order to replace washing solutions by foams that could have the same cleaning efficiency with a lower amount of surfactants; diminishing the water rinsing needs during application.

  12. Bubble size distribution of foam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Engelsen, C.W.; den Engelsen, C.W.; Isarin, J.C.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus; Groot Wassink, J.; Groot Wassink, J.


    A procedure based upon image analysis has been adopted to study the influence of several physical parameters on bubble size in foam. A procedure has been described to account for the distribution of bubble size. Foam was generated in a rotor-stator mixer. In the present research, the nature of the

  13. Flame Resistant Foam (United States)


    Solimide manufactured by Imi-Tech Corporation, is a lightweight fire resistant material produced under a manufacturing process that allows it to be uniformly foamed. Can be produced in a variety of densities and structural configurations and remains resilient under exposure to temperatures ranging from minus 300 to plus 500 degrees Fahrenheit. Is resistant to open flame and generates virtually no smoke or toxic by-products. Used in aircraft for its superior damping characteristics, lighter weight and fire barrier properties, it's also applicable to ships and surface transportation systems such as transit cars, trains, buses and automobiles.

  14. Effect of SO/sub 2/ upon the sensitization with albumin through the airway in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Y.


    Rats were exposed to 400 ppM SO/sub 2/ for 30 min and then to 90 min of nebulized egg albumin and bovine serum albumin sensitizing antigens 7 times at intervals of a few days. Serum analysis was done 4 wk after final exposure-treatment. There was enhanced sensitization of rats exposed to SO/sub 2/ by 2 of 4 tests (hemagglutination and radioimmunoelectrophoresis) while other 2 tests showed no antibodies in any rat (insensitive tests). Results were possible due to slowed clearance.

  15. Protein Denaturation in Foam. (United States)

    Clarkson; Cui; Darton


    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which protein molecules become denatured in foam. It was found that damage to the protein is mainly due to surface denaturation at the gas-liquid interface. A fraction of the molecules adsorbed do not refold to their native state when they desorb. The degree of denaturation was found to correlate directly with the interfacial exposure, which, for mobile or partially mobile interfaces, is increased by drainage. Experiments with two different proteins showed that, under the conditions of the tests, around 10% of BSA molecules which had adsorbed at the surface remained denatured when they desorbed. For pepsin the figure was around 75%. Oxidation, which was previously thought to be a major cause of protein damage in foam, was found to be minimal. Neither do the high shear stresses in the liquid bulk encountered during bubble bursting cause denaturation, because energy is dissipated at a much greater length scale than that of the protein molecule. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Dielectric and Radiative Properties of Sea Foam at Microwave Frequencies: Conceptual Understanding of Foam Emissivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Gaiser


    Full Text Available Foam fraction can be retrieved from space-based microwave radiometric data at frequencies from 1 to 37 GHz. The retrievals require modeling of ocean surface emissivity fully covered with sea foam. To model foam emissivity well, knowledge of foam properties, both mechanical and dielectric, is necessary because these control the radiative processes in foam. We present a physical description of foam dielectric properties obtained from the foam dielectric constant including foam skin depth; foam impedance; wavelength variations in foam thickness, roughness of foam layer interfaces with air and seawater; and foam scattering parameters such as size parameter, and refraction index. Using these, we analyze the scattering, absorption, reflection and transmission in foam and gain insights into why volume scattering in foam is weak; why the main absorption losses are confined to the wet portion of the foam; how the foam impedance matching provides the transmission of electromagnetic radiation in foam and maximizes the absorption; and what is the potential for surface scattering at the foam layers boundaries. We put all these elements together and offer a conceptual understanding for the high, black-body-like emissivity of foam floating on the sea surface. We also consider possible scattering regimes in foam.

  17. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová


    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  18. prolamin, albumin, globulin and glutelin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 16, 2009 ... It is on the basis of the above attribute of lectin and phorbolester that Aregheore et al. (2003) employed heat treatment, alkaline hydrolysis and solvent extraction for the detoxification of the Jatropha curcas seed cake. Meanwhile some valuable protein fractions (prolamin, albumin, globulin and glutelin) are ...

  19. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials


    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  20. Injectable foams for regenerative medicine. (United States)

    Prieto, Edna M; Page, Jonathan M; Harmata, Andrew J; Guelcher, Scott A


    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable CPCs, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and noncytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human). (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin (Human). 640.80 Section 640.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.80 Albumin (Human). (a) Proper...

  2. Some Aspects of Foamed Bitumen Technology


    Namutebi, May


    Although foamed bitumen has been widely applied in pavement construction some of its aspects are still not yet understood. In this study, some of these aspects including: effects of the foaming process on binder chemistry, characterization of foamed bitumen and development of a rational method to optimize foam characteristics, evaluation of aggregate particle coating within foamed bitumen treated materials, and development of a gyratory compaction procedure for laterite gravels treated with f...

  3. Silver Foam Technologies Healing Research Program (United States)


    incorporated into the foam at sufficient concentrations without congealing. Open-ended hydrophilic foam sponges incorporating Zeolite and Silver Glass Beads...1: Research open-end hydrophilic foam: The result of this research has produced an open-end hydrophilic foam with an absorption ration of fifteen...quarter inch thick and ten inches in length, eight inches in width and one half inch thick. Task 2: Metalized open-end hydrophilic foam: Uniform

  4. Composite carbon foam electrode (United States)

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.


    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  5. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A


    Full Text Available Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinical trial, atopy

  6. Amorphous microcellular polytetrafluoroethylene foam film (United States)

    Tang, Chongzheng


    We report herein the preparation of novel low-density ultramicrocellular fluorocarbon foams and their application. These fluorocarbon foams are of interest for the biochemistry arena in numerous applications including foodstuff, pharmacy, wine making, beer brewery, fermentation medical laboratory, and other processing factories. All of those require good quality processing programs in which, after eliminating bacterium and virus, compressed air is needed. Ordinarily, compressed air contains bacterium and virus, its size is 0.01 - 2 micrometers fluorocarbon foam films. Having average porous diameter 0.04 - 0.1 micrometers , these are stable to high temperature (280 degree(s)C) and chemical environments, and generally have good engineering and mechanical properties (e.g., low coefficient of thermal expansion, high modulus, and good dimensional stability). Our new process for preparing low density fluorocarbon foams provides materials with unique properties. As such, they offer the possibility for being superior to earlier materials for a number of the filter applications mentioned.

  7. Spin Foams and Canonical Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Alexandrov


    Full Text Available This review is devoted to the analysis of the mutual consistency of the spin foam and canonical loop quantizations in three and four spacetime dimensions. In the three-dimensional context, where the two approaches are in good agreement, we show how the canonical quantization à la Witten of Riemannian gravity with a positive cosmological constant is related to the Turaev-Viro spin foam model, and how the Ponzano-Regge amplitudes are related to the physical scalar product of Riemannian loop quantum gravity without cosmological constant. In the four-dimensional case, we recall a Lorentz-covariant formulation of loop quantum gravity using projected spin networks, compare it with the new spin foam models, and identify interesting relations and their pitfalls. Finally, we discuss the properties which a spin foam model is expected to possess in order to be consistent with the canonical quantization, and suggest a new model illustrating these results.

  8. Odd-Boiled Eggs (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi


    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  9. Spinning eggs and ballerinas (United States)

    Cross, Rod


    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction between the egg and the surface on which it spins.

  10. Electrokinetic transport in liquid foams. (United States)

    Bonhomme, Oriane; Blanc, Baptiste; Joly, Laurent; Ybert, Christophe; Biance, Anne-Laure


    Investigating electrokinetic transport in a liquid foam is at the confluence of two well developed research areas. On one hand, the study of electrokinetic flows (i.e. surface-driven flows generated close to a charged interface) is fairly well understood in regards the solid/liquid interface. On the other hand, the flow of liquid in a 3D deformable network, i.e a foam, under a volume force such as gravity has been thoroughly studied over the past decade. The overlapping zone of these two frameworks is of great interest for both communities as it gives rise to challenging new questions such as: what is the importance of the nature of the charged interface, created by mobile and soluble surfactants in the case of foam, on electrokinetic transport? How does a foam behave when submitted to a surface-driven flow? Can we compensate a volume-driven flow, i.e. gravity, by a surface-driven flow, i.e. electroosmosis? In this review, we will explore these questions on three different scales: a surfactant laden interface, a foam film and a macroscopic foam. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Glycated albumin and diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Hayashi, Jun


    Diabetes is a growing worldwide problem that is strongly associated with atherosclerosis. Screening and intervention for diabetes in the earliest stages are advocated for the prevention of diabetic complications and cardiovascular disease. This review gives a background of and discusses the potential clinical utility of glycated albumin (GA) in diabetes. GA is a ketoamine formed via a non-enzymatic glycation reaction of serum albumin and it reflects mean glycemia over two to three weeks. GA can be used for patients with anemia or hemoglobinopathies for whom the clinically measured hemoglobin A1c level may be inaccurate. Because both serum and plasma samples can be used, GA can be analyzed from the same samples as common biological markers. GA is a useful marker for the screening of diabetes in a medical evaluation. It can be also used to determine the effectiveness of treatment before initiating or changing medications for diabetic patients. GA is potentially an atherogenic protein in the development of diabetic atherosclerosis. GA measurement is useful as part of a routine examination to screen for both diabetes and atherosclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Serum Albumin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stability of metallic foams studied under microgravity

    CERN Document Server

    Wuebben, T; Banhart, J; Odenbach, S


    Metal foams are prepared by mixing a metal powder and a gas-releasing blowing agent, by densifying the mix to a dense precursor and finally foaming by melting the powder compact. The foaming process of aluminium foams is monitored in situ by x-ray radioscopy. One observes that foam evolution is accompanied by film rupture processes which lead to foam coalescence. In order to elucidate the importance of oxides for foam stability, lead foams were manufactured from lead powders having two different oxide contents. The two foam types were generated on Earth and under weightlessness during parabolic flights. The measurements show that the main function of oxide particles is to prevent coalescence, while their influence on bulk viscosity of the melt is of secondary importance.

  13. Foam fire extinguishing agent. Awa shokazai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, M. (Fire Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper describes state of the art of foam fire extinguishing agents and explains the details of each foam. The fire-fighting foam are made by mixing aqueous solution of foam agent with air or inert gas mechanically, and so they are classified into three types according to the expansion ratio by air, such as low, medium, and high expansion-type foams. In general, low expansion-type foams are applied to liquid fuel tank fires. To large scale oil spill fires, low, medium, and high expansion foams are applied, and to liquefied gas fuel fires, LPG or LNG, high expansion ones are suitable. As for sorts of foams, fluoroprotein foams, fluorinated surfactant foams, and synthetic surfactant foams have been developed one after another, although there are still the conventional hydrolized keratin-protein foams available. In the case of water soluble liquid fires, such as alcohol or else, fire-fighting foams mentioned above applied to petroleum based oil fires are not available, because defoaming takes place when they are poured on such fires. Foam extinguishing agents for such application are also being developed. 59 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum


    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  15. Epoxy Foam Encapsulants: Processing and Dielectric Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Domeier; Marion Hunter


    The dielectric performance of epoxy foams was investigated to determine if such materials might provide advantages over more standard polyurethane foams in the encapsulation of electronic assemblies. Comparisons of the dielectric characteristics of epoxy and urethane encapsulant foams found no significant differences between the two resin types and no significant difference between as-molded and machined foams. This study specifically evaluated the formulation and processing of epoxy foams using simple methylhydrosiloxanes as the flowing agent and compared the dielectric performance of those to urethane foams of similar density.

  16. Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.


    The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

  17. Development of Defoamers for Confinenment Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D M; Mitchell, A R


    Aqueous foam concentrate (AFC) 380 foam was developed by Sandia National Laboratory as a blast mitigation foam for unexploded ordnance (UXO) and its ''engineered foam structure'' is reported to be able to ''envelop chemical or biological aerosols'' [1]. It is similar to commercial fire-fighting foams, consisting mostly of water with small amounts of two alcohols, an ether and surfactant. It also contains xanthan gum, probably, to strengthen the foam film and delay drainage. The concentrate is normally diluted in a 6:94 ratio with water for foaming applications. The diluted solution is normally foamed with air to an expansion factor of about 100 (density 0.01 g/cc), which is called ''dry'' foam. Higher density foam (0.18 > {rho} > 0.03 g/cc) was discovered which had quite different characteristics from ''dry'' foam and was called ''wet'' foam. Some characterization of these foams has also been carried out, but the major effort described in this document is the evaluation, at the small and medium scale, of chemical, mechanical and thermal approaches to defoaming AFC 380 foam. Several chemical approaches to defoaming were evaluated including oxidation and precipitation of the xanthan, use of commercial oil-emulsion or suspension defoamers, pH modification, and cation exchange with the surfactant. Of these the commercial defoamers were most effective. Two mechanical approaches to defoaming were evaluated: pressure and foam rupture with very fine particles. Pressure and vacuum techniques were considered too difficult for field applications but high surface area silica particles worked very well on dry foam. Finally simple thermal techniques were evaluated. An order-disorder transition occurs in xanthan solutions at about 60 C, which may be responsible for the effectiveness of hot air as a defoamer. During defoaming of 55 gallons of foam with hot air, after about 70% of


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Rossen


    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research is to lay the groundwork for more-applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media.

  19. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams (United States)

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.


    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength).

  20. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla


    Conclusions: Present data support the use of 2% egg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  1. Are all eggs equal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.


    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic

  2. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte


    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...

  3. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas (United States)

    Cross, Rod


    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Bovine Serum Albumin-Conjugated Copper Sulfide Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huang


    Full Text Available A simple biomolecule-assisted solution route was developed to synthesize Bovine Serum Albumin-conjugated copper sulfide (CuS/BSA nanocomposites, directly using copper salts and thioacetamide (TAA as the starting materials with a zwitterionic surfactant Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA as foaming and stabilizing agent. The CuS/BSA nanocomposites have been characterized by UV, TEM, Zeta, DLS, XRD, and FTIR. The results indicate that the as-prepared CuS/BSA nanocomposites are approximate sphere with a size distribution from 10 to 35 nm in diameter and good dispersibility, depending highly on concentration of BSA concentration. These protein-assisted synthesized nanocomposites have a great potential application in biomedical engineering and microelectronics.

  5. Egg marketing in national supermarkets: specialty eggs--part 2. (United States)

    Patterson, P H; Koelkebeck, K W; Bell, D D; Carey, J B; Anderson, K E; Darre, M J


    Large eggs promoted as having one or more features beyond conventional white or brown shell eggs (specialty eggs) were evaluated for quality and price in a national retail study. Subtypes of specialty eggs included: nutritionally altered eggs, organic eggs, fertile eggs, eggs from welfare-managed hens, or hens fed all-vegetable diets. Extension Poultry Specialists in California (CA), Connecticut, Illinois, North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Texas conducted a survey of egg quality and price and compared 246 dozen specialty eggs with 390 dozen conventional white shell eggs during the summer of 1996. Age of the eggs based on carton dating indicated specialty eggs were older (16.5 d) than white eggs (11.7 d). Average egg weights for specialty compared to white were 60.2 and 59.6 g, respectively. Interior egg quality evaluations including albumen height, Haugh units (HU), and percentage HU 5.0 mm, 67.5, and 10.6%, respectively) compared to specialty eggs (4.7 mm, 63.8, and 16.3%). Although the percentage of cracked eggs was similar between specialty and white eggs (5.4 and 5.7%), the percentage of leakers was threefold higher for the specialty eggs (1.0 vs. 0.3%). Egg price was substantially higher for the specialty eggs, averaging $2.18/dozen with a range from 0.88 to $4.38, compared to white eggs, averaging $1.23/dozen and ranging from 0.39 to $2.35.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Rossen


    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media. Significant progress was made during this period on all three Tasks. Regarding Task 1, we continued comparisons of foam behavior in sandpacks with and without polymer and oil. As in our previous results, decane was moderately destabilizing to foam. Xanthan polymer did not stabilize foam in the presence of decane in this case. Rather, it appears to have destabilized foam, so that pressure gradient decreased in spite of the increase in aqueous-phase viscosity. Research on Task 2 included the first shake-down experiments with our new apparatus for gas-phase tracer tests for direct measurement of trapped-gas saturation with foam. In addition, we began to analyze CT images of gas-phase tracer in foam displacements, which offers an independent measure of trapped-gas fraction and insights into the roles of convection of tracer in flowing gas and diffusion into trapped gas. Research on Task 3 included foam generation experiments in heterogeneous sandpacks and beadpacks and modeling of discontinuous changes in state such as foam generation. The experiments found the same three regimes (coarse foam, strong foam, and intermediate regime) in heterogeneous sandpacks previously identified in homogeneous porous media. One implication is that there may be a minimum flow rate required for foam generation in even heterogeneous porous media. The dynamics in SAG foam processes in heterogeneous media are complex

  7. Stability analysis of uniform equilibrium foam states for EOR processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashoori, E.; Marchesin, D.; Rossen, W.R.


    The use of foam for mobility control is a promising mean to improve sweep efficiency in EOR. Experimental studies discovered that foam exhibits three different states (weak foam, intermediate foam, and strong foam). The intermediate-foam state is found to be unstable in the lab whereas the weak- and

  8. Properties of low-fat, low-cholesterol egg yolk prepared by supercritical CO2 extraction. (United States)

    Bringe, N A


    A dry egg yolk ingredient called Eggcellent has 74% less fat and 90% less cholesterol than liquid egg yolks, when reconstituted on an equal protein basis. The phospholipids and proteins are retained, enabling the ingredient to have the taste and texturizing properties of fresh egg yolk. Using the new yolk, it is possible to significantly improve the acceptability of low-fat, low-cholesterol bakery products, scrambled eggs and mayonnaise dressings without losing nutritional claims. The structures and functional properties of egg yolk components and the conditions required to optimize their benefits in foods are reviewed. The lipoproteins of low-fat, low-cholesterol yolk have valuable properties as flavorants, texturizers, foaming agents, emulsifiers, antioxidants, colorants, and nutraceuticals.

  9. Overview of Albumin and Its Purification Methods. (United States)

    Raoufinia, Ramin; Mota, Ali; Keyhanvar, Neda; Safari, Fatemeh; Shamekhi, Sara; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal


    As the most frequent plasma protein, albumin constitutes more than 50% of the serum proteins in healthy individuals. It has a key role in oncotic pressure maintenance and it is known as a versatile protein carrier for transportation of various endogenous and exogenous ligands. Reduced amounts of albumin in the body will lead to different kinds of diseases such as hypovolemia and hypoproteinemia. It also has various indications in shocks, burns, cardiopulmonary bypass, acute liver failure and etc. Further applications in research consist of cell culture supplement, drug delivery carrier and protein/drug stabilizer. So, the demand for albumin increased annually worldwide. Due to different applications of albumin, many efforts have been accomplished to achieve albumin during a long period of time. In this review, an overview of serum albumin and different purification methods are summarized.

  10. Bubble rearrangements dynamics in foams (United States)

    Le Merrer, Marie; Costa, Severine; Cohen-Addad, Sylvie; Hoehler, Reinhard


    Liquid foams are jammed dispersions of gas bubbles in a surfactant solution. Their structure evolves with time because surface tension drives a diffusive gas exchange between neighboring bubbles. This coarsening leads to a build-up of stresses which are relaxed upon local intermittent bubble rearrangements. These events govern the slow viscoelastic foam response, and similar bubble rearrangements are the elementary processes of plastic flow. Thus, the rearrangement duration is a key parameter describing how the microstructure dynamics control the macroscopic rheological response. We probe the duration of coarsening-induced rearrangements in 3D foams using a multiple light scattering technique (time resolved Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy) as a function of the surfactant chemistry and the liquid fraction. As the foam becomes wetter, the confinement pressure of the packing goes to zero and the contacts between bubbles vanish. For mobile interfaces, we find that the rearrangements slow down as the jamming point is approached. These findings are compared to scaling laws which reveal an analogy between rearrangements dynamics in foams and granular suspensions.

  11. Pressure driven foam flow rheology (United States)

    Jones, C. D.; Nordstrom, K.; Durian, D. J.


    We probe the complex rheology of 3d foams by flowing them through a narrow column. The foam flows upward through one of two vertical rectangular columns with a 4:1 cross-sectional aspect ratio, by bubbling gas through a soapy solution at the base of our apparatus. One column is clear acrylic sheet on all sides, which is slippery to the foam, and results in plug flow. The other column has the narrow surfaces covered with sandpaper, giving them a sticky surface, which creates shear due to the zero velocity boundary condition. As expected, the flow profile between the slippery broad faces is flat, however the profile between the narrow, sticky faces exhibits a curved velocity profile that is strongly dependent on flow rate. We are able to analyze a 2d velocity profile from a 3d bulk system, whereas other recent foam rheology work has been constrained to the 2d system. We employ particle image velocimetry to measure the strain rate, and compute the stress from the pressure drop along the channel, to investigate the local stress-strain relationships in a flowing foam.

  12. Studies of benzothiazole and benzoselenazole squaraines as fluorescent probes for albumins detection. (United States)

    Volkova, Kateryna D; Kovalska, Vladyslava B; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu; Bento, Artur; Reis, Lucinda V; Santos, Paulo F; Almeida, Paulo; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M


    Series of squaraine benzothiazole and benzoselenazole dyes were studied as possible fluorescent probes for the detection of proteins, particularly albumins. It was shown that majority of the studied squaraines give significant fluorescent response on the human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin presence. For squaraine dyes with N-hexyl pendent groups (P-1, P-2, P-3, P-5) about 100-540-fold fluorescence intensity increase upon albumins addition was observed. At the same time in presence of other proteins, namely insulin, avidin from hen egg white, immunoglobulin G (IgG), carbonic anhydrase fluorescence enhancement values were considerably lower -up to 43 times in IgG presence. It was noted that generally, squaraines with long N-hexyl pendent groups demonstrate higher emission increase values upon proteins addition comparing with their analogues with short N-ethyl tails. It was shown that fluorescence intensity enhancement for benzothiazole squaraine dye P-3, relates linearly to the HSA concentration over the wide range-from 0.2 to 500 microg/ml. Together with noticeable selectivity of this dye to albumins, existence of wide dynamic range gives possibility to propose P-3 dye as probe for HSA quantification.

  13. FoamVis, A Visualization System for Foam Research: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan R. Lipsa


    Full Text Available Liquid foams are used in areas such as mineral separation, oil recovery, food and beverage production, sanitation and fire fighting. To improve the quality of products and the efficiency of processes in these areas, foam scientists wish to understand and control foam behaviour. To this end, foam scientists have used foam simulations to model foam behaviour; however, analysing these simulations presents difficult challenges. We describe the main foam research challenges and present the design of FoamVis, the only existing visualization, exploration and analysis application created to address them. We describe FoamVis’ main features, together with relevant design and implementation notes. Our goal is to provide a global overview and individual feature implementation details that would allow a visualization scientist to extend the FoamVis system with new algorithms and adapt it to new requirements. The result is a detailed presentation of the software that is not provided in previous visualization research papers.

  14. Investigation and Development of Air Foam Cushioning (United States)


    Produccion of Foam Beads Using a Spray Drying Technique d. Foams Produced from Gelled Solutions 3. It. 2.1» NON-AQUEOUS SOLVENT-BLOWN FOAMS...hours after being made. Nine series of experiments were then conducted to further evaluate the Oakes Mixer for making gelatin froth foam. In the...first series of tests, 50? gelatin solution was frothed with air. The gelatin solution was highly viscous and clogged the mixing head after six

  15. Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gayer


    Full Text Available Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experimentGayer, M.C.1,2;Rodrigues, D.T.1,2; Escoto, D.F.1; Denardin, E.L.G.2, Roehrs, R.1,21Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, BrazilIntroduction: How to tell if an egg is rotten? How to calculate the volume of an egg? Because the rotten egg float? Why has this characteristic rotten egg smell? Because the gray-green color is formed on the surface of the cooked egg yolk? These issues are commonplace and unnoticed in day-to-day. Our grandmothers know how to tell if an egg is rotten or not, you just put the egg in a glass of water. If it is rotten floating, sinking is good. But why this happens? That they do not know answer. With only one egg chemical reactions work, macromolecules (proteins, density, membranes and conservation of matter. Hydrogen sulphide is responsible for the aroma of a freshly cooked egg. This gas as they break down the molecules of albumin, a protein present in the egg is formed. The color comes from a sulfide precipitation, this time with the Fe2+ ion contained in the yolk (Fe2+ + S2  FeS. The use of simple and easy to perform experiments, correlating various knowledge proves a very useful tool in science education. Objectives: Develop multidisciplinary learning contents through the problem. Materials and methods: The teacher provides students with a boiled egg, salt, a syringe and a cup, a plate and water. The teacher lays the aforementioned issues for students and allows them to exchange information with each other, seeking answers through experimentation. Results and discussion: Students engaged with the activity and interaction of groups in order to solve the proposed problem. Still, through trial and error have sought in various ways to find the answers. This tool takes the student to

  16. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  17. Foam: The "Right Stuff" for Extreme Environments (United States)


    Imi-Tech Corporation, in cooperation with Johnson Space Center, introduced the Solimide AC-500 series of polyimide foam products designed to meet the needs of the aircraft/aerospace industry. These foams accomodate the requirements of state-of-the-art insulation systems. Solimide polyimide foams are currently used in defense, industrial and commercial applications.

  18. Modelling of Churn-Annular foam flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westende, J.M.C. van 't; Shoeibi Omrani, P.; Vercauteren, F.F.; Nennie, E.D.


    Foam assisted lift is a deliquification method in the oil and gas industry, which aims to prevent or postpone countercurrent gas-liquid flow in maturing gas wells or to assist in removing downhole accumulated liquids. According to Nimwegen, who performed experiments with foam flows, foam

  19. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production


    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng


    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass.

  20. A Systematic Analysis of Foam Drainage and Stability: Measurements, Mechanisms, and Implications for Anaerobic Digester Foaming


    Park, Chanhyuk


    The formation of a substantial foam layer has severe impacts on the overall digestion process that is responsible for the major portion of waste stabilization. An understanding of dynamics of foam produced by three primary causes - dispersed gas bubbles, surface-active materials, and hydrophobic compounds - provides insight into the prevention of the foam layer and into the control of the foam stability. To better understand the mechanisms in three-phase foam dynamics, we developed a systemat...

  1. Structure design of and experimental research on a two-stage laval foam breaker for foam fluid recycling. (United States)

    Wang, Jin-song; Cao, Pin-lu; Yin, Kun


    Environmental, economical and efficient antifoaming technology is the basis for achievement of foam drilling fluid recycling. The present study designed a novel two-stage laval mechanical foam breaker that primarily uses vacuum generated by Coanda effect and Laval principle to break foam. Numerical simulation results showed that the value and distribution of negative pressure of two-stage laval foam breaker were larger than that of the normal foam breaker. Experimental results showed that foam-breaking efficiency of two-stage laval foam breaker was higher than that of normal foam breaker, when gas-to-liquid ratio and liquid flow rate changed. The foam-breaking efficiency of normal foam breaker decreased rapidly with increasing foam stability, whereas the two-stage laval foam breaker remained unchanged. Foam base fluid would be recycled using two-stage laval foam breaker, which would reduce the foam drilling cost sharply and waste disposals that adverse by affect the environment.

  2. Effects of dietary boron on performance, egg production, egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study dietary boron at different doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg feed) was supplemented to layers from 4 to 64 weeks of age. There was no significant difference between treatments with respect of mortality, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and cracked eggs. Significant increases were observed in body ...

  3. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and some egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and other egg quality traits for each variety were also determined. Mean egg weight was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the Brown variety (10.53g) than in the Black and White varieties. Likewise the Brown variety was significantly higher (P<0.05) in egg width, yolk weight, yolk ...

  4. Process for epoxy foam production (United States)

    Celina, Mathias C [Albuquerque, NM


    An epoxy resin mixture with at least one epoxy resin of between approximately 60 wt % and 90 wt %, a maleic anhydride of between approximately 1 wt % and approximately 30 wt %, and an imidazole catalyst of less than approximately 2 wt % where the resin mixture is formed from at least one epoxy resin with a 1-30 wt % maleic anhydride compound and an imidazole catalyst at a temperature sufficient to keep the maleic anhydride compound molten, the resin mixture reacting to form a foaming resin which can then be cured at a temperature greater than C. to form an epoxy foam.

  5. Heat exchanger using graphite foam (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John


    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  6. Thermal Expansion of Polyurethane Foam (United States)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Sullivan, Roy M.


    Closed cell foams are often used for thermal insulation. In the case of the Space Shuttle, the External Tank uses several thermal protection systems to maintain the temperature of the cryogenic fuels. A few of these systems are polyurethane, closed cell foams. In an attempt to better understand the foam behavior on the tank, we are in the process of developing and improving thermal-mechanical models for the foams. These models will start at the microstructural level and progress to the overall structural behavior of the foams on the tank. One of the key properties for model characterization and verification is thermal expansion. Since the foam is not a material, but a structure, the modeling of the expansion is complex. It is also exacerbated by the anisoptropy of the material. During the spraying and foaming process, the cells become elongated in the rise direction and this imparts different properties in the rise direction than in the transverse directions. Our approach is to treat the foam as a two part structure consisting of the polymeric cell structure and the gas inside the cells. The polymeric skeleton has a thermal expansion of its own which is derived from the basic polymer chemistry. However, a major contributor to the thermal expansion is the volume change associated with the gas inside of the closed cells. As this gas expands it exerts pressure on the cell walls and changes the shape and size of the cells. The amount that this occurs depends on the elastic and viscoplastic properties of the polymer skeleton. The more compliant the polymeric skeleton, the more influence the gas pressure has on the expansion. An additional influence on the expansion process is that the polymeric skeleton begins to breakdown at elevated temperatures and releases additional gas species into the cell interiors, adding to the gas pressure. The fact that this is such a complex process makes thermal expansion ideal for testing the models. This report focuses on the thermal

  7. Risk factors for the failure to achieve normal albumin serum levels after albumin transfusion in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Arafuri


    Conclusions Failure to achieve normal albumin levels after transfusion in neonates was significantly associated with low albumin level prior to transfusion, critical illness, sepsis, and >24-hour interval between transfusion and post-transfusion albumin examination.[Paediatr Indones. 2016;56:129-33.].

  8. Improvement of the Shami goat semen quality by adding bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Azawi


    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to improve the quality of Shami goat semen diluted with Tris diluent by adding bovine serum albumin. In the current study, six male goats were used. Semen was collected using artificial vagina of one ejaculate per week of every male included in this study. This study was performed during the breeding season from 1 \\ 10 \\ 2012 to 1 \\ 12 \\ 2012. In this study, two semen diluents were use first; Tris- fructose- egg yolk 2.5% and second Tris - fructose - 2.5% egg yolk with 1% of bovine serum albumin. Diluted semen samples were cooled gradually and stored at 5 ° C. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined every 24 h of storage to 144 h. These tests includes the proportion of live sperm and the percentage of secondary abnormalities of the sperm, the percentage of sperm acrosomal defects and percentage of progressive motility using a computer-aided sperm analysis. These results showed that the addition of bovine serum albumin with egg yolk to semen of male goats led to improved qualities of semen significantly (P<0.05 including the proportion of live sperm and the percentage of secondary abnormalities of the sperm, the percentage of sperm acrosomal defects and percentage of progressive motility. It could be concluded from the results of the current study, the possibility of storing goat semen for more than six days with alive sperm of more than 50% and the percentage of the progressive motility of more than 40% when adding bovine albumin serum to dilute goat semen at 1% level and this result has not reached by any previous study.

  9. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.


    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  10. LCA of Egg Phospholipids


    Berggren, Anders


    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  11. Foam Transport in Porous Media - A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhong, Lirong


    Amendment solutions with or without surfactants have been used to remove contaminants from soil. However, it has drawbacks such that the amendment solution often mobilizes the plume, and its movement is controlled by gravity and preferential flow paths. Foam is an emulsion-like, two-phase system in which gas cells are dispersed in a liquid and separated by thin liquid films called lamellae. Potential advantages of using foams in sub-surface remediation include providing better control on the volume of fluids injected, uniformity of contact, and the ability to contain the migration of contaminant laden liquids. It is expected that foam can serve as a carrier of amendments for vadose zone remediation, e.g., at the Hanford Site. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s EM-20 program, a numerical simulation capability will be added to the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) flow simulator. The primary purpose of this document is to review the modeling approaches of foam transport in porous media. However, as an aid to understanding the simulation approaches, some experiments under unsaturated conditions and the processes of foam transport are also reviewed. Foam may be formed when the surfactant concentration is above the critical micelle concentration. There are two main types of foams – the ball foam (microfoam) and the polyhedral foam. The characteristics of bulk foam are described by the properties such as foam quality, texture, stability, density, surface tension, disjoining pressure, etc. Foam has been used to flush contaminants such as metals, organics, and nonaqueous phase liquids from unsaturated soil. Ball foam, or colloidal gas aphrons, reportedly have been used for soil flushing in contaminated site remediation and was found to be more efficient than surfactant solutions on the basis of weight of contaminant removed per gram of surfactant. Experiments also indicate that the polyhedral foam can be used to enhance soil remediation. The

  12. Method of making a cyanate ester foam (United States)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry


    A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

  13. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  14. Preparation of High-Grade Powders from Tomato Paste Using a Vacuum Foam Drying Method. (United States)

    Sramek, Martin; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; van Kampen, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold; Kohlus, Reinhard


    We present a rapid and gentle drying method for the production of high-grade tomato powders from double concentrated tomato paste, comparing results with powders obtained by foam mat air drying and freeze dried powders. The principle of this method consists of drying tomato paste in foamed state at low temperatures in vacuum. The formulations were dried at temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C and vacuum of 200 mbar. Foam stability was affected by low serum viscosity and the presence of solid particles in tomato paste. Consequently, serum viscosity was increased by maltodextrin addition, yielding optimum stability at tomato paste:maltodextrin ratio of 2.4:1 (w/w) in dry matter. Material foamability was improved by addition of 0.5% (w/w, fresh weight) egg white. Because of solid particles in tomato paste, foam air filling had to be limited to critical air volume fraction of Φ = 0.7. The paste was first pre-foamed to Φ = 0.2 and subsequently expanded in vacuo. After drying to a moisture content of 5.6% to 7.5% wet base (w.b.), the materials obtained were in glassy state. Qualities of the resulting powders were compared with those produced by freeze and air drying. Total color changes were the least after vacuum drying, whereas air drying resulted in noticeable color changes. Vacuum foam drying at 50 °C led to insignificant carotenoid losses, being equivalent to the time-consuming freeze drying method. In contrast, air drying caused lycopene and β-carotene losses of 18% to 33% and 14% to 19% respectively. Thus, vacuum foam drying enables production of high-grade tomato powders being qualitatively similar to powders obtained by freeze drying. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Physical properties evaluation of roselle extract-egg white mixture under various drying temperatures (United States)

    Triyastuti, M. S.; Kumoro, A. C.; Djaeni, M.


    Roselle contains anthocyanin that is potential for food colorant. Occasionally, roselle extract is provided in dry powder prepared under high temperature. In this case, the anthocyanin color degrades due to the intervention of heat. The foammat drying with egg white is a potential method to speed up the drying process as well as minimize color degradation. This research aims to study the physical properties of roselle extract under foam mat drying. As indicators, the powder size and color intensity were observed. The result showed that at high temperatures, roselle powder under foam mat drying has the fine size with porous structure. However, at the higher the drying temperature the color retention decreased.

  16. Effect of Chemical Reagents in Foam Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Beom; Yoonm Inho; Jung, Chonghun; Choi, Wangkyu [Korea Atomic Energy research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The decontamination foam comprises at least one surfactant to generate the foam and one or more chemical reactants to achieve the dissolution of the contaminants at the solid surface. In order to improve the efficiency of decontamination foam, the present study attempts to find the optimum condition of chemical reagents to the foaming solution. This paper deals with understanding the effects of chemical reagents involved in foam decontamination efficiency, evaluation of side effect on foam stability and finally the improvement brought by formulation science. Basic experiments using the nanoparticle-based complex fluid decontamination foam have been performed in order to development of decontamination foam technology. Results show that in the case of coexistence of chemical reagents, for the purpose of the good foam ability and foam stability, it is necessary to increase the concentration of surfactant. In corrosion test, metal materials including carbon steel, stainless steel 304, aluminum, inconel 600 and cupper, generally corrosion solubility percent in nitric acid solution were higher than in phosphoric acid solution. Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of three decontamination formulations on contaminant carbon steel component of dry oven. The results shows decontamination factor was in the range of 6.1∼13.4. Results suggest that our foam formulations have a feasibility potential to removal of about 83∼93% total radioactivity in contaminant.

  17. Numerical Modeling of Foam Drilling Hydraulics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Baris


    Full Text Available The use of foam as a drilling fluid was developed to meet a special set of conditions under which other common drilling fluids had failed. Foam drilling is defined as the process of making boreholes by utilizing foam as the circulating fluid. When compared with conventional drilling, underbalanced or foam drilling has several advantages. These advantages include: avoidance of lost circulation problems, minimizing damage to pay zones, higher penetration rates and bit life. Foams are usually characterized by the quality, the ratio of the volume of gas, and the total foam volume. Obtaining dependable pressure profiles for aerated (gasified fluids and foam is more difficult than for single phase fluids, since in the former ones the drilling mud contains a gas phase that is entrained within the fluid system. The primary goal of this study is to expand the knowledge-base of the hydrodynamic phenomena that occur in a foam drilling operation. In order to gain a better understanding of foam drilling operations, a hydrodynamic model is developed and run at different operating conditions. For this purpose, the flow of foam through the drilling system is modeled by invoking the basic principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. The model was designed to allow gas and liquid flow at desired volumetric flow rates through the drillstring and annulus. Parametric studies are conducted in order to identify the most influential variables in the hydrodynamic modeling of foam flow.

  18. Constitutive modelling of aluminium foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, W.M.; Lemmen, P.P.M.


    In this paper an aluminium foam model is proposed for a vehicle crash analysis. The model assumes that there is no coupling between stresses and strains in different principal directions. The stress in each principle direction is then interpolated from an experimental recorded uniaxial stress strain

  19. Vacuum forming of thermoplastic foam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Remko; Pronk, Ruud


    The process of thermoforming of foam sheet is analyzed using both finite element modeling and experiments. A simple constitutive model for finite tensile deformations of closed cellular material around its glass transition temperature is proposed, starting from well-known results from Gibson and

  20. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K


    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after an el...... brushing with fluoride toothpaste....

  1. Viscous Control of the Foam Glass Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    The production of foam glass as heat insulating material is an important industrial process because it enables low-cost recycling of glass waste from a variety of chemical compositions. Optimization of the foaming process of new glass waste compositions is time consuming, since many factors affect...... the foaming process such as temperature, particle size, type and concentration of foaming agent. The foaming temperature is one of the key factors, because even small temperature changes can affect the melt viscosity by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, it is important to establish the viscosity range...... in which the foaming process should take place, particularly when the type of recycled cullet is changed or several types of cullet are mixed in one batch. According to recent glass literature, the foaming process should occur at viscosity 103 to 105 Pa s. However, no systematic studies have hitherto been...

  2. Fibrinogen adsorption on blocked surface of albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin


    We have investigated the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen onto PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and glass surfaces and how pre-adsorption of albumin onto these surfaces can affect the adsorption of later added fibrinogen. For materials and devices being exposed to blood, adsorption...... of fibrinogen is often a non-wanted event, since fibrinogen is part of the clotting cascade and unspecific adsorption of fibrinogen can have an influence on the activation of platelets. Albumin is often used as blocking agent for avoiding unspecific protein adsorption onto surfaces in devices designed to handle...... energies, the adsorption of both albumin and fibrinogen has been monitored simultaneously on the same sample. Information about topography and coverage of adsorbed protein layers has been obtained using AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) analysis in liquid. Our studies show that albumin adsorbs in a multilayer...

  3. Albumin Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information (United States)

    ... page: Albumin Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Albumin Blood Test? An albumin blood test measures the amount of ...

  4. Acoustic properties of aluminium foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, L. E.


    Full Text Available The article discusses normal incidence sound absorption by aluminium foam manufactured with powder metallurgy technology. Aluminium foams with different surface morphologies were obtained by varying the type of precursor and adding filler materials during the foaming process. The sound absorption coefficients found for these aluminium foams were compared to the coefficient for commercial foams marketed under the name ALPORAS. The effect of foam thickness on the absorption coefficient was studied for each sample prepared. The combination of good acoustic and mechanical properties makes aluminium foams particularly attractive products. The study included an analysis of the effect of 2-, 5- and 10-cm air gaps on the sound absorption coefficient. The results showed that such gaps, which are routinely used in construction to reduce the reverberation period in indoor premises, raised the low frequency absorption coefficient significantly. This increase was found to depend on aluminium foam density and thickness and the depth of the air gap. In this same line, we have investigated the absorption coefficient of the aluminium foams combined with a mineral fiber panel.Se presenta un estudio del coeficiente de absorción acústica a incidencia normal de espumas de aluminio fabricadas mediante la técnica pulvimetalúrgica. Se fabricaron espumas de aluminio de distinta morfología superficial variando el tipo de precursor y usando materiales de relleno durante el proceso de espumación. Se muestra un estudio comparativo del coeficiente de absorción acústica de las espumas de aluminio fabricadas y las espumas comerciales conocidas como ALPORAS. Para cada muestra fabricada se estudió la influencia del espesor sobre el valor del coeficiente de absorción.El atractivo de las espumas de aluminio radica en que en ellas se combinan interesantes propiedades acústicas y mecánicas. Se analizó el efecto de una cámara de aire de 2, 5 y 10 cm de anchura sobre el

  5. Foam relaxation in fractures and narrow channels (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yao; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Perazzo, Antonio; Stone, Howard A.


    Various applications, from foam manufacturing to hydraulic fracturing with foams, involve pressure-driven flow of foams in narrow channels. We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of this problem accounting for the compressible nature of the foam. In particular, in our experiments the foam is initially compressed in one channel and then upon flow into a second channel the compressed foam relaxes as it moves. A plug flow is observed in the tube and the pressure at the entrance of the tube is higher than the exit. We measure the volume collected at the exit of the tube, V, as a function of injection flow rate, tube length and diameter. Two scaling behaviors for V as a function of time are observed depending on whether foam compression is important or not. Our work may relate to foam fracturing, which saves water usage in hydraulic fracturing, more efficient enhanced oil recovery via foam injection, and various materials manufacturing processes involving pressure-driven flow foams.

  6. Mechanisms of foam formation in anaerobic digesters. (United States)

    Subramanian, Bhargavi; Pagilla, Krishna R


    An anaerobic digester (AD) is the most essential step to generate energy in the form of biogas from waste. AD foaming is widespread and leads to deterioration of the AD process and operation. In extreme conditions, AD foaming poses a significant safety risk and considerable economic impacts. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the fundamentals of AD foaming to develop effective strategies that can help minimize the foaming impacts. Several aspects of AD foaming have attracted considerable research attention, however, the focused has been mainly on site specific causes and prevention. Here, the available three-phase foam literature is reviewed with an emphasis on the fundamental aspects of bubble formation in AD: similarities between AD foams and other "desirable" foams, surface rheology, physico-chemical aspects of carbon dioxide (CO2) in digesters, dynamics of the gas-phase, pH, alkalinity and certain relationships between these factors are discussed. All of the abovementioned fundamental aspects seem to be involved in AD foam formation. However, the detailed relationship between these uncontrolled and controlled factors, foam formation and its implications for process and operation of AD is still inconclusive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 46 CFR 108.463 - Foam rate: Protein. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foam rate: Protein. 108.463 Section 108.463 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.463 Foam rate: Protein. (a) If the outlets of a protein foam extinguishing system are in a space, the foam rate at each outlet must be at...

  8. Determination of fluoroquinolones in eggs using in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Fang; Lin, Bo; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Feng, Yu-Qi


    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method using in-tube solid-phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) based on poly(methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (MAA-EGDMA) monolith coupled to HPLC with fluorescence and UV detection was developed for the determination of five fluoroquinolones (FQs). Ofloxacin (OFL), norfloxacin (NOR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), enrofloxacin (ENRO), and sarafloxacin (SARA) can be enriched and determined in the spiked eggs and albumins. CIP/ENRO in eggs and albumins of ENRO-treated hens were also studied using the proposed method. Only homogenization, dilution, and centrifugation were required before the sample was supplied to the in-tube microextraction, and no organic solvents were consumed in the procedures. Under the optimized extraction conditions, good extraction efficiency for the five FQs was obtained with no matrix interference in the process of extraction and the subsequent chromatographic separation. The detection limits (S/N=3) were found to be 0.1-2.6 ng g(-1) and 0.2-2.4 ng g(-1) in whole egg and egg albumin, respectively. Good linearity could be achieved over the range 2-500 ng mL(-1) for the five FQs with regression coefficients above 0.9995 in both whole egg and albumin. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated at three concentration levels, with the resulting relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 7%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of ENRO and its primary metabolite CIP in the eggs and albumins of ENRO-treated hens.

  9. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  10. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  11. ALUHAB — The Superior Aluminium Foam (United States)

    Babcsan, N.; Beke, S.; Makk, P.; Soki, P.; Számel, Gy; Degischer, H. P.; Mokso, R.

    A new metal foaming technology has been developed to produce aluminum foams with controlled cell sizes, a wide range of alloy compositions, and attractive mechanical properties. ALUHAB aluminium foams are manufactured from a special foamable aluminium alloy containing ultrafine particles (80-3000 nm). The technology uses high temperature ultrasonication to homogeneously disperse the particles and thus create a stable, foamable aluminum melt. Oscillating gas injector (loud-nozzle) technology permits the injection of optimally sized bubbles into the melt that are independent of the injector orifice diameter. Using this direct gas injection method, bubble size is regulated by the frequency and the power of the ultrasound, producing uniform bubble sizes in the sub-millimeter range. The technology results in extremely stable metal foams which can be cast into complex forms and re-melted without loss of foam integrity. Processing methods and properties of the ALUHAB foams will be discussed.

  12. Application and future of solid foams (United States)

    Bienvenu, Yves


    To conclude this series of chapters on solid foam materials, a review of industrial current applications and of mid-term market perspectives centred on manmade foams is given, making reference to natural cellular materials. Although the polymeric foam industrial development overwhelms the rest and finds applications on many market segments, more attention will be paid to the emerging market of inorganic-especially metallic-foams (and cellular materials) and their applications, present or upcoming. It is shown that the final applications of solid foams are primarily linked to transport and the present-day development of the different classes of solid foams is contrasted between functional applications and structural applications. xml:lang="fr"

  13. Activated, coal-based carbon foam (United States)

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw


    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  14. Bubbles and foams in microfluidics. (United States)

    Huerre, Axel; Miralles, Vincent; Jullien, Marie-Caroline


    Microfluidics offers great tools to produce highly-controlled dispersions of gas into liquid, from isolated bubbles to organized microfoams. Potential technological applications are manifold, from novel materials to scaffolds for tissue engineering or enhanced oil recovery. More fundamentally, microfluidics makes it possible to investigate the physics of complex systems such as foams at scales where the capillary forces become dominant, in model experiments involving few well-controlled parameters. In this context, this review does not have the ambition to detail in a comprehensive manner all the techniques and applications involving bubbles and foams in microfluidics. Rather, it focuses on particular consequences of working at the microscale, under confinement, and hopes to provide insight into the physics of such systems. The first part of this work focuses on bubbles, and more precisely on (i) bubble generation, where the confinement can suppress capillary instabilities while inertial effects may play a role, and (ii) bubble dynamics, paying special attention to the lubrication film between bubble and wall and the influence of confinement. The second part addresses the formation and dynamics of microfoams, emphasizing structural differences from macroscopic foams and the influence of the confinement.

  15. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation (United States)

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  16. Detection of Egg Production of Tegal Duck by Blood Protein Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismoyowati Ismoyowati


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of transfferine, albumine, and haemoglobine loci to egg production characteristic of Tegal duck.  100 lying of Tegal ducks keeping by batteray-pen were used in this study.  Individual egg production was recorded until period of 120 days. Blood protein polymorphism analysed by electrophoresis method, and blood sample taken from each ducks.. Egg production and transfferine albumine, and haemoglobine phenotipe on electrophoresis gel were observed in this study.  Genotipe and gene frequencies and genetic variant were applied in data analysis. The result showed that (1 in the transferine locus were identified 3 aleles forming 4 genotipes (TfAA,TfAB, TfBB, and TfBC, (2 in albumine were identified 3 aleles forming 5 genotipes (AlbAA, AlbAB, AlbAC, AlbBB and AlbBC and (3 haemoglobine locus were identified 6 aleles forming 4 genotipes ((HbAA, HbAB, HbAC, HbBB, HbBC dan HbCC.  This study demostrated that B gene frequenci in transfferine, albumine and haemoglonine loci was highest than A and C gene frequency.  Tegal Duck with AA genotipe on all loci had higher egg production than BB and CC homozigote.  This research revealed that the most efective of selection method by haemoglobine protein polymorphism. (Animal Production 10(2: 122-128 (2008   Key Words: Tegal duck, egg production, selection, blood protein polymorphism

  17. Neglected Food Bubbles: The Espresso Coffee Foam


    Illy, Ernesto; Navarini, Luciano


    Coffee beverage known as espresso, must be topped by a velvety thick, reddish-brown foam called crema, to be considered properly prepared and to be appreciated by connoisseurs. In spite of the relevant role played by crema as a quality marker, espresso coffee foam has not yet been the subject of detailed investigations. Only recently, some aspects of the Physics and Chemistry behind the espresso coffee foam have attracted the attention of scientists. In addition to sharing several characteris...

  18. FoAM Kernow Activity Report 2016


    Griffiths, Amber; Griffiths, David


    This review shows selected projects from the FoAM Kernow studio in 2016. FoAM is a network of transdisciplinary labs at the intersection of art, science, nature and everyday life. FoAM’s members are generalists - people who work across disparate fields in an entangled, speculative culture. Research and creative projects at FoAM combine elements of futurecrafting, citizen science, prototyping, experience design and process facilitation to re-imagine possible futures, and artistic experime...

  19. FoAM Kernow Activity Report 2017


    Griffiths, Amber; Weatherill, Aidan; Griffiths, David


    This review shows selected projects from the FoAM Kernow studio in 2017. FoAM is a network of transdisciplinary labs at the intersection of art, science, nature and everyday life. FoAM’s members are generalists - people who work across disparate fields in an entangled, speculative culture. Research and creative projects at FoAM combine elements of futurecrafting, citizen science, prototyping, experience design and process facilitation to re-imagine possible futures.

  20. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.


    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  1. Organic pollutant loading and biodegradability of firefighting foam (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Zhong; Bao, Zhi-ming; Hu, Cheng; Li-Shuai, Jing; Chen, Yang


    Firefighting foam has been widely used as the high-performance extinguishing agent in extinguishing the liquid poor fire. It was concerned for its environmental impacts due to its massive usage. In this study, the organic loading level and the biodegradability of 18 firefighting foams commonly used in China were evaluated and compared. The COD and TOC of firefighting foam concentrates are extremely high. Furthermore, those of foam solutions are also much higher than regular wastewater. The COD/TOC ratio of synthetic foams are higher than protein foams. The 28-day biodegradation rates of 18 firefighting foams are all over 60%, indicating that they are all ready biodegradable. Protein foams (P, FP and FFFP) have the higher organic loading and lower 28-day biodegradation rates compared to the synthetic foams (Class A foam, AFFF and S). The short and long-term impact of protein foams on the environment are larger than synthetic foams.

  2. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders


    PURPOSE: Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X......-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT......-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location....

  3. CalCOFI Egg Counts (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  4. Influence of the glass particle size on the foaming process and physical characteristics of foam glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng


    –3 mm due to a faster coalescence process. However, by quenching the sample from the foaming to the annealing temperature the pore size is reduced by a factor of 5–10. The foams with an apparent density of open-porous. The foams exhibit a thermal conductivity as lowas 38.1m...

  5. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites (United States)

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  6. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.


    The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because a...... in aqueous compartments. - Bojesen, I. N., and H. S. Hansen. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin....

  7. The phylotypic egg timer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.


    Von Baer and Haeckel provided the basis of what came to be known as the phylotypic egg timer: during their development vertebrate embryos pass through a period in which they show the archetype of the vertebrate body plan. During this period vertebrate embryos are similar, in both form and

  8. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.


    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete

  9. The Egg model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.


    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate

  10. Foam: a multiphase system with many facets. (United States)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Arif, Shehla; Tsai, Jih-Chiang


    Liquid foams are an extreme case of multiphase flow systems: capable of flow despite a very high dispersed phase volume fraction, yet exhibiting many characteristics of not only viscoelastic materials but also elastic solids. The non-trivial, well-defined geometry of foam bubbles is at the heart of a plethora of dynamical processes on widely varying length and time scales. We highlight recent developments in foam drainage (liquid dynamics) and foam rheology (flow of the entire gas-liquid system), emphasizing that many poorly understood features of other materials have precisely defined and quantifiable analogues in aqueous foams, where the only ingredients are well-known material parameters of Newtonian fluids and bubble geometry, together with subtle but important information on the surface mobility of the foam. Not only does this make foams an ideal model system for the theorist, but also an exciting object for experimental studies, in which dynamical processes span length scales from nanometres (thin films) to metres (foam continuum flows) and time scales from microseconds (film rupture) to minutes (foam rheology).

  11. AC induction field heating of graphite foam (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Rios, Orlando; Kisner, Roger


    A magneto-energy apparatus includes an electromagnetic field source for generating a time-varying electromagnetic field. A graphite foam conductor is disposed within the electromagnetic field. The graphite foam when exposed to the time-varying electromagnetic field conducts an induced electric current, the electric current heating the graphite foam. An energy conversion device utilizes heat energy from the heated graphite foam to perform a heat energy consuming function. A device for heating a fluid and a method of converting energy are also disclosed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Rossen


    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media. The most significant progress during this period was made on Tasks 2 and 3. Research on Task 2 focused on simulating the effect of gas trapping on foam mobility during foam injection and during subsequent injection of liquid. Gas trapping during liquid injection is crucial both to injectivity during liquid injection in surfactant-alternating-gas foam (SAG) projects and also provides a window into trapping mechanisms that apply during foam flow. We updated our simulator for foam (Rossen et al., 1999; Cheng et al., 2000) to account explicitly for the first time for the effects of gas trapping on gas mobility in foam and in liquid injected after foam, and for the effects of pressure gradient on gas trapping. The foam model fits steady-state foam behavior in both high- and low-quality flow regimes (Alvarez et al., 2001) and steady-state liquid mobility after foam. The simulator also fits the transition period between foam and liquid injection in laboratory corefloods qualitatively with no additional adjustable parameters. Research on Task 3 focused on foam generation in homogeneous porous media. In steady gas-liquid flow in homogeneous porous media with surfactant present, there is often observed a critical injection velocity or pressure gradient {del}{sub p}{sup min} at which foam generation occurs. Earlier research on foam generation was extended with extensive data for a variety of porous

  13. Determination of albumins by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of Tb{sup 3+}-oxolinic acid complex in presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zheng Jinhua [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Guo Changying [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail:; Ding Honghong [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hu Zhiyong [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li Chao [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)


    It is found that the fluorescence intensity of Tb{sup 3+}-oxolinic acid (OA) complex can be greatly quenched by albumins in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SLS). Under optimum conditions, the quenched fluorescence intensity is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10{sup -8}-1.0x10{sup -5} g ml{sup -1} for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 1.0x10{sup -7}-1.0x10{sup -5} g ml{sup -1} for human serum albumin (HSA) and 4.0x10{sup -7}-1.0x10{sup -5} g ml{sup -1} for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 2.1x10{sup -8}, 2.5x10{sup -8} and 5.0x10{sup -8} g ml{sup -1}, respectively. In addition, the interaction mechanism is also investigated.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Rossen


    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media. Significant progress was made during this period on all three Tasks. Regarding Task 1, we studied the behavior of foam made without polymer, with low-molecular-weight and high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide, and with xanthan polymer in sandpacks. Results consistently showed that polymer does not stabilize foam in porous media per se. Rather, it destabilizes foam to some extent, but may increase the viscosity of water sufficiently to increase the resistance to flow in spite of the lower intrinsic stability of the foam. This is consistent with the hypothesis the motivated our study. Results also showed that polymer shifts behavior from the high-quality foam-flow regime toward the low-quality regime, consistent with our initial hypothesis. Other aspects of the experimental results were puzzling and are discussed in the text of this report. Research on Task 2 included building an apparatus for gas-phase tracer tests for direct measurement of trapped-gas saturation with foam. We also investigated the nature of the low-quality foam regime, which is thought to be controlled by gas trapping and mobilization. In both the studies of polymers and foam and separate studies of CO{sub 2} foam, we observed behavior that seems to be related to the low-quality regime, but shows unexpected trends: specifically, a decrease in pressure gradient with increasing liquid injection rate, at fixed gas injection rate

  15. Effect of combination of chitosan coating and irradiation on physicochemical and functional properties of chicken egg during room-temperature storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xianxe [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Aera; Kim, Dong Hun [Quality Control and Utilization of Animal Products, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bong Duk [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mooha [Division of Food and Animal Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:


    The effect of combination of chitosan coating and irradiation on quality and storage stability of shell egg was investigated. Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on eggshell was not detected by irradiation of 2.0 kGy at day 0 and/or chitosan coating (1%, pH 5.0) after 3 days of storage. One-day-old fresh chicken egg was chitosan coated and irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy by gamma ray. The egg samples were stored at room temperature for 14 days and the effects of the combination treatment on internal physicochemical and functional properties were investigated. The Haugh unit of egg was decreased by irradiation even at 0.5 kGy. Irradiation increased the lipid oxidation in egg yolk at 2 kGy but the egg with chitosan coating reduced the level of lipid oxidation. Irradiation increased the foaming ability of egg white and decreased viscosity of egg yolk and white. Results suggested that combination of irradiation and chitosan coating can improve safety of shell egg but irradiation treatment may reduce the egg quality for direct consumption. However, an improved functional property for further processing and efficient separation of egg white and yolk can be expected for egg processing industry using irradiation.

  16. Foam-Driven Fractures of an Elastic Matrix (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yao; Smiddy, Sam; Stone, Howard


    We report an experimental study of foam-driven fractures in an elastic matrix. When a pressurized foam is constantly injected into a gelatin matrix with a constant flow rate, the foam generates a disc-like fracture which is commonly observed in liquid-driven fractures. Compare to liquid-driven fractures, foam-driven fractures grow faster with time. We investigate how the rheological behaviour of foams affects the fracture characteristics by varying the air volume fraction of the foam, the types and concentration of surfactants in the foam. Foam-fracturing reduces the environmental costs of hydraulic fracturing, which inspires this laboratory study.

  17. The mechanism of foaming and thermal conductivity of glasses foamed with MnO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng


    bubbles and subsequent growth. We discuss evolution of pore morphology in terms of pore number density, pore size and closed porosity. The thermal conductivity of the foam glasses is linearly dependent on density. The heat transfer mechanism is revealed by comparing the experimental data with structural...... reduce, causing further formation of O2 gas and foaming of the glass melt. Increasing the treatment temperature and time enhances foam expansion, Mn2O3 dissolution, and lowers the closed porosity. Once the foam reaches a percolated stage, the foam continues to grow. This is caused by nucleation of new...

  18. Foam nests provide context-dependent thermal insulation to embryos of three leptodactylid frogs. (United States)

    Méndez-Narváez, J; Flechas, S V; Amézquita, A


    The choice of adequate breeding habitat and its associated thermoregulatory conditions are thought to be important in the evolution of amphibian reproductive strategies. Among leptodactylid frogs, there is a terrestrial cline in the oviposition sites chosen to build foam nests for eggs. Although several functions have been attributed to foam nests, their role in temperature regulation for embryos is unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that foam nests buffer embryos from variation in air temperature. We examined the degree of terrestrial nest sites in three species, finding a terrestrial cline of sites in terms of distance from water. We tested whether this nest-insulation effect varied among these species that differ in the degree of terrestrial nest sites and whether translocating nests impacted embryonic mortality. Our results demonstrate a negative effect of translocating aquatic nests to land, inferred from the highest hatching success in natural nests sites. All nests attenuated environmental thermal variation, but more terrestrial nests buffered embryos from a greater range of temperatures than did aquatic ones. Altogether, our data indicate that foam nests insulate embryos from daily temperature fluctuations among leptodactylid frogs with different degrees of terrestrial nests, which may well have contributed to the evolution of this reproductive strategy.

  19. Neglected Food Bubbles: The Espresso Coffee Foam. (United States)

    Illy, Ernesto; Navarini, Luciano


    Coffee beverage known as espresso, must be topped by a velvety thick, reddish-brown foam called crema, to be considered properly prepared and to be appreciated by connoisseurs. In spite of the relevant role played by crema as a quality marker, espresso coffee foam has not yet been the subject of detailed investigations. Only recently, some aspects of the Physics and Chemistry behind the espresso coffee foam have attracted the attention of scientists. In addition to sharing several characteristics with other food foams like beer foam, for instance, the espresso coffee foam may contain solid particles (minute coffee cell-wall fragments), it is subjected to a remarkable temperature gradient and its continuous phase is an oil in water emulsion rendering it a very complex system to be studied. Moreover, in the typical regular espresso coffee cup volume (serving) of 25-30 mL, crema represents at least 10% of the total volume, and this is a limitation in obtaining experimental data by conventional instruments. The present work is aimed at reviewing the literature on espresso coffee foam. The traditional espresso brewing method will be briefly described with emphasis on the steps particularly relevant to foam formation and stabilization. In addition to present up-dated experimental data on surface properties at solid/beverage and air/beverage interface, recent advances on the espresso foam formation mechanism, as well as on foam stability, will be critically examined. The key role played by carbon dioxide generated by roasting and the effects of low and high-molecular-weight coffee compounds in promoting/inhibiting the espresso coffee foam will be discussed and emphasized.

  20. Analysis of Influence of Foaming Mixture Components on Structure and Properties of Foam Glass (United States)

    Karandashova, N. S.; Goltsman, B. M.; Yatsenko, E. A.


    It is recommended to use high-quality thermal insulation materials to increase the energy efficiency of buildings. One of the best thermal insulation materials is foam glass - durable, porous material that is resistant to almost any effect of substance. Glass foaming is a complex process depending on the foaming mode and the initial mixture composition. This paper discusses the influence of all components of the mixture – glass powder, foaming agent, enveloping material and water - on the foam glass structure. It was determined that glass powder is the basis of the future material. A foaming agent forms a gas phase in the process of thermal decomposition. This aforementioned gas foams the viscous glass mass. The unreacted residue thus changes a colour of the material. The enveloping agent slows the foaming agent decomposition preventing its premature burning out and, in addition, helps to accelerate the sintering of glass particles. The introduction of water reduces the viscosity of the foaming mixture making it evenly distributed and also promotes the formation of water gas that additionally foams the glass mass. The optimal composition for producing the foam glass with the density of 150 kg/m3 is defined according to the results of the research.

  1. Detailed investigation of the microbial community in foaming activated sludge reveals novel foam formers (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Yu, Ke; Zhang, T.


    Foaming of activated sludge (AS) causes adverse impacts on wastewater treatment operation and hygiene. In this study, we investigated the microbial communities of foam, foaming AS and non-foaming AS in a sewage treatment plant via deep-sequencing of the taxonomic marker genes 16S rRNA and mycobacterial rpoB and a metagenomic approach. In addition to Actinobacteria, many genera (e.g., Clostridium XI, Arcobacter, Flavobacterium) were more abundant in the foam than in the AS. On the other hand, deep-sequencing of rpoB did not detect any obligate pathogenic mycobacteria in the foam. We found that unknown factors other than the abundance of Gordonia sp. could determine the foaming process, because abundance of the same species was stable before and after a foaming event over six months. More interestingly, although the dominant Gordonia foam former was the closest with G. amarae, it was identified as an undescribed Gordonia species by referring to the 16S rRNA gene, gyrB and, most convincingly, the reconstructed draft genome from metagenomic reads. Our results, based on metagenomics and deep sequencing, reveal that foams are derived from diverse taxa, which expands previous understanding and provides new insight into the underlying complications of the foaming phenomenon in AS. PMID:25560234

  2. The role of albumin conformation in the binding of diazepam to human serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, J.; Hart, B.J. 't; Gier, J.J. de


    The effect of hydrogen, chloride and calcium ions on the binding of diazepare to human serum albumin has been studied by circular dichroism and equilibrium dialysis. In all cases the molar ellipticity of the diazepam-albumin complex increases with pH over the pH range 5 to 9. Under these

  3. Effect of thermal stress on fertility and egg quality of Japanese quail. (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S


    Heat stress is one of the major causes of a decreased performance of laying quail in tropical and subtropical countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature humidity index (THI) on fertility aspects, external and internal egg quality parameters in Japanese quail. One hundred and forty four (144) Japanese quail, 12 of weeks age, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, lower than 70), H 1 (at moderate THI, 70-75) and H 2 (at high THI, 76-80). Quail in the control and H 1 groups had significant greater fertility (p=0.021) and hatchability % (p=0.037), compared with H 2 group. Quail in the control group (at low THI) laid heavier egg weight with a higher external (egg weight (p=0.03), shell thickness, shell weight, eggshell ratio and eggshell density (p=0.001)) and internal egg quality score (albumin weight (p=0.026), yolk height (p=0.003), yolk index (p=0.039) and Haugh unit (p=0.001)). Otherwise, such quality traits were compromised in heat-stressed quail. At the high THI level, egg weight had a significant positive correlation with albumin weight (r=0.58, pegg quality traits, indicating a detrimental policy of economic income. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aqueous foams stabilized by chitin nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzoumaki, M.; Karefyllakis, D.; Moschakis, T.; Biliaderis, C.G.; Scholten, E.


    The aim of the present study was to explore the potential use of chitin nanocrystals, as colloidal rod-like particles, to stabilize aqueous foams. Chitin nanocrystals (ChN) were prepared by acid hydrolysis of crude chitin and foams were generated mainly by sonicating the respective dispersions. The

  5. Expanded polylactide bead foaming - A new technology (United States)

    Nofar, M.; Ameli, A.; Park, C. B.


    Bead foaming technology with double crystal melting peak structure has been recognized as a promising method to produce low-density foams with complex geometries. During the molding stage of the bead foams, the double peak structure generates a strong bead-to-bead sintering and maintains the overall foam structure. During recent years, polylactide (PLA) bead foaming has been of the great interest of researchers due to its origin from renewable resources and biodegradability. However, due to the PLA's low melt strength and slow crystallization kinetics, the attempts have been limited to the manufacturing methods used for expanded polystyrene. In this study, for the first time, we developed microcellular PLA bead foams with double crystal melting peak structure. Microcellular PLA bead foams were produced with expansion ratios and average cell sizes ranging from 3 to 30-times and 350 nm to 15 µm, respectively. The generated high melting temperature crystals during the saturation significantly affected the expansion ratio and cell density of the PLA bead foams by enhancing the PLA's poor melt strength and promoting heterogeneous cell nucleation around the crystals.

  6. Stabilization of foams with inorganic colloidal particles. (United States)

    Gonzenbach, Urs T; Studart, André R; Tervoort, Elena; Gauckler, Ludwig J


    Wet foams are used in many important technologies either as end or intermediate products. However, the thermodynamic instability of wet foams leads to undesired bubble coarsening over time. Foam stability can be drastically improved by using particles instead of surfactants as foam stabilizers, since particles tend to adsorb irreversibly at the air-water interface. Recently, we presented a novel method for the preparation of high-volume particle-stabilized foams which show neither bubble growth nor drainage over more than 4 days. The method is based on the in-situ hydrophobization of initially hydrophilic particles to enable their adsorption on the surface of air bubbles. In-situ hydrophobization is accomplished through the adsorption of short-chain amphiphiles on the particle surface. In this work, we illustrate how this novel method can be applied to particles with various surface chemistries. For that purpose, the functional group of the amphiphilic molecule was tailored according to the surface chemistry of the particles to be used as foam stabilizers. Short-chain carboxylic acids, alkyl gallates, and alkylamines were shown to be appropriate amphiphiles to in-situ hydrophobize the surface of different inorganic particles. Ultrastable wet foams of various chemical compositions were prepared using these amphiphiles. The simplicity and versatility of this approach is expected to aid the formulation of stable wet foams for a variety of applications in materials manufacturing, food, cosmetics, and oil recovery, among others.

  7. New views on foams from protein solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.


    The stabilization of foam by proteins has been mostly studied in relation to the food industry. The main aim of the research is to understand the relation between proteins used and the product properties. The molecular properties of proteins and their foam forming and stabilizing properties are

  8. Principles of Urethane Foam Roof Application, (United States)


    and eliminate potential foam adhesion problems. Primer should be applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Plywood joints in... Plywood . ................. 3 6. Wood Surfaces - Tongue and Groove (T&G) Decking, Sheathing, Planking. ............... ... 3 B. Existing Built-Up...6 3. Applicator Skills. ............. ...... 7 B. Spray Foam Equipment and Material Problems. .......... 7 1. Excess Isocyanate or "tA

  9. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins


    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  10. Injectivity errors in simulation of foam EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeftink, T.N.; Latooij, C.A.; Rossen, W.R.


    Injectivity is a key factor in the economics of foam enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Poor injectivity of low-mobility foam slows the production of oil and allows more time for gravity segregation of injected gas. The conventional Peaceman equation (1978), when applied in a large grid block,

  11. The Egg model


    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.


    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate a variety of aspects related to computer-assisted flooding optimization and history matching. Unfortunately the details of the parameters settings are not always identical and not always fully docu...

  12. Interaction of phosphatidylcholine with bovine serum albumin. Specificity and properties of the complexes. (United States)

    Jonas, A


    Phosphatidylcholine dispersed on Celite was rapidly solubilized by neutral bovine serum albumin solutions. Stable protein-lipid complexes were isolated by Agrose gel filtration or by ultracentrifugal flotation in high density solvents, and the physicochemical properties of the complexes were investigated in terms of the stoichiometry of binding, effect of fatty acid ligands on phosphatidylcholine binding, effect of high ionic strength on the stability of the complexes, intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra, and sedimentation velocity coefficients. Complexes containing from 2 to 30 phosphatidylcholine molecules per protein molecule were observed; however, no saturation of binding sites could be detected in this range of molar ratios. Oleic acid binding by serum albumin prevents interaction of the protein with phosphatidylcholine, indicating possible competition of these ligands at low contents of the phospholipid. For molar ratios of up to 10 phosphatidylcholine molecules per serum albumin, binding is primarily due to hydrophobic interactions that have no effect on the overall shape and secondary structure of the native protein except for local modifications at tryptophan residues, whose fluorescence becomes quenched and blue shifted on phosphatidylcholine binding. Similar phosphatidylcholine uptake experiments performed with a series of globular proteins indicated that the lipid extraction from Celite surfaces is a non-specific process, accelerated by several other proteins (e.g. aldolase, egg albumin, chymotrypsinogen, soybean trypsin inhibitor, and the major apolipoprotein from bovine serum high density lipoprotein). Formation of stable protein-lipid complexes, however, was only observed with bovine serum albumin, which in contrast to the other proteins is known to have affinity binding sites for anions with hydrophobic side chains.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari


    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation of four blood protein loci and three egg white loci in three breeds of Indonesian local ducks (Magelang duck = MAD, Tegal duck = TED and Mojosari duck= MOD was investigated by using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The result showed that four blood protein loci (Pre-albumin, Albumin, Transferrin and Post-transferrin and three egg white loci (Ovalbumin, Ovoglobulin and Conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three breeds of local ducks. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein polyimorphism. The average value of heterozygosity on three breeds of local ducks had a genetic potential to determine the controlled mating system and selection to obtain pure line. The closest phylogenetic relationship among the three breeds of local ducks occurred between MAD and TED.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari


    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation of four blood protein loci and three egg white loci in three breeds ofIndonesian local ducks (Magelang duck = MAD, Tegal duck = TED and Mojosari duck= MOD wasinvestigated by using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The result showed that four bloodprotein loci (Pre-albumin, Albumin, Transferrin and Post-transferrin and three egg white loci(Ovalbumin, Ovoglobulin and Conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three breeds of localducks. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein polyimorphism. The average value ofheterozygosity on three breeds of local ducks had a genetic potential to determine the controlled matingsystem and selection to obtain pure line. The closest phylogenetic relationship among the three breeds oflocal ducks occurred between MAD and TED.

  15. Abolishment of proximal tubule albumin endocytosis does not affect plasma albumin during nephrotic syndrome in mice. (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Andersen, Pia K; Schmidt, Kasper; Mollet, Geraldine; Antignac, Corinne; Birn, Henrik; Nielsen, Rikke; Christensen, Erik I


    The megalin/cubilin receptor complex is required for proximal tubular endocytosis and degradation of filtered albumin. An additional high-capacity retrieval pathway of intact albumin for the recovery of large amounts of filtered albumin has been proposed, possibly involving cooperation between megalin/cubilin and the neonatal Fc receptor. To clarify the potential role of such a pathway, we examined the effects of megalin/cubilin gene inactivation on tubular albumin uptake and plasma albumin levels in nephrotic, podocin knockout mice. Immunofluorescence microscopy of megalin/cubilin/podocin knockout mouse kidneys demonstrated abolishment of proximal tubule albumin uptake, in contrast to the excessive albumin accumulation observed in podocin knockout mice compared to controls. Correspondingly, urinary albumin excretion was increased 1.4 fold in megalin/cubilin/podocin compared to podocin knockout mice (albumin/creatinine: 226 vs. 157 mg/mg). However, no difference in plasma albumin levels was observed between megalin/cubilin/podocin and podocin knockout mice, as both were reduced to approximately 40% of controls. There were no differences in liver albumin synthesis by mRNA levels and protein abundance. Thus, megalin/cubilin knockout efficiently blocks proximal tubular albumin uptake in nephrotic mice but plasma albumin levels did not differ as a result of megalin/cubilin-deficiency, suggesting no significance of the megalin/cubilin-pathway for albumin homeostasis by retrieval of intact albumin. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited. (United States)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders; Riise, Ruth; Vorum, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen


    Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)(Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Ten "ant-eggs" were extracted; four of these as well as control tissue were analyzed by mass spectrometry (AB Sciex). Proteins were identified and their approximate abundances were determined. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out on the remaining "ant-eggs" for cytokeratin and S100. In anterior OCT-images, the "ant-egg" structures are localized on the iris. Comparative pictures showed that they stayed in the same location for more than 45 years. Mass spectrometry of "ant-eggs" yielded a proteome of 56 different proteins. Eighteen of the 56 "ant-egg" proteins (32 %) were neither present in our controls nor in a known fetal lens proteome. Among these were cytokeratin and Matrix-Gla protein. Immunohistochemical reactions were positive for cytokeratin and S100. This study demonstrates the previously unknown protein composition of the "ant-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location.

  17. Carbon particle induced foaming of molten sucrose for the preparation of carbon foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimman, R.; Vijayan, Sujith; Prabhakaran, K., E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An easy method for the preparation of carbon foam from sucrose is presented. • Wood derived activated carbon particles are used to stabilize the molten sucrose foam. • The carbon foams show relatively good mechanical strength. • The carbon foams show excellent CO{sub 2} adsorption and oil absorption properties. • The process could be scaled up for the preparation of large foam bodies. - Abstract: Activated carbon powder was used as a foaming and foam setting agent for the preparation of carbon foams with a hierarchical pore structure from molten sucrose. The rheological measurements revealed the interruption of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in molten sucrose by the carbon particles. The carbon particles stabilized the bubbles in molten sucrose by adsorbing on the molten sucrose–gas interface. The carbon foams obtained at the activated carbon powder to sucrose weight ratios in the range of 0–0.25 had a compressive strength in the range of 1.35–0.31 MPa. The produced carbon foams adsorb 2.59–3.04 mmol/g of CO{sub 2} at 760 mmHg at 273 K and absorb oil from oil–water mixtures and surfactant stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with very good selectivity and recyclability.

  18. Generation of sclerosant foams by mechanical methods increases the foam temperature. (United States)

    Tan, Lulu; Wong, Kaichung; Connor, David; Fakhim, Babak; Behnia, Masud; Parsi, Kurosh


    Objective To investigate the effect of agitation on foam temperature. Methods Sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol were used. Prior to foam generation, the sclerosant and all constituent equipment were cooled to 4-25℃ and compared with cooling the sclerosant only. Foam was generated using a modified Tessari method. During foam agitation, the temperature change was measured using a thermocouple for 120 s. Results Pre-cooling all the constituent equipment resulted in a cooler foam in comparison with only cooling the sclerosant. A starting temperature of 4℃ produced average foam temperatures of 12.5 and 13.2℃ for sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol, respectively. It was also found that only cooling the liquid sclerosant provided minimal cooling to the final foam temperature, with the temperature 20 and 20.5℃ for sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol, respectively. Conclusion The foam generation process has a noticeable impact on final foam temperature and needs to be taken into consideration when creating foam.

  19. Foam pad of appropriate thickness can improve diagnostic value of foam posturography in detecting postural instability. (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Leng, Yangming; Zhou, Renhong; Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Dongdong; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Su-Lin; Kong, Wei-Jia


    The present study investigated the effect of foam thickness on postural stability in patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) during foam posturography. Static and foam posturography were performed in 33 patients (UVH group) and 30 healthy subjects (control group) with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC) on firm surface and on 1-5 foam pad(s). Sway velocity (SV) of center of pressure, standing time before falling (STBF) and falls reaction were recorded and analyzed. (1) SVs had an increasing tendency in both groups as the foam pads were added under EO and EC conditions. (2) STBFs, only in UVH group with EC, decreased with foam thickness increasing. (3) Significant differences in SV were found between the control and UVH group with EO (except for standing on firm surface, on 1 and 2 foam pad(s)) and with EC (all surface conditions). (4) Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the SV could better reflect the difference in postural stability between the two groups while standing on the 4 foam pads with EC. Our study showed that diagnostic value of foam posturography in detecting postural instability might be enhanced by using foam pad of right thickness.

  20. A comparison of the buttermilk solids functional properties to nonfat dried milk, soy protein isolate, dried egg white, and egg yolk powders. (United States)

    Wong, P Y Y; Kitts, D D


    Physicochemical (i.e., sulfhydryl group, protein, and total solubility) as well as functional properties (i.e., water-holding and fat-absorption capacity, foaming and emulsification capacity, and stability) of commercial buttermilk solids (BMS) were compared to nonfat dried milk, soy protein isolate, and dried egg yolk and egg white powders on an equivalent protein basis. BMS showed limited functional properties in water-holding capacity (0.75 g water/g protein) and fat-absorption capacity (1.2 g of oil/g of protein), and foaming capacity (0.5 ml of foam/ml of solution) and stability. However, emulsifying capacity and stability of BMS was not significantly different from other dried protein powders. Results indicated that 0.9 g of protein (approximately 0.45%, wt/vol, concentration) from BMS was needed to emulsify a maximum oil concentration of 50% in water at temperatures up to 50 degrees C. Denaturation of protein, quantified by free sulfhydryl groups, was a critical factor affecting the functionality of BMS and all other protein powders tested. The milk fat globule membrane present in BMS did not enhance either emulsifying capacity or stability.

  1. Real-time PCR for quantifying Haemonchus contortus eggs and potential limiting factors. (United States)

    Harmon, Aaron F; Williams, Zachary B; Zarlenga, Dante S; Hildreth, Michael B


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the practicality of using real-time PCR for quantifying feces-derived trichostrongyle eggs. Haemonchus contortus eggs were used to evaluate fecal contaminants, time after egg embryonation, and the presence of competing and non-competing DNAs as factors that might interfere with generating reproducible results during simplex and multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR). Real-time PCR results showed linear quantifiable amplification with DNA from five to 75 eggs. However, threshold cycle (C (T)) values obtained by amplification of DNA from egg numbers between 75 and 1,000 did not differ significantly. Inhibitors of QPCR were effectively removed during DNA extraction as exemplified by the absence of any improvement in C (T) values with bovine serum albumin or phytase treatments. Changes from egg embryonation could only be detected during the first 6 h. Noncompetitive DNA did not appear to impact amplification; however, in a multiplex reaction a competing trichostrongyle such as Cooperia oncophora can hinder amplification of H. contortus DNA, when present at tenfold greater amounts. This study demonstrates the usefulness of QPCR for amplification and quantification of trichostrongyle eggs, and identifies potential limitations, which may be addressed through multiplex assays or the addition of a standard: exogenous DNA target.

  2. Fracture of open- and closed-cell metal foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P; van Merkerk, R.; Raaijmakers, A; De Hosson, JTM


    Two closed cell aluminium foams and one open cell nickel-chromium foam were subjected to microstructural characterization, in situ fracture tests and fractography. The failure process of the open cell foam was observed to be rather ductile, while that of the closed cell foams was found to be

  3. Handbook of plastic foams: types, properties, manufacture, and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landrock, Arthur H


    ... is an introduction and also covers the subject of foam formation. The chapter includes a discussion of the Montreal Protocol mandating the development of foams with substantially reduced CFC content by 1995. Chapter 2 is a comprehensive discussion of thermosetting foams of all types, with the emphasis on urethane and phenolic foams. The authors, K Ashida and K Iwa...

  4. Synthesis of stochastic open cell Ni-based foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queheillalt, Douglas T.; Katsumura, Yasushi; Wadley, Haydn N.G


    Open cell, stochastic Ni-based foams have been synthesized on carbon foam templates by transient liquid phase bonding nickel based superalloy (Ni-21Cr-9Mo-4Nb) and Ni-25Cr-10P powders. The mechanical properties of these Ni-based foams were similar to those of other lower temperature metal foams of similar topology.

  5. Copper Selenide Nanosnakes: Bovine Serum Albumin-Assisted Room Temperature Controllable Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Peng


    Full Text Available Abstract Herein we firstly reported a simple, environment-friendly, controllable synthetic method of CuSe nanosnakes at room temperature using copper salts and sodium selenosulfate as the reactants, and bovine serum albumin (BSA as foaming agent. As the amounts of selenide ions (Se2− released from Na2SeSO3 in the solution increased, the cubic and snake-like CuSe nanostructures were formed gradually, the cubic nanostructures were captured by the CuSe nanosnakes, the CuSe nanosnakes grew wider and longer as the reaction time increased. Finally, the cubic CuSe nanostructures were completely replaced by BSA–CuSe nanosnakes. The prepared BSA–CuSe nanosnakes exhibited enhanced biocompatibility than the CuSe nanocrystals, which highly suggest that as-prepared BSA–CuSe nanosnakes have great potentials in applications such as biomedical engineering.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Nepovinnyh


    Full Text Available The cottage cheese whey as an oxygen cocktail foaming base and natural juices as a flavoring ingredient are analyzed. The lifetime of foam generated by the serum proteins is not long: foam falls off rapidly; because from the foam liquid is released (syneresis. The effects of plant polysaccharides on the stabilization of the protein foam oxygen cocktail is studied. It was shown that the use of plant polysaccharides (guar gum, high methoxyl citrus pectin, locust been gum prolong the life of the foam up to 20 times, compared with conventional blowing agents. It was found that oxygen foam properties depend on the molecular weight of guar gum.

  7. Foam-on-Tile Damage Model (United States)

    Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul


    An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.

  8. Lead-acid batteries with foam grids (United States)

    Tabaatabaai, S. M.; Rahmanifar, M. S.; Mousavi, S. A.; Shekofteh, S.; Khonsari, Jh.; Oweisi, A.; Hejabi, M.; Tabrizi, H.; Shirzadi, S.; Cheraghi, B.

    Conventional lead-acid batteries are relatively heavy and thus have a low specific energy. Therefore, to improve the energy density, a lighter grid has been proposed. In this work, a novel lead-acid battery with high specific surface area negative foam current collectors was designed and constructed. The collectors were studied by cyclic voltametery (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The foam collectors were designed and suitable paste composition and formation algorithm was obtained. The basic cells were manufactured and its performance was evaluated. The results showed that the foam grids resistance was lower than that for lead grids and the specific surface area of the foam grids was very greater than lead grids. The foam battery has good discharge characteristics compared with common lead-acid batteries. The discharge curve was flat and negative mass utilization efficiency was higher than 50% when the cell was discharged with C5/5 A (137 Ah kg -1 negative active materials). The foam grids were used as negative electrode for various types of lead-acid batteries such as 60 Ah starter battery, 2, 3 and 10 Ah VRLA batteries. The batteries with foam grids were shown longer cycle life than conventional lead-acid batteries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich


    Full Text Available Composition of a dry mix has been developed for production of non-autoclaved foam concrete with natural curing. The mix has been created on the basis of Portland cement, UFAPORE foaming agent, mineral additives (RSAM sulfoaluminate additive, MK-85 micro-silica and basalt fiber, plasticizing and accelerating “Citrate-T” additive and   redispersible Vinnapas-8034 H powder. It has been established that foam concrete with  density of 400–800 kg/m3, durability of 1,1–3,4 MPa, low water absorption (40–50 %, without shrinkable cracks has been formed while adding water of Water/Solid = 0.4–0.6 in the dry mix,  subsequent mechanical swelling and curing of foam mass.Introduction of the accelerating and plasticizing “Citrate-T” additive into composition of the dry mix leads to an increase of rheological properties in expanded foam mass and  time reduction of its drying and curing. An investigation on microstructure of foam-concrete chipping surface carried out with the help of a scanning electron microscope has shown that the introduction of  basalt fiber and redispersible Vinnapas-8034 H powder into the composition of the dry mix promotes formation of more finely-divided crystalline hydrates. Such approach makes it possible to change purposefully morphology of crystalline hydrates and gives the possibility to operate foam concrete structurization process.

  10. Foam Flows in Analog Porous Media (United States)

    Meheust, Y.; Géraud, B.; Jones, S. A.; Cantat, I.; Dollet, B.


    Foams have been used for decades as displacing fluids for EOR and aquifer remediation, and more recently as carriers of chemical amendments for the remediation of the vadose zone. Apart from various interesting physico-chemical and biochemical properties, foams are better injection fluids due to their low sensitivity to gravity and their peculiar rheology: for foams with bubbles on the order of at least the typical pore size, viscous dissipation arises mostly from the contact zones between the soap films and the walls. In most experimental studies no local information of the foam structure is possible, and only global quantities such as the effective viscosity can be measured. We investigate foam flow through a two-dimensional porous medium consisting of circular obstacles positioned randomly in a horizontal transparent Hele-Shaw cell. The local foam structure is recorded in situ, which provides a measure of the spatial distribution of bubble velocities and sizes at regular time intervals. The flow exhibits a rich phenomenology including preferential flow paths and local flow intermittency/non-stationarity despite the imposed permanent global flow rate. Moreover, the medium selects the bubble size distribution through lamella division-triggered bubble fragmentation. Varying the mean bubble size of the injected foam, its water content, and mean velocity, we characterize those processes systematically and show that the distributions of bubble sizes and velocities are to some extent correlated. We furthermore measure the evolution, along the flow direction, of the distribution of bubble sizes, and measure the efficiency of bubble fragmentation as a function of the control parameters. The bubble fragmentation can be modeled numerically and to some extent analytically, based on statistical measures inferred from the experimental data. This study sheds new light on the local rheology of foams in porous media and opens the way towards quantitative characterization of the

  11. Influence of Rubber Powders on Foaming Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Foamed Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Yue


    Full Text Available Polypropylene/rubber powders composites with different kinds of rubber powders were foamed by injection molding machine equipped with volume-adjustable cavity. The effect of dispersity of rubber powders and crystallization behavior of composites on the foaming behavior and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that the addition of rubber powders can improve the cell structure of foamed PP with fine and uniform cell distribution. And cell density and size of PP/PP-MAH/NBR foams are 7.64×106cell/cm3 and 29.78μm respectively, which are the best among these foams. Combining cell structures with mechanical properties, notch impact strength of PP/PP-MAH/CNBR composites increases approximately by 2.2 times while tensile strength is reduced just by 26% compared with those of the pure PP. This indicates that PP/PP-MAH/CNBR composites are ideal foamed materials.

  12. Surfactant accumulation within the top foam layer due to rupture of external foam films. (United States)

    Dukhin, S S; Kovalchuk, V I; Aksenenko, E V; Miller, R


    The analysis of processes taking place in a steady pneumatic (dynamic) foam shows the possibility of different modes of surfactant accumulation within the top layers of bubbles due to rupture of external foam films. An increasing surfactant concentration within the top layers promotes the stabilisation of bubbles and the foam as a whole. Considering the balance of surfactant and water during the bursting of films it is possible to estimate the accumulated surfactant loss caused by a downwards flow through the Plateau borders of the subsurface bubble layer. This effect depends on the particular conditions, especially on the surfactant activity and concentration of the surfactant, water volume fraction in the foam and size of foam bubbles. The process of surfactant accumulation in the top foam bubble layer can be complicated due to the removal of part of the accumulated surfactant through transport with droplets spread out during bubble bursting.

  13. Influence of foaming agents on solid thermal conductivity of foam glasses prepared from CRT panel glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob


    The understanding of the thermal transport mechanism of foam glass is still lacking. The contribution of solid- and gas conduction to the total thermal conductivity remains to be reported. In many foam glasses, the solid phase consist of a mix of an amorphous and a crystalline part where foaming...... agents can be partially dissolved into the glass structure. We investigate the influence of incorporation of residues from foaming agents (MnO2 and Fe2O3) on the solid conductivity of cathode ray-tube (CRT) panel glass. We have prepared samples by sintering and melt-quenching technique to obtain samples...... containing glass and crystalline foaming agents and amorphous samples where the foaming agents are completely dissolved in the glass structure, respectively. Results show that the samples prepared by sintering have a higher thermal conductivity than the samples prepared by melt-quenching. The thermal...

  14. Foaming in manure based digesters: Effect of overloading and foam suppression using antifoam agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically created either in the main biogas reactor or/and in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam cause...... severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs. Moreover......, foaming presents adverse environmental impacts owing to the overflowing of the pre-storage or digester tanks. So far, there has never been thoroughly investigation of foaming problem in manure-based digesters, which is the main anaerobic digestion system applied in Denmark. The purpose of the present...

  15. Egg activation in physiological polyspermy. (United States)

    Iwao, Yasuhiro


    Fertilization is indispensable not only for restoring diploid genomes but also for the initiation of early embryonic cell cycles in sexual reproduction. While most animals exhibit monospermy, which is ensured by polyspermy blocks to prevent the entry of extra sperm into the egg at fertilization, several animals exhibit physiological polyspermy, in which the entry of several sperm is permitted but only one sperm nucleus participates in the formation of a zygote nucleus. Polyspermy requires that the sperm transmit the egg activation signal more slowly, thus allowing the egg to accept several sperm. An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induced by the fertilizing sperm is both necessary and sufficient for egg activation in polyspermy. Multiple small Ca(2+) waves induced by several fertilizing sperm result in a long-lasting Ca(2+) rise, which is a characteristic of polyspermic amphibian eggs. We introduced a novel soluble sperm factor for egg activation, sperm-specific citrate synthase, into polyspermic newt eggs to cause Ca(2+) waves. Citrate synthase may perform dual functions: as an enzyme in mitochondria and as a Ca(2+)-inducing factor in egg cytoplasm. We also discuss the close relationship between the mode of fertilization and the Ca(2+) rise at egg activation and consider changes in this process through evolution in vertebrates.

  16. Egg activation in physiological polyspermy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iwao, Yasuhiro


    .... While most animals exhibit monospermy, which is ensured by polyspermy blocks to prevent the entry of extra sperm into the egg at fertilization, several animals exhibit physiological polyspermy...

  17. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A


    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  18. Structural Foams of Biobased Isosorbide-Containing Copolycarbonate


    Zepnik, Stefan; Sander, Daniel; Kabasci, Stephan; Hopmann, Christian


    Isosorbide-containing copolycarbonate (Bio-PC) is a partly biobased alternative to conventional bisphenol A (BPA) based polycarbonate (PC). Conventional PC is widely used in polymer processing technologies including thermoplastic foaming such as foam injection molding. At present, no detailed data is available concerning the foam injection molding behavior and foam properties of Bio-PC. This contribution provides first results on injection-molded foams based on isosorbide-containing PC. The s...

  19. Study of Thermal Properties of Cast Metal- Ceramic Composite Foams


    Gawdzińska K.; Chybowski L.; Przetakiewicz W.


    Owing to its properties, metallic foams can be used as insulation material. Thermal properties of cast metal-ceramic composite foams have applications in transport vehicles and can act as fire resistant and acoustic insulators of bulkheads. This paper presents basic thermal properties of cast and foamed aluminum, the values of thermal conductivity coefficient of selected gases used in foaming composites and thermal capabilities of composite foams (AlSi11/SiC). A certificate of non-combustibil...

  20. A Method to Produce Foam Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a production process of foam glass from a mixture of glass cullet or slag or fly ash with a foaming agent and an oxidizing agent and heating to below 1100 C under low oxygen atmosphere. The invention relates more particularly to a process wherein pure carbon...... or a compound which yields pure carbon as the foaming agent is oxidized by a sufficient amount of an efficient oxidizing agent essentially added to the glass-carbon powder mixture, where the oxidizing agent supplies oxygen in the relevant temperature range, to release CO/CO2 gas mixture in the softened glass...

  1. Behaviour of aluminum foam under fire conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grabian


    Full Text Available Taking into account fire-protection requirements it is advantageous for aluminum foam, after melting at a temperature considerably exceeding the melting point, to have a structure of discontinuous suspension of solid inclusions to liquid metal instead of liquid consistency. Continuity of the suspension depends on the solid phase content. The boundary value of the phase determined by J. Śleziona, above which the suspension becomes discontinuous, is provided by the formula (1. Figure 1 presents the relationship graphically. Boundary values of the vs content resulting from the above relationship is too low, taking into account the data obtained from the technology of suspension composites [4]. Therefore, based on the structure assumed for the suspension shown in Figure 2 these authors proposed another way of determining the contents, the value of which is determined by the relationship (3 [5].For purposes of the experimental study presented in the paper two foams have been molten: a commercially available one, made by aluminum foaming with titanium hydride, and a foam manufactured in the Marine Materials Plant of the Maritime University of Szczecin by blowing the AlSi7 +20% SiC composite with argon. Macrophotographs of foam cross-sections are shown in Figure 3. The foams have been molten in the atmosphere of air at a temperature of 750ºC. The products of melting are presented in Figure 4. It appears that molten aluminum foam may have no liquid consistency, being unable to flow, which is a desired property from the point of view of fire-protection. The above feature of the molten foam results from the fact that it may be a discontinuous suspension of solid particles in a liquid metal. The suspended particles may be solid particles of the composite that served for making the foam or oxide membranes formed on extended metal surface of the bubbles included in the foam. The desired foam ability to form a discontinuous suspension after melting may be

  2. Physical characteristics and attenuation of foam earplugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.R.; Broughton, R.M.; Wilmoth, J.N.; Borton, T.E.; Mozo, B.T.


    The purpose of this investigation was twofold: (1) to determine the physical characteristics of five types of foam earplugs; and (2) to relate their physical characteristics to attenuation of noise. The results indicate that: (1) all commercial polymer foam earplugs have similar physical properties, (2) frequency is the single most important variable in determining attenuation of commercial foam earplugs, (3) all earplugs evaluated provided essentially the same attenuation at frequencies >500 Hz. One non-commercial earplug provided significantly more attenuation at 125 Hz than the other earplugs. This non-commercial experimental plug has significantly different physical and chemical properties. No other consistent effects of physical properties on attenuation were found.

  3. Effects of Excess Dietary Fluoride on Serum Biochemical Indices, Egg Quality, and Concentrations of Fluoride in Soft Organs, Eggs, and Serum of Laying Hens. (United States)

    Miao, Liping; Li, Lanlan; Qi, Mingxing; Zhou, Minyao; Zhang, Nannan; Zou, Xiaoting


    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of excess dietary fluoride (F) on serum biochemical indices, egg quality, and concentrations of F in soft tissues, eggs, and serum of laying hens. Commercial laying hens (n = 576, 51 weeks of age) were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 16 birds. The basal diets contained fluorine inclusions at a level of 16 mg/kg, and graded sodium fluoride was added to the basal diet to achieve fluorine inclusions, respectively, at a level of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 mg/kg in the experimental diets. Dietary F levels at 600, 800, and 1000 mg/kg decreased (P < 0.05) albumin height and yolk color, while eggshell strength and eggshell thickness significantly decreased at 800 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, compared with the control group. Fluoride concentrations in eggshell, albumin, yolk, liver, kidney, ovary, and oviduct responded to dietary F levels positively, and F concentrations in eggshell were the highest. Fluorine concentrations in albumin and yolk increased with the feeding time at the same dietary F levels (P < 0.05). Dietary F level at 400 mg/kg increased serum calcium level and activity of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary F levels at 600 mg/kg decreased albumin height and yolk color, while eggshell strength and eggshell thickness significantly decreased at 800 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. F concentrations in soft tissues, albumin, yolk, and eggshell of layers had a positive correlation with dietary F levels. By disturbing Ca and phosphorus metabolism, dietary F levels affected the formation of eggshell, reducing eggshell strength and eggshell thickness.

  4. Effect of alkali phosphate content on foaming of CRT panel glass using Mn3O4 and carbon as foaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob


    Phosphates play a role in different foaming processes. In slag foaming, the phosphate can lower the surface tension and increase the foam life time. In the sintering–foaming process, sodium phosphates are added as “foam stabilizers”. Though, phosphates show documented effect in slag foaming...

  5. Studies on the Whipping Characteristics and Yield of Dehydrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that whole liquid eggs attained optimal foam formation after 5 min. whipping while the albumin had optimal whipping duration at 2.5 min. However, albumin produced the highest foam at 2.5 min. whipping duration. At higher agitation beyond 2.5 min., the density was reduced. The yolk on the other hand was ...

  6. [Current role of albumin in critical care]. (United States)

    Aguirre Puig, P; Orallo Morán, M A; Pereira Matalobos, D; Prieto Requeijo, P


    The use of colloids in fluid therapy has been, and still continues to be a controversial topic, particularly when referring to the critical patient. The choice of the fluid that needs to be administered depends on several factors, many of which are theoretical, and continue being an object of debate. The interest in the clinical use of the albumin has emerged again, immediately after recent publications in the search of the most suitable colloid. It is the most abundant protein in the plasma, being responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure. It regulates the balance between the intra- and extra-vascular volumes. Recent multicenter studies question the supposed lack of safety that was previously assigned to it. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate other important actions besides oncotic, for example neutralization of free radicals, and exogenous (drugs) and endogenous substances (bile pigments, cholesterol). Being aware of these secondary properties of albumin, and evaluating the pathophysiology of the critical patient (in particular, sepsis), to maintain plasma albumin levels within the normal range, could be of great importance. Based on the most recent publications, the aim of this review is to briefly analyze the pathophysiology of albumin, as well as to discuss its possible indications in the critical patient. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór


    Full Text Available Citrinin (CIT is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3 and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I. In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  8. Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B


    Neonatal and adult albumin was isolated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, from adult and umbilical cord serum, respectively. Binding of monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, warfarin, sulfamethizole, and diazepam was studied by means of equilibrium dialysis and the binding data were analyz...

  9. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV


    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology and cha...

  10. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.


    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  11. Bidirectional peritoneal transport of albumin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl


    The present study was undertaken in order to assess bidirectional peritoneal kinetics of albumin after simultaneous i.v. and i.p. injection of radioiodinated albumin tracers (125I-RISA and 131I-RISA) in eight clinically stable uraemic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...... (CAPD). The plasma volume, intravascular albumin mass (IVM), and overall extravasation rate of albumin were not significantly different from that found in healthy controls. Albumin flux from the plasma into the peritoneal cavity was 3.71 +/- 0.82 (SD) mumol/h, which was only 3% of the overall...... extravasation rate (137 +/- 52 mumol/h). Albumin flux from the peritoneal cavity into the plasma was substantially lower (0.22 +/- 0.07 mumol/h, P peritoneal accumulation of the albumin from plasma over 4 h was 14 +/- 3.2 mumol, which was significantly lower than the intraperitoneal albumin...

  12. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A strain of chickens which reaches a mature egg ... Subsequent rates of decline tend to be parallel and so selection for early albumen quality is effective in improving late albumen quality. The difficulty is that, in many markets, the producer is not directly penalized ... maximum total yield - an intermediate is best. If egg income.

  13. Liquid organic foams for formulation optimization: an assessment of foam linear viscoelasticity and its temporal dependence (United States)

    Kropka, Jamie; Mondy, Lisa; Celina, Mat


    Liquid foams are viscoelastic liquids, exhibiting a fast relaxation attributed to local bubble motions and a slow response due to structural evolution of the intrinsically unstable system. In this work, these processes are examined in unique organic foams that differ from the typically investigated aqueous systems in two major ways: the organic foams (1) posses a much higher continuous phase viscosity and (2) exhibit a coarsening response that involves coalescence of cells. The transient and dynamic relaxation responses of the organic foams are evaluated and discussed in relation to the response of aqueous foams. The change in the foam response with increasing gas fraction, from that of a Newtonian liquid to one that is strongly viscoelastic, is also presented. In addition, the temporal dependencies of the linear viscoelastic response are assessed in the context of the foam structural evolution. These foams and characterization techniques provide a basis for testing stabilization mechanisms in epoxy-based foams for encapsulation applications. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Cell morphology of extrusion foamed poly(lactic acid) using endothermic chemical foaming agent. (United States)

    Matuana, Laurent M; Faruk, Omar; Diaz, Carlos A


    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was foamed with an endothermic chemical foaming agent (CFA) through an extrusion process. The effects of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed on the cellular structures, void fraction, and cell-population density of foamed PLA were investigated. The apparent melt viscosity of PLA was measured to understand the effect of melt index on the cell morphology of foamed PLA samples. The void fraction was strongly dependent on the PLA melt index. It increased with increasing melt index, reaching a maximum value, after which it decreased. Melt index showed no significant effect on the cell-population density of foamed samples within the narrow range studied. A gas containment limit was observed in PLA foamed with CFA. Both the void fraction and cell-population density increased with an initial increase in CFA content, reached a maximum value, and then decreased as CFA content continued to increase. The processing speed also affected the morphology of PLA foams. The void fraction reached a maximum value as the extruder's screw speed increased to 40 rpm and a further increase in the processing speed tended to reduce the void fraction of foamed samples. By contrast, cell-population density increased one order of magnitude by increasing the screw speed from 20 to 120 rpm. The experimental results indicate that a homogeneous and finer cellular morphology could be successfully achieved in PLA foamed in an extrusion process with a proper combination of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed.

  15. A Colorimetric Analysis Experiment Not Requiring a Spectrophotometer: Quantitative Determination of Albumin in Powdered Egg White (United States)

    Charlton, Amanda K.; Sevcik, Richard S.; Tucker, Dorie A.; Schultz, Linda D.


    A general science experiment for high school chemistry students might serve as an excellent review of the concepts of solution preparation, solubility, pH, and qualitative and quantitative analysis of a common food product. The students could learn to use safe laboratory techniques, collect and analyze data using proper scientific methodology and…

  16. Egg serpins: The chicken and/or the egg dilemma. (United States)

    Dombre, Clara; Guyot, Nicolas; Moreau, Thierry; Monget, Philippe; Da Silva, Mylène; Gautron, Joël; Réhault-Godbert, Sophie


    Twenty-seven serpins belonging to clade A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I serpins are currently referenced in chicken genome databases. Phylogenetic analysis of chicken serpins revealed that ovalbumin (Serpinb14) and its paralogs ovalbumin-related protein Y (Serpinb14b) and ovalbumin-related protein X (Serpinb14c) are found in bird species. These clade B serpins are specifically expressed in reproductive tissues and exported in the egg where they constitute major protein components. These data suggest that these three paralogs have probably appeared in birds to face new environments and ensure the extra-uterine development of an embryo in a shell egg. Twelve other serpins have been identified in the newly produced egg, some of them having a specific distribution in the respective egg structures (eggshell, egg white, vitelline membrane and egg yolk). The physiological role of these egg serpins remain largely unexplored, but there is increasing evidence in literature or by homologies with their mammalian counterparts, that some of them participate in cell proliferation, tissue remodeling and/or angiogenesis associated with folliculogenesis and development of extraembryonic structures, eggshell biomineralization, egg defense and nutrition of the embryo. A better knowledge of the phylogenetic evolution of these 15 serpins in other oviparous species, on their egg distribution, on their regulation during embryonic development (activation/degradation/transfer) and on their functional specificity, is needed to better appreciate their role and their bird-specificity. These review shed light on the multiple possibilities that offer the avian egg model to study the role of serpins in reproduction and developmental biology. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam (United States)

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  18. Microstructure anisotropy in polyolefin flexible foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, M; Arencon, D; Realinho, V [Centre Catala del Plastic, Departament de Ciencia dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallurgica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/Colom 114. E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain); Velasco, J I, E-mail:


    The use of polyolefin flexible foams with typical thicknesses between 1 and 3 mm produced by a physical foaming extrusion process is nowadays quite widespread in the packaging sector. Their high flexibility and closed-cell structure allows them to show good energy absorption properties under low loading conditions. Although the compressive response of these materials is well known, the inner microstructure developed during processing induce a high anisotropy that is responsible for their direction-dependent tensile and fracture behaviours. In this work, two different polyolefin-based foams, with densities ranging from 20 to 45 kg/m{sup 3}, were studied. The induced microstructure anisotropy was characterized by micro-Raman. With this technique, the relative orientations of both crystalline and amorphous phases in the foam's base polymer could be determined and thus related to their mechanical properties measured in the different directions.

  19. Coalescence Avalanches in Liquid Aluminum Foams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marlen Paeplow; Francisco García-Moreno; Aaron Joseph Meagher; Alexander Rack; John Banhart


    Coalescence is the rupture of a film between two adjacent bubbles in any type of liquid foam and has pronounced influence on the development of its macrostructure after solidification, mostly leading...

  20. Release of macromolecules from albumin-heparin microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Cremers, H.F.M.; Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan


    Hydrophilic microspheres based on albumin-heparin conjugates have been prepared as a macromolecular delivery system. The soluble albumin-heparin conjugate was synthesized and crosslinked in a water-in-oil emulsion with glutaraldehyde to form microspheres in the same manner as for albumin microsphere

  1. Effects of oral contraceptives on total serum proteins, albumin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total serum, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio and cholesterol levels were determined in 25 subjects on oral contraceptives and 25 controls. The mean serum total protein, globulin and cholesterol levels were significantly increased in oral contraceptive and their control counterparts. The albumin/globulin ratio in ...

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to a notification from the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV) on ovalbumin/egg white to be used in the manufacture of wine as clarification processing aids pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    as clarification processing aids pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC – for permanent exemption from labelling. In earlier assessments, the Panel concluded that wines fined with egg products and albumin (egg white) may trigger adverse reactions in susceptible individuals under the proposed...

  3. Egg temperature and embryonic metabolism of A- and B-eggs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macaroni and rockhopper penguins lay two eggs but rear only one chick to independence. The eggs are markedly dimorphic in size and, although the smaller A-egg is laid several days before the B-egg, in nests where both eggs are incubated, the B-egg always hatches first. Incubation temperatures and embryonic oxygen ...

  4. Aqueous foams stabilized solely by particles


    STOCCO, Antonio; Rio, Emmanuelle; Binks, Bernard P.; Langevin, Dominique


    International audience; Foams are dispersions of bubbles in liquids, often water. They are frequently stabilized by surfactant or polymer, but like Pickering emulsions, they can be also stabilized solely by particles. If the particles have a moderate hydrophobicity, the foams can be extremely stable (lifetimes of the order of years). Due to technical preparation difficulties, very few studies can be found in the literature to date. We will discuss the origin of these difficulties. We will als...

  5. The OpenFOAM technology primer

    CERN Document Server

    Maric, Tomislav; Mooney, Kyle


    This book covers two main aspects of working with OpenFOAM: using the applications and developing and extending the library code. In the first part of the book, we chose a few utilities and applications to describe the OpenFOAM work flow. This information should provide a sufficient starting point for the reader, who can investigate his/her interests further by following the provided instructions in a similar way for another solver or application.

  6. Artificial photosynthesis in ranaspumin-2 based foam. (United States)

    Wendell, David; Todd, Jacob; Montemagno, Carlo


    We present a cell-free artificial photosynthesis platform that couples the requisite enzymes of the Calvin cycle with a nanoscale photophosphorylation system engineered into a foam architecture using the Tungara frog surfactant protein Ranaspumin-2. This unique protein surfactant allowed lipid vesicles and coupled enzyme activity to be concentrated to the microscale Plateau channels of the foam, directing photoderived chemical energy to the singular purpose of carbon fixation and sugar synthesis, with chemical conversion efficiencies approaching 96%.

  7. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs


    Shira C Shafir; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L.


    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at –15°C for 6 months.

  8. Medical and social egg freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Andersen, Anders Nyboe


    with intention to freeze eggs were being single, age under 35 years, childlessness, and a history of infertility. In this group, risk and cost were less important considerations. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that there is widespread awareness and support of the availability of eggs freezing for reproductive...

  9. Comparison of sound absorbing performances of copper foam and iron foam with the same parameters (United States)

    Yang, X. C.; Shen, X. M.; Xu, P. J.; Zhang, X. N.; Bai, P. F.; Peng, K.; Yin, Q.; Wang, D.


    Sound absorbing performances of the copper foam and the iron foam with the same parameters were investigated by the AWA6128A detector according to standing wave method. Two modes were investigated, which included the pure metal foam mode and the combination mode with the settled thickness of metal foam. In order to legibly compare the sound absorbing coefficients of the two metal foams, the detected sound frequency points were divided into the low frequency range (100 Hz ~ 1000 Hz), the middle frequency range (1000 Hz ~ 3200 Hz), and the high frequency range (3500 Hz ~ 6000 Hz). Sound absorbing performances of the two metal foams in the two modes were discussed within the three frequency ranges in detail. It would be calculated that the average sound absorbing coefficients of copper foam in the pure metal foam mode were 12.6%, 22.7%, 34.6%, 43.6%, 51.1%, and 56.2% when the thickness was 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm, and 30 mm. meanwhile, in the combination mode, the average sound absorbing coefficients of copper foam with the thickness of 10 mm were 30.6%, 34.8%, 36.3%, and 35.8% when the cavity was 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm. In addition, those of iron foam in the pure metal foam mode were 13.4%, 20.1%, 34.4%, 43.1%, 49.6%, and 56.1%, and in the combination mode were 25.6%, 30.5%, 34.3%, and 33.4%.

  10. Injectable silk foams for soft tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Lo, Tim J; Fournier, Eric P; Brown, Joseph E; Abbott, Rosalyn D; Gil, Eun S; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Leisk, Gary G; Kaplan, David L


    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration is demonstrated. Adipose-derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10-d period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3-month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure is applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Foamed acid stimulation of old wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.G.F.


    As oil and gas wells age, many of them exhibit similar characteristics. One of the most obvious is reduced bottom-hole pressure that can contribute to the formation of paraffins, asphaltenes, and scales. Many old wells have had repeated acid treatments. Following conventional acid treatments, large amounts of insoluble fines such as quartz, gypsum, and feldspars may cause a reduction in fracture conductivity. All of these factors related to old wells are especially amenable to foamed acid stimulation. Treatment of wells with characteristics as outlined above with a conventional nonfoamed acid treatment probably will be beneficial. However, the high liquid content of conventional fluids may exacerbate the clay problems. Low viscosity of the spent acid may leave a large amount of insoluble fines in the well. Finally, low bottom-hole pressure may necessitate swabbing to clean up the well. Foamed acid offers characteristics to virtually eliminate the problems. First, foamed acid has a low liquid content. Less liquid contacts the formation, thereby reducing the chance for damage. Foamed acid offers high apparent viscosity. Foamed acid offers built-in gas assist. Finally, foamed acid is simply more effective than nonfoamed acid treatments in many situations.

  12. Refractory Ceramic Foams for Novel Applications (United States)

    Stackpoole, M.


    Workers at NASA Ames Research center are endeavoring to develop durable, oxidation-resistant, foam thermal protection systems (TPSs) that would be suitable for covering large exterior spacecraft surfaces, would have low to moderate densities, and would have temperature capabilities comparable to those of carbon-based TPSs [reusable at 3,000 F (.1,650 C)] with application of suitable coatings. These foams may also be useful for repairing TPSs while in orbit. Moreover, on Earth as well as in outer space, these foams might be useful as catalyst supports and filters. Preceramic polymers are obvious candidates for use in making the foams in question. The use of these polymers offers advantages over processing routes followed in making conventional ceramics. Among the advantages are the ability to plastically form parts, the ability to form pyrolized ceramic materials at lower temperatures, and the ability to form high-purity microstructures having properties that can be tailored to satisfy requirements. Heretofore, preceramic polymers have been used mostly in the production of such low-dimensional products as fibers because the loss of volatiles during pyrolysis of the polymers leads to porosity and large shrinkage (in excess of 30 percent). In addition, efforts to form bulk structures from preceramic polymers have resulted in severe cracking during pyrolysis. However, because the foams in question would consist of networks of thin struts (in contradistinction to nonporous dense solids), these foams are ideal candidates for processing along a preceramic-polymer route.

  13. Development of Alcoa aluminum foam products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, J.D.; Crowley, M.D.; Wang, W.; Wilhelmy, D.M.; Hunter, D.E. [Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA (United States)


    A new lightweight aluminum foam product was described. The foam was made through the controlled decomposition of carbonate powders within molten aluminum and was able to resist both coalescence and drainage. The fine-celled aluminum foam derived its physical and mechanical properties from the properties of the aluminum alloy matrix from which they were produced. The rheology of the molten aluminum was modified to provide a superior mesostructure. Stabilization was achieved by creating a solid-gas-liquid suspension initiated by the addition of carbonates into an aluminum alloy melt. A cascade of chemical reactions then occurred within the melt to create a foamable suspension. Carbon monoxide (CO) was generated to initiate an additional sequence of chemical reactions which resulted in the formation of solid particles within the liquid metal. CO reacted with liquid Al to form graphite. The graphite then reacted with Al to form aluminum carbide (Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}). The microstructural, mesostructural, and mechanical character of the foams produced under different processing conditions were examined. Details of experimental test procedures were also described. It was concluded that the specific crush energy absorption was as high as 20 kJ/kg. The foam exhibited a bending stiffness that was approximately 20 to 30 times higher than balsa and polymer foams. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. Shock Compression and Release of Metal Foam (United States)

    Maines, Warren; Neel, Christopher; Chhabildas, Lalit; Borg, John; Reinhart, William


    We report of the results of uniaxial strain experiments and computations to discuss the compressed and isentropic release states of aluminum foam ~50% relative density undergoing high velocity impact at up to 10GPa. The initial geometry of the foam was obtained via computed x-ray tomography (XCT) and imported directly into the CTH hydrodynamic code. Simulations of the dynamic response of the foam are compared to experimental measurements and used to build macro scale constitutive relations. The experimental results were obtained utilizing a reverse ballistic plate reverberation technique that obtained shock compression states of the foam. In these experiments, 6061-T6 aluminum, oxygen free copper and tantalum were used as standard witness plates and were shocked by the metal foam projectile at up to 2.0 km/s. The response of the witness plates was monitored by three different velocity interferometers positioned at three different locations on the witness plate to obtain compaction and release behavior. The simulations captured the heterogeneous Hugoniot and release state of the foam extremely well. The resulting constitutive relations built from mesoscale simulations compare favorably to those built from experimental results.

  15. Fundamentals of foam transport in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, A.R.; Radke, C.J.


    Foam in porous media is a fascinating fluid both because of its unique microstructure and because its dramatic influence on the flow of gas and liquid. A wealth of information is now compiled in the literature describing foam generation, destruction, and transport mechanisms. Yet there are conflicting views of these mechanisms and on the macroscopic results they produce. By critically reviewing how surfactant formulation and porous media topology conspire to control foam texture and flow resistance, we attempt to unify the disparate viewpoints. Evolution of texture during foam displacement is quantified by a population balance on bubble concentration, which is designed specifically for convenient incorporation into a standard reservoir simulator. Theories for the dominant bubble generation and coalescence mechanisms provide physically based rate expressions for the proposed population balance. Stone-type relative permeability functions along with the texture-sensitive and shear-thinning nature of confined foam complete the model. Quite good agreement is found between theory and new experiments for transient foam displacement in linear cores.

  16. Espresso coffee foam delays cooling of the liquid phase. (United States)

    Arii, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa, Kaho


    Espresso coffee foam, called crema, is known to be a marker of the quality of espresso coffee extraction. However, the role of foam in coffee temperature has not been quantitatively clarified. In this study, we used an automatic machine for espresso coffee extraction. We evaluated whether the foam prepared using the machine was suitable for foam analysis. After extraction, the percentage and consistency of the foam were measured using various techniques, and changes in the foam volume were tracked over time. Our extraction method, therefore, allowed consistent preparation of high-quality foam. We also quantitatively determined that the foam phase slowed cooling of the liquid phase after extraction. High-quality foam plays an important role in delaying the cooling of espresso coffee.

  17. Selenium enrichment of table eggs. (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Cheng, K M


    Selenium is an essential trace element with a recommended dietary allowance for human adults of 55 μg/d. However, there is evidence that greater dietary intakes may have possible health benefits, including a reduction in the risk of cancer. Several studies have shown the feasibility of enriching eggs using organic Se and that Se-enriched eggs are an effective way to supplement human diets. However, few studies have examined the response of egg Se concentration to high (>1 μg/g) dietary organic Se intake by the laying hens. The objective of the current study is to examine the effect of higher dietary organic Se levels on production, egg mass, and egg Se levels. These were assessed by feeding 3 breeds of laying hens (Barred Plymouth Rock, Lohmann Brown, Lohmann White) a basal diet containing 0.3 μg of Se/g of diet as Na2SeO3. Into this diet, Se yeast (SelenoSource AF 600), an organic source of Se, was added at 1.0, 2.4, or 5.1 μg of Se/g of diet for 4 wk. Feed consumption, egg production, and egg mass were not affected by the dietary Se concentration in all 3 breeds. Within the range of Se levels employed in the laying hens' diet, egg Se content increased linearly as dietary levels of Se increased. The results of this study indicate that feeding up to 5.1 µg/g of Se will not affect egg production and the welfare of the laying hen and is a practical way of producing Se-enriched eggs for the consumers.

  18. New technologies to enhance quality and safety of table eggs: ultra-violet treatment and modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Pasquali


    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of ultra-violet (UV treatment alone and in combination with 100% CO2 modified atmosphere packaging (MAP was evaluated both on the survival of naturally occurring bacteria, as well as on quality parameters of table eggs during 28 days of storage at 21°C. Table eggs were collected from the conveyor belt after the UV module, and placed on carton trays. A representative number of carton trays were packed in a high barrier multilayer pouch filled with 100% CO2. All eggs were stored at 21°C and analysed at 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Eggs not treated with UV and not packed were also included. On the eggshells total colony count, total coliforms and faecal coliforms counts, as well as the detection of Salmonella spp. were investigated. Moreover, chemical-functional parameters such as weight loss, albumen pH and Haugh Unit (HU were evaluated. The total colony count on UV treated table eggs was approximately 1 log10 CFU/g lower than untreated eggs (2.27 vs 3.29 log10 CFU/g. During storage, CO2 packed eggs maintained the initial values of HU, whereas the albumen pH decreased up to 1.5-2 points in comparison to unpacked eggs. The UV treatment was effective in reducing the total colony count on the surface of table eggs. MAP showed a great potential in maintaining/enhance the technological properties of egg constituents (higher foam stability of the albumen for meringue preparation without significantly impacting on the microbial load of table eggs.

  19. Eggs on Ice. Imaginaries on Eggs and Cryopreservation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte


    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs follow very different trajectories. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries (Jasanoff, 2015). In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical...... imaginaries that shaped the Danish regulation on the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyze the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work and readings in Parliament along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that in time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current 5 years...

  20. Foam application from a closed system – a study of machine and foam parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, Jacques T.E.; Groot Wassink, Jan


    An attempt has been made to gain a greater insight into the interaction between foam and a moving textile substrate. The effects of changing wet pick–up, fabric velocity, liquid viscosity, foam density and mode of application on penetration have been studied. Application from a closed system makes

  1. Polymer foam comprising a polymer and nanoparticles, and nanoparticles for the manufacture of such foam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vancso, Gyula J.; Duvigneau, Joost; Nederkoorn, P.H.J.; Wassing, T.


    A polymer foam is produced comprising a polymer and nanoparticles having a maximum dimensionof 750 nm, which foam has cells with an average cell size of at most 1 µm and a cell density of at least 1012 cells/ml, wherein polymeric grafts have been attached to the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may


    Taylor, Lynn M.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Markewich, Theodore; Colman, Sara; Benner, Debbie; Sim, John J.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.


    SUMMARY Background High dietary protein intake is associated with greater survival in maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. High-protein foods may increase dietary phosphorus burden, which is associated with increased mortality in these patients. Hypothesis is: an egg white based diet with low phosphorus to protein ratio (phosphorus without deteriorating the nutritional status in MHD patients. Objective We assessed serum phosphorus and albumin levels in MHD patients who agreed to ingest one meal per day with pasteurised liquid egg whites without phosphorus additives, as principal protein source. Methods Thirteen otherwise stable MHD patients with serum phosphorus >4.0 mg/dl agreed to consume eight ounces (225 g) of pasteurised liquid egg whites one meal per day for six weeks. Recipes were suggested to improve diet variety. Results Thirteen participating patients included seven women, three African Americans and five diabetics. Twelve patients exhibited drop in serum phosphorus. Mean population fall in serum phosphorus was 0.94 mg/dl, i.e. from 5.58 ± 1.34 (mean ± SD) to 4.63 ± 1.18 (p = 0.003). Serum albumin showed an increase by 0.19 g/dl, i.e. from 4.02 ± 0.29 to 4.21 ± 0.36 g/dl (p = 0.014). Changes in phosphorus pill count were not statistically significant (p = 0.88). The egg white diet was well tolerated, and recipe variety appreciated. Conclusion Pasteurised liquid egg whites may be an effective diet component lowering serum phosphorus without risking malnutrition. Controlled trials are indicated to examine egg white based dietary interventions in MHD patients at home or during haemodialysis treatment. PMID:21288313

  3. Stress wave propagation and mitigation in two polymeric foams (United States)

    Pradel, Pierre; Malaise, Frederic; Cadilhon, Baptiste; Quessada, Jean-Hugues; de Resseguier, Thibaut; Delhomme, Catherine; Le Blanc, Gael


    Polymeric foams are widely used in industry for thermal insulation or shock mitigation. This paper investigates the ability of a syntactic epoxy foam and an expanded polyurethane foam to mitigate intense (several GPa) and short duration (tests and dynamic soft recovery experiments have also been performed to determine the compaction mechanisms. In the polyurethane foam, the pores are closed by elastic buckling of the matrix and damage of the structure. In the epoxy foam, the compaction is due to the crushing of glass microspheres. Two porous material models successfully represent the macroscopic response of these polymeric foams.

  4. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E


    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  5. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide (United States)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.


    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  6. Allergenicity of pasteurized whole raw Hen's egg compared with fresh whole raw Hen's egg. (United States)

    Netting, Merryn; Donato, Adaweyah; Makrides, Maria; Gold, Michael; Quinn, Patrick; Penttila, Irmeli


    Oral food challenges for diagnosis and management of egg allergy using fresh egg are common; however, to limit the risk of foodborne infection, many allergy units use pasteurized raw egg. Pasteurization and drying processes have the potential to affect the structure of egg proteins in egg powder and thus the allergenicity when compared to fresh egg. Our aim was to compare the binding of serum IgE from egg-allergic children to in vitro digested and undigested pasteurized whole raw egg powder with unpasteurized fresh whole raw egg. Egg proteins from in vitro digested or undigested pasteurized whole raw egg powder, fresh whole egg, egg white and egg yolk were separated by SDS-PAGE, transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane and incubated overnight with pooled sera from egg-allergic children. In both the raw egg samples and the pasteurized whole egg powder, protein bands corresponding to known molecular weights of the major egg allergens were present. Pasteurized whole raw egg powder was bound by serum IgE in a similar manner to unpasteurized whole raw egg and was unaffected by in vitro digestion. Serum IgE also bound egg yolk, indicating sensitization to both egg yolk and egg white proteins. The main egg allergens are present in pasteurized whole raw egg powder, and serum IgE of egg-allergic children binds to them in a similar pattern to those in fresh whole raw egg. Pasteurized whole raw egg powder is a suitable substitute for raw egg in clinical practice for oral food challenges. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs. (United States)

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E


    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  8. On the structural formation of albumin (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shishpor, I. V.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.


    A microstructural analysis of the human serum albumin (HSA) samples dehydrated on a glass substrate from solutions with different concentrations of protein has been performed. The structuring effect of salt (NaCl) on the variations in the morphology of HSA interfaces has been shown experimentally. The substantiation of some structural effects has been given by taking into consideration the supramolecular organization and the polyelectrolyte nature of the protein molecule.

  9. Moulting patterns of Alabio and Mojosari ducks and their relation on blood lipids (tryglycerides, egg production and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba


    Full Text Available Moulting is a biological condition that can happen in poultry. It is resulted from the complex interaction which involves the function of thyroxine hormone. Moulting can reduce or even stop the egg production. A study was conducted to observe the moulting patterns of local ducks (Alabio and Mojosari and to determine the relation of moulting with blood lipids (triglycerides, egg production and quality. Each breed consisted of ten female dukcs were observed for moulting pattern, blood triglycerides, egg production and quality. Fourty ducks were used for simulation of egg production. Data from moulting patterns,egg production and quality were analyzed using t-based on Least Square means with Statistical Analysis System. The relation of breeds and moulting patterns with triglycerides were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. The main factor was kind of breeds, while the subfactor was the period of moulting, before and during moulting. There were not interaction in every variables between both factors. The average moulting periode of Alabio was significantly (P<0.05 shorter than that of Mojosari (69 vs 76 days. There were 40% of Alabio ducks moulting for 61-70 days, while 40% of Mojosari ducks moulting for 71-80 days. Egg production of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were higher than those Mojosari ducks. The triglycerides content of Alabio and Mojosari ducks was decreased during moulting, in Alabio ducks they were 32.02 and 27.64 μg/ml before and during moulting, while in Mojosari ducks they were 32.83 and 29.32 μg/ml respectively. Egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, and haugh unit of the two breeds increased after moulting, while yolk colour decreased. The average yolk colour of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were 6.90 and 5.11, while in Mojosari ducks they were 7.90 and 4.60 respectively.

  10. Influence of Conditions of Preparing the Foamed Plaster on its Degree of Foaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlak


    Full Text Available Foamed plaster moulds are used in precision casting process of non-ferrous alloys. Casting from those moulds are characterizedby high dimensional accuracy, very good shape pattering and small surface roughness. However, a drawback of the plaster mould is very low permeability. A substational improvement of this parametr may be achived through physical or phisico-chemical treatment of the plaster slurry or prepared mould. The most advantageous results can be obtained by foaming the slurry. The investigatious comprised evaluation of the influence of mixing parametrs (mixer type, rotation and mixing time, settings the mixer in mixing device and the content of a foaming agent on the degree of foaming of the plaster. The tests were carried out using the α-plaster Hartform-H1 and Alkanol XC as a foaming agent. The structure of a slurry produced after foaming is non-homogeous. Therefore, the investigations were completed by making appropriate of this process. Analysis of the results leads to the conclusion, that the foamed plaster Hartform_H1 reaches the top degree of foaming at the following parameters: the water/plaster ratio W/G=0.55, the content of Alkanol XC a=0.07%, stirring with a perforate disc mixer at the rotation speed nm=4000 rpm during τm=30 s. In turn the top homogeneity of the foamed plaster slurry can be achieved at the rotation speed nu=1400 rpm during τu=30 s., while other parameters are the same as in the foaming process. The obtained results can provide the basis for the elaboration of the industry procedures useful in the production of the plaster moulds for precision casting.

  11. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  12. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus. (United States)

    Singla, Neena; Kanwar, Deepia


    To compare the acceptance and efficacy of cereal bait containing different concentrations of poultry egg components in laboratory and poultry farms to control house rat, Rattus rattus (R. rattus). Acceptance of cereal bait containing different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) of poultry egg components such as egg shell powder (ESP), egg albumin (EA) and crushed egg shell as bait additives were studied after exposing them to different groups of rats in bi-choice with bait without additive. Behaviour of rats towards cereal bait containing 2% concentration of different egg components was recorded in no-choice conditions through Food Scale Consumption Monitor. In poultry farm predominantly infested with R. rattus, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was evaluated. Trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% EA and 2% ESP was also evaluated in poultry farm. In bi-choice tests, significantly (Pegg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  13. Efficacy of protein, symbiotic and probiotic supplementation on production performance and egg quality characteristics in molted layers. (United States)

    Anwar, Haseeb; Rahman, Zia Ur


    Two hundred white leg horn layers at 70 weeks of age were induced to molt with high dietary zinc (3 g/kg of feed); thereafter, birds were equally and randomly divided (n = 50 each) into four groups keeping G1 as control (CP 16 % diet, no other supplement), G2 (CP 18 % diet), G3 (CP 16 % diet + symbiotic; Perfectin® at 85 mg/L in drinking water daily), and G4 (CP 16 % diet + probiotic; Protexin® at 85 mg/L in drinking water daily). The egg production record was maintained throughout the experiment period, and egg quality parameters were performed at 5 %, peak, and end of post molt production stage. The overall egg production was highest in G2 (74.51 %) followed by G3 (64.95 %) and G4 (65.03 %) and lowest in G1 (58.51 %). The overall egg weight, length, diameter, weight and diameter of albumin and yolk, egg shell thickness as well as egg shell breaking strength increased (P ≤ 0.01) in G2 and G3 as compared to G1. The albumin height, yolk height, yolk index, and haugh unit score decreased (P ≤ 0.01) in G2 and G3 as compared to G1. FCR/12 eggs improved in all the supplemented groups as compared to control (G1). The bacterial contamination of eggs was seen in G1. Conclusively, it was observed in the current experiment that the supplementation with protein, probiotic, and symbiotic did improve the production quality and potential in molted layers.

  14. Forming of porous mullite green bodies by albumin thermal consolidation; Conformado de cuerpos porosos en verde de mullita por consolidacion termica con albumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, M.L.; Tomba Martinez, A.G.; Camerucci, M.A. [Laboratorio de Materiales Estructurales, Division Ceramicos, INTEMA-CONICET, Fac. de Ingenieri-UNMdP., Mar del Plata (Argentina)


    Pre-firing mullite microstructures developed by a new thermal consolidation method using globular proteins as foaming and consolidator/binders were analyzed. Commercial available powders of mullite (Baikowski) and bovine serum albumin (BSA, Aldricht) were employed. Stable aqueous suspensions (40 vol.%) of mullite- BSA (10 vol.%) were foamed (2300 rpm, 10 min) at: I) room temperature; II) 68 deg C, temperature slightly lower to the gelling 'onset' TG{sup 0}, and III) 68 deg C with the addition of 2 wt.% of methylcellulose. Green disks were prepared by pouring of foamed suspensions into pre-heated metal molds (70 deg C), thermal gelling (80 °C, 3h) and drying (50 °C, 12h). Previously, the developed foams were characterized and their rheological properties were determined as a function of temperature (TG{sup 0}). The characterization of the pre-firing microstructures were carried out by measurements of porosity (>80%) and microstructural analysis in fracture surface by SEM. (author)

  15. Genetic Variation through Polymorphism of Blood and Egg White Protein in Three Kinds of Kedu Chickens at Laying Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LD Mahfudz


    Full Text Available Abstract. Genetic variation of five blood protein loci and three egg white protein loci in three kinds of Kedu chicken, namely the black skin and black feather (BB, black skin and white feather (BW and white skin and white feather (WW were investigated using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis. The result showed that five blood loci (pre-albumin, albumin, post-transferin, transferin and hemoglobin and three egg white loci (lysozim, ovalbumin and conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three kinds of Kedu chicken. BW has average higher heterozygosity than BB and WW. The result was shown in blood and egg white protein polymorphism. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein in the genetic variation. The average of heterozygosity of Kedu chicken of high production and low production was not different. Genetic distance among three populations of Kedu chicken showed that Kedu chicken BW was closer to WW than to BB. Key Words: Kedu chicken, protein polymorphism, blood, egg white, genetic variation

  16. Auxetic polyurethane foam: Manufacturing and processing analysis (United States)

    Jahan, Md Deloyer

    Materials with negative Poisson's ratio are referred to as auxetic materials. They are different from conventional materials in their deformation behavior when responding to external stresses. The cross-section of the materials widens in the lateral direction when being stretched in the longitudinal direction and becomes narrower when being compressed longitudinally. While a number of natural auxetic materials exist, most auxetic materials are synthetic. They show interesting properties and have potential in several important applications. Auxetic materials exhibit better mechanical properties than conventional materials such as enhanced indentation resistance, shear resistance, toughness, damping and energy absorption capacity, sound absorption, variable permeability and capability of producing complex curvature. These properties are beneficial in a wide range of applications including personal protective equipments, sound absorbers, packaging, smart filtration, drug delivery, tissue scaffolding, seat cushioning, etc. A wide range of auxetic materials has been synthesized. They include different polymers, metals, composites and ceramics. Among these, auxetic polyurethane (PU) foam is one of the most widely studied types of auxetic materials. Auxetic PU foams are usually fabricated by altering the microstructure of conventional foams and the unusual mechanical properties originate from the deformation characteristics of the microstructures. Three most important processing parameters in fabricating auxetic PU foam that dictate auxetic behavior are processing temperature, heating time and volumetric compression ratio. This study addresses several important issues in the manufacturing and characterization of auxetic PU foam. First, an improved automatic measuring technique has been developed to determine Poisson's ratio of auxetic PU foam. The technique involves development of a Matlab based image processing program. The second part of the study includes an

  17. Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and Seasons in ... and egg weight on external and internal characteristics of chicken eggs. ... Storage time did not affect (p>0.05) shell weight, shape index, egg length and egg width.

  18. Development of multifunctional shape memory polymer foams (United States)

    Song, Janice J.; Srivastava, Ijya; Naguib, Hani E.


    Shape memory polymers (SMP) are a class of stimuli-responsive materials which are able to respond to external stimulus such as temperature and deformation by changing their shape, and return to their original shape upon reversal or removal of the external stimulus. Although SMP materials have been studied extensively and have been used in a wide range of applications such as medicine, aerospace, and robotics, only few studies have looked at the potential of designing multifunctional SMP foams and blends. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a design of SMP foam materials and blends. The actuator construct will contain a core SMP epoxy and blend of polylactic acid and polyurethane. The effects of the processing parameters of shape memory polymer (SMP) foams on the shape memory effect (SME) were investigated. The solid state foaming technique was employed to obtain the desired foamed cellular structure. One particular point of interest is to understand how the processing parameters affect the SMP and its glass transition temperature (Tg). By correctly tailoring these parameters it is possible to modify the SMP to have an improved shape memory effect SME.

  19. Fracture of Cellular Media: A Foam Model (United States)

    Hilgenfeldt, S.; Arif, S.; Tsai, J.


    Aqueous foam, almost entirely made of a Newtonian liquid and an ideal gas, shows surprisingly rich rheological behavior, including viscoelasticity and power-law shear thinning. The bubble mesostructure of the foam (seen as a cellular medium) is at the heart of the nontrivial rheology. Quantitative constitutive relations can be derived when properly accounting for the bubble geometry. Beyond linear and nonlinear rheology, we have investigated fracture in a quasi-two-dimensional foam sample as induced by the injection of additional fluid (gas). Depending on the rate and magnitude of applied pressure, the foam yields by either brittle or ductile fracture. The former is characterized by breaking thin films and small strains, the latter involves defect formation and motion (T1 transitions) without cell breakage. The experiments can be interpreted in two ways, both as a model of fracture in (regular, crystalline) atomic solids and as a model of failure in an (irregular, disordered) solid with heterogeneous domains, depending on the foam preparation and scale of the experiment. The latter view offers strong analogies to fracture of soil and its dependence on grain structure and water content.

  20. Flow transitions in two-dimensional foams. (United States)

    Gilbreth, Christopher; Sullivan, Scott; Dennin, Michael


    For sufficiently slow rates of strain, flowing foam can exhibit inhomogeneous flows. The nature of these flows is an area of active study in both two-dimensional model foams and three dimensional foam. Recent work in three-dimensional foam has identified three distinct regimes of flow [S. Rodts, J. C. Baudez, and P. Coussot, Europhys. Lett. 69, 636 (2005)]. Two of these regimes are identified with continuum behavior (full flow and shear banding), and the third regime is identified as a discrete regime exhibiting extreme localization. In this paper, the discrete regime is studied in more detail using a model two-dimensional foam: a bubble raft. We characterize the behavior of the bubble raft subjected to a constant rate of strain as a function of time, system size, and applied rate of strain. We observe localized flow that is consistent with the coexistence of a power-law fluid with rigid-body rotation. As a function of applied rate of strain, there is a transition from a continuum description of the flow to discrete flow when the thickness of the flow region is approximately ten bubbles. This occurs at an applied rotation rate of approximately 0.07 s-1.

  1. Headspace analysis of foams and fixatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Kyle [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Truong, Thanh-Tam [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Magwood, Leroy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, Brent [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nicholson, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    In the process of decontaminating and decommissioning (D&D) older nuclear facilities, special precautions must be taken with removable or airborne contamination. One possible strategy utilizes foams and fixatives to affix these loose contaminants. Many foams and fixatives are already commercially available, either generically or sold specifically for D&D. However, due to a lack of revelant testing in a radioactive environment, additional verification is needed to confirm that these products not only affix contamination to their surfaces, but also will function in a D&D environment. Several significant safety factors, including flammability and worker safety, can be analyzed through the process of headspace analysis, a technique that analyzes the off gas formed before or during the curing process of the foam/fixative, usually using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This process focuses on the volatile components of a chemical, which move freely between the solid/liquid form within the sample and the gaseous form in the area above the sample (the headspace). Between possibly hot conditions in a D&D situation and heat created in a foaming reaction, the volatility of many chemicals can change, and thus different gasses can be released at different times throughout the reaction. This project focused on analysis of volatile chemicals involved in the process of using foams and fixatives to identify any potential hazardous or flammable compounds.

  2. Field verification of CO sub 2 -foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Heller, J.P.; Weiss, W.W.


    In September 1989, the Petroleum Recovery Research Center (PRRC), a division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, received a grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a project entitled Field Verification of CO{sub 2} Foam.'' The grant provided for an extension of the PRRC laboratory work to a field testing stage to be performed in collaboration with an oil producer actively conducting a CO{sub 2} flood. The objectives of this project are to: (1) conduct reservoir studies, laboratory tests, simulation runs, and field tests to evaluate the use of foam for mobility control or fluid diversion in a New Mexico CO{sub 2} flood, and (2) evaluate the concept of CO{sub 2}-foam in the field by using a reservoir where CO{sub 2} flooding is ongoing, characterizing the reservoir, modeling the process, and monitoring performance of the field test. Seven tasks were identified for the successful completion of the project: (1) evaluate and select a field site, (2) develop an initial site- specific plan, (3) conduct laboratory CO{sub 2}-foam mobility tests, (4) perform reservoir simulations, (5) design the foam slug, (6) implement a field test, and (7) evaluate results.

  3. Stability of minoxidil in Espumil foam base. (United States)

    Geiger, Christine M; Sorenson, Bridget; Whaley, Paul A


    Minoxidil is a drug used to stimulate hair growth and to slow balding. It is marketed under a number of trade names, including Rogaine, and is available in varying strength dose forms from a number of generic manufacturers. Minoxidil is available in oral and topical forms. In topical form, it can be applied by a metered-spray or rub-on applicator. A hydroalcoholic compounding vehicle can minimize greasiness, itching, burning, and contact dermatitis where low concentrations of ethanol and propylene glycol are present. Espumil Foam Base contains low concentrations of these ingredients and also can form a foam on topical application. Espumil's unique delivery by foam-activating packaging assures simple application to difficult-to-treat areas, and it vanishes quickly after application, keeping it in place and avoiding health skin areas. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of minoxidil in Espumil Foam Base. The studied sample was compounded into a 50-mg/mL solution and stored in a plastic foam-activating bottle at room temperature conditions. Three samples were assayed at each time point out to 90 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. The beyond-use-date is at least 90 days, based on data collected when this formulation was stored at room temperature, protected from light.

  4. Production, purification and characterization of antibodies to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D raised in chicken egg yolk. (United States)

    Bauwens, R M; Kint, J A; Devos, M P; Van Brussel, K A; De Leenheer, A P


    For this sensitive RIA for 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, we used antibodies to 1 alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-3-hemisuccinate conjugated to bovine serum albumin, raised in eggs by immunization of chickens. We describe an efficient method for purification of IgG from egg yolk. We characterized these antibodies with immunoelectrophoresis and by radioimmunoassay. These antibodies show a high affinity for 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 but cross react with other vitamin D metabolites as well. Extraction and liquid chromatography are necessary to isolate the 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D from human serum or plasma before determination by RIA. The sensitivity of the assay is estimated at 5 pg/tube.

  5. Shape recovery of PET foams after cold compression (United States)

    Santo, Loredana; Bellisario, Denise; Quadrini, Fabrizio


    In this study, the recovery properties of thermoplastic foam are discussed. The feasibility of using this foam as core for the production of a shape memory sandwich with self-repairing properties is evaluated. PET foams have been extracted from a panel of PET foam in order to test the foam in the three space directions. Small cubic samples were then subjected to memory-recovery cycle. This cycle consisted of a cold compression to reduce the foam sample thickness up to 50%, and a subsequent recovery of the shape by heating the samples in a muffle. This way, it was possible to evaluate the effect of anisotropy on strength, stiffness and shape recovery of the PET foam. Afterwards, compression tests have been repeated to evaluate residual properties of PET foam after cold compression and hot recovery. Results confirm the ability of this class of materials to easily change and recovery their shape.

  6. Optimized Synthesis of Foam Glass from Recycled CRT Panel Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Most of the panel glass from cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is landfilled today. Instead of landfilling, the panel glass can be turned into new environment-friendly foam glass. Low density foam glass is an effective heat insulating material and can be produced just by using recycle glass and foaming...... additives. In this work we recycle the CRT panel glass to synthesize the foam glass as a crucial component of building and insulating materials. The synthesis conditions such as foaming temperature, duration, glass particle size, type and concentrations of foaming agents, and so on are optimized...... by performing systematic experiments. In particular, the concentration of foaming agents is an important parameter that influences the size of bubbles and the distribution of bubbles throughout the sample. The foam glasses are characterised regarding density and open/closed porosity. Differential scanning...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyako Mikhail Gerasimovich


    method aimed at reduction of toxicity of phenolic foams consists in the introduction of a composite mixture of chelate compounds. Raw materials applied in the production of phenolic foams include polymers FRB-1A and VAG-3. The aforementioned materials are used to produce foams FRP-1. Introduction of 1% aluminum fluoride leads to the 40% reduction of the free phenol content in the foam. Introduction of crystalline zinc chloride accelerates the foaming and curing of phenolic foams. The technology that contemplates the introduction of zeolites into the mixture includes pre-mixing with FRB -1A and subsequent mixing with VAG-3; thereafter, the composition is poured into the form, in which the process of foaming is initiated. The content of free phenol was identified using the method of UV spectroscopy. The objective of the research was to develop methods of reduction of the free phenol content in the phenolic foam.

  8. Design and evaluation of foamed asphalt base materials : [research summary]. (United States)


    Foamed asphalt stabilized base (FASB) combines reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), : recycled concrete (RC), and/or graded aggregate base (GAB) with a foamed asphalt : binder to produce a partially stabilized base material. Although widely used, most :...

  9. New Flexible FR Polyurethane Foams for Energy Absorption Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of new polyurethane (PU) insulation foams through a non-toxic environmentally friendly composite approach. Target FR foams will exhibit high heat flow...

  10. Mechanical Properties of Electrolyte Jet Electrodeposited Nickel Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen


    Full Text Available Principles of the preparation of nickel foam by electrolyte jet electrodeposition were introduced, Nickel foam samples with different porosity were fabricated. Effect of different porosity on microhardness and uniaxial tensile properties of nickel foam was discussed. The results show that the microhardness of nickel foam is 320~400 HV, lower than entitative metal clearly. The lower the porosity of nickel foam, the higher the microhardness is. During the process of uniaxial tensile, nickel foam is characterized by three distinct regions, e.g. elastic deforming region, plastic plateau region and densification region. The higher the porosity of nickel foam, the lower the plastic plateau and the poorer the strength of nickel foam, accordingly

  11. The viscosity window of the silicate glass foam production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng


    The production of silicate glass foam allows diverse resources and waste materials to be used in the production. Testing of such large palette of materials complicates and prolongs the optimisation process. Therefore, it is crucial to find a universal criterion for foaming silicate glass melts...... which can offer a practical starting point for the optimisation procedure. The melt viscosity might be the most important parameter for controlling the foaming process and the glass foam density. In this work, we attempt to define a viscosity range in which foaming of different glasses results...... in a maximum of foam expansion. The expansion maximum is obtained for different glasses (labware, E-glass, CRT panel, soda-lime-silica) by foaming with CaCO3 at isokom temperature and from literature data. In general, the viscosity window was found to be within 104–106 Pa s when foaming with MnO2 or metal...

  12. New Flexible FR Polyurethane Foams for Energy Absorption Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project involves development of new flexible FR polyurethane (PU)insulation foams through a non-toxic environmentally friendly composite approach. Foams have...

  13. Immunologic changes in children with egg allergy ingesting extensively heated egg. (United States)

    Lemon-Mulé, Heather; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Shreffler, Wayne G; Noone, Sally; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna


    Prior studies have suggested that heated egg might be tolerated by some children with egg allergy. We sought to confirm tolerance of heated egg in a subset of children with egg allergy, to evaluate clinical and immunologic predictors of heated egg tolerance, to characterize immunologic changes associated with continued ingestion of heated egg, and to determine whether a diet incorporating heated egg is well tolerated. Subjects with documented IgE-mediated egg allergy underwent physician-supervised oral food challenges to extensively heated egg (in the form of a muffin and a waffle), with tolerant subjects also undergoing regular egg challenges (in a form of scrambled egg or French toast). Heated egg-tolerant subjects incorporated heated egg into their diets. Skin prick test wheal diameters and egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid IgE levels, as well as ovalbumin and ovomucoid IgG4 levels, were measured at baseline for all subjects and at 3, 6, and 12 months for those tolerant of heated egg. Sixty-four of 117 subjects tolerated heated egg, 23 tolerated regular egg, and 27 reacted to heated egg. Heated egg-reactive subjects had larger skin test wheals and greater egg white-specific, ovalbumin-specific, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels compared with heated egg- and egg-tolerant subjects. Continued ingestion of heated egg was associated with decreased skin test wheal diameters and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels and increased ovalbumin-specific and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels. The majority of subjects with egg allergy were tolerant of heated egg. Continued ingestion of heated egg was well tolerated and associated with immunologic changes that paralleled the changes observed with the development of clinical tolerance to regular egg.

  14. An electrochemical albumin-sensing system utilizing microfluidic technology (United States)

    Huang, Chao-June; Lu, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Thong-Yueh; Chou, Tse-Chuan; Lee, Gwo-Bin


    This paper reports an integrated microfluidic chip capable of detecting the concentration of albumin in urine by using an electrochemical method in an automatic format. The integrated microfluidic chip was fabricated by using microelectromechanical system techniques. The albumin detection was conducted by using the electrochemical sensing method, in which the albumin in urine was detected by measuring the difference of peak currents between a bare reference electrode and an albumin-adsorption electrode. To perform the detection of the albumin in an automatic format, pneumatic microvalves and micropumps were integrated onto the microfluidic chip. The albumin sample and interference mixture solutions such as homovanillic acid, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine were first stored in one of the three reservoirs. Then the solution comprising the albumin sample and interference solutions was transported to pass through the detection zone utilizing the pneumatic micropump. Experimental data showed that the developed system can successfully detect the concentration of the albumin in the existence of interference materials. When compared with the traditional albumin-sensing method, smaller amounts of samples were required to perform faster detection by using the integrated microfluidic chip. Additionally, the microfluidic chip integrated with pneumatic micropumps and microvalves facilitates the transportation of the samples in an automatic mode with lesser human intervention. The development of the integrated microfluidic albumin-sensing system may be promising for biomedical applications. Preliminary results of the current paper were presented at the 2nd International Meeting on Microsensors and Microsystems 2006 (National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, 15-18 January).

  15. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K


    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine concentra......BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin....../creatinine concentration ratio, instead of the usual measurement of the albumin excretion rate in a timed urine collection. METHODS: All 2579 subjects analysed were screened in a population based epidemiological study. Participants with diabetes mellitus, renal disease, haematuria, or urinary tract infection were...... not included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated...

  16. Anion exchange fractionation of serum proteins versus albumin elimination. (United States)

    Sahab, Ziad J; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy


    Elimination of albumin, constituting more than 50% of total serum proteins, allows increased protein loads on immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels and better visualization of low-abundance proteins; however, it may result in the loss of albumin-bound low-abundance proteins. In this study, we report the prefractionation of serum proteins by batch anion exchange chromatography into three fractions: one containing proteins with isoelectric points (pI values) higher than the pI of albumin, a second fraction containing proteins with pI values in the same range as the pI of albumin, and a third fraction containing proteins with pI values lower than the pI of albumin. This procedure uses common instrumentation, is carried out under denaturing conditions, and takes less than 30min. We also report the loss of a clinically established prostate cancer serum biomarker, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), after albumin is eliminated using two commercially available albumin elimination kits: one that uses Cibacron Blue F3GA, which achieves albumin depletion through dye-ligand binding, and one that uses specific albumin antibody. The loss of PSA secondary to albumin elimination exceeded that after batch anion exchange serum sample prefractionation.

  17. Thermal-Induced Denaturation and Aggregation Behavior of Lysozyme and Bovine Serum Albumin: a Thermodynamic and Structural Study (United States)

    Perez, Aline Sanches; Oliveira, Cristiano Luis Pinto


    Solution studies permit a direct investigation of the particles on a well-defined environment. Fluorescence, circular dichroism, scattering, and calorimetry provide, individually, very important information among the protein structure, overall shape, and thermodynamic equilibrium. In this work, a combination of these techniques is presented for the study of denaturation induced by temperature of two well-known proteins, Henn Egg lysozyme and bovine serum albumin. A detailed thermodynamic and structural investigation is shown for these proteins, providing interesting information on the thermal-induced changes in the protein structure and aggregation behavior.

  18. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs. (United States)


    ... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.105 Dried... recognized as safe within the meaning of section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The... food for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section is “Dried eggs” or...

  19. The Role of Foaming Agent and Processing Route in Mechanical Performance of Fabricated Aluminum Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Byakova


    Full Text Available The results of this study highlight the role of foaming agent and processing route in influencing the contamination of cell wall material by side products, which, in turn, affects the macroscopic mechanical response of closed-cell Al-foams. Several kinds of Al-foams have been produced with pure Al/Al-alloys by the Alporas like melt process, all performed with and without Ca additive and processed either with conventional TiH2 foaming agent or CaCO3 as an alternative one. Damage behavior of contaminations was believed to affect the micromechanism of foam deformation, favoring either plastic buckling or brittle failure of cell walls. No discrepancy between experimental values of compressive strengths for Al-foams comprising ductile cell wall constituents and those prescribed by theoretical models for closed-cell structure was found while the presence of low ductile and/or brittle eutectic domains and contaminations including particles/layers of Al3Ti, residues of partially reacted TiH2, and Ca bearing compounds, results in reducing the compressive strength to values close to or even below those of open-cell foams of the same relative density.

  20. The Role of Foaming Agent and Processing Route in the Mechanical Performance of Fabricated Aluminum Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nakamura


    Full Text Available The results of the present study highlight the role of foaming agent and processing route in influencing the contamination of cell wall material by side products, which, in turn, affect the macroscopic mechanical response of closed-cell Al-foams. Several kinds of Al-foams have been produced with pure Al by the Alporas melt process and powder metallurgical technique, all performed either with conventional TiH2 foaming agent or CaCO3 as an alternative. Mechanical characteristics of contaminating products induced by processing additives, all of which were presented in one or another kind of Al-foam, have been determined in indentation experiments. Damage behavior of these contaminations affects the micro-mechanism of deformation and favors either plastic buckling or brittle failure of the cell walls. It is justified that there is no discrepancy between experimental values of compressive strengths for Al-foams comprising ductile Al + Al4Ca eutectic domains and those prescribed by theoretical models for closed-cell structure. However, the presence of low ductile Al + Al3Ti + Al4Ca eutectic domains and brittle particles/layers of Al3Ti, fine CaCO3/CaO particles, Al2O3 oxide network, and, especially, residues of partially reacted TiH2, results in reducing the compressive strength to values close to or even below those of open-cell foams of the same relative density.

  1. Virtual Treatment of Basilar Aneurysms Using Shape Memory Polymer Foam


    Ortega, J. M.; Hartman, J.; Rodriguez, J.N.; Maitland, D.J.


    Numerical simulations are performed on patient-specific basilar aneurysms that are treated with shape memory polymer (SMP) foam. In order to assess the post-treatment hemodynamics, two modeling approaches are employed. In the first, the foam geometry is obtained from a micro-CT scan and the pulsatile blood flow within the foam is simulated for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscosity models. In the second, the foam is represented as a porous media continuum, which has permeability propertie...

  2. Acoustics properties and applications, in Metallic Foams: Fundamentals and Applications


    Perrot, Camille; Chevillotte, F.; Jaouen, L.; Hoang, M. T.


    International audience; This book offers the first full-scale technical treatment of an important class of engineered porous materials: metal foams. Written by a team of metal foam experts from around the world, the volume offers new, as well as fundamental, information on all aspects of metal foams, including their theory, manufacture, structure-property relationships and applications. The book explains microscopy and modeling tools that enhance the prediction and determination of metal foam...

  3. An investigation into some aspects for foamed bitumen technology


    Namutebi, May


    Despite applications of foamed bitumen technology in pavement construction in various places around the world, there are still several aspects about this technology that are not clear. In addition, knowledge on foamed bitumen technology is mainly empirical and lacks scientific basis. This study addresses some of the aspects for foamed bitumen technology such as: Investigation of any effects in binder composition during the production process for foamed bitumen; assessment of the effect of bit...

  4. Effectiveness of Flame Retardants in TufFoam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelow, Alexis Elizabeth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nissen, April [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Massey, Lee Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    An investigation of polyurethane foam filled with known flame retardant fillers including hydroxides, melamine, phosphate-containing compounds, and melamine phosphates was carried out to produce a low-cost material with high flame retardant efficiency. The impact of flame retardant fillers on the physical properties such a s composite foam density, glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and thermal expansion of composite foams was investigated with the goal of synthesizing a robust rigid foam with excellent flame retardant properties.

  5. Nanoparticle Stabilized Foam in Carbonate and Sandstone Reservoirs


    Roebroeks, J.; Eftekhari, A.A.; Farajzadeh, R.; Vincent-Bonnieu, S.


    Foam flooding as a mechanism to enhance oil recovery has been intensively studied and is the subject of multiple research groups. However, limited stability of surfactant-generated foam in presence of oil and low chemical stability of surfactants in the high temperature and high salinity of an oil reservoir are among the reasons for foam EOR not being widely applied in the field. Unlike surfactants, nanoparticles, which are shown to be effective in stabilizing bulk foam, are chemically stable...

  6. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Celina, Mathias C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Giron, Nicholas Henry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Russick, Edward M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150°C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  7. Evaluation of Canisterized Foams and Evaluation of Radiation Hardened Foams for D&D Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The introduction of polyurethane foams has previously been examined elsewhere within the DOE complex with regards to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, though its use has been prohibited as a result of excessive heat generation and flammability concerns per the safety basis. Should these foams be found compatible with respect to the facility safety basis requirements, D&D work involving large void containing structures such as gloveboxes could be eased through the fixation of residual contamination after decontamination efforts have concluded. To this end, SRNL embarked on a characterization of commercial epoxy foams to identify the characteristics that would be most important to safety basis requirements. Through SRNL’s efforts, the performance of commercial two-part epoxy foams was evaluated for their foaming characteristics, temperature profiles, loading capability with high-Z (high density) additives, and applicability for shielding gamma emission from isotopes including; Am-241, Cs-137, and Co-60. It was found that these foams are capable of encapsulation of a desired volume, though the ideal and experimental expansion coefficients were found to differ. While heat is generated during the reaction, no samples generated heat above 70 °C. Of the down–selected materials, heating was on the order of 40 °C for the flexible foam and 60 °C for the rigid foam. Both were found to return to room temperature after 20 minutes regardless of the volume of foam cast. It was also found that the direct introduction of high-Z additives were capable of attenuating 98% of Am-241 gamma signal, 16% of Cs-137 signal, and 9.5% of Co-60 signal at 1:1 loading capacities of total liquid constituent weight to additive weight. These efforts are currently being reviewed for the ASTM January 2017 subcommittee discussions to address the lack of test methods and standards regarding these materials with respect to D&D environments.

  8. Plasmonic nanoshell synthesis in microfluidic composite foams. (United States)

    Duraiswamy, Suhanya; Khan, Saif A


    The availability of robust, scalable, and automated nanoparticle manufacturing processes is crucial for the viability of emerging nanotechnologies. Metallic nanoparticles of diverse shape and composition are commonly manufactured by solution-phase colloidal chemistry methods, where rapid reaction kinetics and physical processes such as mixing are inextricably coupled, and scale-up often poses insurmountable problems. Here we present the first continuous flow process to synthesize thin gold "nanoshells" and "nanoislands" on colloidal silica surfaces, which are nanoparticle motifs of considerable interest in plasmonics-based applications. We assemble an ordered, flowing composite foam lattice in a simple microfluidic device, where the lattice cells are alternately aqueous drops containing reagents for nanoparticle synthesis or gas bubbles. Microfluidic foam generation enables precisely controlled reagent dispensing and mixing, and the ordered foam structure facilitates compartmentalized nanoparticle growth. This is a general method for aqueous colloidal synthesis, enabling continuous, inherently digital, scalable, and automated production processes for plasmonic nanomaterials.

  9. Compression Loss Tangent of Micro-Cell Polyurethane Foams in which Bonding Tape Made of Acryl Foam is Sandwiched

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adachi, Hiromasa


      Temperature and frequency characteristics of compression loss tangent of micro-cell polyurethane foams in which bonding tape made by acryl foam was sandwiched, were investigated by dynamic viscoelastic measurements...

  10. Study of Thermal Properties of Cast Metal- Ceramic Composite Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawdzińska K.


    Full Text Available Owing to its properties, metallic foams can be used as insulation material. Thermal properties of cast metal-ceramic composite foams have applications in transport vehicles and can act as fire resistant and acoustic insulators of bulkheads. This paper presents basic thermal properties of cast and foamed aluminum, the values of thermal conductivity coefficient of selected gases used in foaming composites and thermal capabilities of composite foams (AlSi11/SiC. A certificate of non-combustibility test of cast aluminum-ceramic foam for marine applications was included inside the paper. The composite foam was prepared by the gas injection method, consisting in direct injection of gas into liquid metal. Foams with closed and open cells were examined. The foams were foaming with foaming gas consisting of nitrogen or air. This work is one of elements of researches connected with description of properties of composite foams. In author's other works acoustic properties of these materials will be presented.

  11. Developments in the uses of foamed bitumen in road pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, K.J.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; De Groot, J.L.A.; Van de Ven, M.E.C.


    Following the lapse in patent rights on foam-producing nozzles, the use of foamed bitumen for the improvement of road construction materials has become more accessible and as a result, it's use increased considerably in the 1990's. In addition, the applications of foamed bitumen process have

  12. Microbial analysis in biogas reactors suffering by foaming incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; De Francisci, Davide; Treu, Laura


    , or decrease the surface tension of the media, increased their relative abundance after foam formation. Finally, a microorganism similar to widely known foaming bacteria (Nocardia and Desulfotomaculum) was found to increase its relative abundance in all reactors once foam was observed, regardless of the used...

  13. Monitoring foam coarsening using a computer optical mouse as a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present an experimental approach to track coarsening process of foam using a computer optical mouse as a dynamic laser speckle measurement sensor. The dynamics of foam coarsening and rearrangement events cause changes in the intensity of laser speckle backscattered from the foam. A strong ...

  14. Monitoring foam coarsening using a computer optical mouse as a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present an experimental approach to track coarsening process of foam using a computer optical mouse as a dynamic laser speckle measurement sensor. The dynamics of foam coarsening and rearrangement events cause changes in the intensity of laser speckle backscat- tered from the foam.

  15. Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery : Modeling and Analytical Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashoori, E.


    Foam increases sweep in miscible- and immiscible-gas enhanced oil recovery by decreasing the mobility of gas enormously. This thesis is concerned with the simulations and analytical solutions for foam flow for the purpose of modeling foam EOR in a reservoir. For the ultimate goal of upscaling our

  16. Foam Fractionation of Lycopene: An Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Mingjie; Hu, Yongliang


    A novel experiment for the extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by foam fractionation is described. Foam fractionation is a process for separating and concentrating chemicals by utilizing differences in their surface activities. Extraction of lycopene by foam fractionation is a new method that has not been previously reported in the…

  17. Co-doped titanium oxide foam and water disinfection device (United States)

    Shang, Jian-Ku; Wu, Pinggui; Xie, Rong-Cai


    A quaternary oxide foam, comprises an open-cell foam containing (a) a dopant metal, (b) a dopant nonmetal, (c) titanium, and (d) oxygen. The foam has the advantages of a high surface area and a low back pressure during dynamic flow applications. The inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was demonstrated in a simple photoreactor.

  18. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products. (United States)


    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product intended to be... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section...

  19. Exploratory development of foams from liquid crystal polymers (United States)

    Chung, T. S.


    Two types of liquid crystal polymer (LCP) compositions were studied and evaluated as structural foam materials. One is a copolymer of 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, terephthalic acid, and p-acetoxyacetanilide (designed HNA/TA/AAA), and the other is a copolymer of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (designated HBA/HNA). Experimental results showed that the extruded HNA/TA/AA foams have better mechanical quality and appearance than HBA/HNA foams. Heat treatment improved foam tensile strength and break elongation, but reduced their modulus. The injection molding results indicated that nitrogen foaming agents with a low-pressure process gave better void distribution in the injection molded LCP foams than those made by the conventional injection-molding machine and chemical blowing agents. However, in comparing LCP foams with other conventional plastic foams, HBA/HNA foams have better mechanical properties than foamed ABS and PS, but are comparable to PBT and inferior to polycarbonate foams, especially in heat-deflection temperature and impact resistance energy. These deficiencies are due to LCP molecules not having been fully oriented during the Union-Carbide low-pressure foaming process.

  20. Dissipation in a Sheared Foam: From Bubble Adhesion to Foam Rheology (United States)

    Besson, Sébastien; Debrégeas, Georges; Cohen-Addad, Sylvie; Höhler, Reinhard


    The link between the rheology of 3D aqueous foam and the adhesion of neighboring bubbles is tested by confronting experiments at two different length scales. On the one hand, the dynamics of adhesion are probed by measuring how the shape of two bubbles in contact changes as their center-to-center distance is modulated. On the other hand, the linear viscoelastic behavior of 3D foam prepared with the same soapy solution is characterized by its complex shear modulus. To connect the two sets of data, we present a model of foam viscoelasticity taking into account bubble adhesion.

  1. Dissipation in a sheared foam: from bubble adhesion to foam rheology. (United States)

    Besson, Sébastien; Debrégeas, Georges; Cohen-Addad, Sylvie; Höhler, Reinhard


    The link between the rheology of 3D aqueous foam and the adhesion of neighboring bubbles is tested by confronting experiments at two different length scales. On the one hand, the dynamics of adhesion are probed by measuring how the shape of two bubbles in contact changes as their center-to-center distance is modulated. On the other hand, the linear viscoelastic behavior of 3D foam prepared with the same soapy solution is characterized by its complex shear modulus. To connect the two sets of data, we present a model of foam viscoelasticity taking into account bubble adhesion.

  2. Prediction of acoustic foam properties by numerical simulation of polyurethane foaming process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessalam Hichem


    Full Text Available This work aims to model and to simulate the polyurethane foaming process. Models taking into account the two main chemical reactions of the formation of polyurethane, the exothermic effect of these reactions as well as the thermo-rheo-kinetic coupling characterizing this process are proposed and implemented in the software NOGRID-points based on a meshless method (Finite Pointset Method. A prediction of some acoustic foam characteristics is also proposed based on the results of the numerical simulation of the foaming process and semi-phenomenological models.

  3. Sclerotherapy and foam sclerotherapy for varicose veins. (United States)

    Coleridge Smith, P


    To review published evidence concerning treatment of varicose veins using ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS) to assess the safety and efficacy of this treatment. Medical literature databases including MedLine, Embase and DH-DATA were searched for recent literature concerning UGFS. Papers describing the early results and later outcome have been assessed and their main findings were included in this summary. Few randomized studies have been published in this field and much of the available data come from clinical series reported by individual clinicians. It is clear that foam sclerotherapy is far more effective than liquid sclerotherapy and that ultrasound imaging allows the treatment to be delivered accurately to affected veins. There is evidence that 3% polidocanol foam is no more effective than 1% polidocanol foam. The optimum ratio of gas to liquid is 4:1, although a range of ratios is reported in the published work. There is a wide variation in the volume used as well as the method by which it is injected. The use of carbon dioxide foam reduces the systemic complications, particularly visual disturbance, as compared with air foams. Very few serious adverse events have been reported in the literature despite the widespread use of this method. Rates of recanalization of saphenous trunks following UGFS are similar to those observed after endovenous laser and endovenous RF ablation of veins, as well as the residual incompetence after surgical treatment. UGFS is a safe and effective method of treating varicose veins. The relative advantages or disadvantages of this treatment in the longer term have yet to be published.

  4. Outgassing from Open and Closed Magma Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix W. von Aulock


    Full Text Available During magma ascent, bubbles nucleate, grow, coalesce, and form a variably permeable porous network. The reorganization, failing and sealing of bubble walls may contribute to the opening and closing of the volcanic system. In this contribution we cause obsidian to nucleate and grow bubbles to high gas volume fraction at atmospheric pressure by heating samples to 950°C for different times and we image the growth through a furnace. Following the experiment, we imaged the internal pore structure of selected samples in 3D and then dissected for analysis of textures and dissolved water content remnant in the glass. We demonstrate that in these high viscosity systems, during foaming and subsequent foam-maturation, bubbles near a free surface resorb via diffusion to produce an impermeable skin of melt around a foam. The skin thickens non-linearly through time. The water concentrations at the outer and inner skin margins reflect the solubility of water in the melt at the partial pressure of water in atmospheric and water-rich bubble conditions, respectively. In this regime, mass transfer of water out of the system is diffusion limited and the sample shrinks slowly. In a second set of experiments in which we polished off the skin of the foamed samples and placed them back in the furnace to allow open system outgassing, we observe rapid sample contraction and collapse of the connected pore network under surface tension as the system efficiently outgasses. In this regime, mass transfer of water is permeability limited. We conclude that diffusion-driven skin formation can efficiently seal connectivity in foams. When rupture of melt film around gas bubbles (i.e., skin removal occurs, then rapid outgassing and consequent foam collapse modulate gas pressurization in the vesiculated magma. The mechanisms described here are relevant to the evolution of pore network heterogeneity in permeable magmas.

  5. Effects of experimentally increased in ovo lysozyme on egg hatchability, chicks complement activity, and phenotype in a precocial bird

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javůrková, Veronika; Krkavcová, E.; Kreisinger, J.; Hyršl, P.; Hyánková, L.


    Roč. 323, č. 8 (2015), s. 497-505 ISSN 1932-5223 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : gram-negative bacteria * barn swallow nestlings * white proteins * embryonic development * divergent selection * albumin removal * japanese-quail * avian egg * antimicrobial proteins * antibacterial activity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2015

  6. Skin testing with raw egg does not predict tolerance to baked egg in egg-allergic children. (United States)

    Turner, P J; Kumar, K; Fox, A T


    Most children with egg allergy tolerate egg in baked foods, such as cake, but tolerance cannot be predicted with conventional allergy testing. We hypothesized that the skin prick test (SPT) wheal to unprocessed raw egg might predict tolerance of baked egg at formal oral food challenge (OFC). We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the utility of SPT wheal to egg extract (EE), raw egg (RE), and the ratio of EE:RE in predicting outcome of baked-egg OFC in children presenting to our tertiary referral centers with a physician diagnosis of egg allergy and following complete egg avoidance in their diet, between 2009 and 2013. OFC were performed following a standardized protocol using baked egg in cake, to a total dose equivalent to 3g egg protein. Data were analyzed from 186 completed challenges: OFC was positive in 64 (34%) children and negative in 122 (66%). Six children experienced anaphylaxis at OFC. Children tolerant to baked egg were more likely to have a lower SPT to egg extract/raw egg and EE:RE (median 0.56) than their allergic counterparts (0.70, p raw egg and EE:ER equal to 0.71, 0.63 and 0.60, respectively. EE:RE was not helpful in predicting outcome of baked-egg OFC. Indeed, SPT to egg extract was slightly better at predicting outcome than either SPT to raw egg or EE:RE. Unfortunately, tolerance to baked egg can only be predicted from previous history or through controlled exposure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Experiments for foam model development and validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Mahoney, James F. (Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Russick, Edward Mark; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Kraynik, Andrew Michael; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Gorby, Allen D.


    A series of experiments has been performed to allow observation of the foaming process and the collection of temperature, rise rate, and microstructural data. Microfocus video is used in conjunction with particle image velocimetry (PIV) to elucidate the boundary condition at the wall. Rheology, reaction kinetics and density measurements complement the flow visualization. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used to examine the cured foams to determine density gradients. These data provide input to a continuum level finite element model of the blowing process.

  8. Foaming behaviour of organic and regular milk


    Pijnenburg, J.; Sala, G.; Valenberg, van, H.J.F.; Meinders, M.B.J.


    Organic milk is used more and more by consumers to froth milk that is used e.g. for the preparation of a capuccino. Frequently, organic milk turns out not to foam properly. This report describes a study to find the main couse of this bad foamability of organic milk. The focus of the research was to get insight in the foaming behaviour of a specific brand, indicated as A. The foamability and stability of different milk, both organic and regular, as well as skimmed, semi-skimmed, and full fat, ...

  9. The binding of flavopiridol to blood serum albumin. (United States)

    Myatt, Daniel; Johnson, Louise; Baumli, Sonja; Siligardi, Giuliano


    Flavopiridol is a potent cyclin-dependant kinase (CDK) inhibitor and is in clinical trials for anticancer treatment. A limiting factor in its drug development has been the high dosage required in human clinical trials. The high dosage is suggested to be necessary because of significant flavopiridol binding to human blood serum. Albumin is the major protein component of blood serum and has been suggested as a likely high affinity binding target. We characterized the binding of human serum albumin to flavopiridol using circular dichroism (hereafter CD). Flavopiridol bound to human serum albumin has a diagnostic CD binding peak at 284 nm. The diagnostic CD binding peak was unobservable for flavopiridol with bovine serum albumin, using the same experimental conditions. However, under higher albumin concentrations a small CD signal is observed confirming, flavopiridol binds to bovine serum albumin as well. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Albumin adsorption onto surfaces of urine collection and analysis containers. (United States)

    Robinson, Mary K; Caudill, Samuel P; Koch, David D; Ritchie, James; Hortin, Glen; Eckfeldt, John H; Sandberg, Sverre; Williams, Desmond; Myers, Gary; Miller, W Greg


    Adsorption of albumin onto urine collection and analysis containers may cause falsely low concentrations. We added (125)I-labeled human serum albumin to urine and to phosphate buffered solutions, incubated them with 22 plastic container materials and measured adsorption by liquid scintillation counting. Adsorption of urine albumin (UA) at 5-6 mg/l was containers, and to instrument sample cups and showed <1% change in concentration at 5 mg/l and <0.5% change at 20 mg/l or higher concentrations. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions (2-28%) was larger than that from urine. Albumin adsorption differed among urine samples and plastic materials, but the total influence of adsorption was <1% for all materials and urine samples tested. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions was larger than that from urine and could be a limitation for preparations used as calibrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum Albumin Binding and Esterase Activity: Mechanistic Interactions with Organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Goncharov


    Full Text Available The albumin molecule, in contrast to many other plasma proteins, is not covered with a carbohydrate moiety and can bind and transport various molecules of endogenous and exogenous origin. The enzymatic activity of albumin, the existence of which many scientists perceive skeptically, is much less studied. In toxicology, understanding the mechanistic interactions of organophosphates with albumin is a special problem, and its solution could help in the development of new types of antidotes. In the present work, the history of the issue is briefly examined, then our in silico data on the interaction of human serum albumin with soman, as well as comparative in silico data of human and bovine serum albumin activities in relation to paraoxon, are presented. Information is given on the substrate specificity of albumin and we consider the possibility of its affiliation to certain classes in the nomenclature of enzymes.

  12. Dealing with multicollinearity in predicting egg components from egg weight and egg dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Shafey


    Full Text Available Measurements of 174 eggs from meat-type breeder flock (Ross at 36 weeks of age were used to study the problem of multicollinearity (MC instability in the estimation of egg components of yolk weight (YKWT, albumen weight (ALBWT and eggshell weight (SHWT. Egg weight (EGWT, egg shape index (ESI=egg width (EGWD*100/egg length (EGL and their interaction (EGWTESI were used in the context of un-centred vs centred data and principal components regression (PCR models. The pairwise phenotypic correlations, variance inflation factor (VIF, eigenvalues, condition index (CI, and variance proportions were examined. Egg weight had positive correlations with EGWD and EGL (r=0.56 and 0.50, respectively; P<0.0001 and EGL had a negative correlation with ESI (r=-0.79; P<0.0001. The highest correlation was observed between EGWT and ALBWT (r=0.94; P<0.0001, while the lowest was between EGWD and SHWT (r=0.33; P<0.0001. Multicollinearity problems were found in EGWT, ESI and their interaction as shown by VIF (>10, eigenvalues (near zero, CI (>30 and high corresponding proportions of variance of EGWT, ESI and EGWTESI with respect to EGWTESI. Results from this study suggest that mean centring and PCR were appropriate to overcome the MC instability in the estimation of egg components from EGWT and ESI. These methods improved the meaning of intercept values and produced much lower standard error values for regression coefficients than those from un-centred data.

  13. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E


    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...

  14. Low admission serum albumin as prognostic determinant of 30-day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Receiver operating characteristics curve for optimal cut off point of serum albumin to predict survival or death within 30 days revealed area under the cure (AUC) of 0.870, p-value 0.0001, 95% C/I=0.759-0.982. Serum albumin of 1.55g /dL has sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 61.5%. NIHSS and serum albumin were ...

  15. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.


    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  16. Comprehensive Shuttle Foam Debris Reduction Strategies (United States)

    Semmes, Edmund B.


    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) was clear in its assessment of the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 3, 2003. Foam liberated from the External Tank (ET) impacting the brittle wing leading edge (WLE) of the orbiter causing the vehicle to disintegrate upon re-entry. Naturally, the CAB pointed out numerous issues affecting this exact outcome in hopes of correcting systems of systems failures any one of which might have altered the outcome. However, Discovery s recent return to flight (RTF) illustrates the primacy of erosion of foam and the risk of future undesirable outcomes. It is obvious that the original RTF focused approach to this problem was not equal to a comprehensive foam debris reduction activity consistent with the high national value of the Space Shuttle assets. The root cause is really very simple when looking at the spray-on foam insulation for the entire ET as part of the structure (e.g., actual stresses > materials allowable) rather than as some sort of sizehime limited ablator. This step is paramount to accepting the CAB recommendation of eliminating debris or in meeting any level of requirements due to the fundamental processes ensuring structural materials maintain their integrity. Significant effort has been expended to identify root cause of the foam debris In-Flight Anomaly (FA) of STS-114. Absent verifiable location specific data pre-launch (T-0) and in-flight, only a most probable cause can be identified. Indeed, the literature researched corroborates NASNTM-2004-2 13238 disturbing description of ill defined materials characterization, variable supplier constituents and foam processing irregularities. Also, foam is sensitive to age and the exposed environment making baseline comparisons difficult without event driven data. Conventional engineering processes account for such naturally occurring variability by always maintaining positive margins. Success in a negative margin range is not consistently achieved

  17. Effect of Quail Egg Administration on Some Liver Function Related Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick E. ABA


    Full Text Available There are a lot of testimonies on the therapeutic efficacies of quail egg on diabetics and on liver disorders. This study investigated synthetic and conjugatory states of the liver in diabetic rats administered varying concentrations of quail egg solution. Thirty (30 adult male albino Wistar rats were assigned to 5 groups of 6 rats each. Groups 2-5 of rats were injected with alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally at the dose of 160 mg/kg, while rats in group 1 served as normal control. Upon establishment of fasting blood glucose level above 126 mg/dl, the rats in groups 2-4 were administered 30, 15 and 7.5 mg/ml of quail egg solution respectively for 7 days. Rats in groups 1 and 5 received distilled water (10 ml/kg each. All treatments were through the oral route. At the end of the 7 days duration of the study, blood samples for serum protein and bilirubin assays were collected. Results indicated that the quail egg administration to alloxanized rats did not alter total serum protein and albumin values, but improved significantly (p<0.5 the conjugated bilirubin values compared to that of the negative control group (group 5. It was concluded that administration of quail egg solution to alloxanized rats aided hepatic conjugatory ability with little or no effect on its synthetic function.

  18. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin (United States)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo


    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  19. The Role of Foaming Agent and Processing Route in Mechanical Performance of Fabricated Aluminum Foams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexandra Byakova; Iegor Kartuzov; Svyatoslav Gnyloskurenko; Takashi Nakamura


      The results of this study highlight the role of foaming agent and processing route in influencing the contamination of cell wall material by side products, which, in turn, affects the macroscopic...

  20. Determination of Acreage Thermal Protection Foam Loss From Ice and Foam Impacts (United States)

    Carney, Kelly S.; Lawrence, Charles


    A parametric study was conducted to establish Thermal Protection System (TPS) loss from foam and ice impact conditions similar to what might occur on the Space Launch System. This study was based upon the large amount of testing and analysis that was conducted with both ice and foam debris impacts on TPS acreage foam for the Space Shuttle Project External Tank. Test verified material models and modeling techniques that resulted from Space Shuttle related testing were utilized for this parametric study. Parameters varied include projectile mass, impact velocity and impact angle (5 degree and 10 degree impacts). The amount of TPS acreage foam loss as a result of the various impact conditions is presented.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of shape memory polystyrene foams (United States)

    Yao, Yongtao; Xiang, Pei; Leng, Jinsong


    In this project, shape memory polystyrene foam was fabricated from shape memory polystyrene and ethyl acetate/n-hexane as physical foaming agent based on suspension polymerization method. The foam of uniform pore structure with porosity ranging from 36%~45% have been made successfully. Both shape memory properties and physical properties were characterized. Shape memory polystyrene foam exhibited good shape memory properties-- completely recovery the initial undeformed shape after multiple cycles. The higher thermal stability was achieved compared with pure shape memory polystyrene. The glassy state property of the foam was increased from 75°C to 85°C as the content of filler increased from 0 to 30%.

  2. The Improvement of Foam Concrete Geoecoprotective Properties in Transport Construction (United States)

    Svatovskaya, Larisa; Kabanov, Alexander; Sychov, Maxim


    The article analyses 2 kinds of properties of silica sol foam concrete: technical and geoecoprotective ones. Foam concrete stabilized with silica sol foam has lower heat conductivity resulting in fuel saving. Foam concrete obtained according to sol absorption technology has lower water absorption and is good enough for blocking to prevent the environment pollution. Pollution blocking can be achieved by two methods. The first method is saturation of an article affected by oil products with silica sol. The second method is to create a special preventive protection using silica sol screen. The article shows geoecoprotective properties of protein foam soil systems.

  3. Remote activation of nanomagnetite reinforced shape memory polymer foam (United States)

    Vialle, Greg; Di Prima, Matthew; Hocking, Erica; Gall, Ken; Garmestani, Hamid; Sanderson, Terry; Arzberger, Steven C.


    Shape memory polymer foams are thermally activated using remote induction of magnetic susceptor filler particles dispersed in the thermoset foam matrix. Material properties and foam performance are characterized and compared over a range of fillers, induction parameters, and packaging configurations. This investigation indicates an improvement in heating performance for increased weight percentage of filler without sacrifice in foam thermo-mechanical properties up to 10 wt% filler. Detailed analysis of the results indicates that the primary factor in improving heating performance is heat transfer between the filler nanoparticles and the bulk foam.

  4. Bovine Serum Albumin: a double allergy risk. (United States)

    Voltolini, S; Spigno, F; Cioè, A; Cagnati, P; Bignardi, D; Minale, P


    We analyse two cases of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) allergy. The first regards a female laboratory technician with a history of bronchial asthma due to cat allergy, who developed an exacerbation of bronchial symptoms as a consequence of BSA powder inhalation at work. To date, sensitization to BSA as a cause of occupational asthma has rarely been reported in the scientific literature. The second case concerns a woman with a similar cat sensitivity, who presented an oral allergy syndrome-type clinical reaction, gastric pain and diarrhoea immediately after eating cooked pork meat. Subsequently, she developed the same reaction after eating goat meat and goat cheese, and then also after eating beef. Both patients resulted specifically sensitized to BSA and to other mammalian serum albumins which play a role as panallergens in animals. The two cases show that BSA, a well known cause of food allergy in childhood, may also provoke symptoms of food allergy in adulthood, though in case of powder inhalation, it may provoke respiratory symptoms. Prior animal sensitization appears to represent a risk factor.

  5. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen


    Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  6. Method of Preventing Shrinkage of Aluminum Foam Using Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nakamura


    Full Text Available Metallic foams are commonly produced using titanium hydride as a foaming agent. Carbonates produce aluminum foam with a fine and homogenous cell structure. However, foams produced using carbonates show marked shrinkage, which is clearly different from those produced using titanium hydride. It is essential for practical applications to clarify foam shrinkage and establish a method of preventing it. In this research, cell structures were observed to study the shrinkage of aluminum foam produced using carbonates. The cells of foam produced using dolomite as a foaming agent connected to each other with maximum expansion. It was estimated that foaming gas was released through connected cells to the outside. It was assumed that cell formation at different sites is effective in preventing shrinkage induced by cell connection. The multiple additions of dolomite and magnesium carbonate, which have different decomposition temperatures, were applied. The foam in the case with multiple additions maintained a density of 0.66 up to 973 K, at which the foam produced using dolomite shrank. It was verified that the multiple additions of carbonates are effective in preventing shrinkage.

  7. Rigid polyurethane and kenaf core composite foams (United States)

    Rigid polyurethane foams are valuable in many construction applications. Kenaf is a bast fiber plant where the surface stem skin provides bast fibers whose strength-to-weight ratio competes with glass fiber. The higher volume product of the kenaf core is an under-investigated area in composite appli...

  8. Nano-Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polyurethane Foam (United States)

    Semmes, Edmund B.; Frances, Arnold


    Closed cell polyurethane and, particularly, polyisocyanurate foams are a large family of flexible and rigid products the result of a reactive two part process wherein a urethane based polyol is combined with a foaming or "blowing" agent to create a cellular solid at room temperature. The ratio of reactive components, the constituency of the base materials, temperature, humidity, molding, pouring, spraying and many other processing techniques vary greatly. However, there is no known process for incorporating reinforcing fibers small enough to be integrally dispersed within the cell walls resulting in superior final products. The key differentiating aspect from the current state of art resides in the many processing technologies to be fully developed from the novel concept of milled nano pulp aramid fibers and their enabling entanglement capability fully enclosed within the cell walls of these closed cell urethane foams. The authors present the results of research and development of reinforced foam processing, equipment development, strength characteristics and the evolution of its many applications.

  9. Treatment of Basilar Aneurysms with SMP Foams (United States)

    Ortega, J. M.; Rodriguez, J. N.; Maitland, D. J.; Wilson, T. S.; Hartman, J.


    Researchers in the Medical Division at LLNL are currently developing a shape memory polymer (SMP) foam aneurysm treatment technique. This technique involves the catheter delivery of a compressed piece of SMP foam to an aneurysm. When the foam is heated by laser radiation from a diffusing fiber-optic element embedded within the catheter, the foam expands, filling the aneurysm volume. If proven successful, such a treatment alternative will provide clinicians the ability to not only isolate an aneurysm from the vascular system with one device, but also to customize the shape of the lumen beneath the aneurysm neck. Consequently, the flow patterns beneath the aneurysm neck could potentially be optimized to minimize the hemodynamic stresses on the lumen. In this computational study, multiple lumen shapes are simulated beneath the necks of several patient-specific basilar aneurysms. A comparison is made between the pre-treatment and post-treatment configurations, as well as with a conventional surgical clipping configuration. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. UCRL-ABS-222933.

  10. Thermo-mechanical characterization of silicone foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangaswamy, Partha [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Nickolaus A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewis, Matthew W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Cellular solids such as elastomeric foams are used in many structural applications to absorb and dissipate energy, due to their light weight (low density) and high energy absorption capability. In this paper we will discuss foams derived from S5370, a silicone foam formulation developed by Dow Corning. In the application presented, the foam is consolidated into a cushion component of constant thickness but variable density. A mechanical material model developed by Lewis (2013), predicts material response, in part, as a function of relative density. To determine the required parameters for this model we have obtained the mechanical response in compression for ambient, cold and hot temperatures. The variable density cushion provided samples sufficient samples so that the effect of sample initial density on the mechanical response could be studied. The mechanical response data showed extreme sensitivity to relative density. We also observed at strains corresponding to 1 MPa a linear relationship between strain and initial density for all temperatures. Samples taken from parts with a history of thermal cycling demonstrated a stiffening response that was a function of temperature, with the trend of more stiffness as temperature increased above ambient. This observation is in agreement with the entropic effects on the thermo-mechanical behavior of silicone polymers. In this study, we present the experimental methods necessary for the development of a material model, the testing protocol, analysis of test data, and a discussion of load (stress) and gap (strain) as a function of sample initial densities and temperatures

  11. Elasticity and plasticity : foams near jamming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemens, Alexander Oltmann Nicolaas


    Many materials, like foams, emulsions, suspensions and granular media obtain finite rigidity once their constituent particles are brought in contact. Nevertheless, all these materials can be made to flow by the application of relatively small stresses. By varying thermodynamic (temperature or

  12. Mitchell Energy foam fracs tight zones. [Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleakley, W.B.


    Wells that produced one billion cubic feet of gas over an 11-yr period could have produced that much in one year, according to results of recent massive foam frac jobs. Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. experienced that kind of performance from wells completed in the Cotton Valley Lime gas reservoir of Central Texas, just south of Mexia. One well, the No. 1 Stone, in Limestone County, was completed in Dec., 1969 at 11,200 ft, exposing a gross interval of 200 ft and a net pay of 26 ft. Cumulative production to early this year was approx. 578 mmcf and the well was producing at 50 to 75 mcfd through a full-open 2-in. choke with flowing tubing pressure of 640 psi. The formation was fractured in March, 1980, using foam, and present producing rate of 600 mcfd against 800-psi line pressure, in spite of a screen-out during the frac treatment that permitted only half of the designed-for one million pounds of sand to be put away. This is believed to be the first foam job at that depth, however, and the first to get 500,000 lb of sand into a fracture, using foam.

  13. Filler functionality in edible solid foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.


    We review the functionality of particulate ingredients in edible brittle foams, such as expanded starchy snacks. In food science and industry there is not a complete awareness of the full functionality of these filler ingredients, which can be fibers, proteins, starch granules and whole grains.

  14. Foaming behaviour of organic and regular milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenburg, J.; Sala, G.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Meinders, M.B.J.


    Organic milk is used more and more by consumers to froth milk that is used e.g. for the preparation of a capuccino. Frequently, organic milk turns out not to foam properly. This report describes a study to find the main couse of this bad foamability of organic milk. The focus of the research was to

  15. Playing with Liquid Foams: Learning Physical Chemistry (United States)

    Ritacco, Hernan


    Who has never played with soap bubbles? They are so beautiful and amazing, they have a perfect spherical shape and surprising tints. Foams are structures of bubbles of an incredible complexity and they are a perfect system to stimulate students' interest in the chemistry and physics of surface phenomena. In this article I propose a simple…

  16. SAG Foam Flooding in Carbonate Rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, C.S.; Rossen, W.R.


    Foam is used in gas-injection EOR processes to reduce the mobility of gas, resulting in greater volumetric sweep. SAG (Surfactant Alternating Gas) is a preferred method of injection as it results in greater injectivity in the field, but designing a successful process

  17. Behaviour of Metal Foam Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhudery, Hayder; Virdi, Kuldeep


    Sandwich panels as used in structures comprise of a foam core enclosed by thin high strength steel faces. This paper discusses currently design formulae of local buckling behaviour of such panels using the finite element method. Multiple wave finite element models were adopted to investigate...

  18. Open Cell Aerogel Foams via Emulsion Templating. (United States)

    Teo, Nicholas; Jana, Sadhan C


    The water-in-oil emulsion-templating method is used in this work for fabrication of open cell aerogel foams from syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS). A surfactant-stabilized emulsion is prepared at 60-100 °C by dispersing water in a solution of sPS in toluene. sPS gel, formed upon cooling of the emulsion to room temperature, locks the water droplets inside the gel. The gel is solvent exchanged in ethanol and then dried under supercritical condition of carbon dioxide to yield the aerogel foams. The aerogel foams show a significant fraction of macropores with a diameter of a few tens of micrometers, defined as macrovoids that originated from the emulsified water droplets. In conjunction, customary macropores of diameter 50-200 nm are derived from sPS gels. The macrovoids add additional openness to the aerogel structures. This paper evaluates the structural characteristics of the macrovoids, such as diameter distribution, macrovoid interconnect density, and skin layer density, in conjunction with the final aerogel foam properties.

  19. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams (United States)

    Pinto, Moises L.


    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  20. Encapsulation of teniposide into albumin nanoparticles with greatly lowered toxicity and enhanced antitumor activity. (United States)

    He, Xinyi; Xiang, Nanxi; Zhang, Jinjie; Zhou, Jing; Fu, Yao; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong


    Teniposide (VM-26) is a semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin effective for the treatment of many types of tumors. However, the poor water solubility and adverse effects restrict its clinical use. Our study aimed to develop a novel phospholipid complex albumin nanoparticle (VM-E80-AN) to reduce the systemic toxicity and enhance antitumor activity of VM-26. Egg yolk lecithin E80 and human serum albumin (HSA) were used as the main excipients to replace Cremophor EL in the commercial formulation. The physicochemical properties of VM-E80-AN were characterized to optimize the formulation. Cell and animal studies were further carried out to estimate its tumor inhibition efficacy, biodistribution, and toxicity. Comparison between VM-26 solution and VM-E80-AN showed that VM-E80-AN significantly reduced the toxicity of VM-26 and enhanced the anticancer efficacy of the drug. Thus, VM-E80-AN represents a safe and promising formulation of teniposide for clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.